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Sample records for identify variables related

  1. Social Networking Privacy Control: Exploring University Variables Related to Young Adults' Sharing of Personally Identifiable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Melisa S.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the Internet, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook, create opportunities for individuals to share private and identifiable information with a closed or open community. Internet crime has been on the rise and research has shown that criminals are using individuals' personal information pulled from social…

  2. Problems Identifying Independent and Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses one step from the scientific method--that of identifying independent and dependent variables--from both scientific and mathematical perspectives. It begins by analyzing an episode from a middle school mathematics classroom that illustrates the need for students and teachers alike to develop a robust understanding of…

  3. Identifying causal linkages between environmental variables and African conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Dartevelle, S.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental variables that contribute to droughts, flooding, and other natural hazards are often identified as factors contributing to conflict; however, few studies attempt to quantify these causal linkages. Recent research has demonstrated that the environment operates within a dynamical system framework and the influence of variables can be identified from convergent cross mapping (CCM) between shadow manifolds. We propose to use CCM to identify causal linkages between environmental variables and incidences of conflict. This study utilizes time series data from Climate Forecast System ver. 2 and MODIS satellite sensors processed using Google Earth Engine to aggregate country and regional trends. These variables are then compared to Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project observations at similar scales. Results provide relative rankings of variables and their linkage to conflict. Being able to identify which factors contributed more strongly to a conflict can allow policy makers to prepare solutions to mitigate future crises. Knowledge of the primary environmental factors can lead to the identification of other variables to examine in the causal network influencing conflict.

  4. Identifying variables that influence manufacturing product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article a risk analysis of the production process of selected products in a plant producing votive candles was conducted. The Pareto-Lorenz diagram and FMEA method were used which indicated the most important areas affecting the production of selected elements of candles. The synthesis of intangible factors affecting production in the audited company was also carried out with particular emphasis on the operation of the production system. The factors determining the validity of studies was examined, describing the principle of BOST 14 Toyota management. The most important areas of the company were identified, positively affecting the production process.

  5. Identify the dominant variables to predict stream water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H.; Flagler, J.

    2016-12-01

    Stream water temperature is a critical variable controlling water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems. Accurate prediction of water temperature and the assessment of the impacts of environmental variables on water temperature variation are critical for water resources management, particularly in the context of water quality and aquatic ecosystem sustainability. The objective of this study is to measure stream water temperature and air temperature and to examine the importance of streamflow on stream water temperature prediction. The measured stream water temperature and air temperature will be used to test two hypotheses: 1) streamflow is a relatively more important factor than air temperature in regulating water temperature, and 2) by combining air temperature and streamflow data stream water temperature can be more accurately estimated. Water and air temperature data loggers are placed at two USGS stream gauge stations #01362357and #01362370, located in the upper Esopus Creek watershed in Phonecia, NY. The ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) time series model is used to analyze the measured water temperature data, identify the dominant environmental variables, and predict the water temperature with identified dominant variable. The preliminary results show that streamflow is not a significant variable in predicting stream water temperature at both USGS gauge stations. Daily mean air temperature is sufficient to predict stream water temperature at this site scale.

  6. Identifying populations sensitive to environmental chemicals by simulating toxicokinetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Caroline L; Pearce, Robert G; Setzer, R Woodrow; Wetmore, Barbara A; Wambaugh, John F

    2017-09-01

    The thousands of chemicals present in the environment (USGAO, 2013) must be triaged to identify priority chemicals for human health risk research. Most chemicals have little of the toxicokinetic (TK) data that are necessary for relating exposures to tissue concentrations that are believed to be toxic. Ongoing efforts have collected limited, in vitro TK data for a few hundred chemicals. These data have been combined with biomonitoring data to estimate an approximate margin between potential hazard and exposure. The most "at risk" 95th percentile of adults have been identified from simulated populations that are generated either using standard "average" adult human parameters or very specific cohorts such as Northern Europeans. To better reflect the modern U.S. population, we developed a population simulation using physiologies based on distributions of demographic and anthropometric quantities from the most recent U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. This allowed incorporation of inter-individual variability, including variability across relevant demographic subgroups. Variability was analyzed with a Monte Carlo approach that accounted for the correlation structure in physiological parameters. To identify portions of the U.S. population that are more at risk for specific chemicals, physiologic variability was incorporated within an open-source high-throughput (HT) TK modeling framework. We prioritized 50 chemicals based on estimates of both potential hazard and exposure. Potential hazard was estimated from in vitro HT screening assays (i.e., the Tox21 and ToxCast programs). Bioactive in vitro concentrations were extrapolated to doses that produce equivalent concentrations in body tissues using a reverse dosimetry approach in which generic TK models are parameterized with: 1) chemical-specific parameters derived from in vitro measurements and predicted from chemical structure; and 2) with

  7. Psychological Variables for Identifying Susceptibility to Mental Disorders in Medical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sender

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study analyses some psychological variables related to susceptibility to mental disorders in medical students. Methods: A sample of 209 first- and second-year medical students was evaluated using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and three questionnaires: Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and UNCAHS scale of STRAIN. Results: Thirty percent of the students suffered from emotional distress as measured by de GHQ-28, and showed significantly higher scores on trait anxiety, sensitivity to punishment and reward scales, and had higher levels of strain both in the academic environment and their personal life. Women scored significantly higher than men on trait anxiety and sensitivity to reward. Logistical regression found that trait anxiety and strain in non-academic life were the best predictors of the development of a mental disorder. Conclusions: The study confirms the usefulness of the STAI for detecting psychological distress and the validity of the SPSRQ for identifying subjects likely to present emotional distress when facing high environmental demands. Subjects most likely to present with mental illness are those who evaluate their personal (non-academic lives as more stressful.

  8. AIC identifies optimal representation of longitudinal dietary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, John; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Marshall, Teresa; Warren, John; Levy, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) is a well-known tool for variable selection in multivariable modeling as well as a tool to help identify the optimal representation of explanatory variables. However, it has been discussed infrequently in the dental literature. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of AIC in determining the optimal representation of dietary variables in a longitudinal dental study. The Iowa Fluoride Study enrolled children at birth and dental examinations were conducted at ages 5, 9, 13, and 17. Decayed or filled surfaces (DFS) trend clusters were created based on age 13 DFS counts and age 13-17 DFS increments. Dietary intake data (water, milk, 100 percent-juice, and sugar sweetened beverages) were collected semiannually using a food frequency questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to predict DFS cluster membership (n=344). Multiple approaches could be used to represent the dietary data including averaging across all collected surveys or over different shorter time periods to capture age-specific trends or using the individual time points of dietary data. AIC helped identify the optimal representation. Averaging data for all four dietary variables for the whole period from age 9.0 to 17.0 provided a better representation in the multivariable full model (AIC=745.0) compared to other methods assessed in full models (AICs=750.6 for age 9 and 9-13 increment dietary measurements and AIC=762.3 for age 9, 13, and 17 individual measurements). The results illustrate that AIC can help researchers identify the optimal way to summarize information for inclusion in a statistical model. The method presented here can be used by researchers performing statistical modeling in dental research. This method provides an alternative approach for assessing the propriety of variable representation to significance-based procedures, which could potentially lead to improved research in the dental community. © 2017 American

  9. Identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Joo, Jong Wha J; Wadia, Akshay; Ostrovsky, Rafail; Sahai, Amit; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-04-01

    The development of high-throughput genomic technologies has impacted many areas of genetic research. While many applications of these technologies focus on the discovery of genes involved in disease from population samples, applications of genomic technologies to an individual's genome or personal genomics have recently gained much interest. One such application is the identification of relatives from genetic data. In this application, genetic information from a set of individuals is collected in a database, and each pair of individuals is compared in order to identify genetic relatives. An inherent issue that arises in the identification of relatives is privacy. In this article, we propose a method for identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy by taking advantage of novel cryptographic techniques customized for secure and private comparison of genetic information. We demonstrate the utility of these techniques by allowing a pair of individuals to discover whether or not they are related without compromising their genetic information or revealing it to a third party. The idea is that individuals only share enough special-purpose cryptographically protected information with each other to identify whether or not they are relatives, but not enough to expose any information about their genomes. We show in HapMap and 1000 Genomes data that our method can recover first- and second-order genetic relationships and, through simulations, show that our method can identify relationships as distant as third cousins while preserving privacy.

  10. Identifying modular relations in complex brain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Winther; Mørup, Morten; Siebner, Hartwig

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the infinite relational model (IRM) against two simpler alternative nonparametric Bayesian models for identifying structures in multi subject brain networks. The models are evaluated for their ability to predict new data and infer reproducible structures. Prediction and reproducibility...... and obtains comparable reproducibility and predictability. For resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 30 healthy controls the IRM model is also superior to the two simpler alternatives, suggesting that brain networks indeed exhibit universal complex relational structure...

  11. Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, David; Costa, Vítor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task , related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events.

  12. Identifying associations between sport sponsorship decision-making variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Van Heerden

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport sponsorship spending in South Africa has increased steadily. This paper discusses the findings of an exploratory study into key sponsorship decision-areas, namely the setting of sponsorship objectives, the integration of marketing communication variables into sponsorship to create a leverage effect, and the measurement of sponsorship success. It is argued that for a sponsorship to be successful certain associations should exist between these key decision-making areas and also among elements internal to each of these areas. The main findings are that the respondents indicated a bias towards setting media related objectives that will subsequently enable the sponsors to use media-related measurement tools. It is recommended that sponsors should develop alternative methods to measure the effectiveness of their sponsorships.

  13. Identifying Midshipmen for Academic Assistance Using Entry Variables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Arthur

    2001-01-01

    .... Categorical values from the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), SAT scores and high school rank were incorporated as independent variables in a linear regression model with dependent variable Cumulative Quality Point Rating (CQPR...

  14. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the most frequent age at presentation, the predominance of one sex over the other, the incidence of malignant thyroid disease, and the relative risk for each sex to develop thyroid carcinoma. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was higher for women than for men, with a higher relative risk in the female subgroup. Incidence was also highest in the 50-60-year-old group. Given that studies show better survival for women and for younger patients, even when presenting with advanced disease, compared with older, male patients, such prognostic indicators should be a factor in the treatment decision.

  15. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Nitipir; Lucian Alecu; Iulian Slavu; Raluca Tulin; Radu C. Jecan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the...

  16. Childhood Depression: Relation to Adaptive, Clinical and Predictor Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Bernar?s, Elena; Jaureguizar, Joana; Machimbarrena, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    The study had two goals: (1) to explore the relations between self-assessed childhood depression and other adaptive and clinical variables (2) to identify predictor variables of childhood depression. Participants were 420 students aged 7–10 years old (53.3% boys, 46.7% girls). Results revealed: (1) positive correlations between depression and clinical maladjustment, school maladjustment, emotional symptoms, internalizing and externalizing problems, problem behaviors, emotional reactivity, and...

  17. A new approach to hazardous materials transportation risk analysis: decision modeling to identify critical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theoretical perspective in terms of identifying and advancing the key variables related to this risk, and there has not been a focus on probability and statistics-based approaches for doing this. Our decision model empirically identifies the critical variables using an exploratory methodology for a large, highly categorical database involving latent class analysis (LCA), loglinear modeling, and Bayesian networking. Our model identified the most influential variables and countermeasures for two consequences of a hazmat incident, dollar loss and release quantity, and is one of the first models to do this. The most influential variables were found to be related to the failure of the container. In addition to analyzing hazmat risk, our methodology can be used to develop data-driven models for strategic decision making in other domains involving risk.

  18. Identifying psychosocial variables that predict safer-sex intentions in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eBrüll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections. The triad of deliberate and effective safer-sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors (i.e. perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and intention taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA, were combined with more distal variables (e.g. behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections. Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse during the last twelve months and reasons for using barrier protection during first sexual intercourse. In particular, past condom nonuse behavior moderated perceived behavioral control related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer-sex programs designed to promote health sustaining sexual behavior.

  19. Rainfall spatiotemporal variability relation to wetlands hydroperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Hidalgo, Carmen; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Fernandez-Naranjo, Nuria

    2017-04-01

    Doñana natural space (Southwestern Spain) is one of the largest protected wetlands in Europe. The wide marshes present in this natural space have such ecological value that this wetland has been declared a Ramsar reserve in 1982. Apart from the extensive marsh, there are also small lagoons and seasonally flooded areas which are likewise essential to maintain a wide variety of valuable habitats. Hydroperiod, the length of time each point remains flooded along an annual cycle, is a critical ecological parameter that shapes aquatic plants and animals distribution and determines available habitat for many of the living organisms in the marshes. Recently, there have been published two different works estimating the hydroperiod of Doñana lagoons with Landsat Time Series images (Cifuentes et al., 2015; Díaz-Delgado et al., 2016). In both works the flooding cycle hydroperiod in Doñana marshes reveals a flooding regime mainly driven by rainfall, evapotranspiration, topography and local hydrological management actions. The correlation found between rainfall and hydroperiod is studied differently in both works. While in one the rainfall is taken from one raingauge (Cifuentes et al., 2015), the one performed by Díaz-Delgado (2016) uses annual rainfall maps interpolated with the inverse of the distance method. The rainfall spatiotemporal variability in this area can be highly significant; however the amount of this importance has not been quantified at the moment. In the present work the geostatistical tool known as spatiotemporal variogram is used to study the rainfall spatiotemporal variability. The spacetime package implemented in R (Pebesma, 2012) facilities its computation from a high rainfall data base of more than 100 raingauges from 1950 to 2016. With the aid of these variograms the rainfall spatiotemporal variability is quantified. The principal aim of the present work is the study of the relation between the rainfall spatiotemporal variability and the

  20. Handbook of latent variable and related models

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    This Handbook covers latent variable models, which are a flexible class of models for modeling multivariate data to explore relationships among observed and latent variables.- Covers a wide class of important models- Models and statistical methods described provide tools for analyzing a wide spectrum of complicated data- Includes illustrative examples with real data sets from business, education, medicine, public health and sociology.- Demonstrates the use of a wide variety of statistical, computational, and mathematical techniques.

  1. Clinical Impact of Speed Variability to Identify Ultramarathon Runners at Risk for Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen-Kuang Hou

    Full Text Available Ultramarathon is a high endurance exercise associated with a wide range of exercise-related problems, such as acute kidney injury (AKI. Early recognition of individuals at risk of AKI during ultramarathon event is critical for implementing preventative strategies.To investigate the impact of speed variability to identify the exercise-related acute kidney injury anticipatively in ultramarathon event.This is a prospective, observational study using data from a 100 km ultramarathon in Taipei, Taiwan. The distance of entire ultramarathon race was divided into 10 splits. The mean and variability of speed, which was determined by the coefficient of variation (CV in each 10 km-split (25 laps of 400 m oval track were calculated for enrolled runners. Baseline characteristics and biochemical data were collected completely 1 week before, immediately post-race, and one day after race. The main outcome was the development of AKI, defined as Stage II or III according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN criteria. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent association between variables and AKI development.26 ultramarathon runners were analyzed in the study. The overall incidence of AKI (in all Stages was 84.6% (22 in 26 runners. Among these 22 runners, 18 runners were determined as Stage I, 4 runners (15.4% were determined as Stage II, and none was in Stage III. The covariates of BMI (25.22 ± 2.02 vs. 22.55 ± 1.96, p = 0.02, uric acid (6.88 ± 1.47 vs. 5.62 ± 0.86, p = 0.024, and CV of speed in specific 10-km splits (from secondary 10 km-split (10th - 20th km-split to 60th - 70th km-split were significantly different between runners with or without AKI (Stage II in univariate analysis and showed discrimination ability in ROC curve. In the following multivariate analysis, only CV of speed in 40th - 50th km-split continued to show a significant association to the development of AKI (Stage II (p = 0.032.The development of exercise-related

  2. Analysis of individual cells identifies cell-to-cell variability following induction of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Christopher D; Flynn, James M; Morrissey, Christapher; Lebofsky, Ronald; Shuga, Joe; Dong, Xiao; Unger, Marc A; Vijg, Jan; Melov, Simon; Campisi, Judith

    2017-10-01

    Senescent cells play important roles in both physiological and pathological processes, including cancer and aging. In all cases, however, senescent cells comprise only a small fraction of tissues. Senescent phenotypes have been studied largely in relatively homogeneous populations of cultured cells. In vivo, senescent cells are generally identified by a small number of markers, but whether and how these markers vary among individual cells is unknown. We therefore utilized a combination of single-cell isolation and a nanofluidic PCR platform to determine the contributions of individual cells to the overall gene expression profile of senescent human fibroblast populations. Individual senescent cells were surprisingly heterogeneous in their gene expression signatures. This cell-to-cell variability resulted in a loss of correlation among the expression of several senescence-associated genes. Many genes encoding senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors, a major contributor to the effects of senescent cells in vivo, showed marked variability with a subset of highly induced genes accounting for the increases observed at the population level. Inflammatory genes in clustered genomic loci showed a greater correlation with senescence compared to nonclustered loci, suggesting that these genes are coregulated by genomic location. Together, these data offer new insights into how genes are regulated in senescent cells and suggest that single markers are inadequate to identify senescent cells in vivo. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Childhood Depression: Relation to Adaptive, Clinical and Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Garaigordobil

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study had two goals: (1 to explore the relations between self-assessed childhood depression and other adaptive and clinical variables (2 to identify predictor variables of childhood depression. Participants were 420 students aged 7–10 years old (53.3% boys, 46.7% girls. Results revealed: (1 positive correlations between depression and clinical maladjustment, school maladjustment, emotional symptoms, internalizing and externalizing problems, problem behaviors, emotional reactivity, and childhood stress; and (2 negative correlations between depression and personal adaptation, global self-concept, social skills, and resilience (sense of competence and affiliation. Linear regression analysis including the global dimensions revealed 4 predictors of childhood depression that explained 50.6% of the variance: high clinical maladjustment, low global self-concept, high level of stress, and poor social skills. However, upon introducing the sub-dimensions, 9 predictor variables emerged that explained 56.4% of the variance: many internalizing problems, low family self-concept, high anxiety, low responsibility, low personal self-assessment, high social stress, few aggressive behaviors toward peers, many health/psychosomatic problems, and external locus of control. The discussion addresses the importance of implementing prevention programs for childhood depression at early ages.

  4. Identifying Variability in Mental Models Within and Between Disciplines Caring for the Cardiac Surgical Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Evans K H; Harder, Kathleen A; Apostolidou, Ioanna; Wahr, Joyce A; Shook, Douglas C; Farivar, R Saeid; Perry, Tjorvi E; Konia, Mojca R

    2017-07-01

    The cardiac operating room is a complex environment requiring efficient and effective communication between multiple disciplines. The objectives of this study were to identify and rank critical time points during the perioperative care of cardiac surgical patients, and to assess variability in responses, as a correlate of a shared mental model, regarding the importance of these time points between and within disciplines. Using Delphi technique methodology, panelists from 3 institutions were tasked with developing a list of critical time points, which were subsequently assigned to pause point (PP) categories. Panelists then rated these PPs on a 100-point visual analog scale. Descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages, medians, and interquartile ranges (IQRs). We defined low response variability between panelists as an IQR ≤ 20, moderate response variability as an IQR > 20 and ≤ 40, and high response variability as an IQR > 40. Panelists identified a total of 12 PPs. The PPs identified by the highest number of panelists were (1) before surgical incision, (2) before aortic cannulation, (3) before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiation, (4) before CPB separation, and (5) at time of transfer of care from operating room (OR) to intensive care unit (ICU) staff. There was low variability among panelists' ratings of the PP "before surgical incision," moderate response variability for the PPs "before separation from CPB," "before transfer from OR table to bed," and "at time of transfer of care from OR to ICU staff," and high response variability for the remaining 8 PPs. In addition, the perceived importance of each of these PPs varies between disciplines and between institutions. Cardiac surgical providers recognize distinct critical time points during cardiac surgery. However, there is a high degree of variability within and between disciplines as to the importance of these times, suggesting an absence of a shared mental model among disciplines caring for

  5. Structural identifiability of cyclic graphical models of biological networks with latent variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Lu, Na; Miao, Hongyu

    2016-06-13

    Graphical models have long been used to describe biological networks for a variety of important tasks such as the determination of key biological parameters, and the structure of graphical model ultimately determines whether such unknown parameters can be unambiguously obtained from experimental observations (i.e., the identifiability problem). Limited by resources or technical capacities, complex biological networks are usually partially observed in experiment, which thus introduces latent variables into the corresponding graphical models. A number of previous studies have tackled the parameter identifiability problem for graphical models such as linear structural equation models (SEMs) with or without latent variables. However, the limited resolution and efficiency of existing approaches necessarily calls for further development of novel structural identifiability analysis algorithms. An efficient structural identifiability analysis algorithm is developed in this study for a broad range of network structures. The proposed method adopts the Wright's path coefficient method to generate identifiability equations in forms of symbolic polynomials, and then converts these symbolic equations to binary matrices (called identifiability matrix). Several matrix operations are introduced for identifiability matrix reduction with system equivalency maintained. Based on the reduced identifiability matrices, the structural identifiability of each parameter is determined. A number of benchmark models are used to verify the validity of the proposed approach. Finally, the network module for influenza A virus replication is employed as a real example to illustrate the application of the proposed approach in practice. The proposed approach can deal with cyclic networks with latent variables. The key advantage is that it intentionally avoids symbolic computation and is thus highly efficient. Also, this method is capable of determining the identifiability of each single parameter and

  6. Variables Associated with First Year Teacher Morale Which Can Be Identified in a Teacher Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, James R., Jr.; Schuck, Robert F.

    This paper presents a study of the personal variables associated with first-year teacher morale that can be identified early in the training programs of novice teachers. This study is based on data derived from 96 (76.6 percent) of the graduates teaching in Mississippi. Data were collected through the use of five special instruments: (1)…

  7. Examining Preservice Science Teachers' Skills of Formulating Hypotheses and Identifying Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine preservice science teachers' skills of formulating hypotheses and identifying variables. The research has a phenomenological research design. The data was gathered qualitatively. In this study, preservice science teachers were first given two scenarios (Scenario-1 & Scenario-2) containing two different…

  8. Golden Era of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects: concluding remarks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2012), s. 883-890 ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on the golden age of cataclysmic variables and related objects /2./. Palermo , 09.09.2013-14.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars * variable stars * cataclysmic variables Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  9. Directional semivariogram analysis to identify and rank controls on the spatial variability of fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, John R.; Fischer, Mark P.; Pollyea, Ryan M.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the directional semivariogram is deployed to investigate the spatial variability of map-scale fracture network attributes in the Paradox Basin, Utah. The relative variability ratio (R) is introduced as the ratio of integrated anisotropic semivariogram models, and R is shown to be an effective metric for quantifying the magnitude of spatial variability for any two azimuthal directions. R is applied to a GIS-based data set comprising roughly 1200 fractures, in an area which is bounded by a map-scale anticline and a km-scale normal fault. This analysis reveals that proximity to the fault strongly influences the magnitude of spatial variability for both fracture intensity and intersection density within 1-2 km. Additionally, there is significant anisotropy in the spatial variability, which is correlated with trends of the anticline and fault. The direction of minimum spatial correlation is normal to the fault at proximal distances, and gradually rotates and becomes subparallel to the fold axis over the same 1-2 km distance away from the fault. We interpret these changes to reflect varying scales of influence of the fault and the fold on fracture network development: the fault locally influences the magnitude and variability of fracture network attributes, whereas the fold sets the background level and structure of directional variability.

  10. Health related quality of life and psychological variables among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health related quality of life and psychological variables among a sample of asthmatics in Ile-Ife South-Western Nigeria. ... Sociodemographic and clinical variables were also obtained from the patients, the lung function was assessed using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Results: Mean age of all the patients was 35.22 ...

  11. Semi-Supervised Learning to Identify UMLS Semantic Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Uzuner, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    The UMLS Semantic Network is constructed by experts and requires periodic expert review to update. We propose and implement a semi-supervised approach for automatically identifying UMLS semantic relations from narrative text in PubMed. Our method analyzes biomedical narrative text to collect semantic entity pairs, and extracts multiple semantic, syntactic and orthographic features for the collected pairs. We experiment with seeded k-means clustering with various distance metrics. We create and annotate a ground truth corpus according to the top two levels of the UMLS semantic relation hierarchy. We evaluate our system on this corpus and characterize the learning curves of different clustering configuration. Using KL divergence consistently performs the best on the held-out test data. With full seeding, we obtain macro-averaged F-measures above 70% for clustering the top level UMLS relations (2-way), and above 50% for clustering the second level relations (7-way).

  12. Binge drinking among adolescents: prevalence, risk practices and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpe, Sandra; Isorna, Manuel; Barreiro, Carmen; Braña, Teresa; Rial, Antonio

    2017-09-29

    According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students. Based on a sample of 3,419 Galician adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.57; SD = 1.76), the results show that binge drinking is a common and global practice, with few socio-demographic differences but related with a wide range of risk practices. Furthermore, variables such as consumption expectancies, consumption by family and friends, as well as curfew time and allowance money have been identified as interesting predictive factors that should be taken into account at the preventive level.

  13. Causal Relationship Between Relative Price Variability and Inflation in Turkey:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebiye Yamak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the causal relationship between inflation and relative price variability in Turkey for the period of January 2003-January 2014, by using panel data. In the study, a Granger (1969 non-causality test in heterogeneous panel data models developed by Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012 is utilized to determine the causal relations between inflation rate relative price variability. The panel data consists of 4123 observations: 133 time observations and 31 cross-section observations. The results of panel causality test indicate that there is a bidirectional causality between inflation rate and relative price variability by not supporting the imperfection information model of Lucas and the menu cost model of Ball and Mankiw.

  14. Variability of centric relation position in TMD patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonnenberg, A.J.J.; Mulder, J.

    2006-01-01

    Reproducibility of the centric relation position for patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is not documented in the current literature. It was the objective of this study to assess clinical variability of the centric relation position for TMD patients with a muscle-determined technique by

  15. A study of school adjustment related variables of young children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for identifying relevant variables that affect the school adjustment of young ... Keywords: cognitive ability; hot executive function; peer relationships; school ... tend to act independently and have fewer positive feelings about their ... cognition provides a basis for developing social ..... is associated with hot EF is not activated,.

  16. [Relations between biomedical variables: mathematical analysis or linear algebra?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucher, M; Berlie, J; Brunet, M

    1977-01-01

    The authors, after a short reminder of one pattern's structure, stress on the possible double approach of relations uniting the variables of this pattern: use of fonctions, what is within the mathematical analysis sphere, use of linear algebra profiting by matricial calculation's development and automatiosation. They precise the respective interests on these methods, their bounds and the imperatives for utilization, according to the kind of variables, of data, and the objective for work, understanding phenomenons or helping towards decision.

  17. Quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Akira; Takei, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is one of the most important subjects in quantum information science. This is because quantum teleportation can be regarded as not only quantum information transfer but also a building block for universal quantum information processing. Furthermore, deterministic quantum information processing is very important for efficient processing and it can be realized with continuous-variable quantum information processing. In this review, quantum teleportation for continuous variables and related quantum information processing are reviewed from these points of view

  18. Input-variable sensitivity assessment for sediment transport relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roberto; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2017-09-01

    A methodology to assess input-variable sensitivity for sediment transport relations is presented. The Mean Value First Order Second Moment Method (MVFOSM) is applied to two bed load transport equations showing that it may be used to rank all input variables in terms of how their specific variance affects the overall variance of the sediment transport estimation. In sites where data are scarce or nonexistent, the results obtained may be used to (i) determine what variables would have the largest impact when estimating sediment loads in the absence of field observations and (ii) design field campaigns to specifically measure those variables for which a given transport equation is most sensitive; in sites where data are readily available, the results would allow quantifying the effect that the variance associated with each input variable has on the variance of the sediment transport estimates. An application of the method to two transport relations using data from a tropical mountain river in Costa Rica is implemented to exemplify the potential of the method in places where input data are limited. Results are compared against Monte Carlo simulations to assess the reliability of the method and validate its results. For both of the sediment transport relations used in the sensitivity analysis, accurate knowledge of sediment size was found to have more impact on sediment transport predictions than precise knowledge of other input variables such as channel slope and flow discharge.

  19. Identifying Pertinent Variables for Nonresponse Follow-Up Surveys. Lessons Learned from 4 Cases in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vandenplas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All social surveys suffer from different types of errors, of which one of the most studied is non-response bias. Non-response bias is a systematic error that occurs because individuals differ in their accessibility and propensity to participate in a survey according to their own characteristics as well as those from the survey itself. The extent of the problem heavily depends on the correlation between response mechanisms and key survey variables. However, non-response bias is difficult to measure or to correct for due to the lack of relevant data about the whole target population or sample. In this paper, non-response follow-up surveys are considered as a possible source of information about non-respondents. Non-response follow-ups, however, suffer from two methodological issues: they themselves operate through a response mechanism that can cause potential non-response bias, and they pose a problem of comparability of measure, mostly because the survey design differs between main survey and non-response follow-up. In order to detect possible bias, the survey variables included in non-response surveys have to be related to the mechanism of participation, but not be sensitive to measurement effects due to the different designs. Based on accumulated experience of four similar non-response follow-ups, we studied the survey variables that fulfill these conditions. We differentiated socio-demographic variables that are measurement-invariant but have a lower correlation with non-response and variables that measure attitudes, such as trust, social participation, or integration in the public sphere, which are more sensitive to measurement effects but potentially more appropriate to account for the non-response mechanism. Our results show that education level, work status, and living alone, as well as political interest, satisfaction with democracy, and trust in institutions are pertinent variables to include in non-response follow-ups of general social

  20. Can we identify non-stationary dynamics of trial-to-trial variability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emili Balaguer-Ballester

    Full Text Available Identifying sources of the apparent variability in non-stationary scenarios is a fundamental problem in many biological data analysis settings. For instance, neurophysiological responses to the same task often vary from each repetition of the same experiment (trial to the next. The origin and functional role of this observed variability is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience. The nature of such trial-to-trial dynamics however remains largely elusive to current data analysis approaches. A range of strategies have been proposed in modalities such as electro-encephalography but gaining a fundamental insight into latent sources of trial-to-trial variability in neural recordings is still a major challenge. In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept study to the analysis of trial-to-trial variability dynamics founded on non-autonomous dynamical systems. At this initial stage, we evaluate the capacity of a simple statistic based on the behaviour of trajectories in classification settings, the trajectory coherence, in order to identify trial-to-trial dynamics. First, we derive the conditions leading to observable changes in datasets generated by a compact dynamical system (the Duffing equation. This canonical system plays the role of a ubiquitous model of non-stationary supervised classification problems. Second, we estimate the coherence of class-trajectories in empirically reconstructed space of system states. We show how this analysis can discern variations attributable to non-autonomous deterministic processes from stochastic fluctuations. The analyses are benchmarked using simulated and two different real datasets which have been shown to exhibit attractor dynamics. As an illustrative example, we focused on the analysis of the rat's frontal cortex ensemble dynamics during a decision-making task. Results suggest that, in line with recent hypotheses, rather than internal noise, it is the deterministic trend which most likely underlies

  1. Identifying decaying supermassive black hole binaries from their variable electromagnetic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiman, Zoltan; Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Kocsis, Bence [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lippai, Zoltan; Frei, Zsolt [Institute of Physics, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-05-07

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) with masses in the mass range approx(10{sup 4}-10{sup 7}) M{sub o-dot}/(1 + z), produced in galaxy mergers, are thought to complete their coalescence due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs). The anticipated detection of the GWs by the future Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) will constitute a milestone for fundamental physics and astrophysics. While the GW signatures themselves will provide a treasure trove of information, if the source can be securely identified in electromagnetic (EM) bands, this would open up entirely new scientific opportunities, to probe fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology. We discuss several ideas, involving wide-field telescopes, that may be useful in locating electromagnetic counterparts to SMBHBs detected by LISA. In particular, the binary may produce a variable electromagnetic flux, such as a roughly periodic signal due to the orbital motion prior to coalescence, or a prompt transient signal caused by shocks in the circumbinary disc when the SMBHB recoils and 'shakes' the disc. We discuss whether these time-variable EM signatures may be detectable, and how they can help in identifying a unique counterpart within the localization errors provided by LISA. We also discuss a possibility of identifying a population of coalescing SMBHBs statistically, in a deep optical survey for periodically variable sources, before LISA detects the GWs directly. The discovery of such sources would confirm that gas is present in the vicinity and is being perturbed by the SMBHB-serving as a proof of concept for eventually finding actual LISA counterparts.

  2. Identifying decaying supermassive black hole binaries from their variable electromagnetic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiman, Zoltan; Menou, Kristen; Kocsis, Bence; Lippai, Zoltan; Frei, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) with masses in the mass range ∼(10 4 -10 7 ) M o-dot /(1 + z), produced in galaxy mergers, are thought to complete their coalescence due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs). The anticipated detection of the GWs by the future Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) will constitute a milestone for fundamental physics and astrophysics. While the GW signatures themselves will provide a treasure trove of information, if the source can be securely identified in electromagnetic (EM) bands, this would open up entirely new scientific opportunities, to probe fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology. We discuss several ideas, involving wide-field telescopes, that may be useful in locating electromagnetic counterparts to SMBHBs detected by LISA. In particular, the binary may produce a variable electromagnetic flux, such as a roughly periodic signal due to the orbital motion prior to coalescence, or a prompt transient signal caused by shocks in the circumbinary disc when the SMBHB recoils and 'shakes' the disc. We discuss whether these time-variable EM signatures may be detectable, and how they can help in identifying a unique counterpart within the localization errors provided by LISA. We also discuss a possibility of identifying a population of coalescing SMBHBs statistically, in a deep optical survey for periodically variable sources, before LISA detects the GWs directly. The discovery of such sources would confirm that gas is present in the vicinity and is being perturbed by the SMBHB-serving as a proof of concept for eventually finding actual LISA counterparts.

  3. Identifying job characteristics related to employed women's breastfeeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzmueller, Christiane; Zhang, Jing; Thomas, Candice L; Wang, Zhuxi; Fisher, Gwenith G; Matthews, Russell A; Strathearn, Lane

    2018-05-14

    For employed mothers of infants, reconciliation of work demands and breastfeeding constitutes a significant challenge. The discontinuation of breastfeeding has the potential to result in negative outcomes for the mother (e.g., higher likelihood of obesity), her employer (e.g., increased absenteeism), and her infant (e.g., increased risk of infection). Given previous research findings identifying return to work as a major risk factor for breastfeeding cessation, we investigate what types of job characteristics relate to women's intentions to breastfeed shortly after giving birth and women's actual breastfeeding initiation and duration. Using job titles and job descriptors contained in a large Australian longitudinal cohort data set (N = 809), we coded job titles using the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)'s Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and extracted job characteristics. Hazardous working conditions and job autonomy were identified as significant determinants of women's breastfeeding intentions, their initiation of breastfeeding, and ultimately their breastfeeding continuation. Hence, we recommend that human resource professionals, managers, and public health initiatives provide breastfeeding-supportive resources to women who, based on their job characteristics, are at high risk to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding to ensure these mothers have equal opportunity to reap the benefits of breastfeeding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Identifying optimal remotely-sensed variables for ecosystem monitoring in Colorado Plateau drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, Travis; Villarreal, Miguel; Waller, Eric K.; Nauman, Travis; Miller, Mark E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Water-limited ecosystems often recover slowly following anthropogenic or natural disturbance. Multitemporal remote sensing can be used to monitor ecosystem recovery after disturbance; however, dryland vegetation cover can be challenging to accurately measure due to sparse cover and spectral confusion between soils and non-photosynthetic vegetation. With the goal of optimizing a monitoring approach for identifying both abrupt and gradual vegetation changes, we evaluated the ability of Landsat-derived spectral variables to characterize surface variability of vegetation cover and bare ground across a range of vegetation community types. Using three year composites of Landsat data, we modeled relationships between spectral information and field data collected at monitoring sites near Canyonlands National Park, UT. We also developed multiple regression models to assess improvement over single variables. We found that for all vegetation types, percent cover bare ground could be accurately modeled with single indices that included a combination of red and shortwave infrared bands, while near infrared-based vegetation indices like NDVI worked best for quantifying tree cover and total live vegetation cover in woodlands. We applied four models to characterize the spatial distribution of putative grassland ecological states across our study area, illustrating how this approach can be implemented to guide dryland ecosystem management.

  5. Identifying individuality and variability in team tactics by means of statistical shape analysis and multilayer perceptrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Jörg M; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

    2012-04-01

    Offensive and defensive systems of play represent important aspects of team sports. They include the players' positions at certain situations during a match, i.e., when players have to be on specific positions on the court. Patterns of play emerge based on the formations of the players on the court. Recognition of these patterns is important to react adequately and to adjust own strategies to the opponent. Furthermore, the ability to apply variable patterns of play seems to be promising since they make it harder for the opponent to adjust. The purpose of this study is to identify different team tactical patterns in volleyball and to analyze differences in variability. Overall 120 standard situations of six national teams in women's volleyball are analyzed during a world championship tournament. Twenty situations from each national team are chosen, including the base defence position (start configuration) and the two players block with middle back deep (end configuration). The shapes of the defence formations at the start and end configurations during the defence of each national team as well as the variability of these defence formations are statistically analyzed. Furthermore these shapes data are used to train multilayer perceptrons in order to test whether artificial neural networks can recognize the teams by their tactical patterns. Results show significant differences between the national teams in both the base defence position at the start and the two players block with middle back deep at the end of the standard defence situation. Furthermore, the national teams show significant differences in variability of the defence systems and start-positions are more variable than the end-positions. Multilayer perceptrons are able to recognize the teams at an average of 98.5%. It is concluded that defence systems in team sports are highly individual at a competitive level and variable even in standard situations. Artificial neural networks can be used to recognize

  6. Identifying emotional intelligence skills of Turkish clinical nurses according to sociodemographic and professional variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilgün; Hiçdurmaz, Duygu

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the emotional intelligence skills of Turkish clinical nurses according to sociodemographic and professional variables. Emotional intelligence is "the ability of a person to comprehend self-emotions, to show empathy towards the feelings of others, and to control self-emotions in a way that enriches life." Nurses with a higher emotional intelligence level offer more efficient and professional care, and they accomplish more in their social and professional lives. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study. The Introductory Information Form and the Bar-On emotional intelligence Inventory were used to collect data between 20th June and 20th August 2012. The study was conducted with 312 nurses from 37 hospitals located within the borders of the metropolitan municipality in Ankara. There were no significant differences between emotional intelligence scores of the nurses according to demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, having children. Thus, sociodemographic factors did not appear to be key factors, but some professional variables did. Higher total emotional intelligence scores were observed in those who had 10 years or longer experience, who found oneself successful in professional life, who stated that emotional intelligence is an improvable skill and who previously received self-improvement training. Interpersonal skills were higher in those with a graduate degree and in nurses working in polyclinics and paediatric units. These findings indicate which groups require improvement in emotional intelligence skills and which skills need improvement. Additionally, these results provide knowledge and create awareness about emotional intelligence skills of nurses and the distribution of these skills according to sociodemographic and professional variables. Implementation of emotional intelligence improvement programmes targeting the determined clinical nursing groups by nursing administrations can help the increase in

  7. Relative Influence Of Sociodemographic Variables On Oral Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the results of a study to investigate the relative influence of some sociodemographic variables on oral hygiene and health of primary school children in Ibadan, Nigeria. The pupils were from two different socioeconomic strata of the society and their ages ranged between 7 and 16 years. They were ...

  8. Lie-theoretic generating relations of two variable Laguerre polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Subuhi; Yasmin, Ghazala

    2002-07-01

    Generating relations involving two variable Lagneire polynonuals L n (x, y) are derived. The process involves the construction of a three dimensional Lie algebra isomorphic to special linear algebra sl(2) with the help of Weisner's method by giving suitable interpretations to the index n of the polynomials L n (x, y). (author)

  9. Identifying environmental and geochemical variables governing metal concentrations in a stream draining headwaters in NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Varela, F.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M.L.; Taboada-Castro, M.M.; Taboada-Castro, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • All metals occur in association with suspended sediment. • DOC and SS appeared to influence the partitioning of metals. • The SS was a good predictor of particulate metal levels. • The most important variable to explain storm-event K D for Al and Fe is DOC. • Enrichment factor values suggest a natural origin for the particulate metals. - Abstract: Headwater stream, draining from a rural catchment in NW Spain, was sampled during baseflow and storm-event conditions to investigate the temporal variability in dissolved and particulate Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations and the role of discharge (Q), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and suspended sediment (SS) in the transport of dissolved and particulate metals. Under baseflow and storm-event conditions, concentrations of the five metals were highly variable. The results of this study reveal that all metal concentrations are correlated with SS. DOC and SS appeared to influence both the metal concentrations and the partitioning of metals between dissolved and particulate. The SS was a good predictor of particulate metal levels. Distribution coefficients (K D ) were similar between metals (4.72–6.55) and did not change significantly as a function of discharge regime. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the most important variable to explain storm-event K D for Al and Fe is DOC. The positive relationships found between metals, in each fraction, indicate that these elements mainly come from the same source. Metal concentrations in the stream were relatively low

  10. Chaos resulting from nonlinear relations between different variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohtani, Akitaka

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We prove a general result on the existence of chaos. → We focus on the cyclic composites of interdependent relations between different variables. → By considering several examples, we conclude that the cyclic composites play an important role in detecting chaotic dynamics. - Abstract: In this study, we further develop the perturbation method of Marotto and investigate the general mechanisms responsible for nonlinear dynamics, which are typical of multidimensional systems. We focus on the composites of interdependent relations between different variables. First, we prove a general result on chaos, which shows that the cyclic composites of nonlinear interdependent relations are sources of chaotic dynamics in multidimensional systems. By considering several examples, we conclude that the cyclic composites play an important role in detecting chaotic dynamics.

  11. Nature Relation Between Climatic Variables and Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria M. Sawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of climatic variables on flower and boll production and retention in cotton (Gossypium barbadense. Also, this study investigated the relationship between climatic factors and production of flowers and bolls obtained during the development periods of the flowering and boll stage, and to determine the most representative period corresponding to the overall crop pattern. Evaporation, sunshine duration, relative humidity, surface soil temperature at 1800 h, and maximum air temperature, are the important climatic factors that significantly affect flower and boll production. The least important variables were found to be surface soil temperature at 0600 h and minimum temperature. There was a negative correlation between flower and boll production and either evaporation or sunshine duration, while that correlation with minimum relative humidity was positive. Higher minimum relative humidity, short period of sunshine duration, and low temperatures enhanced flower and boll formation.

  12. Identifying the variables associated with pain during transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou CP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Pang Hou,1,2 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,2 Meng-Chiao Hsieh,3 Chien-Lun Chen,1,2 Phei-Lang Chang,1,2 Ying-Chen Huang,2 Ke-Hung Tsui1,21Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 3Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the degree of pain experienced by the patients receiving transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS of the prostate by applying a visual analog scale. We also identified the clinical parameters influencing pain during the TRUS examination.Materials and methods: Records were obtained from a prospective database for male patients who received TRUS of prostate in the outpatient department of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, from January 2014 to June 2014. The patients underwent a detailed physical examination and medical history review. Immediately after the TRUS examination, the patients completed questionnaires based on a ten-point visual analog pain scale. The variables of interest were age, body mass index, prostate volume, prostate sagittal length, prostate-specific antigen, previous TRUS experience, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, prostate calcification, and image artifact caused by stool in the rectum. All variables were correlated to the visual analog scale by applying multivariate regression analysis.Results: By using linear regression analysis, we identified the independent factors that affected the pain score during the TRUS examination. The patients who received the examination for the first time or had longer prostate sagittal lengths, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, or stool stored in the rectum experienced more pain during the TRUS examination. Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and

  13. Observing cataclysmic variables and related objects with different techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2012), s. 675-682 ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on the golden age of cataclysmic variables and related objects /2./. Palermo , 09.09.2013-14.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-rays * binaries * circumstellar matter Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  14. [Jealousy in close relationships: personal, relational and situational variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş, H Andaç; Dönmez, Ali

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effects of personal, situational, and relational variables (such as age, gender, gender role orientation, duration of relationship, relational satisfaction, and physical attractiveness of the partner) on jealousy are investigated. A sample of 454 individuals currently involved in dating or marital relationships (48 % married, 52 % unmarried) completed the Romantic Jealousy Questionnaire, Bem Sex Role Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Stepwise regression analyses and 2 (gender) x2 (gender role orientation) x2 (relational type) ANOVA's were submitted for analyzing the data. Analysis indicated that unmarried people reported higher levels of jealousy than married people (F1-446 = 5.029). Married women reported less jealousy than unmarried women and married women reported more jealousy than married men. Age, relational satisfaction level, expectation level about the duration of the relationship, and physical attractiveness of the partner were unique predictors of the reported level of jealousy (R2 = 0.12; adjusted R2 = 0.11; P physical, emotional, and cognitive responses to jealousy compared to men. Women used more constructive (F1-446 = 6.27) and less destructive strategies than men (F1-446 = 6.27). Unmarried people used more destructive strategies than married people (F1-446 = 3.84). Age, self-esteem, and the duration of the relationship were unique predictors of coping strategies. The present study revealed that jealousy was a multidimensional variable. In particular, relational type, self-esteem, age, relational satisfaction, and sex are highly correlated with jealousy.

  15. Fluctuation relations with intermittent non-Gaussian variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Adrián A

    2011-12-01

    Nonequilibrium stationary fluctuations may exhibit a special symmetry called fluctuation relations (FRs). Here, we show that this property is always satisfied by the subtraction of two random and independent variables related by a thermodynamiclike change of measure. Taking one of them as a modulated Poisson process, it is demonstrated that intermittence and FRs are compatible properties that may coexist naturally. Strong non-Gaussian features characterize the probability distribution and its generating function. Their associated large deviation functions develop a "kink" at the origin and a plateau regime respectively. Application of this model in different stationary nonequilibrium situations is discussed.

  16. Identifying Indicators Related to Constructs for Engineering Design Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Cheryl A.; Dixon, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    This study ranked constructs articulated by Childress and Rhodes (2008) and identified the key indicators for each construct as a starting point to explore what should be included on an instrument to measure the engineering design process and outcomes of students in high schools that use the PLTW and EbDTM curricula in Idaho. A case-study design…

  17. Identifying novel phenotypes of acute heart failure using cluster analysis of clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Yu; Tanimoto, Shuzou; Latif, A H M Mahbub; Urayama, Kevin Y; Aoki, Jiro; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Taishi; Sato, Yu; Tanaka, Tetsu; Koseki, Keita; Komiyama, Kota; Nakajima, Hiroyoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Tanabe, Kengo

    2018-07-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a heterogeneous disease caused by various cardiovascular (CV) pathophysiology and multiple non-CV comorbidities. We aimed to identify clinically important subgroups to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of AHF and inform clinical decision-making. We evaluated detailed clinical data of 345 consecutive AHF patients using non-hierarchical cluster analysis of 77 variables, including age, sex, HF etiology, comorbidities, physical findings, laboratory data, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and treatment during hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between the clusters and clinical outcomes. Three clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (n=108) represented "vascular failure". This cluster had the highest average systolic blood pressure at admission and lung congestion with type 2 respiratory failure. Cluster 2 (n=89) represented "cardiac and renal failure". They had the lowest ejection fraction (EF) and worst renal function. Cluster 3 (n=148) comprised mostly older patients and had the highest prevalence of atrial fibrillation and preserved EF. Death or HF hospitalization within 12-month occurred in 23% of Cluster 1, 36% of Cluster 2 and 36% of Cluster 3 (p=0.034). Compared with Cluster 1, risk of death or HF hospitalization was 1.74 (95% CI, 1.03-2.95, p=0.037) for Cluster 2 and 1.82 (95% CI, 1.13-2.93, p=0.014) for Cluster 3. Cluster analysis may be effective in producing clinically relevant categories of AHF, and may suggest underlying pathophysiology and potential utility in predicting clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A multivariate and stochastic approach to identify key variables to rank dairy farms on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, A S; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A

    2013-05-01

    The economic efficiency of dairy farms is the main goal of farmers. The objective of this work was to use routinely available information at the dairy farm level to develop an index of profitability to rank dairy farms and to assist the decision-making process of farmers to increase the economic efficiency of the entire system. A stochastic modeling approach was used to study the relationships between inputs and profitability (i.e., income over feed cost; IOFC) of dairy cattle farms. The IOFC was calculated as: milk revenue + value of male calves + culling revenue - herd feed costs. Two databases were created. The first one was a development database, which was created from technical and economic variables collected in 135 dairy farms. The second one was a synthetic database (sDB) created from 5,000 synthetic dairy farms using the Monte Carlo technique and based on the characteristics of the development database data. The sDB was used to develop a ranking index as follows: (1) principal component analysis (PCA), excluding IOFC, was used to identify principal components (sPC); and (2) coefficient estimates of a multiple regression of the IOFC on the sPC were obtained. Then, the eigenvectors of the sPC were used to compute the principal component values for the original 135 dairy farms that were used with the multiple regression coefficient estimates to predict IOFC (dRI; ranking index from development database). The dRI was used to rank the original 135 dairy farms. The PCA explained 77.6% of the sDB variability and 4 sPC were selected. The sPC were associated with herd profile, milk quality and payment, poor management, and reproduction based on the significant variables of the sPC. The mean IOFC in the sDB was 0.1377 ± 0.0162 euros per liter of milk (€/L). The dRI explained 81% of the variability of the IOFC calculated for the 135 original farms. When the number of farms below and above 1 standard deviation (SD) of the dRI were calculated, we found that 21

  20. Persistent fatigue in young athletes: measuring the clinical course and identifying variables affecting clinical recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S; Osborne, M; O'Rourke, P

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to measure the clinical course (months) in young athletes with persistent fatigue and to identify any covariates affecting the duration of recovery. This was a prospective longitudinal study of 68 athletes; 87% were elite (42 males, 26 females), aged 20.5±3.74 years (SD), who presented with the symptom of persistent fatigue. The collective duration to full clinical recovery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier product-limit curves, and covariates associated with prolonging recovery were identified from Cox proportional hazard models. The median recovery was 5 months (range 1-60 months). The range of presenting symptom duration was 0.5-36 months. The covariates identified were an increased duration of presenting symptoms [hazard ratio (HR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.12; P=0.005] and the response of serum cortisol concentration to a standard exercise challenge (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.09-3.38; P=0.03). Delay in recovery was not associated with categories of fatigue that included medical, training-related diagnoses, or other causes. In conclusion, the fatigued athlete represents a significant clinical problem with a median recovery of 5 months, whose collective clinical course to recovery can be estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves and appears to be a continuum. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Identifying Fracture Types and Relative Ages Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilley, Lorie M.; Norman, David; Owens, Lara

    2008-06-30

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Understanding the life cycle of a fracture in a geothermal system is fundamental to the development of techniques for creating fractures. Recognizing the stage of a fracture, whether it is currently open and transmitting fluids; if it recently has closed; or if it is an ancient fracture would assist in targeting areas for further fracture stimulation. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will also assist in fracture stimulation selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures, and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. Our hypothesis is that fractures over their life cycle have different chemical signatures that we can see in fluid inclusion gas analysis and by using the new method of fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) the different stages of fractures, along with an estimate of fracture size can be identified during the well drilling process. We have shown with this study that it is possible to identify fracture locations using FIS and that different fractures have different chemical signatures however that signature is somewhat dependent upon rock type. Open, active fractures correlate with increase concentrations of CO2, N2, Ar, and to a lesser extent H2O. These fractures would be targets for further enhancement. The usefulness of this method is that it is low cost alternative to current well logging techniques and can be done as a well is being drilled.

  2. Short-term Variability of Vitamin D-Related Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsey, Pamela L; Parrinello, Christina M; Misialek, Jeffrey R; Hoofnagle, Andy N; Henderson, Clark M; Laha, Thomas J; Michos, Erin D; Eckfeldt, John H; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the variability of biomarkers is important, as high within-person variability can lead to misclassification of individuals. Short-term variability of important markers of vitamin D metabolism is relatively unknown. A repeatability study was conducted in 160 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants (60% female, 28% black, mean age 76 years). Fasting serum was drawn at 2 time points, a median of 6 (range 3-13) weeks apart. Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured by LC-MS, fibroblast growth factor (FGF23) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and calcium and phosphorus by Roche Cobas 6000. Free and bioavailable 25(OH)D were calculated. We calculated the within-person CV (CV W ), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r), and percent reclassified. The CV W was lowest for calcium (2.0%), albumin (3.6%), 25(OH)D (6.9%), VDBP (7.0%) and phosphorus (7.6%); intermediate for free 25(OH)D (9.0%) and bioavailable 25(OH)D (9.9%); and highest for PTH (16.7%) and FGF23 (17.8%). Reclassification was highest for PTH, VDBP, and phosphorus (all 7.5%). The ICC and r were highest (≥0.80) for 25(OH)D, free 25(OH)D, bioavailable 25(OH)D and PTH, but somewhat lower (approximately 0.60-0.75) for the other biomarkers. Six-week short-term variability, as assessed by CV W , was quite low for VDBP, calcium and phosphorus, but fairly high for FGF23 and PTH. As such, multiple measurements of FGF23 and PTH may be needed to minimize misclassification. These results provide insight into the extent of potential misclassification of vitamin D markers in research and clinical settings. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Identifying Dyscalculia Symptoms Related to Magnocellular Reasoning Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Greger Siem; Babic, Ankica

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study that has developed a mobile software application for assisting diagnosis of learning disabilities in mathematics, called dyscalculia, and measuring correlations between dyscalculia symptoms and magnocellular reasoning. Usually, software aids for dyscalculic individuals are focused on both assisting diagnosis and teaching the material. The software developed in this study however maintains a specific focus on the former, and in the process attempts to capture alleged correlations between dyscalculia symptoms and possible underlying causes of the condition. Classification of symptoms is performed by k-Nearest Neighbor algorithm classifying five parameters evaluating user's skills, returning calculated performance in each category as well as correlation strength between detected symptoms and magnocellular reasoning abilities. Expert evaluations has found the application to be appropriate and productive for its intended purpose, proving that mobile software is a suitable and valuable tool for assisting dyscalculia diagnosis and identifying root causes of developing the condition.

  4. Identifying Patterns in Extreme Precipitation Risk and the Related Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Tye, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation can harm human life and assets through flooding, hail, landslides, or debris flows. Flood risk assessments typically concentrate on river or mountain torrent channels, using water depth, flow velocity, and/or sediment deposition to quantify the risk. In addition, extreme events with high recurrence intervals are often the main focus. However, damages from short-term and localized convective showers often occur away from watercourses. Also, damages from more frequent small scale extremes, although usually less disastrous, can accumulate to considerable financial burdens. Extreme convective precipitation is expected to intensify in a warmer climate, and vulnerability patterns might change in tandem with changes in the character of precipitation and flood types. This has consequences for adaptation planners who want to establish effective protection measures and reduce the cost from natural hazards. Here we merge hydrological and exposure data to identify patterns of risk under varying synoptic conditions. Exposure is calculated from a database of 76k damage claims reported to the national disaster fund in 480 municipalities in south eastern Austria from 1990-2015. Hydrological data comprise sub-daily precipitation (59 gauges) and streamflow (62 gauges) observations. We use synoptic circulation types to identify typical precipitation patterns. They indicate the character of precipitation even if a gauge is not in close proximity, facilitating potential future research with regional climate model data. Results show that more claims are reported under synoptic conditions favouring convective precipitation (on average 1.5-3 times more than on other days). For agrarian municipalities, convective precipitation damages are among the costliest after long low-intensity precipitation events. In contrast, Alpine communities are particularly vulnerable to convective high-intensity rainfall. In addition to possible observational error, uncertainty is present

  5. Practices for Identifying and Rejecting Hemolyzed Specimens Are Highly Variable in Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howanitz, Peter J; Lehman, Christopher M; Jones, Bruce A; Meier, Frederick A; Horowitz, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Hemolysis is an important clinical laboratory quality attribute that influences result reliability. To determine hemolysis identification and rejection practices occurring in clinical laboratories. We used the College of American Pathologists Survey program to distribute a Q-Probes-type questionnaire about hemolysis practices to Chemistry Survey participants. Of 3495 participants sent the questionnaire, 846 (24%) responded. In 71% of 772 laboratories, the hemolysis rate was less than 3.0%, whereas in 5%, it was 6.0% or greater. A visual scale, an instrument scale, and combination of visual and instrument scales were used to identify hemolysis in 48%, 11%, and 41% of laboratories, respectively. A picture of the hemolysis level was used as an aid to technologists' visual interpretation of hemolysis levels in 40% of laboratories. In 7.0% of laboratories, all hemolyzed specimens were rejected; in 4% of laboratories, no hemolyzed specimens were rejected; and in 88% of laboratories, some specimens were rejected depending on hemolysis levels. Participants used 69 different terms to describe hemolysis scales, with 21 terms used in more than 10 laboratories. Slight and moderate were the terms used most commonly. Of 16 different cutoffs used to reject hemolyzed specimens, moderate was the most common, occurring in 30% of laboratories. For whole blood electrolyte measurements performed in 86 laboratories, 57% did not evaluate the presence of hemolysis, but for those that did, the most common practice in 21 laboratories (24%) was centrifuging and visually determining the presence of hemolysis in all specimens. Hemolysis practices vary widely. Standard assessment and consistent reporting are the first steps in reducing interlaboratory variability among results.

