WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify work-related risks

  1. Public attitudes towards industrial, work-related and other risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott-Clarke, P.

    1982-01-01

    Two reports describing work sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive are presented. The first describes a study of public attitudes towards industrial, work related, nuclear industry related and other risks. The second report describes public attitudes towards the acceptability of risks. (U.K.)

  2. Assessing the risk of work-related international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckman, Myles; Harber, Philip; Liu, Yihang; Quigley, Robert L

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting the likelihood of requiring medical services during international business trips. Data from more than 800,000 international trips and medical assistance cases provided to 48 multinational corporations in 2009. Travel destination countries were grouped into four a priori risk-related categories. Travel to "low" medical risk countries in aggregate accounted for more hospitalizations and medical evacuations than travel to "high" medical risk countries. Nevertheless, the risk per trip was much higher for travel to higher medical risk countries. Corporations with employees on international travel should allocate sufficient resources to manage and ideally prevent medical issues during business travel. Travel medicine must focus on more than infectious diseases, and programs are necessary for both high- and low-risk regions. Improved understanding of travel-related needs determines resource allocation and risk mitigation efforts.

  3. Work Sectors with High Risk for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jungsun Park; Yangho Kim; Boyoung Han

    2018-01-01

    Background: To identify work sectors with high risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in Korean men and women. Methods: We analyzed nationwide data to identify ergonomic risk factors in Korean employees. In particular, we analyzed data on exposure to five ergonomic risk factors (painful/tiring postures, lifting/moving heavy materials, standing/walking, repetitive hand/arm movements, and hand/arm vibration) according to employment sector, sex, and age, using the 2014 Fourth Kor...

  4. Risk factors for work-related eczema and urticaria among vocational students of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śpiewak, Radosław; Góra-Florek, Anna; Horoch, Andrzej; Jarosz, Mirosław J; Doryńska, Agnieszka; Golec, Marcin; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2017-12-23

    Farmers are at high risk of occupational skin diseases which may start already during vocational training. This study was aimed at identification of risk factors for work-related skin diseases among vocational students of agriculture. The study involved 440 students (245 males, 195 females aged 17-21 years) in 11 vocational schools which were at least 100 km from each other. The protocol included a physician-managed questionnaire and medical examination, skin prick tests, patch tests, total IgE and Phadiatop. Logistic regression model was used for the identification of relevant risk factors. Work-related dermatoses were diagnosed in 29 study participants (6.6%, 95%CI: 4.3-8.9%): eczema in 22, urticaria in 14, and co-existence of both in 7 students. Significant risk factors for work-related eczema were: history of respiratory allergy (OR=10.10; pagriculture. Atopy, past history of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema (either atopic, allergic or irritant) are relevant risk factors for work-related eczema and urticaria in young farmers, along with family history of any skin disease. Positive skin prick tests seem relevant, especially in the case of urticaria. Asking simple, aimed questions during health checks while enrolling students into agricultural schools would suffice to identify students at risk for work-related eczema and urticaria, giving them the chance for selecting a safer profession, and hopefully avoiding an occupational disease in the future.

  5. Work-Related Health Limitations, Education, and the Risk of Marital Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Despite progress in identifying the covariates of divorce, there remain substantial gaps in the knowledge. One of these gaps is the relationship between health and risk of marital dissolution. I extend prior research by examining the linkages between work-related health limitations and divorce using 25 years of data (N = 7919) taken from the 1979…

  6. Work Sectors with High Risk for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsun Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify work sectors with high risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs in Korean men and women. Methods: We analyzed nationwide data to identify ergonomic risk factors in Korean employees. In particular, we analyzed data on exposure to five ergonomic risk factors (painful/tiring postures, lifting/moving heavy materials, standing/walking, repetitive hand/arm movements, and hand/arm vibration according to employment sector, sex, and age, using the 2014 Fourth Korean Working Conditions Survey. We also used workers' compensation data on work-related MSDs in 2010, which is available by sex. Results: The different work sectors had different gender distributions. “Manufacturing” (27.7% and “construction” (11.3% were dominated by males, whereas “human health and social work activities” (12.4%, “hotel and restaurants” (11.7%, and “education” (10.4% were dominated by females. However, “wholesale and retail trade” and “public administration and defense” employed large numbers of males and females. Furthermore, the work sectors with a greater proportion of work-related MSDs and with multiple ergonomic risk factors were different for men and women. For men, “construction” and “manufacturing” had the highest risk for work-related MSDs; for women, “hotel and restaurants” had the highest risk for work-related MSDs. Conclusion: Ergonomic interventions for workers should consider gender and should focus on work sectors with high risk for MSDs, with multiple ergonomic risk factors, and with the largest number of workers. Keywords: ergonomic, risk factor, Korean workers, musculoskeletal disorder

  7. Perceptions of risk from workers in high risk industries with work related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, D; Silverstein, B

    2014-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) remain a major occupational health problem, despite decades of research, outreach, and intervention. The aim of this study is to promote early identification and prevention of WMSDs by developing education and outreach materials grounded in interview data collected from workers that have recently filed for workers compensation (WC) for WMSDs. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with WC claimants (n=66) from high risk industries identified through the use of a Prevention Index (PI) in Washington state with WMSDs of the back, shoulder, hand/wrist, or knee. Perceptions regarding the degree of exposure to WMSD risk factors, the social construction of pain, and the potential to implement injury-prevention measures varied widely. Many workers dismissed their injuries as the result of "fluke" or "freak" occurrences and framed their exposure to risk factors for WMSDs as either inevitable or "just part of the job." Workers in high-risk industries for WMSDs described their work conditions in ways that suggested: (1) a lack of awareness of the potential for developing a WMSD, (2) a view of work-related pain as normal, and/or (3) a pattern of self-blame for WMSD onset. A paradigm that either asserts the inevitability of WMSDs or dismisses potential control measures presents both a significant barrier to injury prevention efforts as well as a major opportunity for future occupational health research.

  8. Patient clusters in acute, work-related back pain based on patterns of disability risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Pransky, Glenn; Patterson, William; Linton, Steven J; Winters, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    To identify subgroups of patients with work-related back pain based on disability risk factors. Patients with work-related back pain (N = 528) completed a 16-item questionnaire of potential disability risk factors before their initial medical evaluation. Outcomes of pain, functional limitation, and work disability were assessed 1 and 3 months later. A K-Means cluster analysis of 5 disability risk factors (pain, depressed mood, fear avoidant beliefs, work inflexibility, and poor expectations for recovery) resulted in 4 sub-groups: low risk (n = 182); emotional distress (n = 103); severe pain/fear avoidant (n = 102); and concerns about job accommodation (n = 141). Pain and disability outcomes at follow-up were superior in the low-risk group and poorest in the severe pain/fear avoidant group. Patients with acute back pain can be discriminated into subgroups depending on whether disability is related to pain beliefs, emotional distress, or workplace concerns.

  9. The Relationship between Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Work-related Risk Factors in Hotel Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Ju Jong; Mun, Hyeon Je; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja

    2013-10-11

    To identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and any associated work-related risk factors, focusing on structural labor factors among hotel workers. A total of 1,016 hotel workers (620 men and 396 women) were analyzed. The questionnaire surveyed participants' socio-demographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed using the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. All analyses were stratified by gender, and multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine associations between work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and work-related risk factors. The risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 1.9 times higher among male workers in the kitchen department than males in the room department (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.03-3.79), and 2.5 times higher among male workers with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.57-4.04). All of the aforementioned cases demonstrated a statistically significant association with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Moreover, the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 3.3 times higher among female workers aged between 30 and 34 than those aged 24 or younger (OR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.56-7.04); 0.3 times higher among females in the back office department than those in the room department (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.12-0.91); 1.6 times higher among females on shift schedules than those who were not (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.02-2.59); 1.8 times higher among females who performed more intensive work than those who performed less intensive work (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.17-3.02), and; 2.1 times higher among females with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.34-3.50). All of the aforementioned cases also displayed a statistically significant association with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. This study

  10. A case-crossover study on transient risk factors of work-related eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-Y; Fong, P-C; Lin, S-F; Chang, C-H; Chan, C-C

    2009-08-01

    To investigate modifiable risk and preventive factors of work-related eye injuries. A case-crossover study conducted to explore the associations between transient risk factors and work-related eye injuries. Patients seen at seven medical centres in Taiwan with work-related eye injuries over a 4-year period were enrolled in the study. Clinical information was collected from medical charts and detailed information on exposure to eight potentially modifiable factors during the 60 minutes prior to the occurrence of each injury, as well as during the same time interval on the last work day prior to the injury, were obtained using questionnaire surveys. Matched-pair interval analysis was adopted to assess the odds ratios (ORs) for work-related eye injuries given exposure to the eight modifiable factors. A total of 283 subjects were interviewed. Most of these injured workers were young, male, and self-employed or small enterprise workers. The most common injury type was photokeratitis (33.2%), mainly caused by welding (30.4%). The OR for a work-related eye injury was increased with the performance of an unfamiliar task (57.0), operation of a faulty tool or piece of equipment (48.5), distractions (24.0), being rushed (13.0), or fatigued (10.0), and a poor work environment (4.3). Wearing eye protection devices was found to have a significant protective effect on workers who might otherwise have been exposed to eye injuries (OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7). Potential modifiable risk and preventive factors for work-related eye injuries were identified using a case-crossover study. This information should be helpful in the development of preventive strategies.

  11. Work-related stress risk assessment in Italy: a methodological proposal adapted to regulatory guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persechino, Benedetta; Valenti, Antonio; Ronchetti, Matteo; Rondinone, Bruna Maria; Di Tecco, Cristina; Vitali, Sara; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    Work-related stress is one of the major causes of occupational ill health. In line with the regulatory framework on occupational health and safety (OSH), adequate models for assessing and managing risk need to be identified so as to minimize the impact of this stress not only on workers' health, but also on productivity. After close analysis of the Italian and European reference regulatory framework and work-related stress assessment and management models used in some European countries, we adopted the UK Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) Management Standards (MS) approach, adapting it to the Italian context in order to provide a suitable methodological proposal for Italy. We have developed a work-related stress risk assessment strategy, meeting regulatory requirements, now available on a specific web platform that includes software, tutorials, and other tools to assist companies in their assessments. This methodological proposal is new on the Italian work-related stress risk assessment scene. Besides providing an evaluation approach using scientifically validated instruments, it ensures the active participation of occupational health professionals in each company. The assessment tools provided enable companies not only to comply with the law, but also to contribute to a database for monitoring and assessment and give access to a reserved area for data analysis and comparisons.

  12. Farm Work-Related Injuries and Risk Factors in South Korean Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyocher; Räsänen, Kimmo; Chae, Hyeseon; Kim, Kyungsu; Kim, Kyungran; Lee, Kyungsuk

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is known to be a risk-filled industry in South Korea, as it is worldwide. The aims of this study were to identify the magnitude of farm work-related injuries and evaluate the association between injury and possible risk factors. Farmers, including farm members (N = 16,160), were surveyed. After excluding 7 subjects with missing data in questions about injury, 16,153 farmer responses were used for the analysis. Of the 16,153 farmers, 3.6% answered having at least one farm work-related injury requiring outpatient treatment or hospitalization during 2012. The proportion of injured men (4.3%) was 1.5 times higher than women (2.9%). From an age perspective, the proportion was 1.3% of those aged 49 or below, 2.7% of those aged 50-59, 4.2% of those aged 60-69, 4.2% of those aged 70-79, and 3.1% of those aged 80 or above. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis with a stepwise model (forward) for risk factors (gender, age, farm ownership, farm type, work years in agriculture, work months during 2012, night work experience, and work experience under the influence of alcohol). The increased risk of farm work-related injuries significantly remained associated with age, farm ownership, and experience of night work. Further studies should be conducted to consistently identify injury characteristics, especially for old farmers, considering the crop cultivation in Asian countries.

  13. Work-related violence against security guards--who is most at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Tuula; Selin, Risto; Summala, Heikki; Virtanen, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    Studies on violence in the work of security guards are largely lacking. This study is unique in that it focuses on security guards (n=1,010) in Finland, and assesses the different forms, prevalence, and risk factors of the work-related violence they often face. Information to a survey instrument was obtained by first interviewing 30 volunteers. Then we made a cross-sectional mailed survey that was sent to a randomized group of 2,000 security guards. The response rate was 52. We found the prevalence of verbal aggression, threats of assault, and physical acts against security guards at least once a month to be 39%, 19%, and 15% respectively. As regards risk factors and who is most at risk, our results show that male gender, young age, low work experience, late working hours, and time pressure were associated with all three forms of work-related violence. Unlike other forms of violence, verbal aggression was highly prevalent outside the metropolitan area and directed towards both more and less experienced security guards. In prevention policies for violence, it is important to identify high-risk groups such as those who have less work experience.

  14. [Work-related stress risk assessment in a home care agency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latocca, R; Riva, M A; D'Orso, M; Ploia, P; Rocca, S; De Vito, G; Cesana, G

    2012-01-01

    The workload, the quality of professional relationships and emotional involvement have a significant impact on distress and burnout in health care-workers; this impact has an hight variability among the different environments and different care facilities (hospital, erderly nursing homes, home care). The risk assessment of work-related stress performed in 2010 in a homecare agency highlighted organizational problems related to the content/context of work and risk factors for health and safety. High turn-over is evidenced as critical among the "sentinel events". The level of job-strain was moderate, even if some critical issues were evidenced especially in the group of physiotherapists; nurses were configured as a homogeneous group with a low level of job-strain. In informative meetings the workers identified the discomfort related to the time for transferring patients from their homes in a high-traffic metropolitan area was identified as the most critical aspect.

  15. Work-related psychosocial stress and the risk of type 2 diabetes in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, K-Y; Xu, W; Mangialasche, F; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H-X

    2017-06-01

    Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores. From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged ≥60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM. During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27-7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22-31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17-76.53). Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  16. Work-related risk factors for workplace violence among Korean employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Park, Jung Sun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify work-related risk factors for workplace violence in a representative sample of Korean employees. We analyzed the associations between work-related factors and workplace violence in 29,171 employees using data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey. The survey included questions about verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention, threats and behavior that humiliated the victim, physical violence, bullying/harassment and sexual harassment, and a respondent who answered yes to any of these 6 items was considered a victim of workplace violence. The prevalences of verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention and threats/behavior that humiliated victims in the month preceding the study were 4.8, 1.0 and 1.5%, respectively. The prevalences of physical violence, bullying/harassment and sexual harassment in the year preceding the study were 0.7, 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. Service workers had higher prevalences of overall workplace violence. Non-regular workers (OR=2.38, 95% CI=2.01-2.84), working more than 60 hours per week as opposed to 40-48 hours per week (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.45-2.31) and night shift work (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.54-2.30) were significant risk factors associated with workplace violence. Long working hours, job insecurity and night shift work were associated with a significant increase in workplace violence among Korean employees.

  17. European Approaches to Work-Related Stress: A Critical Review on Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Zoni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various international organizations have raised awareness regarding psychosocial risks and work-related stress. European stakeholders have also taken action on these issues by producing important documents, such as position papers and government regulations, which are reviewed in this article. In particular, 4 European models that have been developed for the assessment and management of work-related stress are considered here. Although important advances have been made in the understanding of work-related stress, there are still gaps in the translation of this knowledge into effective practice at the enterprise level. There are additional problems regarding the methodology in the evaluation of work-related stress. The European models described in this article are based on holistic, global and participatory approaches, where the active role of and involvement of workers are always emphasized. The limitations of these models are in the lack of clarity on preventive intervention and, for two of them, the lack of instrument standardization for risk evaluation. The comparison among the European models to approach work-related stress, although with limitations and socio-cultural differences, offers the possibility for the development of a social dialogue that is important in defining the correct and practical methodology for work stress evaluation and prevention.

  18. European approaches to work-related stress: a critical review on risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoni, Silvia; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, various international organizations have raised awareness regarding psychosocial risks and work-related stress. European stakeholders have also taken action on these issues by producing important documents, such as position papers and government regulations, which are reviewed in this article. In particular, 4 European models that have been developed for the assessment and management of work-related stress are considered here. Although important advances have been made in the understanding of work-related stress, there are still gaps in the translation of this knowledge into effective practice at the enterprise level. There are additional problems regarding the methodology in the evaluation of work-related stress. The European models described in this article are based on holistic, global and participatory approaches, where the active role of and involvement of workers are always emphasized. The limitations of these models are in the lack of clarity on preventive intervention and, for two of them, the lack of instrument standardization for risk evaluation. The comparison among the European models to approach work-related stress, although with limitations and socio-cultural differences, offers the possibility for the development of a social dialogue that is important in defining the correct and practical methodology for work stress evaluation and prevention.

  19. Work-related risk factors for specific shoulder disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Foresti, Chiara; Daams, Joost G.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review and metaanalysis is to examine which work-related risk factors are associated with specific soft tissue shoulder disorders. We searched the electronic databases of Medline and Embase for articles published between 2009 and 24 March 2016 and included the

  20. Work-related risk factors for neck pain : results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to determine which work related physical and psychosocial risk factors exist which cause neck pain and absenteeism because of neck pain. There is some evidence for a positive relationship between he duration of sedentary posture at work and neck pain, and between twisting

  1. Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has

  2. Work-related stress risk assessment in Italy: the validation study of health safety and executive indicator tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinone, Bruna Maria; Persechino, Benedetta; Castaldi, Tiziana; Valenti, Antonio; Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Ronchetti, Matteo; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    In compliance with the Italian occupational health and safety regulatory framework, as provided by the Lgs. Decree 81/2008, the "work-related stress" risk assessment should follow the same principles as other risk assessments, in accordance with the European Agreement of 8 October 2004; therefore, validated and scientifically proven methodological tools are needed to conduct an adequate work-related stress risk assessment. The UK's Health Safety and Executive (HSE) Indicator Tool (IT) is used for assessing the risk of work-related stress. The aim of this study is to test the factor structure of IT as a measure of work-related stress in a sample of Italian workers. Data collected from 65 Italian organizations (6378 workers) was used for a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on the 35-item seven-factor model. The results showed acceptable fit to the data (CFI .90; TLI .89, RMSEA .045). A second CFA was done to test a 35-item six-factor model (CFI .89, TLI .87, RMSEA .047). Both models were tested after removing six items (factor loadings less than .50.), resulting in a 29-item model. Here again, there was an acceptable fit to the data (29-item seven-factor model: CFI .93, TLI .91, RMSEA .044; 29-item six-factor model: CFI .92, TLI .90, RMSEA .046). These findings show that the HSE model satisfactorily adapts to use in a sample of Italian workers. One of the most important innovations introduced in the assessment of work-related stress with the HSE IT is the global approach for identifying work-related stress risk factors, aimed at establishing the best strategy from the viewpoints of prevention officers and also of workers.

  3. Long-term mortality risk in individuals with permanent work-related impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Marshall, Heather K; Tompa, Emile; Wang, Ying; Liao, Qing

    2014-07-11

    Recent estimates indicate that at least one in five activity-limiting injuries occurs at work. Of individuals who suffer these injuries approximately 10% experience some degree of functional impairment. We were interested in investigating long-term mortality risk in individuals with permanent impairment from work injury and to examine whether work disability is a significant explanatory factor. We used a retrospective matched cohort methodology to examine differences in mortality rates between individuals with permanent impairment from a work injury and a group of non-injured controls over a 19-year period. We used a sample of impaired workers to investigate the impact of work disability on mortality risk using percentage of earnings recovery after injury as the key proxy measure. All analyses were stratified by sex. Permanent impairment from a work injury was predictive of premature mortality in both male and female claimants, though the risk was slightly higher among women. Work disability was a key explanatory factor in the rate of death among impaired workers, the effects being more pronounced in men. We also found that higher impairment level was associated with mortality in men but not in women. The study demonstrates the impact of permanent work-related impairment on longevity and identifies work disability as an important determinant of mortality risk. Given the disconnect between impairment ratings derived from standard diagnostic tools and labour-market activity after accident, more research is needed on the specific factors that contribute to work disability, particularly those related to psycho-social health and well-being.

  4. [Risk factors associated with work-related accidents in the construction industry in the Valley of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Salinas, Rodrigo; López-Rojas, Pablo; Marín-Cotoñieto, Irma Araceli; Godínez-Rocha, Arturo; Haro-García, Luis; Salinas-Tovar, Santiago

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to describe construction-industry, work-related accident prevalence in, associated factors in, and potential impact on affiliated workers of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) in the Valley of Mexico. Prevalent cases in a retrospective case-control design. These include 385 construction-industry workers who were found to have construction work-related accidents in 2001. Controls comprised 385 active construction-industry workers without work-related accident background paired by gender, workplace, and worksite. Work-related accident prevalence in construction workers was 5.5%; most important risk factors and etiology fraction (Ef) included the following: age 16-20 years odds ratio, OR = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.40-10.7, p = 0.001, Ef 0.36; eventual insurance, OR = 3.7, 95% CI, 2.16-26.45, p = 0.001), Ef, 0.72, and no training for job, OR = 5.3, 95% CI, 4.9-69.2, p = 0.01), Ef: 0.81. Variables not showing significance were included salary, work shift, and workday. Work-related accident prevalence maintains its preponderance in the Valley of Mexico construction industry; identified risk factors are potentially modifiable, among which job training acquires unquestionable relevance.

  5. Perceptions of psychosocial hazards, work-related stress and workplace priority risks in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortum, Evelyn; Leka, Stavroula; Cox, Tom

    2011-01-01

    During the last few decades, major global developments in the world of work include an international trend to shift production to developing countries, with wide variations in working conditions and exposure to traditional and emerging occupational risks, such as psychosocial risks. The latter have rarely been addressed or explored in developing and economically-emerging country contexts while we find an abundant body of research from industrialized countries. The research presented, which is part of a larger study, explored the perception of multi-disciplinary experts from different regions, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), of the nature of psychosocial hazards, and work-related stress, as well as their views on workplace priorities that require urgent attention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 experts from developing countries which were subjected to thematic analysis. A two-tiered Delphi survey was completed by 74 experts in the first round with 53 of these experts completing the survey in the second round. Psychosocial hazards and work-related stress were mostly seen as interchangeable in terms of source and effect and all participants perceived them as concern to their workforce. Through the interviews and the Delphi surveys they allude to our contemporary understanding of psychosocial risks. Workplace risks of priority differed by region but primarily work-related stress, injury and accident prevention, and substance abuse and risk behaviors were reported to require urgent attention. The current lack of awareness and research in the area of psychosocial risks and work-related stress hampers action in developing countries. International experts should support the exchange of information and the development of interventions in workplaces in developing countries with a view to integrating these emerging risks into comprehensive occupational health and safety policy frameworks to make such approaches more effective.

  6. Identifying return-to-work trajectories using sequence analysis in a cohort of workers with work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLeod, Christopher B.; Reiff, Eline; Maas, Esther; Bultmann, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to identify return-to-work (RTW) trajectories among workers with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and examine the associations between different MSD and these RTW trajectories. Methods We used administrative workers' compensation data to identify accepted MSD

  7. Midlife Work-Related Stress Increases Dementia Risk in Later Life: The CAIDE 30-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Hagman, Göran; Håkansson, Krister; Kulmala, Jenni; Nilsen, Charlotta; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer's disease later in life, in a large representative population. Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study participants were randomly selected from independent population-based surveys (mean age 50 years). A random sample of 2,000 individuals was invited for two reexaminations including cognitive tests (at mean age 71 and mean age 78), and 1,511 subjects participated in at least one reexamination (mean follow-up 28.5 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands that were administered in midlife. Analyses adjusted for important confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with higher risk of MCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.76), dementia (OR, 1.53; CI, 1.13-2.07), and Alzheimer's disease (OR, 1.55; CI, 1.19-2.36) at the first follow-up among the CAIDE participants. Results remained significant after adjusting for several possible confounders. Work-related stress was not associated with MCI and dementia during the extended follow-up. Midlife work-related stress increases the risk for MCI, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease in later life. The association was not seen after the extended follow-up possibly reflecting selective survival/participation, heterogeneity in dementia among the oldest old, and a critical time window for the effects of midlife stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Risk assessment of work-related stress: the case of a public administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Michela; Bellò, Benedetta; Mattana, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes a case study of work related stress assessment in a public administration, based on an objective methodology (Romano, 2009). The Ispes1 forms (2010) have been used to perform the assessment. They have been filled during some focus group in which 45 workers have been involved, divided into 7 homogeneous groups relying on their department, back-office vs front-office typology of work and the office collocation. According to the Grounded Theory perspective, through the content analysis three further risk factors arose, comparing to the Ispesl forms, such as: (a) the quality of communication, (b) the relationship among and with leaders and colleagues, (c) the presence of discriminatory behaviours. Hence, on the basis of the results, mostly for a deeper analysis of work related stress assessment in a public administration, we suggest to consider these further risk factors.

  9. Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment in Italy: A Methodological Proposal Adapted to Regulatory Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Persechino

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: This methodological proposal is new on the Italian work-related stress risk assessment scene. Besides providing an evaluation approach using scientifically validated instruments, it ensures the active participation of occupational health professionals in each company. The assessment tools provided enable companies not only to comply with the law, but also to contribute to a database for monitoring and assessment and give access to a reserved area for data analysis and comparisons.

  10. Reduction of work-related musculoskeletal risk factors following ergonomics education of sewing machine operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulduk, Sıdıka; Bulduk, Emre Özgür; Süren, Tufan

    2017-09-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a major hazard for sewing machine operators. Ergonomics education is recommended for reducing musculoskeletal disorders at workstations. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an ergonomics education in reducing the exposure to risk factors for WMSDs among sewing machine operators. In this study of 278 workers, their exposure to the risk of WMSDs was assessed using the quick exposure check scale prior to them attending an ergonomics education programme and then again 3 months after the programme. The scores for risk exposure before the education programme were moderate for back (static) and back (dynamic), high for shoulder/arm and very high for wrist/hand and neck. The results obtained 3 months later were low for back (static) and shoulder/arm, and moderate for back (dynamic), wrist/hand and neck. Based on our results, ergonomics education can reduce the exposure to risk factors for WMSDs in the workplace.

  11. Work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the content and organisation of work in recent decades have resulted in an intensification of work, which is commonly regarded as a cause of stress. This report presents trends in the risks and consequences of work-related stress, and identifies how these can be prevented. The focus

  12. Work-related traumatic dental injuries: Prevalence, characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Alessandro; Parodi, Giovanni Battista; Casali, Claudia; Silvestrini-Biavati, Armando; Giacinti, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of work-related oral trauma is underestimated because minor dental injuries are often not reported in patients with several injuries in different parts of the body. In addition, little data are available regarding their characteristics. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the prevalence, types, and characteristics of occupational traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in a large working community. Work-related TDIs that occurred during the period between 2011 and 2013 in the District of Genoa (Northwest of Italy, 0.86 million inhabitants) were analyzed. Patients' data were obtained from the National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work database. During the 2 year period, 112 TDIs (345 traumatized teeth) were recorded. The prevalence was 5.6‰ of the total amount of occupational trauma. The highest prevalence was found in the fourth and fifth decades of life (OR=3.6, P construction/farm/factory workers and craftsmen were 48%. TDIs involved only teeth and surrounding tissue in 66% of cases, or in combination with another maxillofacial injury in 34%. They were statistically associated with construction/farm/factory workers group (Chi squared P cases, subluxation/luxation in 10.7%, avulsion in 9%, root fracture in 3.8%, and concussion in 3.5%. Thirty-two subjects (28.6%, 133 teeth, OR=4.3, P < .001) presented at least 1 traumatized tooth with previous dental treatment. Among 212 (61.4%) traumatized teeth, 67.5% were upper incisors, 17.5% were lower incisors, 3.3% were upper canines, 1.9% were lower canines, and 9.9% were bicuspids and molars. Work-related TDIs had a low overall prevalence, and fractures were the most frequent dental injury. Age, gender, and preexisting dental treatments represented risk factors for work-related TDIs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Work-related psychosocial stress and risk of preterm, low birthweight delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, C J; James, S A; Siegel, E

    1990-02-01

    We investigated whether work-related psychologic stress--defined as work characterized by both high psychologic demands and limited control over the response to these demands--increases a woman's risk of delivering a preterm, low birthweight infant. We studied 786 employed pregnant women included in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, Youth Cohort (NLSY), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young adults. Data concerning work status, job title, and other factors affecting pregnancy outcome were obtained from the NLSY. Assessment of job experience was based on job title, using an established catalogue of occupation characteristics. After accounting for the physical exertion entailed in a job, occupational psychologic stress as measured by job title was not associated with preterm, low birthweight delivery for the sample as a whole (Relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval .45, 2.95). For those women who did not want to remain in the work force, work-related stress increased their risk of experiencing this outcome (RR = 8.1, 95% CI 1.5, 50.2). Personal motivation toward work, as well as the physical effort of work, should be considered in evaluating the impact of a job's psychologic characteristics on pregnancy outcome.

  14. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  15. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings

  16. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  17. Risk factors for work-related injury among farm workers: a 1-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineri, A; Signorini, M L; Tarabla, H D

    2015-01-01

    A 1-year prospective study was carried out to look for risk factors of farm-related injuries in Egusquiza, Santa Fe (Argentina). Information on demographic characteristics and occupational accidents was collected on (N=110, n=78) farm workers by means of personal interviews using a structured questionnaire. Monthly telephone contact was then maintained with the workers for 1 year to document all farm-related injuries. Data analysis included incidence rate, χ2 and logistic regression. Sixty-nine farm-related injuries were reported during the study period, six injuries being the maximum number affecting one worker. A total of 46.3% of the workers suffered at least one injury during the year. The incidence rate was 7.5 injuries/100 individual-month at risk. Medical assistance was needed in 26.8% of the cases and 5.8% of the injuries caused at least 1 day off work. Hospitalization for at least 1 day was required for 2.9% of the injured workers. Previous work-related injury in the family (p=0.005) (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.6-13.3) and worker's activity (p=0.021) (OR=3.7, 95%CI=1.2-11.6) were associated with the dependent variable work injury. Agricultural and livestock farming are of great importance for the national economy. Workers' training on farm safety may play a key role to prevent work-related injuries and diseases.

  18. Within and between Individual Variability of Exposure to Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zare

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Industrial companies indicate a tendency to eliminate variations in operator strategies, particularly following implementation of the lean principle. Companies believe when the operators perform the same prescribed tasks, they have to execute them in the same manner (completing the same gestures and being exposed to the same risk factors. They attempt to achieve better product quality by standardizing and reducing operational leeway. However, operators adjust and modify ways of performing tasks to balance between their abilities and the requirements of the job. This study aims to investigate the variability of exposure to physical risk factors within and between operators when executing the same prescribed tasks. The Ergonomic Standard method was used to evaluate two workstations. Seven operators were observed thirty times between repeated cycle times at those workstations. The results revealed the variability of exposure to risk factors between and within operators in the repeated execution of the same tasks. Individual characteristics and operators’ strategies might generate the variability of exposure to risk factors that may be an opportunity to reduce the risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WR-MSDs. However, sometimes operators’ strategies may cause overexposure to risk factors; operators most often adopt such strategies to undertake their tasks while reducing the workload.

  19. Interventions to prevent and manage psychosocial risks and work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Jain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention is the cornerstone of the European approach to managing occupational safety and health. Prevention means anticipating and analysing the various aspects of work to identify short and long term risks, and then taking action to eliminate or mitigate those risks; that is identifying and

  20. Adult Reconstructive Surgery: A High-Risk Profession for Work-Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Saad M; Alzahrani, Mohammad M; Tanzer, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Adult reconstructive surgery is an orthopedic subspecialty characterized by surgical tasks that are physical, repetitive, and require some degree of stamina from the surgeon. This can result strain and/or injury of the surgeon's musculoskeletal system. This study investigates the prevalence of work-related injuries among arthroplasty surgeons. A modified version of the physical discomfort survey was sent to surgeon members of the Hip Society, the International Hip Society, and the Canadian Orthopedic Arthroplasty via email. One hundred and eighty-three surgeons completed the survey. Overall, 66.1% of the arthroplasty surgeons reported that they had experienced a work-related injury. The most common injuries that occurred were low back pain (28%), lateral epicondylitis of the elbow (14%), shoulder tendonitis (14%), lumbar disc herniation (13%), and wrist arthritis (12%). Overall, 27% of surgeons took time off from work because of the injury. As the number of disorders diagnosed increased, there was a significant increase in the incidence of requiring time off work because of the disorder (P increased the risk of the surgeon requiring time off because of the disorder were age >55 years, practicing for more than >20 years, and performing >100 total hip arthroplasty procedures per year (P < .05). In addition, 31% of the orthopedic surgeons surveyed required surgery for their injury. Although most studies concentrate on the importance of patient safety and thus the quality of the health care system, the surgeon's safety is also considered an integral part of this system's quality. This study highlights a high prevalence of musculoskeletal work-related injuries among arthroplasty surgeons and indicates the need for the identification of preventive measures directed toward improving the operative surgical environment and work ergonomics for the surgeons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [An experimental model for assessing the risk factors for work-related stress in four Italian universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miscetti, G; Barberini, L; Chiocchini, D; Cirimbilli, A; Pippi, R; Pampanella, L; Caserta, G; Gargarella, L

    2011-01-01

    This study, a collaborative effort among the Local Health Authority 2 of Perugia, Italy, the National Coordination of Worker's Safety Representatives for University and Research Institutions and the National Coordination for Protection and Prevention Services for Universities and Research Institutions, describes the results of a method used to evaluate work-related stress. Personnel from four Italian universities, which we call University I, II, III and IV geographically distributed in nord (1), center (2) and south (1) of Italy, responded to a questionnaire regarding risk evaluation of work-related stress in response to the Italian Law 81/2008. The methodology includes a preliminary analysis of the physical/technological and organizational/relational aspects of the company in order to determine a risk factor of work-related stress. This is followed by an evaluation by agencies competent in the areas of prevention and protection, (Administrative personnel of the company, Medical support persons, heads of the Prevention and Protection Service, employee representatives, and others) that apply a specific algorithm and by the employees through the completion of a questionnaire. The employees, mostly men, of the various universities, completed 510 questionnaires. Based on the results of the questionnaires and on a comparison between the expectations of the administration and the employees, the preventative measures that need to be adopted were identified. The results of this study show that there is not complete agreement between the administration and the employees regarding the work-related expectations. This difference in viewpoints could be a source of work-related stress. Some aspects of the study were shown to be of common concern in the various universities, while for other aspects, there were significantly different perceptions between male and female employees. An immediate response is needed with respect to some aspects in the work context and to plan further

  2. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) risk assessment at core assembly production of electronic components manufacturing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, N. M.; Zahid, M. N. O.

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted to assess the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMDs) among the workers at core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company located in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The study is to identify the WMDs risk factor and risk level. A set of questionnaires survey based on modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaires have been distributed to respective workers to acquire the WMDs risk factor identification. Then, postural analysis was conducted in order to measure the respective WMDs risk level. The analysis were based on two ergonomics assessment tools; Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). The study found that 30 respondents out of 36 respondents suffered from WMDs especially at shoulder, wrists and lower back. The WMDs risk have been identified from unloading process, pressing process and winding process. In term of the WMDs risk level, REBA and RULA assessment tools have indicated high risk level to unloading and pressing process. Thus, this study had established the WMDs risk factor and risk level of core assembly production in an electronic components manufacturing company at Malaysia environment.

  3. The impact of sustained hot weather on risk of acute work-related injury in Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Judith Anne; MacFarlane, Ewan M.; Sim, Malcolm R.; Smith, Peter

    2018-02-01

    It has been reported that weather-related high ambient temperature is associated with an increased risk of work-related injury. Understanding this relationship is important because work-related injuries are a major public health problem, and because projected climate changes will potentially expose workers to hot days, including consecutive hot days, more often. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of exposure to sustained periods of hot weather on work-related injury risk for workers in Melbourne, Australia. A time-stratified case crossover study design was utilised to examine the association between two and three consecutive days and two and three consecutive nights of hot weather and the risk of work-related injury, using definitions of hot weather ranging from the 60th to the 95th percentile of daily maximum and minimum temperatures for the Melbourne metropolitan area, 2002-2012. Workers' compensation claim data was used to identify cases of acute work-related injury. Overall, two and three consecutive days of hot weather were associated with an increased risk of injury, with this effect becoming apparent at a daily maximum temperature of 27.6 °C (70th percentile). Three consecutive days of high but not extreme temperatures were associated with the strongest effect, with a 15% increased risk of injury (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.30) observed when daily maximum temperature was ≥33.3 °C (90th percentile) for three consecutive days, compared to when it was not. At a threshold of 35.5 °C (95th percentile), there was no significant association between temperature and injury for either two or three consecutive days of heat. These findings suggest that warnings to minimise harm to workers from hot weather should be given, and prevention protocol initiated, when consecutive warm days of temperatures lower than extreme heat temperatures are forecast, and well before the upper ranges of ambient daytime temperatures are reached.

  4. The impact of sustained hot weather on risk of acute work-related injury in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Judith Anne; MacFarlane, Ewan M; Sim, Malcolm R; Smith, Peter

    2018-02-01

    It has been reported that weather-related high ambient temperature is associated with an increased risk of work-related injury. Understanding this relationship is important because work-related injuries are a major public health problem, and because projected climate changes will potentially expose workers to hot days, including consecutive hot days, more often. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of exposure to sustained periods of hot weather on work-related injury risk for workers in Melbourne, Australia. A time-stratified case crossover study design was utilised to examine the association between two and three consecutive days and two and three consecutive nights of hot weather and the risk of work-related injury, using definitions of hot weather ranging from the 60th to the 95th percentile of daily maximum and minimum temperatures for the Melbourne metropolitan area, 2002-2012. Workers' compensation claim data was used to identify cases of acute work-related injury. Overall, two and three consecutive days of hot weather were associated with an increased risk of injury, with this effect becoming apparent at a daily maximum temperature of 27.6 °C (70th percentile). Three consecutive days of high but not extreme temperatures were associated with the strongest effect, with a 15% increased risk of injury (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.30) observed when daily maximum temperature was ≥33.3 °C (90th percentile) for three consecutive days, compared to when it was not. At a threshold of 35.5 °C (95th percentile), there was no significant association between temperature and injury for either two or three consecutive days of heat. These findings suggest that warnings to minimise harm to workers from hot weather should be given, and prevention protocol initiated, when consecutive warm days of temperatures lower than extreme heat temperatures are forecast, and well before the upper ranges of ambient daytime temperatures are reached.

  5. Subcontractors and increased risk for work-related diseases and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung B; Park, Shin G; Song, Jae S; Yi, Kwan H; Jang, Tae W; Min, Jin Y

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing reliance on subcontracting in many economic sectors, there is little information available on occupational health and safety issues among subcontractor employees. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of subcontracting on self-reported health problems and absences due to occupational accidents and sickness using a nationally representative sample from South Korea. The data used were sampled from the second wave of the Korean Working Conditions Survey [2010]. Information on 3,282 parent firm employees and 728 subcontractor employees was obtained. For the logistic regression model, the outcomes were work-related health problems and absenteeism. The independent variables were personal and occupational characteristics, job aspects, and working hazards. Subcontractor employees were significantly more likely to experience health problems than the employee at parent firms. In particular, subcontractors' risk of injuries and anxiety/depression increased twofold (odd ratios, OR=2.01, 95% confidence interval, CIs, 1.24-3.26) and threefold (OR=2.95, 95% CIs 1.52-5.73), respectively, after controlling for potential variables. In addition, subcontractor employees were three times more likely than employees at parent firms to miss work due to illness (OR=3.56; 95% CIs 2.02-6.26). Working conditions, especially those related to job aspects and workplace exposures, attenuated these risks. Subcontracting workers were found to have a higher risk of work-related diseases and a higher absenteeism rate than parent firm workers. Our study highlights the need to protect and improve the occupational health and safety of subcontractor employees. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Risk for work-related fatigue among the employees on semiconductor manufacturing lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Hsieh, Hui-I; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2015-03-01

    To examine the potential risk factors for work-related fatigue (WRF) among workers in modern industries, the authors analyzed the records of need-for-recovery questionnaires and health checkup results for 1545 employees. Compared with regular daytime workers, and after adjusting for confounders, the workers adapting to day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) had a 4.0-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7-5.9) increased risk for WRF, higher than the 2.2-fold risk (95% CI = 1.5-3.3) for persistent shift workers. Based on highest education level, the male employees with university degrees had the highest adjusted odds ratio (a-OR) 2.8 (95% CI = 1.0-7.8) for complaining of WRF versus compulsory education group. For female workers, currently married/cohabiting status was inversely associated with WRF (a-OR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9), and child-rearing responsibility moderately increased WRF risk (a-OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0-3.7). Day-and-night RSW and the adaptation, educational levels of males, and domestic factors for females contributed to WRF among semiconductor manufacturing employees. © 2013 APJPH.

  7. Low physical activity work-related and other risk factors increased the risk of poor physical fitness in cement workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditha Diana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim Low physical activity causes poor physical fitness, which leads to low productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low work-related physical activity and other risk factors on physical fitness.Methods This study was done in February 2008. Subjects were workers from 15 departments in PT Semen Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia. Data on physical activities were collected using the questionnaire from the Student Field Work I Guidebook and Hypertension – Geriatric Integrated Program of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia2003. Physical fitness was measured using the Harvard Step Test.Results A number of 937 male workers aged 18 – 56 years participated in this study. Poor physical fitness was found in 15.9% of the subjects. Low work-related physical activity, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and asthma were dominant risk factors related to poor physical fi tness. Subjects with low compared to high work-related activity had a ten-fold risk of poor physical fitness [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 10.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.71–24.33]. In term of physical exercise, subjects who had no compared to those who had physical exercise had a six-fold risk of poor physical fitness (ORa = 6.30; 95%CI = 3.69-10.75.Conclusion Low work-related physical activities, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and sthma were correlated to poor physical fi tness. It is, among others, therefore necessary to implement exercises for workers with poor physical fitness. (Med J Indones. 2009;18:201-5Key words: exercise test, occupational healths, physical fitness

  8. Work related musculoskeletal disorders amongst therapists in physically demanding roles: qualitative analysis of risk factors and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passier, Leanne; McPhail, Steven

    2011-01-25

    Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are two professions at high risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD). This investigation aimed to identify risk factors for WRMD as perceived by the health professionals working in these roles (Aim 1), as well as current and future strategies they perceive will allow them to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles (Aim 2). A two phase exploratory investigation was undertaken. The first phase included a survey administered via a web based platform with qualitative open response items. The second phase involved four focus group sessions which explored topics obtained from the survey. Thematic analysis of qualitative data from the survey and focus groups was undertaken. Overall 112 (34.3%) of invited health professionals completed the survey; 66 (58.9%) were physiotherapists and 46 (41.1%) were occupational therapists. Twenty-four health professionals participated in one of four focus groups. The risk factors most frequently perceived by health professionals included: work postures and movements, lifting or carrying, patient related factors and repetitive tasks. The six primary themes for strategies to allow therapists to continue to work in physically demanding clinical roles included: organisational strategies, workload or work allocation, work practices, work environment and equipment, physical condition and capacity, and education and training. Risk factors as well as current and potential strategies for reducing WRMD amongst these health professionals working in clinically demanding roles have been identified and discussed. Further investigation regarding the relative effectiveness of these strategies is warranted.

  9. The relevance of socio-demographic and occupational variables for the assessment of work-related stress risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Corfiati, Marisa; Di Tecco, Cristina; Rondinone, Bruna M; Bonafede, Michela; Ronchetti, Matteo; Persechino, Benedetta; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-12-10

    Work-related stress is widely recognized as one of the major challenges to occupational health and safety. The correlation between work-related stress risk factors and physical health outcomes is widely acknowledged. This study investigated socio-demographic and occupational variables involved in perceived risk of work-related stress. The Italian version of the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool was used in a large survey to examine the relationship between work-related stress risks and workers' demographic and occupational characteristics. Out of 8,527 questionnaires distributed among workers (from 75 organizations) 6,378 were returned compiled (74.8%); a set of mixed effects models were adopted to test single and combined effects of the variables on work-related stress risk. Female workers reported lower scores on control and peer support and more negative perceptions of relationships and change at work than male workers, most of them with full-time contracts. Age, job seniority, and educational level appeared positively correlated with control at work, but negatively with job demands. Fixed-term workers had positive perceptions regarding job demands and relationships, but more difficulties about their role at work than permanent workers. A commuting time longer than one hour and shift work appeared to be associated with higher levels of risk factors for work-related stress (except for role), the latter having more negative effects, increasing with age. The findings suggest that the assessment and management of work-related stress risk should consider specific socio-demographic and occupational risk factors such as gender, age, educational level, job status, shift work, commuting time, job contracts.

  10. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and

  11. Identifying barriers to recovery from work related upper extremity disorders: use of a collaborative problem solving technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Feuerstein, Michael; Miller, Virginia I; Wood, Patricia M

    2003-08-01

    Improving health and work outcomes for individuals with work related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs) may require a broad assessment of potential return to work barriers by engaging workers in collaborative problem solving. In this study, half of all nurse case managers from a large workers' compensation system were randomly selected and invited to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of an integrated case management (ICM) approach for WRUEDs. The focus of ICM was problem solving skills training and workplace accommodation. Volunteer nurses attended a 2 day ICM training workshop including instruction in a 6 step process to engage clients in problem solving to overcome barriers to recovery. A chart review of WRUED case management reports (n = 70) during the following 2 years was conducted to extract case managers' reports of barriers to recovery and return to work. Case managers documented from 0 to 21 barriers per case (M = 6.24, SD = 4.02) within 5 domains: signs and symptoms (36%), work environment (27%), medical care (13%), functional limitations (12%), and coping (12%). Compared with case managers who did not receive the training (n = 67), workshop participants identified more barriers related to signs and symptoms, work environment, functional limitations, and coping (p Problem solving skills training may help focus case management services on the most salient recovery factors affecting return to work.

  12. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomic risk factors in special education teachers and teacher's aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Wong, Man-Ting; Yu, Yu-Chung; Ju, Yan-Ying

    2016-02-10

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have become increasingly common among health-related professionals. Special education personnel who serve students with disabilities often experience physical strains; however, WMSDs have been overlooked in this population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the work-related ergonomics-associated factors in this population and to evaluate their correlation with the WMSDs prevalence. A questionnaire with three domains, namely demographics, prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and ergonomic factors, designed by our research team was delivered to educators who work in special education schools. Approximately 86 % of the 388 special education school teachers and teacher's aides in this study experienced musculoskeletal disorders. The lower back, shoulder, and wrist were the three most affected regions. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the participants' background factors, namely >5.5 years of experience (odds ratio [OR] = 4.090, 95 % CI: 1.350-12.390), students with multiple disorders (OR = 2.412, 95 % CI: 1.100-5.287), and other work-related ergonomic factors (assistance in diaper changing and others duties), were strongly associated with the prevalence of WMSD. Nap habit (OR = 0.442, 95 % CI: 0.230-0.851) and having teaching partners in the same class (OR = 0.486, 95 % CI: 0.250-0.945) resulted in low possibility of acquiring WMSDs. The use of supportive devices was associated with a low WMSD prevalence. The present study revealed an association between WMSDs and specific job features among teachers and teacher's aides in special education schools. Future efforts should emphasize examining safe student-handling ergonomics, formulating policies regarding student-teacher ratio, incorporating mandatory break times at the workplaces, and promoting personal health for preventing work-related injuries.

  13. Position of document holder and work related risk factors for neck pain among computer users: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambusam, S; Baharudin, O; Roslizawati, N; Leonard, J

    2015-01-01

    Document holder is used as a remedy to address occupational neck pain among computer users. An understanding on the effects of the document holder along with other work related risk factors while working in computer workstation requires attention. A comprehensive knowledge on the optimal location of the document holder in computer use and associated work related factors that may contribute to neck pain reviewed in this article. A literature search has been conducted over the past 14 years based on the published articles from January 1990 to January 2014 in both Science Direct and PubMed databases. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords for search were neck muscle OR head posture OR muscle tension' OR muscle activity OR work related disorders OR neck pain AND/OR document location OR document holder OR source document OR copy screen holder.Document holder placed lateral to the screen was most preferred to reduce neck discomfort among occupational typists. Document without a holder was placed flat on the surface is least preferred. The head posture and muscle activity increases when the document is placed flat on the surface compared to when placed on the document holder. Work related factors such as static posture, repetitive movement, prolong sitting and awkward positions were the risk factors for chronic neck pain. This review highlights the optimal location for document holder for computer users to reduce neck pain. Together, the importance of work related risk factors for to neck pain on occupational typist is emphasized for the clinical management.

  14. Work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave in patients with neck or upper extremity complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, S.D.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Beek, A.J. van der; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To study work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave among patients who have visited their general practitioner for neck or upper extremity complaints. Methods: Three hundred and forty two patients with neck or upper extremity complaints completed self-report

  15. Feedback Survey on the Usability of the OFFERA Method for Assessing an Exposure Risks of Computer Work Related to WMSDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Mohd Nasrull Abdol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The OFFERA method was designed to assess the exposure of the office workstation risk factors associated with WMSDs. This method involved six domains which include chair, desk, input device, monitor, accessories, and the environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the usability of the OFFERA method for assessing exposure risks of computer work related to WMSDs. The participants were trained to conduct the OFFERA method. Trial assessments on three different office jobs were conducted. The usability of the OFFERA method was identified based on the feedback questionnaire survey obtained from 44 practitioners (undergraduate students after the training. From the usability test, the OFFERA method was found be easy to use (mean 4.48 ± 0.698 and quick to use (mean 4.48 ± 0.821. However, the observers found that the font used was too small hence it was difficult to read the instruction (mean 3.93 ± 1.096. The pictures or illustrations in the OFFERA tool were also recorded as unclear based on the relatively low score for 18 items (mean 3.73± 1.128. Besides that, all participants agreed that OFFERA method is user-friendly, cost effective and applicable to a wide range of office-related activities.

  16. Risk Factors for Developing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders during Dairy Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Taghavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy farming work involves frequent use of poor postures. These postures may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. Objective: To assess postural load during performance of various tasks related to dairy farming. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a dairy farm in Iran. In order to assess postural load, tasks related to dairy farming were divided into 3 categories: feeding, milking, and manure disposal. Each task was then divided into its constituent work subdivisions (tasks. Finally, the working posture for each work subdivision was evaluated using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA. Results: Based on the results from the REBA score, the poorest risk scores (risk level 4 were associated with the following tasks: (1 manure disposal, (2 filling feed bags, and (3 pouring milk into a bucket. Other tasks such as filling corn containers, pouring corn into the milling machine, preparing the feed, pouring food into mangers, attaching the milking machine, and pouring milk from a bucket into a tank imposed high risk (risk level 3. The risk for the tasks of washing and disinfecting the udders were assessed as medium risks. Conclusion: The risk levels associated with most of the tasks on the studied farm were unacceptably high. Therefore, it is essential to implement ergonomic interventions to reduce risk levels of the tasks.

  17. Risk Factors for Developing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders during Dairy Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Sayed Mohammad; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Omran; Stallones, Lorann; Abbaspour, Asghar; Marioryad, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Dairy farming work involves frequent use of poor postures. These postures may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. To assess postural load during performance of various tasks related to dairy farming. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a dairy farm in Iran. In order to assess postural load, tasks related to dairy farming were divided into 3 categories: feeding, milking, and manure disposal. Each task was then divided into its constituent work subdivisions (tasks). Finally, the working posture for each work subdivision was evaluated using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). Based on the results from the REBA score, the poorest risk scores (risk level 4) were associated with the following tasks: (1) manure disposal, (2) filling feed bags, and (3) pouring milk into a bucket. Other tasks such as filling corn containers, pouring corn into the milling machine, preparing the feed, pouring food into mangers, attaching the milking machine, and pouring milk from a bucket into a tank imposed high risk (risk level 3). The risk for the tasks of washing and disinfecting the udders were assessed as medium risks. The risk levels associated with most of the tasks on the studied farm were unacceptably high. Therefore, it is essential to implement ergonomic interventions to reduce risk levels of the tasks.

  18. Early identification in primary health care of people at risk for sick leave due to work-related stress - study protocol of a randomized controlled trial (RCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Sandheimer, Christine; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Larsson, Maria E H; Bültmann, Ute; Hange, Dominique; Hensing, Gunnel

    2016-11-25

    Early identification of persons at risk of sickness absence due to work-related stress is a crucial problem for society in general, and primary health care in particular. Tho date, no established method to do this exists. This project's aim is to evaluate whether systematic early identification of work-related stress can prevent sickness absence. This paper presents the study design, procedure and outcome measurements, as well as allocation and baseline characteristics of the study population. The study is a two-armed randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3, 6 and 12 months. Non-sick-listed employed women and men, aged 18 to 64 years, who had mental and physical health complaints and sought care at primary health care centers (PHCC) were eligible to participate. At baseline work-related stress was measured by the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ), combined with feedback at consultation, at PHCC. The preventive intervention included early identification of work-related stress by the WSQ, GP training in the use of WSQ, GP feedback at consultation and finding suitable preventive measures. A process evaluation was used to explore how to facilitate future implementation and structural use of the WSQ at the PHCC. The primary outcome to compare the preventive sick leave intervention by the general practitioner (GP) versus treatment as usual is sick leave data obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency register. Early screening for sick leave due to work-related stress makes it possible not only to identify those at risk for sick leave, but also to put focus on the patient's specific work-related stress problems, which can be helpful in finding suitable preventive measures. This study investigates if use of the WSQ by GPs at PHCCs, combined with feedback at consultation, prevents future sickness absence. ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02480855 . Registered 20 May 2015.

  19. Work-related musculoskeletal risks associated with nurses and nursing assistants handling overweight and obese patients: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang D; Brings, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Nurses and nursing assistants are susceptible to work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries (WMSDs) due to the increase in overweight and obese patients they are handling on a daily basis. This study aimed to review work-related musculoskeletal hazards and risks associated with handling overweight and obese patients, and summarize the recommended interventions to mitigate musculoskeletal concerns among nurses and nursing assistants. Approximately 350 publications were initially screened and 22 refereed articles were used to synthesize for this study on the bases of inclusion/exclusion relevance and strength of evidence on overweight or obese patient handling. Evidence suggested that the work-related musculoskeletal risks among nurses and nursing assistants included sprains/strains, low back pain, wrist, knee and shoulder injuries. The findings indicated that the WMSD risks increased when nurses and nursing assistants were manually moving or lifting patients, especially when the patients were overweight or obese. The recommended solutions included the lifting/transfer equipment and devices, ergonomic assessments and controls, no-lift policies, and training and education. To alleviate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries among nurses and nursing assistants handling overweight or obese patients, additional research and development into what safe patient handling interventions suit this growing population needs to be addressed.

