WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify significant gaps

  1. Identifying significant environmental features using feature recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Environmental Analysis at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has expressed an interest in feature-recognition capability because it may help analysts identify environmentally sensitive features in the landscape, : including those r...

  2. Clinical staff nurse leadership: Identifying gaps in competency development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks-Meeks, Sherron

    2018-01-01

    To date, there has been no development of a complete, applicable inventory of clinical staff nurse (CSN) leadership role competencies through a valid and reliable methodology. Further, the CSN has not been invited to engage in the identification, definition, or development of their own leadership competencies. Compare existing leadership competencies to identify and highlight gaps in clinical staff nurse leadership role competency development and validation. Literature review. The CSN has not participated in the development of CSN leadership role competencies, nor have the currently identified CSN leadership role competencies been scientifically validated through research. Finally, CSN leadership role competencies are incomplete and do not reflect the CSN perspective. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  4. A Framework for Rigorously Identifying Research Gaps in Qualitative Literature Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Bloch, Christoph; Kranz, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Identifying research gaps is a fundamental goal of literature reviewing. While it is widely acknowledged that literature reviews should identify research gaps, there are no methodological guidelines for how to identify research gaps in qualitative literature reviews ensuring rigor and replicability....... Our study addresses this gap and proposes a framework that should help scholars in this endeavor without stifling creativity. To develop the framework we thoroughly analyze the state-of-the-art procedure of identifying research gaps in 40 recent literature reviews using a grounded theory approach....... Based on the data, we subsequently derive a framework for identifying research gaps in qualitative literature reviews and demonstrate its application with an example. Our results provide a modus operandi for identifying research gaps, thus enabling scholars to conduct literature reviews more rigorously...

  5. Identifying and assessing the factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing in communication industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ghotbifar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications industry to identify most important skill gaps in digital marketing and factors affecting them; also, managers and specialists of these companies were investigated to determine the role of identified factors in reducing skills gaps. Using localized questionnaire and interviewing with ten experts who were selected by Delphi snowball method, the skill gaps in marketing and factors affecting them were identified. Also, a researcher made questionnaire with 32 questions was distributed among 226 employees to investigate the identified factors role in reducing skills gap in digital marketing. The results showed that from four identified factors, the components including operational strategic factors and environmental factors had direct and positive impact on creating skill gap in digital marketing of studied companies. The environmental factors such as social and cultural conditions, religion, technology, and economy had more proactive impact on skills gap in digital marketing. Also, the results showed that among skills gaps in digital marketing of studied companies, the skills (Principles of Communication and (Predicting Future had the highest and lowest gaps, respectively.

  6. Identifying knowledge gaps for gene drive research to control invasive animal species: The next CRISPR step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Moro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive animals have been linked to the extinctions of native wildlife, and to significant agricultural financial losses or impacts. Current approaches to control invasive species require ongoing resources and management over large geographic scales, and often result in the short-term suppression of populations. New and innovative approaches are warranted. Recently, the RNA guided gene drive system based on CRISPR/Cas9 is being proposed as a potential gene editing tool that could be used by wildlife managers as a non-lethal addition or alternative to help reduce pest animal populations. While regulatory control and social acceptance are crucial issues that must be addressed, there is an opportunity now to identify the knowledge and research gaps that exist for some important invasive species. Here we systematically determine the knowledge gaps for pest species for which gene drives could potentially be applied. We apply a conceptual ecological risk framework within the gene drive context within an Australian environment to identify key requirements for undertaking work on seven exemplar invasive species in Australia. This framework allows an evaluation of the potential research on an invasive species of interest and within a gene drive and risk context. We consider the currently available biological, genetic and ecological information for the house mouse, European red fox, feral cat, European rabbit, cane toad, black rat and European starling to evaluate knowledge gaps and identify candidate species for future research. We discuss these findings in the context of future thematic areas of research worth pursuing in preparation for a more formal assessment of the use of gene drives as a novel strategy for the control of these and other invasive species. Keywords: Invasive species, Gene drive, CRISPR, Pest management, Islands