  6. Identifying diseases-related metabolites using random walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zhao, Tianyi; Zhang, Ningyi; Zang, Tianyi; Zhang, Jun; Cheng, Liang

    2018-04-11

    Metabolites disrupted by abnormal state of human body are deemed as the effect of diseases. In comparison with the cause of diseases like genes, these markers are easier to be captured for the prevention and diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Currently, a large number of metabolic markers of diseases need to be explored, which drive us to do this work. The existing metabolite-disease associations were extracted from Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) using a text mining tool NCBO annotator as priori knowledge. Next we calculated the similarity of a pair-wise metabolites based on the similarity of disease sets of them. Then, all the similarities of metabolite pairs were utilized for constructing a weighted metabolite association network (WMAN). Subsequently, the network was utilized for predicting novel metabolic markers of diseases using random walk. Totally, 604 metabolites and 228 diseases were extracted from HMDB. From 604 metabolites, 453 metabolites are selected to construct the WMAN, where each metabolite is deemed as a node, and the similarity of two metabolites as the weight of the edge linking them. The performance of the network is validated using the leave one out method. As a result, the high area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) (0.7048) is achieved. The further case studies for identifying novel metabolites of diabetes mellitus were validated in the recent studies. In this paper, we presented a novel method for prioritizing metabolite-disease pairs. The superior performance validates its reliability for exploring novel metabolic markers of diseases.

  7. Profiles of drug addicts in relation to personality variables and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carou, María; Romero, Estrella; Luengo, Mª Ángeles

    2016-10-07

    In recent decades, research has identified a set of impulsive/disinhibited personality variables closely associated with drug addiction. As well as this, disorders linked with these variables, such as ADHD and personality disorders, are being closely studied in the field of drug addiction. Although much knowledge has been accumulated about the relation of these variables and disorders taken separately, less is known about how these constructs allow identify-specific profiles within the drug dependent population to be identified. This work, on the basis of data collected on a sample of drug addicts in treatment, analyzes how impulsiveness, sensation seeking, self-control, ADHD and personality disorders contribute to identifying specific profiles of addicts. Cluster analysis allowed two profiles to be outlined according to these personality and psychopathology characteristics. Self-control, impulsiveness, impulsive and antisocial personality disorders, as well as scores in ADHD, emerge as the variables that contribute more to profile differentiation. One of these profiles (56.1% of participants) with a high disinhibition pattern, is associated with severe indicators of consumption and criminal career patterns. These results allow us to emphasize the role of personality and impulsiveness-related disorders in the identification of distinctive profiles within the addict population, and suggest the need to generate treatment strategies adapted to personal/psychopathology configurations of drug addicts.

  8. Aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours in competitive sports: an analysis of related personal and environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Pelegrín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an analysis of personal and environmental variables related to aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours in a sample of Spanish sports competitors. We aim to: 1 ascertain how personality and expression variables relate to trait anger control and unsportsmanlike behaviors, in relation to men and women, age groups and type of sport, 2 identify and analyze the most maladjusted and the most adjusted profiles in a sample of sportsmen and women; 3 identify personality variables as predictors of aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Differences in gender, age and type of sport were appreciated in personality variables and in aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Men have better emotional adjustment (more behaviours of emotional stability, better self-esteem, self-confidence and leadership, and have worse social adjustment (fewer behaviours of tolerance, social skills and responsibility; more aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Women have better social adjustment (more behaviours of tolerance, understanding, adaptation, responsibility, discipline and sociability, and have worse emotional adjustment (greater anxiety. More aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours and greater emotional maladjustment were found in the youngest sportsmen and women. Aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours were more frequent in team sports. This study highlights personality variables as predictors of aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours.

  9. Refractive error magnitude and variability: Relation to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Elizabeth L; Machan, Carolyn M; Lam, Sharon; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Lillakas, Linda

    2018-03-19

    To investigate mean ocular refraction (MOR) and astigmatism, over the human age range and compare severity of refractive error to earlier studies from clinical populations having large age ranges. For this descriptive study patient age, refractive error and history of surgery affecting refraction were abstracted from the Waterloo Eye Study database (WatES). Average MOR, standard deviation of MOR and astigmatism were assessed in relation to age. Refractive distributions for developmental age groups were determined. MOR standard deviation relative to average MOR was evaluated. Data from earlier clinically based studies with similar age ranges were compared to WatES. Right eye refractive errors were available for 5933 patients with no history of surgery affecting refraction. Average MOR varied with age. Children <1 yr of age were the most hyperopic (+1.79D) and the highest magnitude of myopia was found at 27yrs (-2.86D). MOR distributions were leptokurtic, and negatively skewed. The mode varied with age group. MOR variability increased with increasing myopia. Average astigmatism increased gradually to age 60 after which it increased at a faster rate. By 85+ years it was 1.25D. J 0 power vector became increasingly negative with age. J 45 power vector values remained close to zero but variability increased at approximately 70 years. In relation to comparable earlier studies, WatES data were most myopic. Mean ocular refraction and refractive error distribution vary with age. The highest magnitude of myopia is found in young adults. Similar to prevalence, the severity of myopia also appears to have increased since 1931. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying Sentiment of Hookah-Related Posts on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, Jagannathan; Lerman, Kristina; Chu, Kar-Hai; Boley Cruz, Tess; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-01-01

    Background The increasing popularity of hookah (or waterpipe) use in the United States and elsewhere has consequences for public health because it has similar health risks to that of combustible cigarettes. While hookah use rapidly increases in popularity, social media data (Twitter, Instagram) can be used to capture and describe the social and environmental contexts in which individuals use, perceive, discuss, and are marketed this tobacco product. These data may allow people to organically report on their sentiment toward tobacco products like hookah unprimed by a researcher, without instrument bias, and at low costs. Objective This study describes the sentiment of hookah-related posts on Twitter and describes the importance of debiasing Twitter data when attempting to understand attitudes. Methods Hookah-related posts on Twitter (N=986,320) were collected from March 24, 2015, to December 2, 2016. Machine learning models were used to describe sentiment on 20 different emotions and to debias the data so that Twitter posts reflected sentiment of legitimate human users and not of social bots or marketing-oriented accounts that would possibly provide overly positive or overly negative sentiment of hookah. Results From the analytical sample, 352,116 tweets (59.50%) were classified as positive while 177,537 (30.00%) were classified as negative, and 62,139 (10.50%) neutral. Among all positive tweets, 218,312 (62.00%) were classified as highly positive emotions (eg, active, alert, excited, elated, happy, and pleasant), while 133,804 (38.00%) positive tweets were classified as passive positive emotions (eg, contented, serene, calm, relaxed, and subdued). Among all negative tweets, 95,870 (54.00%) were classified as subdued negative emotions (eg, sad, unhappy, depressed, and bored) while the remaining 81,667 (46.00%) negative tweets were classified as highly negative emotions (eg, tense, nervous, stressed, upset, and unpleasant). Sentiment changed drastically when

  11. Identifying Sentiment of Hookah-Related Posts on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ramanujam, Jagannathan; Lerman, Kristina; Chu, Kar-Hai; Boley Cruz, Tess; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-10-18

    The increasing popularity of hookah (or waterpipe) use in the United States and elsewhere has consequences for public health because it has similar health risks to that of combustible cigarettes. While hookah use rapidly increases in popularity, social media data (Twitter, Instagram) can be used to capture and describe the social and environmental contexts in which individuals use, perceive, discuss, and are marketed this tobacco product. These data may allow people to organically report on their sentiment toward tobacco products like hookah unprimed by a researcher, without instrument bias, and at low costs. This study describes the sentiment of hookah-related posts on Twitter and describes the importance of debiasing Twitter data when attempting to understand attitudes. Hookah-related posts on Twitter (N=986,320) were collected from March 24, 2015, to December 2, 2016. Machine learning models were used to describe sentiment on 20 different emotions and to debias the data so that Twitter posts reflected sentiment of legitimate human users and not of social bots or marketing-oriented accounts that would possibly provide overly positive or overly negative sentiment of hookah. From the analytical sample, 352,116 tweets (59.50%) were classified as positive while 177,537 (30.00%) were classified as negative, and 62,139 (10.50%) neutral. Among all positive tweets, 218,312 (62.00%) were classified as highly positive emotions (eg, active, alert, excited, elated, happy, and pleasant), while 133,804 (38.00%) positive tweets were classified as passive positive emotions (eg, contented, serene, calm, relaxed, and subdued). Among all negative tweets, 95,870 (54.00%) were classified as subdued negative emotions (eg, sad, unhappy, depressed, and bored) while the remaining 81,667 (46.00%) negative tweets were classified as highly negative emotions (eg, tense, nervous, stressed, upset, and unpleasant). Sentiment changed drastically when comparing a corpus of tweets with social bots

  12. An attempt to assess the energy related climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iotova, A [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology

    1996-12-31

    A lot of efforts are directed now to study the interactions between energy and climate because of their significant importance for our planet. Globally, energy related emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) contribute for atmospheric warming. On regional level, where it is more difficult to determine concrete direction of climate variability and change, the role of energy remains considerable being not so direct as in the case of emissions` impact. Still there is essential necessity for further analyses and assessments of energy related climate variations and change in order to understand better and to quantify the energy - climate relations. In the presentation an attempt is made to develop approach for assessment of energy related climate variations on regional level. For this purpose, data and results from the research within Bulgarian Case Study (BCS) in the DECADES Inter-Agency Project framework are used. Considering the complex nature of the examined interconnections and the medium stage of the Study`s realisation, at the moment the approach can be presented in conceptual form. Correspondingly, the obtained results are illustrative and preliminary

  13. An attempt to assess the energy related climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iotova, A. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology

    1995-12-31

    A lot of efforts are directed now to study the interactions between energy and climate because of their significant importance for our planet. Globally, energy related emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) contribute for atmospheric warming. On regional level, where it is more difficult to determine concrete direction of climate variability and change, the role of energy remains considerable being not so direct as in the case of emissions` impact. Still there is essential necessity for further analyses and assessments of energy related climate variations and change in order to understand better and to quantify the energy - climate relations. In the presentation an attempt is made to develop approach for assessment of energy related climate variations on regional level. For this purpose, data and results from the research within Bulgarian Case Study (BCS) in the DECADES Inter-Agency Project framework are used. Considering the complex nature of the examined interconnections and the medium stage of the Study`s realisation, at the moment the approach can be presented in conceptual form. Correspondingly, the obtained results are illustrative and preliminary

  14. Associated and mediating variables related to quality of life among service users with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to identify variables associated with quality of life (QoL) and mediating variables among 338 service users with mental disorders in Quebec (Canada). Data were collected using nine standardized questionnaires and participant medical records. Quality of life was assessed with the Satisfaction with Life Domains Scale. Independent variables were organized into a six-block conceptual framework. Using structural equation modeling, associated and mediating variables related to QoL were identified. Lower seriousness of needs was the strongest variable associated with QoL, followed by recovery, greater service continuity, gender (male), adequacy of help received, not living alone, absence of substance use or mood disorders, and higher functional status, in that order. Recovery was the single mediating variable linking lower seriousness of needs, higher service continuity, and reduced alcohol use with QoL. Findings suggest that greater service continuity creates favorable conditions for recovery, reducing seriousness of needs and increasing QoL among service users. Lack of recovery-oriented services may affect QoL among alcohol users, as substance use disorders were associated directly and negatively with QoL. Decision makers and mental health professionals should promote service continuity, and closer collaboration between primary care and specialized services, while supporting recovery-oriented services that encourage service user involvement in their treatment and follow-up. Community-based organizations should aim to reduce the seriousness of needs particularly for female service users and those living alone.

  15. Predicting suicidal ideation in primary care: An approach to identify easily assessable key variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Pascal; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Löwe, Bernd

    To obtain predictors of suicidal ideation, which can also be used for an indirect assessment of suicidal ideation (SI). To create a classifier for SI based on variables of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and sociodemographic variables, and to obtain an upper bound on the best possible performance of a predictor based on those variables. From a consecutive sample of 9025 primary care patients, 6805 eligible patients (60% female; mean age = 51.5 years) participated. Advanced methods of machine learning were used to derive the prediction equation. Various classifiers were applied and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed as a performance measure. Classifiers based on methods of machine learning outperformed ordinary regression methods and achieved AUCs around 0.87. The key variables in the prediction equation comprised four items - namely feelings of depression/hopelessness, low self-esteem, worrying, and severe sleep disturbances. The generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7) and the somatic symptom subscale (PHQ-15) did not enhance prediction substantially. In predicting suicidal ideation researchers should refrain from using ordinary regression tools. The relevant information is primarily captured by the depression subscale and should be incorporated in a nonlinear model. For clinical practice, a classification tree using only four items of the whole PHQ may be advocated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Birth order and selected work-related personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A S; Bedeian, A G; Mossholder, K W; Touliatos, J

    1988-12-01

    A possible link between birth order and various individual characteristics (e. g., intelligence, potential eminence, need for achievement, sociability) has been suggested by personality theorists such as Adler for over a century. The present study examines whether birth order is associated with selected personality variables that may be related to various work outcomes. 3 of 7 hypotheses were supported and the effect sizes for these were small. Firstborns scored significantly higher than later borns on measures of dominance, good impression, and achievement via conformity. No differences between firstborns and later borns were found in managerial potential, work orientation, achievement via independence, and sociability. The study's sample consisted of 835 public, government, and industrial accountants responding to a national US survey of accounting professionals. The nature of the sample may have been partially responsible for the results obtained. Its homogeneity may have caused any birth order effects to wash out. It can be argued that successful membership in the accountancy profession requires internalization of a set of prescribed rules and standards. It may be that accountants as a group are locked in to a behavioral framework. Any differentiation would result from spurious interpersonal differences, not from predictable birth-order related characteristics. A final interpretation is that birth order effects are nonexistent or statistical artifacts. Given the present data and particularistic sample, however, the authors have insufficient information from which to draw such a conclusion.

  17. Identifying Factors Causing Variability in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes in a Polygonal Tundra Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Wainwright, H. M.; Vaughn, L. S.; Curtis, J. B.; Torn, M. S.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) flux variations in Arctic tundra environments are important to understand because of the vast amount of soil carbon stored in these regions and the potential of these regions to convert from a global carbon sink to a source under warmer conditions. Multiple factors potentially contribute to GHG flux variations observed in these environments, including snowmelt timing, growing season length, active layer thickness, water table variations, and temperature fluctuations. The objectives of this study are to investigate temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 fluxes at Barrow, AK over three successive growing seasons (2012-14) and to determine the factors influencing this variability using a novel entropy-based classification scheme. We analyzed soil, vegetation, and climate parameters as well as GHG fluxes at multiple locations within low-, flat- and high-centered polygons at Barrow, AK as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) Arctic project. Entropy results indicate that different environmental factors govern variability in GHG fluxes under different spatiotemporal settings. In particular, flat-centered polygons are more likely to become significant sources of CO2 during warm and dry years as opposed to high-centered polygons that contribute considerably to CO2 emissions during cold and wet years. In contrast, the highest CH4 emissions were always associated with low-centered polygons. Temporal variability in CO2 fluxes was primarily associated with factors affecting soil temperature and/or vegetation dynamics during early and late season periods. Temporal variability in CH4 fluxes was primarily associated with changes in vegetation cover and its covariability with primary controls such as seasonal thaw—rather than direct response to changes in soil moisture. Overall, entropy results document which factors became important under different spatiotemporal settings, thus providing clues concerning the manner in which ecosystem

  18. Heart rate variability in sleep-related migraine without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Gnoni, Valentina; Testani, Elisa; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Colicchio, Salvatore; Di Blasi, Chiara; Mazza, Salvatore; Farina, Benedetto; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-07-15

    This is an observational study aimed to investigate the activity of autonomic nervous system during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. Eight consecutive migraineurs without aura were enrolled (6 women and 2 men), aged 30 to 62 years (mean 48.1 ± 9.3 years). Inclusion criteria were: high frequency of attacks (> 5 per month) and occurrence of more than 75% of the attacks during sleep causing an awakening. Patients were compared with a control group of 55 healthy subjects (23 men and 32 women, mean age 54.2 ± 13.0 years), and with a further control group of 8 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patient and controls underwent polysomnography and heart rate variability analysis. A significant reduction of the LF/HF ratio during N2 and N3 sleep stages was observed in migraineurs compared with controls. No differences in sleep macrostructure were observed; cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) time and CAP rate were lower in migraineurs than in controls. These findings indicate a peculiar modification of the autonomic balance during sleep in sleep-related migraine. The reduction of LF/HF ratio in NREM sleep was observed in controls, but it was quantitatively much more evident in migraineurs. Changes in LF/HF could be consequent to an autonomic unbalance which could manifest selectively (or alternatively become more evident) during sleep. These findings, together with the reduction in CAP rate, could be an expression of reduced arousability during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. The simultaneous involvement of the autonomic, arousal, and pain systems might suggest involvement of the hypothalamic pathways.

  19. Trace Metal Bioremediation: Assessment of Model Components from Laboratory and Field Studies to Identify Critical Variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Jaffe; Herschel Rabitz

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to gain an insight into the modeling support needed for the understanding, design, and operation of trace metal/radionuclide bioremediation. To achieve this objective, a workshop was convened to discuss the elements such a model should contain. A ''protomodel'' was developed, based on the recommendations of the workshop, and was used to perform sensitivity analysis as well as some preliminary simulations in support for bioremediation test experiments at UMTRA sites. To simulate the numerous biogeochemical processes that will occur during the bioremediation of uranium contaminated aquifers, a time-dependent one-dimensional reactive transport model has been developed. The model consists of a set of coupled, steady state mass balance equations, accounting for advection, diffusion, dispersion, and a kinetic formulation of the transformations affecting an organic substrate, electron acceptors, corresponding reduced species, and uranium. This set of equations is solved numerically, using a finite element scheme. The redox conditions of the domain are characterized by estimating the pE, based on the concentrations of the dominant terminal electron acceptor and its corresponding reduced specie. This pE and the concentrations of relevant species are passed to a modified version of MINTEQA2, which calculates the speciation and solubilities of the species of interest. Kinetics of abiotic reactions are described as being proportional to the difference between the actual and equilibrium concentration. A global uncertainty assessment, determined by Random Sampling High Dimensional Model Representation (RS-HDMR), was performed to attain a phenomenological understanding of the origins of output variability and to suggest input parameter refinements as well as to provide guidance for field experiments to improve the quality of the model predictions. Results indicated that for the usually high nitrate contents found ate many DOE sites, overall

  20. Identifying market segments in consumer markets: variable selection and data interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Tonks, D G

    2004-01-01

    Market segmentation is often articulated as being a process which displays the recognised features of classical rationalism but in part; convention, convenience, prior experience and the overarching impact of rhetoric will influence if not determine the outcomes of a segmentation exercise. Particular examples of this process are addressed critically in this paper which concentrates on the issues of variable choice for multivariate approaches to market segmentation and also the methods used fo...

  1. Possibilities of segmentation variables in relation with advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Erbanová, Nela

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to capture significant segmentation variables that shape marketing communication with an emphasis on advertising. The theoretical part deals with the concepts of market segmentation, segmentation variables, marketing communication, advertising and research. The practical part is focused on the realization of the actual research using a questionnaire survey and the evaluation of questions from Market Media Lifestyle. Only traditional descriptive segmentation variables...

  2. Coevolution of variability models and related software artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passos, Leonardo; Teixeira, Leopoldo; Dinztner, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    models coevolve with other artifact types, we study a large and complex real-world variant-rich software system: the Linux kernel. Specifically, we extract variability-coevolution patterns capturing changes in the variability model of the Linux kernel with subsequent changes in Makefiles and C source...

  3. Predicting General Academic Performance and Identifying the Differential Contribution of Participating Variables Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Mariel F.; Kyndt, Eva; Cascallar, Eduardo C.; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have explored the contribution of different factors from diverse theoretical perspectives to the explanation of academic performance. These factors have been identified as having important implications not only for the study of learning processes, but also as tools for improving curriculum designs, tutorial systems, and students'…

  4. Identifying the most informative variables for decision-making problems – a survey of recent approaches and accompanying problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Somol, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2008), s. 37-55 ISSN 0572-3043 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : variable selection * decision making Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/pudil-identifying%20the%20most%20informative%20variables%20for%20decision- making %20problems%20a%20survey%20of%20recent%20approaches%20and%20accompanying%20problems.pdf

  5. Variability in Institutional Screening Practices Related to Collegiate Student-Athlete Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2016-05-01

    Universal screening for mental health concerns, as part of the preparticipation examination in collegiate sports medicine settings, can be an important and feasible strategy for facilitating early detection of mental health disorders. To assess whether sports medicine departments at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) member colleges have policies related to identifying student-athlete mental health problems, the nature of preparticipation examination screening related to mental health, and whether other departmental or institutional screening initiatives are in place. I also aimed to characterize the variability in screening by institutional characteristics. Cross-sectional study. College sports medicine departments. Team physicians and head athletic trainers at NCAA member colleges (n = 365, 30.3% response rate). Electronic survey of departmental mental health screening activities. A total of 39% of respondents indicated that their institution had a written plan related to identifying student-athletes with mental health concerns. Fewer than half reported that their sports medicine department administers a written or verbal screening instrument for symptoms of disordered eating (44.5%), depression (32.3%), or anxiety (30.7%). The strongest predictors of mental health screening were the presence of a written plan related to identifying student-athlete mental health concerns and the employment of a clinical psychologist. Additionally, Division I institutions and institutions with a greater ratio of athletic trainers to student-athletes tended to engage in more screening. The substantial among-institutions variability in mental health screening suggests that opportunities exist to make these practices more widespread. To address this variability, recent NCAA mental health best-practice guidelines suggested that institutions should screen for a range of mental health disorders and risk behaviors. However, at some institutions, staffing deficits may need to

  6. Identifying potential sources of variability between vegetation carbon storage estimates for urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Dallimer, Martin; Edmondson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    Although urbanisation is a major cause of land-use change worldwide, towns and cities remain relatively understudied ecosystems. Research into urban ecosystem service provision is still an emerging field, yet evidence is accumulating rapidly to suggest that the biological carbon stores in cities ...

  7. Age-Related Intraindividual Performance Variability with Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne Bonneau; Odell, Katharine H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluctuations in cognitive task performance in older individuals have been reported. To examine intraindividual variability as a function of practice, 34 younger and 34 older female participants, aged 20-30 years and 70-82 years, respectively, performed a reading span task 16 times over four sessions. Each individual's recall accuracy was analyzed…

  8. A Controlled Study of Variables Related to Counseling Center Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmajian, C. Perry, Jr.; Mattson, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated the utility of several variables in discriminating between students who seek counseling and those who do not. Interaction between personal adjustment and help-seeking status was also examined. Alternate sources of help, counseling usefulness, and perceived severity of help-seeker pathology descriminated seekers from nonseekers.…

  9. Relative Contributions of Socio-Cultural Variables to the Prediction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    the Prediction of Maternal Mortality in Edo South. Senatorial ... variables across the two locations (rural and urban) was early marriage/early child bearing (R2 = 0.200;. F = 401.40 ... severe bleeding, infections, obstructed or prolonged .... Analytical System (SAS) mode. Descriptive .... incontinence of urine and faeces due to.

  10. Diagnostic Value of Selected Echocardiographic Variables to Identify Pulmonary Hypertension in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidholm, A; Höglund, K; Häggström, J; Ljungvall, I

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is commonly associated with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Because dogs with PH present without measureable tricuspid regurgitation (TR), it would be useful to investigate echocardiographic variables that can identify PH. To investigate associations between estimated systolic TR pressure gradient (TRPG) and dog characteristics and selected echocardiographic variables. 156 privately owned dogs. Prospective observational study comparing the estimations of TRPG with dog characteristics and selected echocardiographic variables in dogs with MMVD and measureable TR. Tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient was significantly (P modeled as linear variables LA/Ao (P modeled as second order polynomial variables: AT/DT (P = .0039) and LVIDDn (P value for the final model was 0.45 and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested the model's performance to predict PH, defined as 36, 45, and 55 mmHg as fair (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.80), good (AUC = 0.86), and excellent (AUC = 0.92), respectively. In dogs with MMVD, the presence of PH might be suspected with the combination of decreased PA AT/DT, increased RVIDDn and LA/Ao, and a small or great LVIDDn. Copyright © 2015 The Authors Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. Analysis of the relation between socioeconomic variables and truck trips in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Lagnier Gil Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyze the relation between socioeconomic variables and freight trip generation, regarding the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, through the use of linear regression models. A systematic literature review is conducted in order to identify which independent variables could be used in the models. The variables found are mostly related to the establishment, such as number of employees, floor area, number of stores among others; and socioeconomic variables, such as population, households and jobs in the region. The relation between the latter and number of truck trips is verified with linear regression models, and the results show that the models are valid and the variables are able to explain the freight flow in the region studied, contributing to  the region’s transport planning and  to the strategic planning  of companies that operate in the region.

  12. Estimating water equivalent snow depth from related meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyaert, L.T.; LeDuc, S.K.; Strommen, N.D.; Nicodemus, M.L.; Guttman, N.B.

    1980-05-01

    Engineering design must take into consideration natural loads and stresses caused by meteorological elements, such as, wind, snow, precipitation and temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship of water equivalent snow depth measurements to meteorological variables. Several predictor models were evaluated for use in estimating water equivalent values. These models include linear regression, principal component regression, and non-linear regression models. Linear, non-linear and Scandanavian models are used to generate annual water equivalent estimates for approximately 1100 cooperative data stations where predictor variables are available, but which have no water equivalent measurements. These estimates are used to develop probability estimates of snow load for each station. Map analyses for 3 probability levels are presented

  13. The Perceived Success of Tutoring Students with Learning Disabilities: Relations to Tutee and Tutoring Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rinat

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the contribution of two types of variables to the perceived success of a tutoring project for college students with learning disabilities (LD): tutoring-related variables (the degree of engagement in different tutoring activities and difficulties encountered during tutoring), and tutee-related variables (learning…

  14. Adaptive functioning in pediatric epilepsy: contributions of seizure-related variables and parental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerne, Valerie; Chapieski, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    Young people with epilepsy are less likely to achieve the level of independence attained by their peers. We examined the seizure-related variables that placed a group of 97 pediatric patients with intractable seizures at risk for poor adaptive functioning. Analyses evaluated both the direct effects of the medical variables and indirect effects that were mediated through increased parental anxiety about their child's epilepsy. Higher numbers of anticonvulsants, presence of seizures that secondarily generalize, longer duration of seizure disorder, and younger age at onset were all identified as risk factors for poor adaptive functioning. Depending on the specific behavioral domain of adaptive functioning, the effects were sometimes direct and sometimes indirect. Lower levels of parental education and positive family history of seizures were associated with higher levels of parental anxiety. Interventions that target parental anxiety about seizures may mitigate the deleterious effects of epilepsy on social development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A formal method for identifying distinct states of variability in time-varying sources: SGR A* as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L.; Witzel, G.; Ghez, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Longstaff, F. A. [UCLA Anderson School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1481 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Continuously time variable sources are often characterized by their power spectral density and flux distribution. These quantities can undergo dramatic changes over time if the underlying physical processes change. However, some changes can be subtle and not distinguishable using standard statistical approaches. Here, we report a methodology that aims to identify distinct but similar states of time variability. We apply this method to the Galactic supermassive black hole, where 2.2 μm flux is observed from a source associated with Sgr A* and where two distinct states have recently been suggested. Our approach is taken from mathematical finance and works with conditional flux density distributions that depend on the previous flux value. The discrete, unobserved (hidden) state variable is modeled as a stochastic process and the transition probabilities are inferred from the flux density time series. Using the most comprehensive data set to date, in which all Keck and a majority of the publicly available Very Large Telescope data have been merged, we show that Sgr A* is sufficiently described by a single intrinsic state. However, the observed flux densities exhibit two states: noise dominated and source dominated. Our methodology reported here will prove extremely useful to assess the effects of the putative gas cloud G2 that is on its way toward the black hole and might create a new state of variability.

  16. Relating Psychosocial Variables in High School to Alcohol Use Trajectories During the Transition to Young Adulthood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, Craig

    2000-01-01

    .... This study examined psychosocial variables-including peer focus, social skills, affect, antisocial behavior, gender, and sex-role attitudes-in an attempt to uncover variables related to changes...

  17. Spatial variability of nitrogen-15 and its relation to the variability of other soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selles, F.; Karamanos, R.E.; Kachanoski, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The spatial variability of natural 15 N abundance of a cultivated Chernozemic soil and its native prairie counterpart were smaller than that of total N, organic C, and the C/N ratio. Further, the number of samples required to estimate the true mean of total N with a given precision at various probability levels were twofold those required to estimate the true mean of total N with a given precision at various probability levels were twofold those required to determine the mean 15 N abundance of total soil N in the surface horizons may reflect the isotopic composition of the nitrogenous substances entering the soil system or changes in the isotopic composition of soil N due to humification processes, probably induced by variations in topographic and microrelief features of the soil

  18. Hydration behaviour of synthetic saponite at variable relative humidity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydration behaviour of synthetic saponite was examined by X-ray powder diffraction simulation at various relative humidities (RH). The basal spacing of the Ca-saponite increased stepwise with increase in RH. The (00) reflections observed reflect single or dual hydration states of smectite. Quasi-rational, intermediate, or ...

  19. Work/Family Benefits: Variables Related to Employees' Fairness Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lauren; Allen, Tammy D.

    2001-01-01

    A study of 283 workers showed that younger people, minorities, those who used flexible work arrangements, and those whose jobs required greater interdependence had more favorable perceptions of family-related benefits. Gender and children's ages influenced perceptions of the fairness of benefits. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)

  20. Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    properties of the objects, viz., redshift, color indices, radio spectral index ... properties of different types of closely related objects are expected to throw light on the ...... z = 3.0, OVV objects are concentrated at the lower range of the scale, mostly at ..... from the practical point of view in the sense that redshifts can be predicted ...

  1. Drug-related problems identified in medication reviews by Australian pharmacists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafford, Andrew C; Tenni, Peter C; Peterson, Gregory M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study was to exam......OBJECTIVE: In Australia, accredited pharmacists perform medication reviews for patients to identify and resolve drug-related problems. We analysed the drug-related problems identified in reviews for both home-dwelling and residential care-facility patients. The objective of this study....... These reviews had been self-selected by pharmacists and submitted as part of the reaccreditation process to the primary body responsible for accrediting Australian pharmacists to perform medication reviews. The drug-related problems identified in each review were classified by type and drugs involved. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE: The number and nature of drug-related problems identified in pharmacist-conducted medication reviews. RESULTS: There were 1,038 drug-related problems identified in 234 medication reviews (mean 4.6 (+/-2.2) problems per review). The number of problems was higher (4.9 +/- 2.0 vs. 3.9 +/- 2...

  2. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LB Falco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea

  3. A non-local variable for general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    The usual description of differential geometry and general relativity is in terms of local fields, e.g. the metric, the curvature tensor, etc, which satisfy local differential equations. The authors introduce a new non-local field (Z) from which the local fields can be derived. Basically Z, though it is non-local, should be thought of as a function on the bundle of null directions on a space-time. The program can be divided into two parts; first the authors want to show the geometric meaning of and the relationship between Z and the local field. Then they want to provide field equations (non-local) for Z which will be equivalent to the vacuum Einstein equations for the local field. (Auth.)

  4. Psychological variables potentially implicated in opioid-related mortality as observed in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passik, Steven D; Lowery, Amy

    2011-06-01

    Opioid-related deaths in the United States have become a public health problem, with accidental and unintended overdoses being especially troubling. Screening for psychological risk factors is an important first step in safeguarding against nonadherence practices and identifying patients who may be vulnerable to the risks associated with opioid therapy. Validated screening instruments can aid in this attempt as a complementary tool to clinicians' assessments. A structured screening is imperative as part of an assessment, as clinician judgment is not the most reliable method of identifying nonadherence. As a complement to formal screening, we present for discussion and possible future study certain psychological variables observed during years of clinical practice that may be linked to medication nonadherence and accidental overdose. These variables include catastrophizing, fear, impulsivity, attention deficit disorders, existential distress, and certain personality disorders. In our experience, chronic pain patients with dual diagnoses may become "chemical copers" as a way of coping with their negative emotion. For these patients, times of stress could lead to accidental overdose. Behavioral, cognitive-behavioral (acceptance and commitment, dialectical behavior), existential (meaning-centered, dignity), and psychotropic therapies have been effective in treating these high-risk comorbidities, while managing expectations of pain relief appears key to preventing accidental overdose. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Application of cluster analysis to geochemical compositional data for identifying ore-related geochemical anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuguang; Zhou, Kefa; Wang, Jinlin; Yang, Genfang; Wang, Shanshan

    2017-12-01

    Cluster analysis is a well-known technique that is used to analyze various types of data. In this study, cluster analysis is applied to geochemical data that describe 1444 stream sediment samples collected in northwestern Xinjiang with a sample spacing of approximately 2 km. Three algorithms (the hierarchical, k-means, and fuzzy c-means algorithms) and six data transformation methods (the z-score standardization, ZST; the logarithmic transformation, LT; the additive log-ratio transformation, ALT; the centered log-ratio transformation, CLT; the isometric log-ratio transformation, ILT; and no transformation, NT) are compared in terms of their effects on the cluster analysis of the geochemical compositional data. The study shows that, on the one hand, the ZST does not affect the results of column- or variable-based (R-type) cluster analysis, whereas the other methods, including the LT, the ALT, and the CLT, have substantial effects on the results. On the other hand, the results of the row- or observation-based (Q-type) cluster analysis obtained from the geochemical data after applying NT and the ZST are relatively poor. However, we derive some improved results from the geochemical data after applying the CLT, the ILT, the LT, and the ALT. Moreover, the k-means and fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms are more reliable than the hierarchical algorithm when they are used to cluster the geochemical data. We apply cluster analysis to the geochemical data to explore for Au deposits within the study area, and we obtain a good correlation between the results retrieved by combining the CLT or the ILT with the k-means or fuzzy c-means algorithms and the potential zones of Au mineralization. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of the CLT or the ILT with the k-means or fuzzy c-means algorithms is an effective tool to identify potential zones of mineralization from geochemical data.

  6. Identifying seasonal and temporal trends in the pressures experienced by hospitals related to unscheduled care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, N J; Van Woerden, H C; Kiparoglou, V; Yang, Y

    2016-07-26

    As part of an electronic dashboard operated by Public Health Wales, senior managers at hospitals in Wales report daily "escalation" scores which reflect management opinion on the pressure a hospital is experiencing and ability to meet ongoing demand with respect to unscheduled care. An analysis was undertaken of escalation scores returned for 18 hospitals in Wales between the years 2006 and 2014 inclusive, with a view to identifying systematic temporal patterns in pressure experienced by hospitals in relation to unscheduled care. Exploratory data analysis indicated the presence of within-year cyclicity in average daily scores over all hospitals. In order to quantify this cyclicity, a Generalised Linear Mixed Model was fitted which incorporated a trigonometric function (sine and cosine) to capture within-year change in escalation. In addition, a 7-level categorical day of the week effect was fitted as well as a 3-level categorical Christmas holiday variable based on patterns observed in exploration of the raw data. All of the main effects investigated were found to be statistically significant. Firstly, significant differences emerged in terms of overall pressure reported by individual hospitals. Furthermore, escalation scores were found to vary systematically within-year in a wave-like fashion for all hospitals (but not between hospitals) with the period of highest pressure consistently observed to occur in winter and lowest pressure in summer. In addition to this annual variation, pressure reported by hospitals was also found to be influenced by day of the week (low at weekends, high early in the working week) and especially low over the Christmas period but high immediately afterwards. Whilst unpredictable to a degree, quantifiable pressure experienced by hospitals can be anticipated according to models incorporating systematic temporal patterns. In the context of finite resources for healthcare services, these findings could optimise staffing schedules and

  7. Variables Related to Romanticism and Self-Esteem in Pregnant Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medora, Nilufer P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Dean Romanticism Scale and Bachman Self-Esteem Scale to 121 pregnant adolescents (ages 12-21). Found that two variables were significantly related to feelings of romanticism: adoption considerations and whether adolescent planned to have child with the baby's father. Two variables were significantly related to self-esteem: incidence…

  8. Results of the study of variables related to tasks of workers of a radioactive facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Alice S.; Campos, Daniela; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the evaluation study of the association degree between physical risk agent, ionizing radiation, and tasks performed by the occupationally exposed individuals (OEI), in the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of a radioactive facility. Initially, has been performed a qualitative assessment of the workplace, work groups and the processes as well. Starting from the inventoried subjective information, interviews and observations were identified seven homogeneous exposure groups, assuming they receive the same exposure to a range of specific agents. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics with quantitative and qualitative approaches of the variables. In the analysis was used nonparametric tests (Equality of two proportions, Chi-square and Yates correction), descriptive measures of location (mean, median and quartiles) and dispersion (standard deviation and coefficient of variation). A significance level of 5% (p < 0.05) was adopted. The results have shown five risk factors (variables) related to the tasks performance. After the characterization distribution of the relative frequencies, all variables showed a significant degree of association (p < 0.001) to the exposure to ionizing radiation. Descriptive analysis of effective doses received by OEIs (n=102) resulted in the average of 4.06 mSv obtained in 2013 and 3.41 mSv in 2014. The collective doses corresponding to the same year were 414.41 mSv.person and 347.61 mSv.person. The doses values found during the analyzed period are in accordance to the limits established by the current national standards. (author)

  9. Results of the study of variables related to tasks of workers of a radioactive facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Alice S.; Campos, Daniela; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G., E-mail: alicesante@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the evaluation study of the association degree between physical risk agent, ionizing radiation, and tasks performed by the occupationally exposed individuals (OEI), in the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of a radioactive facility. Initially, has been performed a qualitative assessment of the workplace, work groups and the processes as well. Starting from the inventoried subjective information, interviews and observations were identified seven homogeneous exposure groups, assuming they receive the same exposure to a range of specific agents. The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics with quantitative and qualitative approaches of the variables. In the analysis was used nonparametric tests (Equality of two proportions, Chi-square and Yates correction), descriptive measures of location (mean, median and quartiles) and dispersion (standard deviation and coefficient of variation). A significance level of 5% (p < 0.05) was adopted. The results have shown five risk factors (variables) related to the tasks performance. After the characterization distribution of the relative frequencies, all variables showed a significant degree of association (p < 0.001) to the exposure to ionizing radiation. Descriptive analysis of effective doses received by OEIs (n=102) resulted in the average of 4.06 mSv obtained in 2013 and 3.41 mSv in 2014. The collective doses corresponding to the same year were 414.41 mSv.person and 347.61 mSv.person. The doses values found during the analyzed period are in accordance to the limits established by the current national standards. (author)

  10. Using Active Learning to Identify Health Information Technology Related Patient Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Allan; Howe, Jessica L; Adams, Katharine T; Ratwani, Raj M

    2017-01-18

    The widespread adoption of health information technology (HIT) has led to new patient safety hazards that are often difficult to identify. Patient safety event reports, which are self-reported descriptions of safety hazards, provide one view of potential HIT-related safety events. However, identifying HIT-related reports can be challenging as they are often categorized under other more predominate clinical categories. This challenge of identifying HIT-related reports is exacerbated by the increasing number and complexity of reports which pose challenges to human annotators that must manually review reports. In this paper, we apply active learning techniques to support classification of patient safety event reports as HIT-related. We evaluated different strategies and demonstrated a 30% increase in average precision of a confirmatory sampling strategy over a baseline no active learning approach after 10 learning iterations.

  11. Identifying the sources driving observed PM2.5 temporal variability over Halifax, Nova Scotia, during BORTAS-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Gibson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The source attribution of observed variability of total PM2.5 concentrations over Halifax, Nova Scotia, was investigated between 11 July and 26 August 2011 using measurements of PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 chemical composition (black carbon, organic matter, anions, cations and 33 elements. This was part of the BORTAS-B (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants using Aircraft and Satellites experiment, which investigated the atmospheric chemistry and transport of seasonal boreal wildfire emissions over eastern Canada in 2011. The US EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF receptor model was used to determine the average mass (percentage source contribution over the 45 days, which was estimated to be as follows: long-range transport (LRT pollution: 1.75 μg m−3 (47%; LRT pollution marine mixture: 1.0 μg m−3 (27.9%; vehicles: 0.49 μg m−3 (13.2%; fugitive dust: 0.23 μg m−3 (6.3%; ship emissions: 0.13 μg m−3 (3.4%; and refinery: 0.081 μg m−3 (2.2%. The PMF model describes 87% of the observed variability in total PM2.5 mass (bias = 0.17 and RSME = 1.5 μg m−3. The factor identifications are based on chemical markers, and they are supported by air mass back trajectory analysis and local wind direction. Biomass burning plumes, found by other surface and aircraft measurements, were not significant enough to be identified in this analysis. This paper presents the results of the PMF receptor modelling, providing valuable insight into the local and upwind sources impacting surface PM2.5 in Halifax and a vital comparative data set for the other collocated ground-based observations of atmospheric composition made during BORTAS-B.

  12. Nutritional variables and work-related accidents: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, M A T; Zangirolani, Lia Thieme Oikawa; Cordeiro, Ricardo Carlos; da Costa, Proença Rossana Pacheco; Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional aspects are important for the prevention of diseases and disorders, and few studies have focused on the relationship between risk of work injury and nutritional variables. This study aimed to verify whether nutritional variables constitute risk factors for work-related accidents. 1,422 industrial workers (600 cases plus 822 controls). A case-control study was carried out in an industrial city in south-east Brazil. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted using work-related accidents as the response variable and nutritional variables as predictors. The associations were assessed by Odds Ratio (OR), with a p-value work-related accidents were (a) attending formal education for an above average number of years (OR=0.91, pwork-related accidents. This indicates the need, during the formulation of policies for these kinds of government benefits, to include nutrition aspects in order to minimize work-related accidents risks.

  13. Do Assault-Related Variables Predict Response to Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Elizabeth A.; Street, Gordon P.; Riggs, David S.; Foa, Edna B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that variables such as history of prior trauma, assault severity, and type of assault, previously found to be associated with natural recovery, would also predict treatment outcome. Trauma-related variables were examined as predictors of posttreatment posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity in a sample of…

  14. Vietnamese Americans' Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services: Relation to Cultural Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang Charles X.; Anderson, Louis P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation between culturally based variables and attitudes toward seeking mental health services among a community sample of Vietnamese Americans (N = 148) with at least 8 years' residence in the United States (U.S.). Variables included Stigma, Traditional Beliefs about Mental Illness, Help-Seeking Preferences, Problem…

  15. Spacesuit Glove-Induced Hand Trauma and Analysis of Potentially Related Risk Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Chacqueline M.; Norcross, Jason; Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. Glove injuries, both anecdotal and recorded, have been reported during EVA training and flight persistently through NASA's history regardless of mission or glove model. Theories as to causation such as glove-hand fit are common but often lacking in supporting evidence. Previous statistical analysis has evaluated onycholysis in the context of crew anthropometry only. The purpose of this study was to analyze all injuries (as documented in the medical records) and available risk factor variables with the goal to determine engineering and operational controls that may reduce hand injuries due to the EVA glove in the future. A literature review and data mining study were conducted between 2012 and 2014. This study included 179 US NASA crew who trained or completed an EVA between 1981 and 2010 (crossing both Shuttle and ISS eras) and wore either the 4000 Series or Phase VI glove during Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit EVA training and flight. All injuries recorded in medical records were analyzed in their association to candidate risk factor variables. Those risk factor variables included demographic characteristics, hand anthropometry, glove fit characteristics, and training/EVA characteristics. Utilizing literature, medical records and anecdotal causation comments recorded in crewmember injury data, investigators were able to identify several risk factors associated with increased risk of glove related injuries. Prime among them were smaller hand anthropometry, duration of individual suited exposures, and improper glove-hand fit as calculated by the difference in the anthropometry middle finger length compared to the baseline EVA glove middle finger length.

  16. The node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify elements of cancer-related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yahui; Ma, Chenkai; Halgamuge, Saman

    2017-12-28

    Cancer constitutes a momentous health burden in our society. Critical information on cancer may be hidden in its signaling pathways. However, even though a large amount of money has been spent on cancer research, some critical information on cancer-related signaling pathways still remains elusive. Hence, new works towards a complete understanding of cancer-related signaling pathways will greatly benefit the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. We propose the node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways at the level of proteins. This new approach has advantages over previous approaches since it is fast in processing large protein-protein interaction networks. We apply this new approach to identify important elements of two well-known cancer-related signaling pathways: PI3K/Akt and MAPK. First, we generate a node-weighted protein-protein interaction network using protein and signaling pathway data. Second, we modify and use two preprocessing techniques and a state-of-the-art Steiner tree algorithm to identify a subnetwork in the generated network. Third, we propose two new metrics to select important elements from this subnetwork. On a commonly used personal computer, this new approach takes less than 2 s to identify the important elements of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in a large node-weighted protein-protein interaction network with 16,843 vertices and 1,736,922 edges. We further analyze and demonstrate the significance of these identified elements to cancer signal transduction by exploring previously reported experimental evidences. Our node-weighted Steiner tree approach is shown to be both fast and effective to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways. Furthermore, it may provide new perspectives into the identification of signaling pathways for other human diseases.

  17. A period-luminosity relation for supergiant red variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Catchpole, R.M.; Carter, B.S.; Roberts, G.

    1980-01-01

    Infrared photometry for 24 red supergiant variables in the LMC is used to derive bolometric magnitudes. The existence of a period-luminosity relation for these stars is demonstrated and compared with theory. (author)

  18. Urban-Related Environmental Variables and Their Relation with Patterns in Biological Community Structure in the Fountain Creek Basin, Colorado, 2003-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Evans, Erin E.; Stogner, Sr., Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to evaluate the influence of urbanization on stream ecosystems. To accomplish this task, invertebrate, fish, stream discharge, habitat, water-chemistry, and land-use data were collected from 13 sites in the Fountain Creek basin from 2003 to 2005. The Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate hydrologic indices known to be related to urbanization. Response of stream hydrology to urbanization was evident among hydrologic variables that described stormflow. These indices included one measurement of high-flow magnitude, two measurements of high-flow frequency, and one measurement of stream flashiness. Habitat and selected nonstormflow water chemistry were characterized at each site. Land-use data were converted to estimates of impervious surface cover and used as the measure of urbanization annually. Correlation analysis (Spearman?s rho) was used to identify a suite of nonredundant streamflow, habitat, and water-chemistry variables that were strongly associated (rho > 0.6) with impervious surface cover but not strongly related to elevation (rho analysis (BIO-ENV, PRIMER ver 6.1, Plymouth, UK) was used to create subsets of eight urban-related environmental variables that described patterns in biological community structure. The strongest and most parsimonious subset of variables describing patterns in invertebrate community structure included high flood pulse count, lower bank capacity, and nutrients. Several other combinations of environmental variables resulted in competing subsets, but these subsets always included the three variables found in the most parsimonious list. This study found that patterns in invertebrate community structure from 2003 to 2005 in the Fountain Creek basin were associated with a variety of environmental characteristics influenced by urbanization. These patterns were explained by a combination of hydrologic, habitat, and water

  19. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Ability to Identify Mistakes Related to Angle Concept of Sixth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Cigdem; Erbay, Hatice Nur; Guner, Pinar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study we try to highlight prospective mathematics teachers' ability to identify mistakes of sixth grade students related to angle concept. And also we examined prospective mathematics teachers' knowledge of angle concept. Study was carried out with 30 sixth-grade students and 38 prospective mathematics teachers. Sixth grade students…

  20. Meta-Analysis of Placental Transcriptome Data Identifies a Novel Molecular Pathway Related to Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uitert, Miranda; Moerland, Perry D.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Laivuori, Hannele; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Afink, Gijs B.

    2015-01-01

    Studies using the placental transcriptome to identify key molecules relevant for preeclampsia are hampered by a relatively small sample size. In addition, they use a variety of bioinformatics and statistical methods, making comparison of findings challenging. To generate a more robust preeclampsia

  1. Sex-related hearing impairment in Wolfram syndrome patients identified by inactivating WFS1 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, RJE; Huygen, PLM; van den Ouweland, JMW; Cryns, K; Dikkeschei, LD; Van Camp, G; Cremers, CWRJ

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the audiovestibular profile of 11 Wolfram syndrome patients (4 males, 7 females) from 7 families, with identified WFS1 mutations, and the audiometric profile of 17 related heterozygous carriers of WFS1 mutations. Patients with Wolfram syndrome showed a downsloping audiogram and

  2. Sex-related hearing impairment in Wolfram syndrome patients identified by inactivating WFS1 mutations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Ouweland, J.M.W. van den; Cryns, K.; Dikkeschei, L.D.; Camp, G. van; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the audiovestibular profile of 11 Wolfram syndrome patients (4 males, 7 females) from 7 families, with identified WFS1 mutations, and the audiometric profile of 17 related heterozygous carriers of WFS1 mutations. Patients with Wolfram syndrome showed a downsloping audiogram and

  3. Generating relations of multi-variable Tricomi functions of two indices using Lie algebra representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Ali Makboul Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to stress the usefulness of the multi-variable special functions. In this paper, we derive certain generating relations involving 2-indices 5-variables 5-parameters Tricomi functions (2I5V5PTF by using a Lie-algebraic method. Further, we derive certain new and known generating relations involving other forms of Tricomi and Bessel functions as applications.

  4. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nicolas

    Full Text Available The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L. stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  5. Identifying and Analyzing Novel Epilepsy-Related Genes Using Random Walk with Restart Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a pathological condition, epilepsy is caused by abnormal neuronal discharge in brain which will temporarily disrupt the cerebral functions. Epilepsy is a chronic disease which occurs in all ages and would seriously affect patients’ personal lives. Thus, it is highly required to develop effective medicines or instruments to treat the disease. Identifying epilepsy-related genes is essential in order to understand and treat the disease because the corresponding proteins encoded by the epilepsy-related genes are candidates of the potential drug targets. In this study, a pioneering computational workflow was proposed to predict novel epilepsy-related genes using the random walk with restart (RWR algorithm. As reported in the literature RWR algorithm often produces a number of false positive genes, and in this study a permutation test and functional association tests were implemented to filter the genes identified by RWR algorithm, which greatly reduce the number of suspected genes and result in only thirty-three novel epilepsy genes. Finally, these novel genes were analyzed based upon some recently published literatures. Our findings implicate that all novel genes were closely related to epilepsy. It is believed that the proposed workflow can also be applied to identify genes related to other diseases and deepen our understanding of the mechanisms of these diseases.

  6. A partner-related risk behavior index to identify people at elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a sexual-partner-related risk behavior index to identify high-risk individuals most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Patients from five STI and adolescent medical clinics in three US cities were recruited (N = 928; M age = 29.2 years). Data were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. Of seven sexual-partner-related variables, those that were significantly associated with the outcomes were combined into a partner-related risk behavior index. The dependent variables were laboratory-confirmed infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis. Nearly one-fifth of the sample (169/928; 18.4%) tested positive for an STI. Three of the seven items were significantly associated with having one or more STIs: sex with a newly released prisoner, sex with a person known or suspected of having an STI, and sexual concurrency. In combined form, this three-item index was significantly associated with STI prevalence (p one or more of three STIs. This index could be used to prioritize and guide intensified clinic-based counseling for high-risk patients of STI and other clinics.

  7. Identifying content-based and relational techniques to change behaviour in motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Fortier, Michelle; Blake, Nicola; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-03-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a complex intervention comprising multiple techniques aimed at changing health-related motivation and behaviour. However, MI techniques have not been systematically isolated and classified. This study aimed to identify the techniques unique to MI, classify them as content-related or relational, and evaluate the extent to which they overlap with techniques from the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 [BCTTv1; Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., … Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95]. Behaviour change experts (n = 3) content-analysed MI techniques based on Miller and Rollnick's [(2013). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (3rd ed.). New York: Guildford Press] conceptualisation. Each technique was then coded for independence and uniqueness by independent experts (n = 10). The experts also compared each MI technique to those from the BCTTv1. Experts identified 38 distinct MI techniques with high agreement on clarity, uniqueness, preciseness, and distinctiveness ratings. Of the identified techniques, 16 were classified as relational techniques. The remaining 22 techniques were classified as content based. Sixteen of the MI techniques were identified as having substantial overlap with techniques from the BCTTv1. The isolation and classification of MI techniques will provide researchers with the necessary tools to clearly specify MI interventions and test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on health behaviour. The distinction between relational and content-based techniques within MI is also an important advance, recognising that changes in motivation and behaviour in MI is a function of both intervention content and the interpersonal style

  8. Relations between altered stramflow variability and fish assemblages in Eastern USA streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael R.; Carlisle, Daren M.

    2012-01-01

    Although altered streamflow has been implicated as a major factor affecting fish assemblages, understanding the extent of streamflow alteration has required quantifying attributes of the natural flow regime. We used predictive models to quantify deviation from expected natural streamflow variability for streams in the eastern USA. Sites with >25% change in mean daily streamflow variability compared with what would be expected in a minimally disturbed environment were defined as having altered streamflow variability, based on the 10th and 90th percentiles of the distribution of streamflow variability at 1279 hydrological reference sites. We also used predictive models to assess fish assemblage condition and native species loss based on the proportion of expected native fish species that were observed. Of the 97 sites, 49 (50.5%) were classified as altered with reduced streamflow variability, whereas no sites had increased streamflow variability. Reduced streamflow variability was related to a 35% loss in native fish species, on average, and a >50% loss of species with a preference for riffle habitats. Conditional probability analysis indicated that the probability of fish assemblage impairment increased as the severity of altered streamflow variability increased. Reservoir storage capacity and wastewater discharges were important predictors of reduced streamflow variability as revealed by random forest analysis. Management and conservation of streams will require careful consideration of natural streamflow variation and potential factors contributing to altered streamflow within the entire watershed to limit the loss of critical stream habitats and fish species uniquely adapted to live in those habitats.

  9. ICan: an integrated co-alteration network to identify ovarian cancer-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanshuai; Liu, Yongjing; Li, Kening; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Fujun; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, an increasing number of integrative studies on cancer-related genes have been published. Integrative analyses aim to overcome the limitation of a single data type, and provide a more complete view of carcinogenesis. The vast majority of these studies used sample-matched data of gene expression and copy number to investigate the impact of copy number alteration on gene expression, and to predict and prioritize candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. However, correlations between genes were neglected in these studies. Our work aimed to evaluate the co-alteration of copy number, methylation and expression, allowing us to identify cancer-related genes and essential functional modules in cancer. We built the Integrated Co-alteration network (ICan) based on multi-omics data, and analyzed the network to uncover cancer-related genes. After comparison with random networks, we identified 155 ovarian cancer-related genes, including well-known (TP53, BRCA1, RB1 and PTEN) and also novel cancer-related genes, such as PDPN and EphA2. We compared the results with a conventional method: CNAmet, and obtained a significantly better area under the curve value (ICan: 0.8179, CNAmet: 0.5183). In this paper, we describe a framework to find cancer-related genes based on an Integrated Co-alteration network. Our results proved that ICan could precisely identify candidate cancer genes and provide increased mechanistic understanding of carcinogenesis. This work suggested a new research direction for biological network analyses involving multi-omics data.

  10. Identifying the Micro-relations Underpinning Familiarity Detection in Dynamic Displays Containing Multiple Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. North

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We identified the important micro-relations that are perceived when attempting to recognize patterns in stimuli consisting of multiple dynamic objects. Skilled and less-skilled participants were presented with point light display sequences representing dynamic patterns in an invasion sport and were subsequently required to make familiarity based recognition judgments in three different conditions, each of which contained only a select number of features that were present at initial viewing. No differences in recognition accuracy were observed between skilled and less-skilled participants when just objects located in the periphery were presented. Yet, when presented with the relative motions of two centrally located attacking objects only, skilled participants were significantly more accurate than less-skilled participants and their recognition accuracy improved further when a target object was included against which these relative motions could be judged. Skilled participants can perceive and recognize global patterns on the basis of centrally located relational information.