  20. Effects of payment method on work control, work risk and work-related musculoskeletal health among sewing machine operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nawawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of payment method on work control, work risk and work-related musculoskeletal health among sewing machine operators R. Nawawi1, B.M. Deros1*, D.D.I. Daruis2, A. Ramli3, R.M. Zein4 and L.H. Joseph3 1Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia *Email: hjbaba@ukm.edu.my 2Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Malaysia 3Department of Physiotherapy Faculty of Science, Lincoln University College, Malaysia 4Department of Consultation, Research & Development, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, Malaysia ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify payment method and its effects on work control, work risk and work-related musculoskeletal health among Malaysian sewing machine operators. The study sample comprised 337 sewing machine operators (male, n=122, female, n=215; aged between 18-54 years old; mean 30.74±8.44 from four different garment-making companies in Malaysia. They were being paid via time rate wages (n=246 and piece rate wages (n=91. Data was collected through Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and pen-and-paper assessment via Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. From the study, the piece rate wage group was found to take fewer breaks, had high work production demands, worked at a faster pace and experienced more exhaustion and pressure due to increasing work demands as compared to the time rate group. They were also observed working with higher physical exposure such as repetitive tasks, awkward static postures, awkward grips and hand movements, pulling, lifting and pushing as compared to those in the time rate wage group. The final RULA scores was also higher from the piece rate wage group (72.53% RULA score 7 which indicated higher work risks among them. The study found that the type of wage payment was significantly associated with work risks (p=0.036, df=1 and WRMSD at the shoulder, lower back

  1. Daily sleep, weekly working hours, and risk of work-related injury: US National Health Interview Survey (2004-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, David A; Folkard, Simon; Willetts, Joanna L; Smith, Gordon S

    2010-07-01

    The impact on health and safety of the combination of chronic sleep deficits and extended working hours has received worldwide attention. Using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an in-person household survey using a multistage, stratified, clustered sample design representing the US civilian, non-institutionalized population, the authors estimated the effect of total daily self-reported sleep time and weekly working hours on the risk of a work-related injury. During the survey period 2004-2008, 177,576 persons (ages 18-74) sampled within households reported that they worked at a paid job the previous week and reported their total weekly work hours. A randomly selected adult in each household (n = 75,718) was asked to report his/her usual (average) total daily sleep hours the prior week; complete responses were obtained for 74,415 (98.3%) workers. Weighted annualized work-related injury rates were then estimated across a priori defined categories of both average total daily sleep hours and weekly working hours. To account for the complex sampling design, weighted multiple logistic regression was used to independently estimate the risk of a work-related injury for categories of usual daily sleep duration and weekly working hours, controlling for important covariates and potential confounders of age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, type of pay, industry, occupation (proxy for job risk), body mass index, and the interaction between sleep duration and work hours. Based on the inclusion criteria, there were an estimated 129,950,376 workers annually at risk and 3,634,446 work-related medically treated injury episodes (overall injury rate 2.80/100 workers). Unadjusted annualized injury rates/100 workers across weekly work hours were 2.03 (60 h). With regards to self-reported daily sleep time, the estimated annualized injury rates/100 workers were 7.89 (10 h). After controlling for weekly work hours, and aforementioned covariates, significant increases in risk/1

  2. [Methodological and operational notes for the assessment and management of the risk of work-related stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ambrogi, Francesco; Ratti, Elisabetta Ceppi

    2011-01-01

    Today the Italian national debate over the Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment methodology is rather heated. Several methodological proposals and guidelines have been published in recent months, not least those by the "Commissione Consultiva". But despite this wide range of proposals, it appears that there is still a lack of attention to some of the basic methodological issues that must be taken into account in order to correctly implement the above-mentioned guidelines. The aim of this paper is to outline these methodological issues. In order to achieve this, the most authoritative methodological proposals and guidelines have been reviewed. The study focuses in particular on the methodological issues that could lead to important biases if not considered properly. The study leads to some considerations about the methodological validity of a Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment based exclusively on the literal interpretation of the considered proposals. Furthermore, the study provides some hints and working hypotheses on how to overcome these methodological limits. This study should be considered as a starting point for further investigations and debate on the Work-Related Stress Risk Assessment methodology on a national level.

  3. Work related physical activity and risk of a hospital discharge diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, L; Frost, P; Vestergaard, P

    2005-01-01

    of atrial fibrillation or flutter associated with sedentary work in a standing position, light workload, or heavy workload in men or women. CONCLUSION: No evidence was found of an association between physical activities during working hours and risk of a hospital discharge diagnosis of atrial fibrillation......, Cancer, and Health Study. The physical strain during working hours was categorised as sedentary, light, or heavy, and analysed using proportional hazard models. Subjects were followed up in the Danish National Registry of Patients and in the Danish Civil Registration System. RESULTS: During follow up...... (mean 5.7 years) a hospital discharge diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or flutter occurred in 305 men and 113 women. When using the risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter associated with sedentary work at a sitting position as a reference, no excess risk (unadjusted as well as adjusted) was found...

  4. The impact of work-related risk on nurses during the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia S C; Leung, Gabriel M; Tiwari, Agnes F Y; Salili, Farideh; Leung, Sharron S K; Wong, David C N; Wong, Alan S F; Lai, Adela S F; Lam, Tai Hing

    2005-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly infectious disease, with high potential for transmission to close contacts, particularly among healthcare workers. This is the first systematic study investigating hospital nurses' physical and psychological health status and the kinds of healthcare used-stratified by the level of contact with SARS patients-during the 2003 outbreak in Hong Kong. Nurses in moderate-risk areas appeared to have more stress symptoms than those working in high-risk areas. It is essential to design hospital support systems and occupational health policy to promote the psychological well-being of nurses during future outbreaks of emerging infections.

  5. Work-related risk factors for incidence of lateral epicondylitis in a large working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herquelot, Eleonore; Guéguen, Alice; Roquelaure, Yves; Bodin, Julie; Sérazin, Celine; Ha, Catherine; Leclerc, Annette; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Descatha, Alexis

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to estimate the association between repeated measures of occupational risk factors and the incidence of lateral epicondylitis in a large working population. A total of 3710 workers in a French region were included in 2002-2005, and among them 1046 had a complete follow-up in 2007-2010. At both stages, occupational health physicians assessed the presence of lateral epicondylitis and workers self-reported their occupational exposures. Poisson models were performed to assess the incidence rate ratios (IRR) separately by sex using multiple imputed data. The annual incidence rate of lateral epicondylitis was estimated as 1.0 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.7-1.3] per 100 workers among men and 0.9 (95% CI 0.6-1.3) among women. Workers aged >45 years had higher incidence than those aged 2 hours/day) was a risk factor, with an age-adjusted IRR of 3.2 (95% CI 1.5-6.4) for workers exposed at both questionnaires [3.3 (95% CI 1.4-7.6) among women]. This study highlights the importance of temporal dimensions for occupational risk factors on the incidence of lateral epicondylitis. Further research should evaluate the risk associated with the duration and repetition of occupational exposure on the incidence of lateral epicondylitis.

  6. Work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave in patients with neck or upper extremity complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Sandra D M; Terwee, Caroline B; van der Windt, Daniëlle A W M; van der Beek, Allard J; Bouter, Lex M; Dekker, Joost

    2007-08-01

    To study work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave among patients who have visited their general practitioner for neck or upper extremity complaints. Three hundred and forty two patients with neck or upper extremity complaints completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and after 3 months. Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between work-related risk factors and sick leave (i.e., lost days from work due to neck or upper extremity complaints in 3 months). Effect modification by sick leave at baseline, sex, worrying and musculoskeletal co-morbidity was evaluated by adding product terms to the regression models. In the subgroup of patients who scored high on the pain copying scale "worrying" the hazard ratio of sick leave was 1.32 (95% CI 1.07-1.62) per 10% increase in heavy physical work. The subgroup of patients who were sitting for long periods of time had a reduced risk of sick leave as compared to patients who did not spend a lot of time sitting, again only in patients who scored high on the pain coping scale "worrying" (adjusted HR=0.17, 95%-CI 0.04-0.72). Other work-related risk factors were not significantly related to sick leave. Heavy physical work increased the risk of sick leave and prolonged sitting reduced the risk of sick leave in a subgroup of patients who worried much about their pain. Additional large longitudinal studies of sufficiently large size among employees with neck or upper extremity complaints are needed to confirm our results.

  7. [Company occupational physician and work related stress: from risk assessment to health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buselli, R; Cristaudo, A

    2009-01-01

    In Italy the recent safety legislation requires a new committment for the company occupational physician. His duty is a balance between legal requirements and the state of art of prevention. There are many tools to tackle stress at work as a general preventive intervention. The hard challenge of the company physician is to keep all the garantees in terms of prevention and social security for the worker at risk of stress. This paper examines some of the difficulties with current approaches and looks at possible solutions.

  8. Occupational Noise Exposure and the Risk for Work-Related Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel; Dimitrova, Donka

    2017-11-10

    Occupational noise exposure has been linked to work-related injuries. Strategies to control occupational hazards often rely on dose-response relationships needed to inform policy, but quantitative synthesis of the relevant literature has not been done so far. This study aimed to systematically review the epidemiological literature and to perform meta-analysis of the risk for work-related injury due to occupational noise exposure. PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines were followed. PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched up until 15 December 2016 in English, Russian, and Spanish. Reference lists, grey literature, and expert archives were searched as well. The risk of bias was assessed for each study and incorporated into the meta-analysis weights using the quality effects model. Overall, 21 studies were included at the qualitative review stage: 9 cross-sectional, 6 case-control, 4 cohort, 1 case-crossover, and 1 ecological. Noise exposure was assessed objectively in 13 studies. Information on occupational injuries was elicited from medical records/registry in 13 studies. Meta-analyses showed RR = 1.22 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.29) (n = 59028) per 5 dB increase in noise exposure (Cochran's Q = 27.26, P 90-95 dB) compared with the least exposed group (Cochran's Q = 180.46, P work-related injury risk. However, the quality of evidence is 'very low'; therefore, the magnitude of this association should be interpreted with caution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  9. An onsite ergonomics assessment for risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among cooks in a Chinese restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Andy S K

    2014-01-01

    This article is a case presentation of an onsite ergonomic assessment of the risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among three cooks working at a medium-sized Chinese restaurant in Hong Kong. The weight of workload was measured during the onsite assessment and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation used to assess the risk of WMSDs. The results showed that these cooks usually had to hold utensils for extended periods of time, toss woks, and barbecue meat, all of which demanded a lot of repetitive movements of the upper limbs. Future research is needed on the implementation of effective prevention measures, including administrative and ergonomic controls, to reduce the problems within this industry associated with such high-risk tasks.

  10. Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oha, Kristel; Animägi, Liina; Pääsuke, Mati; Coggon, David; Merisalu, Eda

    2014-05-28

    Occupational use of computers has increased rapidly over recent decades, and has been linked with various musculoskeletal disorders, which are now the most commonly diagnosed occupational diseases in Estonia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by anatomical region during the past 12 months and to investigate its association with personal characteristics and work-related risk factors among Estonian office workers using computers. In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaires were sent to the 415 computer users. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from 202 computer users at two universities in Estonia. The questionnaire asked about MSP at different anatomical sites, and potential individual and work related risk factors. Associations with risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. Most respondents (77%) reported MSP in at least one anatomical region during the past 12 months. Most prevalent was pain in the neck (51%), followed by low back pain (42%), wrist/hand pain (35%) and shoulder pain (30%). Older age, right-handedness, not currently smoking, emotional exhaustion, belief that musculoskeletal problems are commonly caused by work, and low job security were the statistically significant risk factors for MSP in different anatomical sites. A high prevalence of MSP in the neck, low back, wrist/arm and shoulder was observed among Estonian computer users. Psychosocial risk factors were broadly consistent with those reported from elsewhere. While computer users should be aware of ergonomic techniques that can make their work easier and more comfortable, presenting computer use as a serious health hazard may modify health beliefs in a way that is unhelpful.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the catering industry: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Andy S K; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W P

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to systematically explore the prevalence and risk factors of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) in the catering industry by reviewing relevant published literature with the goal of developing future prevention strategies. The systematic review was carried out in nine English medical databases, two Chinese-dominated full-text databases and seven web sites with the designated search strategies. Studies were included if they met the defined inclusion criteria hierarchically to investigate prevalence and or risk factors associated with WMSDs in the catering industry with appropriate epidemiological methodology. Nine English databases yielded 634 citations, and two Chinese databases yielded 401 citations, although only five English and three Chinese studies passed the inclusion criteria. Three-fourths of the studies were cross-sectional. The prevalence of WMSDs varied from 3% to 86% depending on the type of establishment and positions. The most important risk factors were physical job demands, such as work posture, force applied, and repeated movement. The lack of epidemiological information about WMSDs in the catering industry is apparent. Further studies are needed to investigate the relation among prevalence, risk factors and forms of WMSDs, in particular the interaction of risk factors in psychosocial aspects of the catering industry.

  12. Multiple dimensions of work-related risk factors and their relationship to work ability among industrial workers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarami, Hamidreza; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Asgari, Ali; Choobineh, Alireza; Stallones, Lorann

    2017-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the simultaneous effects of physical, psychosocial and other work-related risk factors on the work ability index (WAI) score among industrial workers. This study used a cross-sectional design with a questionnaire survey. A total of 280 workers were included in the study. Data were collected using three questionnaires including the Persian version of the WAI, the Persian version of the job content questionnaire and an author-developed measure (to assess work-related factors, health-related factors and socio-demographic characteristics). The majority of the participants were young, but they had poor WAI scores (mean 37.3 ± 6.4) and 44.3% of them had poor or moderate work ability. Occupational accidents and injuries were found to be the strongest predictors of WAI scores. Additionally, there was a strong association between WAI scores and supervisor support, skill discretion, occupational training, sleep quality, work nature and educational level. Intervention programs should focus on improving supervisor support, sleep quality, job skills and knowledge and on decreasing physical and mental work demands. Additionally, implementing a comprehensive occupational health and ergonomics program for controlling and reducing hazardous working environments and occupational injury rates should be considered.

  13. [Methodological aspects of risk assessment of work related stress. Italian experience of R Karasek JCQ application, a multiphase approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, M M; Cesana, G

    2009-01-01

    Due to a new legislation, the assessment of work stress has become compulsory in Italy for all the enterprise. Work stress is become a leading health problem in work settings all over Europe. The two major approaches, the expert-based direct observations and the measurements of the perceived job strain, are briefly introduced emphasizing on strengthens and weaknesses. Among the methods to assess perceived job stress, the Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire has been extensively used in Italy, and the available results support its use because reliable and able to pick up major constrictiveness at work. In addition, because it is now possible to have reference levels, comparisons are possible for either public or private enterprises. Acknowledging the complexity of carrying out reliable assessment of work stress, a multiphase approach is emphasised: first an analysis or current data can be used to estimate the levels of turnover, down-sizing, outsourcing, extra hours, shift work, sickness absenteeism, changes of job titles, work accidents and work-related diseases. At a second step, on groups of workers selected because recognised at risk at the first phase and on control groups, the JCQ can be used to assess workers stress perception. Finally, when constrain conditions emerge,further investigations are required, including: intervention of experts in work organisation analysis, clinical psychological examinations of selected workers, to separate between work-related and personal psychological problems and health consequences.

  14. Work-related risk factors for lateral epicondylitis and other cause of elbow pain in the working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herquelot, Eleonore; Bodin, Julie; Roquelaure, Yves; Ha, Catherine; Leclerc, Annette; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Descatha, Alexis

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between work-related combined physical and psychosocial factors and elbow disorders (lateral epicondylitis and non-specific disorders without lateral epicondylitis) in the working population. A total of 3,710 workers (58% men) in a French region in 2002-2005 participated in physical examinations by occupational health physicians and assessed their personal factors and work exposure by self-administered questionnaire. Statistical associations between elbow disorders and risks factors were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. A total of 389 (10.5%) workers had elbow pain without lateral epicondylitis and 90 (2.4%) workers had lateral epicondylitis. Age, body mass index (>25), and low social support (only for men) were significant risks factors. Hard perceived physical exertion combined with elbow flexion/extension (>2 hr/day) and wrist bending (>2 hr/day) was a strong significant risk factor for elbow pain and epicondylitis: among men, adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa) = 2.6 (1.9-3.7) and ORa = 5.6 (2.8-11.3), respectively; among women, ORa = 1.4 (0.9-2.2) and ORa = 2.9 (1.3-6.5). This study emphasizes the strength of the associations between combined physical exertion and elbow movements and lateral epicondylitis. Certain observed differences in associations with lateral epicondylitis and elbow pain only indicate the need for additional longitudinal studies on different stages of elbow disorders and known risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Occupational health surveillance: a means to identify work-related risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froines, J R; Dellenbaugh, C A; Wegman, D H

    1986-09-01

    The lack of successful disease surveillance methods has resulted in few reliable estimates of workplace-related disease. Hazard surveillance--the ongoing assessment of chemical use and worker exposure to the chemicals--is presented as a way to supplement occupational disease surveillance. Existing OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Health) data systems are adapted to this function to characterize the distribution and type of hazardous industry in Los Angeles County. A new method is developed for ranking potentially hazardous industries in the county using actual exposure measurements from federal OSHA compliance inspections. The strengths of the different systems are presented along with considerations of industrial employment and types of specific chemical exposures. Applications for information from hazard surveillance are discussed in terms of intervention, monitoring exposure control, planning, research, and as a complement to disease surveillance.

  16. Relationships of work-related psychosocial risks, stress, individual factors and burnout – Questionnaire survey among emergency physicians and nurses

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    Ivana M. Ilić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosocial risks represent a great challenge for safety and health protection at work in Europe. The purpose of this study has been to determine the relationships of psychosocial risks arising from work, stress, personal characteristics and burnout among physicians and nurses in the Emergency Medical Service (EMS. Material and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey which contained the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI. Results: A total of 88 physicians and 80 nurses completed the survey. Physicians demonstrated higher emotional (mean (M ± standard deviation (SD = 74.57±16.85 and cognitive (M±SD = 75.95±13.74 demands as compared to nurses. Both groups had high sensory demands and responsibilities at work, in spite of the low degree of their autonomy. The meaning of work, commitment to the workplace, and insecurity at work were high for both groups. Among all participants, stressful behavior and reactions were within the limits of low values ( 60. Personal and patient-related burnout was high for both groups, where physicians were significantly affected by work-related burnout. The influence at work, degree of freedom at work, social support, sense of coherence, mental health, and problem-focused coping are negatively related to work-related burnout. Conclusions: Based on personal factors and coping styles, emergency physicians and nurses are representing a self-selective professional group that meets high work demands, great responsibility, strong commitment and insecurity at work. Burnout of physicians and nurses in the EMS tends to be ignored, although it has severe consequences on their mental and general health. Med Pr 2017;68(2:167–178

  17. Relationships of work-related psychosocial risks, stress, individual factors and burnout - Questionnaire survey among emergency physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivana M; Arandjelović, Mirjana Ž; Jovanović, Jovica M; Nešić, Milkica M

    2017-03-24

    Psychosocial risks represent a great challenge for safety and health protection at work in Europe. The purpose of this study has been to determine the relationships of psychosocial risks arising from work, stress, personal characteristics and burnout among physicians and nurses in the Emergency Medical Service (EMS). We performed a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey which contained the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). A total of 88 physicians and 80 nurses completed the survey. Physicians demonstrated higher emotional (mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD) = 74.57±16.85) and cognitive (M±SD = 75.95±13.74) demands as compared to nurses. Both groups had high sensory demands and responsibilities at work, in spite of the low degree of their autonomy. The meaning of work, commitment to the workplace, and insecurity at work were high for both groups. Among all participants, stressful behavior and reactions were within the limits of low values ( 60). Personal and patient-related burnout was high for both groups, where physicians were significantly affected by work-related burnout. The influence at work, degree of freedom at work, social support, sense of coherence, mental health, and problem-focused coping are negatively related to work-related burnout. Based on personal factors and coping styles, emergency physicians and nurses are representing a self-selective professional group that meets high work demands, great responsibility, strong commitment and insecurity at work. Burnout of physicians and nurses in the EMS tends to be ignored, although it has severe consequences on their mental and general health. Med Pr 2017;68(2):178-178. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  18. Ergonomic analysis for the assessment of the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorder in forestry operations

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    Raimondo Gallo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk to run into a Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD is very high when operating in the primary sector. As a matter of fact the professional illnesses related to the WMSD in Italy are increasing. Nowadays the assessment of the WMSD in the primary sector is performed mainly in the agricultural sector, considering different agronomical activities; for the forestry sector, only few documents reported an ergonomic evaluation. The lack of available information on this topic in the forestry sector, as well as the similarity with the agricultural sector, drives the interest to the assessment of the conditions that expose workers to WMSD risks in forestry operations. Four different assessment approaches were applied in this study. These tools permitted to classify which are the exposures and if there is the presence of WMSD risk for forest operators. The approaches are respectively the OCRA checklist and the RNLE equation, both recognized as ISO standards, as well as OWAS and REBA, recommended by ISO standards. The first approach focusses on the risk due to repetitive and stressed movements, while the second evaluates the risk of injures due to the manual movement of loads. Meanwhile OWAS and REBA detect the possibility of injures due to wrong postures during the work. These approaches were applied for the cutting operations with chainsaw. Since the evaluation requires high levels of attention and also because it was necessary to gain a good level of safety for the surveyor, a digital camera was used to film the operative activities. Then, the movies were analysed in office. Aim of the research is to analyse if it is possible to apply the approaches suggested by ISO standards in order to assess the most dangerous activities that, when not properly carried out, could be the cause of WMSD in forestry operations. The study showed that during the use of the chainsaw the index of risk of professional injures was overpassed several times

  19. [Risk assessment of work-related upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in thirty factories in the upholstered furniture industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, S; Carino, M; Di Leone, G; Trani, G; Colombini, Daniela; Occhipinti, E

    2008-01-01

    One of the most common procedures for risk assessment of upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in Italy is the OCRA synthetic index, which is recommended as the preferred method in the ISO standard 11228-3. The aim of the survey was to assess the risk of UL-WMSDs due to repetitive strain and movements in thirty factories of the sofa industry located in a large geographic area of southern Italy. The most characteristic working tasks of the manufacturing process were studied: filling preparation workers, leather-cutting operators, sewing and upholstery-assembly workers. The single tasks were carried out almost exclusively manually, with features of a handicraft approach. Data were collected through questionnaires and video tape recordings in each factory. The mean value of the OCRA index of every group of factories was calculated by weighting the values of the index of each single task group with the number of the workers. Figures obtained in the different factories showed values of the OCRA index ranging between 4 and 15. A 2,9 OCRA value was attributed to a low exposure group. Even though the work tasks analyzed were characterized by long duration of the manufacturing cycle (between 5 and 60 min), a particular but rigorous application of the OCRA procedures made it possible for a detailed risk assessment to be made for each of the working groups analysed.

  20. Risk factors associated with sick leave due to work-related injuries in Dutch farmers: an exploratory case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Frankena, K.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Nielen, M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Using data from an insurance company, the occurrence of sick leave among Dutch farmers due to work-related injuries, and the epidemiological risk factors were investigated. In this case-control study the cases had filed a sick leave claim for work-related injury from 19982001 and the controls had

  1. Work related neck and upper limb symptoms (RSI) : high risk occupations and risk factors in the Dutch working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    By means of the questionnaire Monitor on Stress and Physical Load 984 employers and 10813 employees were interviewed about the presence of risk factors for stress and musculoskeletal problems (RSI). The prevalence among the Dutch working population was 30.5%. Women appear to have a higher risk of

  2. Can work make you mentally ill? A systematic meta-review of work-related risk factors for common mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Modini, Matthew; Joyce, Sadhbh; Milligan-Saville, Josie S; Tan, Leona; Mykletun, Arnstein; Bryant, Richard A; Christensen, Helen; Mitchell, Philip B

    2017-03-01

    It has been suggested that certain types of work may increase the risk of common mental disorders, but the exact nature of the relationship has been contentious. The aim of this paper is to conduct the first comprehensive systematic meta-review of the evidence linking work to the development of common mental health problems, specifically depression, anxiety and/or work-related stress and to consider how the risk factors identified may relate to each other. MEDLINE, PsychInfo, Embase, the Cochrane Collaboration and grey literature databases were systematically searched for review articles that examined work-based risk factors for common mental health problems. All included reviews were subjected to a quality appraisal. 37 review studies were identified, of which 7 were at least moderate quality. 3 broad categories of work-related factors were identified to explain how work may contribute to the development of depression and/or anxiety: imbalanced job design, occupational uncertainty and lack of value and respect in the workplace. Within these broad categories, there was moderate level evidence from multiple prospective studies that high job demands, low job control, high effort-reward imbalance, low relational justice, low procedural justice, role stress, bullying and low social support in the workplace are associated with a greater risk of developing common mental health problems. While methodological limitations continue to preclude more definitive statements on causation between work and mental disorders, there is now a range of promising targets for individual and organisational-level interventions aimed at minimising mental health problems in the workplace. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Work-related stress as a cardiovascular risk factor in police officers: a systematic review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Capitanelli, I; Garbarino, S; Pira, E

    2018-05-01

    Several studies suggest that work-related stress in police officers may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A systematic review of studies is, however, still lacking. According to PRISMA statement, a systematic search of PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Cinahl and PsychInfo electronic databases was undertaken. Studies published in English between 1/1/2000 and 31/12/2016 were included. A studies quality assessment was performed using the Newcastle Ottawa scale (NOS). The preliminary search retrieved 752 records. After selection, 16 studies (total population 17,698) were retrieved. The average quality of studies was low. Exposure to stress in cross-sectional studies was inconstantly associated with hypertension, obesity, dyslipidaemia, and impaired glucose metabolism. In addition, there was a prevalence of positive studies showing an association between stress and cardiovascular disease morbidity. Studies of higher quality, such as longitudinal studies on large sample size, were more supportive of a significant positive association between stress and cardiovascular risk factors. Results were, however, often conflicting and inconsistent with regard to definitions and measurement of stress, features of individual study design, study conduct, and conclusions drawn. A sound precautionary principle would be to adopt worksite health promotion programs designed to implement stress management strategies in this category of workers.

  4. Are pushing and pulling work-related risk factors for upper extremity symptoms? A systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoozemans, M J M; Knelange, E B; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Veeger, H E J; Kuijer, P P F M

    2014-11-01

    Systematically review observational studies concerning the question whether workers that perform pushing/pulling activities have an increased risk for upper extremity symptoms as compared to workers that perform no pushing/pulling activities. A search in MEDLINE via PubMed and EMBASE was performed with work-related search terms combined with push/pushing/pull/pulling. Studies had to examine exposure to pushing/pulling in relation to upper extremity symptoms. Two authors performed the literature selection and assessment of the risk of bias in the studies independently. A best evidence synthesis was used to draw conclusions in terms of strong, moderate or conflicting/insufficient evidence. The search resulted in 4764 studies. Seven studies were included, with three of them of low risk of bias, in total including 8279 participants. A positive significant relationship with upper extremity symptoms was observed in all four prospective cohort studies with effect sizes varying between 1.5 and 4.9. Two out of the three remaining studies also reported a positive association with upper extremity symptoms. In addition, significant positive associations with neck/shoulder symptoms were found in two prospective cohort studies with effect sizes of 1.5 and 1.6, and with shoulder symptoms in one of two cross-sectional studies with an effect size of 2.1. There is strong evidence that pushing/pulling is related to upper extremity symptoms, specifically for shoulder symptoms. There is insufficient or conflicting evidence that pushing/pulling is related to (combinations of) upper arm, elbow, forearm, wrist or hand symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Association between Work-Related Stress and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hua; Sun, Nijing; Zhan, Libin; Lu, Xiaoguang; Chen, Tuo; Mao, Xinyong

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing rapidly around the world. Work-related stress is thought to be a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes; however, this association has not been widely studied, and the findings that have been reported are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to explore the association between work-related stress and risk for type 2 diabetes. A systematic literature search and manual search limited to articles published in English were performed to select the prospective cohort studies evaluated the association between work-related stress and risk for type 2 diabetes up to September 2014 from four electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science. A random-effects model was used to estimate the overall risk. No significant association was found between work-related stress and risk for type 2 diabetes based on meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies involving 214,086 participants and 5,511 cases (job demands: relative risk 0.94 [95% confidence interval 0.72-1.23]; decision latitude: relative risk 1.16 [0.85-1.58]; job strain: relative risk 1.12 [.0.95-1.32]). However, an association between work-related stress and risk for type 2 diabetes was observed in women (job strain: relative risk 1.22 [1.01-1.46]) (P = 0.04). A sensitivity analysis conducted by excluding one study in each turn yielded similar results. No publication bias was detected with a funnel plot despite the limited number of studies included in the analysis. The results of this meta-analysis did not confirm a direct association between work-related stress and risk for type 2 diabetes. In subgroup analyses we found job strain was a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in women.

  6. Identifying patient risks during hospitalization

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    Lucélia Ferreira Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the risks reported at a public institution andto know the main patient risks from the nursing staff point of view.Methods: A retrospective, descriptive and exploratory study. Thesurvey was developed at a hospital in the city of Taboão da Serra, SãoPaulo, Brazil. The study included all nurses working in care areas whoagreed to participate in the study. At the same time, sentinel eventsoccurring in the period from July 2006 to July 2007 were identified.Results: There were 440 sentinel events reported, and the main risksincluded patient falls, medication errors and pressure ulcers. Sixty-fivenurses were interviewed. They also reported patient falls, medicationerrors and pressure ulcers as the main risks. Conclusions: Riskassessment and implementation of effective preventive actions arenecessary to ensure patient’s safety. Involvement of a multidisciplinaryteam is one of the steps for a successful process.

  7. Socio-demographic and work-related risk factors for medium- and long-term sickness absence among Italian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Angelo; Costa, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Few studies investigated determinants of sickness absence in representative samples of the general population, none of which in Italy. Aim of this study was to assess influence and relative importance of socio-demographic and work-related characteristics on medium- and long-term sickness absence in a random sample of Italian workers. Approximately 60,000 workers participating in a national survey in 2007 were interviewed regarding sickness absence during the whole previous week, and on socio-demographics, employment characteristics and exposure to a set of physical and psychosocial hazards in the workplace. The association between sickness absence and potential determinants was estimated by multivariable logistic regression models stratified by gender. From the final multivariate models, in both genders sickness absence was statistically significantly associated with tenure employment, working in larger firms, exposure to risk of injury and to bullying or discrimination and, among employees, with shift work. In males, sickness absence was also associated with lower education, employment in the public administration and with exposure to noise or vibration, whereas among women also with manual work and ergonomic factors. In both genders, the attributable fraction for employment-related characteristics was higher than that for socio-demographic ones. The association with tenure or salaried jobs, and with employment in larger firms or in the public sector suggests that, besides illness, job security is the most important determinant of sickness absence, consistently with the results of previous studies. However, our results indicate that a reduction in exposure to workplace hazards may contribute to reduce absenteeism.

  8. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomic risk factors in special education teachers and teacher’s aides

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    Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs have become increasingly common among health-related professionals. Special education personnel who serve students with disabilities often experience physical strains; however, WMSDs have been overlooked in this population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the work-related ergonomics-associated factors in this population and to evaluate their correlation with the WMSDs prevalence. Methods A questionnaire with three domains, namely demographics, prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and ergonomic factors, designed by our research team was delivered to educators who work in special education schools. Results Approximately 86 % of the 388 special education school teachers and teacher’s aides in this study experienced musculoskeletal disorders. The lower back, shoulder, and wrist were the three most affected regions. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the participants’ background factors, namely >5.5 years of experience (odds ratio [OR] = 4.090, 95 % CI: 1.350-12.390, students with multiple disorders (OR = 2.412, 95 % CI: 1.100-5.287, and other work-related ergonomic factors (assistance in diaper changing and others duties, were strongly associated with the prevalence of WMSD. Nap habit (OR = 0.442, 95 % CI: 0.230-0.851 and having teaching partners in the same class (OR = 0.486, 95 % CI: 0.250-0.945 resulted in low possibility of acquiring WMSDs. The use of supportive devices was associated with a low WMSD prevalence. Conclusions The present study revealed an association between WMSDs and specific job features among teachers and teacher’s aides in special education schools. Future efforts should emphasize examining safe student-handling ergonomics, formulating policies regarding student-teacher ratio, incorporating mandatory break times at the workplaces, and promoting personal health for preventing work-related

  9. Work-related psychosocial stress as a risk factor for asthma, allergy, and respiratory infections in the Swedish workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson-Broberg, Roma; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association between work-related psychosocial stress and asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections. 532 randomly selected occupationally active people (272 men, 260 women; M age = 41 yr., SD = 13) in Sweden participated. Information on history of asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections was collected by a postal self-report questionnaire. Work stress was assessed based on the demands-control-support model. Current asthma and respiratory infections were associated with work-related psychosocial stress. When stratified for sex, these associations were only found in men. Associations between low control, low support, and current asthma were found among young participants ( 40 years) low supervisor support was associated with frequent respiratory infections.

  10. Is there a gender difference in the effect of work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors on musculoskeletal symptoms and related sickness absence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    Determine whether there are gender differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors on low back, neck, shoulder, or hand–arm symptoms and related sickness absence was the objective. Data of a prospective cohort with a follow-up period of three years were

  11. Epidemiology of work related neck and upper limb problems: Psychosocial and personal risk factors (Part I) and effective interventions from a bio behavioural perspective (Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and

  12. Work-related complaints of arm, neck and shoulder among computer office workers in an Asian country: prevalence and validation of a risk-factor questionnaire

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    Jayawardana Naveen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complaints of arm, neck and/or shoulders (CANS affects millions of computer office workers. However its prevalence and associated risk factors in developing countries are yet to be investigated, due to non availability of validated assessment tools for these countries. We evaluated the 1-year prevalence of CANS among computer office workers in Sri Lanka and tested the psychometric properties of a translated risk factor questionnaire. Methods Computer office workers at a telecommunication company in Sri Lankan received the Sinhalese version of the validated Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire (MUEQ. The 94 items in the questionnaire covers demographic characteristics, CANS and evaluates potential risk factors for CANS in six domains. Forward and backward translation of the MUEQ was done by two independent bi-lingual translators. One-year prevalence of CANS and psychometric properties of the Sinhalese questionnaire were investigated. Results Response rate was 97.7% (n = 440. Males were 42.7%. Mean age was 38.2 ± 9.5 years. One-year prevalence of CANS was 63.6% (mild-53.7% and severe-10%. The highest incidences were for neck (36.1% and shoulder (34.3% complaints. Two factors for each domain in the scale were identified by exploratory factor analysis (i.e. work-area, computer-position, incorrect body posture, bad-habits, skills and abilities, decision-making, time-management, work-overload, work-breaks, variation in work, work-environment and social-support. Calculation of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.43-0.82 and cross-validation provided evidence of reliability and lack of redundancy of items. Conclusion One year prevalence of CANS in the study population corresponds strongly with prevalence in developed countries. Translated version of the MUEQ has satisfactory psychometric properties for it to be used to assess work-related risk factors for development of CANS among Sri Lankan computer office workers.

  13. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and work-related risk factors among nurses in public hospitals in southern China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanhong; Han, Tieguang; Yin, Xiaoxv; Yang, Guoan; Zhuang, Runsen; Chen, Yuqi; Lu, Zuxun

    2014-11-27

    Poor mental health among nurses not only hinders professional performance but also affects the quality of healthcare provided. To improve the prevention and management of depression among nurses in mainland China, we investigated the association between working conditions and depressive symptoms using a cross-sectional study with a sample of 3474 nurses with more than 1 year of work experience in public hospitals in Shenzhen in southern China. Participants completed a structured questionnaire and a validated measure of depressive symptoms. Multivariable linear mixed models were used to identify work-related risk factors for depressive symptoms scores. An estimated 38% of nurses had depressive symptoms. More than 10% of the nurses often experienced workplace violence, and 64.22% encountered it occasionally. Depressive symptoms were associated with frequent workplace violence, long working hours (more than 45 hours per week), frequent night shifts (two or more per week), and specific departments. These findings indicate that interventions to minimize workload and improve nurse-patient relationships are essential to combat depressive symptoms among nurses. Additionally, in the prevention and management of depression among nurses, we must consider inter-department differences.

  14. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in veterinary echocardiographers: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kristin; King, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    Assess the relationship between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) and performing echocardiograms (ECHOS) in veterinarians with a cardiology focus. Prospective study. A survey was submitted to the ACVIM veterinary cardiology list-serve regarding pain associated with performing ECHOS (ECHOPain). Associations of demographic and work habit variables with ECHOPain and WRMSD were evaluated with logistic regression. Respondents included 198 of 487 (41%) members, evenly divided in gender. Most (69%) were 31-50 years old. Almost all (96%) currently perform ECHOS, usually 4-5 ECHOS/week (74%), every week except vacation (93%). ECHOPain was reported by 87 people (44%), which was classified as mild/occasional in 77%, frequent/moderate in 21%, and frequent/severe in 2%. Of those with ECHOPain, 52% reported ECHOS as the sole cause, 31% reported ECHOS aggravating pain from a pre-existing problem, and 17% reported unrelated pain. The most common areas of pain were neck (54%), shoulder (52%), wrist (42%), and back (35%) with 78% reporting pain at 2 or more sites. Pain impaired job performance in 36%, required sick leave or disability in 12%, required reduction in ECHOS/day in 36%, and affected lifestyle in 22%. Ten percent of people have been diagnosed with WRMSD, of which 21% have a permanent disability. Both gender and weeks/year predicted pain with ECHOS (χ(2)(3) = 11.38, P = 0.01). The odds ratio for females versus males with ECHOPain was 2.23. ECHOPain is common (44%) in veterinary echocardiographers, is significantly associated with gender, and affects job performance for over one-third of pain sufferers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Work-related COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Anne Kristin Møller; Aasen, Tor Olav Brøvig; Kongerud, Johny

    2014-11-01

    Work-related COPD occurs as a result of exposure to harmful particles and gases/fumes in the workplace, including among non-smokers. The objective of this article is to present more recent findings on the correlation between occupational exposure and COPD. In addition, we review diagnostic and prognostic considerations and the potential for prevention. We have undertaken literature searches in Medline and EMBASE for the period May 2009 - July 2014. Studies without any measurements of pulmonary function or references to occupational exposure were excluded. We have also included three prospective studies on pulmonary function and occupational exposure that were not indexed with the search terms used for obstructive pulmonary disease. Three population studies and eight studies that described a specific industry or sector were included. Recent studies detect an association between exposure and an increased risk of COPD in the construction industry, metallurgical smelting, cement production and the textile industry. In other respects, the findings from previous review studies are confirmed. Exposure to a number of organic and inorganic particles and fumes in the workplace may cause COPD even at prevailing levels of exposure. Doctors should inquire about such exposure in cases of suspected and established COPD and should have a low threshold for referral to occupational health assessment.

  16. [Manual lifting and manual transport: risk assessment and prevalence of work-related diseases in construction companies in Basilicata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, S; Battevi, N; Colafemmina, G; Di Leone, G; Satriani, G; Ragone, P; Occhipinti, E

    2013-01-01

    The Basilicata Regional Headquarters of the Italian Institute for Insurance against Occupational Accidents and Disease (INAIL) and the Basilicata association of small building enterprises (Edilcassa di Basilicata) promoted a research project to assess the risk of manual lifting and manual transport in construction enterprises in the Basilicata Region and estimate the prevalence of related diseases. Manual lifting risk assessment was performed by calculating the VLI of 204 working days in as many building workers. Manual transport risk assessment was carried out comparing the weights transported (on the 204 days tested) with the reference values of the "Snoock and Ciriello" tables. Manual Ifting risk was present on 195 of the 204 days, with an average value of VLI equal to 2.1 (min 0.4, max 8.5), with higher values in the restructuring sector (VLI average of 2.3, min 0.4, max 8.5), and no significant differences between the different tasks. Manual transport risk was present on 129 of the 204 days, with average values of 1.2 (min 0.2, max 3.3), with no significant differences between the different tasks analyzed For both risks additional factors were present that were not analyzed by the methods of assessment used (for manual lifting: 8.8% of the geometries in the critical area; for manual transport: 39% of transport on shoulders, 42.5% on a route with uneven surface and 31.9% on a sloping route), so it is likely that the actual risk is greater than that indicated by the synthetic indices of exposure. The medical questionnaire showed from the case histories that 148 out of 546 subjects were positive for the threshold forpain or discomfort in the lumbosacral spine area and 99 out of 546 subjects reported suffering from an already diagnosed herniated spinal disk. Only 18% of osteoarticular diseases was reported to the Insurance Institute, al though there was widespread awareness that the diseases in question might be related to work. Diseases of the spine were

  17. Barriers and Facilitators for the Use of a Medical Mobile App to Prevent Work-Related Risks in Pregnancy: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velu, Adeline V; van Beukering, Monique Dm; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Mol, Ben Wj; van der Post, Joris Am; Kok, Marjolein

    2017-08-22

    The number of women participating in the labor market in Europe has increased over the last several decades. At the same time, there is growing evidence that certain conditions of employment during pregnancy may have a negative influence on pregnancy outcomes. In order to better inform pregnant women, we aim to develop an app to help assess the health risk as a result of personal and work-related factors and provide personal advice for these women and their health care providers. The aim of this study was to compose a thematic overview of the perceived facilitators and barriers according to pregnant women, medical professionals, and employers for the use of a mobile app in obstetrical care to prevent occupational-related pregnancy complications. Two multidisciplinary focus group meetings with in total 14 participants were conducted with pregnant women, occupational physicians, general practitioners, midwives, obstetricians, and representatives of trade unions and employer organizations. Transcripts were analyzed by qualitatively coding procedures and constant comparative methods. We identified 24 potential facilitators and 12 potential barriers for the use of the app in 4 categories: content of the app, the app as a mean to provide information, ease of use, and external factors. The 3 main facilitators identified were the need for a good interaction between the app and the user, apps were viewed as a more practical source of information, and the information should be understandable, according to the existing guidelines, and well-dosed. The 2 main barriers for use were extensive battery and memory use of the smartphone and sending frequent push notifications. The results of this study are important considerations in the developing process of a medical app implementing a guideline or evidence-based information in practice. ©Adeline V Velu, Monique DM van Beukering, Frederieke G Schaafsma, Monique HW Frings-Dresen, Ben WJ Mol, Joris AM van der Post, Marjolein Kok

  18. Effectiveness of an Ergonomics Training Program on Decreasing Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Risk among Video Display Terminals Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Rasoulzadeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available loskeletaldisorders (WMSDs among the video display terminals (VDTs users, Prevention ofthese disorders among this population is a challenge for many workplaces today. ErgonomicallyImproving of VDT workstations may be an effective and applicable way to decrease the risk ofWMSDs. This study evaluated the effect of an ergonomics-training program on the risk ofWMSDs among VDT users.Methods: This study was conducted among a large group of computer users in SAPCO industrialcompany, Tehran, Iran (84 persons with 29.85±11.2 years of age and with 6.98±2.54 years ofexperience. An active ergonomics-training program was designed and implemented during 14days to empower the VDT users and involve them in improving their workstations. The directobservational RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment method was used in pre and postinterventionstages to evaluate the risk of WMSDs among participants.Results: The RULA final scores showed that 18.8 % of VDT users were at action level 2, 63.5%at action level 3 and 17.6% at action level 4 before any intervention. In addition, 8.2% of userswere at action level 1, 44.7% at action level 2, 42.4% at action level 3 and 4.7% at action level 4 atthe post-intervention stage. The results of Wilcoxon statistical test indicated that RULA scoresere decreased significantly after interventions (P < 0.05 and consequently, decreased risk ofWMSDs.Conclusion: Active ergonomics training programs can be used effectively to improve the VDTworkstations and decrease the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among VDT users.

  19. Job satisfaction among aircraft baggage handlers and their exposure to risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulduk, Sıdıka; Bulduk, Emre Özgür; Güler, Alpaslan

    2017-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) cause pain and economic loss. Risk of WMSDs is affected by job satisfaction as a psychosocial factor. The aim of this study was to investigate job satisfaction among aircraft baggage handlers and their exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder risk factors. Two data collection tools addressing risk levels (Quick Exposure Check) and psychosocial factors (Job Satisfaction Survey) were answered by 399 male baggage handlers employed in Esenboga International Airport in Ankara, Turkey. Risk exposure scores for WMSDs among baggage handlers were 27±3.4 (high) for the back (static), 42±7.2 (very high) for the back (moving), 42±6.1 (very high) for the shoulder/arm, 44±1.9 (very high) for the wrist/hand, and 13±5.1(high) for the neck. The average job satisfaction levels of the majority was either low (4.2250±1.10184) or moderate (3.1019±0.93352). In addition, low and moderate job satisfaction was significantly associated with higher WMSD risk levels among baggage handlers. Increased WMSD risk levels among baggage handlers are associated with low and moderate job satisfaction, suggesting that it is mandatory to perform intervention methods in this occupation.

  20. NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

  1. Work-related maternal risk factors and the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia during pregnancy. The Generation R Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap Jan Nugteren

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between physically demanding work and occupational exposure to chemicals and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy within a large birth cohort study, the Generation R Study. METHODS: Associations between occupational characteristics and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy were studied in 4465 pregnant woman participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in the Netherlands (2002-2006. Mothers who filled out a questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (response 77% of enrolment, were included if they conducted paid employment, had a spontaneously conceived singleton live born pregnancy, and did not suffer from pre-existing hypertension (n = 4465. Questions on physical demanding work were obtained from the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and concerned questions on manually handling loads of 25 kg or more, long periods of standing or walking, night shifts, and working hours. To assess occupational exposure to chemicals, job titles and task descriptions were linked to a job-exposure-matrix (JEM, an expert judgment on exposure to chemicals at the workplace. Information on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy was obtained from medical records. RESULTS: We observed no consistent associations between any of the work related risk factors, such as long periods of standing or walking, heavy lifting, night shifts, and working hours, nor exposure to chemicals with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: This prospective birth cohort study suggests that there is no association of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy with physically demanding work or exposure to chemicals. However, the low prevalence of PIH and PE, combined with the low prevalence of occupational risk factors limit the power for inference and larger studies are needed to corroborate or refute these findings.

  2. Work-related stress, inability to relax after work and risk of adult asthma: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, A; Gadinger, M C; Bosch, J A; Stürmer, T; Amelang, M

    2010-10-01

    There is an extensive literature linking stressful work conditions to adverse health outcomes. Notwithstanding, the relationship with asthma has not been examined, although various other measures of psychological stress have been associated with asthma. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relation between work stress and asthma prevalence and incidence. We used data from a population-based cohort study (n = 5114 at baseline in 1992-1995 and n = 4010 at follow-up in 2002/2003). Asthma was measured by self-reports. Two scales that assessed psychologically adverse work conditions were extracted from a list of work-condition items by factor analysis (these scales were termed 'work stress' and 'inability to relax after work'). For each scale, the derived score was employed both as continuous z-score and as categorized variable in analyses. Associations with asthma were estimated by prevalence ratios (PRs) and risk ratios (RRs) using Poisson regression with a log-link function adjusting for demographics, health-related lifestyles, body mass index and family history of asthma. Analyses were restricted to those in employment (n = 3341). Work stress and inability to relax z-scores were positively associated with asthma prevalence (PR = 1.15, 95%CI = 0.97, 1.36 and PR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.12, 1.83, respectively). Prospective analyses using z-scores showed that for each 1 standard deviation increase in work stress and inability to relax, the risk of asthma increased by approximately 40% (RR for work stress = 1.46, 95%CI = 1.06, 2.00; RR for inability to relax = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.01, 1.91). Similar patterns of associations were observed in analyses of categorized exposures. This is the first study to show a cross-sectional and longitudinal association of work stress with asthma.

  3. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.

  4. Identifying high-risk medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sædder, Eva; Brock, Birgitte; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2014-01-01

    salicylic acid, and beta-blockers; 30 drugs or drug classes caused 82 % of all serious MEs. The top ten drugs involved in fatal events accounted for 73 % of all drugs identified. CONCLUSION: Increasing focus on seven drugs/drug classes can potentially reduce hospitalizations, extended hospitalizations...

  5. Risk factors for frequent work-related burn and cut injuries and low back pain among commercial kitchen workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Takashi; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Haruyama, Yasuo; Ito, Akiyoshi; Muto, Shigeki; Haratani, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated risk factors for frequent work-related burn and cut injuries and low back pain (LBP) among kitchen workers including personal, work-related and environmental factors. Subjects were 991 kitchen workers in 103 schools, 17 hospitals and nursing homes, and 6 restaurants in central Japan. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between frequent injuries/LBP and risk factors. The effective response rate was 75.1% (n=744), the mean age was 40.7 (SD 11.7) and 77.2% were female. Burn injury was associated with a smaller kitchen (OR 1.94; 95%CI, 1.13-3.33), and gas kitchens rather than electric kitchens (OR 2.30; 95%CI, 1.17-4.52). LBP was associated with female gender (OR 2.46; 95%CI, 1.37-4.43), high body height (>160 cm) (OR 2.03; 95%CI, 1.22-3.36), and large number of meals produced per person (≥ 150 meals) (OR 1.83; 95%CI, 1.12-3.00). The results of this study suggest that securing adequate work space and introducing electric kitchen systems may reduce the risk to kitchen workers, as well as the importance of adequate height of cooking equipment and selecting an appropriate volume of meals to produce per person to prevent LBP in kitchen workers.

  6. Topologia do risco de acidentes do trabalho em Piracicaba, SP Spatial distribution of risks for work-related injuries in a city of Southeastern e Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Thieme Oikawa Zangirolani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial do risco de acidente do trabalho controlado por variáveis nutricionais e outras co-variáveis. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle espacial de base hospitalar, tendo como variável de interesse a localização espacial dos acidentes do trabalho. Foram amostrados 794 trabalhadores, no período de maio a outubro de 2004. Os critérios de inclusão para casos (N=263 foram: ser trabalhador acidentado do trabalho, morador de Piracicaba, com idade entre 15 e 60 anos, e atendido em centro de ortopedia e traumatologia. Os controles (N=531 tiveram o mesmo critério de idade e residência na cidade, exceto que o acidente não era do trabalho, tendo sido considerandos também trabalhadores acompanhantes dos casos. A distribuição espacial da estimativa baseou-se no ajuste do modelo aditivo generalizado, tendo as coordenadas geográficas dos casos e controles como componente espacial não linear e as demais co-variáveis como componente linear. RESULTADOS: A variação da estimativa do risco espacial de acidentes do trabalho, controlada por sexo (OR=1,87; pOBJECTIVE: To assess spatial distribution of risks for work-related injuries controlled for nutritional variables and other covariables. METHODS: Hospital-based spatial case-control study with work-related injuries spatial distribution as the main variable of interest. A total of 794 workers were selected between May and October 2004. Inclusion criteria for cases (N=263 were: worker with work-related injury; living in Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil; age between 15 and 60 years old; and cared at an orthopedics and trauma center. Controls (N=531 met the same criteria for age and residence, but had non-work-related injuries and workers accompanying cases were included as well. Spatial distribution was estimated by adjusting a generalized additive model with geographical coordinates of cases and controls as spatial non-linear component and the remaining covariables

  7. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems amongst nurses at a university hospital in Estonia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimann, Tiina; Merisalu, Eda

    2015-07-01

    Rapid changes in the Estonian health care system have placed extra pressure on the nursing profession, but the potential impacts of psychosocial changes have not been investigated. We aimed to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst nurses at the university hospital in Estonia. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital (TUH). Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms and burnout) were measured using version two of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's r correlation with sequential Bonferroni correction were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the full-time working population of nurses). The highest mean scores recorded for the positive work-related psychosocial factors studied were meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships and mutual trust between employees. The highest scores for the negative factors studied were the demands for hiding emotions, work pace, cognitive and emotional demands. Stress and burnout showed the highest mean scores amongst the MHPs. Quantitative and emotional demands were positively related to all of the studied MHPs, while work pace and role conflicts had a positive correlation with stress and burnout. All of the studied negative psychosocial factors were significantly correlated with burnout. work-related psychosocial risk factors such as quantitative demands work load, emotional demands, work pace and role conflicts, had significant positive relationships with MHPS in nurses in Estonia, and may contribute to high levels of stress as well as burnout amongst nurses: . © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. [Risk assessment work-related stress. pilot study on perceived stress, quality of health and work problems in a sample of workers of judicial offices in rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berivi, Sandra; Grassi, Antonio; Russello, Carla; Palummieri, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    In 2008, it was introduced by the Legislature legislation which provided the inclusion of Article 28, paragraph 1 of Legislative Decree. N. 81/2008, which stipulates for businesses and public authorities a duty to assess, among a variety of risks that could threaten the safety and health of workers (chemical, biological risk, etc) and also the work-related stress. The implementation of this decree is, therefore, specified as "work-related stress" as one of the subjects of mandatory assessment risks. The decree, then entrusted to the Permanent Consultative Commission for health and safety at work the task to "prepare the necessary information for the risk assessment of work-related stress", subsequently issued on 17/11/2010 in the form of a "methodological path which represents the minimum level of implementation of the obligation". In light of this regulatory framework, we established our pilot study, with the objective of analyzing a growing occupational discomfort. This objective has been diffused and palpable, but very difficult to define, in a sample of employees of the Judiciary Lazio Offices. The study was commissioned by Law Committee of Guarantee of Equal Opportunity Enhancement of Welfare Work and those against Discrimination (CUG) of the Judicial Offices Romans of the Court of Appeal of Rome also contributed to its realization. The data collected from the administration of two standardized questionnaires was analyzed (Questionnaire-gauge instrument INAIL and the SF-12 v1). More evidently in this pilot study, there was a serious problem in the organizational dimension, in specific, in Managerial Support. Just as it appears, the study sample is perceived "less healthy", both physically and mentally, than the Italian normative sample. Although the sample is only a part of the study population, 26% of workers of the Judicial Offices Romans, the data obtained shows however, from both a quantitative and qualitative view point, a significant occupational stress

  9. Occupational exposures associated with work-related asthma and work-related wheezing among U.S. workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Delclos, George L; Whitehead, Lawrence W; Tortolero, Susan R; Lee, Eun S

    2003-10-01

    National estimates of occupational asthma (OA) in the United States are sparse. Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994, we analyzed associations between occupation and work-related asthma and work-related wheezing among U.S. workers. This study identified several occupations that were at risk of developing work-related asthma and/or wheezing, with cleaners and equipment cleaners showing the highest risks. Other major occupations identified were farm and agriculture; entertainment; protective services; construction; mechanics and repairers; textile; fabricators and assemblers; other transportation and material moving occupations; freight, stock, and material movers; and motor vehicle operators. The population attributable risks for work-related asthma and work-related wheezing were 26% and 27%, respectively. This study adds evidence to the literature that identifies work-related asthma as an important public health problem. Several occupations are targeted for additional evaluation and study. Of particular interest are cleaners, which are being increasingly reported as a risk group for asthma. Future intervention strategies need to be developed for effective control and prevention of asthma in the workplace. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Work related complaints of neck, shoulder and arm among computer office workers: a cross-sectional evaluation of prevalence and risk factors in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayawardana Naveen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complaints of arms, neck and shoulders (CANS is common among computer office workers. We evaluated an aetiological model with physical/psychosocial risk-factors. Methods We invited 2,500 computer office workers for the study. Data on prevalence and risk-factors of CANS were collected by validated Maastricht-Upper-extremity-Questionnaire. Workstations were evaluated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA Visual-Display-Terminal workstation-checklist. Participants' knowledge and awareness was evaluated by a set of expert-validated questions. A binary logistic regression analysis investigated relationships/correlations between risk-factors and symptoms. Results Sample size was 2,210. Mean age 30.8 ± 8.1 years, 50.8% were males. The 1-year prevalence of CANS was 56.9%, commonest region of complaint was forearm/hand (42.6%, followed by neck (36.7% and shoulder/arm (32.0%. In those with CANS, 22.7% had taken treatment from a health care professional, only in 1.1% seeking medical advice an occupation-related injury had been suspected/diagnosed. In addition 9.3% reported CANS-related absenteeism from work, while 15.4% reported CANS causing disruption of normal activities. A majority of evaluated workstations in all participants (88.4%, and in those with CANS (91.9% had OSHA non-compliant workstations. In the binary logistic regression analyses female gender, daily computer usage, incorrect body posture, bad work-habits, work overload, poor social support and poor ergonomic knowledge were associated with CANS and its' severity In a multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender and duration of occupation, incorrect body posture, bad work-habits and daily computer usage were significant independent predictors of CANS Conclusions The prevalence of work-related CANS among computer office workers in Sri Lanka, a developing, South Asian country is high and comparable to prevalence in developed countries

  11. Work related complaints of neck, shoulder and arm among computer office workers: a cross-sectional evaluation of prevalence and risk factors in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Perera, Yashasvi S; Lamabadusuriya, Dilusha A; Kulatunga, Supun; Jayawardana, Naveen; Rajapakse, Senaka; Katulanda, Prasad

    2011-08-04

    Complaints of arms, neck and shoulders (CANS) is common among computer office workers. We evaluated an aetiological model with physical/psychosocial risk-factors. We invited 2,500 computer office workers for the study. Data on prevalence and risk-factors of CANS were collected by validated Maastricht-Upper-extremity-Questionnaire. Workstations were evaluated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Visual-Display-Terminal workstation-checklist. Participants' knowledge and awareness was evaluated by a set of expert-validated questions. A binary logistic regression analysis investigated relationships/correlations between risk-factors and symptoms. Sample size was 2,210. Mean age 30.8 ± 8.1 years, 50.8% were males. The 1-year prevalence of CANS was 56.9%, commonest region of complaint was forearm/hand (42.6%), followed by neck (36.7%) and shoulder/arm (32.0%). In those with CANS, 22.7% had taken treatment from a health care professional, only in 1.1% seeking medical advice an occupation-related injury had been suspected/diagnosed. In addition 9.3% reported CANS-related absenteeism from work, while 15.4% reported CANS causing disruption of normal activities. A majority of evaluated workstations in all participants (88.4%,) and in those with CANS (91.9%) had OSHA non-compliant workstations. In the binary logistic regression analyses female gender, daily computer usage, incorrect body posture, bad work-habits, work overload, poor social support and poor ergonomic knowledge were associated with CANS and its' severity In a multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender and duration of occupation, incorrect body posture, bad work-habits and daily computer usage were significant independent predictors of CANS. The prevalence of work-related CANS among computer office workers in Sri Lanka, a developing, South Asian country is high and comparable to prevalence in developed countries. Work-related physical factors, psychosocial factors and

  12. Comparing two methods to record maximal voluntary contractions and different electrode positions in recordings of forearm extensor muscle activity: Refining risk assessments for work-related wrist disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Nordander, Catarina; Granqvist, Lothy; Forsman, Mikael; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2018-01-01

    Wrist disorders are common in force demanding industrial repetitive work. Visual assessment of force demands have a low reliability, instead surface electromyography (EMG) may be used as part of a risk assessment for work-related wrist disorders. For normalization of EMG recordings, a power grip (hand grip) is often used as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the forearm extensor muscles. However, the test-retest reproducibility is poor and EMG amplitudes exceeding 100% have occasionally been recorded during work. An alternative MVC is resisted wrist extension, which may be more reliable. To compare hand grip and resisted wrist extension MVCs, in terms of amplitude and reproducibility, and to examine the effect of electrode positioning. Twelve subjects participated. EMG from right forearm extensors, from four electrode pairs, was recorded during MVCs, on three separate occasions. The group mean EMG amplitudes for resisted wrist extension were 1.2-1.7 times greater than those for hand grip. Resisted wrist extension showed better reproducibility than hand grip. The results indicate that the use of resisted wrist extension is a more accurate measurement of maximal effort of wrist extensor contractions than using hand grip and should increase the precision in EMG recordings from forearm extensor muscles, which in turn will increase the quality of risk assessments that are based on these.