  7. Development of a framework to identify research gaps from systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen A; Saldanha, Ian J; McKoy, Naomi A

    2011-12-01

    Our objective was to develop a framework to identify research gaps from systematic reviews. We reviewed the practices of (1) evidence-based practice centers (EPCs), and (2) other organizations that conduct evidence syntheses. We developed and pilot tested a framework for identifying research gaps. Four (33%) EPCs and three (8%) other organizations reported using an explicit framework to determine research gaps. Variations of the PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes) framework were most common. We developed a framework incorporating both the characterization of the gap using PICOS elements (also including setting) and the identification of the reason(s) why the gap exists as (1) insufficient or imprecise information, (2) biased information, (3) inconsistency or unknown consistency, and (4) not the right information. We mapped each of these reasons to concepts from three common evidence-grading systems. Our framework determines from systematic reviews where the current evidence falls short and why or how the evidence falls short. This explicit identification of research gaps will allow systematic reviews to maximally inform the types of questions that need to be addressed and the types of studies needed to address the research gaps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological transfer of radionuclides in marine environments - Identifying and filling knowledge gaps for environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Borretzen, P.; Hosseini, A.; Iosjpe, M.

    2004-01-01

    A review on concentration factors (CF) for the marine environment was conducted in order to consider the relevance of existing data from the perspective of environmental protection and to identify areas of data paucity. Data have been organised in a format compatible with a reference organism approach, for selected radionuclides, and efforts have been taken to identify the factors that may be of importance in the context of dosimetric and dose-effects analyses. These reference organism categories had been previously selected by identifying organism groups that were likely to experience the highest levels of radiation exposure, owing to high uptake levels or residence in a particular habitat, for defined scenarios. Significant data gaps in the CF database have been identified, notably for marine mammals and birds. Most empirical information pertains to a limit suite of radionuclides, particularly 137 Cs, 210 Po and 99 Tc. A methodology has been developed to help bridge this information deficit. This has been based on simple dynamic, biokinetic models that mainly use parameters derived from laboratory-based study and field observation. In some cases, allometric relationships have been employed to allow further model parameterization. Initial testing of the model by comparing model output with empirical data sets suggest that the models provide sensible equilibrium CFs. Furthermore, analyses of modelling results suggest that for some radionuclides, in particularly those with long effective half-lives, the time to equilibrium can be far greater than the life-time of an organism. This clearly emphasises the limitations of applying a universal equilibrium approach. The methodology, therefore, has an added advantage that non-equilibrium scenarios can be considered in a more rigorous manner. Further refinements to the modelling approach might be attained by exploring the importance of various model parameters, through sensitivity analyses, and by identifying those

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF ‘SIGNIFICANT OTHERS’ IN BRIDGING THE GAPS BETWEEN DIFFERENT READING CONTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Svensson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The current research is an in-depth study of four pre-service teachers’ own experience of reading in various contexts and for different reasons. The aim is to analyse what has been significant regarding reading in a life history perspective by the use of narratives. A socio-cultural perspective on reading is used as analysis tool. The over-arching result from analysing pre-service teachers’ narratives is that reading is a relational process regardless of the context reading takes place in. The emerging themes allow a deeper understanding on critical aspects for developing reading in various contexts and at different levels. Significant others seem important in every reading practice, from new readers in primary school to pre-service teachers’ reading at university level. The narratives reveal a need for bridging the gaps that arise between the reading practices in the various contexts that students meet in school and university.