  11. [Mother-newborn relational risk - Study of prevalence and associated variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Maribel; Poo, Ana María; Baeza, Bernardita; Bustos, M Luis

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence reveals the importance of mother-newborn bonding experience for health promoting and maintenance of human life. If the newborn lacks care and affection, she/he may develop an attachment disorder. A predictive scale regarding the risk of mothernewborn relationships is available, which makes possible an early intervention to prevent the development of relational disorders. The aim of this study is to apply the Kimelman measurement scale to determine the relational risk in mother-newborn pairs, as well as the prevalence and the associated biopsychosocial variables. A cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 333 mother-infant pairs in postpartum maternity at Temuco hospital. The Kimelman mother-newborn attachment assessment guide was used. Biopsychosocial variables were obtained from the mothers studied. The association of biopsychosocial variables with relational risk was analyzed using OR and confidence intervals of 95%. The prevalence of high relational risk was 43.8%. The associated biopsychosocial variables included, women with no steady partner, single parent, teenage mothers, unwanted and unplanned pregnancy. Almost half of the mothers were in the high risk group. Early identification of relational risk and its related variables could help in the intervention in this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  12. Relation between task complexity and variability of procedure progression during an emergency operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The relation between task complexity and the variability of procedure progression was investigated. • The two quantitative measures, TACOM and VPP, were applied to this study. • The task complexity was positively related with the operator’s procedural variability. • The VPP measure can be useful for explaining the operator’s behaviors. - Abstract: In this study, the relation between task complexity and variability of procedure progression during an emergency operation was investigated by comparing the two quantitative measures. To this end, the TACOM measure and VPP measure were applied to evaluate the complexity of tasks and variability of procedure progression, respectively. The TACOM scores and VPP scores were obtained for 60 tasks in the OPERA database, and a correlation analysis between two measures and a multiple regression analysis between the sub-measures of the TACOM measure and VPP measure were conducted. The results showed that the TACOM measure is positively associated with the VPP measure, and the abstraction hierarchy complexity mainly affected the variability among the sub-measures of TACOM. From these findings, it was discussed that the task complexity is related to an operator’s procedural variability and VPP measure can be useful for explaining the operator’s behaviors

  13. Identifying the Structure and Effect of Drinking-Related Self-Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, Lisa H; Strobbe, Stephen; Stein, Karen Farchaus; Giordani, Bruno J; Hagerty, Bonnie M; Pressler, Susan J

    2017-07-01

    Self-schemas have received increased attention as favorable targets for therapeutic intervention because of their central role in self-perception and behavior. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify, evaluate, and synthesize existing research pertaining to drinking-related self-schemas. Russell's integrative review strategy guided the search. Sixteen published works were identified, meeting criteria for evaluation ( n = 12 data-based publications and n = 4 models). The retrieved data-based publications rated fair-good using Polit and Beck's criteria; the overall body of literature rated "B" using Grimes and Schulz criteria. Retrieved models rated 4 to 7 using Fitzpatrick and Whall's criteria. The existing literature strongly supports the availability of a drinking-related self-schema among moderate-to-heavy drinking samples, and suggests a positive relationship between elaboration and drinking behavior. The relationship between valenced content of the schema and drinking behavior remains unexplored. Identifying variation in the structural properties of drinking-related self-schemas could lay the foundation for future interventions.

  14. Alexithymia Is Related to the Need for More Emotional Intensity to Identify Static Fearful Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Starita

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with high levels of alexithymia, a personality trait marked by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings and an externally oriented style of thinking, appear to require more time to accurately recognize intense emotional facial expressions (EFEs. However, in everyday life, EFEs are displayed at different levels of intensity and individuals with high alexithymia may also need more emotional intensity to identify EFEs. Nevertheless, the impact of alexithymia on the identification of EFEs, which vary in emotional intensity, has largely been neglected. To address this, two experiments were conducted in which participants with low (LA and high (HA levels of alexithymia were assessed in their ability to identify static (Experiment 1 and dynamic (Experiment 2 morphed faces ranging from neutral to intense EFEs. Results showed that HA needed more emotional intensity than LA to identify static fearful – but not happy or disgusted – faces. On the contrary, no evidence was found that alexithymia affected the identification of dynamic EFEs. These results extend current literature suggesting that alexithymia is related to the need for more perceptual information to identify static fearful EFEs.

  15. Causal Relationship Between Relative Price Variability and Inflation in Turkey: Evidence from Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebiye Yamak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the causal relationship between inflation and relative price variability in Turkey for the period of January 2003-January 2014, by using panel data. In the study, a Granger (1969 non-causality test in heterogeneous panel data models developed by Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012 is utilized to determine the causal relations between inflation rate relative price variability. The panel data consists of 4123 observations: 133 time observations and 31 cross-section observations. The results of panel causality test indicate that there is a bidirectional causality between inflation rate and relative price variability by not supporting the imperfection information model of Lucas and the menu cost model of Ball and Mankiw.

  16. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  17. Offshore limit of coastal ocean variability identified from hydrography and altimeter data in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Swamy, G.N.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    In this communication, we describe a hitherto-unknown offshore limit to the coastal ocean variability signatures away from the continental shelf in the eastern Arabian Sea, based on hydrographic observations and satellite altimeter (TOPEX...

  18. Intervening Variables in the TV Violence-Aggression Relation: Evidence from Two Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal, cross-cultural field study was made to determine boundary conditions under which the television violence/aggression relation obtains, to determine intervening variables, and to illuminate the process through which television violence relates to aggression. Children from first through fifth grades in the United States, Australia,…

  19. Relative Importance of Political Instability and Economic Variables on Perceived Country Creditworthiness

    OpenAIRE

    Suk Hun Lee

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the relative importance of political instability and economic variables on perceived country creditworthiness. Our results indicate that both political instability and economic variables are taken into account in evaluating country creditworthiness; however, it appears that bankers assign larger weight to economic performances, which we except of reflect longer term political stability. In addition, the frequency of changes in the regime and armed conflict, both proxying f...

  20. Integrated assessment of space, time, and management-related variability of soil hydraulic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, H.M. van; Ogden, C.B.; Hill, R.L.; Schindelbeck, R.R.; Tsegaye, T.

    1999-12-01

    Computer-based models that simulate soil hydrologic processes and their impacts on crop growth and contaminant transport depend on accurate characterization of soil hydraulic properties. Soil hydraulic properties have numerous sources of variability related to spatial, temporal, and management-related processes. Soil type is considered to be the dominant source of variability, and parameterization is typically based on soil survey databases. This study evaluated the relative significance of other sources of variability: spatial and temporal at multiple scales, and management-related factors. Identical field experiments were conducted for 3 yr. at two sites in New York on clay loam and silt loam soils, and at two sites in Maryland on silt loam and sandy loam soils, all involving replicated plots with plow-till and no-till treatments. Infiltrability was determined from 2054 measurements using parameters, and Campbell's a and b parameters were determined based on water-retention data from 875 soil cores. Variance component analysis showed that differences among the sites were the most important source of variability for a (coefficient of variation, CV = 44%) and b (CV = 23%). Tillage practices were the most important source of variability for infiltrability (CV = 10%). For all properties, temporal variability was more significant than field-scale spatial variability. Temporal and tillage effects were more significant for the medium- and fine-textured soils, and correlated to initial soil water conditions. The parameterization of soil hydraulic properties solely based on soil type may not be appropriate for agricultural lands since soil-management factors are more significant. Sampling procedures should give adequate recognition to soil-management and temporal processes at significant sources of variability to avoid biased results.

  1. A method to forecast quantitative variables relating to nuclear public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, T.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for forecasting the future trend of quantitative variables profoundly related to the public acceptance (PA) of nuclear energy. The social environment influencing PA is first modeled by breaking it down into a finite number of fundamental elements and then the interactive formulae between the quantitative variables, which are attributed to and characterize each element, are determined by using the actual values of the variables in the past. Inputting the estimated values of exogenous variables into these formulae, the forecast values of endogenous variables can finally be obtained. Using this method, the problem of nuclear PA in Japan is treated as, for example, where the context is considered to comprise a public sector and the general social environment and socio-psychology. The public sector is broken down into three elements of the general public, the inhabitants living around nuclear facilities and the activists of anti-nuclear movements, whereas the social environment and socio-psychological factors are broken down into several elements, such as news media and psychological factors. Twenty-seven endogenous and seven exogenous variables are introduced to quantify these elements. After quantitatively formulating the interactive features between them and extrapolating the exogenous variables into the future estimates are made of the growth or attenuation of the endogenous variables, such as the pro- and anti-nuclear fractions in public opinion polls and the frequency of occurrence of anti-nuclear movements. (author)

  2. Identifying Novel Candidate Genes Related to Apoptosis from a Protein-Protein Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoman Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death (PCD that occurs in multicellular organisms. This process of normal cell death is required to maintain the balance of homeostasis. In addition, some diseases, such as obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, can be cured through apoptosis, which produces few side effects. An effective comprehension of the mechanisms underlying apoptosis will be helpful to prevent and treat some diseases. The identification of genes related to apoptosis is essential to uncover its underlying mechanisms. In this study, a computational method was proposed to identify novel candidate genes related to apoptosis. First, protein-protein interaction information was used to construct a weighted graph. Second, a shortest path algorithm was applied to the graph to search for new candidate genes. Finally, the obtained genes were filtered by a permutation test. As a result, 26 genes were obtained, and we discuss their likelihood of being novel apoptosis-related genes by collecting evidence from published literature.

  3. Limitations of variable number of tandem repeat typing identified through whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a national and herd level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christina; Barkema, Herman W; Stevenson, Karen; Zadoks, Ruth N; Biek, Roman; Kao, Rowland; Trewby, Hannah; Haupstein, Deb; Kelton, David F; Fecteau, Gilles; Labrecque, Olivia; Keefe, Greg P; McKenna, Shawn L B; De Buck, Jeroen

    2015-03-08

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative bacterium of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, is widespread in the Canadian dairy industry and has significant economic and animal welfare implications. An understanding of the population dynamics of MAP can be used to identify introduction events, improve control efforts and target transmission pathways, although this requires an adequate understanding of MAP diversity and distribution between herds and across the country. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers a detailed assessment of the SNP-level diversity and genetic relationship of isolates, whereas several molecular typing techniques used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of MAP, such as variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, target relatively unstable repetitive elements in the genome that may be too unpredictable to draw accurate conclusions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of bovine MAP isolates in Canadian dairy herds using WGS and then determine if VNTR typing can distinguish truly related and unrelated isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 3,039 SNPs identified through WGS of 124 MAP isolates identified eight genetically distinct subtypes in dairy herds from seven Canadian provinces, with the dominant type including over 80% of MAP isolates. VNTR typing of 527 MAP isolates identified 12 types, including "bison type" isolates, from seven different herds. At a national level, MAP isolates differed from each other by 1-2 to 239-240 SNPs, regardless of whether they belonged to the same or different VNTR types. A herd-level analysis of MAP isolates demonstrated that VNTR typing may both over-estimate and under-estimate the relatedness of MAP isolates found within a single herd. The presence of multiple MAP subtypes in Canada suggests multiple introductions into the country including what has now become one dominant type, an important finding for Johne's disease control. VNTR typing often failed to

  4. Identifying biological concepts from a protein-related corpus with a probabilistic topic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xinghua

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical literature, e.g., MEDLINE, contains a wealth of knowledge regarding functions of proteins. Major recurring biological concepts within such text corpora represent the domains of this body of knowledge. The goal of this research is to identify the major biological topics/concepts from a corpus of protein-related MEDLINE© titles and abstracts by applying a probabilistic topic model. Results The latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA model was applied to the corpus. Based on the Bayesian model selection, 300 major topics were extracted from the corpus. The majority of identified topics/concepts was found to be semantically coherent and most represented biological objects or concepts. The identified topics/concepts were further mapped to the controlled vocabulary of the Gene Ontology (GO terms based on mutual information. Conclusion The major and recurring biological concepts within a collection of MEDLINE documents can be extracted by the LDA model. The identified topics/concepts provide parsimonious and semantically-enriched representation of the texts in a semantic space with reduced dimensionality and can be used to index text.

  5. The use of ZIP and CART to model cryptosporidiosis in relation to climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Fu, Shiu-Yun; Tong, Shilu

    2010-07-01

    This research assesses the potential impact of weekly weather variability on the incidence of cryptosporidiosis disease using time series zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and classification and regression tree (CART) models. Data on weather variables, notified cryptosporidiosis cases and population size in Brisbane were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Queensland Department of Health, and Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. Both time series ZIP and CART models show a clear association between weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed) and cryptosporidiosis disease. The time series CART models indicated that, when weekly maximum temperature exceeded 31 degrees C and relative humidity was less than 63%, the relative risk of cryptosporidiosis rose by 13.64 (expected morbidity: 39.4; 95% confidence interval: 30.9-47.9). These findings may have applications as a decision support tool in planning disease control and risk-management programs for cryptosporidiosis disease.

  6. LGscore: A method to identify disease-related genes using biological literature and Google data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongwoo; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoon, Youngmi; Park, Sanghyun

    2015-04-01

    Since the genome project in 1990s, a number of studies associated with genes have been conducted and researchers have confirmed that genes are involved in disease. For this reason, the identification of the relationships between diseases and genes is important in biology. We propose a method called LGscore, which identifies disease-related genes using Google data and literature data. To implement this method, first, we construct a disease-related gene network using text-mining results. We then extract gene-gene interactions based on co-occurrences in abstract data obtained from PubMed, and calculate the weights of edges in the gene network by means of Z-scoring. The weights contain two values: the frequency and the Google search results. The frequency value is extracted from literature data, and the Google search result is obtained using Google. We assign a score to each gene through a network analysis. We assume that genes with a large number of links and numerous Google search results and frequency values are more likely to be involved in disease. For validation, we investigated the top 20 inferred genes for five different diseases using answer sets. The answer sets comprised six databases that contain information on disease-gene relationships. We identified a significant number of disease-related genes as well as candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, colon cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Our method was up to 40% more accurate than existing methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability Relates to the Presence of Subclinical Brain Small Vessel Disease in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomena, Josefina; Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Vinyoles, Ernest; Tovar, José L; Mundet, Xavier; Castañé, Xavier; Vilar, Andrea; López-Rueda, Antonio; Jiménez-Baladó, Joan; Cartanyà, Anna; Montaner, Joan; Delgado, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with stroke risk, but less is known about subclinical cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). We aimed to determine whether CSVD relates to short-term BP variability independently of BP levels and also, whether they improve CSVD discrimination beyond clinical variables and office BP levels. This was a cohort study on asymptomatic hypertensives who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Office and average 24-hour, daytime and nighttime BP levels, and several metrics of BP variability (SD, weighted SD, coefficient of variation, and average real variability [ARV]) were calculated. Definition of CSVD was based on the presence of lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensity grades. Multivariate analysis and integrated discrimination improvement were performed to assess whether BP variability and levels were independently associated with CSVD and improved its discrimination. Four hundred eighty-seven individuals participated (median age, 64; 47% women). CSVD was identified in 18.9%, related to age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, use of treatment, ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels, and ARV of systolic BP at any period. The highest prevalence (33.7%) was found in subjects with both 24-hour BP levels and ARV elevated. BP levels at any period and ARV (24 hours and nocturnal) emerged as independent predictors of CSVD, and discrimination was incrementally improved although not to a clinically significant extent (integrated discrimination improvement, 5.31%, 5.17% to 5.4%). Ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels and ARV of systolic BP relate to subclinical CSVD in hypertensive individuals. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. [Deaths due to motorcycle accidents and their association with variables related to social reproduction in a northeastern Brazilian state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Paul Hindenburg Nobre de Vasconcelos; Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Oliveira, Fernando José Moreira

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this article was to identify the association between motorcycle deaths and variables related to Samaja's theory of social reproduction in the period 2000-2005 in the state of Pernambuco. An ecological, case-control study was carried out, with municipalities as the unit of analysis. Cases were defined as the 20% of municipalities with the highest local empirical Bayesian coefficients for mortality due to motorcycle accidents, and controls as the 40% with the lowest coefficients. The municipalities with the greatest chances of high coefficients for mortality due to motorcycle accidents showed high population growth factors and increases in the total fleet of motorcycles, with low population densities, low GDP per capita, and more than 20 motorcycles per thousand inhabitants. We conclude that the variables related to macro-policies proved to have greater force in explaining higher chances of motorcycle death.

  9. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives: derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    When they are subjected to excessive loads, some materials may exhibit a softening behaviour resulting from the deterioration of their mechanical properties. To idealize such behaviours, constitutive relations with softening are introduced, for which the size of the domain of reversibility in the stress-space decreases. These models feature a strain localization within the material, in agreement with experiments, but cannot predict the subsequent behaviour because they lead to shear bands the width of which is equal to zero, physically unacceptable and numerically troublesome. It has been proposed in the literature to overcome these difficulties by adding to the list of internal variable the spatial gradients of some of them. This procedure suffers from lack of firm methodological basis. Although, some quantitative justification have been advanced relying on some kind of microscopic analysis. Therefore, we propose to extend the classical (local) models by introducing the internal state variable first gradients. Given local model within the framework of standard generalized materials, consistent homogenization procedure is put forward to derive macroscopic free energy and dissipation potentials. The standard generalized character is preserved, with an extended set of state variables, containing not only the strain and the internal variables but also the internal variable derivatives. Nevertheless, when dealing with the whole structure, the independence between the new state variables is lost. We propose then to generalize the constitutive relations, leading to a new variational principle that ensures the Clausius-Duhem inequality at the structure scale. (authors)

  10. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro H. Chagas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU, which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX, ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM, peak torque (torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises.

  11. Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP) on microarray to identify genes related to metastatic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Lam C; Qin, Tingting; Slate, Elizabeth H; Zheng, W Jim

    2011-11-11

    To utilize the large volume of gene expression information generated from different microarray experiments, several meta-analysis techniques have been developed. Despite these efforts, there remain significant challenges to effectively increasing the statistical power and decreasing the Type I error rate while pooling the heterogeneous datasets from public resources. The objective of this study is to develop a novel meta-analysis approach, Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP), to identify genes with common differential expression patterns across different datasets. We combined False Discovery Rate (FDR) estimation and the non-parametric RankProd approach to estimate the Type I error rate in each microarray dataset of the meta-analysis. These Type I error rates from all datasets were then used to identify genes with common differential expression patterns. Our simulation study showed that CDEP achieved higher statistical power and maintained low Type I error rate when compared with two recently proposed meta-analysis approaches. We applied CDEP to analyze microarray data from different laboratories that compared transcription profiles between metastatic and primary cancer of different types. Many genes identified as differentially expressed consistently across different cancer types are in pathways related to metastatic behavior, such as ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and blood vessel development. We also identified novel genes such as AMIGO2, Gem, and CXCL11 that have not been shown to associate with, but may play roles in, metastasis. CDEP is a flexible approach that borrows information from each dataset in a meta-analysis in order to identify genes being differentially expressed consistently. We have shown that CDEP can gain higher statistical power than other existing approaches under a variety of settings considered in the simulation study, suggesting its robustness and insensitivity to data variation commonly associated with microarray

  12. Identifying practice-related factors for high-volume prescribers of antibiotics in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    practice-related factors driving high antibiotic prescribing rates. Results: We included 98% of general practices in Denmark (n = 1962) and identified a 10% group of high prescribers who accounted for 15% of total antibiotic prescriptions and 18% of critically important antibiotic prescriptions. Once case...... prescriptions issued over the phone compared with all antibiotic prescriptions; and a high number of consultations per 1000 patients. We also found that a low number of consultations per 1000 patients was associated with a reduced likelihood of being a high prescriber of antibiotics. Conclusions: An apparent...

  13. A Spreadsheet-Based Visualized Mindtool for Improving Students' Learning Performance in Identifying Relationships between Numerical Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chiu-Lin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a spreadsheet-based visualized Mindtool was developed for improving students' learning performance when finding relationships between numerical variables by engaging them in reasoning and decision-making activities. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an experiment was conducted on the "phenomena of climate…

  14. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male cou...

  15. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Skidmore Edwards

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed.

  16. Retirement planning and work-related variables in Chinese older nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Ying, Jie; Shi, Ying; Wang, Shou-Qi; Sun, Jiao

    2018-03-01

    To explore the situation of older nurses approaching retirement with regard to their retirement planning, and the relationship of their retirement planning behaviour with the job environment and job satisfaction under their current employment arrangements and other work-related variables. Nurse shortage has become a global phenomenon that can be alleviated by retaining older nurses in service. The Chinese government proposed the "Incremental Delay Retirement Age Policy." However, older nurses face delayed retirement but lack retirement plans. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among a convenience sample of older retiring nurses (n = 152; 84.92% response rate) recruited from every department of four large general hospitals in Changchun, Jilin Province from June to August 2016. The majority of the respondents presented poor retirement planning (n = 122, 80.3%). The independent variables of information exchange with patients, teamwork and personal growth and development explained approximately 16.6% of the variance in retirement planning. Nurse-patient communication and personal growth and development can promote retirement planning, but teamwork is negatively related to retirement planning. Retirement planning by Chinese older nurses is related to certain work-related variables. However, many other work-related variables were not associated with retirement planning and require further research. Overall, Chinese older retiring nurses must improve their retirement planning practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dispositional and situational variables related to evacuation at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore some of the factors influential in local residents' evacuating or remaining in the Three Mile Island area during the nuclear power plant accident of March, 1979. Investigated variables included individuals' behavioral dispositions to attend or to avoid threatening stimuli as well as situational concerns related to demographic characteristics and subjective experience. Investigation of situational variables also probed respondents' concerns about accident-related fears. Two main relationships were investigated. The first hypothesized that positive relationships existed both between dispositional attention to threat and evacuation and between dispositional avoidance of threat and remaining. The second investigation task of the research explored evacuation-related situational variables in regard to individuals' awareness of potential danger at TMI. No support was found for the hypothesized relationships between evacuation and dispositions relative to threat. Situational variables significantly related to evacuation included: specific directives to evacuate the area; disruption of telephone service during the week of the accident; and household proximity to TMI

  18. Identifying attentional bias and emotional response after appearance-related stimuli exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ara; Kwak, Soo-Min; Lee, Jang-Han

    2013-01-01

    The effect of media images has been regarded as a significant variable in the construction or in the activation of body images. Individuals who have a negative body image use avoidance coping strategies to minimize damage to their body image. We identified attentional biases and negative emotional responses following exposure to body stimuli. Female university students were divided into two groups based on their use of avoidance coping strategies (high-level group: high avoidance [HA]; low-group: low avoidance [LA]), and were assigned to two different conditions (exposure to thin body pictures, ET, and exposure to oversized body pictures, EO). Results showed that the HA group paid more attention to slim bodies and reported more negative emotions than the LA group, and that the EO had more negative effects than the ET. We suggest that HAs may attend more to slim bodies as a way of avoiding overweight bodies, influenced by social pressure, and in the search for a compensation of a positive emotional balance. However, attentional bias toward slim bodies can cause an upward comparison process, leading to increased body dissatisfaction, which is the main factor in the development of eating disorders (EDs). Therefore, altering avoidance coping strategies should be considered for people at risk of EDs.

  19. Bounding the conservatism in flaw-related variables for pressure vessel integrity analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulds, J.R.; Kennedy, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    The fracture mechanics-based integrity analysis of a pressure vessel, whether performed deterministically or probabilistically, requires use of one or more flaw-related input variables, such as flaw size, number of flaws, flaw location, and flaw type. The specific values of these variables are generally selected with the intent to ensure conservative predictions of vessel integrity. These selected values, however, are largely independent of vessel-specific inspection results, or are, at best, deduced by ''conservative'' interpretation of vessel-specific inspection results without adequate consideration of the pertinent inspection system performance (reliability). In either case, the conservatism associated with the flaw-related variables chosen for analysis remains examination (NDE) technology and the recently formulated ASME Code procedures for qualifying NDE system capability and performance (as applied to selected nuclear power plant components) now provides a systematic means of bounding the conservatism in flaw-related input variables for pressure vessel integrity analyses. This is essentially achieved by establishing probabilistic (risk)-based limits on the assigned variable values, dependent upon the vessel inspection results and on the inspection system unreliability. Described herein is this probabilistic method and its potential application to: (i) defining a vessel-specific ''reference'' flaw for calculating pressure-temperature limit curves in the deterministic evaluation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor vessels, and (ii) limiting the flaw distribution input to a PWR reactor vessel-specific, probabilistic integrity analysis for pressurized thermal shock loads

  20. Sleep variability and fatigue in adolescents: Associations with school-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, M G; Gaspar, T; Tomé, G; Paiva, T

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influences of sleep duration and sleep variability (SleepV), upon adolescents' school-related situations. The Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey is based on a self-completed questionnaire. The participants were 3164 pupils (53.7% girls), attending the 8th and 10th grades, 14.9 years old, and were inquired about subjective sleep duration during the week and weekends, SleepV, fatigue, difficulties in sleep initiation, school achievement, feelings towards schools, pressure with school work and skipping classes. Multiple regression models used, as dependent variables: (a) school achievement, (b) disliking school, (c) pressure with school work and (d) skipping classes, using as independent variables, each of the remaining school-related variables, fatigue, total sleep duration and difficulties in sleep initiation. The average sleep duration in the week and during weekdays was lower than recommended for these age groups, and almost half of students had high SleepV between weekdays and weekends. A logistic model revealed that the absence of SleepV was associated with lower perception of school work pressure, less frequent skipping classes, more infrequent fatigue and more infrequent difficulties in sleep initiation. Poor sleep quality, SleepV and insufficient sleep duration affected negatively school-related variables. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Using relative handgrip strength to identify children at risk of sarcopenic obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Steffl

    Full Text Available Identifying children at risk of developing childhood sarcopenic obesity often requires specialized equipment and costly testing procedures, so cheaper and quicker methods would be advantageous, especially in field-based settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the muscle-to-fat ratio (MFR and relative handgrip strength, and to determine the ability of handgrip strength relative to body mass index (grip-to-BMI to identify children who are at risk of developing sarcopenic obesity. Grip-to-BMI was measured in 730 Czech children (4 to 14 yrs. Bioelectrical impedance was used to estimate body fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from which the MFR was calculated. The area under the curve (AUC was 0.791 (95% CI 0.692-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 4-9; 0.789 (95% CI 0.688-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 10-14 years old; 0.719 (95% CI 0.607-0.831, p = 0.001 in boys 4-9; and 0.896 (95% CI 0.823-0.969, p ˂ 0.001 in boys 10-14 years old. Calculated using the grip-to-BMI ratio, the OR (95% CI for girls to be at risk of sarcopenic obesity identified by MFR was 9.918 (4.243-23.186, p ˂ 0.001 and was 11.515 (4.280-30.982, p ˂ 0.001 for boys. The grip-to-BMI ratio can be used to predict the presence of sarcopenic obesity in children, which can play a role in pediatric health interventions.

  2. An Investigation of Selected Variables Related to Student Algebra I Performance in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Undray

    2016-01-01

    This research study attempted to determine if specific variables were related to student performance on the Algebra I subject-area test. This study also sought to determine in which of grades 8, 9, or 10 students performed better on the Algebra I Subject Area Test. This study also investigated the different criteria that are used to schedule…

  3. Period--luminosity--color relations and pulsation modes of pulsating variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breger, M.; Bregman, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    The periods of delta Scuti, RR Lyrae, dwarf Cepheid, and W Virginis variables have been investigated for their dependence on luminosity, color, mass, and pulsation modes. A maximum-likelihood method, which includes consideration of the observational errors in each coordinate, has been applied to obtain observational period-luminosity-color (P-L-C) relations

  4. A Proposal for Testing Local Realism Without Using Assumptions Related to Hidden Variable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryff, Luiz Carlos

    1996-01-01

    A feasible experiment is discussed which allows us to prove a Bell's theorem for two particles without using an inequality. The experiment could be used to test local realism against quantum mechanics without the introduction of additional assumptions related to hidden variables states. Only assumptions based on direct experimental observation are needed.

  5. State-related differences in heart rate variability in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a validated measure of sympato-vagal balance in the autonomic nervous system. HRV appears decreased in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals, but the extent of state-related alterations has been sparingly investigated. The present...... bipolar disorder and could...

  6. ENSO related decadal scale climate variability from the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brijker, J.M.; Jung, S.J.A.; Ganssen, G.M.; Bickert, T.; Kroon, D.

    2006-01-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climatic phenomenon that affects socio-economical welfare in vast areas in the world. A continuous record of Holocene ENSO related climate variability of the Indo-Pacific Warm pool (IPWP) is constructed on the basis of stable oxygen isotopes in shells of

  7. Structural Modeling of Variables Related to Parental Support in Mexican Children's Perfomance on Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan-Ramirez, Aldo; Castellanos-Simons, Doris; Lopez-Valenzuela, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing the structural relationships among some latent and observed variables related to the assessment of written language performance in 139 fourth grade students of Elementary School selected from nine public schools of the northwest of Mexico. Questionnaires were also applied to the children's parents and teachers. The…

  8. Estimation of storm runoff loads based on rainfall-related variables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-11-19

    Nov 19, 2004 ... ... rainfall-related variables and power law models – Case study in Alexandra ... and appropriate technology for treating runoff and grey-water. To achieve this ... schools, and other open spaces take up 20% of the area. If the.

  9. The Implications of Demographic Variables as Related to Burnout among a Sample of Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joy; Dikes, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The attrition rate of highly qualified special education teachers is a pervasive problem in the United States. This study investigated the association between the burnout subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment relative to 10 demographic variables. Sixty-five special education teachers constituted the…

  10. Urban vs. Rural CLIL: An Analysis of Input-Related Variables, Motivation and Language Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Rafael; Piquer-Píriz, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The present article carries out an in-depth analysis of the differences in motivation, input-related variables and linguistic attainment of the students at two content and language integrated learning (CLIL) schools operating within the same institutional and educational context, the Spanish region of Extremadura, and differing only in terms of…

  11. A Non-linear "Inflation-Relative Prices Variability" Relationship: Evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Ángeles Caraballo Pou; Carlos Dabús; Diego Caramuta

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on a non-linear "inflation-relative prices variability" relationship in three Latin American countries with very high inflation experiences: Argentina, Brazil and Peru. More precisely, and in contrast to results found in previous literature for similar countries, we find a non-concave relation at higher inflation regimes, i.e. when inflation rate surpasses certain threshold. This non-concavity is mainly explained by the unexpected component of inflation, which sug...

  12. Anthropometric, cardiovascular and functional variables as indicators of health related physical fitness in university professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Costa Moreira

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective To verify the behavior of anthropometric, cardiovascular and functional variables as indicators of health-related physical fitness in university professors and perform a comparison of these variables between sexes.Materials and methods We conducted an observational epidemiological cross-sectional study in 145 professors (45.86 ± 9.7 years, 103 men (71.03%, which were evaluated by measuring heart rate (HR and systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP pressure at rest, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF%, handgrip strength (HGS, flexibility and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. We proceeded to the descriptive analysis, Student t-test for comparison between sexes and multiple regression analysis to verify the association between the variables analyzed. It was adopted a significance level of p < 0.05.Results The sex affected all variables. Women had better levels of BMI, flexibility, SBP and DBP. The BF% and CRF were associated with SBP and BMI in both sexes.Conclusion The behavior of anthropometric, cardiovascular and functional variables indicated unsatisfactory values for flexibility, HGS and BMI, with the worst levels among men. Furthermore, the variables that showed better association with HRPF were BF% and CRF.

  13. Use of a twin dataset to identify AMD-related visual patterns controlled by genetic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwénolé; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Russell, Stephen R.

    2010-03-01

    The mapping of genotype to the phenotype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in a near future. In this study, we focused on the first step to discover this mapping: we identified visual patterns related to AMD which seem to be controlled by genetic factors, without explicitly relating them to the genes. For this purpose, we used a dataset of eye fundus photographs from 74 twin pairs, either monozygotic twins, who have the same genotype, or dizygotic twins, whose genes responsible for AMD are less likely to be identical. If we are able to differentiate monozygotic twins from dizygotic twins, based on a given visual pattern, then this pattern is likely to be controlled by genetic factors. The main visible consequence of AMD is the apparition of drusen between the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. We developed two automated drusen detectors based on the wavelet transform: a shape-based detector for hard drusen, and a texture- and color- based detector for soft drusen. Forty visual features were evaluated at the location of the automatically detected drusen. These features characterize the texture, the shape, the color, the spatial distribution, or the amount of drusen. A distance measure between twin pairs was defined for each visual feature; a smaller distance should be measured between monozygotic twins for visual features controlled by genetic factors. The predictions of several visual features (75.7% accuracy) are comparable or better than the predictions of human experts.

  14. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zanping; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Shulei; Liu, Haiying; Zhao, Ruifang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Liangkun; Su, Huihui; Dong, Lei; Chen, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL) maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs). Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2)>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2)>10%) were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918) involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE) and germination percentage (GP), and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440) that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360) mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  15. QTLs for seed vigor-related traits identified in maize seeds germinated under artificial aging conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanping Han

    Full Text Available High seed vigor is important for agricultural production due to the associated potential for increased growth and productivity. However, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is required because the genetic basis for seed vigor remains unknown. We used single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs for four seed vigor traits in two connected recombinant inbred line (RIL maize populations under four treatment conditions during seed germination. Sixty-five QTLs distributed between the two populations were identified and a meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps. Sixty-one initially identified QTLs were integrated into 18 meta-QTLs (mQTLs. Initial QTLs with contribution to phenotypic variation values of R(2>10% were integrated into mQTLs. Twenty-three candidate genes for association with seed vigor traits coincided with 13 mQTLs. The candidate genes had functions in the glycolytic pathway and in protein metabolism. QTLs with major effects (R(2>10% were identified under at least one treatment condition for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, and mQTL3-4. Candidate genes included a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene (302810918 involved in signal transduction that mapped in the mQTL3-2 interval associated with germination energy (GE and germination percentage (GP, and an hsp20/alpha crystallin family protein gene (At5g51440 that mapped in the mQTL3-4 interval associated with GE and GP. Two initial QTLs with a major effect under at least two treatment conditions were identified for mQTL5-2. A cucumisin-like Ser protease gene (At5g67360 mapped in the mQTL5-2 interval associated with GP. The chromosome regions for mQTL2, mQTL3-2, mQTL3-4, and mQTL5-2 may be hot spots for QTLs related to seed vigor traits. The mQTLs and candidate genes identified in this study provide valuable information for the identification of additional quantitative trait genes.

  16. Identification of causal relations between haemodynamic variables, auditory evoked potentials and isoflurane by means of fuzzy logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E W; Nebot, A; Caminal, P

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a possible relationship between haemodynamic variables, auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and inspired fraction of isoflurane (ISOFl). Two different models (isoflurane and mean arterial pressure) were identified using the fuzzy inductive reasoning (FIR...

  17. Suppression subtractive hybridization as a tool to identify anthocyanin metabolism-related genes in apple skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yusuke; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2010-01-01

    The pigmentation of anthocyanins is one of the important determinants for consumer preference and marketability in horticultural crops such as fruits and flowers. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the physiological process leading to the pigmentation of anthocyanins, identification of the genes differentially expressed in response to anthocyanin accumulation is a useful strategy. Currently, microarrays have been widely used to isolate differentially expressed genes. However, the use of microarrays is limited by its high cost of special apparatus and materials. Therefore, availability of microarrays is limited and does not come into common use at present. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is an alternative tool that has been widely used to identify differentially expressed genes due to its easy handling and relatively low cost. This chapter describes the procedures for SSH, including RNA extraction from polysaccharides and polyphenol-rich samples, poly(A)+ RNA purification, evaluation of subtraction efficiency, and differential screening using reverse northern in apple skin.

  18. Characterization of drug-related problems identified by clinical pharmacy staff at Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Birkholm, Trine; Fischer, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, a database of drug related problems (DRPs) was implemented to assist clinical pharmacy staff in documenting clinical pharmacy activities locally. A study of quality, reliability and generalisability showed that national analyses of the data could be conducted. Analyses...... at the national level may help identify and prevent DRPs by performing national interventions. Objective The aim of the study was to explore the DRP characteristics as documented by clinical pharmacy staff at hospital pharmacies in the Danish DRP-database during a 3-year period. Setting Danish hospital pharmacies....... Method Data documented in the DRP-database during the initial 3 years after implementation were analyzed retrospectively. The DRP-database contains DRPs reported at hospitals by clinical pharmacy staff. The analyses focused on DRP categories, implementation rates and drugs associated with the DRPs. Main...

  19. Meta-Analysis of Placental Transcriptome Data Identifies a Novel Molecular Pathway Related to Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uitert, Miranda; Moerland, Perry D; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Laivuori, Hannele; van der Post, Joris A M; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Afink, Gijs B

    2015-01-01

    Studies using the placental transcriptome to identify key molecules relevant for preeclampsia are hampered by a relatively small sample size. In addition, they use a variety of bioinformatics and statistical methods, making comparison of findings challenging. To generate a more robust preeclampsia gene expression signature, we performed a meta-analysis on the original data of 11 placenta RNA microarray experiments, representing 139 normotensive and 116 preeclamptic pregnancies. Microarray data were pre-processed and analyzed using standardized bioinformatics and statistical procedures and the effect sizes were combined using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Interactions between genes in the resulting gene expression signature were identified by pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, Graphite) and protein-protein associations (STRING). This approach has resulted in a comprehensive list of differentially expressed genes that led to a 388-gene meta-signature of preeclamptic placenta. Pathway analysis highlights the involvement of the previously identified hypoxia/HIF1A pathway in the establishment of the preeclamptic gene expression profile, while analysis of protein interaction networks indicates CREBBP/EP300 as a novel element central to the preeclamptic placental transcriptome. In addition, there is an apparent high incidence of preeclampsia in women carrying a child with a mutation in CREBBP/EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome). The 388-gene preeclampsia meta-signature offers a vital starting point for further studies into the relevance of these genes (in particular CREBBP/EP300) and their concomitant pathways as biomarkers or functional molecules in preeclampsia. This will result in a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and opens up the opportunity to develop rational therapies targeting the placental dysfunction causal to preeclampsia.

  20. Meta-Analysis of Placental Transcriptome Data Identifies a Novel Molecular Pathway Related to Preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda van Uitert

    Full Text Available Studies using the placental transcriptome to identify key molecules relevant for preeclampsia are hampered by a relatively small sample size. In addition, they use a variety of bioinformatics and statistical methods, making comparison of findings challenging. To generate a more robust preeclampsia gene expression signature, we performed a meta-analysis on the original data of 11 placenta RNA microarray experiments, representing 139 normotensive and 116 preeclamptic pregnancies. Microarray data were pre-processed and analyzed using standardized bioinformatics and statistical procedures and the effect sizes were combined using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Interactions between genes in the resulting gene expression signature were identified by pathway analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, Graphite and protein-protein associations (STRING. This approach has resulted in a comprehensive list of differentially expressed genes that led to a 388-gene meta-signature of preeclamptic placenta. Pathway analysis highlights the involvement of the previously identified hypoxia/HIF1A pathway in the establishment of the preeclamptic gene expression profile, while analysis of protein interaction networks indicates CREBBP/EP300 as a novel element central to the preeclamptic placental transcriptome. In addition, there is an apparent high incidence of preeclampsia in women carrying a child with a mutation in CREBBP/EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome. The 388-gene preeclampsia meta-signature offers a vital starting point for further studies into the relevance of these genes (in particular CREBBP/EP300 and their concomitant pathways as biomarkers or functional molecules in preeclampsia. This will result in a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and opens up the opportunity to develop rational therapies targeting the placental dysfunction causal to preeclampsia.

  1. The Dependence of Cloud Particle Size on Non-Aerosol-Loading Related Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, H.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18

    An enhanced concentration of aerosol may increase the number of cloud drops by providing more cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn results in a higher cloud albedo at a constant cloud liquid water path. This process is often referred to as the aerosol indirect effect (AIE). Many in situ and remote sensing observations support this hypothesis (Ramanathan et al. 2001). However, satellite observed relations between aerosol concentration and cloud drop size are not always in agreement with the AIE. Based on global analysis of cloud effective radius (r{sub e}) and aerosol number concentration (N{sub a}) derived from satellite data, Sekiguchi et al. (2003) found that the correlations between the two variables can be either negative, or positive, or none, depending on the location of the clouds. They discovered that significantly negative r{sub e} - N{sub a} correlation can only be identified along coastal regions of the continents where abundant continental aerosols inflow from land, whereas Feingold et al. (2001) found that the response of r{sub e} to aerosol loading is the greatest in the region where aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) is the smallest. The reason for the discrepancy is likely due to the variations in cloud macroscopic properties such as geometrical thickness (Brenguier et al. 2003). Since r{sub e} is modified not only by aerosol but also by cloud geometrical thickness (H), the correlation between re and {tau}{sub a} actually reflects both the aerosol indirect effect and dependence of H. Therefore, discussing AIE based on the r{sub e}-{tau}{sub a} correlation without taking into account variations in cloud geometrical thickness may be misleading. This paper is motivated to extract aerosols' effect from overall effects using the independent measurements of cloud geometrical thickness, {tau}{sub a} and r{sub e}.

  2. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tediosi, Alice, E-mail: alice.tediosi@aeiforia.eu [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Fait, Gabriella [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Jacobs, Silke [Department of Public Health, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Verbeke, Wim [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, 17003 Girona (Spain); Diogene, Jorge [IRTA, 43540 Sant Carles de la Ràpita (Spain); Reuver, Marieke [AquaTT, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Marques, António [Division of Aquaculture and Upgrading (DivAV), Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere (IPMA), 1449-006 Lisbon (Portugal); Capri, Ettore [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. - Highlights: • We consulted stakeholders to identify their needs about seafood safety. • An on-line survey was prepared and sent to gather stakeholders' opinions. • Communication among stakeholders needs to be improved. • There is a deficit of information and data in the

  3. Insights from an international stakeholder consultation to identify informational needs related to seafood safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tediosi, Alice; Fait, Gabriella; Jacobs, Silke; Verbeke, Wim; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Diogene, Jorge; Reuver, Marieke; Marques, António; Capri, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Food safety assessment and communication have a strong importance in reducing human health risks related to food consumption. The research carried out within the ECsafeSEAFOOD project aims to assess seafood safety issues, mainly related to non-regulated priority environmental contaminants, and to evaluate their impact on public health. In order to make the research results accessible and exploitable, and to respond to actual stakeholders' demands, a consultation with international stakeholders was performed by means of a survey. The focus was on policy and decision makers, food producers and processors, and agencies (i.e. EU and National or Regional agencies related to Food Safety or Public Health) and consumer organisations. The survey considered questions related to: seafood safety assessment and mitigation strategies, availability of data, such as the level of information on different contaminants, and communication among different stakeholder groups. Furthermore, stakeholders were asked to give their opinion on how they believe consumers perceive risks associated with environmental contaminants. The survey was distributed to 531 key stakeholders and 91 responses were received from stakeholders from 30 EU and non-EU countries. The main results show that communication between different groups of stakeholders needs to be improved and that there is a deficit of information and data in the field of seafood safety. This pertains mainly to the transfer of contaminants between the environment and seafood, and to the diversity of environmental contaminants such as plastic additives, algal toxins and hormones. On-line tools were perceived to be the most useful communication channel. - Highlights: • We consulted stakeholders to identify their needs about seafood safety. • An on-line survey was prepared and sent to gather stakeholders' opinions. • Communication among stakeholders needs to be improved. • There is a deficit of information and data in the field of

  4. Improving accuracy for identifying related PubMed queries by an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2009-10-01

    PubMed is the most widely used tool for searching biomedical literature online. As with many other online search tools, a user often types a series of multiple related queries before retrieving satisfactory results to fulfill a single information need. Meanwhile, it is also a common phenomenon to see a user type queries on unrelated topics in a single session. In order to study PubMed users' search strategies, it is necessary to be able to automatically separate unrelated queries and group together related queries. Here, we report a novel approach combining both lexical and contextual analyses for segmenting PubMed query sessions and identifying related queries and compare its performance with the previous approach based solely on concept mapping. We experimented with our integrated approach on sample data consisting of 1539 pairs of consecutive user queries in 351 user sessions. The prediction results of 1396 pairs agreed with the gold-standard annotations, achieving an overall accuracy of 90.7%. This demonstrates that our approach is significantly better than the previously published method. By applying this approach to a one day query log of PubMed, we found that a significant proportion of information needs involved more than one PubMed query, and that most of the consecutive queries for the same information need are lexically related. Finally, the proposed PubMed distance is shown to be an accurate and meaningful measure for determining the contextual similarity between biological terms. The integrated approach can play a critical role in handling real-world PubMed query log data as is demonstrated in our experiments.

  5. Dissecting Time- from Tumor-Related Gene Expression Variability in Bilateral Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Callari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metachronous (MBC and synchronous bilateral breast tumors (SBC are mostly distinct primaries, whereas paired primaries and their local recurrences (LRC share a common origin. Intra-pair gene expression variability in MBC, SBC, and LRC derives from time/tumor microenvironment-related and tumor genetic background-related factors and pairs represents an ideal model for trying to dissect tumor-related from microenvironment-related variability. Pairs of tumors derived from women with SBC (n = 18, MBC (n = 11, and LRC (n = 10 undergoing local-regional treatment were profiled for gene expression; similarity between pairs was measured using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC computed for each gene and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA. When considering biologically unselected genes, the highest correlations were found for primaries and paired LRC, and the lowest for MBC pairs. By instead limiting the analysis to the breast cancer intrinsic genes, correlations between primaries and paired LRC were enhanced, while lower similarities were observed for SBC and MBC. Focusing on stromal-related genes, the ICC values decreased for MBC and were significantly different from SBC. These findings indicate that it is possible to dissect intra-pair gene expression variability into components that are associated with genetic origin or with time and microenvironment by using specific gene subsets.

  6. Quality of Working Life of cancer survivors: associations with health- and work-related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Merel; Tamminga, Sietske J; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; de Boer, Angela G E M

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to (1) describe the Quality of Working Life (QWL) of cancer survivors and (2) explore associations between the QWL of cancer survivors and health- and work-related variables. Employed and self-employed cancer survivors were recruited through hospitals and patient organizations. They completed the Quality of Working Life Questionnaire for Cancer Survivors (QWLQ-CS) and health- and work-related variables in this cross-sectional study. The QWL scores of cancer survivors were described, and associations between QWL and health- and work-related variables were assessed. The QWLQ-CS was completed by 302 cancer survivors (28% male) with a mean age of 52 ± 8 years. They were diagnosed between 0 and 10 years ago with various types of cancer, such as breast cancers, gastrointestinal cancers, urological cancers, and haematological cancers. The QWL mean score of cancer survivors was 75 ± 12 (0-100). Cancer survivors had statistically significant lower QWL scores when they had been treated with chemotherapy or when they reported co-morbidity (p ≤ 0.05). Cancer survivors without managerial positions, with low incomes or physically demanding work, and who worked a proportion of their contract hours had statistically significantly lower QWL scores (p ≤ 0.05). This study described the QWL of cancer survivors and associations between QWL and health- and work-related variables. Based on these variables, it is possible to indicate groups of cancer survivors who need more attention and support regarding QWL and work continuation.

  7. Identifying areas of need relative to liver disease: geographic clustering within a health service district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atem, Nathan; Irvine, Katharine M; Valery, Patricia C; Wojcik, Kyle; Horsfall, Leigh; Johnson, Tracey; Janda, Monika; McPhail, Steven M; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2017-08-01

    accessing tertiary hospital liver services are clustered within specific geographic areas. The most striking geographic clustering was seen for people living with chronic hepatitis B, in regions with a relatively high proportion of people born in Vietnam and China. In addition to ethnicity, the data show an apparent ecological association between liver disease and both socioeconomic and educational and/or occupational disadvantage. What are the implications for practitioners? Identifying where demand for clinical services arises is an important step for service planning and preparing for potential outreach programs to optimise community-based care. It is likely that outreach programs to engage and enhance primary care services in geographic areas from which the greatest demand for tertiary liver disease speciality care arises would yield greater relative return on investment than non-targeted outreach programs.

  8. A methodological survey identified eight proposed frameworks for the adaptation of health related guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, Andrea; Abou-Jaoude, Elias A; Agarwal, Arnav; Lakis, Chantal; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Santesso, Nancy; Brax, Hneine; El-Jardali, Fadi; Schünemann, Holger J; Akl, Elie A

    2017-06-01

    five key steps strategy for adaptation of guidelines to the local context. The SGR method consists of nine steps and takes into consideration both methodological gaps and context-specific normative issues in source guidelines. We identified through searching personal files two abandoned methods. We identified and described eight proposed frameworks for the adaptation of health-related guidelines. There is a need to evaluate these different frameworks to assess rigor, efficiency, and transparency of their proposed processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On the relation of earthquake stress drop and ground motion variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oth, Adrien; Miyake, Hiroe; Bindi, Dino

    2017-07-01

    One of the key parameters for earthquake source physics is stress drop since it can be directly linked to the spectral level of ground motion. Stress drop estimates from moment corner frequency analysis have been shown to be extremely variable, and this to a much larger degree than expected from the between-event ground motion variability. This discrepancy raises the question whether classically determined stress drop variability is too large, which would have significant consequences for seismic hazard analysis. We use a large high-quality data set from Japan with well-studied stress drop data to address this issue. Nonparametric and parametric reference ground motion models are derived, and the relation of between-event residuals for Japan Meteorological Agency equivalent seismic intensity and peak ground acceleration with stress drop is analyzed for crustal earthquakes. We find a clear correlation of the between-event residuals with stress drops estimates; however, while the island of Kyushu is characterized by substantially larger stress drops than Honshu, the between-event residuals do not reflect this observation, leading to the appearance of two event families with different stress drop levels yet similar range of between-event residuals. Both the within-family and between-family stress drop variations are larger than expected from the ground motion between-event variability. A systematic common analysis of these parameters holds the potential to provide important constraints on the relative robustness of different groups of data in the different parameter spaces and to improve our understanding on how much of the observed source parameter variability is likely to be true source physics variability.

  10. Analyzing the Relative Linkages of Land Use and Hydrologic Variables with Urban Surface Water Quality using Multivariate Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    We used a systematic data-analytics approach to analyze and quantify relative linkages of four stream water quality indicators (total nitrogen, TN; total phosphorus, TP; chlorophyll-a, Chla; and dissolved oxygen, DO) with six land use and four hydrologic variables, along with the potential external (upstream in-land and downstream coastal) controls in highly complex coastal urban watersheds of southeast Florida, U.S.A. Multivariate pattern recognition techniques of principle component and factor analyses, in concert with Pearson correlation analysis, were applied to map interrelations and identify latent patterns of the participatory variables. Relative linkages of the in-stream water quality variables with their associated drivers were then quantified by developing dimensionless partial least squares (PLS) regression model based on standardized data. Model fitting efficiency (R2=0.71-0.87) and accuracy (ratio of root-mean-square error to the standard deviation of the observations, RSR=0.35-0.53) suggested good predictions of the water quality variables in both wet and dry seasons. Agricultural land and groundwater exhibited substantial controls on surface water quality. In-stream TN concentration appeared to be mostly contributed by the upstream water entering from Everglades in both wet and dry seasons. In contrast, watershed land uses had stronger linkages with TP and Chla than that of the watershed hydrologic and upstream (Everglades) components for both seasons. Both land use and hydrologic components showed strong linkages with DO in wet season; however, the land use linkage appeared to be less in dry season. The data-analytics method provided a comprehensive empirical framework to achieve crucial mechanistic insights into the urban stream water quality processes. Our study quantitatively identified dominant drivers of water quality, indicating key management targets to maintain healthy stream ecosystems in complex urban-natural environments near the coast.

  11. Relative effects of precipitation variability and warming on tallgrass prairie ecosystem function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Fay

    2011-10-01

    interannual climate variability, intra-annual rainfall variability, and temperature, (2 interannual climate variation was a larger source of variation in ecosystem function than intra-annual rainfall variability and warming, and (3 effects of increased growing season rainfall variability and warming were small, but ecologically important. The relative effects of these climate drivers are likely to vary for different ecosystem processes and in wetter or drier ecosystems.

  12. Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied for specific sites on different time scales or for large regions, a model capable of accounting for both temporal and regional differences in yield is still lacking. In the present study, we studied the factors responsible for interregional and interannual variability in maple syrup yield over the 2001–2012 period, by combining the data from 8 Quebec regions (Canada) and 10 U.S. states. The resulting model explained 44.5% of the variability in yield. It includes the effect of climatic conditions that precede the sapflow season (variables from the previous growing season and winter), the effect of climatic conditions during the current sapflow season, and terms accounting for intercountry and temporal variability. Optimal conditions for maple syrup production appear to be spatially restricted by less favourable climate conditions occurring during the growing season in the north, and in the south, by the warmer winter and earlier spring conditions. This suggests that climate change may favor maple syrup production northwards, while southern regions are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse spring conditions. PMID:24949244

  13. CD4+ T cell count, HIV-1 viral loads and demographic variables of newly identified patients with HIV infection in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man-Qing; Tang, Li; Kong, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Yao, Zhong-Zhao; Schilling, Robert; Zhou, Wang

    2013-10-01

    In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Identifying uncertainty of the mean of some water quality variables along water quality monitoring network of Bahr El Baqar drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein G. Karaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assigning objectives to the environmental monitoring network is the pillar of the design to these kinds of networks. Conflicting network objectives may affect the adequacy of the design in terms of sampling frequency and the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations which in turn affect the accuracy of the data and the information extracted. The first step in resolving this problem is to identify the uncertainty inherent in the network as the result of the vagueness of the design objective. Entropy has been utilized and adopted over the past decades to identify uncertainty in similar water data sets. Therefore it is used to identify the uncertainties inherent in the water quality monitoring network of Bahr El-Baqar drain located in the Eastern Delta. Toward investigating the applicability of the Entropy methodology, comprehensive analysis at the selected drain as well as their data sets is carried out. Furthermore, the uncertainty calculated by the entropy function will be presented by the means of the geographical information system to give the decision maker a global view to these uncertainties and to open the door to other researchers to find out innovative approaches to lower these uncertainties reaching optimal monitoring network in terms of the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations.

  15. Assessing factors related to waist circumference and obesity: application of a latent variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Sahar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Karimlou, Masoud; Asgari, Fereshteh; Rafei, Ali; Seifi, Behjat; Niksima, Seyed Hassan; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index) alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome) and obesity (binary outcome) among Iranian adults. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20-65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity) with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence), PA (physical activity), smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure), DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure), CHOL (cholesterol), FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose), diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes). All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC). Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population.

  16. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Dalvand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome and obesity (binary outcome among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variable model, we estimated the relation of two correlated responses (waist circumference and obesity with independent variables including age, gender, PR (Place of Residence, PA (physical activity, smoking status, SBP (Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure, CHOL (cholesterol, FBG (Fasting Blood Glucose, diabetes, and FHD (family history of diabetes. Results. All variables were related to both obesity and waist circumference (WC. Older age, female sex, being an urban resident, physical inactivity, nonsmoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and having family history of diabetes were significant risk factors that increased WC and obesity. Conclusions. Findings from this study of Iranian adult settings offer more insights into factors associated with high WC and high prevalence of obesity in this population.

  17. SRBreak: A read-depth and split-read framework to identify breakpoints of different events inside simple copy-number variable regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOANG T NGUYEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Copy-number variation (CNV has been associated with increased risk of complex diseases. High throughput sequencing (HTS technologies facilitate the detection of copy-number variable regions (CNVRs and their breakpoints. This helps in understanding genome structures of genomes as well as their evolution process. Various approaches have been proposed for detecting CNV breakpoints, but currently it is still challenging for tools based on a single analysis method to identify breakpoints of CNVs. It has been shown, however, that pipelines which integrate multiple approaches are able to report more reliable breakpoints. Here, based on HTS data, we have developed a pipeline to identify approximate breakpoints (±10 bp relating to different ancestral events within a specific CNVR. The pipeline combines read-depth and split-read information to infer breakpoints, using information from multiple samples to allow an imputation approach to be taken. The main steps involve using a normal mixture model to cluster samples into different groups, followed by simple kernel-based approaches to maximise information obtained from read-depth and split-read approaches, after which common breakpoints of groups are inferred. The pipeline uses split-read information directly from CIGAR strings of BAM files, without using a re-alignment step. On simulated data sets, it was able to report breakpoints for very low-coverage samples including those for which only single-end reads were available. When applied to three loci from existing human resequencing data sets (NEGR1, LCE3, IRGM the pipeline obtained good concordance with results from the 1000 Genomes Project (92%, 100% and 82%, respectively.The package is available at https://github.com/hoangtn/SRBreak, and also as a docker-based application at https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/hoangtn/srbreak/.