  13. Work-related critical incidents in hospital-based health care providers and the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jacoba; Lok, Anja; van 't Verlaat, Ellen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Smit, Bert J.

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed existing data on the impact of work-related critical incidents in hospital-based health care professionals. Work-related critical incidents may induce post-traumatic stress symptoms or even post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression and may negatively

  14. Risk factors for work-related stress and subjective hardship in health-care staff in nursing homes for the elderly: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier, Carole; Vohito, Michel; Fort, Emmanuel; Sellier, Brigitte; Agard, Jean Pierre; Fontana, Luc; Charbotel, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore potential risk factors for work-related stress by, detailing working conditions and subjective hardship according to occupational category in health-care staff working with elderly patients. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 105 nursing homes for the elderly in France. Data on nursing home working conditions were collected by occupational physicians. The study population was limited to those in direct contact with the elderly, who were divided into 3 occupational groups defined by qualifications and tasks: housekeepers (HKs), nursing assistants (NAs) and nurses (Ns). Employees answered a questionnaire on their perceived working conditions and vocational training courses. Psychosocial stress was assessed with the Siegrist questionnaire. The subjects included 706 HKs, 1,565 NAs and 378 Ns, and the findings showed confusion of tasks and responsibilities in the study population. Verbal abuse by residents was reported by 60.9% of HKs (versus 76.2% of NAs and 76.7% of Ns, pstress related to insufficient ability, nursing home workers should be encouraged to attend job training courses, which should cover knowledge of the specific care needs of elderly patients and of the authority/responsibility required to do their job.

  15. [Upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in a large factory of the upholstered furniture industry: risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, S; Castoro, V; Iacobellis, M; Loizzo, N; Monopoli, L

    2008-01-01

    The industrial production of upholstered furniture exposes workers to significant risk of occupational disorders due to ergonomics-related problems, such as repetitive strain and movements of the upper limb, manual load lifting, prolonged static postures. This paper describes the main measures taken by the biggest company in the "sofa sector" in southern Italy in order to solve such problems in the years 1996-2004. the classic instruments of ergonomics were used such as risk assessment, medical surveillance, training and information programmes, technological reorganization of the manufacturing process and of single working tasks. The accident rate (number of accidents per million working hours) which showed an increasing trend in the previous years, rose from a value of 31 in 1996 to 51 in the years 1999-2000 (with a percentage of accidents related to load lifting in the range 25-35%). At the same time the incidence rate of work-related upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in the population of workers (which had increased in the meantime from 2500 to 3500 employees) reached nearly 5% in 2001, with peaks of 8-9% in the work tasks with higher exposure. Accident rates progressively fell in the following three years until a value of 20 was reached in 2004 and 2005, while the mean incidence rate of WMSDs reached a value of nearly 1%. The data need to be compared with the trends in the other companies of the sector in the same period, with an average incidence rate of WMSDs around 2% and a generally increasing trend. Ergonomic interventions not only concur in the management and control of negative events for workers health but also in achieving advantages in terms of lower costs and greater productivity.

  16. Work-related critical incidents in hospital-based health care providers and the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jacoba; Lok, Anja; Van't Verlaat, Ellen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Bakker, Arnold B; Smit, Bert J

    2011-07-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed existing data on the impact of work-related critical incidents in hospital-based health care professionals. Work-related critical incidents may induce post-traumatic stress symptoms or even post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression and may negatively affect health care practitioners' behaviors toward patients. Nurses and doctors often cope by working part time or switching jobs. Hospital administrators and health care practitioners themselves may underestimate the effects of work-related critical incidents. Relevant online databases were searched for original research published from inception to 2009 and manual searches of the Journal of Traumatic Stress, reference lists, and the European Traumatic Stress Research Database were conducted. Two researchers independently decided on inclusion and study quality. Effect sizes were estimated using standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Consistency was evaluated, using the I(2)-statistic. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model. Eleven studies, which included 3866 participants, evaluated the relationship between work-related critical incidents and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Six of these studies, which included 1695 participants, also reported on the relationship between work-related critical incidents and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Heterogeneity among studies was high and could not be accounted for by study quality, character of the incident, or timing of data collection. Pooled effect sizes for the impact of work-related critical incidents on post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression were small to medium. Remarkably, the effect was more pronounced in the longer than in the shorter term. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that work-related critical incidents are positively related to post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression in hospital-based health care professionals

  17. Independent effects of sleep duration and body mass index on the risk of a work-related injury: evidence from the US National Health Interview Survey (2004-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, David A; Wirtz, Anna; Willetts, Joanna L; Folkard, Simon

    2012-06-01

    Fatigue has been linked to adverse safety outcomes, and poor quality or decreased sleep has been associated with obesity (higher body mass index, BMI). Additionally, higher BMI is related to an increased risk for injury; however, it is unclear whether BMI modifies the effect of short sleep or has an independent effect on work-related injury risk. To answer this question, the authors examined the risk of a work-related injury as a function of total daily sleep time and BMI using the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is an in-person household survey using a multistage, stratified, clustered sample design representing the US civilian population. Data were pooled for the 7-yr survey period from 2004 to 2010 for 101 891 "employed" adult subjects (51.7%; 41.1 ± yrs of age [mean ± SEM]) with data on both sleep and BMI. Weighted annualized work-related injury rates were estimated across a priori defined categories of BMI: healthy weight (BMI: work-related injury. The initial model examined the interaction among daily sleep duration and BMI, controlling for weekly working hours, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, type of pay, industry, and occupation. No significant interaction was found between usual daily sleep duration and BMI (p = .72); thus, the interaction term of the final logistic model included these two variables as independent predictors of injury, along with the aforementioned covariates. Statistically significant covariates (p ≤ .05) included age, sex, weekly work hours, occupation, and if the worker was paid hourly. The lowest categories of usual sleep duration (7-8 h did not significantly elevate risk. The adjusted injury risk odds ratio (OR) for a worker with a usual daily sleep of work-related injury risk for reduced sleep regardless of worker's body mass. However, being an overweight worker also increases work-injury risk regardless of usual daily sleep duration. The independent additive risk of these factors on work-related

  18. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  19. Work-related voice disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.

  20. Communicating identifiability risks to biobank donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, T. J.; Gjerris, Mickey; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-01

    Recent highly publicized privacy breaches in healthcare and genomics research have led many to question whether current standards of data protection are adequate. Improvements in de-identification techniques, combined with pervasive data sharing, have increased the likelihood that external parties...... concerns can be incorporated into either a detailed or a simplified method of communicating risks during the consent process....

  1. Work-related stress in healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, G; Ricci, S; Fidanza, L; Sacco, C; De Cesare, D P; Ricci, P; Pimpinella, B; Giubilati, R; Suppi, A; Anzelmo, V; Tomei, F; Casale, T; Rosati, M V

    2016-01-01

    In the assessment of work-related stress it is crucial to find the factors that generate and increase it in order to identify categories of individuals at risk, to plan interventions for prevention, elimination or reduction of risk. The aim of the study is to assess the subjective stress in 68 workers of a large Italian company dealing with human health, through the use of a questionnaire-indicating tool, elaborated by the Italian National Institute for insurance against accidents at work (INAIL) and developed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). We studied a final sample of 68 individuals (34 drivers/rescuers and 34 video display unit (VDU) operators). The questionnaire consists of 35 items (divided into six areas) with five possible answers each, that cover working conditions considered potential causes of stress. The drivers/rescuers had a better performance than the VDU operators, especially in the areas "demand", "relationships" and "role". We compared men and women in the two groups, finding that, in VDU operators, women had a better performance than men in all areas, except "role" and "changes", in which the overall scores were the same in men and women. In the drivers/rescuers women showed more critical scores in the items "relationships" and "change". The results show that: the questionnaire-indicating tool is useful, with a demonstrated effectiveness for the occupational physician during the visits and proven validity; additional future efforts should focus on understanding the psycho-social, organizational and individual problems related to stress and the consequent implementation of preventive measures.

  2. [The relationship of work-related psychosocial risk factors with depressive symptoms among Hungarian workers: preliminary results of the Hungarian Work Stress Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Katalin; Nistor, Anikó; Ádám, Szilvia; Szabó, Anita; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Stauder, Adrienne

    2015-03-01

    Research has shown that psychosocial stress acts as a risk factor for mental disorders. The present study aims at processing the preliminary results of the Hungarian Survey of Work Stress, concerning the relationship between depressive symptoms and work stress. Cross-sectional survey among Hungarian workers was carried out (n = 1058, 27.5% man, 72.5% woman, age 37.2 years, SD = 11 years). Psychosocial factors were measured using the COPSOQ II questionnaire, while BDI-9 was used for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was carried out applying Spearman's correlation and logistic regression. A quarter of the workers reported moderate or severe symptoms of depression (BDI≥19). The study confirmed the association between depressive symptoms and work-family conflict (OR = 2.21, CI: 1.82-2.68), possibilities for development (OR = 0.76, CI: 0.59-0.97) meaning of work (OR = 0.69, CI: 0.59-0.89) and commitment (OR = 0.60, CI: 0.47-0.78). The results point toward the need of such organizational measures that allow for the reduction of psychosocial stress.

  3. [Work related stress: from knowledge to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2009-01-01

    Work-related stress is a well documented condition, resulting from a distorted interaction between working conditions and individual coping resources, that may have a negative impact on workers' health and well-being, as well as nd on performance efficiency and productivity: hence high costs for workers companies and society. It is a complex multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon, whose assessment needs a multidisciplinary approach (work management, psychology, physiology, ergonomics, sociology, medicine). That is why risk assessment and management require a careful analysis of work organization (i.e. working time, work load, autonomy, environment, human relations) and individual aspects (i.e. demography, personality, attitudes, motivation, coping strategies). The consequent actions, targeted to the individuals, groups and organizations, should be aimed at preventing or reducing work-related stress, on the one hand, and supporting and protecting the worker, on the other, considering cost/effectiveness and risk/benefit ratios. This can be achieveds to be done with the participation and close collaboration of all the social actors involved (employers, employees, technicians, work organization and occupational health experts), according to the European Framework Agreement on Work-related Stress, signed on October 2004 and included into the Italian Law Decree 81/2008.

  4. Comparing complete and partial classification for identifying customers at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Brijs, T.; Swinnen, S.P.; Vanhoof, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates complete versus partial classification for the problem of identifying customers at risk. We define customers at risk as customers reporting overall satisfaction, but these customers also possess characteristics that are strongly associated with dissatisfied customers. This

  5. [Epidemiology of work-related eye injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghal-Mokni, Imen; Nacef, Leila; Kaoueche, Mourad; Letaief, Imen; Bouguila, Hedi; Jeddi, Amel; Ayed, Saida

    2007-07-01

    Occupational injury represents 7,7 at 69,9% of the total ocular traumatisms. They can be a major source of visuel loss and blindness. The aim is to study the epidemiology of work-related ocular injuries: objects frequencies,works most exposed. We performed a prospective study that interest 78 patients having a work-related ocular traumatism during a 4 months period. They were admitted at ocular emergeney All patients underwent an ophtalmologic examination completed with orbital radiography and echography. A medical and/or chirurgical appropriate treatment was institued. Occupationnal injury frequency was 9% of the whole ocular traumatisms in the same period. The mean age was 31 years. 55% of cases were under 30 years. 91% were male. Most exposed works were industrial and mecanical sectors In 70,5% of cases work-related eye injuries were caused by projectile objects. Most common lesion was corneal superficial foreign body (58%). Open globe injury was noted in 8%. 95% of patients had no eye protection at the time of the accident. 13% were blind or unilateral partially sighted (according to the OMS classification). The authors discussed the importance and different prevention strategies to prevent the risk of blindness and socio-economical cost of occupationnal accidents. There is a need for systematic periodic sensibilization to reduce these accidents and blindness.

  6. Suggestion of an inverse relationship between perception of occupational risks and work-related injuries Sugestão de uma associação inversa entre percepção de riscos ocupacionais e acidentes do trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Worker perception of risk influences worker behavior and consequently exposure to risks. However, an inverse relationship between perception of occupational risks and work-related injuries has not yet been clearly established. A matched case-control was performed aiming to investigate possible differences in perception of occupational risks between workers who had suffered occupational injuries and those who had not. Cases were defined as all 93 workers from a large metallurgical factory in southeastern Brazil, who had suffered occupational injuries during the year 1996. Controls were 372 workers who had not suffered occupational injuries, matched on the basis of the factory sector and jobs performed. Assessment of occupational risk perception was performed by asking the workers to fill out a questionnaire consisting of questions on specific risks related to problems in work relations, work per se, and mode of production. The findings suggest that the degree of perception that workers with occupational injuries have of some occupational risks is lower than that of their non-injured coworkers.A percepção que o trabalhador tem dos riscos ocupacionais a que está exposto, influencia seu comportamento e sua própria exposição a riscos. Entretanto, uma relação inversa entre percepção de riscos ocupacionais e acidentes do trabalho, embora especulada, não foi ainda claramente estabelecida. Este é um estudo caso-controle objetivando investigar a existência de diferenças na percepção de riscos ocupacionais entre trabalhadores acidentados e não acidentados. Os casos foram todos os 93 trabalhadores de uma grande metalúrgica de Botucatu, que sofreram acidentes do trabalho no ano de 1996. Para cada caso foram aleatoriamente alocados quatro controles não acidentados, emparelhados segundo a seção de trabalho e a função do trabalhador acidentado na semana do acidente. A mensuração da percepção de riscos ocupacionais de casos e controles

  7. Identifying risk event in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, H. C.; Vanany, I.; Ciptomulyono, U.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify risk issues in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain from the farm until to the “plate”. The critical points for food safety in physical fresh meat product flow are also identified. The paper employed one case study in the Indonesian fresh meat company by conducting observations and in-depth three stages of interviews. At the first interview, the players, process, and activities in the fresh meat industry were identified. In the second interview, critical points for food safety were recognized. The risk events in each player and process were identified in the last interview. The research will be conducted in three stages, but this article focuses on risk identification process (first stage) only. The second stage is measuring risk and the third stage focuses on determining the value of risk priority. The results showed that there were four players in the fresh meat supply chain: livestock (source), slaughter (make), distributor and retail (deliver). Each player has different activities and identified 16 risk events in the fresh meat supply chain. Some of the strategies that can be used to reduce the occurrence of such risks include improving the ability of laborers on food safety systems, improving cutting equipment and distribution processes

  8. Original Research Identifying patients at high risk for obstructive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determine the factors associated with high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea and use it to identify patients at risk for the condition in ... mainstay of management is CPAP in addition to behavioral ..... the present study has some potential limitations which ... consequences of obstructive sleep apnea and short sleep duration.

  9. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  10. An investigation into work related stressors on diagnostic radiographers in a local district hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrier, William; Harvey, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research on the effects of work related stress amongst healthcare professions and the NHS has been undertaken. However, very little is known about the incidence of stress amongst UK radiographers although the few studies which have been conducted indicate that the prevalence and impact of stress on radiographers are considerable. The purpose of this study was to examine work related stressors which affect diagnostic radiographers in the imaging department of a local district hospital. The study utilised the HSE Indicator and Analysis Tools for Work Related Stress. These tools are based upon the HSE Management Standards for Work Related Stress which identifies six areas that represent potential stress hazards if managed inadequately. Two free response questions and a comments box were appended to the Indicator Tool to gain further insights into the radiographers' experiences of work related stress. The results of the study indicated that the hazards associated with work related stress risk were not being optimally managed in the department. Areas of Managers' Support, Relationships, Role and Change represented the greatest risks. In addition, the radiographers cited staff shortages, heavy workload and volume of patients as the greatest sources of pressure at work and their most common recommendations to reduce stress at work were increased staffing, improved communication and more effective feedback systems.

  11. Work-related fatigue among medical personnel in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Chun Ho

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: We identified factors associated with work-related fatigue among hospital workers in Taipei City. These findings can be applied toward on-the-job training and the development of preventive measures for occupational safety in general hospitals.

  12. Work-related stress management by Finnish enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Work-related stress has become one of the major problems in working societies and it increases employees' risk of disease. Its importance has been emphasized also due to its' great socio-economic consequences. Different stress management and worksite interventions have been implemented, however, the actual practices in companies have been assessed little. The purpose of this study was to examine how enterprises in Finland manage work-related stress. An assessment of work-related stress methods was conducted in 40 enterprises acting in the metropolitan area of Finland in May 2010 by a questionnaire. The concept of work-related stress was well known by participants. Enterprises rarely had their own work-related stress management protocol even though all of the workplaces had experienced work-related stress at some point. The collaboration between the workplace and occupational health services varied. Companies easily placed the responsibility for work-related stress assessment and handling on occupational health services. Workplaces have to pay more attention to work-related stress and related issues. The easiest way to do this is to collaborate with occupational health services. Protocols for collaboration should be developed jointly using the available models which have been established as cost-effective.

  13. TAMING TROJAN HORSES: IDENTIFYING AND MITIGATING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    P. P. M. A. R. HEUGENS; N. A. DENTCHEV

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations are exposed to increasing pressures from their constituents to integrate corporate social responsibility (CSR) principles into their ongoing business practices. But accepting new and potentially open-ended commitments is not a harmless exercise, and companies may well expose themselves to serious risks when embracing such principles. To identify these risks, we conducted two naturalistic studies: one exploratory, the other corroborative. The results show that CSR ado...

  14. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast...... cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall......-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores...

  15. Work-related stress and psychosomatic medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a varie...

  16. Identifying nursing home residents at risk for falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, D K; Kiel, D P; Burrows, A B; Lipsitz, L A

    1998-05-01

    To develop a fall risk model that can be used to identify prospectively nursing home residents at risk for falling. The secondary objective was to determine whether the nursing home environment independently influenced the development of falls. A prospective study involving 1 year of follow-up. Two hundred seventy-two nursing homes in the state of Washington. A total of 18,855 residents who had a baseline assessment in 1991 and a follow-up assessment within the subsequent year. Baseline Minimum Data Set items that could be potential risk factors for falling were considered as independent variables. The dependent variable was whether the resident fell as reported at the follow-up assessment. We estimated the extrinsic risk attributable to particular nursing home environments by calculating the annual fall rate in each nursing home and grouping them into tertiles of fall risk according to these rates. Factors associated independently with falling were fall history, wandering behavior, use of a cane or walker, deterioration of activities of daily living performance, age greater than 87 years, unsteady gait, transfer independence, wheelchair independence, and male gender. Nursing home residents with a fall history were more than three times as likely to fall during the follow-up period than residents without a fall history. Residents in homes with the highest tertile of fall rates were more than twice as likely to fall compared with residents of homes in the lowest tertile, independent of resident-specific risk factors. Fall history was identified as the strongest risk factor associated with subsequent falls and accounted for the vast majority of the predictive strength of the model. We recommend that fall history be used as an initial screener for determining eligibility for fall intervention efforts. Studies are needed to determine the facility characteristics that contribute to fall risk, independent of resident-specific risk factors.

  17. Identifying patients at high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with significant health consequences. A significant proportion of hospitalized patients at risk for obstructive sleep apnoea were never identified and referred for polysomnography for diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with high ...

  18. Identifying risk factors that contribute to acute mountain sickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a questionnaire-based study conducted in London and at Everest Base Camp, in which 116 lowlanders were invited to participate and fill in a questionnaire to identify potential risk factors in their history that may have contributed to development of or protection against AMS. Results. A total of 89 lowlanders ...

  19. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify

  20. Identifying Children at High Risk for a Child Maltreatment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Kim, Jeongeun; Black, Maureen M.; Weisbart, Cindy; Semiatin, Joshua; Magder, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To help professionals identify factors that place families at risk for future child maltreatment, to facilitate necessary services and to potentially help prevent abuse and neglect. Method: The data are from a prospective, longitudinal study of 332 low-income families recruited from urban pediatric primary care clinics, followed for…

  1. Work-related illness, work-related accidents, and lack of social security in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago Echeverri, María Teresa; Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Granja Palacios, Consuelo

    2017-08-01

    The impacts of neoliberal or market-based social security reforms in health have been extensively studied. How such reforms transformed employment-related insurance and entitlements, however, has received significantly less attention. This study aims to understand how the employment insurance system operates in Colombia and to assess how the experience of workers seeking social security entitlements relates to the system's structure. We conducted an ethnographic study of the Colombian Occupational Risk System between May 2014 and March 2016, with two main components: 1) analysis of the system itself through in-depth interviews with 32 people working in leadership positions and a systematic review of the system's most important legislation, and 2) a study of people who experienced problems receiving entitlements and were challenging the assessment of their work-related illness or accident. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 people, followed up with half of them, and reviewed their case files. We found that difficulties accessing health care services, payments for medical leave, job reassignments, severance packages, and filing for pension benefits were common to all cases and resulted from overwhelming bureaucratic and administrative demands. Regional and national evaluation bodies dictate whether a given illness or accident is work-related, and establish a percentage of Loss of Wage Earning Capacity (LWEC). People's disabled bodies rarely reached the threshold of 50% LWEC to qualify for disability pensions. The lengthy process that workers were forced to endure to obtain work-related entitlements always involved the judiciary. The three competing for-profit financial sectors (health insurance, pension funds, and Occupational Risk Administrators) actively challenged workers' demands in order to increase their profits. We conclude that these for-profit sectors work contrary to the principles that sustain social security. Indeed, they push sick and disabled

  2. WORK RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS: A SURVEY OF PHYSIOTHERAPISTS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Maheshwari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal system disorders are common among health care workers worldwide. They are common causes of severe long-term pain and physical disability. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are defined as “regional impairments of the muscles, tendons, nerves and joints. Physiotherapy can lead to WRMSDs in physiotherapist because of the nature of their profession. Despite of having expert knowledge of musculoskeletal injuries and injury prevention strategies they still report a high incidence of work-related injuries during their professional practice due to their training and continuous professional development Methods: A total of 100 Physiotherapists which included 78 females and 22 males in the age group of 21 to 40 years were recruited in the study. The subjects were taken as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria from Tricity. Results: Pearson’s correlation and Chi square analysis was used to determine correlation and the association of prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms with personal characteristics, job risk factors and coping strategies. The data obtained from this study documents that majority of Physiotherapists have experienced WRMSDs at some time. The prevalence of WRMSDs among Physiotherapists in Tricity is high (91%. The most common risk factors identified in the present study were dealing with an excessive number of patients in one day; continuing to work while injured or hurt; lifting or transferring dependent patients and work scheduling. In present study, the low back and neck regions were the most commonly affected site among physiotherapists (72.5% each followed by upper back (28.6 %, shoulder (20.9%, wrist and hand (17.6%, knee (12.1%, ankle and foot (12.1% and hip (7.70% Conclusions: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are an important health risk within the physiotherapy profession. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the Physiotherapists in Tricity is high that

  3. Lung cancer and risk factors: how to identify phenotypic markers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement-Duchene, Christelle

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death in the world. Most lung cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage (IIIB and IV), with a poor prognosis. The main risk factors are well known like active smoking, and occupational exposure (asbestos), but 10 a 20% occur in never smokers. In this population, various studies have been conducted in order to identify possible risk factors, and although many have been identified, none seem to explain more than a small percentage of the cases. According to the histological types, adenocarcinoma is now the more frequent type, and its association with the main risk factors (tobacco exposure, asbestos exposure) is still studied. The tumoral location is associated with the exposure to the risk factors. Finally, the survival seems to be different between gender, and between smokers, and never smokers. All these characteristics are perhaps associated with different pathways of carcinogenesis. In this context, we have analyzed a cohort of 1493 patients with lung cancer in order to identify phenotypic markers, and to understand the mechanisms of the lung carcinogenesis. (author) [fr

  4. Identifying and managing risk in international construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kerur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, major construction projects have increasingly arisen in countries or regions that lack specialist, expert construction contractors, suppliers and consultants. Steps are being taken by governments in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, China, India and developing markets to address national infrastructure deficits, and by so doing, are creating new regions of booming construction demand. When coupled with anaemic growth in developed markets such as the United Kingdom, the USA and Western Europe, foreign markets present attractive opportunities to the global construction industry. However, foreign markets are littered with the cautionary tales of international contractors and consultants that have failed to grasp the intricacies and risks of operating in a new environment and have failed to capitalise on the opportunities available. By identifying the classes of risks, and undertaking detailed analysis, ranking and mitigation of relevant jurisdictional risks, participants in international construction projects will increase the likelihood of project success and commercial longevity in the new jurisdiction. Risk identification and assessment is not a science but an art, and while there are many potential approaches to the issue, we propose that our strategies for identifying, assessing, ranking and mitigating jurisdictional risks offer new international players a good chance of commercial success.

  5. Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders: identifying at-risk mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag AC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Annika C Montag Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dysmorphology and Teratology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs are a collection of physical and neuro­behavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. Keywords: fetal alcohol-spectrum disorder (FASD, alcohol, pregnancy, screening, biomarkers, SBIRT

  6. Shift work-related health problems in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavaji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsShift work is a major feature of working life that affects diverse aspects of human life. The main purposes of this study were to investigate shift work-related health problems and their risk factors among workers of "12-hour shift" schedule.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out at 8 petrochemical industries in Asalooyeh area. Study population consisted of 1203 workers including 549 shift worker (46% and 654 day worker (54%. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shift work werecollected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 11.5. The level of significance was set at 5%.ResultsAlthough, the results showed that health problems among shift workers was more prevalent than day workers, but the differences were just significant in gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05. Multiple linear regressions indicated that in addition to shift working, other variants such as long work hours, type of employment, second job, number of children and job title were associated with health problems.ConclusionPrevalence rates of gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems among shift workers were significantly higher than that of day workers. Although, working in shift system was the main significant factor associated with the reported problems, but other demographic andwork variables were also found to have association.

  7. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    OpenAIRE

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Beesley, Jonathan; Hui, Shirley; Kar, Siddhartha; Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer ri...

  8. Risk and Performance Technologies: Identifying the Keys to Successful Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, Lynn; Smith, Art; O'Regan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has been utilizing risk and performance based technologies for over thirty years. Applications of these technologies have included risk assessment (e.g. Individual Plant Examinations), burden reduction (e.g. Risk-Informed Inservice Inspection, RI-ISI) and risk management (Maintenance Rule, 10CFR50.65). Over the last five to ten years the number of risk-informed (RI) burden reduction initiatives has increased. Unfortunately, the efficiencies of some of these applications have been questionable. This paper investigates those attributes necessary to support successful, cost-effective RI-applications. The premise to this paper is that by understanding the key attributes that support one successful application, insights can be gleaned that will streamline/coordinate future RI-applications. This paper is an extension to a paper presented at the Pressure Vessel and Piping (PVP-2001) Conference. In that paper, a number issues and opportunities were identified that needed to be assessed in order to support future (and efficient) RI-applications. It was noted in the paper that a proper understanding and resolution of these issues will facilitate implementation of risk and performance technology in the operation, maintenance and design disciplines. In addition, it will provide the foundation necessary to support regulatory review and approval. (authors)

  9. Could cognitive vulnerability identify high-risk subjects for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfati, Yves; Hardy-Baylé, Marie-Christine

    2002-12-08

    This review puts into questions the possible role of cognitive vulnerability markers in prediction and prevention of schizophrenia. Until recently, none of the identified cognitive anomalies has been proved to be definitive. However, as new promising candidates are emerging (DS-CPT, CPT-IP, P suppression, Saccadic Eye Movements), the predictive value of these trait-type anomalies may be criticized regarding four issues, which are discussed: technical, metrological, theoretical, and clinical. As things stand, the existence of a cognitive vulnerability marker, which testify to a permanent pathological trait, does not constitute a sufficient factor to identify and treat subjects who are at risk for schizophrenia. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Wang, Zhaoming; Allen, Jamie; Keeman, Renske; Eilber, Ursula; French, Juliet D.; Chen, Xiao Qing; Fachal, Laura; McCue, Karen; McCart Reed, Amy E.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Carroll, Jason; Jiang, Xia; Finucane, Hilary; Adams, Marcia; Adank, Muriel A.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Arndt, Volker; Aronson, Kristan J.; Arun, Banu; Auer, Paul L.; Bacot, François; Barrdahl, Myrto; Baynes, Caroline; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Behrens, Sabine; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brock, Ian W.; Broeks, Annegien; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brucker, Sara Y.; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butterbach, Katja; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Caldés, Trinidad; Canzian, Federico; Carracedo, Angel; Carter, Brian D.; Castelao, Jose E.; Chan, Tsun L.; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Chia, Kee Seng; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Christiansen, Hans; Clarke, Christine L.; Collée, Margriet; Conroy, Don M.; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Cornelissen, Sten; Cox, David G; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; Devilee, Peter; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Dörk, Thilo; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Durcan, Lorraine; Dwek, Miriam; Eccles, Diana M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Ellberg, Carolina; Elvira, Mingajeva; Engel, Christoph; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fritschi, Lin; Gaborieau, Valerie; Gabrielson, Marike; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; García-Sáenz, José A.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Giles, Graham G.; Glendon, Gord; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I.; Grip, Mervi; Gronwald, Jacek; Grundy, Anne; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A.; Håkansson, Niclas; Hamann, Ute; Hamel, Nathalie; Hankinson, Susan; Harrington, Patricia; Hart, Steven N.; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Hartman, Mikael; Hein, Alexander; Heyworth, Jane; Hicks, Belynda; Hillemanns, Peter; Ho, Dona N.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hopper, John L.; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Huang, Guanmengqian; Humphreys, Keith; Ishiguro, Junko; Ito, Hidemi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroji; Jakubowska, Anna; Janni, Wolfgang; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Kristine; Jones, Michael; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kabisch, Maria; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kerin, Michael J.; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Kim, Sung-Won; Knight, Julia A.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Krüger, Ute; Kwong, Ava; Lambrechts, Diether; Marchand, Loic Le; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Chuen Neng; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Li, Jingmei; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lindblom, Annika; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lo, Wing-Yee; Loibl, Sibylle; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lux, Michael P.; Ma, Edmond S.K.; MacInnis, Robert J.; Maishman, Tom; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E; Kostovska, Ivana Maleva; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Manson, JoAnn E.; Margolin, Sara; Mariapun, Shivaani; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; McKay, James; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Menéndez, Primitiva; Menon, Usha; Meyer, Jeffery; Miao, Hui; Miller, Nicola; Mohd Taib, Nur Aishah; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mulot, Claire; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nielsen, Sune F.; Noh, Dong-Young; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Norman, Aaron; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olson, Janet E.; Olsson, Håkan; Olswold, Curtis; Orr, Nick; Pankratz, V. Shane; Park, Sue K.; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Lloyd, Rachel; Perez, Jose I.A.; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pinchev, Mila; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Prentice, Ross; Presneau, Nadege; Prokofieva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pylkäs, Katri; Rack, Brigitte; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rennert, Gadi; Rennert, Hedy S.; Rhenius, Valerie; Romero, Atocha; Romm, Jane; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Rüdiger, Thomas; Rudolph, Anja; Ruebner, Matthias; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th.; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Sandler, Dale P.; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schürmann, Peter; Scott, Rodney J.; Scott, Christopher; Seal, Sheila; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Sharma, Priyanka; Shen, Chen-Yang; Sheng, Grace; Sherman, Mark E.; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Smeets, Ann; Sohn, Christof; Southey, Melissa C.; Spinelli, John J.; Stegmaier, Christa; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Stone, Jennifer; Stram, Daniel O.; Surowy, Harald; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tamimi, Rulla; Taylor, Jack A.; Tengström, Maria; Teo, Soo H.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tessier, Daniel C.; Thanasitthichai, Somchai; Thöne, Kathrin; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Tong, Ling; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Ursin, Giske; Untch, Michael; Vachon, Celine; van Asperen, Christi J.; Van Den Berg, David; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; van der Kolk, Lizet; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Vincent, Daniel; Vollenweider, Jason; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wendt, Camilla; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wildiers, Hans; Willett, Walter; Winqvist, Robert; Wolk, Alicja; Wu, Anna H.; Xia, Lucy; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Yip, Cheng Har; Yoo, Keun-Young; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhu, Bin; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ziv, Elad; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L.; Amos, Christopher I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hall, Per; Hunter, David J.; Milne, Roger L.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Bader, Gary D.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Easton, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes such as BRCA1 and many common, mainly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. We report results from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry1. We identified 65 new loci associated with overall breast cancer at pcancer due to all SNPs in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the utility of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention. PMID:29059683

  11. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  12. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Beesley, Jonathan; Hui, Shirley; Kar, Siddhartha; Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Wang, Zhaoming; Allen, Jamie; Keeman, Renske; Eilber, Ursula; French, Juliet D; Qing Chen, Xiao; Fachal, Laura; McCue, Karen; McCart Reed, Amy E; Ghoussaini, Maya; Carroll, Jason S; Jiang, Xia; Finucane, Hilary; Adams, Marcia; Adank, Muriel A; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Arndt, Volker; Aronson, Kristan J; Arun, Banu; Auer, Paul L; Bacot, François; Barrdahl, Myrto; Baynes, Caroline; Beckmann, Matthias W; Behrens, Sabine; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brock, Ian W; Broeks, Annegien; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brucker, Sara Y; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butterbach, Katja; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Caldés, Trinidad; Canzian, Federico; Carracedo, Angel; Carter, Brian D; Castelao, Jose E; Chan, Tsun L; David Cheng, Ting-Yuan; Seng Chia, Kee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Christiansen, Hans; Clarke, Christine L; Collée, Margriet; Conroy, Don M; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Cornelissen, Sten; Cox, David G; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Cunningham, Julie M; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B; Devilee, Peter; Doheny, Kimberly F; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Durcan, Lorraine; Dwek, Miriam; Eccles, Diana M; Ekici, Arif B; Eliassen, A Heather; Ellberg, Carolina; Elvira, Mingajeva; Engel, Christoph; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fritschi, Lin; Gaborieau, Valerie; Gabrielson, Marike; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; García-Sáenz, José A; Gaudet, Mia M; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Giles, Graham G; Glendon, Gord; Goldberg, Mark S; Goldgar, David E; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I; Grip, Mervi; Gronwald, Jacek; Grundy, Anne; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A; Håkansson, Niclas; Hamann, Ute; Hamel, Nathalie; Hankinson, Susan; Harrington, Patricia; Hart, Steven N; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Hartman, Mikael; Hein, Alexander; Heyworth, Jane; Hicks, Belynda; Hillemanns, Peter; Ho, Dona N; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J; Hoover, Robert N; Hopper, John L; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Huang, Guanmengqian; Humphreys, Keith; Ishiguro, Junko; Ito, Hidemi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroji; Jakubowska, Anna; Janni, Wolfgang; John, Esther M; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Kristine; Jones, Michael; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kabisch, Maria; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kerin, Michael J; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiiski, Johanna I; Kim, Sung-Won; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N; Krüger, Ute; Kwong, Ava; Lambrechts, Diether; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Neng Lee, Chuen; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Li, Jingmei; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lindblom, Annika; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lo, Wing-Yee; Loibl, Sibylle; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lux, Michael P; Ma, Edmond S K; MacInnis, Robert J; Maishman, Tom; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E; Kostovska, Ivana Maleva; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolin, Sara; Mariapun, Shivaani; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; McKay, James; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Menéndez, Primitiva; Menon, Usha; Meyer, Jeffery; Miao, Hui; Miller, Nicola; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mulot, Claire; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nielsen, Sune F; Noh, Dong-Young; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Norman, Aaron; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olson, Janet E; Olsson, Håkan; Olswold, Curtis; Orr, Nick; Pankratz, V Shane; Park, Sue K; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Lloyd, Rachel; Perez, Jose I A; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pinchev, Mila; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Prentice, Ross; Presneau, Nadege; Prokofyeva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pylkäs, Katri; Rack, Brigitte; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rennert, Gadi; Rennert, Hedy S; Rhenius, Valerie; Romero, Atocha; Romm, Jane; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Rüdiger, Thomas; Rudolph, Anja; Ruebner, Matthias; Rutgers, Emiel J T; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Sandler, Dale P; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Daniel F; Schmutzler, Rita K; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schürmann, Peter; Scott, Rodney J; Scott, Christopher; Seal, Sheila; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Sharma, Priyanka; Shen, Chen-Yang; Sheng, Grace; Sherman, Mark E; Shrubsole, Martha J; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Smeets, Ann; Sohn, Christof; Southey, Melissa C; Spinelli, John J; Stegmaier, Christa; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Stone, Jennifer; Stram, Daniel O; Surowy, Harald; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tamimi, Rulla; Taylor, Jack A; Tengström, Maria; Teo, Soo H; Beth Terry, Mary; Tessier, Daniel C; Thanasitthichai, Somchai; Thöne, Kathrin; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Tomlinson, Ian; Tong, Ling; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Ursin, Giske; Untch, Michael; Vachon, Celine; van Asperen, Christi J; Van Den Berg, David; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van der Kolk, Lizet; van der Luijt, Rob B; Vincent, Daniel; Vollenweider, Jason; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weinberg, Clarice R; Wendt, Camilla; Whittemore, Alice S; Wildiers, Hans; Willett, Walter; Winqvist, Robert; Wolk, Alicja; Wu, Anna H; Xia, Lucy; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Xiaohong R; Har Yip, Cheng; Yoo, Keun-Young; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhu, Bin; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ziv, Elad; Lakhani, Sunil R; Antoniou, Antonis C; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L; Amos, Christopher I; Couch, Fergus J; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hall, Per; Hunter, David J; Milne, Roger L; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Chanock, Stephen J; Dunning, Alison M; Edwards, Stacey L; Bader, Gary D; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Easton, Douglas F

    2017-11-02

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10 -8 . The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.

  13. Methodology for identifying patients at high risk for osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, G; Littlefield, R; Heaton, A; Martin, S

    2001-09-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. The purpose of this paper is to present and validate a mathematical model that managed care organizations can apply to administrative claims data to help locate members at risk for osteoporotic fracture and estimate future fracture rates. Using known risk factors from previous clinical studies, 92,000 members of a large Midwest health plan were placed in 1 of 4 risk categories based on historical claims markers: demographic/lifestyle (age, sex, smoking, alcoholism); steroid use; medical history (previous osteoporotic fracture, ordinary bone fracture, osteoporosis diagnosis, bone mineral density test); or steroid use with medical history. Logistic regression was used to assign a probability of fracture for the 4 groups over the next 2 years. These predictions were compared with actual fracture rates, and refined models were produced. The models were then validated by applying them to current data and comparing the predicted fracture rate for each group to known results. The model predicted that 1.26% of the study members would experience osteoporotic fracture over the next 2 years; the actual result was 1.27%. Within the 4 risk groups, the predicted fracture rates were lower than the actual rates for the demographic risk group (0.87% predicted vs 0.97% actual) and higher than the actual rates for the steroid use (1.78% predicted vs 1.58% actual), medical history (5.90% predicted vs 4.94% actual), and the steroid use with medical history groups (7.80% predicted vs 6.42% actual). The application of this risk model to an administrative claims database successfully identified plan members at risk for osteoporotic fracture.

  14. Prevalence of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (2014) > ... Background: Work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the common occupational ... of the doctor, duration of practice, working hours per week, physical activity and working environment.

  15. Informal eldercare and work-related strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trukeschitz, Birgit; Schneider, Ulrike; Mühlmann, Richard; Ponocny, Ivo

    2013-03-01

    In light of an aging workforce, reconciling informal eldercare and paid work becomes increasingly pertinent. This article investigates the association between informal eldercare and work-related strain and tests for both the "competing demands" and "expansion" hypotheses. The sample of 938 Austrian employees consisted of employees caring for older relatives and a control group of employees without eldercare obligations. We ran a Tobit regression model on work-related strain with different measures of informal eldercare as explanatory variables and controls for both personal and workplace characteristics. Accounting for different characteristics of eldercare within one estimation model revealed that informal eldercare was associated with work-related strain in 2 ways, that is, it increased with both care hours and subjective care burden. However, after controlling for these burdensome attributes of eldercare, the carer status as such was found to be negatively associated with work-related strain. In addition and independently of care commitments, work-related factors, such as advanced skills and job motivation, reduced work-related strain. This article lends support to both the "competing demands" and the "expansion" hypotheses. Commitment to eldercare can enhance work-related outcomes but entails work-related problems if care burden and time demands of eldercare are substantial. Thus, workers with eldercare responsibilities cannot be considered less productive from the outset. An individual assessment of their situation, considering the care and work setting, is required. Findings from this study support the design of workplace initiatives to uphold workers' productivity in general and bring specific attention to policies alleviating workers' eldercare burden.

  16. Identifiable risk factors in hepatitis b and c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, F.U.; Pervez, A.; Rafiq, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both hepatitis B and C are common infections affecting masses and are leading causes of Chronic Liver Disease in Pakistan as well as worldwide. In majority of cases both viral diseases spread by factors that are preventable. The present study is conducted to determine the identifiable risk factors in patients admitted with Chronic Hepatitis B and C. Methods: An observational study was carried out for a period of 6 months. All age groups and both sexes were included. The patients were interviewed and the identifiable risk factors were looked for. The standard methods for detection of Hepatitis B and C were used. Results: One-hundred and ten patients were studied from January to July 2009. Sixty-five patients had Hepatitis C, 35 had Hepatitis B, and 10 had both Hepatitis B and C. Ninety-three patients had a history of injections and transfusions etc., and 38 had surgical scars. Tattoos were present in 42 patients and nose and/or ear piercing marks were present in 28 patients. The number of risk factors increased in co-infection. Conclusion: There is a role of unhygienic health delivery practices, lack of awareness and resources for standard screening protocol for spread of Hepatitis B and C. (author)

  17. Identifying risk factors for victimization among male prisoners in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Huang, Yung-Shun

    2014-02-01

    This study identified risk factors for prison victimization in Taiwan with an application of Western literature and assessed the extent of its applicability in an Eastern context. The sample was drawn from four male prisons located in Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan; a total of 1,181 valid surveys were collected. The results generally support the major findings of the extant Western studies. Crowding, however, was not significantly associated with the risk of victimization in any of the statistical models, which might be related to the different experiences and living conditions in the free community between Taiwanese and American inmates. This study generated clear policy implications, which may reduce prison victimization and engender a greater sense of well-being in the prison environment.

  18. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical,

  19. Work-related stress: A survey of Indian anesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Ganesh Bakshi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The majority of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme and was higher in anesthesiologists working long hours, over the weekend and those handling high-risk patients. A majority of participants felt the survey made them think about work-related stress and expressed their willingness to participate in stress management programs.

  20. Work-related mental ill-health and 'stress' in the UK (2002-05).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Melanie; Turner, Susan; McNamee, Roseanne; Agius, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    There is concern about the frequency of work-related mental ill-health and 'stress' within the UK. To provide a measure of the incidence of work-related mental ill-health reported by specialist psychiatrists and occupational physicians to UK voluntary reporting schemes during the period 2002-05. Additionally, an investigation of determinants, notably factors identified by reporters as precipitants in cases of work-related mental ill-health was undertaken. The study used data collected by The Health and Occupation Reporting Network (THOR) from 2002 to 2005. Cases were analysed by age, gender, industry and precipitating event. Estimated annual average incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals of work-related mental ill-health diagnoses reported to THOR between 2002 and 2005 by psychiatrists were 89 (78, 101) per million and by occupational physicians were 1589 (1443, 1735) per million. For both groups of reporters, anxiety and depression continued to make up the largest proportion of diagnoses. The majority of cases were attributed to factors such as workload and difficulties with other workers. There was some suggestion that the type of factors associated with the mental ill-health case reports varied between industrial sectors. Work-related anxiety and depression and stress continue to constitute a significant proportion of all work-related mental ill-health diagnoses in the UK, with workload and interpersonal relationships reported as significant risk factors. Further investigations may determine whether guidance for employers and employees on work-related mental ill-health would benefit from being more industry specific.

  1. Exploring work-related issues on corporate sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoro, C M; Bolis, I; Sznelwar, L I

    2015-01-01

    In a research project about work-related issues and corporate sustainability conducted in Brazil, the goal was to better understand how work-related issues were addressed in the corporate context. Particularly, there are some specific initiatives that serve as guides to organizational decisions, which make their performance indicators for the context of corporate sustainability. 1) To explore the presence of work-related issues and their origins in corporate sustainability approach, analyzing a) corporate disclosures; b) sustainability guidelines that are identified as relevant in corporate disclosures; c) documents that are related to sustainable development and also identified as key-documents for these guidelines and initiatives. 2) To present the activity-centered ergonomics and psychodynamics of work contributions to work-related issues in a corporate sustainability approach. An exploratory study based on multiple sources of evidence that were performed from 2012 to 2013, including interviews with companies that engaged in corporate sustainability and document analysis using the content analysis approach. Work-related issues have been presented since the earliest sustainable development documents. It is feasible to construct an empirical framework for work-related issues and corporate sustainability approaches. 1) Although some authors argue that corporate sustainability has its roots based only on the environmental dimension, there is strong empirical evidence showing that social dimension aspects such as work-related issues have been present since the beginning. 2) Some indicators should be redesigned to more precisely translate the reality of some workplaces, particularly those indicators related to organizational design and mental health.

  2. Identifying Patterns in Extreme Precipitation Risk and the Related Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Tye, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation can harm human life and assets through flooding, hail, landslides, or debris flows. Flood risk assessments typically concentrate on river or mountain torrent channels, using water depth, flow velocity, and/or sediment deposition to quantify the risk. In addition, extreme events with high recurrence intervals are often the main focus. However, damages from short-term and localized convective showers often occur away from watercourses. Also, damages from more frequent small scale extremes, although usually less disastrous, can accumulate to considerable financial burdens. Extreme convective precipitation is expected to intensify in a warmer climate, and vulnerability patterns might change in tandem with changes in the character of precipitation and flood types. This has consequences for adaptation planners who want to establish effective protection measures and reduce the cost from natural hazards. Here we merge hydrological and exposure data to identify patterns of risk under varying synoptic conditions. Exposure is calculated from a database of 76k damage claims reported to the national disaster fund in 480 municipalities in south eastern Austria from 1990-2015. Hydrological data comprise sub-daily precipitation (59 gauges) and streamflow (62 gauges) observations. We use synoptic circulation types to identify typical precipitation patterns. They indicate the character of precipitation even if a gauge is not in close proximity, facilitating potential future research with regional climate model data. Results show that more claims are reported under synoptic conditions favouring convective precipitation (on average 1.5-3 times more than on other days). For agrarian municipalities, convective precipitation damages are among the costliest after long low-intensity precipitation events. In contrast, Alpine communities are particularly vulnerable to convective high-intensity rainfall. In addition to possible observational error, uncertainty is present

  3. Work-related threats and violence in human service sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo; Hogh, Annie; Biering, Karin

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho-social w......BACKGROUND: Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho...... rewards at work, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work-family conflicts and low organizational justice had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related threats. Furthermore, high emotional demands, low predictability, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work......-family conflicts, low supervisor quality and low support from nearest supervisor had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related violence. Finally, across the four sectors both similar and different associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related violence...

  4. Maxillofacial injuries due to work-related accidents in the North West of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccia, Fabio; Boffano, Paolo; Bianchi, Francesca Antonella; Gerbino, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and patterns of work-related maxillofacial injuries, identifying worker categories with a high risk of injury. From a systematic computer-assisted database that has continuously recorded patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures, only patients with work-related injuries were considered. Occupation, mechanism of injury, and demographic and clinical data were analyzed. Work-related facial injuries represented the fifth most common cause of injury, with a percentage of 6.3 %. Maxillofacial fractures were most often seen in construction workers (37.9 %). The middle third was involved in 67 % of the cases; the mandible was the most frequently injured site. Work-related maxillofacial trauma is rare, but it is often complex and challenging as Facial Injury Severity Scale values show. In agreement with the few published reports, construction workers, together with farm and forestry workers, are at the highest risk of injuries, mainly because of struck by a thrown, projected, or falling object.

  5. Mental health of a police force: estimating prevalence of work-related depression in Australia without a direct national measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katrina J; Rodwell, John J; Noblet, Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    The risk of work-related depression in Australia was estimated based on a survey of 631 police officers. Psychological wellbeing and psychological distress items were mapped onto a measure of depression to identify optimal cutoff points. Based on a sample of police officers, Australian workers, in general, are at risk of depression when general psychological wellbeing is considerably compromised. Large-scale estimation of work-related depression in the broader population of employed persons in Australia is reasonable. The relatively high prevalence of depression among police officers emphasizes the need to examine prevalence rates of depression among Australian employees.

  6. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders : prevention report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.

    2008-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to

  7. Exploring Work-Related Causal Attributions of Common Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ingrid Blø; Øverland, Simon; Reme, Silje Endresen; Løvvik, Camilla

    2015-09-01

    Common mental disorders (CMDs) are major causes of sickness absence and disability. Prevention requires knowledge of how individuals perceive causal mechanisms, and in this study we sought to examine work-related factors as causal attribution of CMDs. A trial sample of n = 1,193, recruited because they struggled with work participation due to CMDs, answered an open-ended questionnaire item about what they believed were the most important causes of their CMDs. The population included participants at risk of sickness absence, and participants with reduced work participation due to sickness absence, disability or unemployment. We used thematic content analysis and categorized responses from 487 participants who reported work-related factors as causal attributions of their CMDs. Gender differences in work-related causal attributions were also examined. The participants attributed their CMDs to the following work-related factors; work stress, leadership, reduced work participation, job dissatisfaction, work conflict, social work environment, job insecurity and change, workplace bullying, and physical strain. Women tended to attribute CMDs to social factors at work. Findings from this study suggest several work-related risk factors for CMDs. Both factors at the workplace, and reduced work participation, were perceived by study participants as contributing causes of CMDs. Thus, there is a need to promote work participation whilst at the same time targeting aversive workplace factors. Further, our findings indicate that work-related factors may affect women and men differently. This illustrates that the association between work participation and CMDs is complex, and needs to be explored further.

  8. Work-Related Stress and Coping Strategies of Professional Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bonita C.

    1988-01-01

    Interviewed 20 professional women on their work-related stress and coping processes to identify those who were good and poor at coping. Found that more effective copers seemed to have used problem-focused coping such as seeking information or advice or taking problem-solving action, whereas less effective copers seemed to have used strategies such…

  9. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-09-15

    Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p related to level of education (p stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  10. Coupling mode-destination accessibility with seismic risk assessment to identify at-risk communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Mahalia; Baker, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a framework for coupling mode-destination accessibility with quantitative seismic risk assessment to identify communities at high risk for travel disruptions after an earthquake. Mode-destination accessibility measures the ability of people to reach destinations they desire. We use a probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure, including a stochastic set of earthquake events, ground-motion intensity maps, damage maps, and realizations of traffic and accessibility impacts. For a case study of the San Francisco Bay Area, we couple our seismic risk framework with a practical activity-based traffic model. As a result, we quantify accessibility risk probabilistically by community and household type. We find that accessibility varies more strongly as a function of travelers' geographic location than as a function of their income class, and we identify particularly at-risk communities. We also observe that communities more conducive to local trips by foot or bike are predicted to be less impacted by losses in accessibility. This work shows the potential to link quantitative risk assessment methodologies with high-resolution travel models used by transportation planners. Quantitative risk metrics of this type should have great utility for planners working to reduce risk to a region's infrastructure systems. - Highlights: • We couple mode-destination accessibility with probabilistic seismic risk assessment. • Results identify communities at high risk for post-earthquake travel disruptions. • Accessibility varies more as a function of home location than by income. • Our model predicts reduced accessibility risk for more walking-friendly communities.

  11. [Identifying clinical risk factors in recurrent idiopathic deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río Solá, M Lourdes; González Fajardo, José Antonio; Vaquero Puerta, Carlos

    2016-03-18

    Oral anticoagulant therapy for more than 6 months in patients with an episode of idiopathic thromboembolic disease is controversial. The objective was to determine predictive clinical signs that identify patients at increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A prospective study which included 306 consecutive patients with a first episode of idiopathic DVT from June 2012 to June 2014. Predictor variables of recurrent thromboembolic disease and episodes of recurrence during follow-up of the patients (28.42 months) were collected. We performed a multivariate analysis to analyze possible predictors (Pthrombus (P=.001) in males, and persistence of residual thrombus in women (P=.046). The mean recurrence-free survival was shorter in both groups. The presence of echogenic thrombus in men and the existence of residual DVT in women were 2 clinical signs associated with increased risk of thromboembolic recurrence after stopping anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after an episode of idiopathic DVT in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Divorce Transitions: Identifying Risk and Promoting Resilience for Children and Their Parental Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gill Gorrell

    1999-01-01

    Discusses qualitative research linked to clinical work relating to some of the short-term effects of divorce on children within a British perspective. Describes clinical intervention into family relationships in divorcing and post-divorce families and suggests some high-risk issues for children. Some interactions that may promote resilience in…

  13. 41 CFR 102-80.50 - Are Federal agencies responsible for identifying/estimating risks and for appropriate risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Management Risks and Risk Reduction Strategies § 102-80.50 Are Federal agencies responsible for... identify and estimate safety and environmental management risks and appropriate risk reduction strategies... responsible for identifying/estimating risks and for appropriate risk reduction strategies? 102-80.50 Section...

  14. Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)

  15. Knowledge work and work-related stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies...... with informally, individu-ally and incidentally. It is only when problems exist that enhanced support is offered in order to help an employee to cope or recover. As most workplace initiatives work at this tertiary level, the sources of work-related and organiza-tional stress are not reduced or eliminated...... as good and stimulating, but has on the other hand sides to it which can cause frustration and stress. The implication of organisational characteristics of the knowledge-intensive companies studied is a transfer of the responsibility for ones own working-life. Consequently, issues are dealt...

  16. Development of a tailored work-related support intervention for gastrointestinal cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, Anne-Claire G. N. M.; Tytgat, Kristien M. A. J.; Van Hezel, Sanne; Klinkenbijl, Jean H. G.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2017-01-01

    Aim is the development of a work-related support intervention, tailored to the severity of work-related problems of patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer treated with curative intent. Two methods were used: (1) Work-related problems were identified from the literature and submitted to

  17. Work-related stress and psychosomatic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao Mutsuhiro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a variety of conditions, such as overwork, unemployment or job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being indirectly by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior. Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. In both models, standardized questionnaires have been developed and frequently used to assess job stress. Unemployment has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity, such as by cardiovascular disease, stroke, and suicide. During the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries, and temporary employment arrangements have increased. Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive less compensation than permanent workers. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind

  18. Work-related stress and psychosomatic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro

    2010-05-26

    This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a variety of conditions, such as overwork, unemployment or job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being indirectly by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior. Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. In both models, standardized questionnaires have been developed and frequently used to assess job stress. Unemployment has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity, such as by cardiovascular disease, stroke, and suicide. During the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries, and temporary employment arrangements have increased. Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive less compensation than permanent workers. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind/body health care for stress

  19. Identifying and mitigating risks for agricultural injury associated with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan King

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In some occupational contexts overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for injury. The purpose of this study was to examine this hypothesis within farm work environments and then to identify specific opportunities for environmental modification as a preventive strategy. Data on farm-related injuries, height and weight used to calculate body mass index (BMI, and demographic characteristics were from the Phase 2 baseline survey of the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort; a large cross-sectional mail-based survey conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada from January through May 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between BMI and injury. Injury narratives were explored qualitatively. Findings were inconsistent and differed according to gender. Among women (n = 927, having overweight (adjusted OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.29 to 6.70 but not obesity (1.10; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.43 was associated with an increased odds of incurring a farm-related injury. No strong or statistically significant effects were observed for men (n = 1406 with overweight or obesity. While injury-related challenges associated with obesity have been addressed in other occupational settings via modification of the worksite, such strategies are challenging to implement in farm settings because of the diversity of work tasks and associated hazards. We conclude that the acute effects of overweight in terms of injury do require consideration in agricultural populations, but these should also be viewed with a differentiation based on gender.

  20. Work-related driver safety: A multi-level investigation

    OpenAIRE

    AMANDA ROSE WARMERDAM

    2017-01-01

    This program of research explored the organisational determinants of work-related road traffic injury in light vehicle fleets. The landscape of risk management in workplace road safety in Australia and organisational practices that influence safe driver behaviour were investigated. Key findings included that safe driving is influenced by factors at multiple levels, including senior managers, supervisors and individual fleet drivers and workplace road safety is not well integrated within curre...

  1. Identifying community risk factors for HIV among South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High risk sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use, and mental health problems combine to yield high levels of HIV-risk behaviour among adolescents with mental health problems. In South Africa, little research has been conducted on parental perspectives of HIV-risk among this population. We conducted a series of focus ...

  2. Prevention of pressure sores by identifying patients at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K E; Jensen, O; Kvorning, S A; Bach, E

    1982-01-01

    The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical study. During seven months in 1977, 600 of 3571 patients were classified as at risk. Of these 35 (5.8%) developed sores compared with five (0.2%) of those not at risk. The results of this study compared with those over the same period in 1976 show that close observation of at-risk patients and early detection of pressure sores prevents their development. PMID:6803980

  3. Work related learning, Identities, and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2005-01-01

    which reflects the societal transitions. The aim of this article is to consider the connection between these theoretical and methodological questions: Studies into subjective processes (individual and collective learning and identity processes) helps us theorise the contradictory and asynchronous nature...... of individuals’ subjective relation to work and work related learning have revealed a close connection between gender relations and societal work organisation. This observation has become particularly pointed in studies of a number of professions dealing with traditional ‘women’s work’, in which the close links...... of individual and collective learning and identity processes....

  4. Prevention of pressure sores by identifying patients at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Jensen, O; Kvorning, S A

    1982-01-01

    The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical stu...... of pressure sores prevents their development.......The risk of pressure sores developing in patients admitted with acute conditions was assessed by a simple risk score system based on age, reduced mobility, incontinence, pronounced emaciation, redness over bony prominences, unconsciousness, dehydration, and paralysis in a prospective clinical study...

  5. Work Related Stress, Burnout, Job Satisfaction and General Health of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate. Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses. These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care. Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes.

  6. Work Related Stress, Burnout, Job Satisfaction and General Health of Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Oldenburg, Brian; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate). Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses. These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care. Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes. PMID:25588157

  7. Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Oldenburg, Brian; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-12

    Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate). Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses. These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care. Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes.

  8. Association analysis identifies 65 new breast cancer risk loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lindström, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Beesley, Jonathan; Hui, Shirley; Kar, Siddhartha; Lemaçon, Audrey; Soucy, Penny; Glubb, Dylan; Rostamianfar, Asha; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Wang, Zhaoming; Allen, Jamie; Keeman, Renske; Eilber, Ursula; French, Juliet D.; Qing Chen, Xiao; Fachal, Laura; McCue, Karen; McCart Reed, Amy E.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Carroll, Jason S.; Jiang, Xia; Finucane, Hilary; Adams, Marcia; Adank, Muriel A.; Ahsan, Habibul; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Arndt, Volker; Aronson, Kristan J.; Arun, Banu; Auer, Paul L.; Bacot, François; Barrdahl, Myrto; Baynes, Caroline; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Behrens, Sabine; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Bernstein, Leslie; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Brinton, Louise; Broberg, Per; Brock, Ian W.; Broeks, Annegien; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brucker, Sara Y.; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butterbach, Katja; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Caldés, Trinidad; Canzian, Federico; Carracedo, Angel; Carter, Brian D.; Castelao, Jose E.; Chan, Tsun L.; David Cheng, Ting-Yuan; Seng Chia, Kee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Christiansen, Hans; Clarke, Christine L.; Collée, Margriet; Conroy, Don M.; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Cornelissen, Sten; Cox, David G.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; Devilee, Peter; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Durcan, Lorraine; Dwek, Miriam; Eccles, Diana M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Ellberg, Carolina; Elvira, Mingajeva; Engel, Christoph; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Flyger, Henrik; Fritschi, Lin; Gaborieau, Valerie; Gabrielson, Marike; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; García-Sáenz, José A.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Giles, Graham G.; Glendon, Gord; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe I.; Grip, Mervi; Gronwald, Jacek; Grundy, Anne; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Hahnen, Eric; Haiman, Christopher A.; Håkansson, Niclas; Hamann, Ute; Hamel, Nathalie; Hankinson, Susan; Harrington, Patricia; Hart, Steven N.; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Hartman, Mikael; Hein, Alexander; Heyworth, Jane; Hicks, Belynda; Hillemanns, Peter; Ho, Dona N.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hopper, John L.; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Huang, Guanmengqian; Humphreys, Keith; Ishiguro, Junko; Ito, Hidemi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroji; Jakubowska, Anna; Janni, Wolfgang; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Nichola; Jones, Kristine; Jones, Michael; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kabisch, Maria; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Kang, Daehee; Kasuga, Yoshio; Kerin, Michael J.; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Kim, Sung-Won; Knight, Julia A.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Krüger, Ute; Kwong, Ava; Lambrechts, Diether; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Neng Lee, Chuen; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Li, Jingmei; Lilyquist, Jenna; Lindblom, Annika; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lo, Wing-Yee; Loibl, Sibylle; Long, Jirong; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Luccarini, Craig; Lux, Michael P.; Ma, Edmond S. K.; MacInnis, Robert J.; Maishman, Tom; Makalic, Enes; Malone, Kathleen E.; Kostovska, Ivana Maleva; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Manson, JoAnn E.; Margolin, Sara; Mariapun, Shivaani; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mavroudis, Dimitrios; McKay, James; McLean, Catriona; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Meindl, Alfons; Menéndez, Primitiva; Menon, Usha; Meyer, Jeffery; Miao, Hui; Miller, Nicola; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Mulot, Claire; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nielsen, Sune F.; Noh, Dong-Young; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Norman, Aaron; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olson, Janet E.; Olsson, Håkan; Olswold, Curtis; Orr, Nick; Pankratz, V. Shane; Park, Sue K.; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Lloyd, Rachel; Perez, Jose I. A.; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Pinchev, Mila; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Prentice, Ross; Presneau, Nadege; Prokofyeva, Darya; Pugh, Elizabeth; Pylkäs, Katri; Rack, Brigitte; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Rennert, Gadi; Rennert, Hedy S.; Rhenius, Valerie; Romero, Atocha; Romm, Jane; Ruddy, Kathryn J.; Rüdiger, Thomas; Rudolph, Anja; Ruebner, Matthias; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Sandler, Dale P.; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schürmann, Peter; Scott, Rodney J.; Scott, Christopher; Seal, Sheila; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Sharma, Priyanka; Shen, Chen-Yang; Sheng, Grace; Sherman, Mark E.; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Smeets, Ann; Sohn, Christof; Southey, Melissa C.; Spinelli, John J.; Stegmaier, Christa; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Stone, Jennifer; Stram, Daniel O.; Surowy, Harald; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tamimi, Rulla; Taylor, Jack A.; Tengström, Maria; teo, Soo H.; Beth Terry, Mary; Tessier, Daniel C.; Thanasitthichai, Somchai; Thöne, Kathrin; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Tong, Ling; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Ursin, Giske; Untch, Michael; Vachon, Celine; van Asperen, Christi J.; van den Berg, David; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van der Kolk, Lizet; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Vincent, Daniel; Vollenweider, Jason; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Wendt, Camilla; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wildiers, Hans; Willett, Walter; Winqvist, Robert; Wolk, Alicja; Wu, Anna H.; Xia, Lucy; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Xiaohong R.; Har Yip, Cheng; Yoo, Keun-Young; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhu, Bin; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ziv, Elad; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L.; Amos, Christopher I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hall, Per; Hunter, David J.; Milne, Roger L.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Bader, Gary D.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Simard, Jacques; Kraft, Peter; Easton, Douglas F.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast

  9. Work-related ocular injuries in Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyo Nyo Min

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To describe the epidemiology of work-related ocular injuries and its visual outcome in tertiary hospital in southern Malaysia. METHODS:Retrospective review of medical records of patients diagnosed as work-related ocular injuries who attended to the eye casualty of Hospital Sultan Ismail in Johor Bahru, Malaysia from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2013. Data for clinical presentation, types of injuries, use of eye protective device(EPDand visual outcome were collected using a standardized proforma.RESULTS: A total of 935 ocular injuries attended to Hospital Sultan Ismail during 3y period. Among them 440 cases were work-related ocular injuries and included in the study. There was significant male preponderance(98.19%and commonest age group affected was 21 to 30y(45%. The most common type of injury was superficial injuries(70.91%, followed by chemical(11.13%, open globe(8.41%, closed globe(6.83%and thermal(2.72%. Although Malays are commonly involved in work-related ocular injury accounted for 78.47%, two-thirds of open globe injuries were seen in foreign workers. Only 59 patients(13.41%reported that they wore EPD at the time of incident. Generally, 89.86%(n=399had good vision, 5.45%(n=24had moderate vision and 3.86%(n=17poor vision. Visual outcome related to specific types of injuries showed that poor outcome was higher in open globe injuries groups compared with closed globe injuries \\〖odd ratio(OR=3.33, 95% confidence interval(CI=0.68 to 16.33\\〗. Overall hospital attendance rate of work-related ocular trauma ranged from 20.7 to 51.9 per 1000 new cases and decline of approximately 1.5% per year(PCONCLUSION: Work-related ocular trauma is important cause of ocular morbidity in working forces particularly young men. Malay males between 21 to 40y have higher risk. Majority of work-related ocular trauma seen in our hospital are generally of superficial injuries and potentially preventable. This study indicates they need to improve safety measures to

  10. Work-related stress among correctional officers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Sara

    2016-01-25

    Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to various factors likely to jeopardize their health and safety. Even if numerous studies have been focused on work-related stress among COs, few studies have been carried out in Italy. Indentify the work-related factors and comprehend how they negatively affect the COs' psychological health in the Italian penal system. A qualitative approach was employed. Twenty-eight COs employed in a detention block of an Italian jail were interviewed face-to-face. For the analyses of the text, Template Analysis technique was followed. The analyses of the text highlighted six macro-categories and thirteen categories hierarchically linked to them: A) Intrinsic work-related factors with six categories: demanding contact with prisoners, high level of responsibility, health risks, critical events, lack of intellectual and social stimulation, and conflict value; B) Factors related to the type of contract and work organization: challenging working hours contrasted with social time, and relocation; C) Social factors: relationships with colleagues and hierarchy; D) Organizational factors: organizational injustice, E) External factors: negative social image; F) Physical environmental factors: physical structure of the prison building. The results indicated that COs are at high risk of stress. More specifically, the analyses highlighted that the most stressful part of the COs' job concerns their relationship with the inmates.

  11. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among physical therapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheen Iqbal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health professions like dentistry, nursing and physical therapy have been reported at high risk for developing workrelated musculoskeletal disorders. Results of studies conducted in these occupational groups may help formulate prevention strategies. However, no such data among physical therapists has been reported in India. Material and Methods: We conducted an online survey among 100 physiotherapists in Delhi. Results: The response rate was 75%. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders is found to be high since 92% of them reported to feel some pain after joining physical therapy which affects daily activities and even sometimes forces them to change their work. Physical therapists specialty, gender, furniture used in clinic and duration of patient contact are found to be related to the pain development (p < 0.05. Conclusions: We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics and techniques of patient handling in development of work-related pain symptoms. Med Pr 2015;66(4:459–469

  12. Work-related violence and incident use of psychotropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Burr, Hermann; Diderichsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Although the mental health consequences of domestic violence are well documented, empirical evidence is scarce regarding the mental health effects of violence in the workplace. Most studies have used data from small occupation-specific samples, limiting their generalizability. This article examines...... whether direct exposure to work-related violence is associated with clinically pertinent mental health problems, measured by purchases of psychotropics (antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics), in a cross-occupational sample of 15,246 Danish employees free from using psychotropics at baseline. Self......-reported data on work-related violence were merged with other data on purchases of medications through a national registry to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios during 3.6 years (1,325 days) of follow-up in the years 1996-2008. Outcomes were examined as competing risks, and analyses were adjusted for gender...

  13. FINANCIAL AUDIT -RISKS IDENTIFIED IN THE AUDIT PLANNING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Selisteanu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the audit activity is to currently present, under all significant aspects, a financial situation and to state an opinion according to which all economic operations are indeed correct and pursuant the law. As any activity that involves the human factor, the audit activity is subject to the influence of certain risks, risks that emerge, firstly, from an organizational level of the audited entity. In audit, risk is a very important influence element, whose ignorance can generate major implications in achieving the final goal to create an evidences database on which a pertinent and objective opinion can be founded, concerning the audited financial situations. In this context, one of the main objectives, that takes place during the planning phase of the audit, is represented by assessing risks to which the audited activity is subjected to, evaluation that helps the determining the work volume implied by the audit.

  14. Identifying environmental risk factors and mapping the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A.; Davis, J. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human West Nile virus (WNV) first arrived in the USA in 1999 and has since then spread across the country. Today, the highest incidence rates are found in the state of South Dakota. The disease occurrence depends on the complex interaction between the mosquito vector, the bird host and the dead-end human host. Understanding the spatial domain of this interaction and being able to identify disease transmission hotspots is crucial for effective disease prevention and mosquito control. In this study we use geospatial environmental information to understand what drives the spatial distribution of cases of human West Nile virus in South Dakota and to map relative infection risk across the state. To map the risk of human West Nile virus in South Dakota, we used geocoded human case data from the years 2004-2016. Satellite data from the Landsat ETM+ and MODIS for the years 2003 to 2016 were used to characterize environmental patterns. From these datasets we calculated indices, such as the normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized differenced water index (NDWI). In addition, datasets such as the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD), National Wetland inventory (NWI), National Elevation Dataset (NED) and Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) were utilized. Environmental variables were summarized for a buffer zone around the case and control points. We used a boosted regression tree model to identify the most important variables describing the risk of WNV infection. We generated a risk map by applying this model across the entire state. We found that the highest relative risk is present in the James River valley in northeastern South Dakota. Factors that were identified as influencing the transmission risk include inter-annual variability of vegetation cover, water availability and temperature. Land covers such as grasslands, low developed areas and wetlands were also found to be good predictors for human

  15. Early identification of work-related stress predicted sickness absence in employed women with musculoskeletal or mental disorders: a prospective, longitudinal study in a primary health care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Fjällström-Lundgren, Malin; Hensing, Gunnel

    2013-03-01

    The objectives were to identify work-related stress, and to analyse whether or not work-related stress served to predict sick-leave in a population of employed women who saw a doctor due to musculoskeletal or mental disorder at primary health care centres. This prospective study was based on data collected with the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ) at baseline 2008 and at follow-up 2009 in the primary health care centres in western Sweden. A total of 198 women participated. High perceived stress owing to indistinct organization and conflicts at baseline increased the risk for sick-leave 8 days or longer at follow-up. The adjusted relative risk (RR) was 2.50 (1.14-5.49). The combination of high stress perception owing to indistinct organization and high stress perception owing to individual demands and commitment increased the risk for sickness absence of 8 days or longer with an adjusted RR of 4.34 (1.72-10.99). Work-related stress predicted sick-leave during the follow-up at 12 months. The WSQ seemed to be useful in identifying women at risk of future sick-leave. Thus, it can be recommended to introduce questions and questionnaires on work-related stress in primary health care settings to early identify women with the need for preventive measures in order to decrease risk for sick-leave due to work-related stress.

  16. Work-related post-traumatic stress reactions: the hidden dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, B Z

    1987-01-01

    A variety of occupational health hazards can cause employees to experience feelings of victimization and to develop work-related post-traumatic stress responses. The author presents assessment guidelines developed in work with people suffering from toxic exposures to help identify factors that can place employees at high risk for such stress responses. These guidelines can be adapted to evaluate employee reactions to any type of occupational injury. Clinicians also need to move beyond individual treatment approaches to address workplace and policy interventions.

  17. Work-related agricultural fatalities in Australia, 1982-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, S M; Driscoll, T R; Harrison, J E; Frommer, M S; Leigh, J

    1993-06-01

    Work-related agricultural fatalities were examined as part of a larger population-based study of all work-related fatalities in Australia in the period 1982-1984. A total of 257 farm-related fatalities were identified, of which 223 were deaths of persons in the employed civilian labor force (19.4 deaths per 100,000 persons per year) and 34 were deaths of children less than 15 years of age. The fatality incidence was higher among men, older age groups, and nonmanagers in general and in certain occupations in particular. Mobile mechanical equipment (particularly tractors) was the main fatal agent, roll-overs accounting for many of the fatalities. Better provision of information to agricultural workers, improvements in compliance to and enforcement of legislation, and changes in farming work practices are recommended to improve the safety of farms and farm work.

  18. Cardiometabolic markers to identify cardiovascular disease risk in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalence of HIV is the highest in sub-Saharan Africa; South Africa (SA) is one of the most affected countries with the highest number of adults living with HIV infection in the world. Besides the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, in people living with HIV there ...

  19. Identifying risk factors that contribute to acute mountain sickness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is an ever-increasing burden on the health sector. With reported incidences .... schedule to reduce the likelihood of AMS. The data ... of Health and. Multidisciplinary Board on Exercise to identify individuals who.

  20. Work related stress and blood glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, A; Ricci, S; Tomei, F; Sacco, C; Pacchiarotti, A; Nardone, N; Ricci, P; Suppi, A; De Cesare, D P; Anzelmo, V; Giubilati, R; Pimpinella, B; Rosati, M V; Tomei, G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate work-related subjective stress in a group of workers on a major Italian company in the field of healthcare through the administration of a valid "questionnaire-tool indicator" (HSE Indicator Tool), and to analyze any correlation between stress levels taken from questionnaire scores and blood glucose values. We studied a final sample consisting of 241 subjects with different tasks. The HSE questionnaire - made up of 35 items (divided into 7 organizational dimensions) with 5 possible answers - has been distributed to all the subjects in occasion of the health surveillance examinations provided by law. The questionnaire was then analyzed using its specific software to process the results related to the 7 dimensions. These results were compared using the Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression with the blood glucose values obtained from each subject. From the analysis of the data the following areas resulted critical, in other words linked to an intermediate (yellow area) or high (red area) condition of stress: sustain from managers, sustain from colleagues, quality of relationships and professional changes. A significant positive correlation (p work stress can be statistically associated with increased levels of blood glucose.

  1. Work-related stress: A survey of Indian anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Sumitra Ganesh; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha; Kannan, Sadhana; Myatra, Sheila Nainan

    2017-01-01

    Work-related stress is common among medical caregivers and concerns all perioperative care providers. Although anesthesiologists are known to experience stress, there are limited Indian data addressing this issue. This survey was conducted among Indian anesthesiologists to determine their awareness about work stress and views regarding prevention programs. A survey questionnaire was distributed to delegates visiting the exhibits at the national anesthesiology conference in 2011. The questionnaire had ten questions on the work pattern, five on work-related stress, nine on opinion regarding the need and willingness to participate in stress-related programs. There were 1178 responders. Forty-three percent were faculty in medical institutions, 26% were residents and 25% were in free-lance practice. Ninety-one percent of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme. There was a significant correlation between the amount of stress and working for more than 8 h ( P working on weekends ( P = 0.002), and carrying work back home ( P work stress. Eighty-four percent of participants felt the need for stress management programs and 69% expressed their willingness to participate in the same. The majority of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme and was higher in anesthesiologists working long hours, over the weekend and those handling high-risk patients. A majority of participants felt the survey made them think about work-related stress and expressed their willingness to participate in stress management programs.

  2. Financial crisis and market risk premium: Identifying multiple structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. García-Machado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock market returns is, by now, well-documented in the literature. However, in this article we examine the long-run relationship between stock and bond markets returns over the period from 1991:11 to 2009:11, using Bai and Perron’s multiple structural change approach. Findings indicate that while the market risk premium is usually positive, periods with negative values appear only in three periods (1991:1-1993:2, 1998:3-2002:2 and from 2007:1-2009:11 leading to changes in the GDP evolution. Thereby, the study shows the presence of structural breaks in the Spanish market risk premium and its relationship with business cycle. These findings contribute to a better understanding of close linkages between the financial markets and the macroeconomic variables such as GDP. Implications of the study and suggestions for future research are provided.

  3. Neural network to identify individuals at health risk

    OpenAIRE

    Magoc, Tanja; Magoc, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    The risk of diseases such as heart attack and high blood pressure could be reduced by adequate physical activity. However, even though majority of general population claims to perform some physical exercise, only a minority exercises enough to keep a healthy living style. Thus, physical inactivity has become one of the major concerns of public health in the past decade. Research shows that the highest decrease in physical activity is noticed from high school to college. Thus, it i...

  4. Automated systems to identify relevant documents in product risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Product risk management involves critical assessment of the risks and benefits of health products circulating in the market. One of the important sources of safety information is the primary literature, especially for newer products which regulatory authorities have relatively little experience with. Although the primary literature provides vast and diverse information, only a small proportion of which is useful for product risk assessment work. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore the possibility of using text mining to automate the identification of useful articles, which will reduce the time taken for literature search and hence improving work efficiency. In this study, term-frequency inverse document-frequency values were computed for predictors extracted from the titles and abstracts of articles related to three tumour necrosis factors-alpha blockers. A general automated system was developed using only general predictors and was tested for its generalizability using articles related to four other drug classes. Several specific automated systems were developed using both general and specific predictors and training sets of different sizes in order to determine the minimum number of articles required for developing such systems. Results The general automated system had an area under the curve value of 0.731 and was able to rank 34.6% and 46.2% of the total number of 'useful' articles among the first 10% and 20% of the articles presented to the evaluators when tested on the generalizability set. However, its use may be limited by the subjective definition of useful articles. For the specific automated system, it was found that only 20 articles were required to develop a specific automated system with a prediction performance (AUC 0.748) that was better than that of general automated system. Conclusions Specific automated systems can be developed rapidly and avoid problems caused by subjective definition of useful articles. Thus the efficiency of

  5. Development of a preliminary risk index to identify trauma patients at risk for an unplanned intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dennis; Kobayashi, Leslie; Chang, David; Fortlage, Dale; Coimbra, Raul

    2014-01-01

    The development of respiratory failure requiring an emergent unplanned intubation (UI) is a potentially preventable complication associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to develop a clinical risk index for UI based on readily available clinical data to assist in the identification of trauma patients at risk for this complication. We also sought to determine the impact of UI on patient outcomes. This is a 3-year retrospective analysis of our Level 1 trauma center registry to identify all patients requiring a UI. Patients who required a UI were compared with patients who were never intubated. An additive risk index consisting of 10 clinical variables was created using the final significant variables from a stepwise logistic regression model. The sensitivity and specificity of every possible index score were calculated and added together to calculate the "gain in certainty" values. During the 3-year period, 7,552 patients were admitted, of whom 967 (12.8%) required intubation. Of these, 55 (5.7%) underwent a UI. The final risk index consisted of 10 variables as follows: age 55 years to 64 years, age 65 years or older, male sex, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 9 to 13, seizures, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, traumatic brain injury, four or more rib fractures, spine fractures, and long-bone fractures. Gain in certainty was maximized at an index score of 4, with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity of 86.0% and 74.9%, respectively. The probability of UI increased from 0.9% at a score of 1 to 2.9% at 4 and 43% at 9. UI was associated with increased overall complications, length of stay, and mortality (p the development of an additive risk index. Prospective validation of the risk index is potentially warranted. Diagnostic study, level III.

  6. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among hairdressers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happiness Anulika Aweto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study has investigated the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs, the most commonly affected body parts, the risk factors of WMSDs and the coping strategies adopted by hairdressers. Material and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. Two hundred and ninety-nine hairdressers (242 females and 57 males from salons in Surulere and Mushin Local Government Areas of Lagos State completed a 27-item questionnaire. They were selected using a non-probability consecutive sampling technique. The inferential analysis was conducted using the Chi2 test. The level of significance stood at p < 0.05. Results: The 12-month prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders stood at 75.6%. Two hundred and twenty-one (91.3% participants reported gradual onset of musculoskeletal disorders. One hundred and sixteen (47.9% participants had the onset of the WMSDs at the age range of 26–35 years. The most commonly affected body parts included the low back (76.3%, shoulder (62.5% and neck (46.3%. Some of the major job risk factors of the WMSDs that were identified included: working in the same position for long periods and attending to a large number of customers in 1 day. Taking sufficient rest breaks by participants was one of the coping strategies adopted by the participants. The mean number of years of working experience was 7.85±0.4 years. One hundred and twenty-four (41.5% participants had worked for 1–5 years. The Chi2 analysis showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders were significantly associated with the age of a participant (Chi2 = 78.78, p = 0.001, years of working experience (Chi2 = 78.03, p = 0.001 and hours spent working in a standing position (Chi2 = 8.77, p = 0.01, respectively. Conclusions: The age of hairdressers, their years of working and the long hours they spent working in a standing position may be significant factors that contribute to the high prevalence of the WMSDs

  7. Surveillance for work-related skull fractures in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kica, Joanna; Rosenman, Kenneth D

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to develop a multisource surveillance system for work-related skull fractures. Records on work-related skull fractures were obtained from Michigan's 134 hospitals, Michigan's Workers' Compensation Agency and death certificates. Cases from the three sources were matched to eliminate duplicates from more than one source. Workplaces where the most severe injuries occurred were referred to OSHA for an enforcement inspection. There were 318 work related skull fractures, not including facial fractures, between 2010 and 2012. In 2012, after the inclusion of facial fractures, 316 fractures were identified of which 218 (69%) were facial fractures. The Bureau of Labor Statistic's (BLS) 2012 estimate of skull fractures in Michigan, which includes facial fractures, was 170, which was 53.8% of those identified from our review of medical records. The inclusion of facial fractures in the surveillance system increased the percentage of women identified from 15.4% to 31.2%, decreased severity (hospitalization went from 48.7% to 10.6% and loss of consciousness went from 56.5% to 17.8%), decreased falls from 48.2% to 27.6%, and increased assaults from 5.0% to 20.2%, shifted the most common industry from construction (13.3%) to health care and social assistance (15.0%) and the highest incidence rate from males 65+ (6.8 per 100,000) to young men, 20-24 years (9.6 per 100,000). Workplace inspections resulted in 45 violations and $62,750 in penalties. The Michigan multisource surveillance system of workplace injuries had two major advantages over the existing national system: (a) workplace investigations were initiated hazards identified and safety changes implemented at the facilities where the injuries occurred; and (b) a more accurate count was derived, with 86% more work-related skull fractures identified than BLS's employer based estimate. A more comprehensive system to identify and target interventions for workplace injuries was implemented using hospital and

  8. Risk assessment tools to identify women with increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Complexity or simplicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2013-01-01

    A huge number of risk assessment tools have been developed. Far from all have been validated in external studies, more of them have absence of methodological and transparent evidence and few are integrated in national guidelines. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to provide an overview...... of existing valid and reliable risk assessment tools for prediction of osteoporotic fractures. Additionally, we aimed to determine if the performance each tool was sufficient for practical use and lastly to examine whether the complexity of the tools influenced their discriminative power. We searched Pub......Med, Embase and Cochrane databases for papers and evaluated these with respect to methodological quality using the QUADAS checklist. A total of 48 tools were identified, 20 had been externally validated, however only 6 tools had been tested more than once in a population-based setting with acceptable...

  9. Lean production and work-related musculoskeletal disorders: overviews of international and Swedish studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännmark, Mikael; Håkansson, Malin

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed at summarizing the knowledge of the relationship between Lean and work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), and WMSD risk factors, in manufacturing companies. Literature search processes identified 23 publications studying this, in scientific journals. Eight included measurements of WMSD; three were mostly negative, two showed mixed results, one showed no results and two were mostly positive. Eighteen publications included measurements of WMSD risk factors; seven showed mostly negative results, eight showed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one was inconclusive. Three literature reviews were identified, which studied this question; two were mostly negative, while the third was inconclusive. Also, 12 publications of grey literature studying Lean and WMSD risk factors in Swedish organizations were identified; nine showed mixed results, two showed mostly positive results and one showed mostly negative results. Due to the varying quality and study design of the publications, together with the few identified studies, it is difficult to compare them. The context and the implementation also likely affect the results. The general conclusion was that a Lean implementation may increase the risk of WMSD and risk factors for WMSD, if it is not accompanied with an ergonomic intervention.

  10. Work-related quality of life of Ugandan healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opollo, J G; Gray, J; Spies, L A

    2014-03-01

    To describe perceived work-related quality of life of Ugandan healthcare workers. A secondary aim was to seek participant input on ways to improve work environments. Poor patient outcomes, decreased employee motivation and decisions to leave the organization have been linked to poor work conditions. Interventions to correct healthcare worker shortage in developing countries require information about work quality of life. Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in health and educational settings in Uganda in July 2011. Participants completed the Biographical Information Scale demographic questionnaire and the validated 24-item Work-Related Quality of Life scale. Sample included 146 healthcare workers employed in various settings. Participants reported poorer quality of work life on the work conditions, control at work and home-work interface subscales. Participants perceived stress at work to be low and experienced higher job career satisfaction. There was a significant relationship between work-related quality of life, gender and hours worked. Participants' suggestions to improve work life ranged from simple no-cost suggestions to more complex system level interventions. Work-related quality of life was low in this convenience sample. Perceived stress at work was lower than expected, but may have been due to nurses' expectations of a normal work assignment. Predominantly women, the participants had significant caregiving responsibilities. Nurses must acquire a seat at the table where crucial decisions about nursing and its future are made. By advancing leadership skills, nurses can effectively advocate for organizational changes that address broad factors related to increasing job satisfaction, and retaining and attracting nurses. Nurses can influence work quality of life individually and collectively by identifying workplace concerns, demanding safe work environments, fostering teamwork and enhancing professional growth. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth With Bipolar Disorder: Identifying Demographic and Clinical Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Megan; Goldstein, Tina; Rooks, Brian; Merranko, John; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Ryan, Neal; Goldstein, Benjamin; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey; Keller, Martin; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to document rates of sexual activity among youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BD) and to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with first sexual activity and sexual risk behavior during follow-up. The sample was drawn from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study of 413 youth 7 to 17 years at baseline who met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorder according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children. Psychiatric symptoms during follow-up were assessed using the Adolescent Longitudinal Interview Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE). Sexual behavior and level of sexual risk (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, and/or partners with known sexually transmitted infections) were assessed by trained evaluators using the ALIFE Psychosocial Functioning Scale. Analyses were conducted in relation to first sexual behavior during follow-up and then to subsequent sexual behaviors (mean 9.7 years, standard deviation 3.2). Sexually active COBY youth (n = 292 of 413; 71%) were more likely females, using substances, and not living with both parents. Consistent with findings among healthy youth, earlier first sexual activity in the sample was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status, female sex, comorbid disruptive behavior disorder, and substance use. As with healthy youth, sexual risk behavior during follow-up was significantly associated with non-Caucasian race, low socioeconomic status, substance use, and history of sexual abuse. Of those COBY youth who were sexually active, 11% reported sexual assault or abuse, 36% reported becoming pregnant (or the significant other becoming pregnant), and 15% reported having at least 1 abortion (or the significant other having an abortion) during follow-up. Hypomanic symptoms during follow-up were temporally associated with the greatest risk for sexual risk behavior. Demographic and clinical factors could help identify youth with bipolar spectrum

  12. 28 CFR 301.302 - Work-related death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-related death. 301.302 Section 301... COMPENSATION Compensation for Work-Related Physical Impairment or Death § 301.302 Work-related death. A claim for compensation as the result of work-related death may be filed by a dependent of the deceased...

  13. The role of eye protection in work-related eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, L P; Taouk, Y

    1995-05-01

    A recent survey of general hospitals by the Victorian Injury Surveillance System found that ocular trauma represented 15% of work-related injuries. As circumstances surrounding occupational eye injuries have been poorly documented previously, their associations to occupation, industry and work-safety practices, including safety eyewear use, need to be identified to develop appropriate preventive strategies for high-risk groups. From a prospective cross-sectional survey of all eye injuries treated at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, work-related cases were analysed for demographic, occupational and safety eye-wear information. Hospital-based data were supplemented by information from WorkCover Authorities and Labour Force statistics to derive incidence and cost estimates. There were 9390 eye injuries during the 18-month survey period; 42% (n=3923) of total and 29% (n=52) of penetrating ocular injuries occurred at work. The most frequently injured were metal, automotive and building trades workers grinding and drilling (41% of outpatients) and hammering (53% of penetrating eye injuries). Automotive workers had the highest frequency for penetrating injuries, and most were exposed to hammering and were also the least likely to wear safety eye-wear. Eye injuries are frequent (10% of work-related injuries) and highly preventable by the correct use of safety eye-wear, a cost-effective intervention that may result in cost savings of $59 million for work-type activities in the occupational and domestic settings in Australia each year.

  14. Protecting Critical Infrastructure by Identifying Pathways of Exposure to Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip O’Neill

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, our critical infrastructure is managed and controlled by computers and the information networks that connect them. Cyber-terrorists and other malicious actors understand the economic and social impact that a successful attack on these systems could have. While it is imperative that we defend against such attacks, it is equally imperative that we realize how best to react to them. This article presents the strongest-path method of analyzing all potential pathways of exposure to risk – no matter how indirect or circuitous they may be – in a network model of infrastructure and operations. The method makes direct use of expert knowledge about entities and dependency relationships without the need for any simulation or any other models. By using path analysis in a directed graph model of critical infrastructure, planners can model and assess the effects of a potential attack and develop resilient responses.

  15. Faculty perspectives on the inclusion of work-related learning in engineering curricula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnell, Marie; Geschwind, Lars Allan; Kolmos, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify faculty perspectives on the integration of work-related issues in engineering education. A mixed methods approach was used to explore faculty attitudes towards work-related learning, to describe activities related to working life that have been introduced...... into the curriculum and to identify factors that faculty see as important if the amount of work-related learning is to increase. The results show that faculty members are positive about integrating work-related issues into the curriculum. Programmes with more extensive connections to industry offer more integrated...... activities, such as projects with external actors, and use professional contacts established through research in their teaching. In order to increase work-related learning in engineering curricula, faculty request clear goals and pedagogical tools. Other options to increase work-related learning include...

  16. Psychosocial Factors and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Southeastern Asian Female Workers Living in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonkyeong Lee

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities.

  17. A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD...

  18. A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Huysmans, Maaike A.; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex; Van Mechelen, Willem; Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; Holtermann, Andreas; Janwantanakul, Prawit; Van Der Molen, Henk F.; Rempel, David; Straker, Leon; Walker-Bone, Karen; Coenen, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD

  19. A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Beek (Allard); Dennerlein, J.T. (Jack T.); Huysmans, M.A. (Maaike A.); S.E. Mathiassen; A. Burdorf (Alex); W. van Mechelen (Willem); J.H. van Dieën (Jaap); M.H.W. Frings-Dresen; A. Holtermann (Andreas); Janwantanakul, P. (Prawit); Van Der Molen, H.F. (Henk F.); Rempel, D. (David); L. Straker (Leon); Walker-Bone, K. (Karen); P. Coenen (Pieter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in

  20. Pyroglyphid mites as a source of work-related allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macan, Jelena; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Milković-Kraus, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Pyroglyphid mites are primarily associated with allergen exposure at home; hence the name house dust mites. However, we have found numerous studies reporting pyroglyhid mite levels in public and occupational settings. This review presents the findings of house dust mite allergens (family Pyroglyphidae, species Dermatophagoides) as potential work-related risk factors and proposes occupations at risk of house dust mite-related diseases. Pyroglyphid mites or their allergens are found in various workplaces, but clinically relevant exposures have been observed in hotels, cinemas, schools, day-care centres, libraries, public transportation (buses, trains, taxies, and airplanes), fishing-boats, submarines, poultry farms, and churches. Here we propose a classification of occupational risk as low (occasional exposure to mite allergen levels up to 2 μg g(-1)), moderate (exposure between 2 μg g(-1) and 10 μg g(-1)), and high (exposure >10 μg g(-1)). The classification of risk should include factors relevant for indoor mite population (climate, building characteristics, and cleaning schedule). To avoid development or aggravation of allergies associated with exposure to house dust mites at work, occupational physicians should assess exposure risk at work, propose proper protection, provide vocational guidance to persons at risk and conduct pre-employment and periodic examinations to diagnose new allergy cases. Protection at work should aim to control dust mite levels at work. Measures may include proper interior design and regular cleaning and building maintenance.

  1. Reducing social inequalities in health: work-related strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2002-01-01

    Despite reduced health risks in terms of physical and chemical hazards current trends in occupational life continue to contribute to ill health and disease among economically active people. Stress at work plays a crucial role in this respect, as evidenced by recent scientific progress. This paper discusses two leading theoretical models of work-related stress, the demand-control model and the model of effort-reward imbalance, and it summarizes available evidence on adverse health effects. As work stress in terms of these models is more prevalent among lower socioeconomic status groups, these conditions contribute to the explanation of socially graded risks of morbidity and mortality in midlife. Implications of this new knowledge for the design and implementation of worksite health-promotion measures are elaborated. In conclusion, it is argued that workplace strategies deserve high priority on any agenda that aims at reducing social inequalities in health.

  2. Socio-demographic, behavioural and cognitive correlates of work-related sitting time in German men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Bucksch, Jens; Schneider, Sven; Froboese, Ingo

    2014-12-11

    Sitting time is ubiquitous for most adults in developed countries and is most prevalent in three domains: in the workplace, during transport and during leisure time. The correlates of prolonged sitting time in workplace settings are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the gender-specific associations between the socio-demographic, behavioural and cognitive correlates of work-related sitting time. A cross-sectional sample of working German adults (n = 1515; 747 men; 43.5 ± 11.0 years) completed questionnaires regarding domain-specific sitting times and physical activity (PA) and answered statements concerning beliefs about sitting. To identify gender-specific correlates of work-related sitting time, we used a series of linear regressions. The overall median was 2 hours of work-related sitting time/day. Regression analyses showed for men (β = -.43) and for women (β = -.32) that work-related PA was negatively associated with work-related sitting time, but leisure-related PA was not a significant correlate. For women only, transport-related PA (β = -.07) was a negative correlate of work-related sitting time, suggesting increased sitting times during work with decreased PA in transport. Education and income levels were positively associated, and in women only, age (β = -.14) had a negative correlation with work-related sitting time. For both genders, TV-related sitting time was negatively associated with work-related sitting time. The only association with cognitive correlates was found in men for the belief 'Sitting for long periods does not matter to me' (β = .10) expressing a more positive attitude towards sitting with increasing sitting durations. The present findings show that in particular, higher educated men and women as well as young women are high-risk groups to target for reducing prolonged work-related sitting time. In addition, our findings propose considering increasing transport-related PA, especially in women, as

  3. Identifying risk sources of air contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzlik, Jiri; Bozek, Frantisek; Pawelczyk, Adam; Licbinsky, Roman; Naplavova, Magdalena; Pondelicek, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This article is directed to determining concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are sorbed to solid particles in the air. Pollution sources were identified on the basis of the ratio of benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiPe) to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Because various important information is lost by determining the simple ratio of concentrations, least squares linear regression (classic ordinary least squares regression), reduced major axis, orthogonal regression, and Kendall-Theil robust diagnostics were utilized for identification. Statistical evaluation using all aforementioned methods demonstrated different ratios of the monitored PAHs in the intervals examined during warmer and colder periods. Analogous outputs were provided by comparing gradients of the emission factors acquired from the measured concentrations of BghiPe and BaP in motor vehicle exhaust gases. Based on these outputs, it was possible plausibly to state that the influence of burning organic fuels in heating stoves is prevalent in colder periods whereas in warmer periods transport was the exclusive source because other sources of PAH emissions were not found in the examined locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Work-related versus non-work-related road accidents, developments in the last decade in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbotel, Barbara; Martin, Jean Louis; Chiron, Mireille

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the changes that have affected work-related road accidents between 1997 and 2006, using police data. The study focused on drivers aged between 14 and 64 years. The characteristics considered were the age, gender, type of vehicle and occupation of the individuals involved and the location, time and severity of the accident. Two periods were compared, 1997-2000 and 2003-2006. Three types of journey were considered: while at work, commuting (going to and from work), and non-work-related. The percentage of all accidents which were work-related varied little over the decade (10% while at work and 18% while commuting). The accidents that occurred while at work still had the lowest fatality rates (1.4% among women and 3.4% among men in 2003-2006). Men accounted for the majority of the casualties: 90% of fatalities while at work and approximately 80% for the other types of journey. The greatest reduction took place in the number of motorists, and this has led to an increase in the proportion of motorized two-wheelers both while at work and while commuting. In the case of accidents while at work, the professional drivers still had the highest risk, craftsmen and shopkeepers were also at higher risk than manual workers of both genders and male employees. Extending analysis of this type to other European countries would be of major interest both for epidemiological monitoring and the prevention of occupational road accidents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The New Zealand child work-related fatal injury study: 1985-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Rebbecca; Feyer, Anne-Marie; Langley, John; Wren, John

    2004-05-21

    To estimate the numbers and rates of work-related fatal injury for children under the age of 15 years. Potential cases of work-related injury deaths of persons aged workplace work-related fatalities were identified. The vast majority of children identified were fatally injured while a bystander to another person's work. Workplace bystander involvement was found to vary by age, with the majority of workers identified aged 10-14 years old. With a third of all fatalities, the agricultural industry was the most common industry for workplace work-related fatalities in children. In the period 1985-94, children New Zealand's total workplace bystander deaths. Children contribute significantly to the overall burden of work-related fatal injury in New Zealand, especially as bystanders to other people's work. The high contribution to bystander deaths by children aged <15 years suggests that hazard control in certain work settings is lacking.

  6. The Influence of Work-Related Stressors on Clergy Husbands and Their Wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael Lane; Blanton, Priscilla White

    1994-01-01

    Assessed predictive power of 5 work-related stressors identified in clergy family literature on criterion variables of marital, parent, and life satisfaction among 272 clergy husbands and their wives from 6 denominations. Findings supported hypotheses that work-related stressors were inversely related to marital, parental, and life satisfaction…

  7. Antecedents of Employees' Involvement in Work-Related Learning: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Baert, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in work-related learning seems to be more complex than a simple supply-demand fit. An interplay of several factors can influence this involvement at different stages of the decision-making process of the employee. The aim of this systematic review is to examine which antecedents of work-related learning have been identified in previous…

  8. Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of work-related injuries among workers of bottling industries in Benin city, ... job descriptions and activities which constitute health hazards for the individual. ... with the major work-related injuries and illness being physical injuries.

  9. [Analysis of work-related fatigue characteristics and its influencing factors in scientific and technical personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Zhou, Dinglun; Song, Mingying; Lan, Yajia

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the current status and characteristics of work-related fatigue among scientific and technical personnel and its associated factors, and to provide a scientific basis for further interventions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the staff from a single scientific institution, using a self-administered questionnaire. Basic information of participants, Fatigue Scale-14, and Job Content Questionnaire were collected. The prevalence of work-related fatigue among the scientific and technical personnel was 54.6%; work-related fatigue was positively correlated with occupational stress (rs = 0.384, P work-related fatigue included occupational stress profiles, social support, and educational status. A higher risk of work-related fatigue was found in the staff under high stress, compared with those under low stress (OR = 8.5, 95%CI = 3.9∼18.7). Social support served as a protective factor for work-related fatigue, while a higher level of education was correlated with more severe work-related fatigue. Work-related fatigue is common and serious among scientific and technical personnel, especially in those under high stress. Effective interventions according to occupational stress are of great importance to reduce work-related fatigue.

  10. Work-related injuries in minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, S E; Handke, J L; Halperin, W E; Moll, M B; Thun, M J

    1988-01-01

    Since 1938, federal child labor laws have restricted employment of persons under 18 years old, in part to protect them from hazardous occupations. Workers' compensation claims reported to the Supplementary Data System of the Bureau of Labor Statistics were examined to define the current status of occupational injuries among minors. Data tapes from 1980 to 1983 were searched to identify all current claims for injuries and illnesses occurring in 1980 in persons under age 18. Injury rates were calculated using information about employment in 1979 available from the 1980 census. In the 24 states included in this study, 23,823 claims were reported for persons less than 18 years old. Of these claims, approximately 10% were from persons under age 16. Rates of injuries in 16- and 17 year olds were 12.6 per 100 full-time male workers and 6.6 per 100 full-time female workers. Serious injuries included fractures, dislocations, and amputations, accounting for 5.8%, 0.7%, and 0.6% of cases, respectively. California, the only state that coded whether injuries resulted in fatalities, reported 12 deaths in this age group. Machines and vehicles, many of which are restricted under child labor laws, accounted for 8.3% and 5.8% of claims. These data suggest that persons under age 18 years are not adequately protected from occupational injury. Further attention and, possibly, new preventive strategies are needed.

  11. Case management services for work related upper extremity disorders. Integrating workplace accommodation and problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W S; Feuerstein, M; Lincoln, A E; Miller, V I; Wood, P M

    2001-08-01

    A case manager's ability to obtain worksite accommodations and engage workers in active problem solving may improve health and return to work outcomes for clients with work related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs). This study examines the feasibility of a 2 day training seminar to help nurse case managers identify ergonomic risk factors, provide accommodation, and conduct problem solving skills training with workers' compensation claimants recovering from WRUEDs. Eight procedural steps to this case management approach were identified, translated into a training workshop format, and conveyed to 65 randomly selected case managers. Results indicate moderate to high self ratings of confidence to perform ergonomic assessments (mean = 7.5 of 10) and to provide problem solving skills training (mean = 7.2 of 10) after the seminar. This training format was suitable to experienced case managers and generated a moderate to high level of confidence to use this case management approach.

  12. Attending Weak Signals: The Prevention of Work-related Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Liff

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the characteristics of communication among managers, human resource (HR experts, and occupational health care specialists, as they deal with such informal information as weak signals in the prevention of work-related illnesses, using a theoretical framework in which the prevention of work-related illness is analogous to theory on crisis management. This is a qualitative study in which individual and focus-group interviews were conducted in a Swedish context with occupational health care specialists, managers, and HR experts. The results suggest that organizational solutions have failed and continue to fail at controlling workers’ health problems, although the main difficulty is not in identifying the ‘right’ individually oriented weak signals. Rather, it is upper management’s reliance on formal information (e.g., statistics and surveys – because of the difficulty in supplementing it with informal information (e.g., rumors and gossip – that makes it difficult to improve traditional health and safety work

  13. Farm work-related asthma among US primary farm operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Jacek M; White, Gretchen E; Rodman, Chad; Schleiff, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of current asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm among primary farm operators. The 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey data were used to produce estimates and prevalence odds ratios. An estimated 5.1% of farm operators had asthma. Of these, 15.4% had farm work-related asthma. Among operators with farm work-related asthma, 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8%-68.2%) had an asthma attack in the prior 12 months and 33.3% (95% CI: 21.2%-45.4%) had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work. Of those who had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work, 65.0% associated their asthma attack with plant/tree materials. This study provides updated information on asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm and identifies certain groups of farm operators that might benefit from workplace asthma prevention intervention.

  14. Work-Related Depression in Primary Care Teams in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andréa Tenório Correia; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Susser, Ezra; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2016-11-01

    To identify work-related factors associated with depressive symptoms and probable major depression in primary care teams. Cross-sectional study among primary care teams (community health workers, nursing assistants, nurses, and physicians) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil (2011-2012; n = 2940), to assess depressive symptoms and probable major depression and their associations with job strain and other work-related conditions. Community health workers presented higher prevalence of probable major depression (18%) than other primary care workers. Higher odds ratios for depressive symptoms or probable major depression were associated with longer duration of employment in primary care; having a passive, active, or high-strain job; lack of supervisor feedback regarding performance; and low social support from colleagues and supervisors. Observed levels of job-related depression can endanger the sustainability of primary care programs. Public Health implications. Strategies are needed to deliver care to primary care workers with depression, facilitating diagnosis and access to treatment, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive interventions can include training managers to provide feedback and creating strategies to increase job autonomy and social support at work.

  15. Nutritional variables and work-related accidents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, M A T; Zangirolani, Lia Thieme Oikawa; Cordeiro, Ricardo Carlos; da Costa, Proença Rossana Pacheco; Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional aspects are important for the prevention of diseases and disorders, and few studies have focused on the relationship between risk of work injury and nutritional variables. This study aimed to verify whether nutritional variables constitute risk factors for work-related accidents. 1,422 industrial workers (600 cases plus 822 controls). A case-control study was carried out in an industrial city in south-east Brazil. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted using work-related accidents as the response variable and nutritional variables as predictors. The associations were assessed by Odds Ratio (OR), with a p-value work-related accidents were (a) attending formal education for an above average number of years (OR=0.91, pwork-related accidents. This indicates the need, during the formulation of policies for these kinds of government benefits, to include nutrition aspects in order to minimize work-related accidents risks.

  16. Assessing urban potential flooding risk and identifying effective risk-reduction measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherqui, Frédéric; Belmeziti, Ali; Granger, Damien; Sourdril, Antoine; Le Gauffre, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Flood protection is one of the traditional functions of any drainage system, and it remains a major issue in many cities because of economic and health impact. Heavy rain flooding has been well studied and existing simulation software can be used to predict and improve level of protection. However, simulating minor flooding remains highly complex, due to the numerous possible causes related to operational deficiencies or negligent behaviour. According to the literature, causes of blockages vary widely from one case to another: it is impossible to provide utility managers with effective recommendations on how to improve the level of protection. It is therefore vital to analyse each context in order to define an appropriate strategy. Here we propose a method to represent and assess the flooding risk, using GIS and data gathered during operation and maintenance. Our method also identifies potential management responses. The approach proposed aims to provide decision makers with clear and comprehensible information. Our method has been successfully applied to the Urban Community of Bordeaux (France) on 4895 interventions related to flooding recorded during the 2009-2011 period. Results have shown the relative importance of different issues, such as human behaviour (grease, etc.) or operational deficiencies (roots, etc.), and lead to identify corrective and proactive. This study also confirms that blockages are not always directly due to the network itself and its deterioration. Many causes depend on environmental and operating conditions on the network and often require collaboration between municipal departments in charge of roads, green spaces, etc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Systemic Thinking and Requisite Holism in Mastering Logistics Risks: the Model for Identifying Risks in Organisations and Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Borut Jereb; Teodora Ivanuša; Bojan Rosi

    2013-01-01

    Risks in logistic processes represent one of the major issues in supply chain management nowadays. Every organization strives for success, and uninterrupted operations are the key factors in achieving this goal, which cannot be achieved without efficient risk management. In the scope of supply chain risk research, we identified some key issues in the field, the major issue being the lack of standardization and models, which can make risk management in an organization easier and more efficient...