  18. Transcriptome Sequencing of Chemically Induced Aquilaria sinensis to Identify Genes Related to Agarwood Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Wu, Hongqing; He, Xin; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Weimin; Li, Haohua; Fan, Yunfei; Tan, Guohui; Liu, Taomei; Gao, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Agarwood is a traditional Chinese medicine used as a clinical sedative, carminative, and antiemetic drug. Agarwood is formed in Aquilaria sinensis when A. sinensis trees are threatened by external physical, chemical injury or endophytic fungal irritation. However, the mechanism of agarwood formation via chemical induction remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the transcriptome of different parts of a chemically induced A. sinensis trunk sample with agarwood. The Illumina sequencing platform was used to identify the genes involved in agarwood formation. A five-year-old Aquilaria sinensis treated by formic acid was selected. The white wood part (B1 sample), the transition part between agarwood and white wood (W2 sample), the agarwood part (J3 sample), and the rotten wood part (F5 sample) were collected for transcriptome sequencing. Accordingly, 54,685,634 clean reads, which were assembled into 83,467 unigenes, were obtained with a Q20 value of 97.5%. A total of 50,565 unigenes were annotated using the Nr, Nt, SWISS-PROT, KEGG, COG, and GO databases. In particular, 171,331,352 unigenes were annotated by various pathways, including the sesquiterpenoid (ko00909) and plant-pathogen interaction (ko03040) pathways. These pathways were related to sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis and defensive responses to chemical stimulation. The transcriptome data of the different parts of the chemically induced A. sinensis trunk provide a rich source of materials for discovering and identifying the genes involved in sesquiterpenoid production and in defensive responses to chemical stimulation. This study is the first to use de novo sequencing and transcriptome assembly for different parts of chemically induced A. sinensis. Results demonstrate that the sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis pathway and WRKY transcription factor play important roles in agarwood formation via chemical induction. The comparative analysis of the transcriptome data of agarwood and A. sinensis lays the foundation

  19. Performance variability is related to change in cognition: evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-09-01

    Performance variability across repeated task administrations may be an important indicator of age-related cognitive functioning. In the present investigation, the authors examined whether age differences and change in inconsistency were related to 6-year (3 occasion) cognitive change. Inconsistency scores were computed from 4 reaction time tasks performed by 446 older adults (54-89 years). Replicating previous cross-sectional results, greater inconsistency was observed for older participants even after controlling for differences in response speed. New longitudinal results demonstrated (a) associations between inconsistency at baseline measurement and 6-year change in cognitive performance; (b) longitudinal change in inconsistency; and (c) intraindividual covariation between 6-year change in inconsistency and 6-year change in level of cognitive function. These findings support the view that performance variability serves as a marker of cognitive aging.

  20. A novel de novo activating mutation in STAT3 identified in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark A; Pigors, Manuela; Houssen, Maha E; Manson, Ania; Kelsell, David; Longhurst, Hilary; Morgan, Noel G

    2018-02-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterised by repeated infection associated with primary acquired hypogammaglobulinemia. CVID frequently has a complex aetiology but, in certain cases, it has a monogenic cause. Recently, variants within the gene encoding the transcription factor STAT3 were implicated in monogenic CVID. Here, we describe a patient presenting with symptoms synonymous with CVID, who displayed reduced levels of IgG and IgA, repeated viral infections and multiple additional co-morbidities. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a de novo novel missense mutation in the coiled-coil domain of STAT3 (c.870A>T; p.K290N). Accordingly, the K290N variant of STAT3 was generated, and a STAT3 responsive dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that the variant strongly enhances STAT3 transcriptional activity both under basal and stimulated (with IL-6) conditions. Overall, these data complement earlier studies in which CVID-associated STAT3 mutations are predicted to enhance transcriptional activity, suggesting that such patients may respond favourably to IL-6 receptor antagonists (e.g. tocilizumab). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Demographic, clinical, and quality of life variables related to embarrassment in veterans living with an intestinal stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly A; Rawl, Susan M; Schmidt, C Max; Grant, Marcia; Ko, Clifford Y; Baldwin, Carol M; Wendel, Christopher; Krouse, Robert S

    2007-01-01

    The study aims were to identify demographic, clinical, and quality of life variables related to embarrassment for people living with ostomies and to determine the experiences and/or feelings of veterans who were embarrassed by their ostomy. This was a cross-sectional, correlational study. A convenience sample of veterans (n = 239) living with ostomies from 3 VA medical centers was studied. The veterans were primarily Caucasian (84%), male (92%), and older (M = 69). The modified City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy questionnaire was used. Additionally, an open-ended question related to living with an ostomy was asked. The questionnaire packets were mailed to participants and self-administered. Approximately half of the participants (48%) rated their embarrassment as low, but 26% reported high embarrassment. Participants with high embarrassment were compared to those with low embarrassment on demographic, clinical, and quality of life variables. High embarrassment was associated with poorer total quality of life (P hopefulness were associated with low embarrassment (P < .001). Sources of embarrassment included leakage, odor, and noise. Embarrassment may negatively impact a person's quality of life; therefore, the variables associated with high embarrassment should be recognized and addressed.

  2. Utility of Childhood Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Predicting Adult Diabetes and Related Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Xu, Ji-Hua; Chen, Wei; Kieltyka, Lyn; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examines the usefulness of childhood glucose homeostasis variables (glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance index [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance {HOMA-IR}]) in predicting pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes and related cardiometabolic risk factors in adulthood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This retrospective cohort study consisted of normoglycemic (n = 1,058), pre-diabetic (n = 37), and type 2 diabetic (n = 25) adults aged 19–39 years who were followed o...

  3. Preliminary evaluations related to the ranges of hematological and biochemical variables in hospitalized patients with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Chitsaz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Any considerable alter in patients′ biochemical and hematological figures (BS, Hgb, Plt and Lymph may necessitate further attention related to inter- and intra-individual variability in clinical supervision and drug′s assortment. Therefore, success in treatment could be achieved by the close management of clinical, biochemical, hematological, and pharmacological manifestation. To reduce disability, mortality, and morbidity in Iranian stroke population further clinical studies are needed to correlate drugs and laboratory markers to associated clinical events in order.

  4. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (El) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged fro...

  5. The Golden Age of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects - II Concluding Address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giovannelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Before to conclude officially this workshop — far from me the idea to attempt some concluding remarks already dealt at the meeting with various burning by Joseph Patterson, Mariko Kato, Dmitry Bisikalo, and Rene Hudec —, I would like to comment few highlights coming out from our fruitful week of discussions about The Golden Age of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects - II, without any pretension of completeness.

  6. The Relation Between Skill Levels and the Cyclical Variability of Employment, Hours, and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Keane; Eswar S Prasad

    1993-01-01

    This paper uses micro data to examine differences in the cyclical variability of employment, hours, and wages for skilled and unskilled workers. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that, at the aggregate level, skilled and unskilled workers are subject to essentially the same degree of cyclical variation in wages. That is, relative offer wage differentials between skilled and unskilled workers are acyclical. However, we do find important differences in the patterns of employment and hour...

  7. TNF-α levels in cancer patients relate to social variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucha, Phillip T.; Crespin, Timothy R.; Shelby, Rebecca A.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important cytokine associated with tumor regression and increased survival time for cancer patients. Research evidence relates immune factors (e.g., natural killer (NK) cell counts, NK cell lysis, lymphocyte profile, and lymphocyte proliferation) to the frequency and quality of social relations among cancer patients. We hypothesized that disruptions in social relations would be associated with lower TNF-α responses, and conversely, that reports of positive changes in social relations correlate with stronger responses. A prospective design measured changes in social activity and relationship satisfaction with a partner in 44 breast cancer patients at the time of cancer diagnosis, and initial surgery and 12 months later. Results indicated that patients reporting increased social activities or satisfaction exhibited stronger stimulated TNF-α responses. This is the first study to link changes in patient social relations with a cancer-relevant immune variable. PMID:15890493

  8. Observer variability identifying attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 10-year-old children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Alan; Hunter, Scott J; Scott, Megan N; Hooper, Stephen R; Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, Thomas Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N; Kuban, Karl

    2017-08-01

    A DSM-5 diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) requires that symptoms be present in two settings. We wanted to see how teachers and parents compare on their assessments. We evaluated how well Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) reports from 871 parents and 634 teachers of 10-year-old children born before the 28th week of gestation provided information about indicators of school dysfunction. Kappa values for parent and teacher agreement of any ADHD were at best fair to poor (<0.41). Nevertheless, ADHD identified by each alone provided a moderate amount of information about such indicators of school dysfunction as grade repetition. Only occasionally did agreement provide more information than provided by only one reporter. Mother's social class and intelligence level did not discriminate between parents who did and did not agree with the teacher. ADHD identified by a single observer can provide appreciable information about a range of the child's functions needed for success in school and, therefore, should not be discounted when another observer does not consider the child to have ADHD symptoms. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identifying medication-related needs of HIV patients: foundation for community pharmacist-based services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardlee Kauffman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients living with HIV/AIDS have complex medication regimens. Pharmacists within community pharmacy settings can have a role managing patients living with HIV/AIDS. Patients' perspectives surrounding implementation about community pharmacist-based services is needed as limited information is available. Objective: To identify medication-related needs of HIV-infected patients who receive prescriptions from a community pharmacy. To determine patient perspectives and knowledge of community pharmacist-based services. Methods: A qualitative research study involving in-depth, semi-structured interviews with patients was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: HIV positive men and women at least 18 years of age who receive care at a HIV clinic, currently take medication(s and use a community pharmacy for all prescription fills. Patients were recruited from one urban and one rural health center. Patients answered questions about their perceptions and knowledge about the role and value of pharmacy services and completed a demographic survey. The recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and were analyzed using principles of Grounded Theory. Results: Twenty-nine interviews were conducted: 15 participants from the urban site and 14 from the rural site. Five main themes emerged including: patients experience ongoing and varying medication-related needs; patients desire a pharmacist who is caring, knowledgeable and integrated with health care providers; patients expect ready access to drug therapy; patients value an individualized patient encounter, and patients need to be informed that a pharmacist-service exists. Conclusion: Patients with HIV value individualized and personal encounters with pharmacists at time intervals that are convenient for the patient. Patients felt that a one-on-one encounter with a pharmacist would be most valuable when initiating or modifying medication therapy. These patient perspectives can be useful for

  10. Soil fauna and its relation with environmental variables in soil management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    Full Text Available The present study aims to generate knowledge about the soil fauna, its relation to other explanatory environmental variables, and, besides it, to select edaphic indicators that more contribute to separate the land use systems (LUS. Five different LUS were chosen: conventional tillage with crop rotation (CTCR; no-tillage with crop rotation (NTCR; conventional tillage with crop succession (CTCS; no-tillage with crop succession (NTCS and minimum tillage with crop succession (MTCS. The samples were made in the counties Chapecó, Xanxerê and Ouro Verde located in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and were considered the true replicates of the LUS. In each site, nine points were sampled in a sampling grid of 3 x 3. At the same points, soil was sampled for the physical, chemical and biological attributes (environmental variables. Pitfall traps were used to evaluate the soil fauna. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA. The soil fauna presented potential to be used as indictors of soil quality, since some groups proved to be sensible to changes of the environmental variables and to soil management and tillage. The soil management using crop rotation (NTCR and CTCR presented higher diversity, compared to the systems using crop succession (NTCS, MTCS and NTCS, evidencing the importance of the soil tillage, independent of the season (summer or winter. The variable that better contributed to explain these changes were the chemical variables (potassium, pH, calcium, organic matter, available phosphorus, potential acidity, and biological variables (Shannon diversity index, Collembola, Pielou equitability index and microbial biomass carbon, respectively.

  11. [Environmental and genetic variables related with alterations in language acquisition in early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano-Gutierrez, A; Colomer-Revuelta, J; Sanjuan, J; Carot-Sierra, J M

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of research has addressed problems in the correct acquisition of language, but with few overall conclusions. The reasons for this lie in the individual variability, the existence of different measures for assessing language and the fact that a complex network of genetic and environmental factors are involved in its development. To review the environmental and genetic variables that have been studied to date, in order to gain a better under-standing of the causes of specific language impairment and create new evidence that can help in the development of screening systems for the early detection of these disorders. The environmental variables related with poorer early child language development include male gender, low level of education of the mother, familial history of problems with language or psychiatric problems, perinatal problems and health problems in early childhood. Bilingualism seems to be a protective factor. Temperament and language are related. Within the genetic factors there are several specific genes associated with language, two of which have a greater influence on its physiological acquisition: FOXP2 and CNTNAP2. The other genes that are most related with specific language disorders are ATP2C2, CMIP, ROBO2, ZNF277 and NOP9. The key to comprehending the development of specific language disorders lies in reaching an understanding of the true role played by genes in the ontogenesis, in the regulation of the different developmental processes, and how this role is modulated by the environment.

  12. The Influence of Unsportsmanlike Fouls on Basketball Teams' Performance According to Context-Related Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Ortega Toro, Enrique; Furley, Philip

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the temporal effects that unsportsmanlike fouls may have on basketball teams' scoring performance under consideration of context-related variables. The authors analyzed 130 unsportsmanlike fouls from 362 elite basketball games (men's and women's Olympic Games, European and World Championships). The context-related variables studied were score-line, quality of opposition, timeout situation, minutes remaining, and player status. The data were analyzed with linear-regression models. The results showed that both teams (the team that made the foul and the opponent) had similar positive scoring performances during 1 and 3 ball possessions after the unsportsmanlike foul (short-term effect). However, 5 ball possessions after the foul (midterm effect), the team that made the foul had a scoring disadvantage (-0.96) and the opponent team an advantage (0.78). The context-related variable quality of opposition was significant only during 1 ball possession, with negative effects for the team that made the foul and positive effects for the opponent. The final outcome showed a positive effect for score-line when the unsportsmanlike foul was made (0.96) and for quality of opposition (0.64).

  13. Job satisfaction and work related variables in Chinese cardiac critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-E; While, Alison; Li, Shu-Jun; Ye, Wen-Qin

    2015-05-01

    To explore critical care nurses' views of their job satisfaction and the relationship with job burnout, practice environment, coping style, social support, intention to stay in current employment and other work-related variables. Nurse shortage is a global issue, especially in critical care. Job satisfaction is the most frequently cited factor linked to nurses' turnover. A convenience sample of cardiac critical care nurses (n = 215; 97.7% response rate) from 12 large general hospitals in Shanghai was surveyed from December 2010 to March 2011. Over half of the sample reported satisfaction with their jobs. Nurses with 10-20 years of professional experience and those who had taken all their holiday entitlement reported higher levels of job satisfaction. The independent variables of practice environment, intention to stay, emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment and positive coping style explained about 55% of the variance in job satisfaction. Chinese cardiac critical care nurses' job satisfaction was related to work related variables, which are amenable to managerial action. Our findings highlight the imperative of improving intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, together with the flexibility of work schedules to promote job satisfaction and staff retention. A clinical ladder system is needed to provide promotion opportunities for Chinese nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparison of Personal, Social and Academic Variables Related to University Drop-out and Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Ana; Esteban, María; Fernández, Estrella; Cervero, Antonio; Tuero, Ellián; Solano, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dropping out of university has serious consequences not only for the student who drops out but also for the institution and society as a whole. Although this phenomenon has been widely studied, there is a need for broader knowledge of the context in which it occurs. Yet research on the subject often focuses on variables that, although they affect drop-out rates, lie beyond a university's control. This makes it hard to come up with effective preventive measures. That is why a northern Spanish university has undertaken a ex post facto holistic research study on 1,311 freshmen (2008/9, 2009/10, and 2010/11 cohorts). The study falls within the framework of the ALFA-GUIA European Project and focuses on those drop-out factors where there is scope for taking remedial measures. This research explored the possible relationship of degree drop-out and different categories of variables: variables related to the educational stage prior to university entry (path to entry university and main reason for degree choice), variables related to integration and coexistence at university (social integration, academic integration, relationships with teachers/peers and value of the living environment) financial status and performance during university studies (in terms of compliance with the program, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and class attendance). Descriptive, correlational and variance analyses were conducted to discover which of these variables really distinguish those students who drop-out from their peers who complete their studies. Results highlight the influence of vocation as main reason for degree choice, path to university entry, financial independency, social and academic adaptation, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and program compliance in the studied phenomenon.

  15. Comparison of personal, social and academic variables related to University Dropout and Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Bernardo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dropping out of university has serious consequences not only for the student who drops out but also for the institution and society as a whole. Although this phenomenon has been widely studied, there is a need for broader knowledge of the context in which it occurs. Yet research on the subject often focuses on variables that, although they affect drop-out rates, lie beyond a university's control. This makes it hard to come up with effective preventive measures. That is why a northern Spanish university has undertaken a ex post facto holistic research study on 1,311 freshmen (2008/9, 2009/10 and 2010/11 cohorts. The study falls within the framework of the ALFA-GUIA European Project and focuses on those drop-out factors where there is scope for taking remedial measures. This research explored the possible relationship of degree dropout and different categories of variables: variables related to the educational stage prior to university entry (path to entry university and main reason for degree choice, variables related to integration and coexistence at university (social integration, academic integration, relationships with teachers/ peers and value of the living environment financial status and performance during university studies (in terms ofcompliance with the program, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and class attendance. Descriptive, correlational and variance analyses were conducted to discover which of these variables really distinguish those students who drop out from their peers who complete their studies. Results highlight the influence of vocation as main reason for degree choice, path to university entry, financial independency, social and academic adaptation, time devoted to study, use of study techniques and program compliance in the studied phenomenon.

  16. Proteomic profiling identifies markers for inflammation-related tumor-fibroblast interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drev, Daniel; Bileck, Andrea; Erdem, Zeynep N; Mohr, Thomas; Timelthaler, Gerald; Beer, Andrea; Gerner, Christopher; Marian, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Cancer associated fibroblasts are activated in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to tumor progression, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inflammation. To identify proteins characteristic for fibroblasts in colorectal cancer we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to derive protein abundance from whole-tissue homogenates of human colorectal cancer/normal mucosa pairs. Alterations of protein levels were determined by two-sided t test with greater than threefold difference and an FDR of matrix organization, TGFβ receptor signaling and angiogenesis mainly originating from the stroma. Most prominent were increased abundance of SerpinB5 in the parenchyme and latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein, thrombospondin-B2, and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich in the stroma. Extracellular matrix remodeling involved collagens type VIII, XII, XIV, and VI as well as lysyl-oxidase-2. In silico analysis of mRNA levels demonstrated altered expression in the tumor and the adjacent normal tissue as compared to mucosa of healthy individuals indicating that inflammatory activation affected the surrounding tissue. Immunohistochemistry of 26 tumor specimen confirmed upregulation of SerpinB5, thrombospondin B2 and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting tumor- and compartment-specific protein-signatures that are functionally meaningful by proteomic profiling of whole-tissue extracts together with mining of RNA expression datasets. The results provide the basis for further exploration of inflammation-related stromal markers in larger patient cohorts and experimental models.

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Skin Color Differentiation in Red Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Wang, Lanmei; Dong, Zaijie; Chen, Xingting; Song, Feibiao; Liu, Nian; Yang, Hui; Fu, Jianjun

    2016-08-11

    Red tilapia is becoming more popular for aquaculture production in China in recent years. However, the pigmentation differentiation in genetic breeding is the main problem limiting its development of commercial red tilapia culture and the genetic basis of skin color variation is still unknown. In this study, we conducted Illumina sequencing of transcriptome on three color variety red tilapia. A total of 224,895,758 reads were generated, resulting in 160,762 assembled contigs that were used as reference contigs. The contigs of red tilapia transcriptome had hits in the range of 53.4% to 86.7% of the unique proteins of zebrafish, fugu, medaka, three-spined stickleback and tilapia. And 44,723 contigs containing 77,423 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified, with 16,646 contigs containing more than one SSR. Three skin transcriptomes were compared pairwise and the results revealed that there were 148 common significantly differentially expressed unigenes and several key genes related to pigment synthesis, i.e. tyr, tyrp1, silv, sox10, slc24a5, cbs and slc7a11, were included. The results will facilitate understanding the molecular mechanisms of skin pigmentation differentiation in red tilapia and accelerate the molecular selection of the specific strain with consistent skin colors.

  18. Interpretation of illness in cancer survivors is associated with health-related variables and adaptive coping styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Julia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A patient's interpretation of illness may have an influence on the choice of coping strategies and decision making. We intended to analyze the meaning German cancer survivors would attribute to their disease, and investigated intercorrelations between the respective interpretations, health-related variables and adaptive coping strategies. Methods In an anonymous cross-sectional survey, we analyzed the interpretations of disease (according to Lipowski's eight 'meaning of illness' categories in 387 patients with cancer (81% breast cancer. To make statements about their conceptual relationships with health-related variables, we correlated the 8 items of the 'Interpretation of Illness' questionnaire (IIQ with health-related quality of life, anxiety/depression, fatigue, life satisfaction, and adaptive coping strategies. Results Most cancer survivors regarded their disease as a challenge (52%, others as value (38% or even an interruption of life (irreparable loss; 35%; weakness/failure (5% and punishment (3% were rated the lowest. The fatalistic negative interpretations 'interruption/loss' and 'enemy/threat' were inversely correlated with mental health-related quality of life and life satisfaction, and positively with an escape-avoidance strategy, depression and anxiety. In contrast, positive disease interpretations (i.e., 'challenge' and 'value' correlated only with adaptive coping strategies. Physical health correlated with none of the disease interpretations. Conclusion Despite conceptual limitations, the 8-item schema could be regarded as a useful screening approach to identify patients at risk for reduced psychosocial functioning.

  19. WANO Activities Related to Identifying and Reducing the Likelihood for Recurring Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Since its inception, WANO has encouraged members to share operating experience and events information through the WANO Operating Experience Programme. Preventing recurring events is a prime reason for sharing events information. Over 2500 events have been shared through WANO since 1989. However, a review of WANO activities in 1997 identified that this information was not being used very well by WANO members, and that WANO was not adding much 'value' to the events sharing process. At the time, WANO only provided the 'postal exchange' function for events sharing, and was not reviewing events across WANO to help members focus on the really important issues. Often, these very important issues involve recurring events. As a result of the 1997 review of the WANO operating experience process, WANO re-sourced and developed new analysis capabilities and began producing new types of reports for its members. The resource commitment includes four seconded engineers (one from each WANO Regional Centre) brought to Paris to staff a WANO Operating Experience Central Team. This team analyses events across WANO, writes WANO event reports, provides operating experience-related training, and provides technical support to members to improve their use of operating experience information. One focus area for events analysis by WANO is the identification and subsequent industry notification of recurring events. As a result of the 1997 review of WANO activities, in 1998 WANO began production of several new types of event-based reports to communicate significant industry events to our members. A key focus of analysis of these significant events is whether they are recurring events (that is, very similar to previous events either at that NPP or another NPP in the industry). The reports are called Significant Operating Experience Reports (SOERs) and Significant Event Reports (SERs). Significant Operating Experience Reports (SOERs) are written by WANO when several event reports indicate that

  20. Identifying controlling variables for math computation fluency through experimental analysis: the interaction of stimulus control and reinforcing consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems. A subsequent comparison of the single-most effective condition from the experimental analyses replicated the findings with novel computation problems. Results are discussed in terms of the critical role of stimulus control in identifying controlling consequences for academic deficits, and recommendations for future research refining and extending experimental analysis to academic responding are made. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Transcriptome association analysis identifies miR-375 as a major determinant of variable acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Freytsis, Marina; Court, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    Acetaminophen is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in many countries including the United States. Hepatic glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A subfamily enzymes is the major route of acetaminophen elimination. Reduced glucuronidation may predispose some individuals to acetaminophen-induced ALF, but mechanisms underlying reduced glucuronidation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may reduce UGT1A activity by direct effects on the UGT1A 3'-UTR shared by all UGT1A enzyme transcripts, or by indirect effects on transcription factors regulating UGT1A expression. We performed an unbiased miRNA whole transcriptome association analysis using a bank of human livers with known acetaminophen glucuronidation activities. Of 754 miRNAs evaluated, 9 miRNAs were identified that were significantly overexpressed (p2-fold) in livers with low acetaminophen glucuronidation activities compared with those with high activities. miR-375 showed the highest difference (>10-fold), and was chosen for further mechanistic validation. We demonstrated using in silico analysis and luciferase reporter assays that miR-375 has a unique functional binding site in the 3'-UTR of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene. Furthermore overexpression of miR-375 in LS180 cells demonstrated significant repression of endogenous AhR protein (by 40%) and mRNA (by 10%), as well as enzyme activity and/or mRNA of AhR regulated enzymes including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and CYP1A2, without affecting UGT2B7, which is not regulated by AhR. Thus miR-375 is identified as a novel repressor of UGT1A-mediated hepatic acetaminophen glucuronidation through reduced AhR expression, which could predispose some individuals to increased risk for acetaminophen-induced ALF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Tissue plasminogen activator; identifying major barriers related to intravenous injection in ischemic acute cerebral infraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to previous publications, in patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction, thrombolytic therapy using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA necessitates precise documentation of symptoms' onset. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers related to the IV-tPA injection in such patients. Materials and Methods: Between the year 2014-2015, patients with definitive diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction (n = 180 who attended the neurology ward located at the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital were studied. To investigate barriers related to door to IV-tPA needle time, personal reasons, and criteria for inclusion or exclusion of patients, three questionnaire forms were designed based on the Food and Drug Administration-approved indications or contraindications. Results: The mean age of males versus females was 60 versus 77.5 years (ranged 23–93 vs. 29–70 years, respectively. Out of total population, only 10.7% transferred to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms. Regarding to eligibility for IV-tPA, 68.9% of total population have had criteria for such treatment. Concerning to both items such as transferring to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms and eligibility for IV-tPA, only 6.6% of total population met the criteria for such management. There was ignorance or inattention to symptoms in 75% of population studied. There was a mean of 195.92 ± 6.65 min (182.8–209.04 min for door to IV-tPA needle time. Conclusion: Despite the international guidelines for IV-tPA injection within 3–4.5 h of ischemic stroke symptoms' onset, the results of this study revealed that falling time due to ignorance of symptoms, literacy, and living alone might need further attention. As a result, to decrease death and disability, educational programs related to the symptoms' onset by consultant neurologist in Isfahan/Iran seem to be advantageous.

  3. Time-dependent inelastic analysis of metallic media using constitutive relations with state variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V; Mukherjee, S [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. (USA)

    1977-03-01

    A computational technique in terms of stress, strain and displacement rates is presented for the solution of boundary value problems for metallic structural elements at uniform elevated temperatures subjected to time varying loads. This method can accommodate any number of constitutive relations with state variables recently proposed by other researchers to model the inelastic deformation of metallic media at elevated temperatures. Numerical solutions are obtained for several structural elements subjected to steady loads. The constitutive relations used for these numerical solutions are due to Hart. The solutions are discussed in the context of the computational scheme and Hart's theory.

  4. Revisiting relationships between sex-related variables and continuation in counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Gregory T; Park, Heather L

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between three sex-related variables (client sex, therapist sex, and dyad matching on sex) and continuation in counseling. 245 college students who were clients at three university counseling centers participated. Consistent with previous studies, women comprised 68.2% of the clients seeking services at these counseling centers. Clients' sex was significantly related to counseling duration, explaining 2.2% of the common variance. Female clients, on the average, attended 1.8 more sessions than male clients. However, neither the therapists' sex nor dyad matching on sex was significantly related to the duration of counseling. None of the sex-related variables correlated with premature termination of counseling. The results have implications for providing counseling and outreach services to male students. Despite relatively equivalent rates in the incidence of mental health problems, female students continue to comprise the majority of clients. Therefore, university counseling centers need to communicate their services better to male students in need of mental health services.

  5. Associated and Mediating Variables Related to Job Satisfaction among Professionals from Mental Health Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François

    2018-06-01

    Using a structural analysis, this study examines the relationship between job satisfaction among 315 mental health professionals from the province of Quebec (Canada) and a wide range of variables related to provider characteristics, team characteristics, processes, and emergent states, and organizational culture. We used the Job Satisfaction Survey to assess job satisfaction. Our conceptual framework integrated numerous independent variables adapted from the input-mediator-output-input (IMOI) model and the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model (ITEM). The structural equation model predicted 47% of the variance of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was associated with eight variables: strong team support, participation in the decision-making process, closer collaboration, fewer conflicts among team members, modest knowledge production (team processes), firm affective commitment, multifocal identification (emergent states) and belonging to the nursing profession (provider characteristics). Team climate had an impact on six job satisfaction variables (team support, knowledge production, conflicts, affective commitment, collaboration, and multifocal identification). Results show that team processes and emergent states were mediators between job satisfaction and team climate. To increase job satisfaction among professionals, health managers need to pursue strategies that foster a positive climate within mental health teams.

  6. Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mei-Ling; Wang Xiao-Xiao; Xie Yin-Li; Jia Li-Qun; Sun Xian-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion are studied. The determining equation of Lie symmetry of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion under the infinitesimal transformations of groups is given. The expression of generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced directly from Lie symmetry for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results. (general)

  7. The role of physical activity and heart rate variability for the control of work related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Laís; Rodrigues, Fábio B; Souza, Jeniffer W S; Campbell, Carmen S G; Leicht, Anthony S; Boullosa, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and exercise are often used as tools to reduce stress and therefore the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Meanwhile, heart rate variability (HRV) has been utilized to assess both stress and PA or exercise influences. The objective of the present review was to examine the current literature in regards to workplace stress, PA/exercise and HRV to encourage further studies. We considered original articles from known databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge) over the last 10 years that examined these important factors. A total of seven studies were identified with workplace stress strongly associated with reduced HRV in workers. Longitudinal workplace PA interventions may provide a means to improve worker stress levels and potentially cardiovascular risk with mechanisms still to be clarified. Future studies are recommended to identify the impact of PA, exercise, and fitness on stress levels and HRV in workers and their subsequent influence on cardiovascular health.

  8. The role of physical activity and heart rate variability for the control of work related stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís eTonello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and exercise are often used as tools to reduce stress and therefore the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Meanwhile, heart rate variability (HRV has been utilised to assess both stress and PA or exercise influences. The objective of the present mini review was to examine the current literature in regards to workplace stress, PA/exercise and HRV to encourage further studies. We considered original articles from known databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge over the last 10 years that examined these important factors. A total of 7 studies were identified with workplace stress strongly associated with reduced HRV in workers. Longitudinal workplace PA interventions may provide a means to improve worker stress levels and potentially cardiovascular risk with mechanisms still to be clarified. Future studies are recommended to identify the impact of PA, exercise and fitness on stress levels and HRV in workers and their subsequent influence on cardiovascular health.

  9. Inter Annual Variability of the Acoustic Propagation in the Yellow Sea Identified from a Synoptic Monthly Gridded Database as Compared with GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    resolution in SMG-WOD, and thus less data levels for such shallow water . A comprehensive collection of salinity images by years can be found in the...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) This research investigates the inter-annual acoustic variability in the Yellow Sea identified from...is a semi-enclosed basin located between China and Korea with a mean depth of 40m; acoustics are driven by shallow water dynamics and interaction with

  10. Relations between zero-inflated variables in trials with horticultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro D. Lúcio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain characteristics of some vegetable crops allow multiple harvests during the production cycle; however, to our knowledge, no study has described the behavior of fruit production with progression of the production cycle in vegetable crops with multiple harvests that present data overdispersion. We aimed to characterize the data overdispersion of zero-inflated variables and identify the behavior of these variables during the production cycle of several vegetable crops with multiple harvests. Data from 11 uniformity trials were used without applying treatments; these comprise the database from the Experimental Plants Group at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil. The trials were conducted using four horticultural species grown during different cultivation seasons, cultivation environments, and experimental structures. Although at each harvest, a larger number of basic units with harvest fruit was observed than units without harvest fruit, the basic unit percentage without fruit was high, generating an overdispersion within each individual harvest. The variability within each harvest was high and increased with the evolution of the production cycle of Capsicum annuum, Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Cucurbita pepo species. However, the correlation coefficient between the mean weight and number of harvest fruits tended to remain constant during the crop production cycle. These behaviors show that harvest management should be done individually, at each harvest, such that data overdispersion is reduced.

  11. Relations between zero-inflated variables in trials with horticultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lúcio, A.D.; Nunes, L.F.; Rego, F.; Pasini, M.P.B.

    2016-11-01

    Certain characteristics of some vegetable crops allow multiple harvests during the production cycle; however, to our knowledge, no study has described the behavior of fruit production with progression of the production cycle in vegetable crops with multiple harvests that present data overdispersion. We aimed to characterize the data overdispersion of zero-inflated variables and identify the behavior of these variables during the production cycle of several vegetable crops with multiple harvests. Data from 11 uniformity trials were used without applying treatments; these comprise the database from the Experimental Plants Group at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil. The trials were conducted using four horticultural species grown during different cultivation seasons, cultivation environments, and experimental structures. Although at each harvest, a larger number of basic units with harvest fruit was observed than units without harvest fruit, the basic unit percentage without fruit was high, generating an overdispersion within each individual harvest. The variability within each harvest was high and increased with the evolution of the production cycle of Capsicum annuum, Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Cucurbita pepo species. However, the correlation coefficient between the mean weight and number of harvest fruits tended to remain constant during the crop production cycle. These behaviors show that harvest management should be done individually, at each harvest, such that data overdispersion is reduced. (Author)

  12. Association of eGFR-Related Loci Identified by GWAS with Incident CKD and ESRD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten A Böger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Family studies suggest a genetic component to the etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD. Previously, we identified 16 loci for eGFR in genome-wide association studies, but the associations of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for incident CKD or ESRD are unknown. We thus investigated the association of these loci with incident CKD in 26,308 individuals of European ancestry free of CKD at baseline drawn from eight population-based cohorts followed for a median of 7.2 years (including 2,122 incident CKD cases defined as eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m(2 at follow-up and with ESRD in four case-control studies in subjects of European ancestry (3,775 cases, 4,577 controls. SNPs at 11 of the 16 loci (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, SHROOM3, DACH1, STC1, SLC34A1, ALMS1/NAT8, UBE2Q2, and GCKR were associated with incident CKD; p-values ranged from p = 4.1e-9 in UMOD to p = 0.03 in GCKR. After adjusting for baseline eGFR, six of these loci remained significantly associated with incident CKD (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, DACH1, and STC1. SNPs in UMOD (OR = 0.92, p = 0.04 and GCKR (OR = 0.93, p = 0.03 were nominally associated with ESRD. In summary, the majority of eGFR-related loci are either associated or show a strong trend towards association with incident CKD, but have modest associations with ESRD in individuals of European descent. Additional work is required to characterize the association of genetic determinants of CKD and ESRD at different stages of disease progression.

  13. Aspect-related Vegetation Differences Amplify Soil Moisture Variability in Semiarid Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetemen, O.; Srivastava, A.; Kumari, N.; Saco, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture variability (SMV) in semiarid landscapes is affected by vegetation, soil texture, climate, aspect, and topography. The heterogeneity in vegetation cover that results from the effects of microclimate, terrain attributes (slope gradient, aspect, drainage area etc.), soil properties, and spatial variability in precipitation have been reported to act as the dominant factors modulating SMV in semiarid ecosystems. However, the role of hillslope aspect in SMV, though reported in many field studies, has not received the same degree of attention probably due to the lack of extensive large datasets. Numerical simulations can then be used to elucidate the contribution of aspect-driven vegetation patterns to this variability. In this work, we perform a sensitivity analysis to study on variables driving SMV using the CHILD landscape evolution model equipped with a spatially-distributed solar-radiation component that couples vegetation dynamics and surface hydrology. To explore how aspect-driven vegetation heterogeneity contributes to the SMV, CHILD was run using a range of parameters selected to reflect different scenarios (from uniform to heterogeneous vegetation cover). Throughout the simulations, the spatial distribution of soil moisture and vegetation cover are computed to estimate the corresponding coefficients of variation. Under the uniform spatial precipitation forcing and uniform soil properties, the factors affecting the spatial distribution of solar insolation are found to play a key role in the SMV through the emergence of aspect-driven vegetation patterns. Hence, factors such as catchment gradient, aspect, and latitude, define water stress and vegetation growth, and in turn affect the available soil moisture content. Interestingly, changes in soil properties (porosity, root depth, and pore-size distribution) over the domain are not as effective as the other factors. These findings show that the factors associated to aspect-related vegetation

  14. Climate related diseases. Current regional variability and projections to the year 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażejczyk Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The health of individuals and societies depends on different factors including atmospheric conditions which influence humans in direct and indirect ways. The paper presents regional variability of some climate related diseases (CRD in Poland: salmonellosis intoxications, Lyme boreliosis, skin cancers (morbidity and mortality, influenza, overcooling deaths, as well as respiratory and circulatory mortality. The research consisted of two stages: 1 statistical modelling basing on past data and 2 projections of CRD for three SRES scenarios of climate change (A1B, A2, B1 to the year 2100. Several simple and multiply regression models were found for the relationships between climate variables and CRD. The models were applied to project future levels of CRD. At the end of 21st century we must expect increase in: circulatory mortality, Lyme boreliosis infections and skin cancer morbidity and mortality. There is also projected decrease in: respiratory mortality, overcooling deaths and influenza infections.

  15. Relational Aggression in Preschool Students: An Exploration of the Variables of Sex, Age, and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Morine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers wished to ascertain whether there were age (three- and four-year old, sibling (with or without older siblings, and sex (male and female differences in the use of relational aggression in preschool students as rated by peers and teachers. In order to answer this research question, two 2 × 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA procedures with the relational aggression composite score as the dependent variable on the PSBS-P and PSBS-T were used for peer and teacher assessment, respectively, of relational aggression. Results revealed that in the peer ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, there was an disordinal age by sibling interaction, in which four-year-old children with siblings were significantly more likely to be rated by their peers as using relational aggression than three-year-old children without siblings. In the teacher ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, a main effect for age was observed. Teachers rated four-year old children as evidencing significantly higher levels of relational aggression as compared to three-year-olds. No sex differences were observed in the use of relational aggression either at age three or age four in this sample. Implications for these findings are presented.

  16. Variability of the groundwater sulfate concentration in fractured rock slopes: a tool to identify active unstable areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Binet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Water chemical analysis of 100 springs from the Orco and the Tinée valleys (Western Italy and Southern France and a 7 year groundwater chemistry monitoring of the 5 main springs were performed. All these springs drain from crystalline rock slopes. Some of these drain from currently active gravitational slope deformations.

    All groundwaters flowing through presently unstable slopes show anomalies in the sulfate concentrations compared to stable aquifers. Particularly, an increase of sulfate concentrations was observed repeatedly after each of five consecutive landslides on the La Clapière slope, thus attesting to the mechanical deformations are at the origin of this concentration change. Significant changes in the water chemistry are produced even from slow (mm/year and low magnitude deformations of the geological settings.

    Pyrite nuclei in open fractures were found to be coated by iron oxides. This suggests that the increase of dissolved sulfate relates to oxidative dissolution of Pyrite. Speciation calculations of Pyrite versus Gypsum confirmed that observed changes in the sulfate concentrations is predominantly provided from Pyrite. Calculated amounts of dissolved minerals in the springs water was obtained through inverse modelling of the major ion water analysis data. It is shown that the concentration ratio of calculated dissolved Pyrite versus calculated dissolved gneiss rock allows us to unambiguously distinguish water from stable and unstable areas. This result opens an interesting perspective for the follow-up of sliding or friction dynamic in landslides or in (a seismic faults.

  17. Beyond imperviousness: A statistical approach to identifying functional differences between development morphologies on variable source area-type response in urbanized watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence has shown linkages between urbanization, hydrological regime change, and degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat. Percent imperviousness, has long been suggested as the dominant source of these negative changes. However, recent research identifying alternative pathways of runoff production at the watershed scale have called into question percent impervious surface area's primacy in urban runoff production compared to other aspects of urbanization including change in vegetative cover, imported water and water leakages, and the presence of drainage infrastructure. In this research I show how a robust statistical methodology can detect evidence of variable source area (VSA)-type hydrologic response associated with incremental hydraulic connectivity in watersheds. I then use logistic regression to explore how evidence of VSA-type response relates to the physical and meterological characteristics of the watershed. I find that impervious surface area is highly correlated with development, but does not add significant explanatory power beyond percent developed in predicting VSA-type response. Other aspects of development morphology, including percent developed open space and type of drainage infrastructure also do not add to the explanatory power of undeveloped land in predicting VSA-type response. Within only developed areas, the effect of developed open space was found to be more similar to that of total impervious area than to undeveloped land. These findings were consistent when tested across a national cross-section of urbanized watersheds, a higher resolution dataset of Baltimore Metropolitan Area watersheds, and a subsample of watersheds confirmed not to be served by combined sewer systems. These findings suggest that land development policies that focus on lot coverage should be revisited, and more focus should be placed on preserving native vegetation and soil conditions alongside development.

  18. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilie M.M.; Yoo, Albert J.; Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie; Niessen, Wiro J.; Marquering, Henk A.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  19. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beecham, Ashley H; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Xifara, Dionysia K

    2013-01-01

    Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analyzed 14,498 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (P...

  1. Events per variable for risk differences and relative risks using pseudo-observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Andersen, Per Kragh; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2014-01-01

    A method based on pseudo-observations has been proposed for direct regression modeling of functionals of interest with right-censored data, including the survival function, the restricted mean and the cumulative incidence function in competing risks. The models, once the pseudo-observations have...... been computed, can be fitted using standard generalized estimating equation software. Regression models can however yield problematic results if the number of covariates is large in relation to the number of events observed. Guidelines of events per variable are often used in practice. These rules...

  2. Invariance and variability in interaction error-related potentials and their consequences for classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Alqumsan, Mohammad; Kapeller, Christoph; Hintermüller, Christoph; Guger, Christoph; Peer, Angelika

    2017-12-01

    Objective. This paper discusses the invariance and variability in interaction error-related potentials (ErrPs), where a special focus is laid upon the factors of (1) the human mental processing required to assess interface actions (2) time (3) subjects. Approach. Three different experiments were designed as to vary primarily with respect to the mental processes that are necessary to assess whether an interface error has occurred or not. The three experiments were carried out with 11 subjects in a repeated-measures experimental design. To study the effect of time, a subset of the recruited subjects additionally performed the same experiments on different days. Main results. The ErrP variability across the different experiments for the same subjects was found largely attributable to the different mental processing required to assess interface actions. Nonetheless, we found that interaction ErrPs are empirically invariant over time (for the same subject and same interface) and to a lesser extent across subjects (for the same interface). Significance. The obtained results may be used to explain across-study variability of ErrPs, as well as to define guidelines for approaches to the ErrP classifier transferability problem.

  3. The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Growth and Psychosocial Variables in Survivors of State Terrorism and Their Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Faúndez-Abarca, Ximena; Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ceruti-Mahn, Cristián

    2017-08-01

    The present study explores reports of growth in survivors and family members of victims of state terrorism ( N = 254) in Chile from 1973 to 1990. The results indicate the presence of reports of posttraumatic growth ( M = 4.69) and a positive and statistically significant correlation with variables related to the life impact of the stressful events ( r = .46), social sharing of emotions ( r = .32), deliberate rumination ( r = .37), positive reappraisal ( r = .35), reconciliation ( r = .39), spiritual practices ( r = .33), and meaning in life ( r = .51). The relationship between growth and forgiveness is not statistically significant. The variables that best predict posttraumatic growth are positive reappraisal (β = .28), life impact (β = .24), meaning in life β = .23), and reconciliation (β = .20). The forward-method hierarchical model indicates that these variables are significant predictors of growth levels, R 2 = .53, F(8, 210) = 30.08, p state terrorism manage to grow after these experiences, and the redefinition of meaning in life and the positive reappraisal of the traumatic experiences are the elements that make it possible to create a new narrative about the past.

  4. Within and between Individual Variability of Exposure to Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zare

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Industrial companies indicate a tendency to eliminate variations in operator strategies, particularly following implementation of the lean principle. Companies believe when the operators perform the same prescribed tasks, they have to execute them in the same manner (completing the same gestures and being exposed to the same risk factors. They attempt to achieve better product quality by standardizing and reducing operational leeway. However, operators adjust and modify ways of performing tasks to balance between their abilities and the requirements of the job. This study aims to investigate the variability of exposure to physical risk factors within and between operators when executing the same prescribed tasks. The Ergonomic Standard method was used to evaluate two workstations. Seven operators were observed thirty times between repeated cycle times at those workstations. The results revealed the variability of exposure to risk factors between and within operators in the repeated execution of the same tasks. Individual characteristics and operators’ strategies might generate the variability of exposure to risk factors that may be an opportunity to reduce the risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WR-MSDs. However, sometimes operators’ strategies may cause overexposure to risk factors; operators most often adopt such strategies to undertake their tasks while reducing the workload.

  5. [Cognitive complaints in people with human immunodeficiency virus in Spain: prevalence and related variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Moreno, José A; Fuster-Ruiz de Apodaca, Maria J; Fumaz, Carmina R; Ferrer, Maria J; Molero, Fernando; Jaen, Àngels; Clotet, Bonaventura; Dalmau, David

    2014-05-20

    Cognitive complaints have been scarcely studied in people with HIV in Spain. The aim of this research was to know the prevalence of cognitive complaints in HIV-infected people, as well as its potential relationships with demographic, clinical and psychological variables, in the era of combination antiretroviral therapies. Observational multicenter study developed in 4 hospitals and 10 NGOs, in which 791 people with HIV in Spain participated. A self-reported questionnaire was used to evaluate demographic and clinical variables, and an assessment of cognitive complaints, emotional status and quality of life variables was also included. Descriptive and inferential tests were used for statistical analyses. Almost half of the sample (49.8%) referred cognitive complaints, in 72.1% of them an association with interference on daily living activities was found. Memory and attention were the areas most prevalently perceived as affected. The existence of cognitive complaints correlated with a longer HIV infection, lower CD4+ cell count, undetectable viral load and worse quality of life. A discriminant analysis determined that depression, anxiety, older age, living with no partner and low education level allowed to classify optimally HIV-infected people with cognitive complaints. Self-reported cognitive complaints are frequent in people infected with HIV in the current era of combination antiretroviral therapies. This fact is related to emotional disturbances and poor quality of life, but also to impaired immunological and virological status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of plyometric training on soccer related physical fitness variables of intercollegiate female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Mengesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training is an important training program in improving physical fitness and soccer skills of players. The study was conducted to find out the effects of plyometric training on soccer related physical fitness variables of Haramaya University intercollegiate female soccer players. For this study forty female (age, 20±1.5 years; height, 1.61±0.7 m; BMI, 20.41±0.7Kg/cm2 soccer players were selected through purposive sampling. Experimental group (n= 20 participants were engaged in a supervised plyometric training program 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The control group (n= 20 did not participate in any of the program except regular soccer training however, the tests were conducted for them. The physical fitness and soccer skill variables selected for the study were: Speed, Explosive power, Agility, Dribbling, Kicking Right and Left Feet. Tests were taken three times at pre training, during training and post training. Comparison of mean was done by paired t-test. The results obtained in this study indicated that there was significant improvement in selected physical fitness and soccer skill variables due to the effects of plyometric training. After 12 weeks of plyometric training participant’s speed (0.78 m/sec., agility (2.64 sec, and explosive power (7.85 cm were changed significantly (p<0.05. Participant’s dribbling soccer skill (1.92 sec., kicking right foot for distance (2.19 m and kicking left foot for distance (2.91 m were significantly improved through plyometric training. This study proved that plyometric training was significantly better in improving the physical fitness variables and soccer skills of female soccer players.

  7. Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Ashley H; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Xifara, Dionysia K; Davis, Mary F; Kemppinen, Anu; Cotsapas, Chris; Shahi, Tejas S; Spencer, Chris; Booth, David; Goris, An; Oturai, Annette; Saarela, Janna; Fontaine, Bertrand; Hemmer, Bernhard; Martin, Claes; Zipp, Frauke; D’alfonso, Sandra; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Taylor, Bruce; Harbo, Hanne F; Kockum, Ingrid; Hillert, Jan; Olsson, Tomas; Ban, Maria; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hintzen, Rogier; Barcellos, Lisa F; Agliardi, Cristina; Alfredsson, Lars; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Anderson, Carl; Andrews, Robert; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Baker, Amie; Band, Gavin; Baranzini, Sergio E; Barizzone, Nadia; Barrett, Jeffrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Bergamaschi, Laura; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Berthele, Achim; Biberacher, Viola; Binder, Thomas M C; Blackburn, Hannah; Bomfim, Izaura L; Brambilla, Paola; Broadley, Simon; Brochet, Bruno; Brundin, Lou; Buck, Dorothea; Butzkueven, Helmut; Caillier, Stacy J; Camu, William; Carpentier, Wassila; Cavalla, Paola; Celius, Elisabeth G; Coman, Irène; Comi, Giancarlo; Corrado, Lucia; Cosemans, Leentje; Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle; Cree, Bruce A C; Cusi, Daniele; Damotte, Vincent; Defer, Gilles; Delgado, Silvia R; Deloukas, Panos; di Sapio, Alessia; Dilthey, Alexander T; Donnelly, Peter; Dubois, Bénédicte; Duddy, Martin; Edkins, Sarah; Elovaara, Irina; Esposito, Federica; Evangelou, Nikos; Fiddes, Barnaby; Field, Judith; Franke, Andre; Freeman, Colin; Frohlich, Irene Y; Galimberti, Daniela; Gieger, Christian; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Graetz, Christiane; Graham, Andrew; Grummel, Verena; Guaschino, Clara; Hadjixenofontos, Athena; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halfpenny, Christopher; Hall, Gillian; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; Harley, James; Harrower, Timothy; Hawkins, Clive; Hellenthal, Garrett; Hillier, Charles; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoshi, Muni; Hunt, Sarah E; Jagodic, Maja; Jelčić, Ilijas; Jochim, Angela; Kendall, Brian; Kermode, Allan; Kilpatrick, Trevor; Koivisto, Keijo; Konidari, Ioanna; Korn, Thomas; Kronsbein, Helena; Langford, Cordelia; Larsson, Malin; Lathrop, Mark; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Lee, Michelle H; Leone, Maurizio A; Leppä, Virpi; Liberatore, Giuseppe; Lie, Benedicte A; Lill, Christina M; Lindén, Magdalena; Link, Jenny; Luessi, Felix; Lycke, Jan; Macciardi, Fabio; Männistö, Satu; Manrique, Clara P; Martin, Roland; Martinelli, Vittorio; Mason, Deborah; Mazibrada, Gordon; McCabe, Cristin; Mero, Inger-Lise; Mescheriakova, Julia; Moutsianas, Loukas; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Nagels, Guy; Nicholas, Richard; Nilsson, Petra; Piehl, Fredrik; Pirinen, Matti; Price, Siân E; Quach, Hong; Reunanen, Mauri; Robberecht, Wim; Robertson, Neil P; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Rog, David; Salvetti, Marco; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie C; Sellebjerg, Finn; Selter, Rebecca C; Schaefer, Catherine; Shaunak, Sandip; Shen, Ling; Shields, Simon; Siffrin, Volker; Slee, Mark; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Sorosina, Melissa; Sospedra, Mireia; Spurkland, Anne; Strange, Amy; Sundqvist, Emilie; Thijs, Vincent; Thorpe, John; Ticca, Anna; Tienari, Pentti; van Duijn, Cornelia; Visser, Elizabeth M; Vucic, Steve; Westerlind, Helga; Wiley, James S; Wilkins, Alastair; Wilson, James F; Winkelmann, Juliane; Zajicek, John; Zindler, Eva; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Ivinson, Adrian J; Stewart, Graeme; Hafler, David; Hauser, Stephen L; Compston, Alastair; McVean, Gil; De Jager, Philip; Sawcer, Stephen; McCauley, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analysed 14,498 multiple sclerosis subjects and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (p-value multiple sclerosis subjects and 26,703 healthy controls. In these 80,094 individuals of European ancestry we identified 48 new susceptibility variants (p-value multiple sclerosis risk variants in 103 discrete loci outside of the Major Histocompatibility Complex. With high resolution Bayesian fine-mapping, we identified five regions where one variant accounted for more than 50% of the posterior probability of association. This study enhances the catalogue of multiple sclerosis risk variants and illustrates the value of fine-mapping in the resolution of GWAS signals. PMID:24076602

  8. The relations between the academic success levels of the boys playing basketball and certain variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut CANLI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between the academic success levels of the boys playing basketball and certain variables such as age, basketball playing times, the number of the weekly average trainings and motoric skills. Material and Methods: 93 students participated voluntarily in the study from three different sports clubs. The ages in which the participants started basketball varied between 10 and 13, and their durations of weekly trainings differed from each other. The end-of-the-year academic success average points of the participants were considered in determining the academic success levels; and the International Physical Performance Test Profile (IPPTP (Kamar, 2008 was used in measuring the motoric skills. The issue of whether there was a significant difference between the participants was determined by using the SPSS 21.0 Package Program together with the One-Way ANOVA Test. Results: According to the findings, it was determined that there were no relations between the academic success rates and the basketball playing durations, the number of weekly trainings, and their motoric skills (p>0.05. On the other hand, a statistically significant difference was determined between the age variable and the academic success levels (p<0.05. Conclusions: No significant differences were detected between the motoric skills, number of trainings, starting basketball dates and the academic success levels of the sportsmen who receive basic basketball training (which contribute to the development of motoric skills with different numbers of weekly training and with different basketball starting dates; while a negative significance was detected between the age variable and academic success.

  9. Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huby, Marie; Griffon, Laurent; Moureaux, Sophie; De Rochambeau, Hubert; Danchin-Burge, Coralie; Verrier, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH), Blanc du Massif Central (BMC), Charollais (CHA) and Limousin (LIM); the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH) and Solognot (SOL). Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount). The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not) for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH), 144 (BMC), 112 (CHA), 69 (LIM), 40 (RLH) and 49 (SOL). Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH), +0.045 (CHA), +0.036 (LIM), +0.098 (RLH) and +0.062 (SOL). The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.

  10. Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Danchin-Burge

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH, Blanc du Massif Central (BMC, Charollais (CHA and Limousin (LIM; the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH and Solognot (SOL. Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount. The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH, 144 (BMC, 112 (CHA, 69 (LIM, 40 (RLH and 49 (SOL. Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH, +0.045 (CHA, +0.036 (LIM, +0.098 (RLH and +0.062 (SOL. The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.

  11. Anthropometric and training variables related to half-marathon running performance in recreational female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running has been investigated in distances ranging from 100 m to the marathon distance (42.195 km), with the exclusion of the half-marathon distance (21.0975 km). We investigated the association between anthropometric variables, prerace experience, and training variables with race time in 42 recreational, nonprofessional, female half-marathon runners using bi- and multivariate analysis. Body weight (r, 0.60); body mass index (r, 0.48); body fat percentage (r, 0.56); pectoral (r, 0.61), mid-axilla (r, 0.69), triceps (r, 0.49), subscapular (r, 0.61), abdominal (r, 0.59), suprailiac (r, 0.55), and medial calf (r, 0.53) skin-fold thickness; mean speed of the training sessions (r, -0.68); and personal best time in a half-marathon (r, 0.69) correlated with race time after bivariate analysis. Body weight (P = 0.0054), pectoral skin-fold thickness (P = 0.0068), and mean speed of the training sessions (P = 0.0041) remained significant after multivariate analysis. Mean running speed during training was related to mid-axilla (r, -0.31), subscapular (r, -0.38), abdominal (r, -0.44), and suprailiac (r, -0.41) skin-fold thickness, the sum of 8 skin-fold thicknesses (r, -0.36); and percent body fat (r, -0.31). It was determined that variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half-marathon race time, and that skin-fold thicknesses were associated with running speed during training. For practical applications, high running speed during training (as opposed to extensive training) may both reduce upper-body skin-fold thicknesses and improve race performance in recreational female half-marathon runners.

  12. Relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, H; Rampal, K

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers. Methods: This was a cross sectional survey of production workers from 18 semiconductor factories. Those selected had to be women, direct production operators up to the level of line leader, and Malaysian citizens. Sick leave and exposure to physical and chemical hazards were determined by self reporting. Three sick leave variables were used; number of sick leave days taken in the past year was the variable of interest in logistic regression models where the effects of age, marital status, work task, work schedule, work section, and duration of work in factory and work section were also explored. Results: Marital status was strongly linked to the taking of sick leave. Age, work schedule, and duration of work in the factory were significant confounders only in certain cases. After adjusting for these confounders, chemical and physical exposures, with the exception of poor ventilation and smelling chemicals, showed no significant relation to the taking of sick leave within the past year. Work section was a good predictor for taking sick leave, as wafer polishing workers faced higher odds of taking sick leave for each of the three cut off points of seven days, three days, and not at all, while parts assembly workers also faced significantly higher odds of taking sick leave. Conclusion: In Malaysia, the wafer fabrication factories only carry out a limited portion of the work processes, in particular, wafer polishing and the processes immediately prior to and following it. This study, in showing higher illness rates for workers in wafer polishing compared to semiconductor assembly, has implications for the governmental policy of encouraging the setting up of wafer fabrication plants with the full range of work processes. PMID:12660374

  13. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruel, Gaëtan; Villagrasa, Carmen; Voisin, Pascale; Clairand, Isabelle; Benderitter, Marc; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François; Barquinero, Joan Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF) per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This comparison allowed us to

  14. Cell to Cell Variability of Radiation-Induced Foci: Relation between Observed Damage and Energy Deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Gruel

    Full Text Available Most studies that aim to understand the interactions between different types of photon radiation and cellular DNA assume homogeneous cell irradiation, with all cells receiving the same amount of energy. The level of DNA damage is therefore generally determined by averaging it over the entire population of exposed cells. However, evaluating the molecular consequences of a stochastic phenomenon such as energy deposition of ionizing radiation by measuring only an average effect may not be sufficient for understanding some aspects of the cellular response to this radiation. The variance among the cells associated with this average effect may also be important for the behaviour of irradiated tissue. In this study, we accurately estimated the distribution of the number of radiation-induced γH2AX foci (RIF per cell nucleus in a large population of endothelial cells exposed to 3 macroscopic doses of gamma rays from 60Co. The number of RIF varied significantly and reproducibly from cell to cell, with its relative standard deviation ranging from 36% to 18% depending on the macroscopic dose delivered. Interestingly, this relative cell-to-cell variability increased as the dose decreased, contrary to the mean RIF count per cell. This result shows that the dose effect, in terms of the number of DNA lesions indicated by RIF is not as simple as a purely proportional relation in which relative SD is constant with dose. To analyse the origins of this observed variability, we calculated the spread of the specific energy distribution for the different target volumes and subvolumes in which RIF can be generated. Variances, standard deviations and relative standard deviations all changed similarly from dose to dose for biological and calculated microdosimetric values. This similarity is an important argument that supports the hypothesis of the conservation of the association between the number of RIF per nucleus and the specific energy per DNA molecule. This

  15. Relation between small-mammal species composition and anthropic variables in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olifiers

    Full Text Available Anthropic activities are frequently related in many ways to forest fragmentation and alteration of natural communities. In this study, we correlate the presence of hunting, tourism activity, agriculture/pasturing, and the distance of the study sites to the nearest human residences with the species composition of small Atlantic forest mammals. To do this, we utilize a multiple regression analysis of similarity matrices. The presence of both agriculture/pasturing and human residences near the study sites proved to be determinant factors in species composition of small mammals of the studied areas. Working with socioeconomic variables related directly with the study site could be a reliable and a direct way to predict the influence of human presence and entailed activity on small mammal communities.

  16. Chemical equilibrium. [maximizing entropy of gas system to derive relations between thermodynamic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The entropy of a gas system with the number of particles subject to external control is maximized to derive relations between the thermodynamic variables that obtain at equilibrium. These relations are described in terms of the chemical potential, defined as equivalent partial derivatives of entropy, energy, enthalpy, free energy, or free enthalpy. At equilibrium, the change in total chemical potential must vanish. This fact is used to derive the equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in terms of the partition functions of the species involved in the reaction. Thus the equilibrium constants can be determined accurately, just as other thermodynamic properties, from a knowledge of the energy levels and degeneracies for the gas species involved. These equilibrium constants permit one to calculate the equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of chemically reacting species that occur in gas mixtures at any given condition of pressure and temperature or volume and temperature.

  17. INFRARED PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS OF EVOLVED VARIABLE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riebel, David; Meixner, Margaret; Fraser, Oliver; Srinivasan, Sundar; Cook, Kem; Vijh, Uma

    2010-01-01

    We combine variability information from the MAssive Compact Halo Objects survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud with infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution survey to create a data set of ∼30,000 variable red sources. We photometrically classify these sources as being on the first ascent of the red giant branch, or as being in one of three stages along the asymptotic giant branch (AGB): oxygen-rich, carbon-rich, or highly reddened with indeterminate chemistry ('extreme' AGB candidates). We present linear period-luminosity (P-L) relationships for these sources using eight separate infrared bands (J, H, K s , 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm) as proxies for the luminosity. We find that the wavelength dependence of the slope of the P-L relationship is different for different photometrically determined classes of AGB stars. Stars photometrically classified as O-rich show the least variation of slope with wavelength, while dust enshrouded extreme AGB stars show a pronounced trend toward steeper slopes with increasing wavelength. We find that O-rich AGB stars pulsating in the fundamental mode obey a period-magnitude relation with a slope of -3.41 ± 0.04 when magnitude is measured in the 3.6 μm band, in contrast to C-rich AGB stars, which obey a relation of slope -3.77 ± 0.05.

  18. Dissociating neural variability related to stimulus quality and response times in perceptual decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Bennett, Daniel; Sewell, David K; Paton, Bryan; Egan, Gary F; Smith, Philip L; Murawski, Carsten

    2018-03-01

    According to sequential sampling models, perceptual decision-making is based on accumulation of noisy evidence towards a decision threshold. The speed with which a decision is reached is determined by both the quality of incoming sensory information and random trial-by-trial variability in the encoded stimulus representations. To investigate those decision dynamics at the neural level, participants made perceptual decisions while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted. On each trial, participants judged whether an image presented under conditions of high, medium, or low visual noise showed a piano or a chair. Higher stimulus quality (lower visual noise) was associated with increased activation in bilateral medial occipito-temporal cortex and ventral striatum. Lower stimulus quality was related to stronger activation in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). When stimulus quality was fixed, faster response times were associated with a positive parametric modulation of activation in medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, while slower response times were again related to more activation in PPC, DLPFC and insula. Our results suggest that distinct neural networks were sensitive to the quality of stimulus information, and to trial-to-trial variability in the encoded stimulus representations, but that reaching a decision was a consequence of their joint activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ASPECTS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF EFFECTIVE TEAM RELATED VARIABLES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INTERCULTURAL WORK TEAMS IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIBU Nicolae

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various phenomena generated by the new context of globalization have focused our research interest towards studying in what ways management of Intercultural Work teams (IWT could and should contribute to the increase of their performance at work. Despite the recognition of the fact that many MNCs fail in the management of IWTs, there is still a significant knowledge gap about their non-functionalities. Managerial literature „blames” national and organizational culture differences for the failure of this process. This is because each member brings his own style of work, with his own way of ensuring effective cooperation, making difficult to identify a clear recipe of a team organization and management in intercultural context. Teamwork, managing work teams made the subject of numerous researchers from many fields, denoting so difficult exercise in practice. However, we have identified high performance IWTs whose members are from different countries. Therefore, we assume that their management identified and used methods and instruments able to ensuring IWT performance. If we look at international research, intercultural teams management models have a reductionist and not holistic approach, namely stochastic in terms of selection of specific cultural dimensions cultural models specific to the interest of the researcher. In contrast, in Romania, intercultural management and intercultural management teams performance is less studied. The research presented below is set up to be a part of a pilot study, an exploratory research of how intercultural management assigned dimensions are directly related to the concept of EIA performance dimensions assigned. Our assumption for the empirical research is the following: work team performance (effective, efficient, with a high degree of satisfaction of its members is the result of application performance management in the context of a particular style of interaction specific team. Because the dependent

  20. Identifying the related compounds using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: bromotyrosine alkaloids from marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; DeSouza, L.

    electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This sponge has tremendous chemical diversity of bromotyrosine alkaloids. Here we have used the proteomics approach in identifying related bromotyrosine alkaloids based on the predicated mass...

  1. Identifying return-to-work trajectories using sequence analysis in a cohort of workers with work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLeod, Christopher B.; Reiff, Eline; Maas, Esther; Bultmann, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to identify return-to-work (RTW) trajectories among workers with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and examine the associations between different MSD and these RTW trajectories. Methods We used administrative workers' compensation data to identify accepted MSD

  2. Relações entre os caracteres de maracujazeiro-azedo Relations between variables in passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal'Col Lúcio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi identificar os caracteres que mais merecem atenção em experimentos com a cultura do maracujá-azedo (Passiflora edulis Sims e verificar suas relações com o caractere dependente principal produção total de frutos. A partir dos dados de quatro experimentos com a cultura do maracujá calculou-se a matriz de correlações entre todos os caracteres e realizou-se o diagnóstico de multicolinearidade. Em seguida foi aplicada a análise de trilha entre os caracteres restantes. Para identificar os caracteres com maior contribuição na variabilidade total existente foi realizada uma análise de componentes principais. Os caracteres peso médio de polpa e número de frutos são os de maior correlação com o peso total de frutos de maracujá. O teor de sólidos solúveis total, o peso médio de frutos, o comprimento e o diâmetro do fruto, a espessura da casca e a percentagem de polpa tem baixa correlação com o peso total de frutos de maracujá.The aim of this research was to indentify the variables which deserve more attention in experiments with passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims and verify their relations with the principal dependent variable: total fruit yield. From data of four experiments with passion fruit culture it was calculated the correlation matrix between the variables and performed the diagnosis of multicollinearity, then applied the path analysis between the variables left. To identify the variables with more contribution in the total variability it was performed analysis of main components. The pulp weight and the fruit number have higher correlation with the fruits total weight. The total soluble solids rate, the average weight of fruits, length and fruit diameter, peel thickness and the pulp percentage has lower correlation with the fruit total weight of passion fruit.

  3. The "Akopian" vault performed by elite male gymnasts: Which biomechanical variables are related to a judge's score?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Farana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A vaulting performance takes a short time and it is influenced by and affects the quantity of mechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vaulting score and specific aspects of the gymnast's vault should conduct coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of the Akopian vaults performed by top level male gymnasts during the World Cup competition. Methods: Fifteen top-level male gymnasts participated in this study. For the 3D analysis, two digital camcorders with a frame rate of 50 Hz were used. The data were digitized by the Simi motion software. The Hay and Reid method was used to identify the biomechanical variables that determine the linear and angular motions of the handspring and front somersault vaults. A correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the biomechanical variables and the judges' scores. The level of statistical significance was determined at the value of p < .05. Results: In the Akopian vaults, in five out of 24 variables arising from the deterministic model showed a significant relationship to the score. A significant correlation was found in the maximum height of the body center of mass in the second flight phase, in the height of the body center of mass at the mat touchdown, in the change of the vertical velocity during the take-off from the vaulting table, and in the duration of the second flight phase. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that a successful execution of Akopian vaults and the achievement of a higher score required: to maximize the change in vertical velocity in the table contact phase and maximize vertical velocity in the table take-off phase; to maximize the amplitude of the second flight phase, which is determined by the duration of the second flight phase, by the maximum

  4. Validation of a search strategy to identify nutrition trials in PubMed using the relative recall method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Solange; Kredo, Tamara; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-06-01

    To develop, assess, and maximize the sensitivity of a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed using relative recall. We developed a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed. We then constructed a gold standard reference set to validate the identified trials using the relative recall method. Relative recall was calculated by dividing the number of references from the gold standard our search strategy identified by the total number of references in the gold standard. Our gold standard comprised 298 trials, derived from 16 included systematic reviews. The initial search strategy identified 242 of 298 references, with a relative recall of 81.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 76.3%, 85.5%]. We analyzed titles and abstracts of the 56 missed references for possible additional terms. We then modified the search strategy accordingly. The relative recall of the final search strategy was 88.6% (95% CI: 84.4%, 91.9%). We developed a search strategy to identify diet and nutrition trials in PubMed with a high relative recall (sensitivity). This could be useful for establishing a nutrition trials register to support the conduct of future research, including systematic reviews. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  6. Identifying and Assessing Life-Cycle-Related Critical Technology Elements (CTEs) for Technology Readiness Assessments (TRAs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mandelbaum, Jay

    2006-01-01

    .... Because these technologies are not emphasized in the current Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) process this document is intended to improve the focus on life-cycle-related technologies in TRAs...

  7. Newly Identified Gait Patterns in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis May Be Related to Push-off Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Jiska C E; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Knol, Dirk L; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen

    2016-11-01

    Limited walking ability is an important problem for patients with multiple sclerosis. A better understanding of how gait impairments lead to limited walking ability may help to develop more targeted interventions. Although gait classifications are available in cerebral palsy and stroke, relevant knowledge in MS is scarce. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify distinctive gait patterns in patients with MS based on a combined evaluation of kinematics, gait features, and muscle activity during walking and (2) to determine the clinical relevance of these gait patterns. This was a cross-sectional study of 81 patients with MS of mild-to-moderate severity (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] median score=3.0, range=1.0-7.0) and an age range of 28 to 69 years. The patients participated in 2-dimensional video gait analysis, with concurrent measurement of surface electromyography and ground reaction forces. A score chart of 73 gait items was used to rate each gait analysis. A single rater performed the scoring. Latent class analysis was used to identify gait classes. Analysis of the 73 gait variables revealed that 9 variables could distinguish 3 clinically meaningful gait classes. The 9 variables were: (1) heel-rise in terminal stance, (2) push-off, (3) clearance in initial swing, (4) plantar-flexion position in mid-swing, (5) pelvic rotation, (6) arm-trunk movement, (7) activity of the gastrocnemius muscle in pre-swing, (8) M-wave, and (9) propulsive force. The EDSS score and gait speed worsened in ascending classes. Most participants had mild-to-moderate limitations in walking ability based on their EDSS scores, and the number of walkers who were severely limited was small. Based on a small set of 9 variables measured with 2-dimensional clinical gait analysis, patients with MS could be divided into 3 different gait classes. The gait variables are suggestive of insufficient ankle push-off. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  8. Identifying amyloid pathology?related cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease in a multicohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Yuk Yee; Toledo, Jon B.; Nefedov, Alexey; Polikar, Robi; Raghavan, Nandini; Xie, Sharon X.; Farnum, Michael; Schultz, Tim; Baek, Young; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Hu, William T.; Holtzman, David M.; Fagan, Anne M.; Perrin, Richard J.; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The dynamic range of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid ? (A?1?42) measurement does not parallel to cognitive changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitively normal (CN) subjects across different studies. Therefore, identifying novel proteins to characterize symptomatic AD samples is important. Methods Proteins were profiled using a multianalyte platform by Rules Based Medicine (MAP-RBM). Due to underlying heterogeneity and unbalanced sample size, we combined subjects (344 AD ...

  9. Identifying musical difficulties as they relate to congenital amusia in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Lyndy J; He, Kaidi; Derkay, Craig S

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 4% of the population fails to develop basic music skills and can be identified as "amusic". Congenital amusia (CA), or "tone deafness", is thought to be a hereditary disordera predominantly affecting the perception and production of music. The gold standard for diagnosis is the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). This study aims to pinpoint factors in the history that may help identify amusic children and to determine if amusic pediatric patients can be identified using a widely available, shorter test validated in adults. Subjects ages 7-17 years were recruited to take an online test, validated against the MBEA, for CA. The sections tested recognition of "off-beat" (OB), "mistuned" (MT), and "out-of-key" (OOK) conditions. Parents filled out a questionnaire regarding the subject's past medical, educational, musical exposure, and family history. Of 114 subjects recruited, complete data was available on 105 with a mean age of 12.5 years. According to adult criteria, 63/105 (60%) of subjects scored in the "amusic" range. Children >10 years of age scored significantly higher on the off-beat section (p=0.001) and total scores (p=0.025). Subjects who were born prematurely scored significantly lower (p=0.045). Children whose father had difficulties with music scored significantly lower on the off-beat section (p=0.003) and total scores (p=0.008). CA is a disorder that has implications for quality of life. Earlier identification may help elucidate the pathogenesis of the condition and, in the future, the institution of prompt treatment. Further studies are needed to identify the most appropriate and convenient tests, as well as the optimal timing of testing, for reliably diagnosing CA in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Duodenoscope-Related Outbreak of a Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Identified Using Advanced Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Romney M; Yang, Shuan; Kim, Stephen; Muthusamy, Venkatara Raman; Russell, Dana; Trout, Alisa M; Zaroda, Teresa; Cheng, Quen J; Aldrovandi, Grace; Uslan, Daniel Zachary; Hemarajata, Peera; Rubin, Zachary Aaron

    2017-10-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections are increasingly prevalent in North American hospitals. We describe an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae containing the blaOXA-232 gene transmitted by contaminated duodenoscopes during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedures. An outbreak investigation was performed when 9 patients with blaOXA-232 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections were identified at a tertiary care hospital. The investigation included 2 case-control studies, review of duodenoscope reprocessing procedures, and culture of devices. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriacieae (CRE) isolates were evaluated with polymerase chain reaction analysis for carbapenemase genes, and isolates with the blaOXA-232 gene were subjected to whole-genome sequencing and chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. On recognition of ERCP as a key risk factor for infection, targeted patient notification and CRE screening cultures were performed. Molecular testing ultimately identified 17 patients with blaOxa-232 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates, including 9 with infections, 7 asymptomatic carriers who had undergone ERCP, and 1 additional patient who had been hospitalized in India and was probably the initial carrier. Two case-control studies established a point-source outbreak associated with 2 specific duodenoscopes. A field investigation of the use, reprocessing, and storage of deuodenoscopes did not identify deviations from US Food and Drug Administration or manufacturer recommendations for reprocessing. This outbreak demonstrated the previously underappreciated potential for duodenoscopes to transmit disease, even after undergoing high-level disinfection according to manufacturers' guidelines.

  11. A hidden variable in shear transformation zone volume versus Poisson's ratio relation in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. Y.; Oh, H. S.; Park, E. S.

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we elucidate a hidden variable in a shear transformation zone (STZ) volume (Ω) versus Poisson's ratio (ν) relation and clarify the correlation between STZ characteristics and the plasticity of metallic glasses (MGs). On the basis of cooperative shear model and atomic stress theories, we carefully formulate Ω as a function of molar volume (Vm) and ν. The twofold trend in Ω and ν is attributed to a relatively large variation of Vm as compared to that of ν as well as an inverse relation between Vm and ν. Indeed, the derived equation reveals that the number of atoms in an STZ instead of Ω is a microstructural characteristic which has a close relationship with plasticity since it reflects the preference of atomistic behaviors between cooperative shearing and the generation of volume strain fluctuation under stress. The results would deepen our understanding of the correlation between microscopic behaviors (STZ activation) and macroscopic properties (plasticity) in MGs and enable a quantitative approach in associating various STZ-related macroscopic behaviors with intrinsic properties of MGs.

  12. Investigating demographic, work-related and job satisfaction variables as predictors of motivation in Greek nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaki, Eleni; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    To investigate whether demographic variables and work-related factors predict work motivation in Greek nurses. Nurses' motivation is crucial for an effective health-care system. Herzberg's and Maslow's motivation theories constitute the framework of this study. The sample consisted of 200 nurses from every sector and registration level in a University Hospital in Greece. The response rate was 76%. A previously developed and validated questionnaire addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) on a five-point Likert scale. Most participants were women, married, between 36 years and 45 years old and higher education graduates. The highest mean score was recorded for 'achievements' (mean 4.07, SD 0.72), which emerged as the most important motivator. Job satisfaction, work sector and age were statistically significantly related to motivational factors. Nurses placed emphasis on motivators not strictly relating to economic rewards, but which can be seen as intrinsic and could lead to self-actualization. The constantly changing health sector requires that human resources and job context be a priority for health administrators. By promoting nurses' satisfaction and efficacy, an improvement in service quality is expected. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Cold season Africa-Asia multidecadal teleconnection pattern and its relation to the Atlantic multidecadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Ding, Ruiqiang; Jin, Ze

    2017-06-01

    A prominent teleconnection pattern of multidecadal variability of cold season (November to April) upper-level atmospheric circulation over North Africa and Eurasia (NA-EA) is revealed by empirical orthogonal function analysis of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis data. This teleconnection pattern is characterized by an eastward propagating wave train with a zonal wavenumber of 5-6 between 20° and 40°N, extending from the northwest coast of Africa to East Asia, and thus is referred to as the Africa-Asia multidecadal teleconnection pattern (AAMT). One-point correlation maps show that the teleconnectivity of AAMT is strong and further demonstrate the existence of the AAMT. The AAMT shapes the spatial structure of multidecadal change in atmospheric circulation over the NA-EA region, and in particular the AAMT pattern and associated fields show similar structures to the change occurring around the early 1960s. A strong in-phase relationship is observed between the AAMT and Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) and this connection is mainly due to Rossby wave dynamics. Barotropic modeling results suggest that the upper-level Rossby wave source generated by the AMV can excite the AAMT wave train, and Rossby wave ray tracing analysis further highlights the role of the Asian jet stream in guiding the wave train to East Asia. The AAMT acts as an atmospheric bridge conveying the influence of AMV onto the downstream multidecadal climate variability. The AMV is closely related to the coordinated change in surface and tropospheric air temperatures over Northwest Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Central China, which may result from the adiabatic expansion/compression of air associated with the AAMT.

  14. FDG-PET imaging in HIV-infected subjects: relation with therapy and immunovirological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucignani, Giovanni; Orunesu, Eva; Cesari, Miriam; Marzo, Katia; Chiti, Arturo; Pacei, Michela; Bechi, Giulia; Gori, Andrea; Gaito, Sabrina; Clerici, Mario

    2009-01-01

    To characterise tissue sites of immune activation and HIV replication we performed FDG-PET in ART-treated and ART-naive HIV-infected individuals. Specific aims were to establish whether HIV-infected patients can be differentiated on the basis of the detection of specific locations of viral replication, even in the presence of an apparently optimal immunovirological response to ART, and whether these FDG-PET findings can be related to immunovirological variables and AIDS history status. Patients were divided into five groups as follows: subgroup A1 (full responders, n=8): current ART treatment, CD4+ T lymphocytes >500/mL, viral load 50,000 copies/mL; group C (ART-naive, n=5): no current or previous ART treatment, increased viral load. PET images revealed different patterns of FDG uptake. All ART-treated patients with either suppressed (<50 copies/mL; Group A) or high viremia (group B) showed a normal pattern of FDG uptake. On the contrary, the ART-naive subjects with high viraemia (group C) displayed multiple foci of increased glucose metabolism in the lymph nodes. In the ART-naive subjects, FDG uptake, apparently related to viraemia level, was observed in the upper torso mainly in the axillary nodes bilaterally in patients with viraemia below 100,000 copies/mL; in those with viraemia higher than 100,000 copies/mL, FDG uptake was also observed in the inguinal lymph nodes. The emergence, in our study, of a correlation between the percentage of CD8+/CD38+/RO+ T cells (well established markers of progression to AIDS independently of CD4+ T lymphocytes) and positive FDG-PET in ART-naive patients is a novel finding that seems to confer prognostic value on FDG uptake. FDG uptake is strongly associated with response to ART independently of a previous AIDS diagnosis. Notably, no differences were observed between ART-treated subjects classed as immunological responders and those classed as non responders. Data herewith indicate that FDG uptake and immunological variables are

  15. Quality of Streams in Johnson County, Kansas, and Relations to Environmental Variables, 2003-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Poulton, Barry C.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of streams and relations to environmental variables in Johnson County, northeastern Kansas, were evaluated using water, streambed sediment, land use, streamflow, habitat, algal periphyton (benthic algae), and benthic macroinvertebrate data. Water, streambed sediment, and macroinvertebrate samples were collected in March 2007 during base flow at 20 stream sites that represent 11 different watersheds in the county. In addition, algal periphyton samples were collected twice (spring and summer 2007) at one-half of the sites. Environmental data including water and streambed-sediment chemistry data (primarily nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, and organic wastewater compounds), land use, streamflow, and habitat data were used in statistical analyses to evaluate relations between biological conditions and variables that may affect them. This report includes an evaluation of water and streambed-sediment chemistry, assessment of habitat conditions, comparison of biological community attributes (such as composition, diversity, and abundance) among sampling sites, placement of sampling sites into impairment categories, evaluation of biological data relative to environmental variables, and evaluation of changes in biological communities and effects of urbanization. This evaluation is useful for understanding factors that affect stream quality, for improving water-quality management programs, and for documenting changing conditions over time. The information will become increasingly important for protecting streams in the future as urbanization continues. Results of this study indicate that the biological quality at nearly all biological sampling sites in Johnson County has some level of impairment. Periphyton taxa generally were indicative of somewhat degraded conditions with small to moderate amounts of organic enrichment. Camp Branch in the Blue River watershed was the only site that met State criteria for full support of aquatic life in 2007. Since 2003

  16. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON RELATIVE PRICE VARIABILITY OF FOOD CROPS AND INFLATION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoluwa Akin Babalola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prices of food crops in Nigeria tend to exhibit similar trend with inflation. The study therefore established quantitatively relationships among agricultural policy, relative price variability (RPV of food crops and inflation in Nigeria. Data for the study includes annual producer prices (nominal and output of food crops and annual inflation rate obtained from the publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Nigerian Bureau of Statistics, Food and Agricultural Organisation and Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research covering the period of 1970-2009. Analytical tools used were RPV index and Error Correction Method (ECM. The results showed that the variables are stationary at their levels. As inflation increases, RPV of food crops also increases both in short run (0.0002 and the long run (0.0310. Civilian Post-Structural Adjustment Period Policies (CPSAP caused a significant reduction in inflation and consequently reduced the   RPV of food crops in the long run. There is a need for policies that will buffer the food crop sub-sector from the effects of inflation. Policies that reduce the rate of inflation and minimise RPV among food crops are needed. Effective management of inefficiencies and misallocation of resources in the sub-sector should be explored.

  17. Genetic Variability in DNA Repair Proteins in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Blasiak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD is complex and involves interactions between environmental and genetic factors, with oxidative stress playing an important role inducing damage in biomolecules, including DNA. Therefore, genetic variability in the components of DNA repair systems may influence the ability of the cell to cope with oxidative stress and in this way contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. However, few reports have been published on this subject so far. We demonstrated that the c.977C>G polymorphism (rs1052133 in the hOGG1 gene and the c.972G>C polymorphism (rs3219489 in the MUTYH gene, the products of which play important roles in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA, might be associated with the risk of AMD. Oxidative stress may promote misincorporation of uracil into DNA, where it is targeted by several DNA glycosylases. We observed that the g.4235T>C (rs2337395 and c.−32A>G (rs3087404 polymorphisms in two genes encoding such glycosylases, UNG and SMUG1, respectively, could be associated with the occurrence of AMD. Polymorphisms in some other DNA repair genes, including XPD (ERCC2, XRCC1 and ERCC6 (CSB have also been reported to be associated with AMD. These data confirm the importance of the cellular reaction to DNA damage, and this may be influenced by variability in DNA repair genes, in AMD pathogenesis.

  18. Effects of an Emotional Intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, 4 assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (one year after the conclusion of the intervention. The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1 emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, emotional repair; (2 assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3 internal control of anger; and (4 the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  19. Effects of an emotional intelligence program in variables related to the prevention of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, numerous studies have shown a significant increase in violence during childhood and adolescence. These data suggest the importance of implementing programs to prevent and reduce violent behavior. The study aimed to design a program of emotional intelligence (EI) for adolescents and to assess its effects on variables related to violence prevention. The possible differential effect of the program on both genders was also examined. The sample comprised 148 adolescents aged from 13 to 16 years. The study used an experimental design with repeated pretest-posttest measures and control groups. To measure the variables, four assessment instruments were administered before and after the program, as well as in the follow-up phase (1 year after the conclusion of the intervention). The program consisted of 20 one-hour sessions. The pretest-posttest ANCOVAs showed that the program significantly increased: (1) EI (attention, clarity, emotional repair); (2) assertive cognitive social interaction strategies; (3) internal control of anger; and (4) the cognitive ability to analyze negative feelings. In the follow-up phase, the positive effects of the intervention were generally maintained and, moreover, the use of aggressive strategies as an interpersonal conflict-resolution technique was significantly reduced. Regarding the effect of the program on both genders, the change was very similar, but the boys increased assertive social interaction strategies, attention, and emotional clarity significantly more than the girls. The importance of implementing programs to promote socio-emotional development and prevent violence is discussed.

  20. Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Relatives Identified by Cascade Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kasper Aalbæk; Christiansen, Morten Krogh; Schmidt, Morten

    2017-01-01

    ischemic attack, peripheral artery disease, and coronary revascularization. We included 220 relatives. Median age was 37 years (interquartile range: 27-52 years) of which 118 (54%) had an LDLR mutation. By 2004, when prescription data became available, 89% of mutation-carrying participants were taking...

  1. Combat-Related Heterotopic Ossification: Development of Animal Models for Identifying Mechanisms and Testing Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    approximately 65% of combat- related amputations. Symptomatic HO is characterized by persistent pain and skin ulceration disrupting prosthetic ...rehabilitation. Surgical excision is the only definitive management option when physical therapy and prosthetic modification fail to provide adequate relief...but did not undergo inoculation. Rats were followed for visual evidence of wound infection requiring irrigation and debridement and euthanized if

  2. Identifying the Risk of Swallowing-Related Pulmonary Complications in Older Patients With Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Roy, Siddharth; Medvedev, Gleb; Wallace, Matthew; Neviaser, Robert J; O'Brien, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    To identify and potentially modify the risk of pulmonary complications in a group of older patients with hip fracture, the authors obtained speech and language pathology consultations for these patients. Then they performed a retrospective chart review of all patients 65 years and older who were admitted to their institution between June 2011 and July 2013 with acute hip fracture, were treated surgically, and had a speech and language pathology evaluation in the immediate perioperative period. The authors identified 52 patients who met the study criteria. According to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification system, at the time of surgery, 1 patient (2%) was classified as ASA I, 12 patients (23%) were ASA II, 26 (50%) were ASA III, and 12 (23%) were ASA IV. Based on a speech and language pathology evaluation, 22 patients (42%) were diagnosed with dysphagia. Statistical analysis showed that ASA III status and ASA IV status were meaningful predictors of dysphagia and that dysphagia itself was a strong risk factor for pulmonary aspiration, pneumonia, and aspiration pneumonitis. Evaluation by a speech and language pathologist, particularly of patients classified as ASA III or ASA IV, may be an efficient means of averting pulmonary morbidity that is common in older patients with hip fracture. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Tucker, Katherine L; Salmerón, Jorge; Flores, Mario; Barquera, Simón

    2016-01-01

    To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs) were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analysis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation coefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001), 0.41 (P<0.001) and 0.29 (P=0.193) respectively. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using factor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  4. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ to identify dietary patterns in an adult Mexican population. Materials and methods. A 140-item SFFQ and two 24-hour dietary recalls (24DRs were administered. Foods were categorized into 29 food groups used to derive dietary patterns via factor analy­sis. Pearson and intraclass correlations coefficients between dietary pattern scores identified from the SFFQ and 24DRs were assessed. Results. Pattern 1 was high in snacks, fast food, soft drinks, processed meats and refined grains; pattern 2 was high in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, and dairy products; and pattern 3 was high in legumes, eggs, sweetened foods and sugars. Pearson correlation oefficients between the SFFQ and the 24DRs for these patterns were 0.66 (P<0.001, 0.41 (P<0.001 and 0.29 (P=0.193 respectively. Conclusions. Our data indicate reasonable validity of the SFFQ, using fac­tor analysis, to derive major dietary patterns in comparison with two 24DR.

  5. Transcriptomic analysis identifies genes and pathways related to myrmecophagy in the Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-E Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Malayan pangolin (Manis javanica is an unusual, scale-covered, toothless mammal that specializes in myrmecophagy. Due to their threatened status and continuing decline in the wild, concerted efforts have been made to conserve and rescue this species in captivity in China. Maintaining this species in captivity is a significant challenge, partly because little is known of the molecular mechanisms of its digestive system. Here, the first large-scale sequencing analyses of the salivary gland, liver and small intestine transcriptomes of an adult M. javanica genome were performed, and the results were compared with published liver transcriptome profiles for a pregnant M. javanica female. A total of 24,452 transcripts were obtained, among which 22,538 were annotated on the basis of seven databases. In addition, 3,373 new genes were predicted, of which 1,459 were annotated. Several pathways were found to be involved in myrmecophagy, including olfactory transduction, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, lipid metabolism, and terpenoid and polyketide metabolism pathways. Many of the annotated transcripts were involved in digestive functions: 997 transcripts were related to sensory perception, 129 were related to digestive enzyme gene families, and 199 were related to molecular transporters. One transcript for an acidic mammalian chitinase was found in the annotated data, and this might be closely related to the unique digestive function of pangolins. These pathways and transcripts are involved in specialization processes related to myrmecophagy (a form of insectivory and carbohydrate, protein and lipid digestive pathways, probably reflecting adaptations to myrmecophagy. Our study is the first to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying myrmecophagy in M. javanica, and we hope that our results may play a role in the conservation of this species.

  6. Google Flu Trends Spatial Variability Validated Against Emergency Department Influenza-Related Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klembczyk, Joseph Jeffrey; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Levin, Scott; Washington, Raynard E; Pines, Jesse M; Rothman, Richard E; Dugas, Andrea Freyer

    2016-06-28

    Influenza is a deadly and costly public health problem. Variations in its seasonal patterns cause dangerous surges in emergency department (ED) patient volume. Google Flu Trends (GFT) can provide faster influenza surveillance information than traditional CDC methods, potentially leading to improved public health preparedness. GFT has been found to correlate well with reported influenza and to improve influenza prediction models. However, previous validation studies have focused on isolated clinical locations. The purpose of the study was to measure GFT surveillance effectiveness by correlating GFT with influenza-related ED visits in 19 US cities across seven influenza seasons, and to explore which city characteristics lead to better or worse GFT effectiveness. Using Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project data, we collected weekly counts of ED visits for all patients with diagnosis (International Statistical Classification of Diseases 9) codes for influenza-related visits from 2005-2011 in 19 different US cities. We measured the correlation between weekly volume of GFT searches and influenza-related ED visits (ie, GFT ED surveillance effectiveness) per city. We evaluated the relationship between 15 publically available city indicators (11 sociodemographic, two health care utilization, and two climate) and GFT surveillance effectiveness using univariate linear regression. Correlation between city-level GFT and influenza-related ED visits had a median of .84, ranging from .67 to .93 across 19 cities. Temporal variability was observed, with median correlation ranging from .78 in 2009 to .94 in 2005. City indicators significantly associated (P<.10) with improved GFT surveillance include higher proportion of female population, higher proportion with Medicare coverage, higher ED visits per capita, and lower socioeconomic status. GFT is strongly correlated with ED influenza-related visits at the city level, but unexplained variation over geographic location and time

  7. The interprocess NIR sampling as an alternative approach to multivariate statistical process control for identifying sources of product-quality variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Snežana; Kerč, Janez; Horvat, Matej

    2017-03-01

    We are presenting a new approach of identifying sources of variability within a manufacturing process by NIR measurements of samples of intermediate material after each consecutive unit operation (interprocess NIR sampling technique). In addition, we summarize the development of a multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model for the production of enteric-coated pellet product of the proton-pump inhibitor class. By developing provisional NIR calibration models, the identification of critical process points yields comparable results to the established MSPC modeling procedure. Both approaches are shown to lead to the same conclusion, identifying parameters of extrusion/spheronization and characteristics of lactose that have the greatest influence on the end-product's enteric coating performance. The proposed approach enables quicker and easier identification of variability sources during manufacturing process, especially in cases when historical process data is not straightforwardly available. In the presented case the changes of lactose characteristics are influencing the performance of the extrusion/spheronization process step. The pellet cores produced by using one (considered as less suitable) lactose source were on average larger and more fragile, leading to consequent breakage of the cores during subsequent fluid bed operations. These results were confirmed by additional experimental analyses illuminating the underlying mechanism of fracture of oblong pellets during the pellet coating process leading to compromised film coating.

  8. What Can We Learn about GRB from the Variability Timescale Related Correlations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ding-Xiong, E-mail: leiwh@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Recently, two empirical correlations related to the minimum variability timescale (MTS) of the light curves are discovered in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One is the anti-correlation between MTS and Lorentz factor Γ, and the other is the anti-correlation between the MTS and gamma-ray luminosity L {sub γ}. Both of the two correlations might be used to explore the activity of the central engine of GRBs. In this paper, we try to understand these empirical correlations by combining two popular black hole central engine models (namely, the Blandford and Znajek mechanism (BZ) and the neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF)). By taking the MTS as the timescale of viscous instability of the NDAF, we find that these correlations favor the scenario in which the jet is driven by the BZ mechanism.

  9. Cortisol Variability and Self-reports in the Measurement of Work-related Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Björn; Eek, Frida; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low cortisol decline over the day (CDD) are related to self-reported work stress and well-being, and whether there are gender differences in these relationships. Three hundred eighty-three working men and women responded to a survey...... measuring job stress factors, mastery at work, symptoms and well-being. Salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening, after 45 min and at 21:00, from which the variables CAR and CDD were defi ned. A high CAR was associated with lower perceived job control and work mastery, and poorer well-being. Low CDD...... men, a similar comparison showed those with low CDD to have poorer scores on job stress factors and symptom load. We conclude that individuals displaying high CAR or low CDD differ from those not displaying these cortisol profi les in self-report of work stress and well-being, and that gender...

  10. [Metabolic control in the critically ill patient an update: hyperglycemia, glucose variability hypoglycemia and relative hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Calatayud, Ángel Augusto; Guillén-Vidaña, Ariadna; Fraire-Félix, Irving Santiago; Anica-Malagón, Eduardo Daniel; Briones Garduño, Jesús Carlos; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl

    Metabolic changes of glucose in critically ill patients increase morbidity and mortality. The appropriate level of blood glucose has not been established so far and should be adjusted for different populations. However concepts such as glucose variability and relative hypoglycemia of critically ill patients are concepts that are changing management methods and achieving closer monitoring. The purpose of this review is to present new data about the management and metabolic control of patients in critical areas. Currently glucose can no longer be regarded as an innocent element in critical patients; both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia increase morbidity and mortality of patients. Protocols and better instruments for continuous measurement are necessary to achieve the metabolic control of our patients. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. What Can We Learn about GRB from the Variability Timescale Related Correlations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Wei; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ding-Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Recently, two empirical correlations related to the minimum variability timescale (MTS) of the light curves are discovered in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One is the anti-correlation between MTS and Lorentz factor Γ, and the other is the anti-correlation between the MTS and gamma-ray luminosity L γ . Both of the two correlations might be used to explore the activity of the central engine of GRBs. In this paper, we try to understand these empirical correlations by combining two popular black hole central engine models (namely, the Blandford and Znajek mechanism (BZ) and the neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF)). By taking the MTS as the timescale of viscous instability of the NDAF, we find that these correlations favor the scenario in which the jet is driven by the BZ mechanism.

  12. Low-frequency variability in North Sea and Baltic Sea identified through simulations with the 3-D coupled physical–biogeochemical model ECOSMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Daewel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present results from a long-term model simulation of the 3-D coupled ecosystem model ECOSMO II for a North Sea and Baltic Sea set-up. The model allows both multi-decadal hindcast simulation of the marine system and specific process studies under controlled environmental conditions. Model results have been analysed with respect to long-term multi-decadal variability in both physical and biological parameters with the help of empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis. The analysis of a 61-year (1948–2008 hindcast reveals a quasi-decadal variation in salinity, temperature and current fields in the North Sea in addition to singular events of major changes during restricted time frames. These changes in hydrodynamic variables were found to be associated with changes in ecosystem productivity that are temporally aligned with the timing of reported regime shifts in the areas. Our results clearly indicate that for analysing ecosystem productivity, spatially explicit methods are indispensable. Especially in the North Sea, a correlation analysis between atmospheric forcing and primary production (PP reveals significant correlations between PP and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and wind forcing for the central part of the region, while the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO and air temperature are correlated to long-term changes in PP in the southern North Sea frontal areas. Since correlations cannot serve to identify causal relationship, we performed scenario model runs perturbing the temporal variability in forcing condition to emphasize specifically the role of solar radiation, wind and eutrophication. The results revealed that, although all parameters are relevant for the magnitude of PP in the North Sea and Baltic Sea, the dominant impact on long-term variability and major shifts in ecosystem productivity was introduced by modulations of the wind fields.

  13. Similar star formation rate and metallicity variability time-scales drive the fundamental metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; McKinnon, Ryan; Marinacci, Federico; Simcoe, Robert A.; Springel, Volker; Pillepich, Annalisa; Naiman, Jill; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Weinberger, Rainer; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy

    2018-06-01

    The fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) is a postulated correlation between galaxy stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and gas-phase metallicity. At its core, this relation posits that offsets from the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) at a fixed stellar mass are correlated with galactic SFR. In this Letter, we use hydrodynamical simulations to quantify the time-scales over which populations of galaxies oscillate about the average SFR and metallicity values at fixed stellar mass. We find that Illustris and IllustrisTNG predict that galaxy offsets from the star formation main sequence and MZR oscillate over similar time-scales, are often anticorrelated in their evolution, evolve with the halo dynamical time, and produce a pronounced FMR. Our models indicate that galaxies oscillate about equilibrium SFR and metallicity values - set by the galaxy's stellar mass - and that SFR and metallicity offsets evolve in an anticorrelated fashion. This anticorrelated variability of the metallicity and SFR offsets drives the existence of the FMR in our models. In contrast to Illustris and IllustrisTNG, we speculate that the SFR and metallicity evolution tracks may become decoupled in galaxy formation models dominated by feedback-driven globally bursty SFR histories, which could weaken the FMR residual correlation strength. This opens the possibility of discriminating between bursty and non-bursty feedback models based on the strength and persistence of the FMR - especially at high redshift.

  14. Kidney adysplasia and variable hydronephrosis, a new mutation affecting the odd-skipped related 1 gene in the mouse, causes variable defects in kidney development and hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davisson, Muriel T; Cook, Susan A; Akeson, Ellen C; Liu, Don; Heffner, Caleb; Gudis, Polyxeni; Fairfield, Heather; Murray, Stephen A

    2015-06-15

    Many genes, including odd-skipped related 1 (Osr1), are involved in regulation of mammalian kidney development. We describe here a new recessive mutation (kidney adysplasia and variable hydronephrosis, kavh) in the mouse that leads to downregulation of Osr1 transcript, causing several kidney defects: agenesis, hypoplasia, and hydronephrosis with variable age of onset. The mutation is closely associated with a reciprocal translocation, T(12;17)4Rk, whose Chromosome 12 breakpoint is upstream from Osr1. The kavh/kavh mutant provides a model to study kidney development and test therapies for hydronephrosis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Relative efficiency and sample size for cluster randomized trials with variable cluster sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiying; Williams, O Dale; Aban, Inmaculada; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Tiwari, Hemant K; Cutter, Gary

    2011-02-01

    The statistical power of cluster randomized trials depends on two sample size components, the number of clusters per group and the numbers of individuals within clusters (cluster size). Variable cluster sizes are common and this variation alone may have significant impact on study power. Previous approaches have taken this into account by either adjusting total sample size using a designated design effect or adjusting the number of clusters according to an assessment of the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes. This article defines a relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes using noncentrality parameters, investigates properties of this measure, and proposes an approach for adjusting the required sample size accordingly. We focus on comparing two groups with normally distributed outcomes using t-test, and use the noncentrality parameter to define the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes and show that statistical power depends only on this parameter for a given number of clusters. We calculate the sample size required for an unequal cluster sizes trial to have the same power as one with equal cluster sizes. Relative efficiency based on the noncentrality parameter is straightforward to calculate and easy to interpret. It connects the required mean cluster size directly to the required sample size with equal cluster sizes. Consequently, our approach first determines the sample size requirements with equal cluster sizes for a pre-specified study power and then calculates the required mean cluster size while keeping the number of clusters unchanged. Our approach allows adjustment in mean cluster size alone or simultaneous adjustment in mean cluster size and number of clusters, and is a flexible alternative to and a useful complement to existing methods. Comparison indicated that we have defined a relative efficiency that is greater than the relative efficiency in the literature under some conditions. Our measure

  16. Psychological Variables Associated With Health-Related Quality-of-Life in Uruguayan Women Surgically Intervened for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Reich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AimThis study described demographic, clinical, psychological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL characteristics in women surgically intervened for breast cancer, and the present study was conducted to examine the association between these characteristics.MethodUruguayan women (N = 116 diagnosed and surgically intervened for breast cancer were assessed on demographic, clinical and psychological indicators and HRQOL, by self-report questionnaires (i.e., BDI-II, PSS, Brief-COPE, and SF-36. Study was conducted adopting a non-experimental, cross-sectional methodology. After studying associations between variables assessed, hierarchical regression analyses were performed to identify HRQOL predictors.ResultsHRQOL Physical Health Component (SF-36 was predicted by perceived stress and depression, above and beyond demographic and clinical factors. And HRQOL Mental Health Component (SF-36 was predicted by education, time elapsed since diagnosis of breast cancer, time hospitalized during the past year, perceived stress and depression.ConclusionResults suggest that psychological variables may have a significant role for HRQOL prediction, and need to be taken into account along with demographic and clinical markers in order to explain HRQOL outcomes in women with breast cancer.

  17. Identifying features of pocket parks that may be related to health promoting use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschardt, Karin Kragsig; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    . The results show that ‘green features’ do not seem to be of crucial importance for ‘socialising’ whereas, as expected, features promoting gathering should be prioritised. For ‘rest and restitution’, the main results show that ‘green ground cover’ and ‘enclosed green niches’ are important, while ‘disturbing......Urban green spaces have been shown to promote health and well-being and recent research indicates that the two primary potentially health promoting uses of pocket parks are ‘rest and restitution’ and ‘socialising’. The aim of this study is to identify features in pocket parks that may support...... features’ (playground, view outside park) should be avoided. The results add knowledge about the features which support the health promoting use of pocket parks to the existing body of research....

  18. Identifying and defining the terms and elements related to a digital health innovation ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Iyawa, G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available environment in which digital health systems have to be implemented in South Africa provides for specific challenges relating to environmental, community and physical challenges. By using an in-depth comparative case study within the design science..., Approaches and Experiences: Towards building a South African Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem 2 Strategies, Approaches and Experiences: Towards building a South African Digital Health Innovation Ecosystem First published in December 2016...

  19. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  20. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  1. Calibration of multivariate scatter plots for exploratory analysis of relations within and between sets of variables in genomic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2005-01-01

    The scatter plot is a well known and easily applicable graphical tool to explore relationships between two quantitative variables. For the exploration of relations between multiple variables, generalisations of the scatter plot are useful. We present an overview of multivariate scatter plots

  2. Identifying food-related life style segments by a cross-culturally valid scaling device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1994-01-01

    -related life style in a cross-culturally valid way. To this end, we have col-lected a pool of 202 items, collected data in three countries, and have con-structed scales based on cross-culturally stable patterns. These scales have then been subjected to a number of tests of reliability and vali-dity. We have...... then applied the set of scales to a fourth country, Germany, based on a representative sample of 1000 respondents. The scales had, with a fe exceptions, moderately good reliabilities. A cluster ana-ly-sis led to the identification of 5 segments, which differed on all 23 scales....

  3. What makes astronomical heritage valuable? Identifying potential Outstanding Universal Value in cultural properties relating to astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Michel

    2016-10-01

    This communication presents the situation regarding astronomical and archaeoastronomical heritage related to the World Heritage Convention through recent years up until today. Some parallel events and works were promoted strongly within the IAU-UNESCO Initiative during the International Year of Astronomy (2009). This was followed by a joint program by the IAU and ICOMOS-an official advisory body assisting the World Heritage Committee in the evaluation of nomination dossiers. The result of that work is an important publication by around 40 authors from 20 different countries all around the world: Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the Context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention (Ruggles & Cotte 2010). A second volume is under preparation (2015). It was also accompanied by some initiatives such as the ``Windows to the Universe" organisation and the parallel constitution of local ``Starlight Reserves''. Some regional meetings studying specific facets or regional heritage in the field giving significant knowledge progresses also accompanied the global trend for astronomical heritage. WH assessment is defined by a relatively strict format and methodology. A key phrase is ``demonstration of Outstanding Universal Value'' to justify the WH Listing by the Committee. This communication first examines the requirements and evaluation practices about of demonstrating OUV for a given place in the context of astronomical or archaeoastronomical heritage. That means the examination of the tangible attributes, an inventory of the property in terms of immoveable and moveable components and an inventory of intangible issues related to the history (history of the place in the context of the history of astronomy and cultural history). This is also related to the application to the site of the concept of integrity and authenticity, as regards the place itself and in comparison with other similar places (WH sites already listed, sites on national WH Tentative Lists

  4. Contribution of WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX genes to identify the phylogenetic relationships among Petunia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Anversa Segatto

    Full Text Available Abstract Developmental genes are believed to contribute to major changes during plant evolution, from infrageneric to higher levels. Due to their putative high sequence conservation, developmental genes are rarely used as molecular markers, and few studies including these sequences at low taxonomic levels exist. WUSCHEL-related homeobox genes (WOX are transcription factors exclusively present in plants and are involved in developmental processes. In this study, we characterized the infrageneric genetic variation of Petunia WOX genes. We obtained phylogenetic relationships consistent with other phylogenies based on nuclear markers, but with higher statistical support, resolution in terminals, and compatibility with flower morphological changes.

  5. Transition Achievement among Young Adults with Deafness: What Variables Relate to Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the transition achievement of deaf persons 3 or 4 years out of high school (n=308). Ten independent variables were used to predict 2 dichotomous dependent variables: engagement with community (56%), and residential status (52% living independently). Results are presented for each dependent variable. (JPS)

  6. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77–7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24–3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04–35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  7. Human-Chromatin-Related Protein Interactions Identify a Demethylase Complex Required for Chromosome Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Marcon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin regulation is driven by multicomponent protein complexes, which form functional modules. Deciphering the components of these modules and their interactions is central to understanding the molecular pathways these proteins are regulating, their functions, and their relation to both normal development and disease. We describe the use of affinity purifications of tagged human proteins coupled with mass spectrometry to generate a protein-protein interaction map encompassing known and predicted chromatin-related proteins. On the basis of 1,394 successful purifications of 293 proteins, we report a high-confidence (85% precision network involving 11,464 protein-protein interactions among 1,738 different human proteins, grouped into 164 often overlapping protein complexes with a particular focus on the family of JmjC-containing lysine demethylases, their partners, and their roles in chromatin remodeling. We show that RCCD1 is a partner of histone H3K36 demethylase KDM8 and demonstrate that both are important for cell-cycle-regulated transcriptional repression in centromeric regions and accurate mitotic division.

  8. Identifying the null subject: evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demestre, J; Meltzer, S; García-Albea, J E; Vigil, A

    1999-05-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during spoken language comprehension to study the on-line effects of gender agreement violations in controlled infinitival complements. Spanish sentences were constructed in which the complement clause contained a predicate adjective marked for syntactic gender. By manipulating the gender of the antecedent (i.e., the controller) of the implicit subject while holding constant the gender of the adjective, pairs of grammatical and ungrammatical sentences were created. The detection of such a gender agreement violation would indicate that the parser had established the coreference relation between the null subject and its antecedent. The results showed a complex biphasic ERP (i.e., an early negativity with prominence at anterior and central sites, followed by a centroparietal positivity) in the violating condition as compared to the non-violating conditions. The brain reacts to NP-adjective gender agreement violations within a few hundred milliseconds of their occurrence. The data imply that the parser has properly coindexed the null subject of an infinitive clause with its antecedent.

  9. Identifying and tracking attacks on networks: C3I displays and related technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Gavin W.; Dawkins, J.; Shenoi, Sujeet; Hale, John C.

    2003-09-01

    Converged network security is extremely challenging for several reasons; expanded system and technology perimeters, unexpected feature interaction, and complex interfaces all conspire to provide hackers with greater opportunities for compromising large networks. Preventive security services and architectures are essential, but in and of themselves do not eliminate all threat of compromise. Attack management systems mitigate this residual risk by facilitating incident detection, analysis and response. There are a wealth of attack detection and response tools for IP networks, but a dearth of such tools for wireless and public telephone networks. Moreover, methodologies and formalisms have yet to be identified that can yield a common model for vulnerabilities and attacks in converged networks. A comprehensive attack management system must coordinate detection tools for converged networks, derive fully-integrated attack and network models, perform vulnerability and multi-stage attack analysis, support large-scale attack visualization, and orchestrate strategic responses to cyber attacks that cross network boundaries. We present an architecture that embodies these principles for attack management. The attack management system described engages a suite of detection tools for various networking domains, feeding real-time attack data to a comprehensive modeling, analysis and visualization subsystem. The resulting early warning system not only provides network administrators with a heads-up cockpit display of their entire network, it also supports guided response and predictive capabilities for multi-stage attacks in converged networks.

  10. "When 'Bad' is 'Good'": Identifying Personal Communication and Sentiment in Drug-Related Tweets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Chen, Lu; Lamy, Francois R; Carlson, Robert G; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Sheth, Amit

    2016-10-24

    To harness the full potential of social media for epidemiological surveillance of drug abuse trends, the field needs a greater level of automation in processing and analyzing social media content. The objective of the study is to describe the development of supervised machine-learning techniques for the eDrugTrends platform to automatically classify tweets by type/source of communication (personal, official/media, retail) and sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) expressed in cannabis- and synthetic cannabinoid-related tweets. Tweets were collected using Twitter streaming Application Programming Interface and filtered through the eDrugTrends platform using keywords related to cannabis, marijuana edibles, marijuana concentrates, and synthetic cannabinoids. After creating coding rules and assessing intercoder reliability, a manually labeled data set (N=4000) was developed by coding several batches of randomly selected subsets of tweets extracted from the pool of 15,623,869 collected by eDrugTrends (May-November 2015). Out of 4000 tweets, 25% (1000/4000) were used to build source classifiers and 75% (3000/4000) were used for sentiment classifiers. Logistic Regression (LR), Naive Bayes (NB), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were used to train the classifiers. Source classification (n=1000) tested Approach 1 that used short URLs, and Approach 2 where URLs were expanded and included into the bag-of-words analysis. For sentiment classification, Approach 1 used all tweets, regardless of their source/type (n=3000), while Approach 2 applied sentiment classification to personal communication tweets only (2633/3000, 88%). Multiclass and binary classification tasks were examined, and machine-learning sentiment classifier performance was compared with Valence Aware Dictionary for sEntiment Reasoning (VADER), a lexicon and rule-based method. The performance of each classifier was assessed using 5-fold cross validation that calculated average F-scores. One-tailed t test was

  11. Occupational health surveillance: a means to identify work-related risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froines, J R; Dellenbaugh, C A; Wegman, D H

    1986-09-01

    The lack of successful disease surveillance methods has resulted in few reliable estimates of workplace-related disease. Hazard surveillance--the ongoing assessment of chemical use and worker exposure to the chemicals--is presented as a way to supplement occupational disease surveillance. Existing OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Health) data systems are adapted to this function to characterize the distribution and type of hazardous industry in Los Angeles County. A new method is developed for ranking potentially hazardous industries in the county using actual exposure measurements from federal OSHA compliance inspections. The strengths of the different systems are presented along with considerations of industrial employment and types of specific chemical exposures. Applications for information from hazard surveillance are discussed in terms of intervention, monitoring exposure control, planning, research, and as a complement to disease surveillance.

  12. Effects of ultrasound-related variables on sonochemically synthesized SAPO-34 nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, Sima, E-mail: sima.askari@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halladj, Rouein, E-mail: halladj@aut.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    The sonochemical method was developed to synthesize uniform SAPO-34 (silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve) nanoparticles with high crystallinity using TEAOH as a structure-directing agent (SDA). The physicochemical characteristics of SAPO-34 products, i.e. crystallinity, particle size and shape can be controlled by varying the ultrasonic-related variable such as ultrasound power intensity, ultrasonic irradiation time, sonication temperature and geometrical characteristics of the ultrasonic device (e.g., sonotrode size). The products were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and BET. It is found that each of the parameters can play a significant role in acoustic cavitation, number of nuclei and the crystal growth. The experimental data establish that the crystallinity is related to ultrasonic intensity and diameter of the sonotrode, as well as sonication temperature. By increasing the ultrasonic power, duration and the sonication temperature, the mean sizes of particles decrease and the morphology of the products efficiently alters from spherical aggregates of cube type SAPO-34 particles to uniform spherical nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Increasing US power by increasing either US power intensity or the sonotrode diameter leads to smaller particle size and the morphology changes from spherical aggregates of cubic particles to uniform nanospheres. Highlights: • Effects of ultrasonic parameters on sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanoparticles. • The higher crystallinity by increasing ultrasonic power, duration and sonication temperature. • The morphology changes from spherical aggregates of cubic particles to uniform nanospheres. • Decreasing the particle size by increasing ultrasonic power, duration and sonication temperature.

  13. Trends in hypothesis testing and related variables in nursing research: a retrospective exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Ayhan Aytekin; Plonczynski, Donna J; Sehdev, Amikar

    2011-01-01

    To compare the inclusion and the influences of selected variables on hypothesis testing during the 1980s and 1990s. In spite of the emphasis on conducting inquiry consistent with the tenets of logical positivism, there have been no studies investigating the frequency and patterns of hypothesis testing in nursing research The sample was obtained from the journal Nursing Research which was the research journal with the highest circulation during the study period under study. All quantitative studies published during the two decades including briefs and historical studies were included in the analyses A retrospective design was used to select the sample. Five years from the 1980s and 1990s each were randomly selected from the journal, Nursing Research. Of the 582 studies, 517 met inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that there has been a decline in the use of hypothesis testing in the last decades of the 20th century. Further research is needed to identify the factors that influence the conduction of research with hypothesis testing. Hypothesis testing in nursing research showed a steady decline from the 1980s to 1990s. Research purposes of explanation, and prediction/ control increased the likelihood of hypothesis testing. Hypothesis testing strengthens the quality of the quantitative studies, increases the generality of findings and provides dependable knowledge. This is particularly true for quantitative studies that aim to explore, explain and predict/control phenomena and/or test theories. The findings also have implications for doctoral programmes, research preparation of nurse-investigators, and theory testing.