  18. Identifying Students at Risk: An Examination of Computer-Adaptive Measures and Latent Class Growth Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Castañeda, Juan Javier; Ochs, Sarah; Jones, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Multitiered systems of support depend on screening technology to identify students at risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a computer-adaptive test and latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify students at risk in reading with focus on the use of this methodology to characterize student performance in screening.…

  19. Developing a Model for Identifying Students at Risk of Failure in a First Year Accounting Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm; Therry, Len; Whale, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the process involved in attempting to build a predictive model capable of identifying students at risk of failure in a first year accounting unit in an Australian university. Identifying attributes that contribute to students being at risk can lead to the development of appropriate intervention strategies and support…

  20. Identifying At-Risk Students in General Chemistry via Cluster Analysis of Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify academically at-risk students in first-semester general chemistry using affective characteristics via cluster analysis. Through the clustering of six preselected affective variables, three distinct affective groups were identified: low (at-risk), medium, and high. Students in the low affective group…

  1. Risk factors for atherosclerosis - can they be used to identify the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors are often used in preventive care programmes to identify the patient at particular risk for developing atherosclerosis. Risk factors for atherosclerosis have also been shown to be linked to the presence of the disease at a given time, a fact that may be helpful when screening for additional atherosclerotic disease in ...

  2. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  3. Work-related injuries: injury characteristics, survival, and age effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Agathoklis; Talving, Peep; Kobayashi, Leslie; Barmparas, Galinos; Plurad, David; Lam, Lydia; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-06-01

    Work-related injuries impose a significant burden on society. The goal of this study was to delineate the epidemiology and the effect of age on type and mortality after occupational injuries. Patients 16 years of age or older sustaining work-related injuries were identified from the National Trauma Databank 12.0. The study population was stratified into four age groups: 16 to 35, 36 to 55, 56 to 65, and older than 65 years old. The demographic characteristics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, setting of injury, use of alcohol or other illicit drugs, and mortality were analyzed and related to age strata. Overall 67,658 patients were identified. There were 27,125 (40.1%) patients in the age group 16 to 35 years, 30,090 (44.5%) in the group 36 to 55 years, 6,618 (9.8%) in the group 56 to 65 years, and 3,825 (5.7%) older than 65 years. The injury severity increased significantly with age. Elderly patients were significantly more likely to sustain intracranial hemorrhages, spinal, and other skeletal injuries. The overall mortality was 2.9 per cent (1938) with the latter increasing significantly in a stepwise fashion with progressing age, becoming sixfold higher in patients older than 65 years (OR, 6.18; 95% CI, 4.78 to 7.80; P < 0.001). Our examination illustrates the associations between occupational injury and significant mortality that warrant intervention for mortality reduction. There is a stepwise-adjusted increase in mortality with progressing age.

  4. Work-related stress and Type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, M P; Sargeant, L A; Caleyachetty, R; Griffin, S J

    2012-04-01

    Work-related psychosocial stress has been hypothesized to increase the individual risk of Type 2 diabetes; however, observational epidemiological studies investigating the association between work-related psychosocial stress and Type 2 diabetes have provided an inconsistent picture. To evaluate whether work-related psychosocial stress (defined by a work-related stress model or by long work hours) is associated with the risk of Type 2 diabetes. A systematic review of the literature was conducted until March 2010. Studies eligible for inclusion were published observational epidemiological studies of adult participants in community or occupational settings if they had a measure of work-related stress on a validated scale or a measure of work hours or overtime assessed prior to, or at the same time as, assessment of Type 2 diabetes status. Where possible, meta-analysis was conducted to obtain summary odds ratios of the association. We located nine studies (four prospective, one case-control and four cross-sectional). The meta-analyses did not show any statistically significant associations between any individual aspect of work-related psychosocial stress or job strain and risk of Type 2 diabetes. The specific hypothesis that a working environment characterized by high psychosocial stress is directly associated with increased risk of Type 2 diabetes could not be supported from the meta-analysis.

  5. Maxillofacial trauma due to work-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hächl, O; Tuli, T; Schwabegger, A; Gassner, R

    2002-02-01

    Even though numerous reports on maxillofacial trauma exist, only a few give detailed information about work-related maxillofacial injuries. The purpose of this study was to reveal the significance of maxillofacial injuries related to accidents occurring at work by evaluating a large number of patients with maxillofacial injuries over a 9-year period. Out of the 8704 trauma patients treated between 1991 and 1999 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at the University of Innsbruck, Austria, 463 (5.4%) were injured at work. All charts were reviewed and analyzed according to age, gender, cause of accident, occupation, type of injury, location and frequency of fractures. The highest incidence of maxillofacial injury was found among construction workers (a total of 124 patients, 26.8%), followed by craftsmen (102 patients, 22.0%) and office employees (69 patients, 14.9%). The sex distribution showed an overall male-to-female ratio of 11.8:1 and those in the age group most affected were between 20 and 29 years of age. The most frequent cause of injury was a blow in 48.4%, followed by falls and falls over obstacles, accounting for 27.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Of all trauma, 45.4% (210 persons) sustained 423 maxillofacial fractures, 31.7% (147 patients) suffered 232 dento-alveolar injuries, and 21.2% (98 people) showed 430 soft-tissue injuries. One-fifth (20.7%) of all patients displayed concomitant injuries with cerebral and cranial trauma being the most common. The probability of sustaining maxillofacial trauma at work is correlated to the nature of the occupation. Individuals (mostly men) using tools or machines at work are exposed to a much higher risk of work-related maxillofacial trauma.

  6. [A monitoring system for work-related accidents in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia; de Medeiros, Maria Angélica Tavares; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Bragantini, Clarice Aparecida; Varolla, Antenor J; Celso, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The authors report on the development of a work accident monitoring system in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, with the following characteristics: information feeding the system is obtained in real time directly from accident treatment centers; the system has universal monitoring, covering all work-related accidents in Piracicaba, regardless of the nature of the worker's employment conditions, place of work, or place of residence; health surveillance and promotion of health initiatives are triggered by identification of sentinel events; spatial distribution analysis of work-related accidents is a basic tool in designing accident awareness strategies and accident prevention policies. The system was implemented in November 2003 and by October 2004 had identified 5,320 work-related accidents, or a 3.8% annual proportional incidence of work-related accidents in the municipal area. We illustrate spatial analysis of registered work-related accidents and present a detailed investigation of one example of a serious accident.

  7. Predictive risk modelling under different data access scenarios: who is identified as high risk and for how long?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tracy L; Kaldor, Jill; Sutherland, Kim; Humphries, Jacob; Jorm, Louisa R; Levesque, Jean-Frederic

    2018-01-01

    Objective This observational study critically explored the performance of different predictive risk models simulating three data access scenarios, comparing: (1) sociodemographic and clinical profiles; (2) consistency in high-risk designation across models; and (3) persistence of high-risk status over time. Methods Cross-sectional health survey data (2006–2009) for more than 260 000 Australian adults 45+ years were linked to longitudinal individual hospital, primary care, pharmacy and mortality data. Three risk models predicting acute emergency hospitalisations were explored, simulating conditions where data are accessed through primary care practice management systems, or through hospital-based electronic records, or through a hypothetical ‘full’ model using a wider array of linked data. High-risk patients were identified using different risk score thresholds. Models were reapplied monthly for 24 months to assess persistence in high-risk categorisation. Results The three models displayed similar statistical performance. Three-quarters of patients in the high-risk quintile from the ‘full’ model were also identified using the primary care or hospital-based models, with the remaining patients differing according to age, frailty, multimorbidity, self-rated health, polypharmacy, prior hospitalisations and imminent mortality. The use of higher risk prediction thresholds resulted in lower levels of agreement in high-risk designation across models and greater morbidity and mortality in identified patient populations. Persistence of high-risk status varied across approaches according to updated information on utilisation history, with up to 25% of patients reassessed as lower risk within 1 year. Conclusion/implications Small differences in risk predictors or risk thresholds resulted in comparatively large differences in who was classified as high risk and for how long. Pragmatic predictive risk modelling design decisions based on data availability or projected

  8. Work-related stress management between workplace and occupational health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha

    2016-06-13

    Work-related stress has been evaluated as one of the most important health risks in Europe. Prevention of work related stress and interventions to reduce risk factors for stress in the workplace are conducted together by the enterprise and occupational health services. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of Finnish occupational physicians on the stress management with enterprises. From the Finnish Association of Occupational Health Physicians membership list 207 physicians responded to self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The data were analysed using SPSS 17.0. The client enterprises contacted occupational health services frequently about work-related stress. Collaboration between occupational health and enterprises was strongest in companies' own occupational health services and generally with most experienced physicians. Occupational health services and enterprises shared responsibility for managing work-related stress. Professional experience and close contact with organisation management favours successful stress management between occupational health and enterprises.

  9. Identifying and evaluating E-procurement in supply chain risk by Fuzzy MADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Memarzade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available E-procurement risks has emerged as an important issue for researchers and practitioners because mitigating supply chain risk helps improve firms’ as well as supply chains’ performance. E-marketplaces have been steadily growing and there have been significant interest in e-business research. There are different risks and uncertainties involved with E-marketplaces, which jeopardizes the sector but we have had a large amount of hype and the business still continue to grow. The primary aim of this study is to identify E-procurement risks and evaluate them using a fuzzy AHP framework. We contribute E-procurement risk by identifying 13 critical criteria and determine four important ones including the extent of acceptable information, interrelationship risk, lack of honesty in relationships and product quality and safety for evaluating suppliers’ risk.

  10. Prevention and management of work-related cardiovascular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akizumi Tsutsumi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs constitute a major burden for health of working populations throughout the world with as much as 50% of all causes of death and at least 25% of work disability. There are some changes in CVD risk factors among occupational classes. This is mainly due to the new types of work-related causes of morbidity associated with the recent developments in global work life, particularly in the industrialized countries. Meanwhile, in the developing countries or those in transition (e.g., in Eastern Europe, CVD mortality is increasing due to major socioeconomic changes, the demographic transition and rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, all leading to growing challenges to cardiovascular health. Better control of known risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose is effective to prevent CVD incidence. But the expected improvement has not been achieved. The obstacles of achieving such impact are due to lack of awareness, lack of policies and their implementation into practice and shortage of infrastructures and human resources. These are needed for wide-scale and long-term programme implementation. Considering the WHO Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All, the WHO Global Action Plan on Workers’ Health, the WHO Programme on Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases and the ILO Decent Work agenda, the 6th ICOH International Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases adopted the Tokyo Declaration.

  11. Sex differences in work-related traumatic brain injury due to assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollayeva, Tatyana; Mollayeva, Shirin; Lewko, John; Colantonio, Angela

    2016-06-16

    To examine the etiology, prevalence and severity of assault-precipitated work-related traumatic brain injury (wrTBI) in Ontario, Canada through a sex lens. Cross-sectional study using data abstracted from the Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) claims files in 2004. Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine the distribution of worker/employment/incident characteristics. Workplace physical violence that resulted in a TBI accounted for 6.6% percent of all TBI injury claims. Female workers, primarily in the health care/social services sector, accounted for over half of all TBIs. Most workers were assaulted by consumers/clients. Forty five percent of injuries occurred among workers with less than 3 years of employment. This paper identifies profiles of workers and workplaces for targeted preventive efforts. Future studies are needed to further address risk factors by sex and outcomes, such as length of disability and health care cost.

  12. [Work-related musculoskeletal disorders and their association with occupational nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Michele Cristiene Nachtigall; Milbrath, Viviane Marten; Bielemann, Valquíria Machado; de Siqueira, Hedi Crecencia Heckler

    2008-12-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal diseases (MSD) are disorders in the musculoskeletal structures caused by chronic occupational processes. The objective of this study was to get to know scientific papers on MSD related to the nursing profession. A bibliographic research of the last ten years was conducted at Health Virtual Library using the main data bases. Twenty-one summaries were found. Among them, thirteen were selected because they specifically focused on the subject. Three main areas were identified: occupational health nurses in relation to MSDs--their importance in health prevention and promotion; Ergonomics as MSDs prevention method: performed as changes on work consider risk factors; Vulnerability of Nursing staff to MSDs--predisposing factors to disease caused by inappropriate working conditions. The conclusion was that an occupational and ergonomic health service is important to prevent MSDs, especially among the nursing staff.

  13. Divorce transitions: identifying risk and promoting resilience for children and their parental relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G G

    1999-10-01

    This paper gives an account of qualitative research linked to clinical work relating to some of the short-term effects of divorce on children within a British perspective. The transitions that accompany divorce and family reordering are shown by many studies in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand as well as in the United Kingdom to have stressful effects for children that can lead to long-term negative outcomes. Other studies have focused on the differential social and family factors that may contribute to the "differences that make a difference" to whether divorce has harmful effects on children. This paper describes clinical intervention into family relationships in divorcing and postdivorce families and suggests some high-risk issues for children. The focus of the work is one promoting long-term connections between parents and children in reordered+ families. Some interactions that may promote resilience in children as well as in their parents are alluded to briefly.

  14. Work-related behaviour and experience patterns of physicians compared to other professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Kieschke, Ulf; Spahn, Claudia

    2007-08-11

    To identify health risk factors and resources of physicians in comparison with other professions. Data of cross-sectional mail surveys conducted among German physicians (n = 344), teachers (n = 5169), policemen (n = 851), prison officers (n = 3653), and starting entrepreneurs (n = 632) were analysed regarding eleven health-relevant dimensions and four behaviour patterns examined by the questionnaire "Work-Related Behaviour and Experience Pattern (AVEM)". Only 17% of the physicians showed healthy behaviour and experience patterns. With 43%, they scored highest in terms of reduced working motivation. Together with the teachers, they also had the highest scores for resignation and burnout (27%). Satisfaction with life and work as well as social support showed medium scores. Starting entrepreneurs showed the healthiest patterns (45%), but also the highest risk pattern for overexertion (38%). It was possible to identify clear risk patterns for profession-related psychosocial symptoms and impairments. The high scores for reduced working motivation demonstrate the need for interventions to improve organisation of health care and individual coping strategies.

  15. Space-Time Analysis to Identify Areas at Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliany C. O. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying areas that were at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in residents aged 45 years or older of the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande between 2009 and 2011. We conducted an ecological study of mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. Mortality rates were calculated for each census tract by the Local Empirical Bayes estimator. High- and low-risk clusters were identified by retrospective space-time scans for each year using the Poisson probability model. We defined the year and month as the temporal analysis unit and the census tracts as the spatial analysis units adjusted by age and sex. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the socioeconomic and environmental variables by risk classification. High-risk clusters showed higher income ratios than low-risk clusters, as did temperature range and atmospheric particulate matter. Low-risk clusters showed higher humidity than high-risk clusters. The Eastern region of Várzea Grande and the central region of Cuiabá were identified as areas at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in individuals aged 45 years or older. High mortality risk was associated with socioeconomic and environmental factors. More high-risk clusters were observed at the end of the dry season.

  16. Evaluation of an inpatient fall risk screening tool to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Kang, Chun-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Kuo, Jessie Ming-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lien; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the inpatient fall risk screening tool and to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients. Variations exist in several screening tools applied in acute care hospitals for examining risk factors for falls and identifying high-risk inpatients. Secondary data analysis. A subset of inpatient data for the period from June 2011-June 2014 was extracted from the nursing information system and adverse event reporting system of an 818-bed teaching medical centre in Taipei. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 205 fallers and 37,232 nonfallers were identified. The results revealed that the inpatient fall risk screening tool (cut-off point of ≥3) had a low sensitivity level (60%), satisfactory specificity (87%), a positive predictive value of 2·0% and a negative predictive value of 99%. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0·805 (sensitivity, 71·8%; specificity, 78%). To increase the sensitivity values, the Youden index suggests at least 1·5 points to be the most suitable cut-off point for the inpatient fall risk screening tool. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a considerably increased fall risk in patients with impaired balance and impaired elimination. The fall risk factor was also significantly associated with days of hospital stay and with admission to surgical wards. The findings can raise awareness about the two most critical risk factors for falls among future clinical nurses and other healthcare professionals and thus facilitate the development of fall prevention interventions. This study highlights the needs for redefining the cut-off points of the inpatient fall risk screening tool to effectively identify inpatients at a high risk of falls. Furthermore, inpatients with impaired balance and impaired elimination should be closely

  17. Q-methodology to identify young adult renal transplant recipients at risk for nonadherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Moors-Tielen (Mirjam); A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); S. Jedeloo (Susan); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W. Weimar (Willem)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Young adult renal transplant recipients may display patterns of behavior that affect graft survival. The present study aimed to identify young adults at risk for nonadherent behavior by investigating their attitudes about posttransplant health lifestyle. METHOD. A

  18. Identifying children at risk for being bullies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    To identify risk factors associated with the greatest and lowest prevalence of bullying perpetration among U.S. children. Using the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, a nationally representative survey of U.S. children in 6th-10th grades, bivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with any (once or twice or more), moderate (two to three times/month or more), and frequent (weekly or more) bullying. Stepwise multivariable analyses identified risk factors associated with bullying. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) identified risk factors which, in combination, identify students with the highest and lowest bullying prevalence. The prevalence of any bullying in the 13,710 students was 37.3%, moderate bullying was 12.6%, and frequent bullying was 6.6%. Characteristics associated with bullying were similar in the multivariable analyses and RPA clusters. In RPA, the highest prevalence of any bullying (67%) accrued in children with a combination of fighting and weapon-carrying. Students who carry weapons, smoke, and drink alcohol more than 5 to 6 days/week were at greatest risk for moderate bullying (61%). Those who carry weapons, smoke, have more than one alcoholic drink per day, have above-average academic performance, moderate/high family affluence, and feel irritable or bad-tempered daily were at greatest risk for frequent bullying (68%). Risk clusters for any, moderate, and frequent bullying differ. Children who fight and carry weapons are at greatest risk of any bullying. Weapon-carrying, smoking, and alcohol use are included in the greatest risk clusters for moderate and frequent bullying. Risk-group categories may be useful to providers in identifying children at the greatest risk for bullying and in targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple risk stratification at admission to identify patients with reduced mortality from primary angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Hoefsten, Dan Eik; Lindholm, Matias Greve

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomized trials comparing fibrinolysis with primary angioplasty for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction have demonstrated a beneficial effect of primary angioplasty on the combined end point of death, reinfarction, and disabling stroke but not on all-cause death. Identifying...... a patient group with reduced mortality from an invasive strategy would be important for early triage. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score is a simple validated integer score that makes it possible to identify high-risk patients on admission to hospital. We hypothesized that a high...... as high risk. There was a significant interaction between risk status and effect of primary angioplasty (P=0.008). In the low-risk group, there was no difference in mortality (primary angioplasty, 8.0%; fibrinolysis, 5.6%; P=0.11); in the high-risk group, there was a significant reduction in mortality...

  20. Emotional Distress as a Predictor of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Malaysian Nursing Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nur Azma; Quek, Kia Fatt; Oxley, Jennifer Anne; Noah, Rahim; Nordin, Rusli

    2018-04-01

    Emotional distress is becoming a great concern and is more common in both developed and developing countries. It is associated with several disease conditions. To determine the prevalence of self-perceived emotional distress and its relation to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) in nurses. A self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out on 660 female nurses working in public hospitals in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The validated Malay version of the standardized Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (M-SNMQ) was used to identify the annual prevalence of WRMSDs; perceived emotional distress was assessed using the validated Malay short version, depression, anxiety, and stress (M-DASS) instrument. In addition, socio-demographic and occupational profiles of the participants were considered. Factors associated with WRMSDs were identified using logistic regression analysis. A total of 376 nurses completed the survey (response rate 83.3%). 73.1% of the nursing staffs experienced WRMSDs in at least one anatomical site 12 months prior to the study. 75% of nurses expressed emotional distress. Of these, over half also reported anxiety and stress. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that stress and anxiety significantly increased the risk of WRMSDs by approximately twofold. There were significant associations between emotional distress and WRMSDs. Future longitudinal studies are therefore needed to investigate and identify the sources of emotional distress (non-occupational and occupational) to be used to establish preventive strategies to reduce the risk of WRMSDs.

  1. Emotional Distress as a Predictor of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Malaysian Nursing Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azma Amin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional distress is becoming a great concern and is more common in both developed and developing countries. It is associated with several disease conditions. Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-perceived emotional distress and its relation to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs in nurses. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out on 660 female nurses working in public hospitals in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. The validated Malay version of the standardized Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (M-SNMQ was used to identify the annual prevalence of WRMSDs; perceived emotional distress was assessed using the validated Malay short version, depression, anxiety, and stress (M-DASS instrument. In addition, socio-demographic and occupational profiles of the participants were considered. Factors associated with WRMSDs were identified using logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 376 nurses completed the survey (response rate 83.3%. 73.1% of the nursing staffs experienced WRMSDs in at least one anatomical site 12 months prior to the study. 75% of nurses expressed emotional distress. Of these, over half also reported anxiety and stress. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that stress and anxiety significantly increased the risk of WRMSDs by approximately twofold. Conclusion: There were significant associations between emotional distress and WRMSDs. Future longitudinal studies are therefore needed to investigate and identify the sources of emotional distress (non-occupational and occupational to be used to establish preventive strategies to reduce the risk of WRMSDs.

  2. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Anna Tiihonen; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods: Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at S...

  3. Methodology to identify risk-significant components for inservice inspection and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.T.; Hartley, R.S.; Jones, J.L. Jr.; Kido, C.; Phillips, J.H.

    1992-08-01

    Periodic inspection and testing of vital system components should be performed to ensure the safe and reliable operation of Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear processing facilities. Probabilistic techniques may be used to help identify and rank components by their relative risk. A risk-based ranking would allow varied DOE sites to implement inspection and testing programs in an effective and cost-efficient manner. This report describes a methodology that can be used to rank components, while addressing multiple risk issues

  4. Grades and Graduation: A Longitudinal Risk Perspective to Identify Student Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of student risk of school dropout have shown that present predictors of at-risk status do not accurately identify a large percentage of students who eventually drop out. Through the analysis of the entire Grade 1-12 longitudinal cohort-based grading histories of the class of 2006 for two school districts in the United States, the author…

  5. Modeling Success: Using Preenrollment Data to Identify Academically At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Compton, Jonathan; Wohlgemuth, Darin; Forbes, Greg; Ralston, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Improving student success and degree completion is one of the core principles of strategic enrollment management. To address this principle, institutional data were used to develop a statistical model to identify academically at-risk students. The model employs multiple linear regression techniques to predict students at risk of earning below a…

  6. Work-related back discomfort and associated factors among automotive maintenance mechanics in Eastern Nigeria: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaraogu, Ukachukwu Okoroafor; Ezema, Charles Ikechukwu; Igwe, S E; Egwuonwu, Afamefuna Victor; Okafor, Udoka Chris

    2016-02-15

    Back pain has been identified as a common cause of disability in the working population. Automotive mechanics habitually use awkward back posture in their course of manual activity and hence may be at risk of work-related back pain. To investigate the prevalence, pattern and severity of back pain among automotive maintenance mechanics, as well as the personal and job variables associated with or predicting occurrence of back pain. Using a cross-sectional design, information about self-reported back pain and the associated variables were collected among 684 randomly recruited automotive mechanics. Prevalence of back pain was 76.02%; with the majority experiencing low back pain. 63.3% of the workers reported they limited their activity due to the back pain. Older workers (>50 years), daily work lasting ≥5 hours duration, no more than primary education, being normal weight, frequent use of kneeling and sustained postures, and lack of knowledge of ergonomic postures were associated with increased prevalence of back pain. Lack of job autonomy, inadequate task clarity, heavy physical work load, manual material handling, strenuous posture, noisy environment, vibrations, work schedule and inadequate auxiliary support were also associated with increased prevalence of back pain among the mechanics. Work-related back pain is prevalent among automotive maintenance mechanics. Work-related back pain is high among automotive maintenance mechanics. Workstation policy and legislation on reduction of risks with combined health literacy and ergonomic education programs in this occupational group are imperative.

  7. Employability and work-related learning activities in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies...

  8. Surveillance of work-related asthma in new york state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Cori J; Cummings, Karen R; Gelberg, Kitty H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the percent of adults with asthma attributable to work and describe characteristics of the work-related asthma population in New York State. Sociodemographic and control characteristics of those with and without work-related asthma are compared. Data from three population-based surveys and one case-based surveillance system were analyzed. Work-relatedness of asthma was determined by self-report for the population-based surveys and by physician report for the case-based system. Self-reported sociodemographic and control characteristics were analyzed for the population-based surveys by work-relatedness. The percent of work-relatedness among adults with current asthma in New York State ranged from 10.6% to 44.5%. Significantly more adults with work-related asthma had poorly controlled asthma than those without work-related asthma. More adults with work-related asthma also tended to be employed in the manufacturing, educational services, and public administration industries than the general population. The most frequently reported exposure was dust. Adults with work-related asthma have decreased control and adverse socioeconomic impacts compared to those with asthma that is not work-related. Increased recognition and physician reporting is necessary to further prevent the impact of work-related exposures.

  9. Work-Related Daydreams: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarik, Christopher T.; Rowell, P. Clay; Currie, Lacy K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop and examine the work-related daydream construct. The content of undergraduate college students' daydream journals were analyzed using an exploratory qualitative research methodology. The data suggested that the work-related daydream phenomenon was a tangible and accessible process that presented fully developed…

  10. Towards design guidelines for work related learning arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Lappia

    2011-01-01

    Work related learning is a topic of considerable interest currently and can be broadly seen to be concerned with all forms of training and learning closely related to the daily work of employees. From the angle of higher education work related learning is an important development because parts of

  11. Playing the game to tackle work-related stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Wiezer, N.M.; Schelvis, R.; Kraker, H. de

    2012-01-01

    The need for evidence-based solutions to the problem of work-related stress among employees in the Netherlands is increasing. Research institute TNO suggested that managers might learn about the issue by playing a specially designed game based around work-related stress. This led to the development

  12. Systemic Thinking and Requisite Holism in Mastering Logistics Risks: the Model for Identifying Risks in Organisations and Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Rosi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risks in logistic processes represent one of the major issues in supply chain management nowadays. Every organization strives for success, and uninterrupted operations are the key factors in achieving this goal, which cannot be achieved without efficient risk management. In the scope of supply chain risk research, we identified some key issues in the field, the major issue being the lack of standardization and models, which can make risk management in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, we developed a model, which captures and identifies risks in an organization and its supply chain. It is in accordance with the general risk management standard – ISO 31000, and incorporates some relevant recent findings from general and supply chain risk management, especially from the viewpoint of public segmentation. This experimental catalogue (which is also published online can serve as a checklist and a starting point of supply chain risk management in organizations. Its main idea is cooperation between experts from the area in order to compile an ever-growing list of possible risks and to provide an insight in the model and its value in practice, for which reason input and opinions of anyone who uses our model are greatly appreciated and included in the catalogue.

  13. Urban violence is the biggest cause of fatal work-related accidents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Luz, Verônica Gronau; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Martins, Ana Cláudia Alves; Tófoli, Luís Fernando

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To quantify the occurrence of deaths directly associated with urban violence among fatal work-related accidents. METHODS Verbal autopsies were performed with the relatives and coworkers of residents of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, who died from external causes in 2015. We have also analyzed police reports and reports of the Legal Medical Institute related to these deaths. RESULTS We have identified 82 fatal work-related accidents in Campinas in 2015, of which 25...

  14. Work Related Stress, Burnout, Job Satisfaction and General Health of Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Khamisa, Natasha; Oldenburg, Brian; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate). Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was us...

  15. Investigations regarding the lowering of specific intellectual property risks identified in the production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakocs Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to decrease the emergence of specific intellectual property risks within the production process as well as increasing risk management performance of IP by preventing them. In order to achieve this, previous studies regarding the main specific intellectual property risks from industrial companies were analyzed together with their managerial methods as well as the possibility of reducing their emergence. As a result of the research conducted were identified five types of intellectual property risks that have a high potential of emergence in the production process, namely: the risk of production of goods in violation of IP rights; the know-how, production knowledge and trade secret disclosure risk; the technological risk of unprotected utility models; the technological risk of unprotected integrated circuits topographies and finally the risk of product counterfeit. In order to achieve the main purpose of our investigation, we have proposed new formulas for estimating the specific intellectual property risks identified in the production process. Their purpose was to minimalize the risk’s negative effects on industrial companies and to increase the managerial performance from the intellectual property domain through a new type of management appropriately named: intellectual property management. The research is finalized with a case study regarding the lapse of rights of a patented invention. Based on a case analysis, it was proved that the exploitation of an invention without a contract represents a counterfeit.

  16. The Munik—Reteaming Method is a Way to Rehabilitate Psychosomatic and Work-Related Diseases and a Way to Create Healthy Psychosocial Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia von Vultée

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental illness and stress are increasing at work. Sick leaves escalate. It is suggested to be due to organizational factors. There are a few methods to identify the organizational factors creating the negative psychosocial atmosphere at work. In Sweden, the work-related diseases have increased by 70% since 2010. Methods: Munik is a validated assessment instrument to identify psychosocial status among employees and find weak and strong organizational factors involved in the individual psychosocial well-being. We measure psychosocial well-being as mental energy, work-related exhaustion, and work satisfaction. Conclusions: In this study, we evaluate the treatment of employees at risk with low values on mental energy, high risk for developing work-related exhaustion, and reporting poor work satisfaction. Originality: We used Ben Furman’s positive solution-based coaching/therapy. This resulted in a more satisfied work group, and even though this group showed a large risk of developing work-related exhaustion in the start, none of the participants got on sick leave during the coaching/therapy period. After 3 months, 8 of 10 reported higher values on all 3 psychosocial levels measured.

  17. Work-Related Upper Limb Disorders: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Borisova Stoyneva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the complex interrelationship between physical factors, job stress, lifestyle and genetic factors on symptoms of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs is demonstrated by a case report and discussion of the literature. A 58 year old woman with long lasting complaints of the upper limbs with increasing intensity and duration, generalisation, combined with skin thickness, Raynaud’s phenomenon, joint disorders, arterial and pulmonary hypertension, metabolic lipid dysfunctions is presented. Occupational history proves continuous duration of service at a job with occupational physical static load with numerous repetitive monotonous systematic motions of fingers and hands as a weaver of Persian rugs followed by work at an automated loom and variable labour activities. Though the complaints dated since the time she was a manual weaver, the manifestations of generalized joint degenerative changes, system sclerosis with Raynaud’s phenomenon with similar upper extremities signs and symptoms discount upper limbs musculoskeletal disorder as caused only or mainly by occupational risk factors. The main principles and criteria for occupational diagnosis of musculoskeletal upper limb disorders and legislative requirements for their reglamentation are discussed.

  18. Increased sexually transmitted infection incidence in a low risk population: identifying the risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shiely, Frances

    2010-04-01

    Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.

  19. Psychosocial Factors and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Southeastern Asian Female Workers Living in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung; Moon, Sun Hye

    2011-06-01

    A rapid increase in the population of migrant workers in Korea has brought new challenges regarding the possible effects of acculturation on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation- and work-related psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among migrant female workers living in Korea. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A translated, structured questionnaire was administrated to 156 southeastern Asian female full-time workers living in Korea. About 35% of the participants experienced some type(s) of work-related musculoskeletal disorder(s), which were more prevalent in Vietnamese women than in Thai and Filipino women. Women who preferred to maintain their own heritage and to reject the host country heritage were at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities.

  20. High-risk populations identified in Childhood Cancer Survivor Study investigations: implications for risk-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Melissa M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Bowers, Daniel C; Sklar, Charles A; Green, Daniel M; Donaldson, Sarah S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Neglia, Joseph P; Meadows, Anna T; Robison, Leslie L

    2009-05-10

    Childhood cancer survivors often experience complications related to cancer and its treatment that may adversely affect quality of life and increase the risk of premature death. The purpose of this manuscript is to review how data derived from Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) investigations have facilitated identification of childhood cancer survivor populations at high risk for specific organ toxicity and secondary carcinogenesis and how this has informed clinical screening practices. Articles previously published that used the resource of the CCSS to identify risk factors for specific organ toxicity and subsequent cancers were reviewed and results summarized. CCSS investigations have characterized specific groups to be at highest risk of morbidity related to endocrine and reproductive dysfunction, pulmonary toxicity, cerebrovascular injury, neurologic and neurosensory sequelae, and subsequent neoplasms. Factors influencing risk for specific outcomes related to the individual survivor (eg, sex, race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, attained age), sociodemographic status (eg, education, household income, health insurance) and cancer history (eg, diagnosis, treatment, time from diagnosis) have been consistently identified. These CCSS investigations that clarify risk for treatment complications related to specific treatment modalities, cumulative dose exposures, and sociodemographic factors identify profiles of survivors at high risk for cancer-related morbidity who deserve heightened surveillance to optimize outcomes after treatment for childhood cancer.

  1. Integrated systems approach identifies risk regulatory pathways and key regulators in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dianming; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Shuyuan; Yu, Xuexin; Dai, Enyu; Liu, Xinyi; Luo, Shanshun; Jiang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. However, the molecular mechanisms of CAD remain elusive. Regulatory pathways are known to play crucial roles in many pathogenic processes. Thus, inferring risk regulatory pathways is an important step toward elucidating the mechanisms underlying CAD. With advances in high-throughput data, we developed an integrated systems approach to identify CAD risk regulatory pathways and key regulators. Firstly, a CAD-related core subnetwork was identified from a curated transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) regulatory network based on a random walk algorithm. Secondly, candidate risk regulatory pathways were extracted from the subnetwork by applying a breadth-first search (BFS) algorithm. Then, risk regulatory pathways were prioritized based on multiple CAD-associated data sources. Finally, we also proposed a new measure to prioritize upstream regulators. We inferred that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) may be a key regulator in the dysregulation of risk regulatory pathways. This study takes a closer step than the identification of disease subnetworks or modules. From the risk regulatory pathways, we could understand the flow of regulatory information in the initiation and progression of the disease. Our approach helps to uncover its potential etiology. We developed an integrated systems approach to identify risk regulatory pathways. We proposed a new measure to prioritize the key regulators in CAD. PTEN may be a key regulator in dysregulation of the risk regulatory pathways.

  2. Identifying the necessary and sufficient number of risk factors for predicting academic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Robert; Hunt, Elizabeth; Bornovalova, Marina

    2012-03-01

    Identifying the point at which individuals become at risk for academic failure (grade point average [GPA] academic success or failure. This study focused on 12 school-related factors. Using a thorough 5-step process, we identified which unique risk factors place one at risk for academic failure. Academic engagement, academic expectations, academic self-efficacy, homework completion, school relevance, school safety, teacher relationships (positive relationship), grade retention, school mobility, and school misbehaviors (negative relationship) were uniquely related to GPA even after controlling for all relevant covariates. Next, a receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine a cutoff point for determining how many risk factors predict academic failure (GPA academic failure, which provides a way for early identification of individuals who are at risk. Further implications of these findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Prevention and management of work-related cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) constitute a major burden for health of working populations throughout the world with as much as 50% of all causes of death and at least 25% of work disability. There are some changes in CVD risk factors among occupational classes. This is mainly due to the new types of work-related causes of morbidity associated with the recent developments in global work life, particularly in the industrialized countries. Meanwhile, in the developing countries or those in transition (e.g., in Eastern Europe), CVD mortality is increasing due to major socioeconomic changes, the demographic transition and rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, all leading to growing challenges to cardiovascular health. Better control of known risk factors (i.e., smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose) is effective to prevent CVD incidence. But the expected improvement has not been achieved. The obstacles of achieving such impact are due to lack of awareness, lack of policies and their implementation into practice and shortage of infrastructures and human resources. These are needed for wide-scale and long-term programme implementation. Considering the WHO Global Strategy on Occupational Health for All, the WHO Global Action Plan on Workers' Health, the WHO Programme on Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases and the ILO Decent Work agenda, the 6th ICOH International Conference on Work Environment and Cardiovascular Diseases adopted the Tokyo Declaration. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Under-recording of work-related injuries and illnesses: An OSHA priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Kathleen M; Hodgson, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    A 2009 Government Accounting Office (GAO) report, along with numerous published studies, documented that many workplace injuries are not recorded on employers' recordkeeping logs required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and consequently are under-reported to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), resulting in a substantial undercount of occupational injuries in the United States. OSHA conducted a Recordkeeping National Emphasis Program (NEP) from 2009 to 2012 to identify the extent and causes of unrecorded and incorrectly recorded occupational injuries and illnesses. OSHA found recordkeeping violations in close to half of all facilities inspected. Employee interviews identified workers' fear of reprisal and employer disciplinary programs as the most important causes of under-reporting. Subsequent inspections in the poultry industry identified employer medical management policies that fostered both under-reporting and under-recording of workplace injuries and illnesses. OSHA corroborated previous research findings and identified onsite medical units as a potential new cause of both under-reporting and under-recording. Research is needed to better characterize and eliminate obstacles to the compilation of accurate occupational injury and illness data. Occupational health professionals who work with high hazard industries where low injury rates are being recorded may wish to scrutinize recordkeeping practices carefully. This work suggests that, although many high-risk establishments manage recordkeeping with integrity, the lower the reported injury rate, the greater the likelihood of under-recording and under-reporting of work-related injuries and illnesses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. In Search of Black Swans: Identifying Students at Risk of Failing Licensing Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Cassandra; Hammond, Robert; Gula, Lorne; Tithecott, Gary; Chahine, Saad

    2018-03-01

    To determine which admissions variables and curricular outcomes are predictive of being at risk of failing the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part 1 (MCCQE1), how quickly student risk of failure can be predicted, and to what extent predictive modeling is possible and accurate in estimating future student risk. Data from five graduating cohorts (2011-2015), Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, were collected and analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the accuracy of predictive models and determine whether they could be used to predict future risk, using the 2016 graduating cohort. Four predictive models were developed to predict student risk of failure at admissions, year 1, year 2, and pre-MCCQE1. The HGLM analyses identified gender, MCAT verbal reasoning score, two preclerkship course mean grades, and the year 4 summative objective structured clinical examination score as significant predictors of student risk. The predictive accuracy of the models varied. The pre-MCCQE1 model was the most accurate at predicting a student's risk of failing (AUC 0.66-0.93), while the admissions model was not predictive (AUC 0.25-0.47). Key variables predictive of students at risk were found. The predictive models developed suggest, while it is not possible to identify student risk at admission, we can begin to identify and monitor students within the first year. Using such models, programs may be able to identify and monitor students at risk quantitatively and develop tailored intervention strategies.

  6. [Epidemiology of work-related accidents in the Lazio Region of Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Aurora; Mantovani, Jessica; Di Lallo, D; Di Napoli, A; Guasticchi, Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Prevention of work-related accidents requires an in-depth epidemiological assessment of the issue. In Italy the most used databases are from the national insurance (INAIL) and research (ISPESL) institutes. However, these data are only available several years after the time of accident. To describe the characteristics of accidents and evaluate factors potentially associated with hospitalization using the Information System of Hospital Emergency Departments (SIES). We analyzed 51.705 Emergency Department (ED) work-related accident admissions in the Lazio Region of Italy in 2008 among workers aged 16-65 years. Information on socio-demographics, diagnosis, triage codes, and outcome of ED admissions were gathered. We performed a logistic regression model to estimate association between these factors and risk of hospitalization after ED admission. The subjects' mean age was 39.1 (SD 11.0); 71.5% woere men, 12.7% were foreigners, 5.9% arrived by ambulance, 4.5% with triage red/yellow tags, 2.7% were hospitalized. Diagnosis was trauma in 85.1%, orthopaedic lesions in 8.3%. We found a higher risk of hospitalization in subjects with: one year of age increase (OR=1.02; 95% CIs: 1.01-1.03), males (OR=1.68; 95% CIs: 1.44-1.97), foreigners coming from countries with high emigration rates (OR=1.55; 95% CIs: 1.31-1.82), ED triage red/yellow tags (OR=84.47; 95% CIs: 47.06-151.60). It was confirmed that data fr-om an emergency health care information system can be a useful complement to information gathered by national insurance and research institutes, thus resolving the limit posed by the delay in availability for analysis of these data after the occurrence of accidents. We also identified some factors potentially associated with more serious accidents, which constitute a basis for planning and implementing specific public health preventive interventions.

  7. Identifying Factors Associated with Risk Assessment Competencies of Public Health Emergency Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiejing; Ren, Jiaojiao; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Ning, Ning; Ding, Ding

    2017-06-04

    This study aimed to better understand the current situation of risk assessment and identify the factors associated with competence of emergency responders in public health risk assessment. The participants were selected by a multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling method in Heilongjiang Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The questionnaires that measured their perceptions on risk assessment competences were administered through the face-to-face survey. A final sample of 1889 staff was obtained. Of this sample, 78.6% of respondents rated their own risk assessment competences as "relatively low", contrasting with 21.4% rated as "relatively high". Most of the respondents (62.7%) did not participate in any risk assessment work. Only 13.7% and 42.7% of respondents reported participating in risk assessment training and were familiar with risk assessment tools. There existed statistical significance between risk assessment-related characteristics of respondents and their self-rated competences scores. Financial support from the government and administrative attention were regarded as the important factors contributing to risk assessment competences of CDC responders. Higher attention should be given to risk assessment training and enhancing the availability of surveillance data. Continuous efforts should be made to remove the financial and technical obstacles to improve the competences of risk assessment for public health emergency responders.

  8. Associations of Shift Work and Its Duration with Work-Related Injury among Electronics Factory Workers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jia; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kang, Chungwon; Kim, Hyunjoo

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.

  9. Associations of Shift Work and Its Duration with Work-Related Injury among Electronics Factory Workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.

  10. A new quantitative approach to measure perceived work-related stress in Italian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, Gabriele; Fratini, Ilaria; Gambassi, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    We propose a method for a reliable quantitative measure of subjectively perceived occupational stress applicable in any company to enhance occupational safety and psychosocial health, to enable precise prevention policies and intervention and to improve work quality and efficiency. A suitable questionnaire was telephonically administered to a stratified sample of the whole Italian population of employees. Combined multivariate statistical methods, including principal component, cluster and discriminant analyses, were used to identify risk factors and to design a causal model for understanding work-related stress. The model explained the causal links of stress through employee perception of imbalance between job demands and resources for responding appropriately, by supplying a reliable U-shaped nonlinear stress index, expressed in terms of values of human systolic arterial pressure. Low, intermediate and high values indicated demotivation (or inefficiency), well-being and distress, respectively. Costs for stress-dependent productivity shortcomings were estimated to about 3.7% of national income from employment. The method identified useful structured information able to supply a simple and precise interpretation of employees' well-being and stress risk. Results could be compared with estimated national benchmarks to enable targeted intervention strategies to protect the health and safety of workers, and to reduce unproductive costs for firms.

  11. Managing work-related stress in the district nursing workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    This article aims to highlight the issue of work-related stress within the district nursing workplace. It will acknowledge how the management of work-related stress has previously been discussed within nursing literature and will consider the emerging relationship between staff working conditions, staff wellbeing and quality of patient care. It will reintroduce the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE's) Management Standards approach to tackling work-related stress, which provides management support to reduce environmental work stressors and encourage enabling work environments and a positive workplace culture.

  12. Work-Related Stress, Quitting Intentions and Absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Leontaridi, Rannia M.; Ward, Melanie E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper uses data from the International Social Surveys Program (ISSP) to investigate work-related stress among a group of 15 OECD countries. It examines the determinants of work-related stress and explores the importance of work-related stress as a predictor of individuals' quitting behaviour and the rate of absenteeism. We find that those individuals reporting to experience at least some stress in their current position are 10 - 14 % more likely to hold intentions to quit or be absent fro...

  13. Comparison of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms between male cameramen and male office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Han-Seur; Suh, Byung-Seong; Kim, Soo-Geun; Kim, Won-Sool; Lee, Won-Cheol; Son, Kyung-Hun; Nam, Min-Woo

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have classified cameramen's job as physiologically heavy work and identified the risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) in cameramen. However, those studies limited their research subjects to cameramen. In this study, we compared the frequency and severity of WRMDs between cameramen and office workers. A total of 293 subjects working in four broadcasting companies in Korea were recruited. A questionnaire survey was conducted for a month, starting in October 2016. The subjects were divided into cameramen and office workers according to their occupation. We compared the frequency and severity of WRMDs and ergonomic risk assessment results between the two groups. The high-risk WRMD group had a higher proportion of cameramen than office workers. Moreover, the high ergonomic risk group also had a higher proportion of cameramen than office workers for WRMDs in the upper extremities and waist+lower extremities. In the multivariable-adjusted model comparing cameramen and office workers, the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for high-risk WRMDs was 3.50 (95% CI: 1.92-7.72) for the upper extremities and 3.18 (95% CI: 1.62-6.21) for the waist and the lower extremities. The ORs by body parts were 3.11 (95% CI: 1.28-7.57) for the neck, 3.90 (95% CI: 1.79-8.47) for the shoulders, and 4.23 (95% CI: 1.04-17.18) for the legs and feet. Our study suggests that cameramen are at high risk of WRMDs. Workplace improvements and management of the neck, shoulders, and lower extremities, which are susceptible to WRMDs, are necessary to prevent musculoskeletal disorders among cameramen.

  14. A new approach to hazardous materials transportation risk analysis: decision modeling to identify critical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theoretical perspective in terms of identifying and advancing the key variables related to this risk, and there has not been a focus on probability and statistics-based approaches for doing this. Our decision model empirically identifies the critical variables using an exploratory methodology for a large, highly categorical database involving latent class analysis (LCA), loglinear modeling, and Bayesian networking. Our model identified the most influential variables and countermeasures for two consequences of a hazmat incident, dollar loss and release quantity, and is one of the first models to do this. The most influential variables were found to be related to the failure of the container. In addition to analyzing hazmat risk, our methodology can be used to develop data-driven models for strategic decision making in other domains involving risk.

  15. Can subsyndromal manifestations of major depression be identified in children at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, M; Fitzgerald, M; Lin, K; Carrellas, N; Woodworth, H; Biederman, J

    2017-02-01

    Children of parents with major depression are at significantly increased risk for developing major depression themselves; however, not all children at genetic risk will develop major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the utility of subsyndromal scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Anxiety/Depression scale in identifying children at the highest risk for pediatric MDD from among the pool of children of parents with MDD or bipolar disorder. The sample was derived from two previously conducted longitudinal case-control family studies of psychiatrically and pediatrically referred youth and their families. For this study, probands were stratified based on the presence or absence of a parental mood disorder. Subsyndromal scores on the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale significantly separated the children at high risk for pediatric MDD from those at low risk in a variety of functional areas, including social and academic functioning. Additionally, children at genetic risk without elevated CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale scores were largely indistinguishable from controls. These results suggest that the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale can help identify children at highest risk for pediatric MDD. If implemented clinically, this scale would cost-effectively screen children and identify those most in need of early intervention resources to impede the progression of depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Body mass index cut-points to identify cardiometabolic risk in black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, H Salome; Schutte, Aletta E; Walsh, Corinna M; Kruger, Annamarie; Rennie, Kirsten L

    2017-02-01

    To determine optimal body mass index (BMI) cut-points for the identification of cardiometabolic risk in black South African adults. We performed a cross-sectional study of a weighted sample of healthy black South Africans aged 25-65 years (721 men, 1386 women) from the North West and Free State Provinces. Demographic, lifestyle and anthropometric measures were taken, and blood pressure, fasting serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. We defined elevated cardiometabolic risk as having three or more risk factors according to international metabolic syndrome criteria. Receiver operating characteristic curves were applied to identify an optimal BMI cut-point for men and women. BMI had good diagnostic performance to identify clustering of three or more risk factors, as well as individual risk factors: low HDL-cholesterol, elevated fasting glucose and triglycerides, with areas under the curve >.6, but not for high blood pressure. Optimal BMI cut-points averaged 22 kg/m 2 for men and 28 kg/m 2 for women, respectively, with better sensitivity in men (44.0-71.9 %), and in women (60.6-69.8 %), compared to a BMI of 30 kg/m 2 (17-19.1, 53-61.4 %, respectively). Men and women with a BMI >22 and >28 kg/m 2 , respectively, had significantly increased probability of elevated cardiometabolic risk after adjustment for age, alcohol use and smoking. In black South African men, a BMI cut-point of 22 kg/m 2 identifies those at cardiometabolic risk, whereas a BMI of 30 kg/m 2 underestimates risk. In women, a cut-point of 28 kg/m 2 , approaching the WHO obesity cut-point, identifies those at risk.

  17. Perceived discrimination against diabetics in the workplace and in work-related insurances in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebiker-Pedrotti, Piera M; Keller, Ulrich; Iselin, Hans-Ulrich; Ruiz, Juan; Pärli, Kurt; Caplazi, Alexandra; Puder, Jardena J

    2009-02-21

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of perceived diabetes-related discrimination in the workplace and in work-related insurances in persons with diabetes mellitus in Switzerland. 509 insulin-treated diabetic subjects representative of the northwestern Swiss population responded to a self-report questionnaire on perceived diabetes-related discrimination in the workplace and in work-related insurances (salary loss insurance, supplementary occupational plan). Discrimination was defined as being treated differently at least once in relation to diabetes. The reported rates of different aspects of discrimination in the workplace and in work-related insurances ranged between 5-11% and 4-15% respectively. Risk factors that independently increased the risk of not being hired due to diabetes were the presence of at least two severe hypoglycaemic events/year and relevant diabetic complications (OR 5.6 and OR 2.6 respectively; bothdiscrimination in work-related insurances (OR for denial 2.1-2.4; OR for reserve 3.9-4.4; alldiscrimination in the workplace and by work-related insurances is a common problem. In the light of our findings the introduction of effective non-discrimination legislation for patients with chronic illnesses appears to be desirable.

  18. The readmission risk flag: using the electronic health record to automatically identify patients at risk for 30-day readmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Charles A; VanZandbergen, Christine; Tait, Gordon; Hanish, Asaf; Leas, Brian; French, Benjamin; Hanson, C William; Behta, Maryam; Umscheid, Craig A

    2013-12-01

    Identification of patients at high risk for readmission is a crucial step toward improving care and reducing readmissions. The adoption of electronic health records (EHR) may prove important to strategies designed to risk stratify patients and introduce targeted interventions. To develop and implement an automated prediction model integrated into our health system's EHR that identifies on admission patients at high risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. Retrospective and prospective cohort. Healthcare system consisting of 3 hospitals. All adult patients admitted from August 2009 to September 2012. An automated readmission risk flag integrated into the EHR. Thirty-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned healthcare system readmissions. Using retrospective data, a single risk factor, ≥ 2 inpatient admissions in the past 12 months, was found to have the best balance of sensitivity (40%), positive predictive value (31%), and proportion of patients flagged (18%), with a C statistic of 0.62. Sensitivity (39%), positive predictive value (30%), proportion of patients flagged (18%), and C statistic (0.61) during the 12-month period after implementation of the risk flag were similar. There was no evidence for an effect of the intervention on 30-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned readmission rates in the 12-month period after implementation. An automated prediction model was effectively integrated into an existing EHR and identified patients on admission who were at risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. © 2013 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  19. Epidemiology of work-related injuries requiring hospitalization among sawmill workers in British Columbia, 1989-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Demers, Paul A; Koehoorn, Mieke; Ostry, Aleck; Tompa, Emile

    2007-01-01

    This study describes hospitalized injuries among workers in British Columbia lumber industry. Between April 1989 and December 1997, from the hospital records of 5,745 male sawmill workers were analyzed for the present study. Work relatedness was determined using either ICD-9 external cause of injury codes, which have a digit-indicating place of occurrence, or a payment field, which can identify workers compensation agency. Poisson regression models were used to analyze differences in hospitalization rates across race, job category, age group, and calendar year. The crude and adjusted rate ratios were calculated along with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During the follow-up period, there were 164 work related hospitalization resulting in a rate for work-related hospitalization of 5.38 per 1,000 person years. The higher rates by nature of injury were for dislocation, sprains & strains, open wounds, and fracture of upper limbs. During the study period, the higher rates of injury by causes were machinery related, falls, and struck against. In the multivariate models, there were no statistically significant relationship of injury risk with age and race. In respect to occupation, compared to foremen/supervisor, other sawmills' workers did not have significantly elevated risk of injury. The trend analyses found a significant negative trend (P = 0.004) of injury risk over the whole study period. Knowing the causes and nature of injury and their related risk factors are helpful to employers, compensation officials, and other stakeholders to target preventive measures.

  20. Urban violence is the biggest cause of fatal work-related accidents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Luz, Verônica Gronau; Hennington, Élida Azevedo; Martins, Ana Cláudia Alves; Tófoli, Luís Fernando

    2017-12-11

    To quantify the occurrence of deaths directly associated with urban violence among fatal work-related accidents. Verbal autopsies were performed with the relatives and coworkers of residents of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil, who died from external causes in 2015. We have also analyzed police reports and reports of the Legal Medical Institute related to these deaths. We have identified 82 fatal work-related accidents in Campinas in 2015, of which 25 were murders, 35 were traffic accidents not directly related to work activities, and three were suicides at work. The proportional mortality rate for homicides, traffic accidents, and suicides among fatal work-related accidents was estimated at 30.5%, 42.7%, and 3.7%, respectively. Urban violence accounted for three-fourths of the fatal work-related accidents recorded in the period studied.

  1. Identifying risk factors for first-episode neck pain: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rebecca; Wiest, Colin; Clark, Kelly; Cook, Chad; Horn, Maggie

    2018-02-01

    Neck pain affects 15.1% of the United States' general population every 3 months, and ranks fourth in global disability. Because of the tendency for neck pain to become a chronic issue, it is important to identify risk factors that could encourage prevention and early diagnosis. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify risk factors for a first episode of neck pain. Three databases were searched with key words such as "neck pain" and "first incidence." Risk factors from the resulting articles were reported as either a physical or psychosocial risk factor and ranked by the strength of their odds/risk/hazard ratio: empowering leadership, high perceived social climate, leisure physical activity, and cervical extensor endurance. Most risk factors found for neck pain were related to psychosocial characteristics, rather than physical characteristics. A number of these risk factors were mediating factors, suggesting that a prevention-based program may be useful in modifying the existence of the risk factors before the occurrence of neck pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Work-related asthma | Jeebhay | Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and pneumoconioses caused by exposure to airborne particulates are a major contributor to mortality and disability globally. However, work-related asthma remains under-recognised, poorly managed and inadequately compensated.