  14. Epidemiological and clinical variables related with the predominant polarity on bipolar disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Jesús; Álvarez-Fernández, Marisol; Aguado-Bailón, Lidia; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2017-08-14

    Current classification of bipolar disorder (BD) in type i or type ii, however useful, may be insufficient to provide relevant clinical information in some patients. As a result, complementary classifications are being proposed, like the predominant polarity (PP) based, which is defined as a clear tendency in the patient to present relapses in the manic or depressive poles. We carried out a search in PubMed and Web of Science databases, following the Preferred Items for Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses -PRISMA- guidelines, to identify studies about BD reporting PP. The search is updated to June 2016. Initial search revealed 907 articles, of which 16 met inclusion criteria. Manic PP was found to be associated with manic onset, drug consumption prior to onset and a better response to atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Depressive PP showed an association with depressive onset, more relapses, prolonged acute episodes, a greater suicide risk and a later diagnosis of BD. Depressive PP was also associated with anxiety disorders, mixed symptoms, melancholic symptoms and a wider use of quetiapine and lamotrigine. Few prospective studies. Variability in some results. PP may be useful as a supplement to current BD classifications. We have found consistent data on a great number of studies, but there is also contradictory information regarding PP. Further studies are needed, ideally of a prospective design and with a unified methodology. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Attitudes towards patient safety culture in a hospital setting and related variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Abellán, Ramon; Falcó-Pegueroles, Anna; de la Puente-Martorell, María Luisa

    To describe attitudes towards patient safety culture among workers in a hospital setting and determine the influence of socio-demographic and professional variables. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was distributed among a sample of professionals and nursing assistants. A dimension was considered a strength if positive responses exceeded 75% and an opportunity for improvement if more than 50% of responses were negative. 59% (n=123) of respondents rated safety between 7 and 8. 53% (n=103) stated that they had not used the notification system to report any incidents in the previous twelve months. The strength identified was "teamwork in the unit/service" and the opportunity for improvement was "staffing". A more positive attitude was observed in outpatient services and among nursing professionals and part-time staff. This study has allowed us to determine the rating of the hospital in patient safety culture. This is vital for developing improvement strategies. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. INTERACTIONS QUALITY IN MOODLE AS PERCEIVED BY LEARNERS AND ITS RELATION WITH SOME VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yousif ABDELRAHEEM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify learners’ perceptions of the quality of interaction in Moodle and investigate the effects of gender, grade point average (GPA, individualized learning experiences and their experiences in using Moodle factors in perceiving the quality of interaction. A questionnaire was used to collect data after being validated. It was distributed to 57 undergraduate students. Results show that students perceived the quality of interaction positively and that there were no significant differences in the means for the four variables dealt with in this study which means that the wide diffusion of computers into educational fields and into the society at large in the last few years enabled students to develop more positive perceptions of information technology applications independent from their basic individual differences such as gender, GPA, computer experience, and individualized learning experience. In terms of ranking of interaction types learners show that their interaction with themselves comes in first, then with the instructors and finally with content. The study recommends that higher education institutions should continue using Moodle and encourage faculty members to adopt it in their teaching because of its distinctive features.

  18. Relations between segmental and motor variability in prosodically complex nonword sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Lisa; Gerken, Louann; Lucchesi, Julie

    2007-04-01

    To assess how prosodic prominence and hierarchical foot structure influence segmental and articulatory aspects of speech production, specifically segmental accuracy and variability, and oral movement trajectory variability. Thirty individuals participated: 10 young adults, 10 children who are normally developing, and 10 children diagnosed with specific language impairment. Segmental error and segmental variability and movement trajectory variability were compared in low and high prosodic prominence conditions (i.e., strong and weak syllables) and in different prosodic foot structures. Between-participants findings were that both groups of children showed more segmental error and segmental variability and more movement trajectory variability than did adults. A similar within-participant pattern of results was observed for all 3 groups. Prosodic prominence influenced both segmental and motor levels of analysis, with weak syllables produced less accurately and with more lip and jaw movement trajectory variability than strong syllables. However, hierarchical foot structure affected segmental but not motor measures of speech production accuracy and variability. Motor and segmental variables were not consistently aligned. This pattern of results has clinical implications because inferences about motor variability may not directly follow from observations of segmental variability.

  19. Variables explaining health-related quality of life in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor-Glittenberg, Cecelia; Lehmann, Sara; Okada, Mari; Rosen, Danielle; Brewer, Kathryn; Bay, R Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Although health-related quality of life (HRQL) has been linked to numerous factors in older adults, limited or conflicting studies have investigated variables explaining HRQL in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical activity, gait speed, balance, strength, endurance, and flexibility were associated with HRQL in healthy, community-dwelling older adults. Participants of this cross-sectional, correlational research design study included residents of a senior living community, aged 60 years and older who were independent in at least unlimited household ambulation. These residents participated in tests of physical activity, gait speed, balance, strength, endurance, flexibility, and HRQL (Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey, SF-36). The physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary scores of the SF-36 were calculated. Data were collected on 84 participants (mean [SD] age = 78.6 (5.9) years, 54.8% women). Significant correlations were found between the PCS and fast gait speed (FGS) (r = 0.43; p Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (r = 0.44; p balance, and lower body strength were associated with the PCS of the SF-36; however, FGS was the only variable that uniquely contributed to the variance in the PCS. Body mass index was associated with the MCS; however, only balance uniquely contributed to the variance in the MCS. Physical activity was not associated with the PCS or MCS. The results of this study support the assessment of FGS in community-dwelling older adults to gain insight into physical health status. Interventions directed toward FGS, balance, and BMI may contribute to optimum HRQL in this population.

  20. Vertical Motion Changes Related to North-East Brazil Rainfall Variability: a GCM Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucou, Pascal; Oribe Rocha de Aragão, José; Harzallah, Ali; Fontaine, Bernard; Janicot, Serge

    1996-08-01

    The atmospheric structure over north-east Brazil during anomalous rainfall years is studied in the 11 levels of the outputs of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique atmospheric general circulation model (LMD AGCM). Seven 19-year simulations were performed using observed sea-surface temperature (SST) corresponding to the period 1970- 1988. The ensemble mean is calculated for each month of the period, leading to an ensemble-averaged simulation. The simulated March-April rainfall is in good agreement with observations. Correlations of simulated rainfall and three SST indices relative to the equatorial Pacific and northern and southern parts of the Atlantic Ocean exhibit stronger relationships in the simulation than in the observations. This is particularly true with the SST gradient in the Atlantic (Atlantic dipole). Analyses on 200 ;hPa velocity potential, vertical velocity, and vertical integral of the zonal component of mass flux are performed for years of abnormal rainfall and positive/negative SST anomalies in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans in March-April during the rainy season over the Nordeste region. The results at 200 hPa show a convergence anomaly over Nordeste and a divergence anomaly over the Pacific concomitant with dry seasons associated with warm SST anomalies in the Pacific and warm (cold) waters in the North (South) Atlantic. During drought years convection inside the ITCZ indicated by the vertical velocity exhibits a displacement of the convection zone corresponding to a northward migration of the ITCZ. The east-west circulation depicted by the zonal divergent mass flux shows subsiding motion over Nordeste and ascending motion over the Pacific in drought years, accompanied by warm waters in the eastern Pacific and warm/cold waters in northern/southern Atlantic. Rainfall variability of the Nordeste rainfall is linked mainly to vertical motion and SST variability through the migration of the ITCZ and the east-west circulation.

  1. Estimating the Relative Sociolinguistic Salience of Segmental Variables in a Dialect Boundary Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Carmen; Watt, Dominic; MacFarlane, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    One way of evaluating the salience of a linguistic feature is by assessing the extent to which listeners associate the feature with a social category such as a particular socioeconomic class, gender, or nationality. Such ‘top–down’ associations will inevitably differ somewhat from listener to listener, as a linguistic feature – the pronunciation of a vowel or consonant, for instance – can evoke multiple social category associations, depending upon the dialect in which the feature is embedded and the context in which it is heard. In a given speech community it is reasonable to expect, as a consequence of the salience of the linguistic form in question, a certain level of intersubjective agreement on social category associations. Two metrics we can use to quantify the salience of a linguistic feature are (a) the speed with which the association is made, and (b) the degree to which members of a speech community appear to share the association. Through the use of a new technique, designed as an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test, this paper examines levels of agreement among 40 informants from the Scottish/English border region with respect to the associations they make between four key phonetic variables and the social categories of ‘Scotland’ and ‘England.’ Our findings reveal that the participants exhibit differential agreement patterns across the set of phonetic variables, and that listeners’ responses vary in line with whether participants are members of the Scottish or the English listener groups. These results demonstrate the importance of community-level agreement with respect to the associations that listeners make between social categories and linguistic forms, and as a means of ranking the forms’ relative salience. PMID:27574511

  2. Identify Normative Values of Balance Tests Toward Neurological Assessment of Sports Related Concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Eimanipure

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Deterioration in postural control mechanisms is termed postural instability and results increased postural sway and many laboratory techniques and instruments are characterized by a wide range of neurological signs and symptoms to the medical management. Thus the current study designed to assess the reliability of commonly used clinical measures of balance and determined normal values. Also, the second purpose was scrutiny of effect age, length weight and body mass index (BMI on perform clinical balance tests. Methods: One hundred and thirty three participants (18-59 years, that have at least three time sports activity in one week, performed three timed tests: Time- up and Go (TUG, Tandem Gait (TG, and Walking on Balance Beam (WOBB on firm surface. Results: Reliability data were produced for each tests of motor performance. We found that the first performance of three trials was slower, and the relationship between some factors and these battery tests were examined. Means(±SD for each measure were averaged across three trials. Time to complete TG was 13.6±1.1s. TUG value was 6.9±1.03 and WOBB was 6.9±1.03s. Discussion: our results revealed that three clinical balance test batteries-TUG, TG and WOBB tests are the stability measures to assess of sports related concussion. Also, the results of current study appeared that the time to perform these tests was slower than the other studies.

  3. Health-Related Variables and Academic Performance among First-Year College Students: Implications for Sleep and Other Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trockel, Mickey T.; Barnes, Michael D.; Egget, Dennis L.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed the effect of several health behaviors and health-related variables on college freshmen's grade point averages (GPAs). Survey data indicated that sleep habits, particularly wake-up time, accounted for the most variance in GPAs. Higher GPAs related to strength training and study of spiritually oriented material. Lower GPAs related to…

  4. Task-related and person-related variables influence the effect of low back pain on anticipatory postural adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jesse V; Lyman, Courtney A; Hitt, Juvena R; Henry, Sharon M

    2017-08-01

    People with low back pain exhibit altered postural coordination that has been suggested as a target for treatment, but heterogeneous presentation has rendered it difficult to identify appropriate candidates and protocols for such treatments. This study evaluated the associations of task-related and person-related factors with the effect of low back pain on anticipatory postural adjustments. Thirteen subjects with and 13 without low back pain performed seated, rapid arm flexion in self-initiated and cued conditions. Mixed-model ANOVA were used to evaluate group and condition effects on APA onset latencies of trunk muscles, arm-raise velocity, and pre-movement cortical potentials. These measures were evaluated for correlation with pain ratings, Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire scores, and Modified Oswestry Questionnaire scores. Delayed postural adjustments of subjects with low back pain were greater in the cued condition than in the self-initiated condition. The group with low back pain exhibited larger-amplitude cortical potentials than the group without pain, but also significantly slower arm-raise velocities. With arm-raise velocity as a covariate, the effect of low back pain remained significant for the latencies of postural adjustments but not for cortical potentials. Latencies of the postural adjustments significantly correlated with Oswestry and Fear Avoidance Beliefs scores. Delayed postural adjustments with low back pain appear to be influenced by cueing of movement, pain-related disability and fear of activity. These results highlight the importance of subject characteristics, task condition, and task performance when comparing across studies or when developing treatment of people with low back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying best practice in relation to Iodine-131 ablation discharges to sewers in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Fennell, Stepehn; McGarry, Ann; Punt, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In line with a commitment in Ireland's strategy on the implementation of the Oslo-Paris Convention (OSPAR) as well as recent developments in the provision of national oncology services, best practice in relation to Iodine-131 (I-131) ablation discharges to sewers in Ireland is under review. Preparatory to this review the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) commissioned a study of current practices in Ireland and associated doses as well as a review of international best practice and advice. Currently, there are three hospitals in Ireland at which thyroid ablation therapy procedures (large therapeutic administrations of I-131 for thyroid cancer treatment) are carried out. Only one facility has a limited capacity for delay and decay storage prior to discharge. Based on current administrations and discharges, the potentially most exposed workers comprises hospital plumbers dealing with specific incidents with estimated doses in the order of 50 to 70 μSv per incident. Doses to sewage workers and fishing communities are estimated at less than 4 μSv y -1 and 0.4 μSv y -1 respectively. Based on anticipated future service requirements in Ireland, a marginal increase in doses to some of these groups is estimated. Iodine-131 discharges to the environment and associated doses to workers and members of the public may be significantly reduced by the introduction of state-of-the-art delay and decay tanks using multi-tank vacuum systems. The justification for the introduction of a regulatory requirement to install such systems is examined taking account of: discharges to the environment, concentrations in the environment, doses to workers and members of the public, best available techniques (BAT), international best practice and advice as well as the financial implications for medical facilities. The case for retrofitting delay and decay tanks to existing medical facilities is also examined as well as the option of including such tanks in the

  6. Using event related potentials to identify a user's behavioural intention aroused by product form design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Guo, Fu; Zhang, Xuefeng; Qu, Qingxing; Liu, Weilin

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of product form to arouse user's behavioural intention plays a decisive role in further user experience, even in purchase decision, while traditional methods rarely give a fully understanding of user experience evoked by product form, especially the feeling of anticipated use of product. Behavioural intention aroused by product form designs has not yet been investigated electrophysiologically. Hence event related potentials (ERPs) were applied to explore the process of behavioural intention when users browsed different smart phone form designs with brand and price not taken into account for mainly studying the brain activity evoked by variety of product forms. Smart phone pictures with different anticipated user experience were displayed with equiprobability randomly. Participants were asked to click the left mouse button when certain picture gave them a feeling of behavioural intention to interact with. The brain signal of each participant was recorded by Curry 7.0. The results show that pictures with an ability to arouse participants' behavioural intention for further experience can evoke enhanced N300 and LPPs (late positive potentials) in central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions. The scalp topography shows that central-parietal, parietal and occipital regions are more activated. The results indicate that the discrepancy of ERPs can reflect the neural activities of behavioural intention formed or not. Moreover, amplitude of ERPs occurred in corresponding brain areas can be used to measure user experience. The exploring of neural correlated with behavioural intention provide an accurate measurement method of user's perception and help marketers to know which product can arouse users' behavioural intention, maybe taken as an evaluating indicator of product design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. FDG-PET imaging in HIV-infected subjects: relation with therapy and immunovirological variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, Giovanni; Orunesu, Eva [Neurological Institute Milan, Laboratory of Cellular Neurophysiology, IRCCS Foundation, Milan (Italy); Cesari, Miriam [Univ. of Milan (Italy). Dept. of Clinical Science; Marzo, Katia; Chiti, Arturo [IRCCS Humanitas, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Pacei, Michela [Milan Univ. (Italy). Lab. of Immunology; Bechi, Giulia [IRCCS Foundation, Milan (Italy). Lab. of Cellular Neurophysiology; Gori, Andrea [Univ. of Milan Biococca, Monza (Italy). Inst. of Infectious Disseases; Gaito, Sabrina [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Computer Science; Clerici, Mario [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies

    2009-04-15

    To characterise tissue sites of immune activation and HIV replication we performed FDG-PET in ART-treated and ART-naive HIV-infected individuals. Specific aims were to establish whether HIV-infected patients can be differentiated on the basis of the detection of specific locations of viral replication, even in the presence of an apparently optimal immunovirological response to ART, and whether these FDG-PET findings can be related to immunovirological variables and AIDS history status. Patients were divided into five groups as follows: subgroup A1 (full responders, n=8): current ART treatment, CD4+ T lymphocytes >500/mL, viral load <50 copies/mL; subgroup A2 (full responders, n=5): same criteria as A-1, but with a previous history of AIDS; subgroup A3 (immunological non responders, n=5): current ART treatment, viral load <50 copies/mL, low CD4+ T lymphocytes (<200/mL); group B (virological non responders, n = 2): current ART treatment, CD4+ T lymphocytes around 500/mL, viral load >50,000 copies/mL; group C (ART-naive, n=5): no current or previous ART treatment, increased viral load. PET images revealed different patterns of FDG uptake. All ART-treated patients with either suppressed (<50 copies/mL; Group A) or high viremia (group B) showed a normal pattern of FDG uptake. On the contrary, the ART-naive subjects with high viraemia (group C) displayed multiple foci of increased glucose metabolism in the lymph nodes. In the ART-naive subjects, FDG uptake, apparently related to viraemia level, was observed in the upper torso mainly in the axillary nodes bilaterally in patients with viraemia below 100,000 copies/mL; in those with viraemia higher than 100,000 copies/mL, FDG uptake was also observed in the inguinal lymph nodes. The emergence, in our study, of a correlation between the percentage of CD8+/CD38+/RO+ T cells (well established markers of progression to AIDS independently of CD4+ T lymphocytes) and positive FDG-PET in ART-naive patients is a novel finding that

  8. Concurrent relations among cigarette smoking status, resting heart rate variability, and erectile response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Christopher B

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of sympathovagal balance; it has been implicated in erectile function and is also altered by tobacco use. Furthermore, smoking and erectile health are strongly related, given that smokers are at increased risk for erectile dysfunction. Few studies have explored the interrelationships between smoking, HRV, and erectile function concurrently. The aim of this study was to examine potential mechanisms underlying tobacco's effects on penile hemodynamics by exploring the mediating role of HRV. The sample comprised 119 men (smokers = 64; nonsmokers = 55) (mean age 28.90 years; standard deviation (SD) 11.68; range 18-58) selected from the control conditions of three previously published experiments. Participants were free from a history of cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarct, and/or cardiac/cardiovascular medication use. During a laboratory visit, self-report, anthropometric, cardiovascular, and electrocardiographic data were assessed, as well as sexual arousal responses elicited from viewing an erotic film. Objective sexual arousal indices (circumferential change via penile plethysmography), self-reported erectile function (per the erectile function domain score of the International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-EF]), and time- (SD of beat-to-beat intervals) and frequency-domain parameters of HRV (ratio of low-frequency [LF] power to high-frequency [HF] power [LF/HF ratio]) were assessed. Being a current long-term cigarette smoker was associated with dysregulated sympathovagal balance (higher LF/HF ratios, indicative of sympathetic nervous system dominance), which in turn showed inverse relations with magnitude of erectile tumescence. HRV did not mediate relations between tobacco use and either IIEF-EF scores or resting penile circumference. Findings suggest that dysfunctional cardiac autonomic tone may be an underlying mechanism by which tobacco exerts its deleterious effects on erectile health. Further research

  9. Brucella Genetic Variability in Wildlife Marine Mammals Populations Relates to Host Preference and Ocean Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Baker, Kate S; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Cloeckaert, Axel; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R; Moreno, Edgardo; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2017-07-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens probably arose when their ancestor adapted from a free-living environment to an intracellular one, leading to clonal bacteria with smaller genomes and less sources of genetic plasticity. Still, this plasticity is needed to respond to the challenges posed by the host. Members of the Brucella genus are facultative-extracellular intracellular bacteria responsible for causing brucellosis in a variety of mammals. The various species keep different host preferences, virulence, and zoonotic potential despite having 97-99% similarity at genome level. Here, we describe elements of genetic variation in Brucella ceti isolated from wildlife dolphins inhabiting the Pacific Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Comparison with isolates obtained from marine mammals from the Atlantic Ocean and the broader Brucella genus showed distinctive traits according to oceanic distribution and preferred host. Marine mammal isolates display genetic variability, represented by an important number of IS711 elements as well as specific IS711 and SNPs genomic distribution clustering patterns. Extensive pseudogenization was found among isolates from marine mammals as compared with terrestrial ones, causing degradation in pathways related to energy, transport of metabolites, and regulation/transcription. Brucella ceti isolates infecting particularly dolphin hosts, showed further degradation of metabolite transport pathways as well as pathways related to cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis and motility. Thus, gene loss through pseudogenization is a source of genetic variation in Brucella, which in turn, relates to adaptation to different hosts. This is relevant to understand the natural history of bacterial diseases, their zoonotic potential, and the impact of human interventions such as domestication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Identification of cognitive and non-cognitive predictive variables related to attrition in baccalaureate nursing education programs in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Catherine

    2005-07-01

    This study sought to identify a variable or variables predictive of attrition among baccalaureate nursing students. The study was quantitative in design and multivariate correlational statistics and discriminant statistical analysis were used to identify a model for prediction of attrition. The analysis then weighted variables according to their predictive value to determine the most parsimonious model with the greatest predictive value. Three public university nursing education programs in Mississippi offering a Bachelors Degree in Nursing were selected for the study. The population consisted of students accepted and enrolled in these three programs for the years 2001 and 2002 and graduating in the years 2003 and 2004 (N = 195). The categorical dependent variable was attrition (includes academic failure or withdrawal) from the program of nursing education. The ten independent variables selected for the study and considered to have possible predictive value were: Grade Point Average for Pre-requisite Course Work; ACT Composite Score, ACT Reading Subscore, and ACT Mathematics Subscore; Letter Grades in the Courses: Anatomy & Physiology and Lab I, Algebra I, English I (101), Chemistry & Lab I, and Microbiology & Lab I; and Number of Institutions Attended (Universities, Colleges, Junior Colleges or Community Colleges). Descriptive analysis was performed and the means of each of the ten independent variables was compared for students who attrited and those who were retained in the population. The discriminant statistical analysis performed created a matrix using the ten variable model that was able to correctly predicted attrition in the study's population in 77.6% of the cases. Variables were then combined and recombined to produce the most efficient and parsimonious model for prediction. A six variable model resulted which weighted each variable according to predictive value: GPA for Prerequisite Coursework, ACT Composite, English I, Chemistry & Lab I, Microbiology

  11. VARIABILITY IN THEIR RELATIVE DORMANCY OF Lithraea molleoides (Vell. Eng. DIASPORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Aguiar Berger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814570The large diversity of Anacardiaceae diaspores morphology has a notable repercussion in the processes of germination and emergence besides generating a differentiated behavior among the species. In this family, there are some species that present physical dormancy, some others present mechanical dormancy, others present no dormancy at all and some of them have no information detailed in the available literature. Lithraea molleoides (Vell. Eng. is one of the species which little is known regarding to dormancy. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the germination and the emergence processes of seedlings from diaspores of this species collected in Araguari river valley, in the state of Minas Gerais, as well as to quantify the variability of dormancy intensity present among different individuals of the population. The diaspores were collected in October and November of 2004 and 2005, from six matrixes. Two experiments were set up. The germination experiment was conducted under controlled conditions and the emergence experiment was conducted in a semi-open greenhouse. Data was collected every 24 hours, up serving the protrusion of the embryo in the experiment setup in the laboratory, and the emergence of the hypocotyl of the seedling above the substrate in the experiment kept in the greenhouse. In both experiments, the diaspores originated from plant number two were more notable to some extent, having superior physiological quality compared to the others (average time between 4 and 22 days; average speeds between 0.042 and 0.0217 days-1; uncertainty between 1.62 and 3.5 bits and synchrony between 0.04 and 0.381. The high uncertainty values and the low synchrony values indicate that the germination and emergence processes of the Lithraea molleoides seedlings are spread in time, which allows us to characterize them as bearers of relative dormancy, although its intensity is variable among individuals of the

  12. Solving the Omitted Variables Problem of Regression Analysis Using the Relative Vertical Position of Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Leightner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The omitted variables problem is one of regression analysis’ most serious problems. The standard approach to the omitted variables problem is to find instruments, or proxies, for the omitted variables, but this approach makes strong assumptions that are rarely met in practice. This paper introduces best projection reiterative truncated projected least squares (BP-RTPLS, the third generation of a technique that solves the omitted variables problem without using proxies or instruments. This paper presents a theoretical argument that BP-RTPLS produces unbiased reduced form estimates when there are omitted variables. This paper also provides simulation evidence that shows OLS produces between 250% and 2450% more errors than BP-RTPLS when there are omitted variables and when measurement and round-off error is 1 percent or less. In an example, the government spending multiplier, , is estimated using annual data for the USA between 1929 and 2010.

  13. Search for relation between flares and photometric variability outside of flares in EV Lac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojzman, G.Sh.

    1984-01-01

    The observations of the flare star EV Lac in July-September 1981 have confirmed the existence of photometric variability outside the flares during the night. It was found that, as a rule, a slow increase of brightness in U and B bands during 1-2 hours preceded the flares. It is suggested that the variability outside the flares is the result of the variability of chpomospheric emission lines and continuum that are emitted by the chromospheric preflare formations

  14. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  15. Temporal and spatial variability in the aviation NOx-related O3 impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Christopher K; Barrett, Steven R H; Koo, Jamin; Wang, Qiqi

    2013-01-01

    Aviation NO x emissions promote tropospheric ozone formation, which is linked to climate warming and adverse health effects. Modeling studies have quantified the relative impact of aviation NO x on O 3 in large geographic regions. As these studies have applied forward modeling techniques, it has not been possible to attribute O 3 formation to individual flights. Here we apply the adjoint of the global chemistry–transport model GEOS-Chem to assess the temporal and spatial variability in O 3 production due to aviation NO x emissions, which is the first application of an adjoint to this problem. We find that total aviation NO x emitted in October causes 40% more O 3 than in April and that Pacific aviation emissions could cause 4–5 times more tropospheric O 3 per unit NO x than European or North American emissions. Using this sensitivity approach, the O 3 burden attributable to 83 000 unique scheduled civil flights is computed individually. We find that the ten highest total O 3 -producing flights have origins or destinations in New Zealand or Australia. The top ranked O 3 -producing flights normalized by fuel burn cause 157 times more normalized O 3 formation than the bottom ranked ones. These results show significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental impacts of aviation NO x emissions. (letter)

  16. Physiological Study on the Relation of Heart Rate Variability in Ageing and Thyroid Hormone Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed A. M. Shokr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human might be related to an underlying thyroid disturbance. ageing has been associated with hypothyroidism and cardiac autonomic dysfunction. On the basis of body mass index (BMI, 150 patients were grouped into three groups (n = 50 48 years ± 2, 55 years ± 2 and 63 years ± 2. Electrocardiogram was recorded using PowerLab system and the time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV were calculated. Fasting blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total thyroxin (T4 and total triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations. The levels of TSH, T4 and T3 were not significantly different between the groups. The frequency domain HRV parameter reflecting parasympathetic tone (high-frequency normalized units, HFnu was significantly reduced in aging third groups group. The parameters which reflect sympathetic activation (Heart rate, low-frequency normalized units; LFnu and the LF/HF ratio were significantly increased in the aging group. HFnu was significantly and negatively correlated with age, whereas LFnu and LF/HF ratio were significantly and positively correlated with the above mentioned parameters. No significant relationships were noted between the HRV parameters and the levels of TSH or thyroid hormones. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human is not linked with underlying thyroid disturbance.

  17. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  18. Winter cloudiness variability over Northern Eurasia related to the Siberian High during 1966–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernokulsky, Alexander; Mokhov, Igor I; Nikitina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This letter presents an assessment of winter cloudiness variability over Northern Eurasia regions related to the Siberian High intensity (SHI) variations during 1966–2010. An analysis of cloud fraction and the occurrence of different cloud types was carried out based on visual observations from almost 500 Russian meteorological stations. The moonlight criterion was implemented to reduce the uncertainty of night observations. The SHI was defined based on sea-level pressure fields from different reanalyses. We found a statistically significant negative correlation of cloud cover with the SHI over central and southern Siberia and the southern Urals with regression coefficients around 3% hPa −1 for total cloud fraction (TCF) for particular stations near the Siberian High center. Cross-wavelet analysis of TCF and SHI revealed a long-term relationship between cloudiness and the Siberian High. Generally, the Siberian High intensification by 1 hPa leads to a replacement of one overcast day with one day without clouds, which is associated mainly with a decrease in precipitating and stratiform clouds. These changes point to a positive feedback between cloudiness and the Siberian High. (letter)

  19. Relating Linear and Volumetric Variables Through Body Scanning to Improve Human Interfaces in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Ferrer, Mike A.; Young, Karen S.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Designing space suits and vehicles for the diverse human population present unique challenges for the methods of traditional anthropometry. Space suits are bulky and allow the operator to shift position within the suit and inhibit the ability to identify body landmarks. Limited suit sizing options also cause variability in fit and performance between similarly sized individuals. Space vehicles are restrictive in volume in both the fit and the ability to collect data. NASA's Anthropometric and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) has utilized 3D scanning to shift from traditional linear anthropometry to explore and examine volumetric capabilities to provide anthropometric solutions for design. Overall, the key goals are to improve the human-system performance and develop new processes to aid in the design and evaluation of space systems. Four case studies are presented that illustrate the shift from purely linear analyses to an augmented volumetric toolset to predict and analyze the human within the space suit and vehicle. The first case study involves the calculation of maximal head volume to estimate total free volume in the helmet for proper air exchange. Traditional linear measurements resulted in an inaccurate representation of the head shape, yet limited data exists for the determination of a large head volume. Steps were first taken to identify and classify a maximum head volume and the resulting comparisons to the estimate are presented in this paper. This study illustrates the gap between linear components of anthropometry and the need for overall volume metrics in order to provide solutions. A second case study examines the overlay of the space suit scans and components onto scanned individuals to quantify fit and clearance to aid in sizing the suit to the individual. Restrictions in space suit size availability present unique challenges to optimally fit the individual within a limited sizing range while maintaining performance. Quantification of the clearance and

  20. EVOLUTION OF CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES AND RELATED BINARIES CONTAINING A WHITE DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalomeni, B.; Rappaport, S.; Molnar, M. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Nelson, L. [Department of Physics, Bishop’s University, 2600 College St., Sherbrooke, Quebec, QC J1M 1Z7 (Canada); Quintin, J. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Yakut, K., E-mail: kalomeni@mit.edu, E-mail: sar@mit.edu, E-mail: momchil.molnar@gmail.com, E-mail: belinda.kalomeni@ege.edu.tr, E-mail: kadri.yakut@ege.edu.tr, E-mail: lnelson@ubishops.ca, E-mail: jquintin@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Ege University, 35100, İzmir (Turkey)

    2016-12-10

    We present a binary evolution study of cataclysmic variables (CVs) and related systems with white dwarf (WD) accretors, including for example, AM CVn systems, classical novae, supersoft X-ray sources (SXSs), and systems with giant donor stars. Our approach intentionally avoids the complications associated with population synthesis algorithms, thereby allowing us to present the first truly comprehensive exploration of all of the subsequent binary evolution pathways that zero-age CVs might follow (assuming fully non-conservative, Roche-lobe overflow onto an accreting WD) using the sophisticated binary stellar evolution code MESA. The grid consists of 56,000 initial models, including 14 WD accretor masses, 43 donor-star masses (0.1–4.7 M {sub ⊙}), and 100 orbital periods. We explore evolution tracks in the orbital period and donor-mass ( P {sub orb}– M {sub don}) plane in terms of evolution dwell times, masses of the WD accretor, accretion rate, and chemical composition of the center and surface of the donor star. We report on the differences among the standard CV tracks, those with giant donor stars, and ultrashort period systems. We show where in parameter space one can expect to find SXSs, present a diagnostic to distinguish among different evolutionary paths to forming AM CVn binaries, quantify how the minimum orbital period in CVs depends on the chemical composition of the donor star, and update the P {sub orb}( M {sub wd}) relation for binaries containing WDs whose progenitors lost their envelopes via stable Roche-lobe overflow. Finally, we indicate where in the P {sub orb}– M {sub don} the accretion disks will tend to be stable against the thermal-viscous instability, and where gravitational radiation signatures may be found with LISA.

  1. EVOLUTION OF CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES AND RELATED BINARIES CONTAINING A WHITE DWARF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalomeni, B.; Rappaport, S.; Molnar, M.; Nelson, L.; Quintin, J.; Yakut, K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a binary evolution study of cataclysmic variables (CVs) and related systems with white dwarf (WD) accretors, including for example, AM CVn systems, classical novae, supersoft X-ray sources (SXSs), and systems with giant donor stars. Our approach intentionally avoids the complications associated with population synthesis algorithms, thereby allowing us to present the first truly comprehensive exploration of all of the subsequent binary evolution pathways that zero-age CVs might follow (assuming fully non-conservative, Roche-lobe overflow onto an accreting WD) using the sophisticated binary stellar evolution code MESA. The grid consists of 56,000 initial models, including 14 WD accretor masses, 43 donor-star masses (0.1–4.7 M ⊙ ), and 100 orbital periods. We explore evolution tracks in the orbital period and donor-mass ( P orb – M don ) plane in terms of evolution dwell times, masses of the WD accretor, accretion rate, and chemical composition of the center and surface of the donor star. We report on the differences among the standard CV tracks, those with giant donor stars, and ultrashort period systems. We show where in parameter space one can expect to find SXSs, present a diagnostic to distinguish among different evolutionary paths to forming AM CVn binaries, quantify how the minimum orbital period in CVs depends on the chemical composition of the donor star, and update the P orb ( M wd ) relation for binaries containing WDs whose progenitors lost their envelopes via stable Roche-lobe overflow. Finally, we indicate where in the P orb – M don the accretion disks will tend to be stable against the thermal-viscous instability, and where gravitational radiation signatures may be found with LISA.

  2. Effects of ultrasound-related variables on sonochemically synthesized SAPO-34 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, Sima; Halladj, Rouein

    2013-01-01

    The sonochemical method was developed to synthesize uniform SAPO-34 (silicoaluminophosphate molecular sieve) nanoparticles with high crystallinity using TEAOH as a structure-directing agent (SDA). The physicochemical characteristics of SAPO-34 products, i.e. crystallinity, particle size and shape can be controlled by varying the ultrasonic-related variable such as ultrasound power intensity, ultrasonic irradiation time, sonication temperature and geometrical characteristics of the ultrasonic device (e.g., sonotrode size). The products were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and BET. It is found that each of the parameters can play a significant role in acoustic cavitation, number of nuclei and the crystal growth. The experimental data establish that the crystallinity is related to ultrasonic intensity and diameter of the sonotrode, as well as sonication temperature. By increasing the ultrasonic power, duration and the sonication temperature, the mean sizes of particles decrease and the morphology of the products efficiently alters from spherical aggregates of cube type SAPO-34 particles to uniform spherical nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Increasing US power by increasing either US power intensity or the sonotrode diameter leads to smaller particle size and the morphology changes from spherical aggregates of cubic particles to uniform nanospheres. Highlights: ► Effects of ultrasonic parameters on sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanoparticles. ► The higher crystallinity by increasing ultrasonic power, duration and sonication temperature. ► The morphology changes from spherical aggregates of cubic particles to uniform nanospheres. ► Decreasing the particle size by increasing ultrasonic power, duration and sonication temperature

  3. Knee flexion contractures in institutionalized elderly: prevalence, severity, stability, and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollinger, L A; Steffen, T M

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence, severity, and progression of knee flexion contractures (KFCs) in a population of institutionalized elderly and to identify relationships between knee extension and other variables. The subjects were 112 nursing home residents who exhibited a broad range of ambulation and cognitive function abilities. Data were collected initially (T1) and after a 10-month period (T2). Only 25% of the population had extension in the 0- to 5-degree (lacking full extension) range bilaterally at T1 and T2, leaving the majority of subjects with some degree of unilateral KFC. Most of the subjects with a KFC greater than 20 degrees were nonambulatory and had a significantly higher occurrence of resistance to motion than did nonambulators with a KFC of less than 20 degrees. Knee extension measurements did not change in most subjects between T1 and T2. The knees that did show a change in KFC (either an increase or a decrease) had a significantly higher occurrence of resistance to passive motion than did other knees. Compared with the subjects who gained extension, the subjects who lost extension over the study period more frequently had minimal KFC at T1, were ambulatory at T1, showed a regression in ambulation at T2, and developed resistance to motion at T2. The data confirmed significant positive correlations between degree of KFC and presence of resistance to passive knee motion, cognitive impairment, impaired ambulation, and presence of knee pain. Physical therapy assessment and intervention may be appropriate in nonambulatory nursing home residents with resistance to passive motion, residents with KFC approaching 20 degrees, and ambulatory residents with minimal KFC who develop resistance and begin to regress in ambulation. Several areas for future study are suggested.

  4. Relation between knee extensors' strength, postural stability and variability of centre of pressure displacement during gait in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza C. de Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that variability of walking is related to fall risk similarly as postural control and muscle strength. Joint potential of this group of variables for fall risk assessment is promising, however research interested in relations between them is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between knee extensors' strength, centre of pressure (COP velocity during one-leg stance and variability of COP displacement during various phases of gait cycle in middle-age women. Methods: A single group of 40 healthy women (age 56 ± 4.2 years took part in the study. For assessment of knee extensors' strength (peak torque and average work during concentric and eccentric contractions an isokinetic dynamometer was used. Mean velocity of COP during one-leg stance in anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML directions was assessed on a force plate on a rigid surface with eyes open (two 30 s trials. Variability of COP displacement was assessed for loading response, midstance, terminal stance and preswing gait cycle phases (determined by vertical ground reaction force in AP and ML directions. It was measured by two force plates positioned in the middle of an 8 m walkway (5 trials at a self-selected speed. For statistical analysis of relationships between variables Pearson correlation was applied. Results: Our results showed significant correlations between eccentric peak torque and COP velocity in AP direction during one-leg stance, eccentric and concentric peak torque and COP variability during loading response in both ML and AP directions and during terminal stance in AP direction. Conclusion: Loading response and terminal stance seems to be more related to knee extensors' strength. Variables derived from postural stability assessment during one-leg stance are independent from variables derived from assessment of COP displacement variability during walking.

  5. Impact of physiological variables and genetic background on myocardial frequency-resistivity relations in the intact beating murine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maricela; Steinhelper, Mark E; Alvarez, Jorge A; Escobedo, Daniel; Pearce, John; Valvano, Jonathan W; Pollock, Brad H; Wei, Chia-Ling; Kottam, Anil; Altman, David; Bailey, Steven; Thomsen, Sharon; Lee, Shuko; Colston, James T; Oh, Jung Hwan; Freeman, Gregory L; Feldman, Marc D

    2006-10-01

    Conductance measurements for generation of an instantaneous left ventricular (LV) volume signal in the mouse are limited, because the volume signal is a combination of blood and LV muscle, and only the blood signal is desired. We have developed a conductance system that operates at two simultaneous frequencies to identify and remove the myocardial contribution to the instantaneous volume signal. This system is based on the observation that myocardial resistivity varies with frequency, whereas blood resistivity does not. For calculation of LV blood volume with the dual-frequency conductance system in mice, in vivo murine myocardial resistivity was measured and combined with an analytic approach. The goals of the present study were to identify and minimize the sources of error in the measurement of myocardial resistivity to enhance the accuracy of the dual-frequency conductance system. We extended these findings to a gene-altered mouse model to determine the impact of measured myocardial resistivity on the calculation of LV pressure-volume relations. We examined the impact of temperature, timing of the measurement during the cardiac cycle, breeding strain, anisotropy, and intrameasurement and interanimal variability on the measurement of intact murine myocardial resistivity. Applying this knowledge to diabetic and nondiabetic 11- and 20- to 24-wk-old mice, we demonstrated differences in myocardial resistivity at low frequencies, enhancement of LV systolic function at 11 wk and LV dilation at 20-24 wk, and histological and electron-microscopic studies demonstrating greater glycogen deposition in the diabetic mice. This study demonstrated the accurate technique of measuring myocardial resistivity and its impact on the determination of LV pressure-volume relations in gene-altered mice.

  6. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Emilie M. M.; Yoo, Albert J.; Beenen, Ludo F.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; den Blanken, Mark D.; Wismans, Carrie; Niessen, Wiro J.; Majoie, Charles B.; Marquering, Henk A.; Fransen, Puck S. S.; Beumer, Debbie; van den Berg, Lucie A.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Schonewille, Wouter J.; Vos, Jan Albert; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Wermer, Marieke J. H.; van Walderveen, Marianne A. A.; Staals, Julie; Hofmeijer, Jeannette; van Oostayen, Jacques A.; Lycklama à Nijeholt, Geert J.; Boiten, Jelis; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Emmer, Bart J.; de Bruijn, Sebastiaan F.; van Dijk, Lukas C.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Lo, Rob H.; van Dijk, Ewoud J.; de Vries, Joost; de Kort, Paul L. M.; van den Berg, Jan S. P.; A A M van Hasselt, Boudewijn; Aerden, Leo A. M.; Dallinga, René J.; Visser, Marieke C.; Bot, Joseph C. J.; Vroomen, Patrick C.; Eshghi, Omid; Schreuder, Tobien H. C. M. L.; Heijboer, Roel J. J.; Keizer, Koos; Tielbeek, Alexander V.; Hertog, Heleen M. Den; Gerrits, Dick G.; van den Berg-Vos, Renske M.; Karas, Giorgos B.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Flach, H. Zwenneke; Sprengers, Marieke E. S.; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F. M.; van den Berg, René; Koudstaal, Peter J.; van Zwam, Wim H.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; van der Lugt, Aad; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert

  7. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M. Santos (Emilie M.); A.J. Yoo (Albert J.); L.F.M. Beenen (Ludo); O.A. Berkhemer (Olvert); M.D. Den Blanken (Mark D.); C. Wismans (Carrie); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); C.B. Majoie (Charles); H. Marquering (Henk)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by

  8. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, E.M.; Yoo, A.J.; Beenen, L.F.; Berkhemer, O.A.; Blanken, M.D. den; Wismans, C.; Niessen, W.J.; Majoie, C.B.; Marquering, H.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and

  9. Attitudes toward Money and Demographic Variables as Related to Income and Life Satisfaction: USA Vs. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Arocas, Roberto Luna; Whiteside, Harold D.

    A study of 207 faculty at a state university in the southeastern United States and 102 faculty members at the University of Valencia (Spain) examined demographic variables and attitudes toward money, income, and life satisfaction. Demographic variables (sex, age, education, marital status, race, current job experience, total work experience, and…

  10. Visualisation of variable binding pockets on protein surfaces by probabilistic analysis of related structure sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashford Paul

    2012-03-01

    conserved occurrence of surface pockets at the active and regulatory sites; ii a simulated ensemble of unliganded Bcl2 structures reveals extensions of a known ligand-binding pocket not apparent in the apo crystal structure; iii visualisations of interleukin-2 and its homologues highlight conserved pockets at the known receptor interfaces and regions whose conformation is known to change on inhibitor binding. Conclusions Through post-processing of the output of a variety of pocket prediction software, Provar provides a flexible approach to the analysis and visualization of the persistence or variability of pockets in sets of related protein structures.

  11. Visualisation of variable binding pockets on protein surfaces by probabilistic analysis of related structure sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Paul; Moss, David S; Alex, Alexander; Yeap, Siew K; Povia, Alice; Nobeli, Irene; Williams, Mark A

    2012-03-14

    and regulatory sites; ii) a simulated ensemble of unliganded Bcl2 structures reveals extensions of a known ligand-binding pocket not apparent in the apo crystal structure; iii) visualisations of interleukin-2 and its homologues highlight conserved pockets at the known receptor interfaces and regions whose conformation is known to change on inhibitor binding. Through post-processing of the output of a variety of pocket prediction software, Provar provides a flexible approach to the analysis and visualization of the persistence or variability of pockets in sets of related protein structures.

  12. Reduced heart rate variability in pet dogs affected by anxiety-related behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, Dennis; Lawrence, Andrew J; Carter, Gabrielle; Fisher, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    We present here the first evidence of correlation between canine anxiety-related behavioural problems and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is known to be related to a range of mental disorders in humans; however this has not been explored in dogs. Behavioural problems in dogs can result in suffering, property destruction and human injury. Dog behaviour problems were assessed by owner questionnaire and the extreme high and low scoring dogs were recruited into either affected (n=10) or unaffected (n=20) groups. HRV was assessed in dogs at their homes, while being held in lateral recumbency for 5min using manual restraint. Salivary cortisol samples were taken before and after HRV testing. Dogs were assessed as either being reactive to the procedure (barking, growling, struggling or shaking) or unreactive. There was no effect of reactivity or behaviour problems on salivary cortisol levels at baseline or in response to the treatment. There was a significant effect of reactivity on HR (F 1,26 =5.54; P=0.026), and no effect of behaviour problems (F 1,26 =1.07; P=0.311). There was no effect of reactivity on any of the HRV measures. The presence of behaviour problems had a significant effect on a range of measures of HRV, with unaffected dogs having higher standard deviation of RR intervals (F 1,26 =6.39; P=0.018), higher high frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =5.23; P=0.031) and higher low frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =9.25; P=0.005) power. There was no effect of behaviour problems on very low frequency spectrum power (F 1,26 =1.40; P=0.248). Together these results provide evidence for a fundamental physiological difference between dogs affected or unaffected with behaviour problems. This study provides evidence for further investigation into the role of HRV in the pathophysiology of canine anxiety-related behaviour problems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Relations between anthropometric and motor variables of seven-year-old girls with the differentiated level of nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Miroljub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the frequency of nutritional status and the relations between anthropometric characteristics and motor skills of the first-grade elementary schools girls from Valjevo. A battery of 16 anthropometric measurements and 9 motor tests was conducted on the pertinent sample (N = 332 of seven-year-old girls. Data were analyzed using common measures of central tendency, measures of variability and canonical correlation analysis. Based on the measured body mass index, 75% of participants have normal body mass, 21% has increased body mass, and 4% is overweight. The results showed that in the group of participants with normal body mass there is no significant connection between two systems of variables (morphological characteristics and motor skills. Data from the group of overweight participants show that the two statistically relevant correlations were extracted in the morpho-motoric space and were interpreted as canonical functions: (1 circular dimensionality of the skeleton and body mass, and explosive strength and (2 subcutaneous fatty tissue and segmented run and running speed. Canonical factors indicate that the greater the size of chest, thigh, shin and body mass, the lower are the results of the composite motor tests (plyometric jump, forward lean-backward lean-throw, long jump and standing jump, that is the girls who had higher values of back skinfold, stomach skinfold, thigh skinfold and shin skinfold, had worse result realization of motor tasks (hand-tapping, foot-tapping and running 5 x 10 m. Empirical data of the research on the isolated canonical structure are relevant from the theoretical point of view, but they also have relevant implications for identifying increased level of nutritional status and the advancement of physical education in elementary school education.

  14. Body composition variables and leptin levels in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and amenorrhea related to eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Vincenzina; Dei, Metella; Morelli, Chiara; Schettino, M Teresa; Balzi, Daniela; Nuvolone, Daniela

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify diagnostic criteria that can distinguish between subjects with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea largely related to minimal energy deficiency and those in whom failure of adaptive response to stress prevails. We studied 59 young women with secondary amenorrhea related to modest eating disorders and 58 who complained of stressful events in their history. We assessed anthropometric measurements, body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and basal endocrine profile. Subjects with disordered eating had lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM) measured with both techniques, lumbar mineral density and direct and indirect measures of lean mass. Leptin and free tri-iodothyronine(FT(3)) concentrations also proved lower in the group of subjects with eating disorders, although there was no significant difference in cortisol between the two groups. Leptin levels were positively associated not only with fat mass, but also with body cell mass indexed to height and phase angle, parameters studied with BIA as expression of active lean compartment. A multivariate model confirmed the utility of integrating endocrine data with the study of body composition. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis proved to be, in clinical use, a valid diagnostic alternative to DEXA, especially considering body cell mass and phase angle. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Examination of Some of the Cognitive and Motivation Variables Related to Gender Differences in Lecture Note-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddington, Lindsay A.; Peverly, Stephen T.; Block, Caryn J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to explore if gender is related to note-taking in a large undergraduate sample (divided relatively evenly between males and females), and if it is, to examine the cognitive (handwriting speed, working memory, language comprehension) and motivation variables (conscientiousness and goal orientation) that…

  16. What Predicts Student Success in Introductory Data Management Classes? An Investigation of Demographic, Personality, Computer-Related, and Interaction Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kenneth J.; Harris, Ranida B.; Lambert, Alysa D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to data management classes are often times students' first exposure to advanced material in these areas. Many factors are likely to influence success in these classes, but empirical investigations have focused on relatively few variables. In this study, we extend this research by examining the relative contributions of the previously…

  17. Work-related stress disorders: variability in clinical expression and pitfalls in psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buselli, Rodolfo; Veltri, Antonello; Baldanzi, Sigrid; Bozzi, Silvia; Marino, Riccardo; Chiumiento, Martina; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Cristaudo, Alfonso

    2016-03-24

    Putative occupational stress-related psychiatric disorders are Adjustment Disorders (AD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Mood Disorders (MD) are not excluded but are unlikely to be identified as occupational diseases. The differential diagnosis between AD and MD is not easy and is based on strict categorical criteria. The aim of this study  was to explore differences in personality and mood spectrum symptoms among workers investigated for occupational stress suffering from AD or MD. Sixty-two patients with AD and 43 with MD were recruited and evaluated by means of rating scales for psychosocial occupational risk and work-related stress (WHS, CDL, OSQ), for sleep disturbances (PSQI), for personality disorders (SCID-II) and for mood spectrum symptoms (MOODS-SR). The diagnostic groups did not differ for WHS, OSQ and PSQI scores. The duration of exposure to stressful/adversative work situations was significantly higher in the MD group (p=0.03). Positive family psychiatric history (p=0.005), personality disorders (p=0.009) and pathological personality traits (p<0.0001) were significantly more frequent in the MD group. The MOODS-SR questionnaire total score (p=0.019) and the manic component score (p=0.001) but not the depressive score were significantly higher in the MD group. The present study suggests that  positive family psychiatric history, pathological personality traits and  spectrum manic symptoms represent markers of vulnerability and low resilience for workers exposed to occupational stress. These characteristics could weaken the etiological relationship between work-related stress and an initial  major depressive episode when it is under investigation as a possible occupational disease.

  18. Calibration of multivariate scatter plots for exploratory analysis of relations within and between sets of variables in genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffelman, Jan; van Eeuwijk, Fred

    2005-12-01

    The scatter plot is a well known and easily applicable graphical tool to explore relationships between two quantitative variables. For the exploration of relations between multiple variables, generalisations of the scatter plot are useful. We present an overview of multivariate scatter plots focussing on the following situations. Firstly, we look at a scatter plot for portraying relations between quantitative variables within one data matrix. Secondly, we discuss a similar plot for the case of qualitative variables. Thirdly, we describe scatter plots for the relationships between two sets of variables where we focus on correlations. Finally, we treat plots of the relationships between multiple response and predictor variables, focussing on the matrix of regression coefficients. We will present both known and new results, where an important original contribution concerns a procedure for the inclusion of scales for the variables in multivariate scatter plots. We provide software for drawing such scales. We illustrate the construction and interpretation of the plots by means of examples on data collected in a genomic research program on taste in tomato.

  19. Microscale profiling of photosynthesis-related variables in a highly productive biofilm photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Piltz, Bastian; Podola, Björn; Dron, Anthony; de Beer, Dirk; Melkonian, Michael

    2016-05-01

    In the present study depth profiles of light, oxygen, pH and photosynthetic performance in an artificial biofilm of the green alga Halochlorella rubescens in a porous substrate photobioreactor (PSBR) were recorded with microsensors. Biofilms were exposed to different light intensities (50-1,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ) and CO2 levels (0.04-5% v/v in air). The distribution of photosynthetically active radiation showed almost identical trends for different surface irradiances, namely: a relatively fast drop to a depth of about 250 µm, (to 5% of the incident), followed by a slower decrease. Light penetrated into the biofilm deeper than the Lambert-Beer Law predicted, which may be attributed to forward scattering of light, thus improving the overall light availability. Oxygen concentration profiles showed maxima at a depth between 50 and 150 μm, depending on the incident light intensity. A very fast gas exchange was observed at the biofilm surface. The highest oxygen concentration of 3.2 mM was measured with 1,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and 5% supplementary CO2. Photosynthetic productivity increased with light intensity and/or CO2 concentration and was always highest at the biofilm surface; the stimulating effect of elevated CO2 concentration in the gas phase on photosynthesis was enhanced by higher light intensities. The dissolved inorganic carbon concentration profiles suggest that the availability of the dissolved free CO2 has the strongest impact on photosynthetic productivity. The results suggest that dark respiration could explain previously observed decrease in growth rate over cultivation time in this type of PSBR. Our results represent a basis for understanding the complex dynamics of environmental variables and metabolic processes in artificial phototrophic biofilms exposed to a gas phase and can be used to improve the design and operational parameters of PSBRs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Nature of Global Large-scale Sea Level Variability in Relation to Atmospheric Forcing: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, I.; Raghunath, R.; Fu, L. L.

    1996-01-01

    The relation between large-scale sea level variability and ocean circulation is studied using a numerical model. A global primitive equaiton model of the ocean is forced by daily winds and climatological heat fluxes corresponding to the period from January 1992 to February 1996. The physical nature of the temporal variability from periods of days to a year, are examined based on spectral analyses of model results and comparisons with satellite altimetry and tide gauge measurements.

  1. A period-luminosity relation for Mira variables in globular clusters and its impact on the distance scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzies, J.W.; Whitelock, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    JHKL photometry is presented for 31 red variables in 15 galactic globular clusters. The photometry of the Mira variables is used to find absolute bolometric magnitudes and an Msub(bol)-log P relation which differs from the one found for LMC Miras. This can be understood only if there is some systematic error in the globular cluster and/or LMC distance scales or if there is some fundamental difference between the cluster Miras and those in the LMC. (author)

  2. Lower heart rate variability is associated with cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dupont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Fatigue is the most common and distressing symptom reported by breast cancer survivors and yet the pathophysiology of cancer-related fatigue remains largely unknown. Fatigue is associated with lower parasympathetic and higher sympathetic nervous system activity in non-cancer samples, but only one study has demonstrated this same relationship in breast cancer survivors. This study evaluates the relationship between fatigue and basal autonomic nervous system activity as measured by heart rate variability (HRV in a sample of breast cancer survivors. Methods : Women who had been diagnosed with early stage breast cancer before the age of 50 were recruited from the UCLA tumor registry and completed psychological questionnaires, including measures of fatigue. A subset of these women (n=30 participated in a follow-up study in which they completed measures of fatigue, energy and mood four times per day for 5 days using electronic diaries, provided 3 days of saliva samples for cortisol assessment and underwent physiological assessment including electrocardiogram (ECG. HRV was assessed via ECG R-R wave spectral and time sequence analysis. Results : Questionnaire measures of fatigue were negatively associated with indices of parasympathetic nervous system activity, B= − 3.85, p = 0.04 for RMSSD (root of the mean squared difference of successive normal to normal waves and B= − 76.97, p = 0.04 for LF power % (low-frequency wave power percentage. Daily fatigue was also associated with lower basal HRV, B= − 15.1, p = 0.04 for RMSSD. However, fatigue indices were not associated with sympathetic nervous system activity as measured by low- to high-frequency wave ratio. Of note, fatigue was not associated with average daily cortisol output (AUC. Conclusions : Lower HRV has been associated with increased chronic inflammation, which is elevated in cancer survivors reporting persistent fatigue, thus providing insight into

  3. Assessing Factors Related to Waist Circumference and Obesity: Application of a Latent Variable Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dalvand, Sahar; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Karimlou, Masoud; Asgari, Fereshteh; Rafei, Ali; Seifi, Behjat; Niksima, Seyed Hassan; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because the use of BMI (Body Mass Index) alone as a measure of adiposity has been criticized, in the present study our aim was to fit a latent variable model to simultaneously examine the factors that affect waist circumference (continuous outcome) and obesity (binary outcome) among Iranian adults. Methods. Data included 18,990 Iranian individuals aged 20–65 years that are derived from the third National Survey of Noncommunicable Diseases Risk Factors in Iran. Using latent variabl...

  4. Relations estimate between investment in digital media and financial variables of companies: a Colombian overview

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia Novoa Hoyos; Mauricio Sabogal Salamanca; Camilo Vargas Walteros

    2016-01-01

    This article shows a first estimate about the relationship between investment in digital media and some financial variables in Colombia. First, a literature review is made about the impact of marketing and digital marketing in Company performance. Then, an analysis of the sectorial variables such as liquidity, profitability, indebtedness and concentration in sectors like food, personal grooming, automotive, drinking and tobacco, construction, entertainment, furniture, services, telecommunicat...