  3. Impact of role-, job- and organizational characteristics on Nursing Unit Managers' work related stress and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Adriaenssens, Jef; Dilles, Tinne; Martens, Daisy; Van Rompaey, Bart; Timmermans, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    To study the impact of role, job- and organizational characteristics on nurse managers' work related stress and well-being such as feelings of emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Various studies investigated role-, job- and organizational characteristics influencing nurse-related work environments. Research on nurse managers' related work environments define influencing factors, but, a clear understanding of the impact of nurse-managers' work-environment characteristics on their work related stress and well-being is limited. A cross-sectional design with a survey. A cross-sectional survey (N = 365) was carried out between December 2011-March 2012. The questionnaire was based on various validated measurement instruments identified by expert meetings (e.g. staff nurses, nurse managers and executives and physicians). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed using emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intentions as outcome variables. Study results showed one out of six nursing unit managers have high to very high feelings of emotional exhaustion and two out of three respondents have high to very high work engagement. Hierarchical regression models showed that role conflict and role meaningfulness were strong predictors of nursing unit managers' work related stress and well-being, alongside with job- and organizational characteristics. Several risk factors and stimulating factors influencing nurse unit managers' work related stress and well-being were identified. Further challenges will be to develop proper interventions and strategies to support nursing unit managers and their team in daily practice to deliver the best and safest patient care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Job anxiety, work-related psychological illness and workplace performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Melanie; Latreille, Paul L.; Sloane, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses matched employee-employer data from the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS) 2004 to examine the determinants of employee job anxiety and work-related psychological illness. Job anxiety is found to be strongly related to the demands of the job as measured by factors such as occupation, education and hours of work. Average levels of employee job anxiety, in turn, are positively associated with work-related psychological illness among the workforce as reported by...

  5. Work-related psychological health among clergywomen in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Powell, Ruth, Ph.D.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the classic model of balanced affect, the Francis Burnout Inventory conceptualises good work-related psychological health among clergy in terms of negative affect being balanced by positive affect. This paper sets out to explore the relationship between work-related psychological health and psychological type (as assessed by the Francis Psychological-Type Scales) among a sample of 212 Australian clergywomen who completed the National Church Life Survey Form L in 2006. The data supp...

  6. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Agai–Demjaha

    2015-07-01

    CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.

  7. Expert Opinion to Identify High-Risk Entry Routes of Canine Rabies into Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, V J; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    The proximity of Papua New Guinea (PNG) to canine rabies-endemic countries in South-East Asia presents a risk of incursion of this disease into PNG and the rest of the Oceanic region. The objective of this study was to identify the highest risk routes for entry of dogs - associated with movement of people - into PNG from canine rabies-endemic countries. A structured, in-country expert-elicitation workshop was used, and 20 entry routes were identified. The highest risk routes were three land routes from Papua, Indonesia (hunters, traditional border crossers and unregulated, unchecked 'shopper-crossers') and two sea routes (fishing and logging). These results will be used to direct more detailed risk assessments to develop surveillance strategies and incursion response plans. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. PREDICT-PD: An online approach to prospectively identify risk indicators of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, Alastair J; R'Bibo, Lea; Peress, Luisa; Bestwick, Jonathan P; Adams-Carr, Kerala L; Mencacci, Niccolo E; Hawkes, Christopher H; Masters, Joseph M; Wood, Nicholas; Hardy, John; Giovannoni, Gavin; Lees, Andrew J; Schrag, Anette

    2017-02-01

    A number of early features can precede the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). To test an online, evidence-based algorithm to identify risk indicators of PD in the UK population. Participants aged 60 to 80 years without PD completed an online survey and keyboard-tapping task annually over 3 years, and underwent smell tests and genotyping for glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations. Risk scores were calculated based on the results of a systematic review of risk factors and early features of PD, and individuals were grouped into higher (above 15th centile), medium, and lower risk groups (below 85th centile). Previously defined indicators of increased risk of PD ("intermediate markers"), including smell loss, rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder, and finger-tapping speed, and incident PD were used as outcomes. The correlation of risk scores with intermediate markers and movement of individuals between risk groups was assessed each year and prospectively. Exploratory Cox regression analyses with incident PD as the dependent variable were performed. A total of 1323 participants were recruited at baseline and >79% completed assessments each year. Annual risk scores were correlated with intermediate markers of PD each year and baseline scores were correlated with intermediate markers during follow-up (all P values < 0.001). Incident PD diagnoses during follow-up were significantly associated with baseline risk score (hazard ratio = 4.39, P = .045). GBA variants or G2019S LRRK2 mutations were found in 47 participants, and the predictive power for incident PD was improved by the addition of genetic variants to risk scores. The online PREDICT-PD algorithm is a unique and simple method to identify indicators of PD risk. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder

  9. [Work-related behaviour and experience patterns and mental health: a study in psychotherapy trainees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Johanna; Sude, Kerstin; Löwe, Bernd; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2013-03-01

    In view of the fact that many reports have been published that emphasize the difficult conditions of the German psychotherapy training, the aim of this study was to investigate psychotherapy trainees´ work stress as well as work-related psychosocial risks and resources. Variables of interest were work-related behaviour and experience patterns (AVEM), effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and health-related quality of life. 321 participants completed an online survey. The distribution of work-related behaviour and experience patterns as well as the results regarding work overload and mental health are evidence of psychotherapy trainees' strain. AVEM-risk patterns are associated with effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and reduced mental health. These results clearly support claims for a modification of the psychotherapy training in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Chromosome 17 alterations identify good-risk and poor-risk tumors independently of clinical factors in medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Martin G.; Bäcklund, L. Magnus; Leong, Hui Sun; Ichimura, Koichi; Collins, V. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Current risk stratification schemas for medulloblastoma, based on combinations of clinical variables and histotype, fail to accurately identify particularly good- and poor-risk tumors. Attempts have been made to improve discriminatory power by combining clinical variables with cytogenetic data. We report here a pooled analysis of all previous reports of chromosomal copy number related to survival data in medulloblastoma. We collated data from previous reports that explicitly quoted survival data and chromosomal copy number in medulloblastoma. We analyzed the relative prognostic significance of currently used clinical risk stratifiers and the chromosomal aberrations previously reported to correlate with survival. In the pooled dataset metastatic disease, incomplete tumor resection and severe anaplasia were associated with poor outcome, while young age at presentation was not prognostically significant. Of the chromosomal variables studied, isolated 17p loss and gain of 1q correlated with poor survival. Gain of 17q without associated loss of 17p showed a trend to improved outcome. The most commonly reported alteration, isodicentric chromosome 17, was not prognostically significant. Sequential multivariate models identified isolated 17p loss, isolated 17q gain, and 1q gain as independent prognostic factors. In a historical dataset, we have identified isolated 17p loss as a marker of poor outcome and 17q gain as a novel putative marker of good prognosis. Biological markers of poor-risk and good-risk tumors will be critical in stratifying treatment in future trials. Our findings should be prospectively validated independently in future clinical studies. PMID:21292688

  11. Identifying eustachian tube dysfunction prior to hyperbaric oxygen therapy: Who is at risk for intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jason E; Pfeiffer, Michael; Patel, Niki; Sataloff, Robert T; McKinnon, Brian J

    Determine whether specific risk factors, symptoms and clinical examination findings are associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) intolerance and subsequent tympanotomy tube placement. A retrospective case series with chart review was conducted from 2007 to 2016 of patients undergoing HBOT clearance at a tertiary care university hospital in an urban city. Eighty-one (n=81) patient charts were reviewed for risk factors, symptoms and clinical examination findings related to HBOT eustachian tube dysfunction and middle ear barotrauma. Relative risk was calculated for each variable to determine risk for HBOT intolerance and need for tympanotomy tube placement. Risk factor, symptom, physical examination and HBOT complication-susceptibility scores were calculated for each patient. Mean risk factor, clinical and HBOT complication-susceptibility scores were significantly higher in patients who did not tolerate HBOT compared to patients who tolerated HBOT. Patients reporting a history of otitis media, tinnitus, and prior ear surgery were at a higher risk for HBOT intolerance. Patients reporting a history of pressure intolerance and prior ear surgery were more likely to undergo tympanotomy tube placement. Patients noted to have otologic findings prior to HBOT were at a higher risk for both HBOT intolerance and tympanotomy tube placement. A thorough otolaryngological evaluation can potentially predict and identify patients at risk for HBOT intolerance and tympanotomy tube placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Work-related determinants of multi-site musculoskeletal pain among employees in the health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Subas; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Oakman, Jodi

    2016-06-16

    Work-related musculoskeletal pain is a major occupational problem. Those with pain in multiple sites usually report worse health outcomes than those with pain in one site. This study explored prevalence and associated predictors of multi-site pain in health care sector employees. Survey responses from 1348 health care sector employees across three organisations (37% response rate) collected data on job satisfaction, work life balance, psychosocial and physical hazards, general health and work ability. Musculoskeletal discomfort was measured across 5 body regions with pain in ≥ 2 sites defined as multi-site pain. Generalized linear models were used to identify relationships between work-related factors and multi-site pain. Over 52% of the employees reported pain in multiple body sites and 19% reported pain in one site. Poor work life balance (PRR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.06-5.14). physical (PRR = 7.58, 95% CI = 4.89-11.77) and psychosocial (PRR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.00-2.57) hazard variables were related to multi-site pain (after controlling for age, gender, health and work ability. Older employees and females were more likely to report multi-site pain. Effective risk management of work related multi-site pain must include identification and control of psychosocial and physical hazards.

  13. Screening and prioritisation of chemical risks from metal mining operations, identifying exposure media of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jilang; Oates, Christopher J; Ihlenfeld, Christian; Plant, Jane A; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-04-01

    Metals have been central to the development of human civilisation from the Bronze Age to modern times, although in the past, metal mining and smelting have been the cause of serious environmental pollution with the potential to harm human health. Despite problems from artisanal mining in some developing countries, modern mining to Western standards now uses the best available mining technology combined with environmental monitoring, mitigation and remediation measures to limit emissions to the environment. This paper develops risk screening and prioritisation methods previously used for contaminated land on military and civilian sites and engineering systems for the analysis and prioritisation of chemical risks from modern metal mining operations. It uses hierarchical holographic modelling and multi-criteria decision making to analyse and prioritise the risks from potentially hazardous inorganic chemical substances released by mining operations. A case study of an active platinum group metals mine in South Africa is used to demonstrate the potential of the method. This risk-based methodology for identifying, filtering and ranking mining-related environmental and human health risks can be used to identify exposure media of greatest concern to inform risk management. It also provides a practical decision-making tool for mine acquisition and helps to communicate risk to all members of mining operation teams.

  14. [Muscle and bone health as a risk factor of fall among the elderly. An approach to identify high-risk fallers by risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Reiko; Kozaki, Koichi; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Toba, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    Fall-induced hip fracture is one of the major causes rendering the elderly to be in a low ADL or bed-ridden status. Fall is not only the cause for fractures, but it lowers elderly peoples'ADL. History of fall, age, decline of motor function, orthostatic hypotension, balance deficit, dementia, drug and environmental factors were raised as possible risk factor for falls. We created a fall predicting score which consist of 21 risk factors and a history of falls. We found that the score is useful to identify high-risk fallers. It would be necessary to identify high-risk fallers early and give an appropriate individual approach.

  15. A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, Allard J; Dennerlein, Jack T; Huysmans, Maaike A; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex; van Mechelen, Willem; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Holtermann, Andreas; Janwantanakul, Prawit; van der Molen, Henk F; Rempel, David; Straker, Leon; Walker-Bone, Karen; Coenen, Pieter

    2017-11-01

    Objectives Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as manual lifting and awkward postures) but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD burden. This may partly be caused by insufficient knowledge of etiological mechanisms and/or a lack of adequately feasible interventions (theory failure and program failure, respectively), possibly due to limited integration of research disciplines. A research framework could link research disciplines thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention. Methods We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from other research fields (ie, sports injury prevention and public health). Results The framework is composed of a repeated sequence of six steps comprising the assessment of (i) incidence and severity of MSD, (ii) risk factors for MSD, and (iii) underlying mechanisms; and the (iv) development, (v) evaluation, and (vi) implementation of preventive intervention(s). Conclusions In the present framework for optimal work-related MSD prevention, research disciplines are linked. This framework can thereby help to improve theories and strengthen the development and implementation of prevention strategies for work-related MSD.

  16. Health status, job stress and work-related injury among Los Angeles taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.

  17. Identifying Adolescents at Highly Elevated Risk for Suicidal Behavior in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G.; Gipson, Polly Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal behavior in this at-risk sample. Method: Participants were 81 adolescents, ages 14–19 years, seeking services for psychiatric and nonpsychiatric chief complaints, who screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt, and/or depression plus alcohol or substance misuse. A comprehensive assessment of suicidal behavior, using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, was conducted at baseline and 2 month follow-up. Results: Six adolescents (7.4%) reported a suicide attempt and 15 (18.5%) engaged in some type of suicidal behavior (actual, aborted, or interrupted suicide attempt; preparatory behavior) during the 2 months following their ED visit. These rates suggest that this screen identified a high-risk sample. Furthermore, adolescents who screened positive for suicidal ideation and/or attempt plus depression and alcohol/substance misuse were most likely to engage in future suicidal behavior (38.9%). Conclusions: In this study, use of a higher screen threshold (multiple suicide risk factors) showed promise for identifying highly elevated acute risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:25746114

  18. Breast Density and Benign Breast Disease: Risk Assessment to Identify Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Li, Chin-Shang; Vachon, Celine M; Gard, Charlotte C; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2015-10-01

    Women with proliferative breast lesions are candidates for primary prevention, but few risk models incorporate benign findings to assess breast cancer risk. We incorporated benign breast disease (BBD) diagnoses into the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) risk model, the only breast cancer risk assessment tool that uses breast density. We developed and validated a competing-risk model using 2000 to 2010 SEER data for breast cancer incidence and 2010 vital statistics to adjust for the competing risk of death. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the relative hazards for age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, BBD diagnoses, and breast density in the BCSC. We included 1,135,977 women age 35 to 74 years undergoing mammography with no history of breast cancer; 17% of the women had a prior breast biopsy. During a mean follow-up of 6.9 years, 17,908 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. The BCSC BBD model slightly overpredicted risk (expected-to-observed ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.06) and had modest discriminatory accuracy (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.665). Among women with proliferative findings, adding BBD to the model increased the proportion of women with an estimated 5-year risk of 3% or higher from 9.3% to 27.8% (P<.001). The BCSC BBD model accurately estimates women's risk for breast cancer using breast density and BBD diagnoses. Greater numbers of high-risk women eligible for primary prevention after BBD diagnosis are identified using the BCSC BBD model. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. The impact of migration on deaths and hospital admissions from work-related injuries in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, Alison; Peters, Susan; Felipe, Nieves; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie

    Objective: The shift from an industrial to a service-based economy has seen a decline in work-related injuries (WRIs) and mortality. How this relates to migrant workers, who traditionally held high-risk jobs is unknown. This study examined deaths and hospital admissions from WRI, among foreign and

  20. Work-related threats and violence in human service sectors: The importance of the psycho-social work environment examined in a multilevel prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Peter; Hogh, Annie; Biering, Karin; Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann

    2018-01-01

    Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related threats and violence in four high risk human service sectors. Questionnaire data was collected from 3011 employees working at psychiatric wards, in the elder sector, in the Prison and Probation Service and at Special Schools. Associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related violence and threats were then studied using a one-year follow-up design and multilevel logistic regression analyses. The analyses showed that quantitative demands, high emotional demands, low level of influence over own work-situation, low predictability, low rewards at work, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work-family conflicts and low organizational justice had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related threats. Furthermore, high emotional demands, low predictability, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work-family conflicts, low supervisor quality and low support from nearest supervisor had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related violence. Finally, across the four sectors both similar and different associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related violence and threats were found. The results of the study underline the importance of including the psycho-social work environment as a supplement to existing violence prevention methods and interventions aimed at reducing work-related violence and threats.

  1. Regulatory activity based risk model identifies survival of stage II and III colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Dong, Chuanpeng; Wang, Xing; Hou, Guojun; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Huilin; Zhan, Xiaohui; Liu, Lei

    2017-11-17

    Clinical and pathological indicators are inadequate for prognosis of stage II and III colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In this study, we utilized the activity of regulatory factors, univariate Cox regression and random forest for variable selection and developed a multivariate Cox model to predict the overall survival of Stage II/III colorectal carcinoma in GSE39582 datasets (469 samples). Patients in low-risk group showed a significant longer overall survival and recurrence-free survival time than those in high-risk group. This finding was further validated in five other independent datasets (GSE14333, GSE17536, GSE17537, GSE33113, and GSE37892). Besides, associations between clinicopathological information and risk score were analyzed. A nomogram including risk score was plotted to facilitate the utilization of risk score. The risk score model is also demonstrated to be effective on predicting both overall and recurrence-free survival of chemotherapy received patients. After performing Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) between high and low risk groups, we found that several cell-cell interaction KEGG pathways were identified. Funnel plot results showed that there was no publication bias in these datasets. In summary, by utilizing the regulatory activity in stage II and III colorectal carcinoma, the risk score successfully predicts the survival of 1021 stage II/III CRC patients in six independent datasets.

  2. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tiihonen Möller

    Full Text Available Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD.Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months.Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults.Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  3. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen Möller, Anna; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months. Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults. Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  4. Using Hospitalization and Mortality Data to Identify Areas at Risk for Adolescent Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Aseltine, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to use statewide data on inpatient hospitalizations for suicide attempts and suicide mortality to identify communities and school districts at risk for adolescent suicide. Five years of data (2010-2014) from the Office of the Connecticut Medical Examiner and the Connecticut Hospital Inpatient Discharge Database were analyzed. A mixed-effects Poisson regression model was used to assess whether suicide attempt/mortality rates in the state's 119 school districts were significantly better or worse than expected after adjusting for 10 community-level characteristics. Ten districts were at significantly higher risk for suicidal behavior, with suicide mortality/hospitalization rates ranging from 154% to 241% of their expected rates, after accounting for their community characteristics. Four districts were identified as having significantly lower risk for suicide attempts than expected after accounting for community-level advantages and disadvantages. Data capturing hospitalization for suicide attempts and suicide deaths can inform prevention activities by identifying high-risk areas to which resources should be allocated, as well as low-risk areas that may provide insight into the best practices in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Work-related stress disorders: variability in clinical expression and pitfalls in psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buselli, Rodolfo; Veltri, Antonello; Baldanzi, Sigrid; Bozzi, Silvia; Marino, Riccardo; Chiumiento, Martina; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Cristaudo, Alfonso

    2016-03-24

    Putative occupational stress-related psychiatric disorders are Adjustment Disorders (AD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Mood Disorders (MD) are not excluded but are unlikely to be identified as occupational diseases. The differential diagnosis between AD and MD is not easy and is based on strict categorical criteria. The aim of this study  was to explore differences in personality and mood spectrum symptoms among workers investigated for occupational stress suffering from AD or MD. Sixty-two patients with AD and 43 with MD were recruited and evaluated by means of rating scales for psychosocial occupational risk and work-related stress (WHS, CDL, OSQ), for sleep disturbances (PSQI), for personality disorders (SCID-II) and for mood spectrum symptoms (MOODS-SR). The diagnostic groups did not differ for WHS, OSQ and PSQI scores. The duration of exposure to stressful/adversative work situations was significantly higher in the MD group (p=0.03). Positive family psychiatric history (p=0.005), personality disorders (p=0.009) and pathological personality traits (p<0.0001) were significantly more frequent in the MD group. The MOODS-SR questionnaire total score (p=0.019) and the manic component score (p=0.001) but not the depressive score were significantly higher in the MD group. The present study suggests that  positive family psychiatric history, pathological personality traits and  spectrum manic symptoms represent markers of vulnerability and low resilience for workers exposed to occupational stress. These characteristics could weaken the etiological relationship between work-related stress and an initial  major depressive episode when it is under investigation as a possible occupational disease.

  6. Using Breast Cancer Risk Associated Polymorphisms to Identify Women for Breast Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Ziv

    Full Text Available Breast cancer can be prevented with selective estrogen receptor modifiers (SERMs and aromatase inhibitors (AIs. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women with a 5-year breast cancer risk ≥3% consider chemoprevention for breast cancer. More than 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with breast cancer. We sought to determine how to best integrate risk information from SNPs with other risk factors to risk stratify women for chemoprevention.We used the risk distribution among women ages 35-69 estimated by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC risk model. We modeled the effect of adding 70 SNPs to the BCSC model and examined how this would affect how many women are reclassified above and below the threshold for chemoprevention.We found that most of the benefit of SNP testing a population is achieved by testing a modest fraction of the population. For example, if women with a 5-year BCSC risk of >2.0% are tested (~21% of all women, ~75% of the benefit of testing all women (shifting women above or below 3% 5-year risk would be derived. If women with a 5-year risk of >1.5% are tested (~36% of all women, ~90% of the benefit of testing all women would be derived.SNP testing is effective for reclassification of women for chemoprevention, but is unlikely to reclassify women with <1.5% 5-year risk. These results can be used to implement an efficient two-step testing approach to identify high risk women who may benefit from chemoprevention.

  7. Identifying potential risk situations for humans when removing horses from groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Removing a horse from its social group may be considered risky, both for the handler and the horse, because other horses can interfere in the catching process. The main aim of this study was to identify where and when these risk situations occur while removing a horse from its group. A potential...

  8. Work Ability Index as Tool to Identify Workers at Risk of Premature Work Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Rhenen, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the Work Ability Index (WAI) as tool for identifying workers at risk of premature work exit in terms of disability pension, unemployment, or early retirement. Methods Prospective cohort study of 11,537 male construction workers (mean age 45.5 years), who completed the WAI at

  9. The Baby TALK Model: An Innovative Approach to Identifying High-Risk Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Aimee Hilado; Leow, Christine; Hornstein, John

    2012-01-01

    This research report examines the Baby TALK model, an innovative early childhood intervention approach used to identify, recruit, and serve young children who are at-risk for developmental delays, mental health needs, and/or school failure, and their families. The report begins with a description of the model. This description is followed by an…

  10. Identifying Children at Risk for Language Impairment or Dyslexia with Group-Administered Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Scoggins, Joanna; Brazendale, Allison; Babb, Spencer; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to determine whether brief, group-administered screening measures can reliably identify second-grade children at risk for language impairment (LI) or dyslexia and to examine the degree to which parents of affected children were aware of their children's difficulties. Method: Participants (N = 381) completed screening tasks…

  11. Using Predictive Modelling to Identify Students at Risk of Poor University Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pengfei; Maloney, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Predictive modelling is used to identify students at risk of failing their first-year courses and not returning to university in the second year. Our aim is twofold. Firstly, we want to understand the factors that lead to poor first-year experiences at university. Secondly, we want to develop simple, low-cost tools that would allow universities to…

  12. Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demenais, Florence; Margaritte-Jeannin, Patricia; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2018-01-01

    We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known...

  13. Large-scale genotyping identifies 41 new loci associated with breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Hall, Per; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Common variants at 27 loci have been identified as associated with susceptibility to breast cancer, and these account for ∼9% of the familial risk of the disease. We report here a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies, including 10...

  14. Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demenais, Florence; Margaritte-Jeannin, Patricia; Barnes, Kathleen C; Cookson, William O C; Altmüller, Janine; Ang, Wei; Barr, R Graham; Beaty, Terri H; Becker, Allan B; Beilby, John; Bisgaard, Hans; Bjornsdottir, Unnur Steina; Bleecker, Eugene; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Brightling, Christopher E; Brossard, Myriam; Brusselle, Guy G; Burchard, Esteban; Burkart, Kristin M; Bush, Andrew; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Chung, Kian Fan; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Curtin, John A; Custovic, Adnan; Daley, Denise; de Jongste, Johan C; Del-Rio-Navarro, Blanca E; Donohue, Kathleen M; Duijts, Liesbeth; Eng, Celeste; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Fedorova, Yuliya; Feenstra, Bjarke; Ferreira, Manuel A; Freidin, Maxim B; Gajdos, Zofia; Gauderman, Jim; Gehring, Ulrike; Geller, Frank; Genuneit, Jon; Gharib, Sina A; Gilliland, Frank; Granell, Raquel; Graves, Penelope E; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Haahtela, Tari; Heckbert, Susan R; Heederik, Dick; Heinrich, Joachim; Heliövaara, Markku; Henderson, John; Himes, Blanca E; Hirose, Hiroshi; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holt, Patrick; Hottenga, Jouke; Hudson, Thomas J; Hui, Jennie; Imboden, Medea; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; James, Alan; Janson, Christer; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jarvis, Deborah; Jones, Graham; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kabesch, Michael; Kähönen, Mika; Kantor, David B; Karunas, Alexandra S; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Kreiner, Eskil; Kubo, Michiaki; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Ashish; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Lahousse, Lies; Laitinen, Tarja; Laprise, Catherine; Lathrop, Mark; Lau, Susanne; Lee, Young-Ae; Lehtimäki, Terho; Letort, Sébastien; Levin, Albert M; Li, Guo; Liang, Liming; Loehr, Laura R; London, Stephanie J; Loth, Daan W; Manichaikul, Ani; Marenholz, Ingo; Martinez, Fernando J; Matheson, Melanie C; Mathias, Rasika A; Matsumoto, Kenji; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Melén, Erik; Meyers, Deborah; Michel, Sven; Mohamdi, Hamida; Musk, Arthur W; Myers, Rachel A; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A E; Noguchi, Emiko; O'Connor, George T; Ogorodova, Ludmila M; Palmer, Cameron D; Palotie, Aarno; Park, Julie E; Pennell, Craig E; Pershagen, Göran; Polonikov, Alexey; Postma, Dirkje S; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Puzyrev, Valery P; Raby, Benjamin A; Raitakari, Olli T; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rich, Stephen S; Robertson, Colin F; Romieu, Isabelle; Salam, Muhammad T; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlünssen, Vivi; Scott, Robert; Selivanova, Polina A; Sigsgaard, Torben; Simpson, Angela; Siroux, Valérie; Smith, Lewis J; Solodilova, Maria; Standl, Marie; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Stricker, Bruno H; Takahashi, Atsushi; Thompson, Philip J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torgerson, Dara G; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Vaysse, Amaury; Vedantam, Sailaja; von Berg, Andrea; von Mutius, Erika; Vonk, Judith M; Waage, Johannes; Wareham, Nick J; Weiss, Scott T; White, Wendy B; Wickman, Magnus; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, L Keoki; Wouters, Inge M; Yang, James J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Moffatt, Miriam F; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L

    We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma

  15. Work ability index as tool to identify workers at risk of premature work exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Heymans, M.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Groothoff, J.W.; van Rhenen, W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the Work Ability Index (WAI) as tool for identifying workers at risk of premature work exit in terms of disability pension, unemployment, or early retirement. Methods Prospective cohort study of 11,537 male construction workers (mean age 45.5 years), who completed the WAI at

  16. Identifying Risk of Future Asthma Attacks Using UK Medical Record Data : A Respiratory Effectiveness Group Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blakey, John D.; Price, David B.; Pizzichini, Emilio; Popov, Todor A.; Dimitrov, Borislav D.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Josephs, Lynn K.; Kaplan, Alan; Papi, Alberto; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Chisholm, Alison; Thomas, Mike

    BACKGROUND: Asthma attacks are common, serious, and costly. Individual factors associated with attacks, such as poor symptom control, are not robust predictors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the rich data available in UK electronic medical records could identify patients at risk of recurrent

  17. Large-scale genotyping identifies 41 new loci associated with breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michailidou, Kyriaki; Hall, Per; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Ghoussaini, Maya; Dennis, Joe; Milne, Roger L.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dicks, Ed; Lee, Andrew; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckman, Lars; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, François; Tessier, Daniel C.; Canisius, Sander; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Luccarini, Craig; Schoof, Nils; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Stevens, Kristen N.; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Rudolph, Anja; Nickels, Stefan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Johnson, Nichola; Aitken, Zoe; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Broeks, Annegien; van 't Veer, Laura J.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Zamora, M. Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Bui, Quang M.; Stone, Jennifer; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Tsimiklis, Helen; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Brüning, Thomas; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Dörk, Thilo; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Edge, Stephen; Fostira, Florentia; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Sueta, Aiko; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; van den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Phuah, Sze Yee; Cornes, Belinda K.; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lim, Wei Yen; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ding, Shian-Ling; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Blot, William J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Simard, Jacques; Garcia-Closas, Montse; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M.; Benitez, Javier; Easton, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Common variants at 27 loci have been identified as associated with susceptibility to breast cancer, and these account for ∼9% of the familial risk of the disease. We report here a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies, including

  18. Risk Prioritization Tool to Identify the Public Health Risks of Wildlife Trade: The Case of Rodents from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, I; Smith, K M; Sampedro, F; Machalaba, C C; Karesh, W B; Travis, D A

    2016-06-01

    Wildlife trade (both formal and informal) is a potential driver of disease introduction and emergence. Legislative proposals aim to prevent these risks by banning wildlife imports, and creating 'white lists' of species that are cleared for importation. These approaches pose economic harm to the pet industry, and place substantial burden on importers and/or federal agencies to provide proof of low risk for importation of individual species. As a feasibility study, a risk prioritization tool was developed to rank the pathogens found in rodent species imported from Latin America into the United States with the highest risk of zoonotic consequence in the United States. Four formally traded species and 16 zoonotic pathogens were identified. Risk scores were based on the likelihood of pathogen release and human exposure, and the severity of the disease (consequences). Based on the methodology applied, three pathogens (Mycobacterium microti, Giardia spp. and Francisella tularensis) in one species (Cavia porcellus) were ranked as highest concern. The goal of this study was to present a methodological approach by which preliminary management resources can be allocated to the identified high-concern pathogen-species combinations when warranted. This tool can be expanded to other taxa and geographic locations to inform policy surrounding the wildlife trade. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, S.I.; Skibola, C.F.; Joseph, V.; Camp, N.J.; Nieters, A.; Wang, Z.; Cozen, W.; Monnereau, A.; Wang, S.S.; Kelly, R.S.; Lan, Q.; Teras, L.R.; Chatterjee, N.; Chung, C.C.; Yeager, M.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have previously identified 13 loci associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL). To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted the largest meta-analysis for CLL thus far, including four GWAS with a total of 3,100 individuals with CLL (cases) and 7,667 controls. In the meta-analysis, we identified ten independent associated SNPs in nine new loci at 10q23.31 (ACTA2 or FAS (ACTA2/FAS), P = 1.22 × 10...

  20. Prevalence of HIV in pregnant women identified with a risk factor at a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ghazala; Abbas, Shazra

    2009-01-01

    HIV is an epidemic quite unlike any other, combining the problems of a lifelong medical disease with immense social, psychological, economic and public health consequences. Since we are living in a global village where human interactions has become fast and frequent, diseases like HIV are no more alien to us. HIV/AIDS in Pakistan is slowly gaining recognition as a public health issue of great importance. Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women identified with a high risk factor/behaviour at a tertiary care hospital. It is a Descriptive study. All pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinic were assessed via a pre-designed 'Risk assessment questionnaire'. Women identified with a risk factor were offered HIV Rapid screening test (Capillus HIV1/2). Positive (reactive) results on screening test were confirmed with ELISA. During the study period (March 2007-May 2008), out of 5263 antenatal bookings 785 (14%) women were identified with a risk factor. HIV screening test was done in 779 (99%), and 6 women refused testing. Three women (0.3%) were found positive (reactive) on screening. Two out of 3 women were confirmed positive (0.2%) on ELISA. Husbands of both women were tested and one found positive (migrant from Dubai). Second women had history of blood transfusion. Her husband was HIV negative. During the study period, in addition to 2 pregnant women diagnosed as HIV positive through ANC risk screening, 6 confirmed HIV positive women, found pregnant were referred from 'HIV Treatment Centre', Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) to Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centre for obstetric care. Spouses of 5 out of 6 had history of working abroad and extramarital sexual relationships. All positive (8) women were referred to PPTCT centre for further management. A simple 'Risk Assessment Questionnaire' can help us in identifying women who need HIV screening. Sexual transmission still remains the

  1. Work-related psychosocial factors and onset of metabolic syndrome among workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraya, Asuka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Norito; Imamura, Kotaro; Ando, Emiko; Asai, Yumi; Eguchi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Nishida, Norimitsu; Arima, Hideaki; Shimazu, Akihito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-06-22

    Metabolic syndrome is an important public health target because of its high prevalence worldwide. Work-related psychosocial factors have been identified as determinants of metabolic syndrome components. However, there have been no systematic reviews or meta-analyses conducted to evaluate the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and metabolic syndrome as an aggregated cluster. The aim of this study is to examine this association from published prospective studies. The systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted using published studies that will be identified from electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Japan Medical Abstracts Society). Studies that (1) examined the association between work-related psychosocial factors and the onset of metabolic syndrome, (2) had a longitudinal or prospective cohort design, (3) were conducted among workers, (4) provided sufficient data for calculating ORs or relative risk with a 95% CI, (5) were published as original articles written in English or Japanese, and (6) having been published until the end of 2016 will be included. Study selection, data collection, quality assessment and statistical syntheses will be conducted based on discussions among investigators. Ethics approval was not required for this study because it was based on published studies. The results and findings of this study will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. The findings from this study could be useful for assessing metabolic syndrome risk factors in the workplace, and determining approaches for prevention of metabolic syndrome in the future. PROSPERO CRD42016039096 (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO_REBRANDING/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42016039096). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Screening for type 2 diabetes in a multiethnic setting using known risk factors to identify those at high risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Laura J.; Tringham, Jennifer R.; Davies, Melanie J.

    2010-01-01

    population to identify those with abnormal glucose tolerance. ethods: A sample of individuals aged 25-75 years (40-75 white European) with at least one risk factor for T2DM were invited for screening from 17 Leicestershire (UK) general practices or through a health awareness campaign. All participants...... received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, cardiovascular risk assessment, detailed medical and family histories and anthropometric measurements. Results: In the 3,225 participants who were screened. 640 (20%) were found to have some form of abnormal glucose tolerance of whom 4% had T2DM, 3% impaired...

  3. Identifying noncoding risk variants using disease-relevant gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Long; Uzun, Yasin; Gao, Peng; He, Bing; Ma, Xiaoke; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Shizhong; Tan, Kai

    2018-02-16

    Identifying noncoding risk variants remains a challenging task. Because noncoding variants exert their effects in the context of a gene regulatory network (GRN), we hypothesize that explicit use of disease-relevant GRNs can significantly improve the inference accuracy of noncoding risk variants. We describe Annotation of Regulatory Variants using Integrated Networks (ARVIN), a general computational framework for predicting causal noncoding variants. It employs a set of novel regulatory network-based features, combined with sequence-based features to infer noncoding risk variants. Using known causal variants in gene promoters and enhancers in a number of diseases, we show ARVIN outperforms state-of-the-art methods that use sequence-based features alone. Additional experimental validation using reporter assay further demonstrates the accuracy of ARVIN. Application of ARVIN to seven autoimmune diseases provides a holistic view of the gene subnetwork perturbed by the combinatorial action of the entire set of risk noncoding mutations.

  4. Identifying colon cancer risk modules with better classification performance based on human signaling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoli; Xie, Ruiqiang; Chen, Lina; Feng, Chenchen; Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Wan; Huang, Hao; Jia, Xu; Lv, Junjie; He, Yuehan; Du, Youwen; Li, Weiguo; Shi, Yuchen; He, Weiming

    2014-10-01

    Identifying differences between normal and tumor samples from a modular perspective may help to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for colon cancer. Many cancer studies have shown that signaling transduction and biological pathways are disturbed in disease states, and expression profiles can distinguish variations in diseases. In this study, we integrated a weighted human signaling network and gene expression profiles to select risk modules associated with tumor conditions. Risk modules as classification features by our method had a better classification performance than other methods, and one risk module for colon cancer had a good classification performance for distinguishing between normal/tumor samples and between tumor stages. All genes in the module were annotated to the biological process of positive regulation of cell proliferation, and were highly associated with colon cancer. These results suggested that these genes might be the potential risk genes for colon cancer. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The work-related fatal injury study: numbers, rates and trends of work-related fatal injuries in New Zealand 1985-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyer, A M; Langley, J; Howard, M; Horsburgh, S; Wright, C; Alsop, J; Cryer, C

    2001-01-26

    To determine the number and rates of work-related fatal injuries by employment status, occupation, industry, age and gender in New Zealand 1985-1994. Potential cases of work-related injury deaths of persons aged 15-84 years were identified from the national electronic mortality data files. Main exclusions were deaths due to suicide and deaths due to motor vehicle crashes. The circumstances of the deaths of each fatal incident meeting inclusion criteria were then reviewed directly from coronial files to determine work-relatedness. The rate of work-related fatal injury in New Zealand was 5.03/100000 workers per year for the study period. There was a significant decline in crude rate over the study period. However, this was in substantial part accounted for by changes in occupation and industry mix. Older workers, male workers, self-employed workers, and particular occupational groups, all had substantially elevated rates. Agricultural and helicopter pilots, forestry workers and fishery workers had the highest rates. Farmers, forestry workers, and fishery workers also had high numbers of deaths, together accounting for nearly 40% of all deaths. This study has demonstrated that work-related fatal injury remains a pressing problem for New Zealand. Several areas in urgent need of prevention efforts were highlighted.

  6. Voice disorders in teachers and their associations with work-related factors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor Cutiva, Lady Catherine; Vogel, Ineke; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    To provide a quantitative assessment of the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and to identify associated work-related and individual factors in the teaching profession. A systematic review was conducted using three computerized databases on the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and their associations with work-related and individual factors. Some of the keywords used were: "teacher", "voice disorder", "voice problem", and "dysphonia". Information regarding the occurrence of voice disorders and associations between work-related and individual factors and voice disorders were extracted from each paper. Occurrence and associations were expressed in prevalence and odds ratios, respectively. In total, 23 publications met the criteria for inclusion. All publications were cross-sectional studies. Prevalence estimates varied widely, reflecting disparity in definitions of "voice problem". Teachers had a significantly increased occurrence of voice disorders compared to other occupations. Several work-related and individual factors were consistently associated with voice disorders, most notably high levels of noise in classrooms, being a physical education instructor, and habitual use of a loud speaking voice. This review shows that teachers report voice disorders more often than non-teachers. Various work-related and individual factors are associated with reported voice disorders. Longitudinal studies are urgently required to get more insight into the development of voice disorders, their work-related determinants, and the consequences of these voice disorders for functioning and work performance among teachers. Describe the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers. Identify some work-related factors of voice disorders among teachers. Interpret the quality of the publications to describe or analyze the relationship between working conditions and voice disorders among teachers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A structured elicitation method to identify key direct risk factors for the management of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high level of uncertainty inherent in natural resource management requires planners to apply comprehensive risk analyses, often in situations where there are few resources. In this paper, we demonstrate a broadly applicable, novel and structured elicitation approach to identify important direct risk factors. This new approach combines expert calibration and fuzzy based mathematics to capture and aggregate subjective expert estimates of the likelihood that a set of direct risk factors will cause management failure. A specific case study is used to demonstrate the approach; however, the described methods are widely applicable in risk analysis. For the case study, the management target was to retain all species that characterise a set of natural biological elements. The analysis was bounded by the spatial distribution of the biological elements under consideration and a 20-year time frame. Fourteen biological elements were expected to be at risk. Eleven important direct risk factors were identified that related to surrounding land use practices, climate change, problem species (e.g., feral predators, fire and hydrological change. In terms of their overall influence, the two most important risk factors were salinisation and a lack of water which together pose a considerable threat to the survival of nine biological elements. The described approach successfully overcame two concerns arising from previous risk analysis work: (1 the lack of an intuitive, yet comprehensive scoring method enabling the detection and clarification of expert agreement and associated levels of uncertainty; and (2 the ease with which results can be interpreted and communicated while preserving a rich level of detail essential for informed decision making.

  8. Work-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs compared to teachers and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia; Schaarschmidt, Uwe; Kieschke, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the status of health-related behavior and experience patterns of entrepreneurs in comparison with teachers and physicians to identify specific health risks and resources. Entrepreneurs (n = 632), teachers (n = 5,196), and physicians (n = 549) were surveyed in a cross-sectional design. The questionnaire Work-related Behavior and Experience Patterns (AVEM) was used for all professions and, in addition, two scales (health prevention and self-confidence) from the Checklist for Entrepreneurs in the sample of entrepreneurs. The largest proportion of the entrepreneurs (45%) presented with a healthy pattern (compared with 18.4% teachers and 18.3% physicians). Thirty-eight percent of entrepreneurs showed a risk pattern of overexertion and stress, followed by teachers (28.9%) and physicians (20.6%). Unambitious or burnout patterns were seen in only 9.3/8.2% of entrepreneurs, respectively, and 25.3/27.3% of teachers, and 39.6/21.5% of physicians. While the distribution of patterns in teachers and physicians differed significantly between genders, a gender difference was not found among entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs with the risk pattern of overexertion scored significantly (P successful enterprise depends, in part, on the health of the entrepreneur. The large proportion of entrepreneurs with the healthy pattern irrespective of gender may support the notion that self-selection effects of healthy individuals in this special career might be important. At the same time, a large proportion was at risk for overexertion and might benefit from measures to cope with professional demands and stress and promote a healthy behavior pattern.

  9. [Mortality from work-related accidents among agricultural workers in Brazil, 2000-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-de-Sousa, Flávia Nogueira; Santana, Vilma Sousa

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated annual mortality from work-related injuries in agriculture in Brazil, 2000-2010. The Mortality Information System (SIM) was used to identify cases. Missing data for occupation and work-related injuries were retrieved through other available individual records and incorporated into total cases. Population data were obtained from the official censuses. A total of 8,923 deaths from work-related injuries were identified, of which 44.8% were located by data retrieval. In the year 2000, estimated crude mortality from work-related injuries was 6.4/100,000 workers, increasing to 8.1/100,000 in 2003 and declining to 7.3/100,000 in 2010. The leading circumstances of deaths in men involved "riding animals or using animal-drawn vehicles", whereas pesticide poisoning was the leading cause in women. Overall mortality from work-related injuries in agriculture was low when compared to that of other countries, suggesting residual under-recording despite data retrieval and thus calling for quality improvement in records. Gender-sensitive preventive measures are necessary.

  10. Modeling strategy to identify patients with primary immunodeficiency utilizing risk management and outcome measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Vicki; Quinn, Jessica; Ginsberg, Grant; Gladue, Ron; Orange, Jordan; Modell, Fred

    2017-06-01

    This study seeks to generate analytic insights into risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. The Jeffrey Modell Centers Network database, Jeffrey Modell Foundation's 10 Warning Signs, the 4 Stages of Testing Algorithm, physician-reported clinical outcomes, programs of physician education and public awareness, the SPIRIT® Analyzer, and newborn screening, taken together, generates P values of less than 0.05%. This indicates that the data results do not occur by chance, and that there is a better than 95% probability that the data are valid. The objectives are to improve patients' quality of life, while generating significant reduction of costs. The advances of the world's experts aligned with these JMF programs can generate analytic insights as to risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. This strategy reduces the uncertainties related to primary immunodeficiency risks, as we can screen, test, identify, and treat undiagnosed patients. We can also address regional differences and prevalence, age, gender, treatment modalities, and sites of care, as well as economic benefits. These tools support high net benefits, substantial financial savings, and significant reduction of costs. All stakeholders, including patients, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, third party payers, and government healthcare agencies, must address the earliest possible precise diagnosis, appropriate intervention and treatment, as well as stringent control of healthcare costs through risk assessment and outcome measurement. An affected patient is entitled to nothing less, and stakeholders are responsible to utilize tools currently available. Implementation offers a significant challenge to the entire primary immunodeficiency community.

  11. A universal meteorological method to identify potential risk of wind erosion on heavy-textured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Středová Hana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The climate of Central Europe, mainly winter seasons with no snow cover at lower altitudes and a spring drought as well, might cause erosion events on heavy-textured soils. The aim of this paper is to define a universal method to identify the potential risk of wind erosion on heavy-textured soils. The categorization of potential wind erosion risk due to meteorological conditions is based on: (i an evaluation of the number of freeze-thaw episodes forming bare soil surfaces during the cold period of year; and (ii, an evaluation of the number of days with wet soil surfaces during the cold period of year. In the period 2001–2012 (from November to March, episodes with temperature changes from positive to negative and vice versa (thaw-freeze and freeze-thaw cycles and the effects of wet soil surfaces in connection with aggregate disintegration, are identified. The data are spatially interpolated by GIS tools for areas in the Czech Republic with heavy-textured soils. Blending critical categories is used to locate potential risks. The level of risk is divided into six classes. Those areas identified as potentially most vulnerable are the same localities where the highest number of erosive episodes on heavy-textured soils was documented.

  12. Cardiovascular risk assessment of dyslipidemic children: analysis of biomarkers to identify monogenic dyslipidemia[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Ana Margarida; Alves, Ana Catarina; Aguiar, Pedro; Bourbon, Mafalda

    2014-01-01

    The distinction between a monogenic dyslipidemia and a polygenic/environmental dyslipidemia is important for the cardiovascular risk assessment, counseling, and treatment of these patients. The present work aims to perform the cardiovascular risk assessment of dyslipidemic children to identify useful biomarkers for clinical criteria improvement in clinical settings. Main cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in a cohort of 237 unrelated children with clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). About 40% carried at least two cardiovascular risk factors and 37.6% had FH, presenting mutations in LDLR and APOB. FH children showed significant elevated atherogenic markers and lower concentration of antiatherogenic particles. Children without a molecular diagnosis of FH had higher levels of TGs, apoC2, apoC3, and higher frequency of BMI and overweight/obesity, suggesting that environmental factors can be the underlying cause of their hypercholesterolem≥ia. An apoB/apoA1 ratio ≥0.68 was identified as the best biomarker (area under the curve = 0.835) to differentiate FH from other dyslipidemias. The inclusion in clinical criteria of a higher cut-off point for LDL cholesterol or an apoB/apoA1 ratio ≥0.68 optimized the criteria sensitivity and specificity. The correct identification, at an early age, of all children at-risk is of great importance so that specific interventions can be implemented. apoB/apoA1 can improve the identification of FH patients. PMID:24627126

  13. Identifying and assessing highly hazardous drugs within quality risk management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Robert G; Schatz, Anthony R; Kimmel, Tracy A; Ader, Allan; Naumann, Bruce D; Weideman, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    Historically, pharmaceutical industry regulatory guidelines have assigned certain active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to various categories of concern, such as "cytotoxic", "hormones", and "steroids". These categories have been used to identify APIs requiring segregation or dedication in order to prevent cross-contamination and protect the quality and safety of drug products. Since these terms were never defined by regulatory authorities, and many novel pharmacological mechanisms challenge these categories, there is a recognized need to modify the historical use of these terms. The application of a risk-based approach using a health-based limit, such as an acceptable daily exposure (ADE), is more appropriate for the development of a Quality Risk Management Program (QRMP) than the use of categories of concern. The toxicological and pharmacological characteristics of these categories are discussed to help identify and prioritize compounds requiring special attention. Controlling airborne concentrations and the contamination of product contact surfaces in accordance with values derived from quantitative risk assessments can prevent adverse effects in workers and patients, regardless of specific categorical designations to which these APIs have been assigned. The authors acknowledge the movement away from placing compounds into categories and, while not yet universal, the importance of basing QRMPs on compound-specific ADEs and risk assessments. Based on the results of a risk assessment, segregation and dedication may also be required for some compounds to prevent cross contamination during manufacture of APIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What's the risk? Identifying potential human pathogens within grey-headed flying foxes faeces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Henry

    Full Text Available Pteropus poliocephalus (grey-headed flying foxes are recognised vectors for a range of potentially fatal human pathogens. However, to date research has primarily focused on viral disease carriage, overlooking bacterial pathogens, which also represent a significant human disease risk. The current study applied 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, community analysis and a multi-tiered database OTU picking approach to identify faecal-derived zoonotic bacteria within two colonies of P. poliocephalus from Victoria, Australia. Our data show that sequences associated with Enterobacteriaceae (62.8% ± 24.7%, Pasteurellaceae (19.9% ± 25.7% and Moraxellaceae (9.4% ± 11.8% dominate flying fox faeces. Further colony specific differences in bacterial faecal colonisation patterns were also identified. In total, 34 potential pathogens, representing 15 genera, were identified. However, species level definition was only possible for Clostridium perfringens, which likely represents a low infectious risk due to the low proportion observed within the faeces and high infectious dose required for transmission. In contrast, sequences associated with other pathogenic species clusters such as Haemophilus haemolyticus-H. influenzae and Salmonella bongori-S. enterica, were present at high proportions in the faeces, and due to their relatively low infectious doses and modes of transmissions, represent a greater potential human disease risk. These analyses of the microbial community composition of Pteropus poliocephalus have significantly advanced our understanding of the potential bacterial disease risk associated with flying foxes and should direct future epidemiological and quantitative microbial risk assessments to further define the health risks presented by these animals.

  15. Work Ability Index as tool to identify workers at risk of premature work exit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; Heymans, Martijn W; Twisk, Jos W R; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W; van Rhenen, Willem

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the Work Ability Index (WAI) as tool for identifying workers at risk of premature work exit in terms of disability pension, unemployment, or early retirement. Prospective cohort study of 11,537 male construction workers (mean age 45.5 years), who completed the WAI at baseline and reported their work status (employed, unemployed, disability pension, or retired) after mean 2.3 years of follow-up. Associations between WAI scores and work status were investigated by multinomial logistic regression analysis. The ability of the WAI to discriminate between workers at high and low risk of premature work exit was analyzed by the area (AUC) under the receiver operating characteristic curve. 9,530 (83 %) construction workers had complete data for analysis. At follow-up, 336 (4 %) workers reported disability pension, 125 (1 %) unemployment, and 255 (3 %) retirement. WAI scores were prospectively associated with the risk of disability pension at follow-up, but not with the risk of unemployment and early retirement. The WAI showed fair discrimination to identify workers at risk of disability pension [AUC = 0.74; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.77]. The discriminative ability decreased with age from AUC = 0.78 in workers aged 30-39 years to AUC = 0.69 in workers ≥50 years of age. Discrimination failed for unemployment (AUC = 0.51; 95 % CI 0.47-0.55) and early retirement (AUC = 0.58; 95 % CI 0.53-0.61). The WAI can be used to identify construction workers <50 years of age at increased risk of disability pension and invite them for preventive interventions.

  16. Fine-Mapping of Common Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Tumor Risk Identified Potential Functional Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Du

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk variants. We analyzed 11,900 cases and 14,311 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. To fine-map genomic regions containing all known common risk variants, we imputed high-density genetic data from the 1000 Genomes Project. We tested single-variant associations with colorectal tumor risk for all variants spanning genomic regions 250-kb upstream or downstream of 31 GWAS-identified SNPs (index SNPs. We queried the University of California, Santa Cruz Genome Browser to examine evidence for biological function. Index SNPs did not show the strongest association signals with colorectal tumor risk in their respective genomic regions. Bioinformatics analysis of SNPs showing smaller P-values in each region revealed 21 functional candidates in 12 loci (5q31.1, 8q24, 11q13.4, 11q23, 12p13.32, 12q24.21, 14q22.2, 15q13, 18q21, 19q13.1, 20p12.3, and 20q13.33. We did not observe evidence of additional independent association signals in GWAS-identified regions. Our results support the utility of integrating data from comprehensive fine-mapping with expanding publicly available genomic databases to help clarify GWAS associations and identify functional candidates that warrant more onerous laboratory follow-up. Such efforts may aid the eventual discovery of disease-causing variant(s.

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies shared risk loci common to two malignancies in golden retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Tonomura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6% and hemangiosarcoma (20%. We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute ~20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6×10-7 and 2.7×10-6, respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers.

  18. How to Identify High-Risk APS Patients: Clinical Utility and Predictive Values of Validated Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Kenji; Amengual, Olga; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a clinical disorder characterised by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the persistence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies that are pathogenic and have pro-coagulant activities. Thrombosis in APS tends to recur and require prophylaxis; however, the stereotypical treatment for APS patients is inadequate and stratification of the thrombotic risks is important as aPL are prevalently observed in various diseases or elderly population. It is previously known that the multiple positive aPL or high titre aPL correlate to thrombotic events. To progress the stratification of thrombotic risks in APS patients and to quantitatively analyse those risks, antiphospholipid score (aPL-S) and the Global Anti-phospholipid Syndrome Score (GAPSS) were defined. These scores were raised from the large patient cohort data and either aPL profile classified in detail (aPL-S) or simplified aPL profile with classical thrombotic risk factors (GAPSS) was put into a scoring system. Both the aPL-S and GAPSS have shown a degree of accuracy in identifying high-risk APS patients, especially those at a high risk of thrombosis. However, there are several areas requiring improvement, or at least that clinicians should be aware of, before these instruments are applied in clinical practice. One such issue is standardisation of the aPL tests, including general testing of phosphatidylserine-dependent antiprothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT). Additionally, clinicians may need to be aware of the patient's medical history, particularly with respect to the incidence of SLE, which influences the cutoff value for identifying high-risk patients.

  19. Midlife work-related stress is associated with late-life cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Shireen; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Solomon, Alina; Hooshmand, Babak; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and late-life cognition in individuals without dementia from the general population. The Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study population (n = 2000) was randomly selected from independent Finnish population-based surveys (baseline mean age 50 years). Participants underwent two re-examinations in late life (mean age 71 and 78 years, respectively). 1511 subjects participated in at least one re-examination (mean total follow-up 25 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands administered in midlife. Multiple cognitive domains were assessed. Analyses were adjusted for several potential confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with poorer performance on global cognition [β-coefficient, -0.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.05 to -0.00], and processing speed [β -0.03, CI -0.05 to -0.01]. Results remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Work-related stress was not significantly associated with episodic memory, executive functioning, verbal fluency or manual dexterity. This study shows that global cognition and processing speed may be particularly susceptible to the effects of midlife work-related stress.

  20. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Work Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Complementary and alternative medicine therapies may improve quality of life, reduce work disruptions and enhance job satisfaction for dentists who suffer from work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It is important that dentists incorporate complementary and alternative medicine strategies into practice to ...

  1. Incidence of work-related musculoskeletal pain among dentists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dentists commonly experience musculoskeletal pain during the course of their career. This study investigated the incidence and mechanism of work-related musculoskeletal pain among practising dentists in Kwa-Zulu Natal. A descriptive survey was conducted among 94 dentists, who voluntarily consented to participate in ...

  2. Work related spinal cord injury, Australia 1986–97

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, P

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—Little has been published before on the epidemiology and prevention of work related spinal cord injury (SCI). This study is the first national population based epidemiological analysis of this type of injury. It presents that largest case series ever reported.