  5. An objective measure to identify pediatric liver transplant recipients at risk for late allograft rejection related to non-adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Veena L; Nick, Todd G; Wang, Yu; Bucuvalas, John C

    2008-02-01

    Non-adherence to a prescribed immunosuppressive regimen increases risk for late allograft rejection (LAR). We implemented a protocol for immunosuppression management which decreased variation in calcineurin inhibitor blood levels in pediatric liver transplant recipients by controlling for confounders such as physician practice variability. We hypothesized that patients with increased variation in tacrolimus blood levels despite implementation of the immunosuppression management protocol were at increased risk for LAR. We conducted a single center retrospective cohort study of 101 pediatric liver transplant recipients who were at least one year post liver transplantation and receiving tacrolimus for immunosuppression. The primary outcome variable was biopsy proven allograft rejection. Primary candidate predictor variables were the standard deviation (SD) of tacrolimus blood levels (a marker of drug level variability), mean tacrolimus blood level, age, and insurance type. SD of tacrolimus blood levels was determined for each patient from a minimum of four outpatient levels during the study period. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to determine the prognostic value of candidate predictors. The median and interquartile range of the SD of tacrolimus blood levels was 1.6 (1.1, 2.1). Eleven episodes of LAR occurred during the study period. Ten of the 11 episodes occurred in patients with tacrolimus blood level SD > 2. Insurance type, mean tacrolimus blood level and SD of tacrolimus blood levels were significantly related to LAR in the unadjusted analyses (ptype, mean and SD of tacrolimus blood levels was significantly associated with LAR (validated C-statistic = 0.88, p = 0.012). The adjusted odds of rejection for a one unit increase in the SD of tacrolimus blood level was 3.49 (95% CI 1.31 to 9.29). Effects of age and insurance status on LAR did not provide independent prognostic value after controlling for SD. Variation in tacrolimus blood

  6. Refining Current Scientific Priorities and Identifying New Scientific Gaps in HIV-Related Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Homer L; Crystal, Ronald; Currier, Judith; Ridker, Paul; Berliner, Nancy; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Rutherford, George; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone; Wong, Renee; Peprah, Emmanuel; Engelgau, Michael; Creazzo, Tony; Colombini-Hatch, Sandra; Caler, Elisabet

    2017-09-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) AIDS Program's goal is to provide direction and support for research and training programs in areas of HIV-related heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) diseases. To better define NHLBI current HIV-related scientific priorities and with the goal of identifying new scientific priorities and gaps in HIV-related HLBS research, a wide group of investigators gathered for a scientific NHLBI HIV Working Group on December 14-15, 2015, in Bethesda, MD. The core objectives of the Working Group included discussions on: (1) HIV-related HLBS comorbidities in the antiretroviral era; (2) HIV cure; (3) HIV prevention; and (4) mechanisms to implement new scientific discoveries in an efficient and timely manner so as to have the most impact on people living with HIV. The 2015 Working Group represented an opportunity for the NHLBI to obtain expert advice on HIV/AIDS scientific priorities and approaches over the next decade.

  7. Four Closely Related HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant Forms Identified in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Li, Yuxueyun; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ruan, Yuhua; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming

    2017-07-01

    Five near full-length genomes of novel second-generation HIV-1 recombinant virus (JS150021, JS150029, JS150129, JS150132, and AH150183) were identified from five HIV-positive people in Jiangsu and Anhui province, east China. Phylogenic analyses showed that these five sequences are all composed of two well-established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE, grouped into four new discovered recombinant forms, which show several very similar but not identical recombinant breakpoints. The four recombinant forms are also identified to be a sort of family or related viruses, seems to be the results of different recombination events. The emergence of a serious new closely related CRF07_BC/CRF01_AE recombinant strain indicates the increasing complexity of sexual transmission of the HIV-1 epidemic in China.

  8. Quantifying the Relative Contributions of Forest Change and Climatic Variability to Hydrology in Large Watersheds: A Critical Review of Research Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Wei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest change and climatic variability are two major drivers for influencing change in watershed hydrology in forest–dominated watersheds. Quantifying their relative contributions is important to fully understand their individual effects. This review paper summarizes the progress on quantifying the relative contributions of forest or land cover change and climatic variability to hydrology in large watersheds using available case studies. It compared pros and cons of various research methods, identified research challenges and proposed future research priorities. Our synthesis shows that the relative hydrological effects of forest changes and climatic variability are largely dependent on their own change magnitudes and watershed characteristics. In some severely disturbed watersheds, impacts of forest changes or land use changes can be as important as those from climatic variability. This paper provides a brief review on eight selected research methods for this type of research. Because each method or technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, combining two or more methods is a more robust approach than using any single method alone. Future research priorities include conducting more case studies, refining research methods, and considering mechanism-based research using landscape ecology and geochemistry approaches.

  9. Variability of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregene, M A; Vargas, J; Ikea, J; Angel, F; Tohme, J; Asiedu, R A; Akoroda, M O; Roca, W M

    1994-11-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cp) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation was investigated in 45 accessions of cultivated and wild Manihot species. Ten independent mutations, 8 point mutations and 2 length mutations were identified, using eight restriction enzymes and 12 heterologous cpDNA probes from mungbean. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis defined nine distinct chloroplast types, three of which were found among the cultivated accessions and six among the wild species. Cladistic analysis of the cpDNA data using parsimony yielded a hypothetical phylogeny of lineages among the cpDNAs of cassava and its wild relatives that is congruent with morphological evolutionary differentiation in the genus. The results of our survey of cpDNA, together with rDNA restriction site change at the intergenic spacer region and rDNA repeat unit length variation (using rDNA cloned fragments from taro as probe), suggest that cassava might have arisen from the domestication of wild tuberous accessions of some Manihot species, followed by intensive selection. M. esculenta subspp flabellifolia is probably a wild progenitor. Introgressive hybridization with wild forms and pressures to adapt to the widely varying climates and topography in which cassava is found might have enhanced the crop's present day variability.

  10. Variable effects of climate on forest growth in relation to climate extremes, disturbance, and forest dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itter, Malcolm S.; Finley, Andrew O.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Foster, Jane R.; Bradford, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics—changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth responses to climate is particularly important given stand structure and composition can be modified through management to increase forest resistance and resilience to climate change. To inform such adaptive management, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian state space model in which climate effects on tree growth are allowed to vary over time and in relation to past climate extremes, disturbance events, and forest dynamics. The model is an important step toward integrating disturbance and forest dynamics into predictions of forest growth responses to climate extremes. We apply the model to a dendrochronology data set from forest stands of varying composition, structure, and development stage in northeastern Minnesota that have experienced extreme climate years and forest tent caterpillar defoliation events. Mean forest growth was most sensitive to water balance variables representing climatic water deficit. Forest growth responses to water deficit were partitioned into responses driven by climatic threshold exceedances and interactions with insect defoliation. Forest growth was both resistant and resilient to climate extremes with the majority of forest growth responses occurring after multiple climatic threshold exceedances across seasons and years. Interactions between climate and disturbance were observed in a subset of years with insect defoliation increasing forest growth sensitivity to water availability. Forest growth was particularly

  11. Variable effects of climate on forest growth in relation to climate extremes, disturbance, and forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itter, Malcolm S; Finley, Andrew O; D'Amato, Anthony W; Foster, Jane R; Bradford, John B

    2017-06-01

    Changes in the frequency, duration, and severity of climate extremes are forecast to occur under global climate change. The impacts of climate extremes on forest productivity and health remain difficult to predict due to potential interactions with disturbance events and forest dynamics-changes in forest stand composition, density, size and age structure over time. Such interactions may lead to non-linear forest growth responses to climate involving thresholds and lag effects. Understanding how forest dynamics influence growth responses to climate is particularly important given stand structure and composition can be modified through management to increase forest resistance and resilience to climate change. To inform such adaptive management, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian state space model in which climate effects on tree growth are allowed to vary over time and in relation to past climate extremes, disturbance events, and forest dynamics. The model is an important step toward integrating disturbance and forest dynamics into predictions of forest growth responses to climate extremes. We apply the model to a dendrochronology data set from forest stands of varying composition, structure, and development stage in northeastern Minnesota that have experienced extreme climate years and forest tent caterpillar defoliation events. Mean forest growth was most sensitive to water balance variables representing climatic water deficit. Forest growth responses to water deficit were partitioned into responses driven by climatic threshold exceedances and interactions with insect defoliation. Forest growth was both resistant and resilient to climate extremes with the majority of forest growth responses occurring after multiple climatic threshold exceedances across seasons and years. Interactions between climate and disturbance were observed in a subset of years with insect defoliation increasing forest growth sensitivity to water availability. Forest growth was particularly

  12. THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF FINANCIAL RATIOS AND NONFINANCIAL VARIABLES IN PREDICTING OF INSOLVENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Pervan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important decisions in every bank is approving loans to firms, which is based on evaluated credit risk and collateral. Namely, it is necessary to evaluate the risk that client will be unable to repay the obligations according to the contract. After Beaver's (1967 and Altman's (1968 seminal papers many authors extended the initial research by changing the methodology, samples, countries, etc. But majority of business failure papers as predictors use financial ratios, while in the real life banks combine financial and nonfinancial variables. In order to test predictive power of nonfinancial variables authors in the paper compare two insolvency prediction models. The first model that used financial rations resulted with classification accuracy of 82.8%, while the combined model with financial and nonfinancial variables resulted with classification accuracy of 88.1%.

  13. WEATHE- RELATED VARIABILITY OF CALORIMETERY PERFORMANCE IN A POORLY-CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMERON, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Four Antech airbath calorimeters at the Hanford site were studied for three summers and two winters in a location not well-shielded from outside temperature changes. All calorimeters showed significant increases in variability of standard measurements during hot weather. The increased variability is postulated to be due to a low setting of the Peltier cold face temperature, which doesn't allow the instrument to drain heat fast enough in a hot environment. A higher setting of the Peltier cold face might lead to better performance in environments subjected to a broad range of temperatures

  14. Relations estimate between investment in digital media and financial variables of companies: a Colombian overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Novoa Hoyos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows a first estimate about the relationship between investment in digital media and some financial variables in Colombia. First, a literature review is made about the impact of marketing and digital marketing in Company performance. Then, an analysis of the sectorial variables such as liquidity, profitability, indebtedness and concentration in sectors like food, personal grooming, automotive, drinking and tobacco, construction, entertainment, furniture, services, telecommunication, tourism and clothing using the technique of ordinary squared minimums (OSM in the years 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. For this study, investment in digital media in the above- mentioned years is also taken into account.

  15. Feasibility of a self-administered survey to identify primary care patients at risk of medication-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowsky MJ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark J Makowsky,1 Andrew J Cave,2 Scot H Simpson1 1Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background and objectives: Pharmacists working in primary care clinics are well positioned to help optimize medication management of community-dwelling patients who are at high risk of experiencing medication-related problems. However, it is often difficult to identify these patients. Our objective was to test the feasibility of a self-administered patient survey, to facilitate identification of patients at high risk of medication-related problems in a family medicine clinic. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, paper-based survey at the University of Alberta Hospital Family Medicine Clinic in Edmonton, Alberta, which serves approximately 7,000 patients, with 25,000 consultations per year. Adult patients attending the clinic were invited to complete a ten-item questionnaire, adapted from previously validated surveys, while waiting to be seen by the physician. Outcomes of interest included: time to complete the questionnaire, staff feedback regarding impact on workflow, and the proportion of patients who reported three or more risk factors for medication-related problems. Results: The questionnaire took less than 5 minutes to complete, according to the patient's report on the last page of the questionnaire. The median age (and interquartile range of respondents was 57 (45–69 years; 59% were women; 47% reported being in very good or excellent health; 43 respondents of 100 had three or more risk factors, and met the definition for being at high risk of a medication-related problem. Conclusions: Distribution of a self-administered questionnaire did not disrupt patients, or the clinic workflow, and identified an important proportion of patients at high risk of medication-related problems. Keywords: screening tool, pharmacists, primary

  16. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  17. Correlates of adolescent sleep time and variability in sleep time: the role of individual and health related characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Melisa; Kirchner, H Lester; Drotar, Dennis; Johnson, Nathan; Rosen, Carol; Redline, Susan

    2011-03-01

    Adolescents are predisposed to short sleep duration and irregular sleep patterns due to certain host characteristics (e.g., age, pubertal status, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, and neighborhood distress) and health-related variables (e.g., ADHD, asthma, birth weight, and BMI). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between such variables and actigraphic measures of sleep duration and variability. Cross-sectional study of 247 adolescents (48.5% female, 54.3% ethnic minority, mean age of 13.7years) involved in a larger community-based cohort study. Significant univariate predictors of sleep duration included gender, minority ethnicity, neighborhood distress, parent income, and BMI. In multivariate models, gender, minority status, and BMI were significantly associated with sleep duration (all pminority adolescents, and those of a lower BMI obtaining more sleep. Univariate models demonstrated that age, minority ethnicity, neighborhood distress, parent education, parent income, pubertal status, and BMI were significantly related to variability in total sleep time. In the multivariate model, age, minority status, and BMI were significantly related to variability in total sleep time (all pminority adolescents, and those of a lower BMI obtaining more regular sleep. These data show differences in sleep patterns in population sub-groups of adolescents which may be important in understanding pediatric health risk profiles. Sub-groups that may particularly benefit from interventions aimed at improving sleep patterns include boys, overweight, and minority adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating relations between temperature, relative humidity as independed variables and selected water quality parameters in Lake Manzala, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan A.H. Sallam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, Lake Manzala is the largest and the most productive lake of northern coastal lakes. In this study, the continuous measurements data of the Real Time Water Quality Monitoring stations in Lake Manzala were statistically analyzed to measure the regional and seasonal variations of the selected water quality parameters in relation to the change of air temperature and relative humidity. Simple formulas are elaborated using the DataFit software to predict the selected water quality parameters of the Lake including pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Turbidity, and Chlorophyll as a function of air temperature, relative humidity and quantities and qualities of the drainage water that discharge into the lake. An empirical positive relation was found between air temperature and the relative humidity and pH, EC and TDS and negative relation with DO. There is no significant effect on the other two parameters of turbidity and chlorophyll.

  19. A systems biology pipeline identifies new immune and disease related molecular signatures and networks in human cells during microgravity exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayak; Saha, Rohini; Palanisamy, Anbarasi; Ghosh, Madhurima; Biswas, Anupriya; Roy, Saheli; Pal, Arijit; Sarkar, Kathakali; Bagh, Sangram

    2016-05-17

    Microgravity is a prominent health hazard for astronauts, yet we understand little about its effect at the molecular systems level. In this study, we have integrated a set of systems-biology tools and databases and have analysed more than 8000 molecular pathways on published global gene expression datasets of human cells in microgravity. Hundreds of new pathways have been identified with statistical confidence for each dataset and despite the difference in cell types and experiments, around 100 of the new pathways are appeared common across the datasets. They are related to reduced inflammation, autoimmunity, diabetes and asthma. We have identified downregulation of NfκB pathway via Notch1 signalling as new pathway for reduced immunity in microgravity. Induction of few cancer types including liver cancer and leukaemia and increased drug response to cancer in microgravity are also found. Increase in olfactory signal transduction is also identified. Genes, based on their expression pattern, are clustered and mathematically stable clusters are identified. The network mapping of genes within a cluster indicates the plausible functional connections in microgravity. This pipeline gives a new systems level picture of human cells under microgravity, generates testable hypothesis and may help estimating risk and developing medicine for space missions.

  20. A systems biology pipeline identifies new immune and disease related molecular signatures and networks in human cells during microgravity exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayak; Saha, Rohini; Palanisamy, Anbarasi; Ghosh, Madhurima; Biswas, Anupriya; Roy, Saheli; Pal, Arijit; Sarkar, Kathakali; Bagh, Sangram

    2016-05-01

    Microgravity is a prominent health hazard for astronauts, yet we understand little about its effect at the molecular systems level. In this study, we have integrated a set of systems-biology tools and databases and have analysed more than 8000 molecular pathways on published global gene expression datasets of human cells in microgravity. Hundreds of new pathways have been identified with statistical confidence for each dataset and despite the difference in cell types and experiments, around 100 of the new pathways are appeared common across the datasets. They are related to reduced inflammation, autoimmunity, diabetes and asthma. We have identified downregulation of NfκB pathway via Notch1 signalling as new pathway for reduced immunity in microgravity. Induction of few cancer types including liver cancer and leukaemia and increased drug response to cancer in microgravity are also found. Increase in olfactory signal transduction is also identified. Genes, based on their expression pattern, are clustered and mathematically stable clusters are identified. The network mapping of genes within a cluster indicates the plausible functional connections in microgravity. This pipeline gives a new systems level picture of human cells under microgravity, generates testable hypothesis and may help estimating risk and developing medicine for space missions.

  1. Ankle torque steadiness is related to muscle activation variability and coactivation in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rose, Martin Høyer; Sløk, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) investigate the significance of muscle activation variability and coactivation for the ability to perform steady submaximal ankle torque (torque steadiness) in healthy children and those with cerebral palsy (CP), and (2) assess ankle function during isometric...

  2. Intraindividual variability is related to cognitive change in older adults: evidence for within-person coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, Allison A M; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hunter, Michael A

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the authors addressed the longitudinal nature of intraindividual variability over 3 years. A sample of 304 community-dwelling older adults, initially between the ages of 64 and 92 years, completed 4 waves of annual testing on a battery of accuracy- and latency-based tests covering a wide range of cognitive complexity. Increases in response-time inconsistency on moderately and highly complex tasks were associated with increasing age, but there were significant individual differences in change across the entire sample. The time-varying covariation between cognition and inconsistency was significant across the 1-year intervals and remained stable across both time and age. On occasions when intraindividual variability was high, participants' cognitive performance was correspondingly low. The strength of the coupling relationship was greater for more fluid cognitive domains such as memory, reasoning, and processing speed than for more crystallized domains such as verbal ability. Variability based on moderately and highly complex tasks provided the strongest prediction. These results suggest that intraindividual variability is highly sensitive to even subtle changes in cognitive ability. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Varieties of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related intra-individual variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos, F.X.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Scheres, A.P.J.; Martino, A. Di; Hyde, C.; Walters, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Intra-individual variability in behavior and functioning is ubiquitous among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has not been systematically examined or integrated within causal models. This article seeks to provide a conceptual, methodologic, and analytic framework

  4. Confidence Intervals for a Semiparametric Approach to Modeling Nonlinear Relations among Latent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Jolynn; Losardo, Diane; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Compared to parametric models, nonparametric and semiparametric approaches to modeling nonlinearity between latent variables have the advantage of recovering global relationships of unknown functional form. Bauer (2005) proposed an indirect application of finite mixtures of structural equation models where latent components are estimated in the…

  5. Net primary productivity of subalpine meadows in Yosemite National Park in relation to climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggy E. Moore; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Julie L. Yee; Mitchel P. McClaran; David N. Cole; Neil K. McDougald; Matthew L. Brooks

    2013-01-01

    Subalpine meadows are some of the most ecologically important components of mountain landscapes, and primary productivity is important to the maintenance of meadow functions. Understanding how changes in primary productivity are associated with variability in moisture and temperature will become increasingly important with current and anticipated changes in climate....

  6. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives. Derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for deriving and using a class of constitutive laws incorporating spatial gradients of internal variables is presented. It uses two basic ingredients: a derivation of such models by homogenization techniques and a reformulation of the evolution equation at the scale of the whole structure. (orig.)

  7. Cumulative Mass and NIOSH Variable Lifting Index Method for Risk Assessment: Possible Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi, Giulia; Battevi, Natale; Pandolfi, Monica; Galinotti, Luca; Iodice, Simona; Favero, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore whether the Variable Lifting Index (VLI) can be corrected for cumulative mass and thus test its efficacy in predicting the risk of low-back pain (LBP). Background A validation study of the VLI method was published in this journal reporting promising results. Although several studies highlighted a positive correlation between cumulative load and LBP, cumulative mass has never been considered in any of the studies investigating the relationship between manual material handling and LBP. Method Both VLI and cumulative mass were calculated for 2,374 exposed subjects using a systematic approach. Due to high variability of cumulative mass values, a stratification within VLI categories was employed. Dummy variables (1-4) were assigned to each class and used as a multiplier factor for the VLI, resulting in a new index (VLI_CMM). Data on LBP were collected by occupational physicians at the study sites. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of acute LBP within levels of risk exposure when compared with a control group formed by 1,028 unexposed subjects. Results Data showed greatly variable values of cumulative mass across all VLI classes. The potential effect of cumulative mass on damage emerged as not significant ( p value = .6526). Conclusion When comparing VLI_CMM with raw VLI, the former failed to prove itself as a better predictor of LBP risk. Application To recognize cumulative mass as a modifier, especially for lumbar degenerative spine diseases, authors of future studies should investigate potential association between the VLI and other damage variables.

  8. Patterns of genomic variation in the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina identify pathogenesis-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine ePersoons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melampsora larici-populina is a fungal pathogen responsible for foliar rust disease on poplar trees, which causes damage to forest plantations worldwide, particularly in Northern Europe. The reference genome of the isolate 98AG31 was previously sequenced using a whole genome shotgun strategy, revealing a large genome of 101 megabases containing 16,399 predicted genes, which included secreted protein genes representing poplar rust candidate effectors. In the present study, the genomes of 15 isolates collected over the past 20 years throughout the French territory, representing distinct virulence profiles, were characterized by massively parallel sequencing to assess genetic variation in the poplar rust fungus. Comparison to the reference genome revealed striking structural variations. Analysis of coverage and sequencing depth identified large missing regions between isolates related to the mating type loci. More than 611,824 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP positions were uncovered overall, indicating a remarkable level of polymorphism. Based on the accumulation of non-synonymous substitutions in coding sequences and the relative frequencies of synonymous and non-synonymous polymorphisms (i.e. PN/PS, we identify candidate genes that may be involved in fungal pathogenesis. Correlation between non-synonymous SNPs in genes encoding secreted proteins and pathotypes of the studied isolates revealed candidate genes potentially related to virulences 1, 6 and 8 of the poplar rust fungus.

  9. Genome-Wide Temporal Expression Profiling in Caenorhabditis elegans Identifies a Core Gene Set Related to Long-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Virginie; Probst, Sabine; Hadziselimovic, Nils; Boglari, Csaba; Hauser, Yannick; Peter, Fabian; Gabor Fenyves, Bank; Milnik, Annette; Demougin, Philippe; Vukojevic, Vanja; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2017-07-12

    The identification of genes related to encoding, storage, and retrieval of memories is a major interest in neuroscience. In the current study, we analyzed the temporal gene expression changes in a neuronal mRNA pool during an olfactory long-term associative memory (LTAM) in Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites. Here, we identified a core set of 712 (538 upregulated and 174 downregulated) genes that follows three distinct temporal peaks demonstrating multiple gene regulation waves in LTAM. Compared with the previously published positive LTAM gene set (Lakhina et al., 2015), 50% of the identified upregulated genes here overlap with the previous dataset, possibly representing stimulus-independent memory-related genes. On the other hand, the remaining genes were not previously identified in positive associative memory and may specifically regulate aversive LTAM. Our results suggest a multistep gene activation process during the formation and retrieval of long-term memory and define general memory-implicated genes as well as conditioning-type-dependent gene sets. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The identification of genes regulating different steps of memory is of major interest in neuroscience. Identification of common memory genes across different learning paradigms and the temporal activation of the genes are poorly studied. Here, we investigated the temporal aspects of Caenorhabditis elegans gene expression changes using aversive olfactory associative long-term memory (LTAM) and identified three major gene activation waves. Like in previous studies, aversive LTAM is also CREB dependent, and CREB activity is necessary immediately after training. Finally, we define a list of memory paradigm-independent core gene sets as well as conditioning-dependent genes. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376661-12$15.00/0.

  10. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from children with central nervous system tumors identifies candidate proteins relating to tumor metastatic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Filippo; Bongarzone, Italia; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Magni, Ruben; Taverna, Elena; De Bortoli, Maida; Ciniselli, Chiara M; Barzanò, Elena; Biassoni, Veronica; Luchini, Alessandra; Liotta, Lance A; Zhou, Weidong; Signore, Michele; Verderio, Paolo; Massimino, Maura

    2017-07-11

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. Since the sensitivity of combined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and radiological neuroimaging in detecting meningeal metastases remains relatively low, we sought to characterize the CSF proteome of patients with CSF tumors to identify biomarkers predictive of metastatic spread. CSF samples from 27 children with brain tumors and 13 controls (extra-CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma) were processed using core-shell hydrogel nanoparticles, and analyzed with reverse-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Candidate proteins were identified with Fisher's exact test and/or a univariate logistic regression model. Reverse phase protein array (RPPA), Western blot (WB), and ELISA were used in the training set and in an independent set of CFS samples (60 cases, 14 controls) to validate our discovery findings. Among the 558 non-redundant proteins identified by LC-MS/MS, 147 were missing from the CSF database at http://www.biosino.org. Fourteen of the 26 final top-candidate proteins were chosen for validation with WB, RPPA and ELISA methods. Six proteins (type 1 collagen, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer 1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor receptor α2, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4, neural proliferation and differentiation control protein-1) revealed the ability to discriminate metastatic cases from controls. Combining a unique dataset of CSFs from pediatric CNS tumors with a novel enabling nanotechnology led us to identify CSF proteins potentially related to metastatic status.

  11. The use of random-effects models to identify health care center-related characteristics modifying the effect of antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordon, Clementine; Battin, Constance; Verdoux, Helene; Haro, Josef Maria; Belger, Mark; Abenhaim, Lucien; van Staa, Tjeerd Pieter

    2017-01-01

    A case study was conducted, exploring methods to identify drugs effects modifiers, at a health care center level. Data were drawn from the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcome cohort, including hierarchical information on 6641 patients, recruited from 899 health care centers from across ten European countries. Center-level characteristics included the following: psychiatrist's gender, age, length of practice experience, practice setting and type, countries' Healthcare System Efficiency score, and psychiatrist density in the country. Mixed multivariable linear regression models were used: 1) to estimate antipsychotic drugs' effectiveness (defined as the association between patients' outcome at 3 months - dependent variable, continuous - and antipsychotic drug initiation at baseline - drug A vs other antipsychotic drug); 2) to estimate the similarity between clustered data (using the intra-cluster correlation coefficient); and 3) to explore antipsychotic drug effects modification by center-related characteristics (using the addition of an interaction term). About 23% of the variance found for patients' outcome was explained by unmeasured confounding at a center level. Psychiatrists' practice experience was found to be associated with patient outcomes ( p =0.04) and modified the relative effect of "drug A" ( p <0.001), independent of center- or patient-related characteristics. Mixed models may be useful to explore how center-related characteristics modify drugs' effect estimates, but require numerous assumptions.

  12. Which variables relate to the attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy; Minnaert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    While there is an increased interest in describing attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education, there is a lack of knowledge about various variables relating to the attitudes of these three groups. The aims of this study are: (1) to

  13. Determination of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Level of Awareness of Environmental Ethics in Relation to Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Özgül; Özer, Nilgün

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the pre-service science teachers' awareness levels of environmental ethics in relation to different variables. The sampling of the present study is comprised of 1,023 third and fourth year pre-service science teachers selected from 12 different universities in the spring term of 2013-2014 academic…

  14. An Investigation of Boys' and Girls' Emotional Experience of Math, Their Math Performance, and the Relation between These Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan, Selin; Jansen, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in children's emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages 7-15 years). In Study 2, perceived math…

  15. An investigation of boys’ and girls’ emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erturan, S; Jansen, B.

    2015-01-01

    GGender differences in children’s emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages

  16. Peer Victimization and Social Dominance as Intervening Variables of the Link between Peer Liking and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…

  17. The Change of Planned Happenstance Skills and Its Association with Career-Related Variables during School-to-Work Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, NaYeon; Yaung, Huk; Noh, Hyunkyung; Jang, Sun Hee; Lee, Bora

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined how planned happenstance skills (i.e., curiosity, flexibility, persistence, optimism, and risk-taking) changed during school-to-work transition and how career-related variables were associated with the initial levels and change rates of planned happenstance skills. In a sample of 307 South Korean college students, all…

  18. The Differences in Career-Related Variables between Temporary and Permanent Employees in Information Technology Companies in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jinkook; Lim, Beomsik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in career-related variables, such as career commitment and career satisfaction, based on employment status (temporary vs. permanent employees) and job type (professional vs. nonprofessional employees). With a sample of 302 employees working in information technology companies in Korea, it was…

  19. Stress among Student Affairs Administrators: The Relationship of Personal Characteristics and Organizational Variables to Work-Related Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Kathleen R.

    1992-01-01

    Examined possible relationships between reported work-related stress and organizational and personal variables, hardiness of personality, exercise activity, and organizational culture of 240 student affairs administrators within Minnesota. Results revealed that job satisfaction and hardiness of personality were greatest predictors of lowered…

  20. The Nile floodplain, hydroclimatic variability, and its relation with cultural dynamics in ancient Thebes (Luxor, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Willem H. J.; Graham, Angus; Pennington, Ben; Hunter, Morag; Strutt, Kris; Barker, Dominic; Masson, Aurelia; Emery, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The western bank of the river Nile in the Luxor region (Egypt) separates New Kingdom divine temple complexes in the central axis of the river valley from contemporaneous sites on the desert edge and limestone plateau. The intermediate Nile floodplain features relatively few known archaeological sites, but played an important role in the ancient ritual landscape by connecting the focal region of the living (floodplain) with that of the dead (desert). All Royal Funerary Temple Complexes of the New Kingdom period (1539-1077 BCE), which played a central role in the cosmogonical landscape, are positioned within a confined 3.5 km long strip of land on the western edge of the present floodplain. This preferential location, together with contemporary textual sources and tomb scenes suggesting the nearby presence of canals, have led to the hypothesis that natural and human-made waterways may have once connected the main channel of the Nile with the desert edge. Until the present research took place, no detailed study of pre-existing channel networks existed in the region, leaving a gap in current knowledge on the configuration and use of the ancient floodplain. This study presents the results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at mapping and dating ancient waterways in the Theban region and aims to find evidence for the natural or human origin of such channels. Boreholes and Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) were carried out along a transect that connects the edge of the Holocene floodplain with the current position of the river Nile. Satellite imagery and textual sources were also used to augment the fieldwork. The data indicate the presence of an infilled abandoned channel of the Nile in the western distal part of the current floodplain, adjoining the Funerary Temple complexes. Over 2100 ceramic fragments were analysed from the sedimentary infilling of the silted-up river course, dating it to the end of the New Kingdom, and indicating that the channel and temples

  1. Identifying Tmem59 related gene regulatory network of mouse neural stem cell from a compendium of expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiuyun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural stem cells offer potential treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, such like Alzheimer's disease (AD. While much progress has been made in understanding neural stem cell function, a precise description of the molecular mechanisms regulating neural stem cells is not yet established. This lack of knowledge is a major barrier holding back the discovery of therapeutic uses of neural stem cells. In this paper, the regulatory mechanism of mouse neural stem cell (NSC differentiation by tmem59 is explored on the genome-level. Results We identified regulators of tmem59 during the differentiation of mouse NSCs from a compendium of expression profiles. Based on the microarray experiment, we developed the parallelized SWNI algorithm to reconstruct gene regulatory networks of mouse neural stem cells. From the inferred tmem59 related gene network including 36 genes, pou6f1 was identified to regulate tmem59 significantly and might play an important role in the differentiation of NSCs in mouse brain. There are four pathways shown in the gene network, indicating that tmem59 locates in the downstream of the signalling pathway. The real-time RT-PCR results shown that the over-expression of pou6f1 could significantly up-regulate tmem59 expression in C17.2 NSC line. 16 out of 36 predicted genes in our constructed network have been reported to be AD-related, including Ace, aqp1, arrdc3, cd14, cd59a, cds1, cldn1, cox8b, defb11, folr1, gdi2, mmp3, mgp, myrip, Ripk4, rnd3, and sncg. The localization of tmem59 related genes and functional-related gene groups based on the Gene Ontology (GO annotation was also identified. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the expression of tmem59 is an important factor contributing to AD. The parallelized SWNI algorithm increased the efficiency of network reconstruction significantly. This study enables us to highlight novel genes that may be involved in NSC differentiation and provides a shortcut to

  2. Identifying barriers to large-scale integration of variable renewable electricity into the electricity market : A literature review of market design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Harmsen, R.; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Worrell, E.; van den Broek, M.A.

    For reaching the 2 °C climate target, the robust growth of electricity generation from variable renewable energy sources (VRE) in the power sector is expected to continue. Accommodation of the power system to the variable, uncertain and locational-dependent outputs of VRE causes integration costs.

  3. A retrospective observational analysis to identify patient and treatment-related predictors of outcomes in a community mental health programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stuart A; Honeybourne, Emmi; Chalkley, Sylvia R; Poots, Alan J; Woodcock, Thomas; Price, Geraint; Bell, Derek; Green, John

    2015-05-20

    This study aims to identify patient and treatment factors that affect clinical outcomes of community psychological therapy through the development of a predictive model using historic data from 2 services in London. In addition, the study aims to assess the completeness of data collection, explore how treatment outcomes are discriminated using current criteria for classifying recovery, and assess the feasibility and need for undertaking a future larger population analysis. Observational, retrospective discriminant analysis. 2 London community mental health services that provide psychological therapies for common mental disorders including anxiety and depression. A total of 7388 patients attended the services between February 2009 and May 2012, of which 4393 (59%) completed therapy, or there was an agreement to end therapy, and were included in the study. Different combinations of the clinical outcome scores for anxiety Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 and depression Patient Health Questionnaire-9 were used to construct different treatment outcomes. The predictive models were able to assign a positive or negative clinical outcome to each patient based on 5 independent pre-treatment variables, with an accuracy of 69.4% and 79.3%, respectively: initial severity of anxiety and depression, ethnicity, deprivation and gender. The number of sessions attended/missed were also important factors identified in recovery. Predicting whether patients are likely to have a positive outcome following treatment at entry might allow suitable modification of scheduled treatment, possibly resulting in improvements in outcomes. The model also highlights factors not only associated with poorer outcomes but inextricably linked to prevalence of common mental disorders, emphasising the importance of social determinants not only in poor health but also poor recovery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  4. Interannual Variability in the Position and Strength of the East Asian Jet Stream and Its Relation to Large - scale Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Duo; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Qigang

    2013-04-01

    East Asian Jet Stream (EASJ) is charactered by obvious interannual variability in strength and position (latitude), with wide impacts on East Asian climate in all seasons. In this study, two indices are established to measure the interannual variability in intensity and position of EAJS. Possible causing factors, including both local signals and non-local large-scale circulation, are examined using NCAP-NCAR reanalysis data to investigate their relations with jet variation. Our analysis shows that the relationship between the interannual variations of EASJ and these factors depends on seasons. In the summer, both the intensity and position of EASJ are closely related to the meridional gradient of local surface temperature, but display no apparent relationship with the larg-scale circulation. In cold seasons (autumn, winter and spring), both the local factor and the large-scale circulation, i.e. the Pacific/North American teleconnection pattern (PNA), play important roles in the interannual variability of the jet intensity. The variability in the jet position, however, is more correlated to the Arctic Oscillation (AO), especially in winter. Diagnostic analysis indicates that transient eddy activity plays an important role in connecting the interannual variability of EASJ position with AO.

  5. The relative validity and reproducibility of an iron food frequency questionnaire for identifying iron-related dietary patterns in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kathryn L; Kruger, Rozanne; Conlon, Cathryn A; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Coad, Jane; Matthys, Christophe; Jones, Beatrix; Stonehouse, Welma

    2012-08-01

    Using food frequency data to identify dietary patterns is a newly emerging approach to assessing the relationship between dietary intake and iron status. Food frequency questionnaires should be assessed for validity and reproducibility before use. We aimed to investigate the relative validity and reproducibility of an iron food frequency questionnaire (FeFFQ) specifically designed to identify iron-related dietary patterns. Participants completed the FeFFQ at baseline (FeFFQ1) and 1 month later (FeFFQ2) to assess reproducibility. A 4-day weighed diet record (4DDR) was completed between these assessments to determine validity. Foods appearing in the 4DDR were classified into the same 144 food groupings as the FeFFQ. Factor analysis was used to determine dietary patterns from FeFFQ1, FeFFQ2, and the 4DDR. A convenience sample of women (n=115) aged 18 to 44 years living in Auckland, New Zealand, during 2009. Agreement between diet pattern scores was compared using correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman analysis, cross-classification, and the weighted κ statistic. A "healthy" and a "sandwich and drinks" dietary pattern were identified from all three dietary assessments. Correlation coefficients between FeFFQ1 and the 4DDR diet pattern scores (validity) were 0.34 for the healthy, and 0.62 for the sandwich and drinks pattern (both Ps50% of participants into the correct tertile and <10% into the opposite tertile for both the healthy and sandwich and drinks diet pattern scores when compared with the 4DDR and FeFFQ2. The FeFFQ appears to be a reproducible and relatively valid method for identifying dietary patterns, and could be used to investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and iron status. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Use of Chemical-Chemical Interaction and Chemical Structure to Identify New Candidate Chemicals Related to Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Lung cancer causes over one million deaths every year worldwide. However, prevention and treatment methods for this serious disease are limited. The identification of new chemicals related to lung cancer may aid in disease prevention and the design of more effective treatments. This study employed a weighted network, constructed using chemical-chemical interaction information, to identify new chemicals related to two types of lung cancer: non-small lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer. Then, a randomization test as well as chemical-chemical interaction and chemical structure information were utilized to make further selections. A final analysis of these new chemicals in the context of the current literature indicates that several chemicals are strongly linked to lung cancer.

  7. Concordance among different aquatic insect assemblages and the relative role of spatial and environmental variables

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Qin; Yong Zhang; Haiyan Yu; Beixin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Indicator groups are often used for biodiversity monitoring and conservation, however, the effectiveness of these groups in representing biodiversity is rarely tested. To explore community congruence among different aquatic insect groups and how this may be affected by spatial factors and environmental variables, we carried out an investigation on aquatic insects in April 2010 in 21 headwater streams within the Dongtiaoxi Basin, China. In total, we recorded 130 species from 92 genera, 44 fami...

  8. Coral based-ENSO/IOD related climate variability in Indonesia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudawati Cahyarini, Sri; Henrizan, Marfasran

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is located in the prominent site to study climate variability as it lies between Pacific and Indian Ocean. It has consequences to the regional climate in Indonesia that its climate variability is influenced by the climate events in the Pacific oceans (e.g. ENSO) and in the Indian ocean (e.g. IOD), and monsoon as well as Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Northwestern monsoon causes rainfall in the region of Indonesia, while reversely Southwestern monsoon causes dry season around Indonesia. The ENSO warm phase called El Nino causes several droughts in Indonesian region, reversely the La Nina causes flooding in some regions in Indonesia. However, the impact of ENSO in Indonesia is different from one place to the others. Having better understanding on the climate phenomenon and its impact to the region requires long time series climate data. Paleoclimate study which provides climate data back into hundreds to thousands even to million years overcome this requirement. Coral Sr/Ca can provide information on past sea surface temperature (SST) and paired Sr/Ca and δ18O may be used to reconstruct variations in the precipitation balance (salinity) at monthly to annual interannual resolution. Several climate studies based on coral geochemical records in Indonesia show that coral Sr/Ca and δ18O from Indonesian records SST and salinity respectively. Coral Sr/Ca from inshore Seribu islands complex shows more air temperature rather than SST. Modern coral from Timor shows the impact of ENSO and IOD to the saliniy and SST is different at Timor sea. This result should be taken into account when interpreting Paleoclimate records over Indonesia. Timor coral also shows more pronounced low frequency SST variability compared to the SST reanalysis (model). The longer data of low frequency variability will improve the understanding of warming trend in this climatically important region.

  9. On the variably-charged black holes in general relativity: Hawking's radiation and naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibohal, Ng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper variably-charged non-rotating Reissner-Nordstrom and rotating Kerr-Newman black holes are discussed. Such a variable charge e with respect to the polar coordinate r in the field equations is referred to as an electrical radiation of the black hole. It is shown that every electrical radiation e(r) of the non-rotating black hole leads to a reduction in its mass M by some quantity. If one considers such electrical radiation taking place continuously for a long time, then a continuous reduction of the mass may take place in the black-hole body and the original mass of the black hole may be evaporated completely. At that stage, the gravity of the object may depend only on the electromagnetic field, not on the mass. Immediately after the complete evaporation of the mass, if the next radiation continues, there may be creation of a new mass leading to the formation of a negative mass naked singularity. It appears that this new mass of the naked singularity would never decrease, but might increase gradually as the radiation continues forever. A similar investigation is also discussed in the case of a variably-charged rotating Kerr-Newman black hole. Thus, it has been shown by incorporating Hawking's evaporation of radiating black holes in the form of spacetime metrics, every electrical radiation of variably-charged rotating and non-rotating black holes may produce a change in the mass of the body without affecting the Maxwell scalar

  10. Variability of Jump Kinetics Related to Training Load in Elite Female Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Legg; David B. Pyne; Stuart Semple; Nick Ball

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players (n = 10) aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ) data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post). Concentric peak velocity, jump height,...

  11. Relative roles of weather variables and change in human population in malaria: comparison over different states of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Goswami

    Full Text Available Pro-active and effective control as well as quantitative assessment of impact of climate change on malaria requires identification of the major drivers of the epidemic. Malaria depends on vector abundance which, in turn, depends on a combination of weather variables. However, there remain several gaps in our understanding and assessment of malaria in a changing climate. Most of the studies have considered weekly or even monthly mean values of weather variables, while the malaria vector is sensitive to daily variations. Secondly, rarely all the relevant meteorological variables have been considered together. An important question is the relative roles of weather variables (vector abundance and change in host (human population, in the change in disease load.We consider the 28 states of India, characterized by diverse climatic zones and changing population as well as complex variability in malaria, as a natural test bed. An annual vector load for each of the 28 states is defined based on the number of vector genesis days computed using daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity from NCEP daily Reanalysis; a prediction of potential malaria load is defined by taking into consideration changes in the human population and compared with the reported number of malaria cases.For most states, the number of malaria cases is very well correlated with the vector load calculated with the combined conditions of daily values of temperature, rainfall and humidity; no single weather variable has any significant association with the observed disease prevalence.The association between vector-load and daily values of weather variables is robust and holds for different climatic regions (states of India. Thus use of all the three weather variables provides a reliable means of pro-active and efficient vector sanitation and control as well as assessment of impact of climate change on malaria.

  12. Variability of Jump Kinetics Related to Training Load in Elite Female Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Jan; Pyne, David B; Semple, Stuart; Ball, Nick

    2017-11-04

    The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players ( n = 10) aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ) data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post). Concentric peak velocity, jump height, and dip showed the most stability from pre- to post-season, with the %CV ranging from 5.6⁻8.9%. In the period of the highest training load (mid-season), the variability of within-subject performance was reduced by approximately 2⁻4% in all measures except for jump height. Altered jump mechanics through a small (0.26 effect size) increase in dip were evident at mid-season, suggesting that CMJ analysis is useful for coaches to use as an in-season monitoring tool. The highest coefficient of variation (8⁻22%CV) in inter-set scores in all measures except eccentric peak velocity also occurred mid-season. It appears that in-season load not only impairs jump performance, but also movement variability in basketball players.

  13. The relation between overall satisfaction and the variables of satisfaction in hospitality in hotels of excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Flores Limberger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social media change the way tourists seek and exchange information and determine management changes and implications for tourism businesses, including lodging facilities. Reviews and ratings from guests have affected the reputation of organizations both positively and negatively. The website for user-generated content allow this information to reach other tourists, assessing the quality of service and influencing the decision of new visitors. Thus, this research aimed to investigate the variables of satisfaction that influence the overall satisfaction in hotels of excellence and if there is difference between the influences depending on hotel typology. Were analyzed 1373 hotels elected as the best, according to the 2014 award TripAdvisor ratings (the best 355 hotels, 343 in small hotels, 352 in cheaper hotels and guesthouses & inns in 323. The methodology employed was a multiple regression analysis, one technique to analyze the effect of independent variables into a single variable, as Hair, Anderson Taham and Black (2005. Assessments contained in an independent manner verifications on: overall satisfaction, value for money, location, sleep quality, rooms, cleanliness and service. The results broadly demonstrate the importance of attending to the quality services, being one of the top influencers in overall satisfaction for 3 of the 4 types of hotels analyzed.

  14. Negative aging stereotypes and their relation with psychosocial variables in the elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Palacios, C; Trianes Torres, M V; Blanca Mena, M J

    2009-01-01

    This study explores whether there is a relationship between the level of belief in negative aging stereotypes in 65-year-old people and their results concerning some psychosocial variables. These were selected for their relevance for health and well being in elderly people. These were: living situation, responsibilities toward others, subjective health, frequency of medical appointments, subjective age, participation in community social activities and regular physical activity. The sample consisted of 757 people of low educational level, ranged from 65 to 96 years. Age and gender were homogeneously distributed. Participants were non-institutionalized people. Firstly, the psychosocial variables under focus were assessed by means of seven questions. Secondly, a questionnaire about negative aging stereotypes (CENVE) was administered. It was composed of three factors: health, motivational-social and character-personality. Results show that a high score in negative stereotypes is significantly associated to the studied variables, except for living situation, showing a worse quality of life (QoL) profile. Results are discussed in terms of their utility for assessment and psychosocial intervention, which is meant to improve health in the elderly.

  15. Variability of Jump Kinetics Related to Training Load in Elite Female Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Legg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players (n = 10 aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post. Concentric peak velocity, jump height, and dip showed the most stability from pre- to post-season, with the %CV ranging from 5.6–8.9%. In the period of the highest training load (mid-season, the variability of within-subject performance was reduced by approximately 2–4% in all measures except for jump height. Altered jump mechanics through a small (0.26 effect size increase in dip were evident at mid-season, suggesting that CMJ analysis is useful for coaches to use as an in-season monitoring tool. The highest coefficient of variation (8–22%CV in inter-set scores in all measures except eccentric peak velocity also occurred mid-season. It appears that in-season load not only impairs jump performance, but also movement variability in basketball players.

  16. Screening of Natural Product Derivatives Identifies Two Structurally Related Flavonoids as Potent Quorum Sensing Inhibitors against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Manner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the failure of conventional antibiotics in biofilm control, alternative approaches are urgently needed. Inhibition of quorum sensing (QS represents an attractive target since it is involved in several processes essential for biofilm formation. In this study, a compound library of natural product derivatives (n = 3040 was screened for anti-quorum sensing activity using Chromobacterium violaceum as reporter bacteria. Screening assays, based on QS-mediated violacein production and viability, were performed in parallel to identify non-bactericidal QS inhibitors (QSIs. Nine highly active QSIs were identified, while 328 compounds were classified as moderately actives and 2062 compounds as inactives. Re-testing of the highly actives at a lower concentration against C. violaceum, complemented by a literature search, led to the identification of two flavonoid derivatives as the most potent QSIs, and their impact on biofilm maturation in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was further investigated. Finally, effects of these leads on swimming and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa were quantified. The identified flavonoids affected all the studied QS-related functions at micromolar concentrations. These compounds can serve as starting points for further optimization and development of more potent QSIs as adjunctive agents used with antibiotics in the treatment of biofilms.

  17. Human Plasma Metabolomics Study across All Stages of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Identifies Potential Lipid Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laíns, Inês; Kelly, Rachel S; Miller, John B; Silva, Rufino; Vavvas, Demetrios G; Kim, Ivana K; Murta, Joaquim N; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Miller, Joan W; Husain, Deeba

    2018-02-01

    To characterize the plasma metabolomic profile of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using mass spectrometry (MS). Cross-sectional observational study. We prospectively recruited participants with a diagnosis of AMD and a control group (>50 years of age) without any vitreoretinal disease. All participants underwent color fundus photography, used for AMD diagnosis and staging, according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification scheme. Fasting blood samples were collected and plasma was analyzed by Metabolon, Inc. (Durham, NC), using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution MS. Metabolon's hardware and software were used to identify peaks and control quality. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression were performed to assess differences in the metabolomic profiles of AMD patients versus controls, while controlling for potential confounders. For biological interpretation, pathway enrichment analysis of significant metabolites was performed using MetaboAnalyst. The primary outcome measures were levels of plasma metabolites in participants with AMD compared with controls and among different AMD severity stages. We included 90 participants with AMD (30 with early AMD, 30 with intermediate AMD, and 30 with late AMD) and 30 controls. Using UPLC and MS, 878 biochemicals were identified. Multivariate logistic regression identified 87 metabolites with levels that differed significantly between AMD patients and controls. Most of these metabolites (82.8%; n = 72), including the most significant metabolites, belonged to the lipid pathways. Analysis of variance revealed that of the 87 metabolites, 48 (55.2%) also were significantly different across the different stages of AMD. A significant enrichment of the glycerophospholipids pathway was identified (P = 4.7 × 10 -9 ) among these metabolites. Participants with AMD have altered plasma metabolomic profiles compared with controls. Our data suggest

  18. Identifying novel fruit-related genes in Arabidopsis thaliana based on the random walk with restart algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Dai, Li; Liu, Ying; Zhang, YuHang; Wang, ShaoPeng

    2017-01-01

    Fruit is essential for plant reproduction and is responsible for protection and dispersal of seeds. The development and maturation of fruit is tightly regulated by numerous genetic factors that respond to environmental and internal stimulation. In this study, we attempted to identify novel fruit-related genes in a model organism, Arabidopsis thaliana, using a computational method. Based on validated fruit-related genes, the random walk with restart (RWR) algorithm was applied on a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network using these genes as seeds. The identified genes with high probabilities were filtered by the permutation test and linkage tests. In the permutation test, the genes that were selected due to the structure of the PPI network were discarded. In the linkage tests, the importance of each candidate gene was measured from two aspects: (1) its functional associations with validated genes and (2) its similarity with validated genes on gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathways. Finally, 255 inferred genes were obtained, subsequent extensive analysis of important genes revealed that they mainly contribute to ubiquitination (UBQ9, UBQ8, UBQ11, UBQ10), serine hydroxymethyl transfer (SHM7, SHM5, SHM6) or glycol-metabolism (HXKL2_ARATH, CSY5, GAPCP1), suggesting essential roles during the development and maturation of fruit in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  19. Identifying cognitive preferences for attractive female faces: an event-related potential experiment using a study-test paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Kong, Fanchang; Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd; Han, Li; Meng, Jing; Yang, Zhou; Gao, Jianguo; Najam ul Hasan, Abbasi

    2011-11-01

    In this experiment, sensitivity to female facial attractiveness was examined by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to attractive and unattractive female faces within a study-test paradigm. Fourteen heterosexual participants (age range 18-24 years, mean age 21.67 years) were required to judge 84 attractive and 84 unattractive face images as either "attractive" or "unattractive." They were then asked whether they had previously viewed each face in a recognition task in which 50% of the images were novel. Analyses indicated that attractive faces elicited more enhanced ERP amplitudes than did unattractive faces in judgment (N300 and P350-550 msec) and recognition (P160 and N250-400 msec and P400-700 msec) tasks on anterior locations. Moreover, longer reaction times and higher accuracy rate were observed in identifying attractive faces than unattractive faces. In sum, this research identified neural and behavioral bases related to cognitive preferences for judging and recognizing attractive female faces. Explanations for the results are that attractive female faces arouse more intense positive emotions in participants than do unattractive faces, and they also represent reproductive fitness and mating value from the evolutionary perspective. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Migliaro; P. Contreras; S. Bech; A. Etxagibel; M. Castro; R. Ricca; K. Vicente

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-...

  1. Age-related variability of some characters of karyotype instability in the mouse line CC57W/Mv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazko, T.T.; Safonova, N.A.; Kovaleva, O.A.; Stolina, M.P.; Solomko, A.P.; Malyuta, S.S.; Glazko, V.I.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev

    1995-01-01

    The investigations of relations between cytogenetical variability in cells of bone marrow of the mouse line CC57W/Mv and factors of age and radioactivity pollution (the specific vivarium in the 30-km Chernobyl zone) were carried out. The karyotype instability on some characters were similarly between young mice in the Chernobyl zone and old mice under control conditions. The old Chernobyl mice differentiated from old control ones by a low frequency of some cytogenetic anomalies and higher values of the mitotic index. The contribution of the intensity of cell division into observed variabilities of cytogenetic character between different mouse groups was discussed

  2. Ankle torque steadiness is related to muscle activation variability and co-activation in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rose, Martin; Sløk, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) investigate the significance of muscle activation variability and coactivation for the ability to perform steady submaximal ankle torque (torque steadiness) in healthy children and those with cerebral palsy (CP), and (2) assess ankle function during isometric...... contractions in those children. Fourteen children with CP who walked with equinus foot deformity and 14 healthy (control) children performed maximal and steady submaximal ankle dorsi- and plantarflexions. Dorsiflexion torque steadiness was related to agonist and antagonist muscle activation variability as well...

  3. Targeted/exome sequencing identified mutations in ten Chinese patients diagnosed with Noonan syndrome and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noonan syndrome (NS and Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML are autosomal dominant developmental disorders. NS and NSML are caused by abnormalities in genes that encode proteins related to the RAS-MAPK pathway, including PTPN11, RAF1, BRAF, and MAP2K. In this study, we diagnosed ten NS or NSML patients via targeted sequencing or whole exome sequencing (TS/WES. Methods TS/WES was performed to identify mutations in ten Chinese patients who exhibited the following manifestations: potential facial dysmorphisms, short stature, congenital heart defects, and developmental delay. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the suspected pathological variants in the patients and their family members. Results TS/WES revealed three mutations in the PTPN11 gene, three mutations in RAF1 gene, and four mutations in BRAF gene in the NS and NSML patients who were previously diagnosed based on the abovementioned clinical features. All the identified mutations were determined to be de novo mutations. However, two patients who carried the same mutation in the RAF1 gene presented different clinical features. One patient with multiple lentigines was diagnosed with NSML, while the other patient without lentigines was diagnosed with NS. In addition, a patient who carried a hotspot mutation in the BRAF gene was diagnosed with NS instead of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFCS. Conclusions TS/WES has emerged as a useful tool for definitive diagnosis and accurate genetic counseling of atypical cases. In this study, we analyzed ten Chinese patients diagnosed with NS and related disorders and identified their correspondingPTPN11, RAF1, and BRAF mutations. Among the target genes, BRAF showed the same degree of correlation with NS incidence as that of PTPN11 or RAF1.

  4. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for identifying the dietary patterns of toddlers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Virginia C; Skidmore, Paula M L; Watson, Emily O; Taylor, Rachael W; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2015-04-01

    Dietary patterns provide insight into relationships between diet and disease. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) can identify dietary patterns in adults, but similar analyses have not been performed for toddlers. The aim of the Eating Assessment in Toddlers study was to evaluate the relative validity and reproducibility of dietary patterns from an FFQ developed for toddlers aged 12 to 24 months. Participants were 160 toddlers aged 12 to 24 months and their primary caregiver who completed an FFQ twice, approximately 5 weeks apart (FFQ1 and FFQ2). A 5-day weighed food record was collected on nonconsecutive days between FFQ administrations. Principal component analysis identified three major dietary patterns similar across FFQ1, FFQ2, and the 5-day weighted food record. The sweet foods and fries pattern was characterized by high intakes of sweet foods, fries and roast potato and kumara (sweet potato), butter and margarines, processed meat, sweet drinks, and fruit or milk drinks. The vegetables and meat pattern was characterized by high intakes of vegetables, meat, eggs and beans, and fruit. The milk and fruit pattern was characterized by high intakes of milk and milk products and fruit, and low intakes of breastmilk and infant and follow-up formula. The FFQ (FFQ1) correctly classified 43.1% to 51.0% of toddlers into the same quartile of pattern score as the 5-day weighted food record, and Pearson correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.68 for the three patterns. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.71 to 0.72 for all three dietary patterns. the Eating Assessment in Toddlers study FFQ shows acceptable relative validity and high reproducibility for identifying dietary patterns in toddlers. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Capturing children and young people's perspectives to identify the content for a novel vision-related quality of life instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Jugnoo S; Tadić, Valerie; Keeley, Sarah; Lewando-Hundt, Gillian

    2011-05-01

    To describe a child-centered approach to identifying content for a novel self-report questionnaire for assessing vision-related quality of life (QoL) of visually impaired (VI) or blind (BL) children and young people. Questionnaire development. A stratified random patient sample of children and young people who are VI/BL (visual acuity in the better eye Snellen people who are VI/BL and aged 10 to 17 years (N=29). Individual interviews were conducted with a stratified random sample of 32 children and young people, aged 10 to 15 years, who were VI/BL. The interviews followed a topic guide based on vision-related issues identified from a focus group of affected children and young people, combined with a literature review and consultations with professionals. Collaborative qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken and used to derive draft items of the instrument, using the children's own language wherever possible. Items were reduced, rephrased, and refined through individual consultation, as well as an expert reference group of children and young people who were VI/BL, and supplemented by the research team's consensus. A draft 47-item instrument. A total of 874 potential questionnaire items were initially generated spanning the following domains: social relations, acceptance, and participation; independence and autonomy; psychological and emotional well-being; future-aspirations and fears; functioning-home, school, and leisure; and treatment of eye condition. This was eventually reduced to a 47-item instrument with each item presented as a vignette describing a QoL issue from an "illustrative" child's perspective. Thus, the responding child reports on how much he/she is presently like and how much he/she wishes to be like that child, using a 4-point Likert-type scale. We demonstrate that a child-centered approach to identifying the content for a self-report vision-related QoL questionnaire is feasible. We suggest this approach is critical to accurately capturing

  6. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk...

  7. Relative spatial soil geochemical variability along two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    To support the development of protocols for the proposed North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes project, whose objective is to establish baselines for the geochemistry of North American soils, two continental-scale transects across the United States and Canada were sampled in 2004. The sampling employed a spatially stratified random sampling design in order to estimate the variability between 40-km linear sampling units, within them, at sample sites, and due to sample preparation and analytical chemical procedures. The 40-km scale was chosen to be consistent with the density proposed for the continental-scale project. The two transects, north–south (N–S) from northern Manitoba to the USA–Mexico border near El Paso, Texas, and east–west (E–W) from the Virginia shore north of Washington, DC, to north of San Francisco, California, closely following the 38th parallel, have been studied individually. The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant systematic spatial variation occurred along the transects. Data for 38 major, minor and trace elements in A- and C-horizon soils where less than 5% of the data were below the detection limit were investigated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). A total of 15 elements (K, Na, As, Ba, Be, Ce, La, Mn, Nb, P, Rb, Sb, Th, Tl and W) demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) variability at the between-40-km scale for both horizons along both transects. Only Cu failed to demonstrate significant variability at the between-40-km scale for both soil horizons along both transects.

  8. ENSO Related Inter-Annual Lightning Variability from the Full TRMM LIS Lightning Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Austin; Cecil, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) contributes to inter-annual variability of lightning production more than any other atmospheric oscillation. This study further investigated how ENSO phase affects lightning production in the tropics and subtropics using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Lightning data were averaged into mean annual warm, cold, and neutral 'years' for analysis of the different phases and compared to model reanalysis data. An examination of the regional sensitivities and preliminary analysis of three locations was conducted using model reanalysis data to determine the leading convective mechanisms in these areas and how they might respond to the ENSO phases

  9. Relation of increased short-term variability of QT interval to congenital long-QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinterseer, Martin; Beckmann, Britt-Maria; Thomsen, Morten B

    2009-01-01

    Apart from clinical symptoms the diagnosis and risk stratification in long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is usually based on the surface electrocardiogram. Studies have indicated that not only prolongation of the QT interval but also an increased short-term variability of QT interval (STV(QT)) is a marker...... that an STV(QT) of 4.9 ms was the optimal cut-off value to predict mutation carriers. When incorporating an STV(QT) >4.9 ms for those whose QTc interval was within the normal limits, sensitivity to distinguish mutation carriers increased to 83% with a specificity of 68%, so that another 15 mutation carriers...

  10. Relations of some sociocultural variables and attitudes and motivations of young Arab students learning English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, A A; al-Ansari, S H

    2001-02-01

    This paper examined a number of variables pertaining to the sociocultural outlooks of 412 young Arab students learning English as a foreign language and the relation of their attitudes and motivations prior to their learning of the language. Analysis indicated clearly that certain variables appeared to be correlated with their attitudes and motivations more than others. Most of the students had maids in their homes, and the presence of a maid was associated with most of the psycholinguistic variables tested. Their previous learning experience of the language was positively correlated as was their knowledge of English stories. Having some sort of English games had the highest correlations (.25 to .41). Potential pedagogical implications of these results were discussed.

  11. Associations between period 3 gene polymorphisms and sleep- /chronotype-related variables in patients with late-life insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hader A; Wood, Joel; Chowdari, Kodavali V; Tumuluru, Divya; Bamne, Mikhil; Monk, Timothy H; Hall, Martica H; Buysse, Daniel J; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2017-01-01

    A variable number tandem repeat polymorphism (VNTR) in the period 3 (PER3) gene has been associated with heritable sleep and circadian variables, including self-rated chronotypes, polysomnographic (PSG) variables, insomnia and circadian sleep-wake disorders. This report describes novel molecular and clinical analyses of PER3 VNTR polymorphisms to better define their functional consequences. As the PER3 VNTR is located in the exonic (protein coding) region of PER3, we initially investigated whether both alleles (variants) are transcribed into messenger RNA in human fibroblasts. The VNTR showed bi-allelic gene expression. We next investigated genetic associations in relation to clinical variables in 274 older adult Caucasian individuals. Independent variables included genotypes for the PER3 VNTR as well as a representative set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that tag common variants at the PER3 locus (linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genetic variants sleep time and sleep latency, self-rated chronotype, estimated with the Composite Scale (CS), and lifestyle regularity, estimated using the social rhythm metric (SRM). Initially, genetic polymorphisms were individually analyzed in relation to each outcome variable using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Nominally significant associations were further tested using regression analyses that incorporated individual ANOVA-associated DNA variants as potential predictors and each of the selected sleep/circadian variables as outcomes. The covariates included age, gender, body mass index and an index of medical co-morbidity. Significant genetic associations with the VNTR were not detected with the sleep or circadian variables. Nominally significant associations were detected between SNP rs1012477 and CS scores (p = 0.003) and between rs10462021 and SRM (p = 0.047); rs11579477 and average delta power (p = 0.043) (analyses uncorrected for multiple comparisons). In conclusion, alleles of the VNTR are expressed at the

  12. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River Watershed: hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, M. A.; Spencer, S. K.; Hughes, Peter E.; Baldwin, Austin K.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  13. Analysis of linseed (Linum usitatissiumum L. plant branching as related to variability and interdependence of traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Branching process of two linseed cultivars ('Hungarian Gold' and 'Opal' was analysed each year of vegetation between 1999 and 2002 characterised by different weather course. The estimation included also the extent and variability of selected morphological traits and structural traits. as well as correlation between them. On the basis of biometric measurements the hierarchy of plant shoots has been established within a plant, and four plant groups were distinguished: 1-. 2-, 3- and 4-shoot plants. It was demonstrated that the intensity of linseed branching depended mainly on young plant planting density and, to a certain extent also the weather conditions in April and May. In the years when the weather course favoured vegetation. between 23 and 40% plants per stand were branched. Beside increasing its productivity linseed branching may also inhibit a development of secondary weed infestation of the canopy. Similar plant groups with analogous shoot hierarchy formed in both linseed cultivars. Bio social position of shoot on a plant determined the extent of its traits. A dominance of the maiii shoot over lateral shoots was marked, especially concerning the number of seed vessels. Particularly big prevalence of the main shoot over lateral ones was visible in 3- and 4-9hoot plants. Lateral shoots had greater variability of morphological traits, especially concerning the number of seed vessels per shoot. Linear, exponential and power interdependencies between traits of linseed cultivars were also revealed.

  14. Assessing intraindividual variability in sustained attention: reliability, relation to speed and accuracy, and practice effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAGEN C. FLEHMIG

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the psychometric properties of competing measures of sustained attention. 179 subjects were assessed twice within seven day's time with a test designed to measure sustained attention, or concentration, respectively. In addition to traditional performance indices [i.e., speed (MRT and accuracy (E%], we evaluated two intraindividual response time (RT variability measures: standard deviation (SDRT and coefficient of variation (CVRT. For the overall test, both indices were reliable. SDRT showed good to acceptable retest reliability for all subtests. For CVRT, retest reliability coefficients ranged from very good to not satisfactory. While the reversed-word recognition test proved highly reliable, the mental calculation test and the arrows test were not sufficiently reliable. CVRT was only slightly correlated but SDRT was highly correlated with MRT. In contrast to substantial practice gains for MRT, SDRT and E%, only CVRT proved to be stable. In conclusion, CVRT appears to be a potential index for assessing performance variability: it is reliable for the overall test, only moderately correlated with speed, and virtually not affected by practice. However, before applying CVRT in practical assessment settings, additional research is required to elucidate the impact of task-specific factors on the reliability of this performance measure.

  15. Walking speed-related changes in stride time variability: effects of decreased speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubost Veronique

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicting results have been reported regarding the relationship between stride time variability (STV and walking speed. While some studies failed to establish any relationship, others reported either a linear or a non-linear relationship. We therefore sought to determine the extent to which decrease in self-selected walking speed influenced STV among healthy young adults. Methods The mean value, the standard deviation and the coefficient of variation of stride time, as well as the mean value of stride velocity were recorded while steady-state walking using the GAITRite® system in 29 healthy young adults who walked consecutively at 88%, 79%, 71%, 64%, 58%, 53%, 46% and 39% of their preferred walking speed. Results The decrease in stride velocity increased significantly mean values, SD and CoV of stride time (p Conclusion The results support the assumption that gait variability increases while walking speed decreases and, thus, gait might be more unstable when healthy subjects walk slower compared with their preferred walking speed. Furthermore, these results highlight that a decrease in walking speed can be a potential confounder while evaluating STV.

  16. Sediment microbial activity and its relation to environmental variables along the eastern Gulf of Finland coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Yulia; Shigaeva, Tatyana; Gubelit, Yulia; Bakina, Ludmila; Kudryavtseva, Valentina; Polyak, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Sediment microbial activity and its relationship with the main environmental factors and pollutants were examined in the coastal area of the eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. The activity of two common oxidoreductase enzymes: dehydrogenase (DA) and catalase (CA) varied significantly between 13 study sites. In the Neva Bay the highest microbial activities (DA: 2.64 mg TFF (10 g- 1) day- 1, CA: 6.29 mg H2O2 g- 1) were recorded, while in the outer estuary the minimum values of dehydrogenase and catalase were measured. DA, CA, and abundances of culturable heterotrophic bacteria (CHB) were positively correlated with each other, while biomass of green opportunistic algae was independent of both microbial activities and CHB. Enzymatic activity was found to be strongly positively correlated with sediment particle size and organic matter content, but unrelated to the other studied environmental parameters (temperature, pH, and salinity). Principal components analysis (PCA), controlling for environmental variables, supported direct effects of metal and oil contamination on sediment microbial activity. Also it had shown the similar patterns for algal biomass and metals. Our results suggest that copper and hydrocarbons are the main anthropogenic variables influencing enzyme distribution along the eastern Gulf of Finland coastline.

  17. Variations in Carabidae assemblages across the farmland habitats in relation to selected environmental variables including soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Baranová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The variations in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae assemblages across the three types of farmland habitats, arable land, meadows and woody vegetation were studied in relation to vegetation cover structure, intensity of agrotechnical interventions and selected soil properties. Material was pitfall trapped in 2010 and 2011 on twelve sites of the agricultural landscape in the Prešov town and its near vicinity, Eastern Slovakia. A total of 14,763 ground beetle individuals were entrapped. Material collection resulted into 92 Carabidae species, with the following six species dominating: Poecilus cupreus, Pterostichus melanarius, Pseudoophonus rufipes, Brachinus crepitans, Anchomenus dorsalis and Poecilus versicolor. Studied habitats differed significantly in the number of entrapped individuals, activity abundance as well as representation of the carabids according to their habitat preferences and ability to fly. However, no significant distinction was observed in the diversity, evenness neither dominance. The most significant environmental variables affecting Carabidae assemblages species variability were soil moisture and herb layer 0-20 cm. Another best variables selected by the forward selection were intensity of agrotechnical interventions, humus content and shrub vegetation. The other from selected soil properties seem to have just secondary meaning for the adult carabids. Environmental variables have the strongest effect on the habitat specialists, whereas ground beetles without special requirements to the habitat quality seem to be affected by the studied environmental variables just little.

  18. Relational Variables and Life Satisfaction in African American and Asian American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…

  19. Interactions Quality in Moodle as Perceived by Learners and Its Relation with Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify learners' perceptions of the quality of interaction in Moodle and investigate the effects of gender, grade point average (GPA), individualized learning experiences and their experiences in using Moodle factors in perceiving the quality of interaction. A questionnaire was used to collect data after being…

  20. Variability modes of precipitation along a Central Mediterranean area and their relations with ENSO, NAO, and other climatic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimeris, Anastasios; Ranieri, Ezio; Founda, Dimitra; Norrant, Caroline

    2017-12-01

    This study analyses a century-long set of precipitation time series in the Central Mediterranean (encompassing the Greek Ionian and the Italian Puglia regions) and investigates the statistically significant modes of the interannual precipitation variability using efficient methods of spectral decomposition. The statistical relations and the possible physical couplings between the detected modes and the global or hemispheric patterns of climatic variability (the El Niño Southern Oscillation or ENSO, the North Atlantic Oscillation or NAO, the East Atlantic or EA, the Scandinavian or SCAND, and others) were examined in the time-frequency domain and low-order synchronization events were sought. Significant modes of precipitation variability were detected in the Taranto Gulf and the southern part of the Greek Ionian region at the sub-decadal scales (mostly driven by the SCAND pattern) and particularly at the decadal and quasi-decadal scales, where strong relations found with the ENSO activity (under complex implications of EA and NAO) prior to the 1930s or after the early-1970s. The precipitation variations in the Adriatic stations of Puglia are dominated by significant bi-decadal modes which found to be coherent with the ENSO activity and also weakly related with the Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperature intrinsic variability. Additionally, important discontinuities characterize the evolution of precipitation in certain stations of the Taranto Gulf and the Greek Ionian region during the early-1960s and particularly during the early-1970s, followed by significant reductions in the mean annual precipitation. These discontinuities seem to be associated with regional effects of NAO and SCAND, probably combined with the impact of the 1970s climatic shift in the Pacific and the ENSO variability.

  1. Operator- and software-related post-experimental variability and source of error in 2-DE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millioni, Renato; Puricelli, Lucia; Sbrignadello, Stefano; Iori, Elisabetta; Murphy, Ellen; Tessari, Paolo

    2012-05-01

    In the field of proteomics, several approaches have been developed for separating proteins and analyzing their differential relative abundance. One of the oldest, yet still widely used, is 2-DE. Despite the continuous advance of new methods, which are less demanding from a technical standpoint, 2-DE is still compelling and has a lot of potential for improvement. The overall variability which affects 2-DE includes biological, experimental, and post-experimental (software-related) variance. It is important to highlight how much of the total variability of this technique is due to post-experimental variability, which, so far, has been largely neglected. In this short review, we have focused on this topic and explained that post-experimental variability and source of error can be further divided into those which are software-dependent and those which are operator-dependent. We discuss these issues in detail, offering suggestions for reducing errors that may affect the quality of results, summarizing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach.

  2. Informal social reactions to college women's disclosure of intimate partner violence: associations with psychological and relational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Dardis, Christina M; Sylaska, Kateryna M; Gidycz, Christine A

    2015-01-01

    This researchers assessed informal (e.g., friends, family) social reactions to college women's (N = 139) disclosure of intimate partner violence (IPV) within their current romantic relationships and associated psychological (i.e., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS] and global psychological distress symptoms) and relational (i.e., intentions to leave the abusive relationship) variables. Women completed confidential surveys, which assessed current partner abuse, psychological and relational variables, and three types of social reactions from informal supports to disclosure of IPV: positive (e.g., believing, validating the victim), negative (e.g., disbelieving, blaming the victim), and leaving (i.e., being told to end the relationship) reactions. At the bivariate level, negative social reactions to women's disclosure were related to increases in global psychological distress, PTSS, and leaving intentions; positive social reactions to disclosure related only to increases in PTSS; and being told to leave the relationship related to increases in PTSS and leaving intentions. In the regression analyses, after controlling for abuse severity, negative social reactions were significantly related to global psychological distress and PTSS, and being told to leave significantly related to leaving intentions and PTSS. Mechanisms for these relationships and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Identifying MRI markers to evaluate early treatment-related changes post-laser ablation for cancer pain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Danish, Shabbar; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    by correcting for intensity drift in order to examine tissue-specific response, and (3) quantification of MRI maps via texture and intensity features to evaluate changes in MR markers pre- and post-LITT. A total of 78 texture features comprising of non-steerable and steerable gradient and second order statistical features were extracted from pre- and post-LITT MP-MRI on a per-voxel basis. Quantitative, voxel-wise comparison of the changes in MRI texture features between pre-, and post-LITT MRI indicate that (a) steerable and non-steerable gradient texture features were highly sensitive as well as specific in predicting subtle micro-architectural changes within and around the ablation zone pre- and post-LITT, (b) FLAIR was identified as the most sensitive MRI protocol in identifying early treatment changes yielding a normalized percentage change of 360% within the ablation zone relative to its pre-LITT value, and (c) GRE was identified as the most sensitive MRI protocol in quantifying changes outside the ablation zone post-LITT. Our preliminary results thus indicate great potential for non-invasive computerized MRI features in determining localized micro-architectural focal treatment related changes post-LITT.

  4. Increased reaction time variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as a response-related phenomenon: evidence from single-trial event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Christopher W N; Feige, Bernd; Kluckert, Christian; Bender, Stephan; Biscaldi, Monica; Berger, Andrea; Fleischhaker, Christian; Henighausen, Klaus; Klein, Christoph

    2015-07-01

    Increased intra-subject variability (ISV) in reaction times (RTs) is a promising endophenotype for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and among the most robust hallmarks of the disorder. ISV has been assumed to represent an attentional deficit, either reflecting lapses in attention or increased neural noise. Here, we use an innovative single-trial event-related potential approach to assess whether the increased ISV associated with ADHD is indeed attributable to attention, or whether it is related to response-related processing. We measured electroencephalographic responses to working memory oddball tasks in patients with ADHD (N = 20, aged 11.3 ± 1.1) and healthy controls (N = 25, aged 11.7 ± 1.1), and analysed these data with a recently developed method of single-trial event-related potential analysis. Estimates of component latency variability were computed for the stimulus-locked and response-locked forms of the P3b and the lateralised readiness potential (LRP). ADHD patients showed significantly increased ISV in behavioural ISV. This increased ISV was paralleled by an increase in variability in response-locked event-related potential latencies, while variability in stimulus-locked latencies was equivalent between groups. This result held across the P3b and LRP. Latency of all components predicted RTs on a single-trial basis, confirming that all were relevant for speed of processing. These data suggest that the increased ISV found in ADHD could be associated with response-end, rather than stimulus-end processes, in contrast to prevailing conceptions about the endophenotype. This mental chronometric approach may also be useful for exploring whether the existing lack of specificity of ISV to particular psychiatric conditions can be improved upon. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. ENSO Related Interannual Lightning Variability from the Full TRMM LIS Lightning Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Austin; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) contributes to inter-annual variability of lightning production in the tropics and subtropics more than any other atmospheric oscillation. This study further investigated how ENSO phase affects lightning production in the tropics and subtropics. Using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) for ENSO phase, lightning data were averaged into corresponding mean annual warm, cold, and neutral 'years' for analysis of the different phases. An examination of the regional sensitivities and preliminary analysis of three locations was conducted using model reanalysis data to determine the leading convective mechanisms in these areas and how they might respond to the ENSO phases. These processes were then studied for inter-annual variance and subsequent correlation to ENSO during the study period to best describe the observed lightning deviations from year to year at each location.

  6. Relation between emotional distress and heart rate variability in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between Type D personality, depression, and anxiety, and heart rate variability (HRV) in 64 patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). HRV was obtained via 24-h Holter monitoring, and 24-h, 30-min daytime rest and 30-min nighttime sleep HRV were...... analyzed. In adjusted analyses, significant associations (standard deviation of normal-to-normal [NN] intervals [SDNN]: p = .043; standard deviation of NN intervals over 5-min periods [SDANN]: p = .010) and a trend (HRV triangular index: p = .09) were found for Type D personality, and trends were found...... = .043). A Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple testing led to reduction of the number of significant relationships, but there was still support for lower autonomic control patients with Type D personality and depression. Future research with larger sample sizes is warranted....

  7. Validity and Relative Ability of 4 Balance Tests to Identify Fall Status of Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alda; Silva, Alexandre; Oliveira, Ana; Cruz, Joana; Machado, Ana; Jácome, Cristina

    The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), the Mini-BESTest, and the Brief-BESTest are useful tests to assess balance; however, their clinimetric properties have not been studied well in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study compared the validity and relative ability of the BBS, BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and Brief-BESTest to identify fall status in older adults with T2D. This study involved a cross-sectional design. Sixty-six older adults with T2D (75 ± 7.6 years) were included and asked to report the number of falls during the previous 12 months and to complete the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. The BBS and the BESTest were administered, and the Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest scores were computed based on the BESTest performance. Receiver operating characteristics were used to assess the ability of each balance test to differentiate between participants with and without a history of falls. The 4 balance tests were able to identify fall status (areas under the curve = 0.74-0.76), with similar sensitivity (60%-67%) and specificity (71%-76%). The 4 balance tests were able to differentiate between older adults with T2D with and without a history of falls. As the BBS and the BESTest require longer application time, the Brief-BESTest may be an appropriate choice to use in clinical practice to detect fall risk.

  8. Identifying consumer preferences for specific beef flavor characteristics in relation to cattle production and postmortem processing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Quinn, T G; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Chapman, P L; Legako, J F; Brooks, J C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D

    2016-02-01

    Sensory analysis of ground LL samples representing 12 beef product categories was conducted in 3 different regions of the U.S. to identify flavor preferences of beef consumers. Treatments characterized production-related flavor differences associated with USDA grade, cattle type, finishing diet, growth enhancement, and postmortem aging method. Consumers (N=307) rated cooked samples for 12 flavors and overall flavor desirability. Samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid content. Volatile compounds produced by cooking were extracted and quantified. Overall, consumers preferred beef that rated high for beefy/brothy, buttery/beef fat, and sweet flavors and disliked beef with fishy, livery, gamey, and sour flavors. Flavor attributes of samples higher in intramuscular fat with greater amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and lesser proportions of saturated, odd-chain, omega-3, and trans fatty acids were preferred by consumers. Of the volatiles identified, diacetyl and acetoin were most closely correlated with desirable ratings for overall flavor and dimethyl sulfide was associated with an undesirable sour flavor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute Effects of Plyometric Intervention—Performance Improvement and Related Changes in Sprinting Gait Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkała, Krzysztof; Fostiak, Marek

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short high-intensity plyometric program on the improvement of explosive power of lower extremities and sprint performance as well as changes in sprinting stride variability in male sprinters. Fourteen healthy male sprinters (mean ± SD: age: 18.07 ± 0.73 years, body mass: 73 ± 9.14 kg, height: 180.57 ± 8.16 cm, and best 100 m: 10.89 ± 0.23) participated in the experiment. The experimental protocol included vertical jumping such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and horizontal jumps; standing long jump and standing triple jumps to assess lower-body power, maximal running velocity; a 20-m flying start sprint that evaluated variability of 10 running steps and 60-m starting block sprint. All analyzed parameters were obtained using the new technology of OptoJump-Microgate (OptoJump, Italy). The short-term plyometric training program significantly increased the explosive power of lower extremities, both vertical and horizontal jumping improvement. However, the vertical jumps increased much more than the horizontal. The 20-m improvements were derived from an increase of stride frequency from 4.31 to 4.39 Hz because of a decrease of ground contact time from 138 to 133 milliseconds. This did not translate into step length changes. Therefore, the significantly increased frequency of stride (1.8%), which is a specific expression of ground contact time reduction during support phase, resulted in an increase of speed. The training volume of 2 weeks (with 6 sessions) using high-intensity (between 180 and 250 jumps per session) plyometric exercises can be recommended as the short-term strategy that will optimize one's probability of reaching strong improvements in explosive power and sprint velocity performance.

  10. Arctic energy budget in relation to sea-ice variability on monthly to annual time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, Folmer; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2015-04-01

    The strong decrease in Arctic sea-ice in recent years has triggered a strong interest in Arctic sea-ice predictions on seasonal to decadal time scales. Hence, it is key to understand physical processes that provide enhanced predictability beyond persistence of sea ice anomalies. The authors report on an analysis of natural variability of Arctic sea-ice from an energy budget perspective, using 15 CMIP5 climate models, and comparing these results to atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses data. We quantify the persistence of sea ice anomalies and the cross-correlation with the surface and top energy budget components. The Arctic energy balance components primarily indicate the important role of the seasonal sea-ice albedo feedback, in which sea-ice anomalies in the melt season reemerge in the growth season. This is a robust anomaly reemergence mechanism among all 15 climate models. The role of ocean lies mainly in storing heat content anomalies in spring, and releasing them in autumn. Ocean heat flux variations only play a minor role. The role of clouds is further investigated. We demonstrate that there is no direct atmospheric response of clouds to spring sea-ice anomalies, but a delayed response is evident in autumn. Hence, there is no cloud-ice feedback in late spring and summer, but there is a cloud-ice feedback in autumn, which strengthens the ice-albedo feedback. Anomalies in insolation are positively correlated with sea-ice variability. This is primarily a result of reduced multiple-reflection of insolation due to an albedo decrease. This effect counteracts the sea-ice albedo effect up to 50%. ERA-Interim and ORAS4 confirm the main findings from the climate models.

  11. Relational Expectancy Fulfillment as an Explanatory Variable for Distinguishing Couple Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Douglas L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the differences in marital satisfaction across couple type. Indicates that traditional couple types generally reported more expectancy fulfillment and relational satisfaction than did other couple types. Suggests that "separates" experienced more negative violations than did other couple types. (CR)

  12. Effects of a behavioural intervention on quality of life and related variables in angioplasty patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appels, Ad; van Elderen, Therese; Bär, Frits

    2006-01-01

    The EXhaustion Intervention Trial investigated the effect of a behavioural intervention programme on exhaustion, health-related quality of life (HRQL), depression, anxiety, hostility, and anginal complaints in angioplasty patients who felt exhausted after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)....

  13. [Burnout Syndrome, Family and Work Related Variables on General Practitioners in Bogota. A Strategy of Work Quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Roldán, Adriana María; Quijano Barriga, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    The burnout syndrome is a set of work-related symptoms related to weariness and exhaustion, in response to the emotional stress at work and its consequences. The aim of the study was to measure the frequency of burnout in General Practitioners (GPs) from 3 private institutions in Bogotá, Colombia and to determine the associated factors according to the variables taken into account. It is a descriptive cross-sectional study which was used to analyse the Questionnaire for Burnout Syndrome (CESQT). The population was 106 GPs. The level of burnout was at a critical level in 6.6% of the GP population. The variables showed that having a stable partner and children are a protective factor. By contrast, work in emergency rooms is a risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Coding completeness and quality of relative survival-related variables in the National Program of Cancer Registries Cancer Surveillance System, 1995-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Reda J; O'Neil, M E; Ntekop, E; Zhang, Kevin; Ren, Y

    2014-01-01

    Calculating accurate estimates of cancer survival is important for various analyses of cancer patient care and prognosis. Current US survival rates are estimated based on data from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End RESULTS (SEER) program, covering approximately 28 percent of the US population. The National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) covers about 96 percent of the US population. Using a population-based database with greater US population coverage to calculate survival rates at the national, state, and regional levels can further enhance the effective monitoring of cancer patient care and prognosis in the United States. The first step is to establish the coding completeness and coding quality of the NPCR data needed for calculating survival rates and conducting related validation analyses. Using data from the NPCR-Cancer Surveillance System (CSS) from 1995 through 2008, we assessed coding completeness and quality on 26 data elements that are needed to calculate cancer relative survival estimates and conduct related analyses. Data elements evaluated consisted of demographic, follow-up, prognostic, and cancer identification variables. Analyses were performed showing trends of these variables by diagnostic year, state of residence at diagnosis, and cancer site. Mean overall percent coding completeness by each NPCR central cancer registry averaged across all data elements and diagnosis years ranged from 92.3 percent to 100 percent. RESULTS showing the mean percent coding completeness for the relative survival-related variables in NPCR data are presented. All data elements but 1 have a mean coding completeness greater than 90 percent as was the mean completeness by data item group type. Statistically significant differences in coding completeness were found in the ICD revision number, cause of death, vital status, and date of last contact variables when comparing diagnosis years. The majority of data items had a coding

  15. Signalling properties of identified deep cerebellar nuclear neurons related to eye and head movements in the alert cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruart, A; Delgado-García, J M

    1994-07-01

    1. The spike activity of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons was recorded in the alert cat during spontaneous and during vestibularly and visually induced eye movements. 2. Neurons were classified according to their location in the nuclei, their antidromic activation from projection sites, their sensitivity to eye position and velocity during spontaneous eye movements, and their responses to vestibular and optokinetic stimuli. 3. Type I EPV (eye position and velocity) neurons were located mainly in the posterior part of the fastigial nucleus and activated antidromically almost exclusively from the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex. These neurons, reported here for the first time, increased their firing rate during saccades and eye fixations towards the contralateral hemifield. Their position sensitivity to eye fixations in the horizontal plane was 5.3 +/- 2.6 spikes s-1 deg-1 (mean +/- S.D.). Eye velocity sensitivity during horizontal saccades was 0.71 +/- 0.52 spikes s-1 deg-1 s-1. Variability of their firing rate during a given eye fixation was higher than that shown by abducens motoneurons. 4. Type I EPV neurons increased their firing rate during ipsilateral head rotations at 0.5 Hz with a mean phase lead over eye position of 95.3 +/- 9.5 deg. They were also activated by contralateral optokinetic stimulation at 30 deg s-1. Their sensitivity to eye position and velocity in the horizontal plane during vestibular and optokinetic stimuli yielded values similar to those obtained for spontaneous eye movements. 5. Type II neurons were located in both fastigial and dentate nuclei and were activated antidromically from the restiform body, the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex, the red nucleus and the pontine nuclei. Type II neurons were not related to spontaneous eye movements. These neurons increased their firing rate in response to contralateral head rotation and during ipsilateral optokinetic stimulation, and

  16. Data on polymorphisms in CYP2A6 associated to risk and predispose to smoking related variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. López-Flores

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data on the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs1137115, rs1801272 and rs28399433 rs4105144 in CYP2A6 associated to smoking related variables in Mexican Mestizo smokers (Pérez-Rubio et al., 2017 [1]. These SNPs were selected due to previous associations with other populations. Mexican Mestizo smokers were classified according their smoking pattern. A genetic association test was performed. Keywords: CYP2A6, Smoking, Nicotine addiction

  17. MicroRNA expression profiling to identify and validate reference genes for relative quantification in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, Kah Hoong

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Advances in high-throughput technologies and bioinformatics have transformed gene expression profiling methodologies. The results of microarray experiments are often validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), which is the most sensitive and reproducible method to quantify gene expression. Appropriate normalisation of RT-qPCR data using stably expressed reference genes is critical to ensure accurate and reliable results. Mi(cro)RNA expression profiles have been shown to be more accurate in disease classification than mRNA expression profiles. However, few reports detailed a robust identification and validation strategy for suitable reference genes for normalisation in miRNA RT-qPCR studies. METHODS: We adopt and report a systematic approach to identify the most stable reference genes for miRNA expression studies by RT-qPCR in colorectal cancer (CRC). High-throughput miRNA profiling was performed on ten pairs of CRC and normal tissues. By using the mean expression value of all expressed miRNAs, we identified the most stable candidate reference genes for subsequent validation. As such the stability of a panel of miRNAs was examined on 35 tumour and 39 normal tissues. The effects of normalisers on the relative quantity of established oncogenic (miR-21 and miR-31) and tumour suppressor (miR-143 and miR-145) target miRNAs were assessed. RESULTS: In the array experiment, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454 were identified as having expression profiles closest to the global mean. From a panel of six miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454) and two small nucleolar RNA genes (RNU48 and Z30), miR-16 and miR-345 were identified as the most stably expressed reference genes. The combined use of miR-16 and miR-345 to normalise expression data enabled detection of a significant dysregulation of all four target miRNAs between tumour and normal colorectal tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the top six most

  18. MicroRNA expression profiling to identify and validate reference genes for relative quantification in colorectal cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, Kah Hoong

    2010-04-29

    Abstract Background Advances in high-throughput technologies and bioinformatics have transformed gene expression profiling methodologies. The results of microarray experiments are often validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), which is the most sensitive and reproducible method to quantify gene expression. Appropriate normalisation of RT-qPCR data using stably expressed reference genes is critical to ensure accurate and reliable results. Mi(cro)RNA expression profiles have been shown to be more accurate in disease classification than mRNA expression profiles. However, few reports detailed a robust identification and validation strategy for suitable reference genes for normalisation in miRNA RT-qPCR studies. Methods We adopt and report a systematic approach to identify the most stable reference genes for miRNA expression studies by RT-qPCR in colorectal cancer (CRC). High-throughput miRNA profiling was performed on ten pairs of CRC and normal tissues. By using the mean expression value of all expressed miRNAs, we identified the most stable candidate reference genes for subsequent validation. As such the stability of a panel of miRNAs was examined on 35 tumour and 39 normal tissues. The effects of normalisers on the relative quantity of established oncogenic (miR-21 and miR-31) and tumour suppressor (miR-143 and miR-145) target miRNAs were assessed. Results In the array experiment, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454 were identified as having expression profiles closest to the global mean. From a panel of six miRNAs (let-7a, miR-16, miR-26a, miR-345, miR-425 and miR-454) and two small nucleolar RNA genes (RNU48 and Z30), miR-16 and miR-345 were identified as the most stably expressed reference genes. The combined use of miR-16 and miR-345 to normalise expression data enabled detection of a significant dysregulation of all four target miRNAs between tumour and normal colorectal tissue. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the top six most

  19. Intraindividual variability of sleep/wake patterns in relation to child and adolescent functioning: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Sidol, Craig A; Van Dyk, Tori R; Epstein, Jeffery N; Beebe, Dean W

    2017-08-01

    Substantial research attention has been devoted to understanding the importance and impact of sleep in children and adolescents. Traditionally, this has focused on mean sleep variables (e.g., a child's "typical" or average sleep duration), yet research increasingly suggests that intraindividual variability (IIV) of sleep/wake patterns (sometimes referred to as sleep variability or night-to-night variability) regularly occurs and may have implications for adjustment. A systematic search of five electronic databases identified 52 empirical studies published between 2000 and 2015 that examined correlates of sleep IIV in children and adolescents, with a recent increase in the publication rate of such studies. Identified studies were often atheoretical and included post hoc analyses, though IIV in select aspects of sleep does appear to be associated with increasing age/pubertal status, non-White race, physical and neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; autism), psychopathology symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression, inattention), body weight, stress, aspects of cognitive functioning, and poorer sleep functioning/habits. The limited intervention work examining sleep IIV in adolescents is promising, though studies are needed using more rigorous intervention designs. Clinical sleep recommendations may not only need to address overall sleep duration and sleep habits but also the stability of sleep duration and timing. It will be important for future research examining sleep IIV in children and adolescents to use a developmental framework in advancing theory pertaining to the causes, mechanisms, moderators, and outcomes of sleep IIV in youth, and a conceptual model is proposed to help guide such efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling temporal and spatial variability of traffic-related air pollution: Hourly land use regression models for black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Van Poppel, Martine; Kochan, Bruno; Wets, Geert; Int Panis, Luc

    2013-08-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modeling is a statistical technique used to determine exposure to air pollutants in epidemiological studies. Time-activity diaries can be combined with LUR models, enabling detailed exposure estimation and limiting exposure misclassification, both in shorter and longer time lags. In this study, the traffic related air pollutant black carbon was measured with μ-aethalometers on a 5-min time base at 63 locations in Flanders, Belgium. The measurements show that hourly concentrations vary between different locations, but also over the day. Furthermore the diurnal pattern is different for street and background locations. This suggests that annual LUR models are not sufficient to capture all the variation. Hourly LUR models for black carbon are developed using different strategies: by means of dummy variables, with dynamic dependent variables and/or with dynamic and static independent variables. The LUR model with 48 dummies (weekday hours and weekend hours) performs not as good as the annual model (explained variance of 0.44 compared to 0.77 in the annual model). The dataset with hourly concentrations of black carbon can be used to recalibrate the annual model, resulting in many of the original explaining variables losing their statistical significance, and certain variables having the wrong direction of effect. Building new independent hourly models, with static or dynamic covariates, is proposed as the best solution to solve these issues. R2 values for hourly LUR models are mostly smaller than the R2 of the annual model, ranging from 0.07 to 0.8. Between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. on weekdays the R2 approximates the annual model R2. Even though models of consecutive hours are developed independently, similar variables turn out to be significant. Using dynamic covariates instead of static covariates, i.e. hourly traffic intensities and hourly population densities, did not significantly improve the models' performance.

  1. Identifying barriers to recovery from work related upper extremity disorders: use of a collaborative problem solving technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Feuerstein, Michael; Miller, Virginia I; Wood, Patricia M

    2003-08-01

    Improving health and work outcomes for individuals with work related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs) may require a broad assessment of potential return to work barriers by engaging workers in collaborative problem solving. In this study, half of all nurse case managers from a large workers' compensation system were randomly selected and invited to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of an integrated case management (ICM) approach for WRUEDs. The focus of ICM was problem solving skills training and workplace accommodation. Volunteer nurses attended a 2 day ICM training workshop including instruction in a 6 step process to engage clients in problem solving to overcome barriers to recovery. A chart review of WRUED case management reports (n = 70) during the following 2 years was conducted to extract case managers' reports of barriers to recovery and return to work. Case managers documented from 0 to 21 barriers per case (M = 6.24, SD = 4.02) within 5 domains: signs and symptoms (36%), work environment (27%), medical care (13%), functional limitations (12%), and coping (12%). Compared with case managers who did not receive the training (n = 67), workshop participants identified more barriers related to signs and symptoms, work environment, functional limitations, and coping (p Problem solving skills training may help focus case management services on the most salient recovery factors affecting return to work.

  2. Role of demographic and job-related variables in determining work-related quality of life of hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering a huge working population in health sector faced with stressful work life, limited autonomy in work and declining work contentment calls for an overemphasis on evaluating and monitoring their satisfaction associated with work-related quality of life (WRQoL. This study evaluates WRQoL of hospital employees and validates the bilingual (English and Marathi version of WRQoL scale. Methods: The study was conducted during March-April′2014 on employees of a corporate hospital of Pune, India after ethical approval and informed consent from employees. The bilingual WRQoL scale has been tested for reliability and validity, and WRQoL scores have been reported. Results: A total of 132 hospital employees (mean age 31 [±8] years, 55% males who participated in the study reported overall moderate WRQoL scores. The scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach′s alpha = 0.82, P < 0.0001 and moderate to high validity. WRQoL did not significantly vary across marital status, family size, and gender. "Stress at work" score of WRQoL increased with age of employees. Higher work experience, employment at higher positions and those working in clinical and diagnostic departments reported a higher WRQoL. Conclusion: WRQoL scale is a reliable and valid instrument. Better WRQoL in employees placed in higher organizational positions indicates a need for focused measures to enhance WRQoL of employees in lower hierarchical levels, especially in control at work and home life interface domains. WRQoL needs regular monitoring for employees in lower positions and aging employees.

  3. New solutions of the star-triangle relation with discrete and continuous spin variables

    OpenAIRE

    Kels, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    A new solution to the star-triangle relation is given, for an Ising type model that involves interacting spins, that contain integer and real valued components. Boltzmann weights of the model are given in terms of the lens elliptic-gamma function, and are based on Yamazaki's recently obtained solution of the star-star relation. The star-triangle given here, implies Seiberg duality for the $4\\!-\\!d$ $\\mathcal{N}=1$ $S_1\\times S_3/\\mathbb{Z}_r$ index of the $SU(2)$ quiver gauge theory, and the ...

  4. Identifying factors for optimal development of health-related websites: a delphi study among experts and potential future users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Francine; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein

    2012-02-14

    The Internet has become a popular medium for offering tailored and targeted health promotion programs to the general public. However, suboptimal levels of program use in the target population limit the public health impact of these programs. Optimizing program development is considered as one of the main processes to increase usage rates. To distinguish factors potentially related to optimal development of health-related websites by involving both experts and potential users. By considering and incorporating the opinions of experts and potential users in the development process, involvement in the program is expected to increase, consequently resulting in increased appreciation, lower levels of attrition, and higher levels of sustained use. We conducted a systematic three-round Delphi study through the Internet. Both national and international experts (from the fields of health promotion, health psychology, e-communication, and technical Web design) and potential users were invited via email to participate. During this study an extensive list of factors potentially related to optimal development of health-related websites was identified, by focusing on factors related to layout, general and risk information provision, questionnaire use, additional services, and ease of use. Furthermore, we assessed the extent to which experts and potential users agreed on the importance of these factors. Differences as well as similarities among experts and potentials users were deduced. In total, 20 of 62 contacted experts participated in the first round (32% response rate); 60 of 200 contacted experts (30% response rate) and 210 potential users (95% response rate) completed the second-round questionnaire, and 32 of 60 contacted experts completed the third round (53% response rate). Results revealed important factors consented upon by experts and potential users (eg, ease of use, clear structure, and detailed health information provision), as well as differences regarding

  5. Intraindividual variability in vigilance performance: does degrading visual stimuli mimic age-related "neural noise"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Bunce, David

    2006-07-01

    Intraindividual performance variability, or inconsistency, has been shown to predict neurological status, physiological functioning, and age differences and declines in cognition. However, potential moderating factors of inconsistency are not well understood. The present investigation examined whether inconsistency in vigilance response latencies varied as a function of time-on-task and task demands by degrading visual stimuli in three separate conditions (10%, 20%, and 30%). Participants were 24 younger women aged 21 to 30 years (M = 24.04, SD = 2.51) and 23 older women aged 61 to 83 years (M = 68.70, SD = 6.38). A measure of within-person inconsistency, the intraindividual standard deviation (ISD), was computed for each individual across reaction time (RT) trials (3 blocks of 45 event trials) for each condition of the vigilance task. Greater inconsistency was observed with increasing stimulus degradation and age, even after controlling for group differences in mean RTs and physical condition. Further, older adults were more inconsistent than younger adults for similar degradation conditions, with ISD scores for younger adults in the 30% condition approximating estimates observed for older adults in the 10% condition. Finally, a measure of perceptual sensitivity shared increasing negative associations with ISDs, with this association further modulated as a function of age but to a lesser degree by degradation condition. Results support current hypotheses suggesting that inconsistency serves as a marker of neurological integrity and are discussed in terms of potential underlying mechanisms.

  6. Analyzing Variability in Ebola-Related Controls Applied to Returned Travelers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, John D; Siedner, Mark J; Stoto, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Public health authorities have adopted entry screening and subsequent restrictions on travelers from Ebola-affected West African countries as a strategy to prevent importation of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. We analyzed international, federal, and state policies-principally based on the policy documents themselves and media reports-to evaluate policy variability. We employed means-ends fit analysis to elucidate policy objectives. We found substantial variation in the specific approaches favored by WHO, CDC, and various American states. Several US states impose compulsory quarantine on a broader range of travelers or require more extensive monitoring than recommended by CDC or WHO. Observed differences likely partially resulted from different actors having different policy goals-particularly the federal government having to balance foreign policy objectives less salient to states. Further, some state-level variation appears to be motivated by short-term political goals. We propose recommendations to improve future policies, which include the following: (1) actors should explicitly clarify their objectives, (2) legal authority should be modernized and clarified, and (3) the federal government should consider preempting state approaches that imperil its goals.

  7. Oxygen isotope variability in snow from western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and its relation to temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, M.M.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Broeke, M.R. van den; As, D. van; Reijmer, C.H.; Meijer, H.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents (delta) 18 O records from snow pits from four locations in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica that contain at least four annual cycles. The aim of the study was to analyse in detail these records as well as the prevailing temperatures during accumulation in order to infer to what extent isotopic composition in this area can be interpreted as temperature information. The original seasonal amplitudes of the isotope records were reconstructed by use of a simple back-diffusion model. Automatic weather station data were used to describe the accumulation history and the near-surface temperatures; the temperatures at the atmospheric level of snow formation were inferred from a regional climate model. The results show that the strongly intermittent nature of the accumulation in this area can result in the exclusion of entire seasons from the isotope records. The temperature records also reveal that the oxygen isotope records in these snow pits are biased towards higher temperatures, since snowfall conditions are associated with higher temperatures. This effect is greatest at low temperatures. A comparison between the seasonal extreme isotopic and temperature values points out that on timescales of seasons to several years, isotopic variability cannot be interpreted with confidence as temperature changes at the accumulation sites

  8. Stuck in gear: age-related loss of variable gearing in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Natalie C; Danos, Nicole; Roberts, Thomas J; Azizi, Emanuel

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscles power a broad diversity of animal movements, despite only being able to produce high forces over a limited range of velocities. Pennate muscles use a range of gear ratios, the ratio of muscle shortening velocity to fiber shortening velocity, to partially circumvent these force-velocity constraints. Muscles operate with a high gear ratio at low forces; fibers rotate to greater angles of pennation, enhancing velocity but compromising force. At higher forces, muscles operate with a lower gear ratio; fibers rotate little so limiting muscle shortening velocity, but helping to preserve force. This ability to shift gears is thought to be due to the interplay of contractile force and connective tissue constraints. In order to test this hypothesis, gear ratios were determined in the medial gastrocnemius muscles of both healthy young rats, and old rats where the interaction between contractile and connective tissue properties was assumed to be disrupted. Muscle fiber and aponeurosis stiffness increased with age (PGear ratio decreased with increasing force in young (Pgearing is lost in old muscle. These findings support the hypothesis that variable gearing results from the interaction between contractile and connective tissues and suggest novel explanations for the decline in muscle performance with age. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. FIRE: an SPSS program for variable selection in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J

    2011-03-01

    We provide an SPSS program that implements currently recommended techniques and recent developments for selecting variables in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors. The approach consists of: (1) optimally splitting the data for cross-validation, (2) selecting the final set of predictors to be retained in the equation regression, and (3) assessing the behavior of the chosen model using standard indices and procedures. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  10. Variability of photovoltaic panels efficiency depending on the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdak Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between the efficiency of photovoltaic panels and the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon. For the purpose of experimental research have been done tests on the photovoltaic modules made of monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon. The experiment consisted of measurement of the voltage and current generated by photovoltaic panels at a known value of solar radiation and a specified resistance value determined by using resistor with variable value of resistance and known value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon.

  11. Pursuit of Muscularity in Adolescent Boys: Relations among Biopsychosocial Variables and Clinical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; van den Berg, Patricia; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent boys (n = 269) were assessed for levels of several risky behaviors related to the pursuit of muscularity, including substance use (anabolic steroids, prohormones, and ephedrine) dieting to gain weight, and symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD). The association between these behaviors and a variety of putative biological, psychological, and…

  12. An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…

  13. The Transition from School to University in Mathematics: Which Influence Do School-Related Variables Have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, Stefanie; Heinze, Aiso

    2017-01-01

    Particularly in mathematics, the transition from school to university often appears to be a substantial hurdle in the individual learning biography. Differences between the characters of school mathematics and scientific university mathematics as well as different demands related to the learning cultures in both institutions are discussed as…

  14. Transmission components of solar radiation in pine stands in relation to climatic and stand variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Muller

    1971-01-01

    In a new approach, transmission was studied by relating to stand biomass the ratio of incoming solar radiation beneath tree crowns to that within the atmosphere. Several assumptions were used to estimate analytically the various ways in which solar radiation penetrates through crowns of three pine species in northern California. Sunflecks accounted for much of the...

  15. Understanding the Atom and Relevant Misconceptions: Students' Profiles in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Markos, Angelos; Zarkadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the formation of particular student profiles based on of their ideas relating to basic characteristics of the atom. Participants were secondary students of 8th, 10th and 12th grades from Northern Greece (n = 421), with specific cohort characteristics e.g. age, grade and class curriculum, and individual differences, e.g.…

  16. Postural orientation : Age-related changes in variability and time-to-boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wegen, E. E.H.; Van Emmerik, R. E.A.; Riccio, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    The relation between age-specific postural instability and the detection of stability boundaries was examined. Balance control was investigated under different visual conditions (eyes open/closed) and postural orientations·(forward/backward lean) while standing on a force platform. Dependent

  17. Cobalamin and haptocorrin in human milk and cobalamin-related variables in mother and child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Lildballe, Dorte L; við Streym, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of milk cobalamin is hampered by the high content of the cobalamin-binding protein haptocorrin, and limited data are available relating trustworthy measures of milk cobalamin to cobalamin status in healthy mothers and their children. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to expl...

  18. Liver-related mortality in countries of the developed world: an ecological study approach to explain the variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wulffen, M; Clark, P J; Macdonald, G A; Raj, A S; Kendall, B J; Powell, E E; Jones, M P; Holtmann, G

    2016-07-01

    Liver-related mortality varies across developed nations. To assess the relative role of various risk factors in relation to liver-related mortality in an ecological study approach. Data for liver-related mortality, prevalence data for hepatitis B and C, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), alcohol consumption per capita, Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM), overweight and obesity were extracted from peer-reviewed publications or WHO databases for different developed countries. As potential other risk-modifying factors, purchase power parity (PPP)-adjusted gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and health expenditure per capita were assessed. As an environmental 'hygiene factor', we also assessed the effect of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori. Only countries with a PPP-adjusted GDP greater than $20 000 and valid information for at least 8 risk modifiers were included. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilised to quantify the contribution to the variability in liver-related mortality. The proportion of chronic liver diseases (CLD)-related mortality ranged from 0.73-2.40% [mean 1.56%, 95% CI (1.43-1.69)] of all deaths. Univariately, CLD-related mortality was significantly associated with Hepatitis B prevalence, alcohol consumption, PPP-adjusted GDP (all P < 0.05) and potentially H. pylori prevalence (P = 0.055). Other investigated factors, including hepatitis C, did not yield significance. Backward elimination suggested hepatitis B, alcohol consumption and PPP-adjusted GDP as risk factors (explaining 66.3% of the variability). Hepatitis B infection, alcohol consumption and GDP, but not hepatitis C or other factors, explain most of the variance of liver-related mortality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, S.R., E-mail: srcorsi@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States); Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2615 Yellowstone Dr., Marshfield, WI 54449 (United States); Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K. [U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin Water Science Center, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  20. Human and bovine viruses in the Milwaukee River watershed: Hydrologically relevant representation and relations with environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, S.R.; Borchardt, M.A.; Spencer, S.K.; Hughes, P.E.; Baldwin, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the occurrence, hydrologic variability, and seasonal variability of human and bovine viruses in surface water, three stream locations were monitored in the Milwaukee River watershed in Wisconsin, USA, from February 2007 through June 2008. Monitoring sites included an urban subwatershed, a rural subwatershed, and the Milwaukee River at the mouth. To collect samples that characterize variability throughout changing hydrologic periods, a process control system was developed for unattended, large-volume (56–2800 L) filtration over extended durations. This system provided flow-weighted mean concentrations during runoff and extended (24-h) low-flow periods. Human viruses and bovine viruses were detected by real-time qPCR in 49% and 41% of samples (n = 63), respectively. All human viruses analyzed were detected at least once including adenovirus (40% of samples), GI norovirus (10%), enterovirus (8%), rotavirus (6%), GII norovirus (1.6%) and hepatitis A virus (1.6%). Three of seven bovine viruses analyzed were detected including bovine polyomavirus (32%), bovine rotavirus (19%), and bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (5%). Human viruses were present in 63% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 20% of low-flow samples. Maximum human virus concentrations exceeded 300 genomic copies/L. Bovine viruses were present in 46% of runoff samples resulting from precipitation and snowmelt and 14% of low-flow samples. The maximum bovine virus concentration was 11 genomic copies/L. Statistical modeling indicated that stream flow, precipitation, and season explained the variability of human viruses in the watershed, and hydrologic condition (runoff event or low-flow) and season explained the variability of the sum of human and bovine viruses; however, no model was identified that could explain the variability of bovine viruses alone. Understanding the factors that affect virus fate and transport in rivers will aid watershed management for minimizing

  1. Identifying characteristics and outcomes that are associated with fall-related fatalities: multi-year retrospective summary of fall deaths in older adults from 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprey, Sara M; Biedrzycki, Lynda; Klenz, Kristine

    2017-12-01

    Fall-related deaths continue to be the leading cause of accidental deaths in the older adult (65+ year) population. However, many fall-related fatalities are unspecified and little is known about the fall characteristics and personal demographics at the time of the fall. Therefore, this report describes the characteristics, circumstances and injuries of falls that resulted in older adult deaths in one U.S. County and explores the variables associated with fatal injuries from falls. This is a continued retrospective analysis of 841older adults whose underlying cause of death was due to a fall over an 8-year period (2005-2012). Demographics and logistic regression of fall characteristics and injuries were analyzed. Falls that led to death most often occurred when walking in one's own home. Most of the residents in this study were community-dwellers who had previous comorbidities taking an average of six medications prior to their fall. Survival after a fall was on average 31 days. The two most common injuries after a fatal fall were hip fractures (54%), and head injuries (21%). A logistic regression identified two variables associated with hip fracture, advancing age (OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.08) and diagnosis of a prior neurological condition (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4-3.1). Variables associated with head injuries included younger age (OR = .91, 95% CI = .89-.94), male gender (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.7-3.8), prescribed anticoagulants (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.5-3.9) and negative musculoskeletal comorbidity (OR = 1.9. 95% CI = 1.1-3.0). Hip fractures and head injuries were the most common injury after a fall that led to death in older adults greater than 65 years. There are opposing risk factors for older adults who incur a hip fracture compared to a head injury. Thus, health professionals will need to individualize prevention efforts to reduce fall fatalities.

  2. Impact of respiratory motion on variable relative biological effectiveness in 4D-dose distributions of proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silke; Wieser, Hans-Peter; Cao, Wenhua; Mohan, Radhe; Bangert, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Organ motion during radiation therapy with scanned protons leads to deviations between the planned and the delivered physical dose. Using a constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1 linearly maps these deviations into RBE-weighted dose. However, a constant value cannot account for potential nonlinear variations in RBE suggested by variable RBE models. Here, we study the impact of motion on recalculations of RBE-weighted dose distributions using a phenomenological variable RBE model. 4D-dose calculation including variable RBE was implemented in the open source treatment planning toolkit matRad. Four scenarios were compared for one field and two field proton treatments for a liver cancer patient assuming (α∕β) x  = 2 Gy and (α∕β) x  = 10 Gy: (A) the optimized static dose distribution with constant RBE, (B) a static recalculation with variable RBE, (C) a 4D-dose recalculation with constant RBE and (D) a 4D-dose recalculation with variable RBE. For (B) and (D), the variable RBE was calculated by the model proposed by McNamara. For (C), the physical dose was accumulated with direct dose mapping; for (D), dose-weighted radio-sensitivity parameters of the linear quadratic model were accumulated to model synergistic irradiation effects on RBE. Dose recalculation with variable RBE led to an elevated biological dose at the end of the proton field, while 4D-dose recalculation exhibited random deviations everywhere in the radiation field depending on the interplay of beam delivery and organ motion. For a single beam treatment assuming (α∕β) x  = 2 Gy, D 95 % was 1.98 Gy (RBE) (A), 2.15 Gy (RBE) (B), 1.81 Gy (RBE) (C) and 1.98 Gy (RBE) (D). The homogeneity index was 1.04 (A), 1.08 (B), 1.23 (C) and 1.25 (D). For the studied liver case, intrafractional motion did not reduce the modulation of the RBE-weighted dose postulated by variable RBE models for proton treatments.

  3. The identification of high potential archers based on relative psychological coping skills variables: A Support Vector Machine approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Zahari; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Majeed, A. P. P. Abdul; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Aizzat Zakaria, Muhammad; Muaz Alim, Muhammad; Arif Mat Jizat, Jessnor; Fauzi Ibrahim, Mohamad

    2018-03-01

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) has been revealed to be a powerful learning algorithm for classification and prediction. However, the use of SVM for prediction and classification in sport is at its inception. The present study classified and predicted high and low potential archers from a collection of psychological coping skills variables trained on different SVMs. 50 youth archers with the average age and standard deviation of (17.0 ±.056) gathered from various archery programmes completed a one end shooting score test. Psychological coping skills inventory which evaluates the archers level of related coping skills were filled out by the archers prior to their shooting tests. k-means cluster analysis was applied to cluster the archers based on their scores on variables assessed. SVM models, i.e. linear and fine radial basis function (RBF) kernel functions, were trained on the psychological variables. The k-means clustered the archers into high psychologically prepared archers (HPPA) and low psychologically prepared archers (LPPA), respectively. It was demonstrated that the linear SVM exhibited good accuracy and precision throughout the exercise with an accuracy of 92% and considerably fewer error rate for the prediction of the HPPA and the LPPA as compared to the fine RBF SVM. The findings of this investigation can be valuable to coaches and sports managers to recognise high potential athletes from the selected psychological coping skills variables examined which would consequently save time and energy during talent identification and development programme.

  4. Pteropod Ecology and Physiology in Relation to Natural Variability in Carbonate Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, G. L.; Maas, A. E.; Wang, A. Z.; Bergan, A. J.; Wiebe, P. H.; Blanco-Bercial, L.; Lavery, A.; Copley, N. J.

    2016-02-01

    The thecosomatous pteropods are a group of aragonite-shelled zooplankton thought to be particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. We seek to gain insight into both basic questions of pteropod biology and potential responses to ocean acidification by combining field sampling with shipboard experimental manipulations, capitalizing on