  3. Management of work-related stress by Finnish occupational physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen-Amoroso, M; Liira, J

    2013-07-01

    Occupational stress is a serious threat to the well-being of employees and organizations and may cause ill-health and loss of productivity. Determining the methods that occupational health (OH) services and employers use to manage work-related stress can help to detect both barriers and facilitating factors for effective stress management. To examine stress management methods used by OH physicians in Finland. Anonymous, self-administered e-mail questionnaire to Finnish OH physicians. A total of 222 OH physicians responded. Neither OH services nor their client organizations used standardized tools to assess or manage work-related stress. Work-related stress was assessed using patient interviews. Physicians reported that the main method used to manage occupational stress was supporting the individual employee. Half of the physicians attempted to involve workplaces in stress management by asking their patients to contact their supervisors regarding stress issues. In order to tackle work-related stress consistently and effectively employers and OH services should have agreed standardized protocols for managing stress in the workplace.

  4. Research in adaptive management: working relations and the research process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda C. Graham; Linda E. Kruger

    2002-01-01

    This report analyzes how a small group of Forest Service scientists participating in efforts to implement adaptive management approach working relations, and how they understand and apply the research process. Nine scientists completed a questionnaire to assess their preferred mode of thinking (the Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument), engaged in a facilitated...

  5. Work related injuries and associated factors among small scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aims to assess the magnitude of work related injury and associated factors among small scale industrial workers in Mizan-Aman town, Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study design was conducted from February to May, 2016. Data was collected using a structured face to ...

  6. Work related musculoskeletal disorders among farm workers: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders among farm workers: A case study of an agricultural college in Zimbabwe. ... hazards, therefore a need for intervention to protect them from musculoskeletal complaints. Improvement in farm work practices through ergonomic training might help reduce musculoskeletal complaints.

  7. Maintaining work-related personal ties following retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijnsen, M.R.; Stevens, N.L.; van Tilburg, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the consequences of retirement for the continuation of work-related personal ties. The hypothesis is that their inclusion in personal networks after retirement has become more likely because these relationships have become less role based in today's social-cultural context. Data

  8. The Work-Related Attitudes of Australian Accounting Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Vasileva, Aleksandra; Baird, Kevin; Blair, Bill

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the work-related attitudes of Australian accounting academics. A survey of 350 academics provides an insight into the specific organisational and institutional factors associated with the dissatisfaction, stress levels, and propensity to remain of academics. Of particular concern is the lower level of satisfaction and…

  9. Work-Related Stress, the Blind Men and the Elephant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Andrew R.

    2004-01-01

    Progress in understanding and developing effective responses to work-related stress has been elusive, patchy, and inconsistent. The reasons for this are reviewed, and the inadequacy of traditional stress management techniques and organisational interventions to tackle it are examined. Although necessary, clinical responses to distressed…

  10. Tackling Work Related Stress in a National Health Service Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Donna; Whyatt, Hilary

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of tackling the problem of coping with work related stress in a National Health Service (NHS) Trust was undertaken. Ideas were developed within the context of two different action learning sets and led to actions resulting in a large therapy Taster Session event and the establishment of a centre offering alternative therapies and…

  11. Work related musculoskeletal pain among teachers in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of musculoskeletal pain specifically within the teaching profession has not been given sufficient attention in the literature especially in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of work related musculoskeletal pain among public secondary school teachers in Ife-Central Local Government Area (LGA), Osun ...

  12. Perceived work-related stress and early atherosclerotic changes in healthy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajska, Joanna; Widerszal-Bazyl, Maria; Radkiewicz, Piotr; Pasierski, Tomasz; Szulczyk, Grazyna Anna; Zabek, Jakub; Wojciechowska, Bozena; Jedryka-Góral, Anna

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived work-related stress and preclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 100 managers and 50 office workers aged 35-65 participated in a questionnaire study. Individual, family and work-related stress risk factors and coping were evaluated in all the studied individuals. Serum levels of biochemical (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, TG, glucose) and serological risk factors of atherosclerosis (anticardiolipin, anti-beta(2) GPI, anti-oxLDL, anti-HSP and anti-hsCRP antibodies) were evaluated. A computer analysis of B-mode ultrasound images was used to assess carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and atherosclerotic plaque in carotid arteries. Statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS v. 11.5. The studied individuals showed average ranges of both the global stress level and of coping results. In 71% no changes were found in the ultrasound image and in 29% of individuals (43) the presence of plaque was shown. The mean value of the IMT measure was 0.0618 +/- 0.013 mm. IMT and plaque correlated negatively with the level of global work-related stress (r = -0.26; P related stress and coping, or between coping and IMT (P > 0.05), or between work-related stress and healthy lifestyle (no smoking, no excessive use of alcohol, high physical activity), or between healthy lifestyle and IMT (P > 0.05). Positive correlation between IMT and LDL and smoking did not result from higher stress reaction in the studied individuals. The explanation of the negative correlation between perceived work-related stress and preclinical atherosclerosis was not confirmed either by the subjects under high stress undertaking healthy protective activities or by their escaping into unhealthy behaviour. The most probable interpretation of the results is that in individuals with a low level of perceived work-related stress, somatization of stress takes place.

  13. Identifying risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 subtype) in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Leo; Gilbert, Marius; Wu, Jianmei; Czarnecki, Christina; Hidayat, Muhammad; Xiao, Xiangming

    2011-10-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N1, was first officially reported in Indonesia in 2004. Since then the disease has spread and is now endemic in large parts of the country. This study investigated the statistical relationship between a set of risk factors and the presence or absence of HPAI in Indonesia during 2006 and 2007. HPAI was evaluated through participatory disease surveillance (PDS) in backyard village chickens (the study population), and risk factors included descriptors of people and poultry distribution (separating chickens, ducks and production sectors), poultry movement patterns and agro-ecological conditions. The study showed that the risk factors "elevation", "human population density" and "rice cropping" were significant in accounting for the spatial variation of the PDS-defined HPAI cases. These findings were consistent with earlier studies in Thailand and Vietnam. In addition "commercial poultry population", and two indicators of market locations and transport; "human settlements" and "road length", were identified as significant risk factors in the models. In contrast to several previous studies carried out in Southeast Asia, domestic backyard ducks were not found to be a significant risk factor in Indonesia. The study used surrogate estimates of market locations and marketing chains and further work should focus on the actual location of the live bird markets, and on the flow of live poultry and poultry products between them, so that patterns of possible transmission, and regions of particular risk could be better inferred. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Work-Related Asthma in Korea - Findings from the Korea Work-Related Asthma Surveillance (KOWAS) program, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Chan; Song, Jaechul; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2015-01-01

    To determine the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of work-related asthma in Korea. During 2004-2009, the Korea Work-Related Asthma Surveillance (KOWAS) program collected data on new cases of work-related asthma from occupational physicians, allergy and chest physicians, regional surveillance systems, and workers' compensation schemes. The incidence was calculated on the basis of industry, occupation, sex, age, and region. In addition, the distribution of causal agents was determined. During the study period, 236 cases of work-related asthma were reported, with 77 cases from more than 1 source. A total of 22.0% (n=52) were reported by occupational physicians, 52.5% (n=124) by allergy and chest physicians, 24.2% (n=57) by regional surveillance systems, and 43.2% (n=102) by workers' compensation schemes. The overall average annual incidence was 3.31 cases/million workers, with a rate of 3.78/million among men and 2.58/million among women. The highest incidence was observed in the 50-59-year age group (7.74/million), in the Gyeonggi/Incheon suburb of Seoul (8.50/million), in the furniture and other instrument manufacturing industries (67.62/million), and among craft and related trades workers (17.75/million). The most common causal agents were isocyanates (46.6%), flour/grain (8.5%), metal (5.9%), reactive dyes (5.1%), and solvents (4.2%). The incidence of work-related asthma in Korea was relatively low, and varied according to industry, occupation, gender, age, and region. Data provided by workers' compensation schemes and physician reports have been useful for determining the incidence and causes of work-related asthma.

  15. Student-Teachers' Supervision as a Professional Development Activity: Building Work-Related Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, Mark A.; Willett, Ionie Liburd

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify and outline the work-related skills that cooperating teachers in the Cayman Islands and Saint Kitts-Nevis developed or reinforced as they supervised student-teachers. A qualitative case-study methodology was used. The findings indicate that cooperating teachers developed and reinforced essential…

  16. Registration of work-related diseases, injuries, and complaints in Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Dick; Strikwerda, Dagmar C.; Weel, Andre N. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To estimate the incidence of work-related diseases, injuries, and complaints in Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao and to identify some next steps in the prevention process. Methods. All of the three countries' 18 occupational health specialists were asked to participate; 100% agreed to report

  17. Productivity loss at work; Health-related and work-related factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S.G. van den; Geuskens, G.A.; Hooftman, W.E.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Productivity loss is an increasing problem in an aging working population that is decreasing in numbers. The aim of this study is to identify work-related and health-related characteristics associated with productivity loss, due to either sickness absence or reduced performance at work.

  18. Individual and Work-Related Factors Influencing Burnout of Mental Health Professionals: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Nayoung; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Yang, Eunjoo; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    The current study identifies and assesses individual and work-related factors as correlates of burnout among mental health professionals. Results of a meta-analysis indicate that age and work setting variables are the most significant indicators of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In terms of level of personal accomplishment, the age…

  19. Work-Related Lifelong Learning for Entrepreneurs in the Agri-Food Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Thomas; Wesselink, Renate; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Mulder, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study on work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector. Accordingly, learning needs, learning preferences, learning motivation and conditions in the context of lifelong learning were identified. The results indicate that technology, IT and entrepreneurial competencies will become of increasing…

  20. Work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, T.; Wesselink, R.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study on work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector. Accordingly, learning needs, learning preferences, learning motivation and conditions in the context of lifelong learning were identified. The results indicate that technology, IT and

  1. Work-related determinants of return to work of employees on long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, M; Krol, B; Groothoff, JW

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study is to identify work-related determinants of return to work (RTW) of employees who are on long-term sickness absence. Method. The study was based on a sample of 926 employees on sickness absence ( maximum duration of 12 weeks). The employees filled out a baseline

  2. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among Nigerian Physiotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegoke Babatunde OA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiotherapists are known to be prone to Work- related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs but its prevalence among physiotherapists in Nigeria has not been reported. This study investigated the prevalence and work factors of WRMDs among physiotherapists in Nigeria. Methods A cross- sectional survey was administered to physiotherapists in different parts of Nigeria using a 2- part questionnaire with items adopted from questionnaires used for similar studies around the world. Two hundred and seventeen copies of the questionnaire were distributed for self administration but 126 physiotherapists returned completed surveys for a 58.1% response. The data were analyzed using SPPS version 10 at alpha level of 0.05. Descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages and inferential statistics of x2 were used as appropriate for data analysis. Results Reported 12- month prevalence of WRMDs among Nigerian physiotherapists was 91.3%. Prevalence of WRMDs was significantly higher in female physiotherapists (p = 0.007 and those with lower body mass index (p = 0.045. The low back (69.8% was the most commonly affected body part, followed by the neck (34.1%. Fifty percent of the physiotherapists first experienced their WRMDs within five years of graduation and the highest prevalence (61.7% was found among physiotherapists younger than 30 years. Treating large number of patients in a day was cited by most (83.5% of the respondents as the most important work factor for their WRMDs. The most commonly adopted coping strategy identified was for the therapists to modify their position and/or the patient's position (64.3%. Majority of the respondents (87.0% did not leave the profession but 62.6% changed and/or modified their treatment because of their WRMDs. Conclusion The prevalence of WRMDs among physiotherapists in Nigeria is higher than most values reported for their counterparts around the world. The coping strategies and work factors of WRMDs

  3. Pain and Prejudice: Does Collecting Information From the Standpoint of Exposed Workers Improve Scientific Examination of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Karen

    2016-07-01

    The meaning, feasibility, and importance of scientific objectivity have been debated among public health scientists. The debate is particularly relevant to occupational health, because of frequent opposition between employer and worker interests. This article suggests that the concept of standpoint (J. Eakin) may be more useful than that of objectivity in framing discussion of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Studies done from a "worker" standpoint can, for example, investigate and characterize environmental risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders, while studies from an "employer" standpoint may concentrate on identifying individual workers likely to report work-related musculoskeletal disorders or those for whom consequences of work-related musculoskeletal disorders are more severe. Within "worker" standpoints, a distinction between "high-prestige worker" and "lower-prestige worker" standpoints can be identified in the current scientific debate about the health costs and benefits of prolonged standing vs prolonged sitting at work. Contact with workers, particularly lower-prestige workers, is critical to developing and sustaining a worker-based standpoint among researchers in occupational health. This contact can be facilitated by formal collaborations between universities and unions or other community groups. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Development of a novel scoring system for identifying emerging chemical risks in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, J; Licht, O; Bitsch, A; Bohlen, M-L; Escher, S E; Silano, V; MacLeod, M; Serafimova, R; Kass, G E N; Merten, C

    2018-02-21

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is responsible for risk assessment of all aspects of food safety, including the establishment of procedures aimed at the identification of emerging risks to food safety. Here, a scoring system was developed for identifying chemicals registered under the European REACH Regulation that could be of potential concern in the food chain using the following parameters: (i) environmental release based on maximum aggregated tonnages and environmental release categories; (ii) biodegradation in the environment; (iii) bioaccumulation and in vivo and in vitro toxicity. The screening approach was tested on 100 data-rich chemicals registered under the REACH Regulation at aggregated volumes of at least 1000 tonnes per annum. The results show that substance-specific data generated under the REACH Regulation can be used to identify potential emerging risks in the food chain. After application of the screening procedure, priority chemicals can be identified as potentially emerging risk chemicals through the integration of exposure, environmental fate and toxicity. The default approach is to generate a single total score for each substance using a predefined weighting scenario. However, it is also possible to use a pivot table approach to combine the individual scores in different ways that reflect user-defined priorities, which enables a very flexible, iterative definition of screening criteria. Possible applications of the approaches are discussed using illustrative examples. Either approach can then be followed by in-depth evaluation of priority substances to ensure the identification of substances that present a real emerging chemical risk in the food chain.

  5. Osteoporosis among Fallers without Concomitant Fracture Identified in an Emergency Department: Frequencies and Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Bente; Hesse, Ulrik; Houe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    aged 50-80 years sustaining a low-energy fall without fracture were identified from an ED (n = 199). Patients answered a questionnaire on risk factors and underwent osteodensitometry. Data was compared to a group of patients routinely referred to osteodensitometry from general practice (n = 201......). Results. Among the 199 included fallers, 41 (21%) had osteoporosis. Among these, 35 (85%) reported either previous fracture or reduced body height (>3¿cm). These two risk factors were more frequent among fallers with osteoporosis compared to fallers with normal bone mineral density or osteopenia (previous...... if the patient has a prior fracture or declined body height. Since fallers generally have higher fracture risk, the ED might serve as an additional entrance to osteodensitometry compared to referral from primary care....

  6. Identifying Risk Factors for Elder Falls in Geriatric Rehabilitation in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Heyman, Neomi; Ben Israel, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    To identify risk factors for elder falls in a geriatric rehabilitation center in Israel. Retrospective chart review study. Four hundred and twelve medical records of inpatients in geriatric rehabilitation were retrospectively analyzed to compare between elders who sustained falls and those who did not. Of elders hospitalized during this year, 14% sustained falls. Fallers included a high proportion of males, with little comorbidity, not obese, and cardiovascular patients. Falls occurred frequently during patients' first week at the facility, mostly during the daytime. The falls occurred frequently in patients' rooms, and a common scenario was a fall during transition. The research findings single out patients who are allegedly at a lower risk of falls than more complex patients. Caregivers in geriatric rehabilitation settings should pay attention to patients who are allegedly at a lower risk of falls than more complex patients, and to cardiovascular patients in particular. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  7. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information...... and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...

  8. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information......Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...

  9. A comparison of data sources for the surveillance of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Letitia; Wellman, Helen; Hart, James; Cleary, Robert; Gardstein, Betsey M; Sciuchetti, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This study examined whether a state surveillance system for work-related carpal tunnel syndrome (WR-CTS) based on workers' compensation claims (Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks, SENSOR) and the Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) identified the same industries, occupations, sources of injury, and populations for intervention. Trends in counts, rates, and female/male ratios of WR-CTS during 1994-1997, and age distributions were compared across three data sources: SENSOR, Massachusetts SOII, and National SOII. SENSOR and National SOII data on WR-CTS were compared by industry, occupation, and injury source. Due to small sample size and subsequent gaps in available information, state SOII data on WR-CTS were of little use in identifying specific industries and occupations for intervention. SENSOR and National SOII data on the frequency of WR-CTS cases identified many similar occupations and industries, and both surveillance systems pointed to computer use as a risk factor for WR-CTS. Some high rate industries identified by SENSOR were not identified using National SOII rates even when national findings were restricted to take into account the distribution of the Massachusetts workforce. Use of national SOII data on rates of WR-CTS for identifying state industry priorities for WR-CTS prevention should be undertaken with caution. Options for improving state SOII data and use of other state data systems should be pursued.

  10. High-risk carotid plaques identified by CT-angiogram can predict acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Wassim; Adib, Keenan; Natdanai, Punnanithinont; Carmona-Rubio, Andres; Karki, Roshan; Paily, Jacienta; Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Aal; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Madam, Narasa; Gudleski, Gregory D; Chung, Charles; Sharma, Umesh C

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA. We retrospectively examined carotid CTAs of 492 patients that presented with acute stroke to characterize the atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries and examined development of acute MI and obstructive CAD within 12-months. Carotid lesions were defined in terms of calcifications (large or speckled), presence of low-attenuation plaques, positive remodeling, and presence of napkin ring sign. Adjusted relative risks were calculated for each plaque features. Patients with speckled (<3 mm) calcifications and/or larger calcifications on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year compared to patients without (adjusted RR of 7.51, 95%CI 1.26-73.42, P = 0.001). Patients with low-attenuation plaques on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year than patients without (adjusted RR of 2.73, 95%CI 1.19-8.50, P = 0.021). Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques also portended higher sensitivity (100 and 79.17%, respectively) for the development of acute MI. Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques can predict the risk of developing acute MI and/or obstructive CAD within 12-months. Given their high sensitivity, their absence can reliably exclude 12-month events.

  11. Identifying desertification risk areas using fuzzy membership and geospatial technique - A case study, Kota District, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arunima; Sastry, K. L. N.; Dhinwa, P. S.; Rathore, V. S.; Nathawat, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    Desertification risk assessment is important in order to take proper measures for its prevention. Present research intends to identify the areas under risk of desertification along with their severity in terms of degradation in natural parameters. An integrated model with fuzzy membership analysis, fuzzy rule-based inference system and geospatial techniques was adopted, including five specific natural parameters namely slope, soil pH, soil depth, soil texture and NDVI. Individual parameters were classified according to their deviation from mean. Membership of each individual values to be in a certain class was derived using the normal probability density function of that class. Thus if a single class of a single parameter is with mean μ and standard deviation σ, the values falling beyond μ + 2 σ and μ - 2 σ are not representing that class, but a transitional zone between two subsequent classes. These are the most important areas in terms of degradation, as they have the lowest probability to be in a certain class, hence highest probability to be extended or narrowed down in next or previous class respectively. Eventually, these are the values which can be easily altered, under extrogenic influences, hence are identified as risk areas. The overall desertification risk is derived by incorporating the different risk severity of each parameter using fuzzy rule-based interference system in GIS environment. Multicriteria based geo-statistics are applied to locate the areas under different severity of desertification risk. The study revealed that in Kota, various anthropogenic pressures are accelerating land deterioration, coupled with natural erosive forces. Four major sources of desertification in Kota are, namely Gully and Ravine erosion, inappropriate mining practices, growing urbanization and random deforestation.

  12. Identifying and managing the risks of medical ionizing radiation in endourology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yecies, Todd; Averch, Timothy D; Semins, Michelle J

    2018-02-01

    The risks of exposure to medical ionizing radiation is of increasing concern both among medical professionals and the general public. Patients with nephrolithiasis are exposed to high levels of ionizing radiation through both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Endourologists who perform a high-volume of fluoroscopy guided procedures are also exposed to significant quantities of ionizing radiation. The combination of judicious use of radiation-based imaging modalities, application of new imaging techniques such as ultra-low dose computed tomography (CT) scan, and modifying use of current technology such as increasing ultrasound and pulsed fluoroscopy utilization offers the possibility of significantly reducing radiation exposure. We present a review of the literature regarding the risks of medical ionizing radiation to patients and surgeons as it pertains to the field of endourology and interventions that can be performed to limit this exposure. A review of the current state of the literature was performed using MEDLINE and PubMed. Interventions designed to limit patient and surgeon radiation exposure were identified and analyzed. Summaries of the data were compiled and synthesized in the body of the text. While no level 1 evidence exists demonstrating the risk of secondary malignancy with radiation exposure, the preponderance of evidence suggests a dose and age dependent increase in malignancy risk from ionizing radiation. Patients with nephrolithiasis were exposed to an average effective dose of 37mSv over a 2 year period. Multiple evidence-based interventions to limit patient and surgeon radiation exposure and associated risk were identified. Current evidence suggest an age and dose dependent risk of secondary malignancy from ionizing radiation. Urologists must act in accordance with ALARA principles to safely manage nephrolithiasis while minimizing radiation exposure.

  13. Using a personality inventory to identify risk of distress and burnout among early stage medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bughi, Stephanie A; Lie, Desiree A; Zia, Stephanie K; Rosenthal, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Distress and burnout are common among medical students and negatively impact students' physical, mental, and emotional health. Personality inventories such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), used in medical education, may have a role in identifying burnout risk early. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey study among 185 1st year medical students with the MBTI, the general well-being schedule (GWB), and Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS). Descriptive statistics and one-way MANOVAs were used to identify the prevalence and differences in MBTI preferences and distress/burnout risk. Response rate was 185/185 (100%). Distress (GWB) was reported by 84/185 (45.4%). High scores on exhaustion were reported by 118/182 (64.8%), cynicism by 76/182 (41.8%), and decreased professional efficacy by 38/182 (20.9%) for the three dimensions of the MBI-SS. Only 21/182 (11.5%) of respondents had high scores on all three dimensions of burnout. Students with MBTI preferences for extraversion reported greater positive well-being (P burnout are prevalent early in medical training. The significant difference between extraversion and introversion in relation to distress and burnout deserves further study. Use of a personality inventory may help identify students at risk of burnout and allow appropriate early stress management.

  14. How many work-related injuries requiring hospitalization in British Columbia are claimed for workers' compensation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Koehoorn, Mieke; Ostry, Aleck; Tompa, Emile; Demers, Paul A

    2006-06-01

    Workplace compensation claims datasets represent an important source of information on work-related injuries. This study investigated the concordance between hospital discharge records and workers' compensation records for work-related serious injuries among a cohort of sawmill workers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. It also examined the extent to which workers' compensation capturing patterns varied by cause, severity of injuries, and demographic characteristics of workers. Work-related injuries were identified in hospitalization records between April 1989 and December 1998, and were matched by dates and description of injury to compensation records. The agreement between the hospital records and compensation records was good (kappa = 0.84, P < 0.01). A lower claim reporting rate for work-related hospitalization was observed for older and non-white workers. More serious injuries defined by longer length of stay and emergency admissions were more likely to be reported. Falls, struck against, and overexertion injuries had lower reporting rates; whereas, machinery-related, cutting/piercing, and caught in/between injuries had higher reporting rates. When compared with hospital discharge records, the compensation agency underreported incidents of serious work-related injuries by 10-15% among the sawmill workers.

  15. Patterns of work-related intimate partner violence and job performance among abusive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Perrin, Nancy A; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses different types of work-related intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and their relationship to perpetrators' work performance and employment. We determine if groups of abusive men with similar patterns of work-related IPV exist and then examine whether the patterns are related to their characteristics, job performance, and employment outcomes. Participants were 198 adult men (60% Latino, 40% non-Latino) from batterer intervention programs (BIPs) who self-reported their lifetime work-related IPV and job outcomes. Five distinct clusters were identified and named based on the pattern (predominance or absence) of different work-related abusive behaviors reported: (a) low-level tactics, (b) job interference, (c) job interference with threatened or actual violence, (d) extreme abuse without jealousy and (e) extreme abuse. Analyses revealed significant differences between the clusters on ethnicity, parental status, partner's employment status, income, education, and (among Latinos only) acculturation. The probability of men's work-related IPV substantially impacting their own job performance was nearly 4 times greater among those in the extreme abuse cluster than those in the low-level tactics cluster. These data inform the development of employee training programs and workplace policies for reducing IPV that affects the workplace.

  16. [Work-related Stress and the Allostatic Load Index - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, D; Li, J; Schmidt, B; Angerer, P; Jarczok, M N

    2017-12-01

    Work-related stress is a growing social challenge and has been associated with reduced employee health, well-being, and productivity. One tool to measure the stress-related wear and tear of the body is the Allostatic Load Index (ALI). This review summarizes recent evidence on the association between work-related stress and ALI in working adults. A systematic literature search following the PRISMA-Statement was conducted in 21 databases including Medline, PubPsych, MedPilot, and Cochrane Register. Publications addressing work related-stress and medical parameters using ALI were considered. Data on study population, analytic techniques, and results were tabulated. Methodological quality was evaluated using a standardized checklist. 9 articles were identified with a total of 3 532 employees from 5 countries reporting cross-sectional data from the years 2003-2013. Overall, 7 studies reported a positive and significant association between work-related stress and ALI, while 2 studies showed no or an insignificant association. Substantial heterogeneity was observed in methods applied and study quality. This systematic review provides evidence that work-related stress is associated with ALI in cross-sectional studies. This association needs to be demonstrated by future studies using longitudinal data on working populations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effects of Work-Related Stress on Work Ability Index among Iranian Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Vahid; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Taban, Abrahim; Yazdani Aval, Mohsen; Samimi, Kazem; Salesi, Mahmood

    2016-03-01

    Work Ability Index (WAI) is a well-known and valid self-report tool that has been widely used in various studies to identify and avoid early retirement and work-related disability. Nevertheless, very few studies have been carried out to evaluate work ability in Iran. We aimed to investigate the WAI and the effect of work-related stress on it among Iranian workers. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study was carried out among 449 workers from five working sectors in three big cities of Iran. Work ability and work-related stress were measured using the Persian version of WAI and the Persian version of Health and Safety Executive Stress Indicator Tool. More than a third of the workers surveyed (34.70%) did not have an appropriate level of work ability (WAI work-related stress and the mean score of WAI. Furthermore, the variables of body mass index, sleep quality, exercise activity, job tenure, and three subscales of work-related stress including demands, supervisor support, and role were significant predictors of WAI. According to the results of this study, the interventional programs must be focused on improving supervisors support, eliminating ambiguity and conflicts in the role of workers in their job and organization, reducing job demands, improving sleep quality, and increasing exercise activity.

  18. Screening for violence risk factors identifies young adults at risk for return emergency department visit for injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Abigail; Wei, Stanley; Foreman, Juron; Houry, Debra

    2014-08-01

    Homicide is the second leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24. Prior cross-sectional studies, in non-healthcare settings, have reported exposure to community violence, peer behavior, and delinquency as risk factors for violent injury. However, longitudinal cohort studies have not been performed to evaluate the temporal or predictive relationship between these risk factors and emergency department (ED) visits for injuries among at-risk youth. The objective was to assess whether self-reported exposure to violence risk factors in young adults can be used to predict future ED visits for injuries over a 1-year period. This prospective cohort study was performed in the ED of a Southeastern US Level I trauma center. Eligible participants were patients aged 18-24, presenting for any chief complaint. We excluded patients if they were critically ill, incarcerated, or could not read English. Initial recruitment occurred over a 6-month period, by a research assistant in the ED for 3-5 days per week, with shifts scheduled such that they included weekends and weekdays, over the hours from 8AM-8PM. At the time of initial contact in the ED, patients were asked to complete a written questionnaire, consisting of previously validated instruments measuring the following risk factors: a) aggression, b) perceived likelihood of violence, c) recent violent behavior, d) peer behavior, e) community exposure to violence, and f) positive future outlook. At 12 months following the initial ED visit, the participants' medical records were reviewed to identify any subsequent ED visits for injury-related complaints. We analyzed data with chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Three hundred thirty-two patients were approached, of whom 300 patients consented. Participants' average age was 21.1 years, with 60.1% female, 86.0% African American. After controlling for participant gender, ethnicity, or injury complaint at time of first visit, return visits for injuries were significantly

  19. Use of clinical risk factors to identify postmenopausal women with vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, J H; Hutchinson, A P; Hunt, L P; McCloskey, E V; Stone, M D; Martin, J C; Thompson, P W; Palferman, T G; Bhalla, A K

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have been unable to identify risk factors for prevalent vertebral fractures (VF), which are suitable for use in selection strategies intended to target high-risk sub-groups for diagnostic assessment. However, these studies generally consisted of large epidemiology surveys based on questionnaires and were only able to evaluate a limited number of risk factors. Here, we investigated whether a stronger relationship exists with prevalent VF when conventional risk factors are combined with additional information obtained from detailed one-to-one assessment. Women aged 65-75 registered at four geographically distinct GP practices were invited to participate (n=1,518), of whom 540 attended for assessment as follows: a questionnaire asking about risk factors for osteoporosis such as height loss compared to age 25 and history of non-vertebral fracture (NVF), the get-up-and-go test, Margolis back pain score, measurement of wall-tragus and rib-pelvis distances, and BMD as measured by the distal forearm BMD. A lateral thoraco-lumbar spine X-ray was obtained, which was subsequently scored for the presence of significant vertebral deformities. Of the 509 subjects who underwent spinal radiographs, 37 (7.3%) were found to have one or more VF. Following logistic regression analysis, the four most predictive clinical risk factors for prevalent VF were: height loss (P=0.006), past NVF (P=0.004), history of back pain (P=0.075) and age (P=0.05). BMD was also significantly associated with prevalent VF (P=0.002), but its inclusion did not affect associations with other variables. Factors elicited from detailed one-to-one assessment were not related to the risk of one or more prevalent VFs. The area under ROC curves derived from these regressions, which suggested that models for prevalent VF had modest predictive accuracy, were as follows: 0.68 (BMD), 0.74 (four clinical risk factors above) and 0.78 (clinical risk factors + BMD). Analyses were repeated in relation to the

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: Identifying information sources and risk factor awareness among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Nagano

    Full Text Available Raising awareness on a disorder is important for its prevention and for promoting public health. However, for sports injuries like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury no studies have investigated the awareness on risk factors for injury and possible preventative measures in the general population. The sources of information among the population are also unclear. The purpose of the present study was to identify these aspects of public awareness about the ACL injury.A questionnaire was randomly distributed among the general population registered with a web based questionnaire supplier, to recruit 900 participants who were aware about the ACL injury. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Question 1 asked them about their sources of information regarding the ACL injury; Question 2 asked them about the risk factors for ACL injury. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the information sources that provide a good understanding of the risk factors.The leading source of information for ACL injury was television (57.0%. However, the results of logistic regression analysis revealed that television was not an effective medium to create awareness about the risk factors, among the general population. Instead "Lecture by a coach", "Classroom session on Health", and "Newspaper" were significantly more effective in creating a good awareness of the risk factors (p < 0.001.

  1. PET CT Identifies Reactivation Risk in Cynomolgus Macaques with Latent M. tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philana Ling Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection presents across a spectrum in humans, from latent infection to active tuberculosis. Among those with latent tuberculosis, it is now recognized that there is also a spectrum of infection and this likely contributes to the variable risk of reactivation tuberculosis. Here, functional imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxygluose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET CT of cynomolgus macaques with latent M. tuberculosis infection was used to characterize the features of reactivation after tumor necrosis factor (TNF neutralization and determine which imaging characteristics before TNF neutralization distinguish reactivation risk. PET CT was performed on latently infected macaques (n = 26 before and during the course of TNF neutralization and a separate set of latently infected controls (n = 25. Reactivation occurred in 50% of the latently infected animals receiving TNF neutralizing antibody defined as development of at least one new granuloma in adjacent or distant locations including extrapulmonary sites. Increased lung inflammation measured by PET and the presence of extrapulmonary involvement before TNF neutralization predicted reactivation with 92% sensitivity and specificity. To define the biologic features associated with risk of reactivation, we used these PET CT parameters to identify latently infected animals at high risk for reactivation. High risk animals had higher cumulative lung bacterial burden and higher maximum lesional bacterial burdens, and more T cells producing IL-2, IL-10 and IL-17 in lung granulomas as compared to low risk macaques. In total, these data support that risk of reactivation is associated with lung inflammation and higher bacterial burden in macaques with latent Mtb infection.

  2. A Simple Risk Score for Identifying Individuals with Impaired Fasting Glucose in the Southern Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ≥20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006–2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008–2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ≥28 for men and ≥18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008–2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice.

  3. Identifying primary care patients at risk for future diabetes and cardiovascular disease using electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrader Peter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD is possible but identification of at-risk patients for targeting interventions is a challenge in primary care. Methods We analyzed electronic health record (EHR data for 122,715 patients from 12 primary care practices. We defined patients with risk factor clustering using metabolic syndrome (MetS characteristics defined by NCEP-ATPIII criteria; if missing, we used surrogate characteristics, and validated this approach by directly measuring risk factors in a subset of 154 patients. For subjects with at least 3 of 5 MetS criteria measured at baseline (2003-2004, we defined 3 categories: No MetS (0 criteria; At-risk-for MetS (1-2 criteria; and MetS (≥ 3 criteria. We examined new diabetes and CHD incidence, and resource utilization over the subsequent 3-year period (2005-2007 using age-sex-adjusted regression models to compare outcomes by MetS category. Results After excluding patients with diabetes/CHD at baseline, 78,293 patients were eligible for analysis. EHR-defined MetS had 73% sensitivity and 91% specificity for directly measured MetS. Diabetes incidence was 1.4% in No MetS; 4.0% in At-risk-for MetS; and 11.0% in MetS (p MetS vs No MetS = 6.86 [6.06-7.76]; CHD incidence was 3.2%, 5.3%, and 6.4% respectively (p Conclusion Risk factor clustering in EHR data identifies primary care patients at increased risk for new diabetes, CHD and higher resource utilization.

  4. A partner-related risk behavior index to identify people at elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a sexual-partner-related risk behavior index to identify high-risk individuals most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Patients from five STI and adolescent medical clinics in three US cities were recruited (N = 928; M age = 29.2 years). Data were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. Of seven sexual-partner-related variables, those that were significantly associated with the outcomes were combined into a partner-related risk behavior index. The dependent variables were laboratory-confirmed infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis. Nearly one-fifth of the sample (169/928; 18.4%) tested positive for an STI. Three of the seven items were significantly associated with having one or more STIs: sex with a newly released prisoner, sex with a person known or suspected of having an STI, and sexual concurrency. In combined form, this three-item index was significantly associated with STI prevalence (p one or more of three STIs. This index could be used to prioritize and guide intensified clinic-based counseling for high-risk patients of STI and other clinics.

  5. A measurement model of perinatal stressors: identifying risk for postnatal emotional distress in mothers of high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMier, R L; Hynan, M T; Hatfield, R F; Varner, M W; Harris, H B; Manniello, R L

    2000-01-01

    A measurement model of perinatal stressors was first evaluated for reliability and then used to identify risk factors for postnatal emotional distress in high-risk mothers. In Study 1, six measures (gestational age of the baby, birthweight, length of the baby's hospitalization, a postnatal complications rating for the infant, and Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min) were obtained from chart reviews of preterm births at two different hospitals. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the six measures could be accounted for by three factors: (a) Infant Maturity, (b) Apgar Ratings, and (c) Complications. In Study 2, a modified measurement model indicated that Infant Maturity and Complications were significant predictors of postnatal emotional distress in an additional sample of mothers. This measurement model may also be useful in predicting (a) other measures of psychological distress in parents, and (b) measures of cognitive and motor development in infants.

  6. Creating a Chinese suicide dictionary for identifying suicide risk on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Lv

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary.Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD. Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS, we built Support Vector Machines (SVM models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models.Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507 and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455. For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F1 = 0.48; t2: F1 = 0.56 produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F1 = 0.41; t2: F1 = 0.48 on

  7. Creating a Chinese suicide dictionary for identifying suicide risk on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Meizhen; Li, Ang; Liu, Tianli; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary. Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China) and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD). Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS), we built Support Vector Machines (SVM) models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC) program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models. Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507) and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455). For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F 1 = 0.48; t2: F 1 = 0.56) produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F 1 = 0.41; t2: F 1 = 0.48) on different

  8. Identifying hotspots of coastal risk and evaluating DRR measures: results from the RISC-KIT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongeren, A.; Ciavola, P.; Viavattene, C.; Dekleermaeker, S.; Martinez, G.; Ferreira, O.; Costa, C.

    2016-02-01

    High-impact storm events have demonstrated the vulnerability of coastal zones in Europe and beyond. These impacts are likely to increase due to predicted climate change and ongoing coastal development. In order to reduce impacts, disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures need to be taken, which prevent or mitigate the effects of storm events. To drive the DRR agenda, the UNISDR formulated the Sendai Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. However, neither is specific about the methods to be used to develop actionable DRR measures in the coastal zone. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods, tools and approaches which make it possible to: identify and prioritize the coastal zones which are most at risk through a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, evaluate the effectiveness of DRR options for these coastal areas, using an Early Warning/Decision Support System, which can be used both in the planning and event-phase. This paper gives an overview of the products and results obtained in the FP7-funded project RISC-KIT, which aims to develop and apply a set of tools with which highly-vulnerable coastal areas (so-called "hotspots") can be identified. The identification is done using the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, or CRAF, which computes the intensity from multi-hazards, the exposure and the vulnerability, all components of risk, including network and cascading effects. Based on this analysis hot spots of risk which warrant coastal protection investments are selected. For these hotspot areas, high-resolution Early Warning and Decision Support Tools are developed with which it is possible to compute in detail the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction measures in storm event scenarios, which helps decide which measures to implement in the planning phase. The same systems, but now driven with real time data, can also be used for early warning systems. All tools are tested on eleven case study areas, at least one on each EU Regional Sea

  9. Teacher Leadership: Everyday Practices Surrounding Work- Related Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiweshe Nigel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes. Insights are drawn from our long-standing engagement in the field where we observed how teaching staff, students, and management interacted. These observations were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 20 teaching staff. Our findings reveal competing demands and practices across the individual intrapersonal environment and the work related environment. There were three key themes that emerged in answer to the core research question: 1 the role of relational practices in managing teacher burnout, 2 the role of surveillance practices in education and 3 the role of assimilating practices in education. Drawing insights from these practices, we develop a conceptual framework that will help us to see relations at work anew, and develop a deeper understanding of ‘sickies’, motivation, learning outcomes and teacher leadership opportunities in education

  10. Work-related upper limb “overuse” syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    A previous review of historical descriptions and theories about the character and pathogenesis of writer’s cramp and other comparable chronic upper limb “overuse” work-related pain syndromes has indicated that somatic dysfunctions explain symptoms and findings. The first case studies and case...... series suggested that these conditions were caused by pathology affecting the peripheral nerves. The general perception gradually changed, however, with symptoms becoming attributed to central nervous system dysfunction and ultimately to represent a psychiatric condition. Work-related upper limb...... disorders remain diagnostically challenging to clinicians and there is still a tendency to see many patients’ pain as a psychiatric problem when a standard physical examination does not explain the condition. This article describes reports of writer’s cramp and comparable occupational upper limb “overuse...

  11. Identifying the women at risk of antenatal anxiety and depression: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi, Alessandra; Conroy, Susan; Pawlby, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M

    2016-02-01

    Pregnancy is a time of increased vulnerability for the development of anxiety and depression. This systematic review aims to identify the main risk factors involved in the onset of antenatal anxiety and depression. A systematic literature analysis was conducted, using PubMed, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Library. Original papers were included if they were written in English and published between 1st January 2003 and 31st August 2015, while literature reviews and meta-analyses were consulted regardless of publication date. A final number of 97 papers were selected. The most relevant factors associated with antenatal depression or anxiety were: lack of partner or of social support; history of abuse or of domestic violence; personal history of mental illness; unplanned or unwanted pregnancy; adverse events in life and high perceived stress; present/past pregnancy complications; and pregnancy loss. The review does not include a meta-analysis, which may have added additional information about the differential impact of each risk factor. Moreover, it does not specifically examine factors that may influence different types of anxiety disorders, or the recurrence or persistence of depression or anxiety from pregnancy to the postpartum period. The results show the complex aetiology of antenatal depression and anxiety. The administration of a screening tool to identify women at risk of anxiety and depression during pregnancy should be universal practice in order to promote the long-term wellbeing of mothers and babies, and the knowledge of specific risk factors may help creating such screening tool targeting women at higher risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A prognostic tool to identify adolescents at high risk of becoming daily smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradis Gilles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates that pediatricians should be involved in tobacco counseling and has developed guidelines for counseling. We present a prognostic tool for use by health care practitioners in both clinical and non-clinical settings, to identify adolescents at risk of becoming daily smokers. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT Study, a prospective investigation of 1293 adolescents, initially aged 12-13 years, recruited in 10 secondary schools in Montreal, Canada in 1999. Questionnaires were administered every three months for five years. The prognostic tool was developed using estimated coefficients from multivariable logistic models. Model overfitting was corrected using bootstrap cross-validation. Goodness-of-fit and predictive ability of the models were assessed by R2, the c-statistic, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results The 1-year and 2-year probability of initiating daily smoking was a joint function of seven individual characteristics: age; ever smoked; ever felt like you needed a cigarette; parent(s smoke; sibling(s smoke; friend(s smoke; and ever drank alcohol. The models were characterized by reasonably good fit and predictive ability. They were transformed into user-friendly tables such that the risk of daily smoking can be easily computed by summing points for responses to each item. The prognostic tool is also available on-line at http://episerve.chumontreal.qc.ca/calculation_risk/daily-risk/daily_smokingadd.php. Conclusions The prognostic tool to identify youth at high risk of daily smoking may eventually be an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control system.

  13. Surveillance case definitions for work related upper limb pain syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, J. M.; Carter, J. T.; Birrell, L.; Gompertz, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish consensus case definitions for several common work related upper limb pain syndromes for use in surveillance or studies of the aetiology of these conditions. METHODS: A group of healthcare professionals from the disciplines interested in the prevention and management of upper limb disorders were recruited for a Delphi exercise. A questionnaire was used to establish case definitions from the participants, followed by a consensus conference involving the core grou...

  14. Aphysiologic performance on dynamic posturography in work-related patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrosa, F; Durà, M J; Menacho, J; González-Sabaté, L; Cordón, A; Hernández, A; García-Ibáñez, L

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that malingering should be suspected in patients suffering from dizziness or imbalance and who had a potential gain associated with insurance and worker's compensation claims. This study aimed to assess and compare the prevalence of aphysiologic performance on computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) in patients with the potential for secondary gain using a retrospective review of two groups of patients: work-related patients referred for dizziness and/or imbalance (Group 1) were compared against a group of patients with complaints of dizziness or imbalance, who had no history of work-related injury, or litigation procedures (Group 2). CDP and videonystagmography (VNG) were carried out in all patients. The Sensory Organization Test summaries were scored as normal, aphysiologic, or vestibular using the scoring method published by Cevette et al. in Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 112:676-688 (1995). 24 out of 88 (27%) patients had aphysiologic CDP in Group 1 and 9 out of 51 (18%) in Group 2 but these differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Definite signs of vestibular dysfunction were found in 12 out of 24 (50%) of patients with aphysiologic performance in Group 1 although the presence of VNG abnormalities was significantly higher (p = 0.005) in Group 2. The hypothesis that the occupational group could show a significantly higher rate of aphysiologic results than a control group is not confirmed. Furthermore, VNG abnormalities were found in 50% of the work-related cases with non organic sway patterns. These results suggest that patient's complaints should be considered genuine in work-related cases and due caution exercised when evaluating aphysiologic CDP patterns.

  15. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is “predicting” who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. Methods: A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Results: Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts. Citation: Kalmbach DA, Pillai V, Arnedt JT, Drake CL. Identifying at-risk individuals for insomnia using the ford insomnia response to stress test. SLEEP 2016;39(2):449–456. PMID:26446111

  16. [Work-related rhinitis - Is it always an occupational disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salski, Witold; Wiszniewska, Marta; Salska, Agata; Tymoszuk, Diana; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2016-12-22

    Rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory tract, characterized by a high prevalence and a complex pathogenesis. Work-related rhinitis (WRR) can be divided into occupational rhinitis (OR) and work-exacerbated rhinitis (WER). It is not only considered as a disease entity but also in the context of medical certification as the allergic disease associated with occupational exposure. Epidemiology of work-related rhinitis has been found to vary depending on the occupation and specific exposure, on the other hand the prevalence data may be underestimated due to the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria. This paper reviews the issues comprising the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients with work-related rhinitis. It also discusses the significance of the disease in occupational medicine, particularly in terms of preventive worker care, general principles of good practice in primary and secondary WRR prevention and the necessary directions of changes in medical certification in the cases of occupational rhinitis. Med Pr 2016;67(6):801-815. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  18. Novel Application of Statistical Methods to Identify New Urinary Incontinence Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilus O. Ogunyemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal data for studying urinary incontinence (UI risk factors are rare. Data from one study, the hallmark Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA, have been analyzed in the past; however, repeated measures analyses that are crucial for analyzing longitudinal data have not been applied. We tested a novel application of statistical methods to identify UI risk factors in older women. MESA data were collected at baseline and yearly from a sample of 1955 men and women in the community. Only women responding to the 762 baseline and 559 follow-up questions at one year in each respective survey were examined. To test their utility in mining large data sets, and as a preliminary step to creating a predictive index for developing UI, logistic regression, generalized estimating equations (GEEs, and proportional hazard regression (PHREG methods were used on the existing MESA data. The GEE and PHREG combination identified 15 significant risk factors associated with developing UI out of which six of them, namely, urinary frequency, urgency, any urine loss, urine loss after emptying, subject’s anticipation, and doctor’s proactivity, are found most highly significant by both methods. These six factors are potential candidates for constructing a future UI predictive index.

  19. What Faces Reveal: A Novel Method to Identify Patients at Risk of Deterioration Using Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Garcia, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Marcos; Shenfield, Alex; Singer, Mervyn; Moreno-Cuesta, Jeronimo

    2018-07-01

    To identify facial expressions occurring in patients at risk of deterioration in hospital wards. Prospective observational feasibility study. General ward patients in a London Community Hospital, United Kingdom. Thirty-four patients at risk of clinical deterioration. A 5-minute video (25 frames/s; 7,500 images) was recorded, encrypted, and subsequently analyzed for action units by a trained facial action coding system psychologist blinded to outcome. Action units of the upper face, head position, eyes position, lips and jaw position, and lower face were analyzed in conjunction with clinical measures collected within the National Early Warning Score. The most frequently detected action units were action unit 43 (73%) for upper face, action unit 51 (11.7%) for head position, action unit 62 (5.8%) for eyes position, action unit 25 (44.1%) for lips and jaw, and action unit 15 (67.6%) for lower face. The presence of certain combined face displays was increased in patients requiring admission to intensive care, namely, action units 43 + 15 + 25 (face display 1, p facial expressions can be identified in deteriorating general ward patients. This tool may potentially augment risk prediction of current scoring systems.

  20. Design considerations for identifying breast cancer risk factors in a population-based study in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Louise A; Awuah, Baffour; Nat Clegg-Lamptey, Joe; Wiafe-Addai, Beatrice; Ansong, Daniel; Nyarko, Kofi M; Wiafe, Seth; Yarney, Joel; Biritwum, Richard; Brotzman, Michelle; Adjei, Andrew A; Adjei, Ernest; Aitpillah, Francis; Edusei, Lawrence; Dedey, Florence; Nyante, Sarah J; Oppong, Joseph; Osei-Bonsu, Ernest; Titiloye, Nicholas; Vanderpuye, Verna; Brew Abaidoo, Emma; Arhin, Bernard; Boakye, Isaac; Frempong, Margaret; Ohene Oti, Naomi; Okyne, Victoria; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2017-06-15

    Although breast cancer is becoming more prevalent in Africa, few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken and appropriate methodologic approaches remain uncertain. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study in Accra and Kumasi, Ghana, enrolling 2,202 women with lesions suspicious for breast cancer and 2,161 population controls. Biopsy tissue for cases prior to neoadjuvant therapy (if given), blood, saliva and fecal samples were sought for study subjects. Response rates, risk factor prevalences and odds ratios for established breast cancer risk factors were calculated. A total of 54.5% of the recruited cases were diagnosed with malignancies, 36.0% with benign conditions and 9.5% with indeterminate diagnoses. Response rates to interviews were 99.2% in cases and 91.9% in controls, with the vast majority of interviewed subjects providing saliva (97.9% in cases vs. 98.8% in controls) and blood (91.8% vs. 82.5%) samples; lower proportions (58.1% vs. 46.1%) provided fecal samples. While risk factor prevalences were unique as compared to women in other countries (e.g., less education, higher parity), cancer risk factors resembled patterns identified elsewhere (elevated risks associated with higher levels of education, familial histories of breast cancer, low parity and larger body sizes). Subjects with benign conditions were younger and exhibited higher socioeconomic profiles (e.g., higher education and lower parity) than those with malignancies, suggesting selective referral influences. While further defining breast cancer risk factors in Africa, this study showed that successful population-based interdisciplinary studies of cancer in Africa are possible but require close attention to diagnostic referral biases and standardized and documented approaches for high-quality data collection, including biospecimens. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Prospectively Identified Incident Testicular Cancer Risk in a Familial Testicular Cancer Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anand; Adams, Charleen D; Loud, Jennifer T; Nichols, Kathryn; Stewart, Douglas R; Greene, Mark H

    2015-10-01

    Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a strong genetic component and a high familial relative risk. However, linkage analyses have not identified a rare, highly penetrant familial TGCT (FTGCT) susceptibility locus. Currently, multiple low-penetrance genes are hypothesized to underlie the familial multiple-case phenotype. The observation that two is the most common number of affected individuals per family presents an impediment to FTGCT gene discovery. Clinically, the prospective TGCT risk in the multiple-case family context is unknown. We performed a prospective analysis of TGCT incidence in a cohort of multiple-affected-person families and sporadic-bilateral-case families; 1,260 men from 140 families (10,207 person-years of follow-up) met our inclusion criteria. Age-, gender-, and calendar time-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for TGCT relative to the general population were calculated using SEER*Stat. Eight incident TGCTs occurred during prospective FTGCT cohort follow-up (versus 0.67 expected; SIR = 11.9; 95% CI, 5.1-23.4; excess absolute risk = 7.2/10,000). We demonstrate that the incidence rate of TGCT is greater among bloodline male relatives from multiple-case testicular cancer families than that expected in the general population, a pattern characteristic of adult-onset Mendelian cancer susceptibility disorders. Two of these incident TGCTs occurred in relatives of sporadic-bilateral cases (0.15 expected; SIR = 13.4; 95% CI, 1.6-48.6). Our data are the first to indicate that despite relatively low numbers of affected individuals per family, members of both multiple-affected-person FTGCT families and sporadic-bilateral TGCT families comprise high-risk groups for incident testicular cancer. Men at high TGCT risk might benefit from tailored risk stratification and surveillance strategies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Prospectively-Identified Incident Testicular Cancer Risk in a Familial Testicular Cancer Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anand; Adams, Charleen D.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Nichols, Kathryn; Stewart, Douglas R.; Greene, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a strong genetic component and a high familial relative risk. However, linkage analyses have not identified a rare, highly-penetrant familial TGCT (FTGCT) susceptibility locus. Currently, multiple low-penetrance genes are hypothesized to underlie the familial multiple-case phenotype. The observation that two is the most common number of affected individuals per family presents an impediment to FTGCT gene discovery. Clinically, the prospective TGCT risk in the multiple-case family context is unknown. Methods We performed a prospective analysis of TGCT incidence in a cohort of multiple-affected-person families and sporadic-bilateral-case families; 1,260 men from 140 families (10,207 person-years of follow-up) met our inclusion criteria. Age-, gender-, and calendar time-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for TGCT relative to the general population were calculated using SEER*Stat. Results Eight incident TGCTs occurred during prospective FTGCT cohort follow-up (versus 0.67 expected; SIR=11.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]=5.1–23.4; excess absolute risk=7.2/10,000). We demonstrate that the incidence rate of TGCT is greater among bloodline male relatives from multiple-case testicular cancer families than that expected in the general population, a pattern characteristic of adult-onset Mendelian cancer susceptibility disorders. Two of these incident TGCTs occurred in relatives of sporadic-bilateral cases (0.15 expected; SIR=13.4; 95%CI=1.6–48.6). Conclusions Our data are the first indicating that despite relatively low numbers of affected individuals per family, members of both multiple-affected-person FTGCT families and sporadic-bilateral TGCT families comprise high-risk groups for incident testicular cancer. Impact Men at high TGCT risk might benefit from tailored risk stratification and surveillance strategies. PMID:26265202

  3. A simple method to identify areas of environmental risk due to manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Héctor; Arumí, José Luis; Rivera, Diego; Lagos, L Octavio

    2012-06-01

    The management of swine manure is becoming an important environmental issue in Chile. One option for the final disposal of manure is to use it as a biofertilizer, but this practice could impact the surrounding environment. To assess the potential environmental impacts of the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer, we propose a method to identify zones of environmental risk through indices. The method considers two processes: nutrient runoff and solute leaching, and uses available information about soils, crops and management practices (irrigation, fertilization, and rotation). We applied the method to qualitatively assess the environmental risk associated with the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer in an 8,000-pig farm located in Central Chile. Results showed that the farm has a moderate environmental risk, but some specific locations have high environmental risks, especially those associated with impacts on areas surrounding water resources. This information could assist the definition of better farm-level management practices, as well as the preservation of riparian vegetation acting as buffer strips. The main advantage of our approach is that it combines qualitative and quantitative information, including particular situations or field features based on expert knowledge. The method is flexible, simple, and can be easily extended or adapted to other processes.

  4. Self-Identified Sexual Orientation and Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected Latino Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-02-01

    A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is "predicting" who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Workplace conflicts and psychological work-related injuries: our experience in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Taino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, all countries regularly recognise mental disorders as workplace accidents (mainly post-traumatic stress disorders. However, there has been little emphasis on this emerging issue in Italy. Our discussion focuses on a recent case report regarding an employee who was affected by an acute anxiety disorder after a common workplace conflict with a coworker. Given that prolonged and unresolved relationship conflicts may result in more extreme forms of conflict known as workplace bullying, relationship conflicts should be minimised or prevented as early as possible. These conflicts can also lead to acute stress disorders, particularly in workers who are at-risk for stress disorders. To prevent psychological work-related injuries, occupational stakeholders should use assessments for work-related stress as a framework for addressing all organisational risk factors that are related to workplace relationships and conflict.

  7. Beta-blockers for exams identify students at high risk of psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H.; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students...... at risk of later psychiatric events. Methods: Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical...... reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves...

  8. Identifying Children in Middle Childhood Who Are at Risk for Reading Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, Deborah L; Ritchey, Kristen D; Silverman, Rebecca; Schatschneider, Christopher; Walker, Caroline Y; Andrusik, Katryna N

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and evaluate a universal screening battery for reading that is appropriate for older elementary students in a response to intervention model. Multiple measures of reading and reading correlates were administered to 230 fourth-grade children. Teachers rated children's reading skills, academic competence, and attention. Children were classified as not-at-risk or at-risk readers based on a three-factor model reflecting reading comprehension, word recognition/decoding, and word fluency. Predictors of reading status included group-administered tests of reading comprehension, silent word reading fluency, and teacher ratings of reading problems. Inclusion of individually administered tests and growth estimates did not add substantial variance. The receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis yielded an area under the curve index of 0.90, suggesting this model may both accurately and efficiently screen older elementary students with reading problems.

  9. Identifying Risk of Future Asthma Attacks Using UK Medical Record Data: A Respiratory Effectiveness Group Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, John D; Price, David B; Pizzichini, Emilio; Popov, Todor A; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Postma, Dirkje S; Josephs, Lynn K; Kaplan, Alan; Papi, Alberto; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hillyer, Elizabeth V; Chisholm, Alison; Thomas, Mike

    Asthma attacks are common, serious, and costly. Individual factors associated with attacks, such as poor symptom control, are not robust predictors. We investigated whether the rich data available in UK electronic medical records could identify patients at risk of recurrent attacks. We analyzed anonymized, longitudinal medical records of 118,981 patients with actively treated asthma (ages 12-80 years) and 3 or more years of data. Potential risk factors during 1 baseline year were evaluated using univariable (simple) logistic regression for outcomes of 2 or more and 4 or more attacks during the following 2-year period. Predictors with significant univariable association (P attacks included baseline-year markers of attacks (acute oral corticosteroid courses, emergency visits), more frequent reliever use and health care utilization, worse lung function, current smoking, blood eosinophilia, rhinitis, nasal polyps, eczema, gastroesophageal reflux disease, obesity, older age, and being female. The number of oral corticosteroid courses had the strongest association. The final cross-validated models incorporated 19 and 16 risk factors for 2 or more and 4 or more attacks over 2 years, respectively, with areas under the curve of 0.785 (95% CI, 0.780-0.789) and 0.867 (95% CI, 0.860-0.873), respectively. Routinely collected data could be used proactively via automated searches to identify individuals at risk of recurrent asthma attacks. Further research is needed to assess the impact of such knowledge on clinical prognosis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinicians' preventive strategies for children and adolescents identified as at high risk of developing caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Roxana; Gahnberg, Lars; Gabre, Pia

    2011-05-01

    Clinicians handle diagnosis and treatment planning of caries in different ways, and the underlying factors leading to management of risk and choice of treatment strategies are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate dentists' and dental hygienists' choices of preventive strategies for children and adolescents identified as at high risk of developing caries. A sample of dental records from 432 of a total of 3372 children in a Swedish county identified as at high risk of developing caries, aged 3-19 years, was randomly selected for analysis in the study. Information of importance for the therapists' choice of caries management strategies were obtained from the dental records. The results showed that therapists considered tooth brushing instruction and fluoride treatment at the clinic to be of primary importance as treatment given in 60% of the cases, respectively. Fluoride treatment at home and diet counselling were both chosen in half of the cases. Fissure sealant therapy was used in 21% of the cases, and 15% of the patients did not receive any preventive treatment at all. The results also showed that girls more often received fluoride treatment, tooth brushing instruction and oral hygiene information than boys. In the majority of the children and adolescents, several preventive measures were given. The more background factors included in the risk assessment, the more preventive measures were given. The differences between the treatments given to girls and the boys need to be further investigated. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Using relative handgrip strength to identify children at risk of sarcopenic obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Steffl

    Full Text Available Identifying children at risk of developing childhood sarcopenic obesity often requires specialized equipment and costly testing procedures, so cheaper and quicker methods would be advantageous, especially in field-based settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the muscle-to-fat ratio (MFR and relative handgrip strength, and to determine the ability of handgrip strength relative to body mass index (grip-to-BMI to identify children who are at risk of developing sarcopenic obesity. Grip-to-BMI was measured in 730 Czech children (4 to 14 yrs. Bioelectrical impedance was used to estimate body fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from which the MFR was calculated. The area under the curve (AUC was 0.791 (95% CI 0.692-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 4-9; 0.789 (95% CI 0.688-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 10-14 years old; 0.719 (95% CI 0.607-0.831, p = 0.001 in boys 4-9; and 0.896 (95% CI 0.823-0.969, p ˂ 0.001 in boys 10-14 years old. Calculated using the grip-to-BMI ratio, the OR (95% CI for girls to be at risk of sarcopenic obesity identified by MFR was 9.918 (4.243-23.186, p ˂ 0.001 and was 11.515 (4.280-30.982, p ˂ 0.001 for boys. The grip-to-BMI ratio can be used to predict the presence of sarcopenic obesity in children, which can play a role in pediatric health interventions.

  12. Identifying women with dense breasts at high risk for interval cancer: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Zhu, Weiwei; Tosteson, Anna N A; Sprague, Brian L; Tice, Jeffrey A; Lehman, Constance D; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2015-05-19

    Twenty-one states have laws requiring that women be notified if they have dense breasts and that they be advised to discuss supplemental imaging with their provider. To better direct discussions of supplemental imaging by determining which combinations of breast cancer risk and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density categories are associated with high interval cancer rates. Prospective cohort. Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) breast imaging facilities. 365,426 women aged 40 to 74 years who had 831,455 digital screening mammography examinations. BI-RADS breast density, BCSC 5-year breast cancer risk, and interval cancer rate (invasive cancer ≤12 months after a normal mammography result) per 1000 mammography examinations. High interval cancer rate was defined as more than 1 case per 1000 examinations. High interval cancer rates were observed for women with 5-year risk of 1.67% or greater and extremely dense breasts or 5-year risk of 2.50% or greater and heterogeneously dense breasts (24% of all women with dense breasts). The interval rate of advanced-stage disease was highest (>0.4 case per 1000 examinations) among women with 5-year risk of 2.50% or greater and heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts (21% of all women with dense breasts). Five-year risk was low to average (0% to 1.66%) for 51.0% of women with heterogeneously dense breasts and 52.5% with extremely dense breasts, with interval cancer rates of 0.58 to 0.63 and 0.72 to 0.89 case per 1000 examinations, respectively. The benefit of supplemental imaging was not assessed. Breast density should not be the sole criterion for deciding whether supplemental imaging is justified because not all women with dense breasts have high interval cancer rates. BCSC 5-year risk combined with BI-RADS breast density can identify women at high risk for interval cancer to inform patient-provider discussions about alternative screening strategies. National Cancer Institute.

  13. Work-related burn injuries in Ontario, Canada: a follow-up 10-year retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouatre, Elsa; Gomez, Manuel; Banfield, Joanne; Jeschke, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    Work-related burn injuries contribute to a quarter of all burn injuries in USA. In 2009, the provincial Workplace Safety and Insurance Board reported 64,824 work-related injuries that resulted in time-lost, 1188 injuries (2%) were a result of burns. There have been two previous studies performed at a regional burn centre (1984-1990 and 1998-2000) looking at incidence and characteristics of work-related burns. There was no significant change between these two groups. The purpose of this study was to identify the recent pattern of work-related burns from 2001 to 2010 and to compare it to the previous studies. During the study period, 1427 patients were admitted for an acute injury to the regional burn centre. Of these, 330 were due to a work-related incident (23%). The mean age of patients was 40.5±11.9 years, 95% were male. The mean total body surface area burn was 11.9±16.2%. The most common mechanism of burn injury was flame (32.7%) followed by electrical (27%) and scald (19.7%), inhalation injury was present in 4.8% of patients and the mortality was 1.8%. Our study has shown that there has been a significant decrease in the incidence in work-related burns treated at the regional burn centre (23.1%, vs. 28.2% vs. 30.2% pburns have now become the leading cause of injury, there was a significant reduction in inhalation injury (4.8% vs. 23% vs. 14.8%, pburns, improvement in burn care, and that prevention strategies may have been more effective. PMID:23352030

  14. Work-related injuries in a state trauma registry: relationship between industry and drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Terry L; Slavova, Svetla; Bernard, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    Work-related injuries exert a great financial and economic burden on the US population. The study objectives were to identify the industries and occupations associated with worker injuries and to determine the predictors for injured worker drug screening in trauma centers. Work-related injury cases were selected using three criteria (expected payer source of workers' compensation, industry-related e-codes, and work-related indicator) from the Kentucky Trauma Registry data set for years 2008 to 2012. Descriptive analyses and multiple logistic regression were performed on the work-related injury cases. The "other services" and construction industry sectors accounted for the highest number of work-related cases. Drugs were detected in 55% of all drug-screened work-related trauma cases. Higher percentages of injured workers tested positive for drugs in the natural resources and mining, transportation and public utilities, and construction industries. In comparison, higher percentages of injured workers in the other services as well as transportation and public utilities industries were drug screened. Treatment at Level I trauma centers and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores indicating a coma or severe brain injury were both significant independent predictors for being screened for drugs; industry was not a significant predictor for being drug screened. The injured worker was more likely to be drug screened if the worker had a greater than mild injury, regardless of whether the worker was an interfacility transfer. These findings indicate that there may be elevated drug use or abuse in natural resources and mining, transportation and public utilities, as well as construction industry workers; improved identification of the specific drug types in positive drug screen results of injured workers is needed to better target prevention efforts. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  15. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both...... risk. Insufficient evidence was found for a relationship between IHD and effort-reward imbalance, injustice, job insecurity, or long working hours. Studies involving women are too few to draw any conclusion concerning women, work stress, and IHD....

  16. Large-scale evaluation of candidate genes identifies associations between VEGF polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat García-Closas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Common genetic variation could alter the risk for developing bladder cancer. We conducted a large-scale evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genes for cancer to identify common variants that influence bladder cancer risk. An Illumina GoldenGate assay was used to genotype 1,433 SNPs within or near 386 genes in 1,086 cases and 1,033 controls in Spain. The most significant finding was in the 5' UTR of VEGF (rs25648, p for likelihood ratio test, 2 degrees of freedom = 1 x 10(-5. To further investigate the region, we analyzed 29 additional SNPs in VEGF, selected to saturate the promoter and 5' UTR and to tag common genetic variation in this gene. Three additional SNPs in the promoter region (rs833052, rs1109324, and rs1547651 were associated with increased risk for bladder cancer: odds ratio (95% confidence interval: 2.52 (1.06-5.97, 2.74 (1.26-5.98, and 3.02 (1.36-6.63, respectively; and a polymorphism in intron 2 (rs3024994 was associated with reduced risk: 0.65 (0.46-0.91. Two of the promoter SNPs and the intron 2 SNP showed linkage disequilibrium with rs25648. Haplotype analyses revealed three blocks of linkage disequilibrium with significant associations for two blocks including the promoter and 5' UTR (global p = 0.02 and 0.009, respectively. These findings are biologically plausible since VEGF is critical in angiogenesis, which is important for tumor growth, its elevated expression in bladder tumors correlates with tumor progression, and specific 5' UTR haplotypes have been shown to influence promoter activity. Associations between bladder cancer risk and other genes in this report were not robust based on false discovery rate calculations. In conclusion, this large-scale evaluation of candidate cancer genes has identified common genetic variants in the regulatory regions of VEGF that could be associated with bladder cancer risk.

  17. Identifying the Risk Areas and Urban Growth by ArcGIS-Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hamdy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abouelreesh is one of the most at risk areas in Aswan, Egypt, which suffers from storms, poor drainage, and flash flooding. These phenomena affect the urban areas and cause a lot of damage to buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, the potential for the further realization of dangerous situations increased when the urban areas of Abouelreesh extended towards the risk areas. In an effort to ameliorate the danger, two key issues for urban growth management were studied, namely: (i estimations regarding the pace of urban sprawl, and (ii the identification of urban areas located in regions that would be affected by flash floods. Analyzing these phenomena require a lot of data in order to obtain good results, but in our case, the official data or field data was limited so we tried to obtain it by accessing two kinds of free sources of satellite data. First, we used Arc GIS tools to analyze (digital elevation model (DEM files in order to study the watershed and better identify the risk area. Second, we studied historical imagery in Google Earth to determine the age of each urban block. The urban growth rate in the risk areas had risen to 63.31% in 2001. Urban growth in the case study area had been influenced by house sizes, because most people were looking to live in bigger houses. The aforementioned problem can be observed by considering the increasing average house sizes from 2001 until 2013, where, especially in risky areas, the average of house sizes had grown from 223 m2 in 2001 to 318 m2 in 2013. The findings from this study would be useful to urban planners and government officials in helping them to make informed decisions on urban development to benefit the community, especially those living in areas at risk from flash flooding from heavy rain events.

  18. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F.; Dong, Xinzhe; Rubin, Daniel L.; Napel, Sandy; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). Conclusion: We propose a robust intratumor

  19. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F; Dong, Xinzhe; Rubin, Daniel L; Napel, Sandy; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-08-01

    To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). We propose a robust intratumor partitioning method to identify clinically relevant, high-risk

  20. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F.; Dong, Xinzhe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Rubin, Daniel L. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Medicine (Biomedical Informatics Research), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Napel, Sandy [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Li, Ruijiang, E-mail: rli2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). Conclusion: We propose a robust

  1. Work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists – A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mikołajewska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of some chronic conditions and some health risk factors in physiotherapists suggest that work-related stress and burnout may have a significant but underestimated impact on their health status and productivity. This paper presents the author’s attempt to review current knowledge of work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists. This review was aimed at exploring the relationship between causes, consequences and ways of prevention of work-related stress and burnout in this occupational group. Searching PubMed, PEDro and Health Source: Nursing / Academic Edition was conducted in July 2014, with no starting date limitation and with specified keywords. The literature on work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists has investigated their relationship with a large number of causes, consequences, and ways of prevention. Based on the research reviewed, the conclusion can be drawn that further strategies to increase awareness among the management staff and health professionals about the importance of prevention and stress management are required to decrease the prevalence of aforementioned pathologies. It was stressed that the majority of components of these strategies still require to be confirmed by future studies. Med Pr 2014;65(5:693–701

  2. [Work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajewska, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Studies of some chronic conditions and some health risk factors in physiotherapists suggest that work-related stress and burn- out may have a significant but underestimated impact on their health status and productivity. This paper presents the author's attempt to review current knowledge of work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists. This review was aimed at explor- ing the relationship between causes, consequences and ways of prevention of work-related stress and burnout in this occupa- tional group. Searching PubMed, PEDro and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition was conducted in July 2014, with no starting date limitation and with specified keywords. The literature on work-related stress and burnout in physiotherapists has investigated their relationship with a large number of causes, consequences, and ways of prevention. Based on the research re- viewed, the conclusion can be drawn that further strategies to increase awareness among the management staff and health profes- sionals about the importance of prevention and stress management are required to decrease the prevalence of aforementioned pathologies. It was stressed that the majority of components of these strategies still require to be confirmed by future studies.

  3. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Job Factors Among Large-Herd Dairy Milkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douphrate, David I; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Hagevoort, Robert; Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David

    2016-01-01

    Dairy production in the United States is moving towards large-herd milking operations, resulting in an increase in task specialization and work demands. The objective of this project was to provide preliminary evidence of the association of a number of specific job conditions that commonly characterize large-herd parlor milking operations with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS). A modified version of the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire was administered to assess MSS prevalence among 450 US large-herd parlor workers. Worker demographics and MSS prevalences were generated. Prevalence ratios were also generated to determine associations of a number of specific job conditions that commonly characterize large-herd parlor milking operations with work-related MSS. Work-related MSS are prevalent among large-herd parlor workers, since nearly 80% report 12-month prevalences of one or more symptoms, which are primarily located in the upper extremities, specifically shoulders and wrist/hand. Specific large-herd milking parlor job conditions are associated with MSS in multiple body regions, including performing the same task repeatedly, insufficient rest breaks, working when injured, static postures, adverse environmental conditions, and reaching overhead. These findings support the need for administrative and engineering solutions aimed at reducing exposure to job risk factors for work-related MSS among large-herd parlor workers.

  4. Identifying areas at risk of low birth weight using spatial epidemiology: A small area surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insaf, Tabassum Z; Talbot, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    To assess the geographic distribution of Low Birth Weight (LBW) in New York State among singleton births using a spatial regression approach in order to identify priority areas for public health actions. LBW was defined as birth weight less than 2500g. Geocoded data from 562,586 birth certificates in New York State (years 2008-2012) were merged with 2010 census data at the tract level. To provide stable estimates and maintain confidentiality, data were aggregated to yield 1268 areas of analysis. LBW prevalence among singleton births was related with area-level behavioral, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using a Poisson mixed effects spatial error regression model. Observed low birth weight showed statistically significant auto-correlation in our study area (Moran's I 0.16 p value 0.0005). After over-dispersion correction and accounting for fixed effects for selected social determinants, spatial autocorrelation was fully accounted for (Moran's I-0.007 p value 0.241). The proportion of LBW was higher in areas with larger Hispanic or Black populations and high smoking prevalence. Smoothed maps with predicted prevalence were developed to identify areas at high risk of LBW. Spatial patterns of residual variation were analyzed to identify unique risk factors. Neighborhood racial composition contributes to disparities in LBW prevalence beyond differences in behavioral and socioeconomic factors. Small-area analyses of LBW can identify areas for targeted interventions and display unique local patterns that should be accounted for in prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying the Risk of Swallowing-Related Pulmonary Complications in Older Patients With Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Roy, Siddharth; Medvedev, Gleb; Wallace, Matthew; Neviaser, Robert J; O'Brien, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    To identify and potentially modify the risk of pulmonary complications in a group of older patients with hip fracture, the authors obtained speech and language pathology consultations for these patients. Then they performed a retrospective chart review of all patients 65 years and older who were admitted to their institution between June 2011 and July 2013 with acute hip fracture, were treated surgically, and had a speech and language pathology evaluation in the immediate perioperative period. The authors identified 52 patients who met the study criteria. According to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification system, at the time of surgery, 1 patient (2%) was classified as ASA I, 12 patients (23%) were ASA II, 26 (50%) were ASA III, and 12 (23%) were ASA IV. Based on a speech and language pathology evaluation, 22 patients (42%) were diagnosed with dysphagia. Statistical analysis showed that ASA III status and ASA IV status were meaningful predictors of dysphagia and that dysphagia itself was a strong risk factor for pulmonary aspiration, pneumonia, and aspiration pneumonitis. Evaluation by a speech and language pathologist, particularly of patients classified as ASA III or ASA IV, may be an efficient means of averting pulmonary morbidity that is common in older patients with hip fracture. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Quantifying family dissemination and identifying barriers to communication of risk information in Australian BRCA families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Emma; Taylor, Natalie; Greening, Sian; Wakefield, Claire E; Warwick, Linda; Williams, Rachel; Tucker, Kathy

    2017-12-01

    PurposeRecommendations for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers to disseminate information to at-risk relatives pose significant challenges. This study aimed to quantify family dissemination, to explain the differences between fully informed families (all relatives informed verbally or in writing) and partially informed families (at least one relative uninformed), and to identify dissemination barriers.MethodsBRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers identified from four Australian hospitals (n=671) were invited to participate in the study. Distress was measured at consent using the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10). A structured telephone interview was used to assess the informed status of relatives, geographical location of relatives, and dissemination barriers. Family dissemination was quantified, and fully versus partially informed family differences were examined. Dissemination barriers were thematically coded and counted.ResultsA total of 165 families participated. Information had been disseminated to 81.1% of relatives. At least one relative had not been informed in 52.7% of families, 4.3% were first-degree relatives, 27.0% were second-degree relatives, and 62.0% were cousins. Partially informed families were significantly larger than fully informed families, had fewer relatives living in close proximity, and exhibited higher levels of distress. The most commonly recorded barrier to dissemination was loss of contact.ConclusionLarger, geographically diverse families have greater difficulty disseminating BRCA mutation risk information to all relatives. Understanding these challenges can inform future initiatives for communication, follow-up and support.

  7. Association of Caucasian-identified variants with colorectal cancer risk in Singapore Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Fun Thean

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS in Caucasians have identified fourteen index single nucleotide polymorphisms (iSNPs that influence colorectal cancer (CRC risk.We investigated the role of eleven iSNPs or surrogate SNPs (sSNPs, in high linkage disequilibrium (LD, r(2≥ 0.8 and within 100 kb vicinity of iSNPs, in 2,000 age- and gender-matched Singapore Chinese (SCH cases and controls.Only iSNP rs6983267 at 8q24.21 and sSNPs rs6695584, rs11986063, rs3087967, rs2059254, and rs7226855 at 1q41, 8q23.3, 11q23.1, 16q22.1 and 18q21.1 respectively showed evidence of association with CRC risk, with odds ratios (OR ranging from 1.13 to 1.40. sSNP rs827401 at 10p14 was associated with rectal cancer risk (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.63-0.88 but not disease prognosis (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.69-1.20. Interestingly, sSNP rs3087967 at 11q23.1 was associated with CRC risk in men (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.14-1.58 but not women (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.88-1.29, suggesting a gender-specific role. Half of the Caucasian-identified variants, including the recently fine-mapped BMP pathway loci, BMP4, GREM1, BMP2 and LAMA 5, did not show any evidence for association with CRC in SCH (OR ~1; p-value >0.1. Comparing the results of this study with that of the Northern and Hong Kong Chinese, only variants at chromosomes 8q24.21, 10p14, 11q23.1 and 18q21.1 were replicated in at least two out of the three Chinese studies.The contrasting results between Caucasians and Chinese could be due to different LD patterns and allelic frequencies or genetic heterogeneity. The results suggest that additional common variants contributing to CRC predisposition remained to be identified.

  8. Beta-Blockers for Exams Identify Students at High Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Jawad H; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Kruuse, Christina; Fosbøl, Emil L

    2017-04-01

    Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students at risk of later psychiatric events. Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves for unadjusted associations and multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard analyses for adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). We identified 12,147 healthy students with exam-related beta-blocker use and 12,147 matched healthy students with no current or prior use of beta-blockers (median age, 19 years; 80.3% women). Among all healthy students, 0.14% had a first-time prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period with the highest proportion among students aged 19 years (0.39%). Eighty-one percent of the students filled only that single prescription for a beta-blocker during follow-up. During follow-up, 2225 (18.3%) beta-blocker users and 1400 (11.5%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed an antidepressant (p beta-blocker users and 658 (5.4%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed a psychotropic drug (p beta-blocker users and 6 (0.05%) nonbeta-blocker users attempted suicide (p = 0.03). Exam-related beta-blocker use was associated with an increased risk of antidepressant use (adjusted HRs, 1.68 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.57-1.79], p beta-blockers during the exam period was

  9. BIBLIOGRAPHIC STUDY IN RISK MANAGEMENT AIMED TO IDENTIFY MORE REFERENCED TOOLS, METHODS AND RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamir Costa Louro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify and discuss trends in tools and methods used in project risk management and its relationship to other matters, using current scientific articles. The focus isn´t in understanding how they work in technical terms, but think about the possibilities of deepening in academic studies, including making several suggestions for future research. Adjacent to the article there is a discussion about an alleged "one best way" imperative normativity approach. It was answered the following research questions: what subjects and theories are related to project risk management tools and methods? The first contribution is related to the importance of the academic Chris Chapman as an author who has more published and also more referenced in the survey. There are several contributions on various subjects such as: the perception of the existence of many conceptual papers; papers about construction industry, problematization of contracts according to agency theory, IT and ERPs issues. Other contributions came from the bibliometric method that brings lot of consolidated information about terms, topics, authors, references, periods and, of course, methods and tools about Project Risk Management.

  10. Identifying children at risk for language impairment: screening of communication at 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, B; Kornfält, R; Radeborg, K; Hansson, K; Nettelbladt, U

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the possibility of identifying children at risk for language impairment based on a new screening instrument to assess communication and language skills at 18 mo of age. At 18 mo, 58 children were assessed with a screening instrument for communication and language consisting of a professional assessment and a parents' questionnaire. Students of speech and language pathology, well trained in child language assessment, carried out the professional assessment, which was based on observations of play behaviour, interaction and expressive and receptive language skills. Of the 58 children, 43 attended a follow-up assessment of language skills at 54 mo of age. Nine children were considered to be at risk for language impairment at 18 mo and 10 children were evaluated as being at risk at 54 mo. A significant positive correlation was found between the professional evaluations at 18 mo and the language tests at 54 mo. Verbal comprehension and pretend play correlated significantly with the results on the language tests. A professional screening of communication and language at 18 mo of age is worthwhile for predicting problems in language development. The results further show that language comprehension and pretend play rather than expressive skills should be emphasized.

  11. Identifying Risk Factors of Boot Procurement: A Case Study of Stadium Australia

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    Marcus Jefferies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Private sector input into the procurement of public works and services is continuing to increase. This has partly arisen out of a requirement for infrastructure development to be undertaken at a rate that maintains and allows growth. This has become a major challange for the construction industry that cannot be met by government alone. The emergence of Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT schemes as a response to this challange provides a means for developing the infrastructure of a country without directly impacting on the governments budgetary constraints. The concepts of BOOT are without doubt extremely complex arrangements, which bring to the construction sector risks not experienced previously. Many of the infrastructure partnerships between public and private sector in the pastare yet to provide evidence of successful completion, since few of the concession periods have expired. This paper provides an identified list of risk factors to a case study of Stadium Australia. The most significant risk associated with Stadium Australia include the bidding process, the high level of public scrutiny, post-Olympic Games facility revenue and the complicated nature of the consortium structure.  

  12. Identifying Risk Factors of Boot Procurement: A Case Study of Stadium Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jefferies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Private sector input into the procurement of public works and services is continuing to increase. This has partly arisen out of a requirement for infrastructure development to be undertaken at a rate that maintains and allows growth. This has become a major challange for the construction industry that cannot be met by government alone. The emergence of Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT schemes as a response to this challange provides a means for developing the infrastructure of a country without directly impacting on the governments budgetary constraints. The concepts of BOOT are without doubt extremely complex arrangements, which bring to the construction sector risks not experienced previously. Many of the infrastructure partnerships between public and private sector in the pastare yet to provide evidence of successful completion, since few of the concession periods have expired. This paper provides an identified list of risk factors to a case study of Stadium Australia. The most significant risk associated with Stadium Australia include the bidding process, the high level of public scrutiny, post-Olympic Games facility revenue and the complicated nature of the consortium structure.

  13. The Sports Challenge international programme for identified 'at risk' children and adolescents: a Singapore study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, G J; Watkins, G G; Rouse, I

    1999-01-01

    The current world wide phenomena of youth suicide which became a major issue for countries in the early nineties, is still growing exponentially. The Sports Challenge program was initiated in 1992 in Western Australia to identify 'at risk' children and adolescents who display: a low sense of basic trust, a sense of shame and doubt, a sense of inferiority and a sense of identity confusion with common characteristics of low self esteem. The subsequent program is based on a strong statistical paradigm encompassing current and historical information with reliable and objective evaluation measures. To this end, since 1992, Sports Challenge has been recognised as a 'World Best Practice' in redressing the issue of 'at risk' children and adolescents. The program now operates in over 150 schools and communities throughout Australia and 24 schools and Detention Centres in Singapore. This paper will allow a window into the development of the program and the successful transfer of the project into Singapore. The Singapore study which began in 1996 has revealed the success of the Sports Challenge program cross culturally with improvement in self esteem and self concept of 'at risk' groups in the range of 18% to 44%.

  14. Using the Care Dependency Scale for identifying patients at risk for pressure ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Ate; Kazimier, Hetty; Halfens, Ruud J G

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate risk screening for pressure ulcer by using the Care Dependency Scale (CDS) for patients receiving home care or admitted to a residential or nursing home in the Netherlands. Pressure ulcer is a serious and persistent problem for patients throughout the Western world. Pressure ulcer is among the most common adverse events in nursing practice and when a pressure ulcer occurs it has many consequences for patients and healthcare professionals. Cross-sectional design. The convenience sample consisted of 13,633 study participants, of whom 2639 received home care from 15 organisations, 4077 were patients from 67 residential homes and 6917 were admitted in 105 nursing homes. Data were taken from the Dutch National Prevalence Survey of Care Problems that was carried out in April 2012 in Dutch healthcare settings. For the three settings, cut-off points above 80% sensitivity were established, while in the residential home sample an almost 60% combined specificity score was identified. The CDS items 'Body posture' (home care), 'Getting dressed and undressed' (residential homes) and 'Mobility' (nursing homes) were the most significant variables which affect PU. The CDS is able to distinguish between patients at risk for pressure ulcer development and those not at risk in both home care and residential care settings. In nursing homes, the usefulness of the CDS for pressure ulcer detection is limited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Identifying patients at risk of intraoperative and postoperative transfusion in isolated CABG: toward selective conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rakesh C; Légaré, Jean-Francois; Buth, Karen J; Sullivan, John A; Hirsch, Gregory M

    2004-11-01

    Allogeneic blood product use during cardiac operation is often reported to exceed 40% despite published guidelines and costly blood conservation strategies. We developed a predictive model, based on eight preoperative risk factors, of allogeneic blood product transfusion rates in patients undergoing a cardiac procedure. All 3,046 consecutive, isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures at a university hospital from 1995 to 1998 were included. A logistic regression model was created to identify independent predictors of allogeneic blood product transfusion. This model was validated using a prospective patient sample. Overall use of allogeneic blood products was 23% with a crude operative mortality of 2.1%. In isolated, elective, first-time CABG cases, 16.9% received allogeneic blood products. Independent predictors of blood product usage in CABG patients were preoperative hemoglobin 12.0 or less, emergent operation, renal failure, female sex, age 70 years or older, left ventricular ejection fraction 0.40 or less, redo procedure, and low body surface area. Prospective validation of this model on 2,117 consecutive isolated CABG patients demonstrated an observed-to-expected allogeneic blood product transfusion rate ratio of 1.06. This internally validated logistic regression risk model is a sensitive and specific predictor of allogeneic blood product use in patients undergoing isolated CABG. Utilization of this model allows for preoperative risk stratification and may allow for more rational resource allocation of costly blood conservation strategies and blood bank resources.

  16. Algorithm of actions to identify and reduce risks in the production of milk and plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Glagoleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foods with a new generation of functional and improved consumer properties, corresponds to the modern concepts of nutrition science and consumer needs. functional food production is a major global trend in food science and the subject of innovation. One of the important trends is the use of plant complexes and plant food systems. Using the plant complexes (PC and plant food systems (PFS provides a number of benefits: improved consumer properties of the product, do not need to change the process, it is possible to control directional rheological properties and consistency of the finished products, reduced the number of risk points in the production cycle. This paper describes the development of an algorithm of action to identify and mitigate risks in the production of milk and plant products. Also conducted a risk analysis, identified and assessed the risks in the process of production, installed capacity of available resources to reduce the level of risk. Established and submitted to the critical control points in production processes, as well as the critical limits for each critical control points, and the procedure for corrective action in case of violations of the past. During the study, measured changes in the quantitative and qualitative composition of microflora of semi-finished and Quantity of Mesophilic Aerobic and Facultative Anaerobic Microorganisms (QMAFAnM. To determine QMAFAnM samples were taken: 1 – cheesecakes (control, 2 – cheesecakes with RPS. Microbiological studies analyzed frozen-conjugated semi-finished products was determined within 90 days. It is clear from the data that the cottage cheese with semi-finished products have a lower RPM 11.7%. Analyzing the data, it is possible to conclude that the physico-chemical, organoleptic and microbiological indicators of products was developed to set standards on cheese semi-finished products. multilevel structure that characterizes the quality indicators has been developed and is

  17. Burden of liver disease in Europe: epidemiology and analysis of risk factors to identify prevention policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpin, Laura; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Negro, Francesco; Corbould, Emily; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Webber, Laura; Sheron, Nick

    2018-05-16

    The burden of liver disease in Europe continues to grow. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of liver diseases and their risk factors in European countries, and identify public health interventions that could impact on these risk factors to reduce the burden of liver disease. As part of the HEPAHEALTH project, commissioned by EASL, we extracted information on historical and current prevalence and mortality from national and international literature and databases on liver disease in 35 countries in the WHO European region, as well as historical and recent prevalence data on their main determinants; alcohol consumption, obesity and hepatitis B and C virus infections. We extracted information from peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify public health interventions targeting these risk factors. The epidemiology of liver disease is diverse and countries cluster with similar pictures, although the exact composition of diseases and the trends in risk factors which drive them is varied. Prevalence and mortality data indicate that increasing cirrhosis and liver cancer may be linked to dramatic increases in harmful alcohol consumption in Northern European countries, and viral hepatitis epidemics in Eastern and Southern European countries. Countries with historically low levels of liver disease may experience an increase in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the future, given the rise of obesity across the majority of European countries. Interventions exist for curbing harmful alcohol use, reducing obesity, preventing or treating viral hepatitis, and screening for liver disease at an early stage. Liver disease in Europe is a serious issue, with increasing cirrhosis and liver cancer. The public health and hepatology communities are uniquely placed to implement measures aimed at reducing their causes: harmful alcohol consumption, child and adult obesity prevalence and chronic infection with hepatitis viruses, which will in turn reduce the burden of liver disease. The

  18. Proteinuria in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease is not associated with identifiable risk factors

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    Aleem Aamer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal involvement in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD is associated with signi-ficant morbidity and mortality. Proteinuria is common in patients with SCD and is a risk factor for future development of renal failure. We sought to identify risk factors, if any, associated with pro-teinuria in adult Saudi patients with SCD. We studied 67 patients with SCD followed-up at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All patients underwent 24-hour urine collection to measure creatinine clearance and to quantify proteinuria. In addition, blood was examined for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Clinical information was gathered from review of the patients′ charts. A urine protein level of more than 0.150 grams/24 hours was consi-dered abnormal. Urine protein was correlated with various clinical and laboratory parameters. Thirty-one males and 36 females were evaluated. The mean age of the cohort was 23.8 (± 7.2 years. Twenty-seven patients (40.3% had proteinuria of more than 0.150 grams/24 hours. The study group had a mean hemoglobin level of 8.5 (± 2.8 g/dL and mean fetal hemoglobin (HbF level of 14.4% (± 7.3%. Majority of the patients (61 had hemoglobin SS genotype and six patients had S-β0 thala-ssemia. None of the parameters evaluated correlated with proteinuria although there was a border-line association with older age and higher systolic blood pressure (P = 0.073 and 0.061 respec-tively. Hydroxyurea use for more than a year was not beneficial. In conclusion, our study suggests that proteinuria in adult Saudi patients is not associated with any clear identifiable risk factors.

  19. Readily Identifiable Risk Factors of Nursing Home Residents' Oral Hygiene: Dementia, Hospice, and Length of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Austin, Sophie; Cohen, Lauren; Reed, David; Poole, Patricia; Ward, Kimberly; Sloane, Philip D

    2017-11-01

    The poor oral hygiene of nursing home (NH) residents is a matter of increasing concern, especially because of its relationship with pneumonia and other health events. Because details and related risk factors in this area are scant and providers need to be able to easily identify those residents at most risk, this study comprehensively examined the plaque, gingival, and denture status of NH residents, as well as readily available correlates of those indicators of oral hygiene, including items from the Minimum Data Set (MDS). Oral hygiene assessment and chart abstract conducted on a cross-section of NH residents. NHs in North Carolina (N = 14). NH residents (N = 506). Descriptive data from the MDS and assessments using three standardized measures: the Plaque Index for Long-Term Care (PI-LTC), the Gingival Index for Long-Term Care (GI-LTC), and the Denture Plaque Index (DPI). Oral hygiene scores averaged 1.7 (of 3) for the PI-LTC, 1.5 (of 4) for the GI-LTC, and 2.2 (of 4) for the DPI. Factors most strongly associated with poor oral hygiene scores included having dementia, being on hospice care, and longer stay. MDS ratings of gingivitis differed significantly from oral hygiene assessments. The findings identify resident subgroups at especially high risk of poor oral health who can be targeted in quality improvement efforts related to oral hygiene; they also indicate need to improve the accuracy of how MDS items are completed. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Identifying risk factors associated with smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

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    Sabrina Hermosilla

    Full Text Available Sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients have a high risk of transmission and are of great epidemiological and infection control significance. Little is known about the smear-positive populations in high TB burden regions, such as Kazakhstan. The objective of this study is to characterize the smear-positive population in Kazakhstan and identify associated modifiable risk factors.Data on incident TB cases' (identified between April 2012 and March 2014 socio-demographic, risk behavior, and comorbidity characteristics were collected in four regions of Kazakhstan through structured survey and medical record review. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with smear positivity.Of the total sample, 193 (34.3% of the 562 study participants tested smear-positive. In the final adjusted multivariable logistic regression model, sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI:1.3-3.1, p < 0.01, incarceration (aOR = 3.6, 95% CI:1.2-11.1, p = 0.03, alcohol dependence (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.2-5.7, p = 0.02, diabetes (aOR = 5.0, 95% CI:2.4-10.7, p < 0.01, and physician access (aOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.3-5.5p < 0.01 were associated with smear-positivity.Incarceration, alcohol dependence, diabetes, and physician access are associated with smear positivity among incident TB cases in Kazakhstan. To stem the TB epidemic, screening, treatment and prevention policies should address these factors.

  1. Identifying patients with AAA with the highest risk following endovascular repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadili, Ali; Turnbull, Robert; Hervas-Malo, Marilou; Ghosh, Sunita; Chyczij, Harold

    2012-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that endovascular repair of arterial disease results in reduced perioperative morbidity and mortality compared to open surgical repair. The rates of complications and need for reinterventions, however, have been found to be higher than that in open repair. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of endograft complications and mortality in patients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair; specifically, our aim was to identify a subset of patients with AAA whose risk of periprocedure mortality was so high that they should not be offered endovascular repair. We undertook a prospective review of patients with AAA receiving endovascular therapy at a single institution. Collected variables included age, gender, date of procedure, indication for procedure, size of aneurysm (where applicable), type of endograft used, presence of rupture, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, major medical comorbidities, type of anesthesia (general, epidural, or local), length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and length of hospital stay. These factors were correlated with the study outcomes (overall mortality, graft complications, morbidity, and reintervention) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 199 patients underwent endovascular AAA repair during the study period. The ICU stay, again, was significantly correlated with the primary outcomes (death and graft complications). In addition, length of hospital stay greater than 3 days, also emerged as a statistically significant predictor of graft complications in this subgroup (P = .024). Survival analysis for patients with AAA revealed that age over 85 years and ICU stay were predictive of decreased survival. Statistical analysis for other subgroups of patients (inflammatory AAA or dissection) was not performed due to the small numbers in these subgroups. Patients with AAA greater than 85 years of age are at a greater risk of mortality

  2. [Predicting individual risk of high healthcare cost to identify complex chronic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderch, Jordi; Sánchez-Pérez, Inma; Ibern, Pere; Carreras, Marc; Pérez-Berruezo, Xavier; Inoriza, José M

    2014-01-01

    To develop a predictive model for the risk of high consumption of healthcare resources, and assess the ability of the model to identify complex chronic patients. A cross-sectional study was performed within a healthcare management organization by using individual data from 2 consecutive years (88,795 people). The dependent variable consisted of healthcare costs above the 95th percentile (P95), including all services provided by the organization and pharmaceutical consumption outside of the institution. The predictive variables were age, sex, morbidity-based on clinical risk groups (CRG)-and selected data from previous utilization (use of hospitalization, use of high-cost drugs in ambulatory care, pharmaceutical expenditure). A univariate descriptive analysis was performed. We constructed a logistic regression model with a 95% confidence level and analyzed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Individuals incurring costs >P95 accumulated 44% of total healthcare costs and were concentrated in ACRG3 (aggregated CRG level 3) categories related to multiple chronic diseases. All variables were statistically significant except for sex. The model had a sensitivity of 48.4% (CI: 46.9%-49.8%), specificity of 97.2% (CI: 97.0%-97.3%), PPV of 46.5% (CI: 45.0%-47.9%), and an AUC of 0.897 (CI: 0.892 to 0.902). High consumption of healthcare resources is associated with complex chronic morbidity. A model based on age, morbidity, and prior utilization is able to predict high-cost risk and identify a target population requiring proactive care. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying groups at risk for 1-year membership termination from a fitness center at enrollment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Hooker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans do not engage in adequate regular physical activity despite its well-known health benefits. Even when individuals attempt to become more active by joining a fitness center, estimates suggest that nearly half terminate their membership within the first 6 months. A better understanding of who is at risk for early membership termination upon joining may help researchers develop targeted interventions to improve the likelihood that individuals will successfully maintain memberships and physical activity. This study's purpose was to identify, based on a wellness assessment (WA used in fitness centers, individuals at risk for fitness membership termination prior to 1-year. Center members (N = 441; Mage = 41.9, SD = 13.1; 74.4% female completed a comprehensive WA of stress, life satisfaction, physical fitness, metabolic health, and sleep quality at the beginning of their memberships and were followed for one year. Latent class analyses utilized the WA to identify four groups: (a healthy, (b unhealthy, (c poor psychological wellness, and (d poor physical wellness. Participants in the poor psychological wellness group (OR = 2.24, p = 0.007 and the unhealthy group (OR = 2.40, p = 0.037 were significantly more likely to terminate their memberships at 1-year as compared to the healthy group. Participants with poor physical wellness visited the fitness center less frequently than healthy participants (p < 0.01. Results suggest that poor psychological wellness is a risk factor for terminating memberships, whereas poor physical wellness is not. Future studies should replicate these latent classes and develop targeted interventions to address psychological wellness as a method to improve fitness membership retention.

  4. Work-related stress and cognitive enhancement among university teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegel, Constantin; Sattler, Sebastian; Göritz, Anja S; Diewald, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Working conditions of academic staff have become increasingly complex and occupational exposure has risen. This study investigates whether work-related stress is associated with the use of prescription drugs for cognitive enhancement (CE). The study was designed around three web-based surveys (n1 = 1131; n2 = 936; n3 = 906) to which university teachers at four German universities were asked to respond. It assessed past CE-drug use and the willingness to use CE-drugs as factors influencing future use. Overlap among participants across the surveys allowed for analyses of stability of the results across time. Our study suggests a currently very low prevalence of CE-drug use as well as a low willingness to use such drugs. The results showed a strong association between perceptions of work-related stress and all measures of CE-drug use (when controlling for potential confounding factors). They also showed that past use of CE-drugs increased participants' willingness to use them again in the future, as did lower levels of social support. Two different measures showed that participants' moral qualms against the use of CE-drugs decreased their probability of using them. The results increase our knowledge about the prevalence of CE-drug use and our understanding of what motivates and inhibits the use of CE-drug.

  5. Identifying HIV most-at-risk groups in Malawi for targeted interventions. A classification tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques B O; Madise, Nyovani; Kuepie, Mathias; Zulu, Eliya M; Ye, Yazoume

    2013-05-28

    To identify HIV-socioeconomic predictors as well as the most-at-risk groups of women in Malawi. A cross-sectional survey. Malawi The study used a sample of 6395 women aged 15-49 years from the 2010 Malawi Health and Demographic Surveys. Individual HIV status: positive or not. Findings from the Pearson χ(2) and χ(2) Automatic Interaction Detector analyses revealed that marital status is the most significant predictor of HIV. Women who are no longer in union and living in the highest wealth quintiles households constitute the most-at-risk group, whereas the less-at-risk group includes young women (15-24) never married or in union and living in rural areas. In the light of these findings, this study recommends: (1) that the design and implementation of targeted interventions should consider the magnitude of HIV prevalence and demographic size of most-at-risk groups. Preventive interventions should prioritise couples and never married people aged 25-49 years and living in rural areas because this group accounts for 49% of the study population and 40% of women living with HIV in Malawi; (2) with reference to treatment and care, higher priority must be given to promoting HIV test, monitoring and evaluation of equity in access to treatment among women in union disruption and never married or women in union aged 30-49 years and living in urban areas; (3) community health workers, households-based campaign, reproductive-health services and reproductive-health courses at school could be used as canons to achieve universal prevention strategy, testing, counselling and treatment.

  6. Exome genotyping arrays to identify rare and low frequency variants associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permuth, Jennifer B.; Pirie, Ailith; Ann Chen, Y.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Reid, Brett M.; Chen, Zhihua; Monteiro, Alvaro; Dennis, Joe; Mendoza-Fandino, Gustavo; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bisogna, Maria; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Carney, Michael E.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; Anne Doherty, Jennifer; Earp, Madalene; Edwards, Robert P.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Hogdall, Estrid; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kjaer, Suzanne K.; Kraft, Peter; Le, Nhu D.; Levine, Douglas A.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubinski, Jan; Matsuo, Keitaro; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Rosemary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Nakanishi, Toru; Ness, Roberta B.; Olson, Sara; Orlow, Irene; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Anne Rossing, Mary; Sandler, Dale P.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Song, Honglin; Taylor, Jack A.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Webb, Penelope M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Winham, Stacey; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Phelan, Catherine M.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen L.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Rare and low frequency variants are not well covered in most germline genotyping arrays and are understudied in relation to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. To address this gap, we used genotyping arrays targeting rarer protein-coding variation in 8,165 EOC cases and 11,619 controls from the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Pooled association analyses were conducted at the variant and gene level for 98,543 variants directly genotyped through two exome genotyping projects. Only common variants that represent or are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with previously-identified signals at established loci reached traditional thresholds for exome-wide significance (P  P≥5.0 ×10 − 7) were detected for rare and low-frequency variants at 16 novel loci. Four rare missense variants were identified (ACTBL2 rs73757391 (5q11.2), BTD rs200337373 (3p25.1), KRT13 rs150321809 (17q21.2) and MC2R rs104894658 (18p11.21)), but only MC2R rs104894668 had a large effect size (OR = 9.66). Genes most strongly associated with EOC risk included ACTBL2 (PAML = 3.23 × 10 − 5; PSKAT-o = 9.23 × 10 − 4) and KRT13 (PAML = 1.67 × 10 − 4; PSKAT-o = 1.07 × 10 − 5), reaffirming variant-level analysis. In summary, this large study identified several rare and low-frequency variants and genes that may contribute to EOC susceptibility, albeit with possible small effects. Future studies that integrate epidemiology, sequencing, and functional assays are needed to further unravel the unexplained heritability and biology of this disease. PMID:27378695

  7. Predicting performance at medical school: can we identify at-risk students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sami Shaban, Michelle McLeanDepartment of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab EmiratesBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive potential of multiple indicators (eg, preadmission scores, unit, module and clerkship grades, course and examination scores on academic performance at medical school, with a view to identifying students at risk.Methods: An analysis was undertaken of medical student grades in a 6-year medical school program at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, over the past 14 years.Results: While high school scores were significantly (P < 0.001 correlated with the final integrated examination, predictability was only 6.8%. Scores for the United Arab Emirates university placement assessment (Common Educational Proficiency Assessment were only slightly more promising as predictors with 14.9% predictability for the final integrated examination. Each unit or module in the first four years was highly correlated with the next unit or module, with 25%–60% predictability. Course examination scores (end of years 2, 4, and 6 were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with the average scores in that 2-year period (59.3%, 64.8%, and 55.8% predictability, respectively. Final integrated examination scores were significantly correlated (P < 0.001 with National Board of Medical Examiners scores (35% predictability. Multivariate linear regression identified key grades with the greatest predictability of the final integrated examination score at three stages in the program.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it may be possible to identify “at-risk” students relatively early in their studies through continuous data archiving and regular analysis. The data analysis techniques used in this study are not unique to this institution.Keywords: at-risk students, grade

  8. The hospital costs of treating work-related sawmill injuries in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Tompa, Emile; Koehoorn, Mieke; Ostry, Aleck; Demers, Paul A

    2007-05-01

    This study estimates the hospital costs of treating work-related injury among a cohort of sawmill workers in British Columbia. Hospital discharge records were extracted from 1989 to 1998 for a cohort of 5,876 actively employed sawmill workers. Injury cases were identified as work-related from these records using ICD-9 external cause of injury codes that indicate place of occurrence and the responsibility of payment schedule that identifies workers' compensation as being responsible for payment. The hospitals in British Columbia have a standard ward rate chart prepared annually by the provincial Ministry of Health to bill and collect payment from agency like workers' compensation agency. Costs were calculated from the hospital perspective using this billing chart. All costs were expressed in 1995 Canadian dollars. The workers' compensation claim records for this study population were extracted and matched with the hospitalised work-related injury records. Costs were also calculated for work-related hospitalisations that the hospital did not appear to be reimbursed for by the workers' compensation system. There were 173 injuries requiring hospitalisation during the 10-year followup period. The median stay in hospitals was 3 days and the median hospital costs were $847. The most costly cause of injury categories were fire, flame, natural and environmental and struck against with median costs of $10,575 and $1,206, respectively, while the least costly category was cutting and piercing with median costs of $296. The most costly nature of injury categories were burns and fracture of lower limb with median costs of $10,575 and $1,800, respectively, while the least costly category was dislocation, sprains and strains with median costs of $437. The total hospital costs for all the work-related injuries were $434,990. Out of a total hospital cost of $434,990 for the 173 work-related injuries, the provincial compensation agency apparently did not compensate $50,663 (12

  9. A study into psychosocial factors as predictors of work-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hanif Abdul; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah; Naing, Lin

    2016-07-14

    To explore and determine relationship between psychosocial factors and work-related fatigue among emergency and critical care nurses in Brunei. Cross-sectional study conducted on all emergency and critical care nurses across Brunei public hospitals from February to April 2016. 201 nurses participated in the study (82% response rate). A total of 36% of the variance of chronic fatigue was explained by stress, trust in management, decision latitude, self-rated health, and work-family conflict. Burnout, self-rated health, commitment to workplace, and trust in management explained 30% of the variance of acute fatigue. Stress, work-family conflict and reward explained 28% of the variance of intershift recovery after controlling for significant sociodemographic variables. Smoking was identified as an important sociodemographic factor for work-related fatigue. Psychosocial factors were good predictors of work-related fatigue. A range of psychosocial factors were established, however more research is required to determine all possible causation factors of nurses' work-related fatigue.

  10. Exome genotyping arrays to identify rare and low frequency variants associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permuth, Jennifer B; Pirie, Ailith; Ann Chen, Y

    2016-01-01

    Rare and low frequency variants are not well covered in most germline genotyping arrays and are understudied in relation to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. To address this gap, we used genotyping arrays targeting rarer protein-coding variation in 8,165 EOC cases and 11,619 controls from...... that is in LD (r(2 )=( )0.90) with a previously identified 'best hit' (rs7651446) mapping to an intron of TIPARP. Suggestive associations (5.0 × 10 (-)  (5 )>( )P≥5.0 ×10 (-)  (7)) were detected for rare and low-frequency variants at 16 novel loci. Four rare missense variants were identified (ACTBL2 rs73757391.......67 × 10 (-)  (4); PSKAT-o = 1.07 × 10 (-)  (5)), reaffirming variant-level analysis. In summary, this large study identified several rare and low-frequency variants and genes that may contribute to EOC susceptibility, albeit with possible small effects. Future studies that integrate epidemiology...

  11. Identifying Emergency Department Patients at Low Risk for a Variceal Source of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Lauren R; Money, Joel; Maharaj, Kaveesh; Robinson, Aaron; Lai, Tarissa; Driver, Brian E

    2017-11-01

    Assessing the likelihood of a variceal versus nonvariceal source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) guides therapy, but can be difficult to determine on clinical grounds. The objective of this study was to determine if there are easily ascertainable clinical and laboratory findings that can identify a patient as low risk for a variceal source of hemorrhage. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult ED patients with UGIB between January 2008 and December 2014 who had upper endoscopy performed during hospitalization. Clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from the medical record. The source of the UGIB was defined as variceal or nonvariceal based on endoscopic reports. Binary recursive partitioning was utilized to create a clinical decision rule. The rule was internally validated and test characteristics were calculated with 1,000 bootstrap replications. A total of 719 patients were identified; mean age was 55 years and 61% were male. There were 71 (10%) patients with a variceal UGIB identified on endoscopy. Binary recursive partitioning yielded a two-step decision rule (platelet count > 200 × 10 9 /L and an international normalized ratio [INR] study must be externally validated before widespread use, patients presenting to the ED with an acute UGIB with platelet count of >200 × 10 9 /L and an INR of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Employment and work-related issues in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Anja

    2011-02-01

    Purpose of this systematic literature review was to identify current knowledge about employment in cancer survivors. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria that were original papers published between 01/2000 and 11/2009. Overall, 63.5% of cancer survivors (range 24-94%) returned to work. The mean duration of absence from work was 151 days. Factors significantly associated with a greater likelihood of being employed or return to work were perceived employer accommodation, flexible working arrangements, counseling, training and rehabilitation services, younger age and cancer sites of younger individuals, higher levels of education, male gender, less physical symptoms, lower length of sick leave and continuity of care. Cancer survivors had a significantly increased risk for unemployment, early retirement and were less likely to be re-employed. Between 26% and 53% of cancer survivors lost their job or quit working over a 72-month period post diagnosis. Between 23% and 75% of patients who lost their job were re-employed. A high proportion of patients experienced at least temporary changes in work schedules, work hours, wages and a decline in work ability compared to non-cancer groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon.

    OpenAIRE

    Fayad, Rim; Nuwayhid, Iman; Tamim, Hala; Kassak, Kassem; Khogali, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the medical and compensation costs of work-related injuries in insured workplaces in Lebanon and to examine cost distributions by worker and injury characteristics. METHODS: A total of 3748 claims for work injuries processed in 1998 by five major insurance companies in Lebanon were reviewed. Medical costs (related to emergency room fees, physician consultations, tests, and medications) and wage and indemnity compensation costs were identified from the claims. FINDINGS: ...

  14. Are work-related stressors associated with diagnosis of more advanced stages of incident breast cancers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Stahlberg, Claudia; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    work pressure (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.73) nor women with self-reported low influence on work organization (0.98; 0.69, 1.39) or long working hours (0.93; 0.54, 1.58) were at higher risk of breast cancer than women with no such stressors. Women with high work tempo had a slightly higher risk......OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between work-related stressors and breast cancer incidence and prognostic characteristics (estrogen receptor status, grade, lymph node status, size, stage) at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: The 18,932 women included in the Danish Nurse Cohort reported work...... of breast cancer (1.25; 1.02, 1.54) than women with a suitable work tempo, but there was no dose-response effect. There were no clear differences in the prognostic characteristics of breast tumors diagnosed in women with and without work-related stressors. CONCLUSIONS: Work-related stressors do not affect...

  15. Psychosocial working conditions and work-related stressors among UK veterinary surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, David J; Yadegarfar, Ghasem; Baldwin, David S

    2009-08-01

    Anecdotally, veterinary surgeons report high levels of work-related stress. To investigate psychosocial working conditions, self-reported causes of work-related stress and satisfaction among a representative sample of vets practising in the UK. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample of 3200 vets. The Health & Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool and a series of bespoke questions were embedded in a 120 item questionnaire, which also assessed anxiety and depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, suicidal ideation, positive mental well-being and work-home interaction. A total of 1796 useable questionnaires were returned (response rate 56%). Number of hours worked and making professional mistakes were the main reported contributors to stress. Good clinical outcomes and relationships with colleagues were the greatest sources of satisfaction. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with less favourable working conditions. Compared to the general population, the sample reported higher risk of work-related stress for demands