  10. Identifying Knowledge Gaps in Clinicians Who Evaluate and Treat Vocal Performing Artists in College Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon-Howe, Leah; Dowdall, Jayme

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to identify knowledge gaps in clinicians who evaluate and treat performing artists for illnesses and injuries that affect vocal function in college health settings. This pilot study utilized a web-based cross-sectional survey design incorporating common clinical scenarios to test knowledge of evaluation and management strategies in the vocal performing artist. A web-based survey was administered to a purposive sample of 28 clinicians to identify the approach utilized to evaluate and treat vocal performing artists in college health settings, and factors that might affect knowledge gaps and influence referral patterns to voice specialists. Twenty-eight clinicians were surveyed, with 36% of respondents incorrectly identifying appropriate vocal hygiene measures, 56% of respondents failing to identify symptoms of vocal fold hemorrhage, 84% failing to identify other indications for referral to a voice specialist, 96% of respondents acknowledging unfamiliarity with the Voice Handicap Index and the Singers Voice Handicap Index, and 68% acknowledging unfamiliarity with the Reflux Symptom Index. The data elucidated specific knowledge gaps in college health providers who are responsible for evaluating and treating common illnesses that affect vocal function, and triaging and referring students experiencing symptoms of potential vocal emergencies. Future work is needed to improve the standard of care for this population. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Difficulties Using Standardized Tests to Identify the Receptive Expressive Gap in Bilingual Children's Vocabularies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A; Oller, D Kimbrough; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Receptive standardized vocabulary scores have been found to be much higher than expressive standardized vocabulary scores in children with Spanish as L1, learning L2 (English) in school (Gibson et al., 2012). Here we present evidence suggesting the receptive-expressive gap may be harder to evaluate than previously thought because widely-used standardized tests may not offer comparable normed scores. Furthermore monolingual Spanish-speaking children tested in Mexico and monolingual English-speaking children in the US showed other, yet different statistically significant discrepancies between receptive and expressive scores. Results suggest comparisons across widely used standardized tests in attempts to assess a receptive-expressive gap are precarious.

  12. Gap analysis of Mycoplasma bovis disease, diagnosis and control: An aid to identify future development requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, M J; Lysnyansky, I; Sachse, K; Fox, L K; Nicholas, R A J; Ayling, R D

    2018-05-01

    There is a worldwide problem of disease caused by Mycoplasma (M.) bovis in cattle; it has a significant detrimental economic and animal welfare impact on cattle rearing. Infection can manifest as a plethora of clinical signs including mastitis, pneumonia, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, otitis media and genital disorders that may result in infertility and abortion. Current diagnosis and control information are reviewed and analysed to identify gaps in knowledge of the causative organism in respect of the disease pathology, diagnosis and control methods. The main considerations are as follows: no vaccines are commercially available; antimicrobial resistance is increasing; diagnostic and antimicrobial sensitivity testing needs to be improved; and a pen-side test would facilitate more rapid diagnosis and implementation of treatment with antimicrobials. More data on host susceptibility, stress factors, immune response and infectious dose levels are required. The impact of asymptomatic carriers, M. bovis survival in the environment and the role of wildlife in transmitting the disease also needs investigation. To facilitate development of vaccines, further analysis of more M. bovis genomes, its pathogenic mechanisms, including variable surface proteins, is required, along with reproducible disease models. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Identifying and assessing the factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing in communication industry companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghotbifar, Fereshteh; Marjani, Mohammad Reza; Ramazani, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    As far as new communication channels are concerned, there have been extensive developments in communications and marketing in digital era. Today, therefore, companies try to take advantage of digital marketing channels to provide suitable services to customers to improve their satisfaction level. However, this study aimed to identify and assess factors affecting skill gap in digital marketing. This was descriptive correlation study. The population consisted of experts in communications indust...

  14. Identifying gaps, barriers, and solutions in implementing pressure ulcer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Irene M; Nadzam, Deborah Morris

    2011-06-01

    Patients continue to suffer from pressure ulcers (PUs), despite implementation of evidence-based pressure ulcer (PU) prevention protocols. In 2009, Joint Commission Resources (JCR) and Hill-Rom created the Nurse Safety Scholar-in-Residence (nurse scholar) program to foster the professional development of expert nurse clinicians to become translators of evidence into practice. The first nurse scholar activity has focused on PU prevention. Four hospitals with established PU programs participated in the PU prevention implementation project. Each hospital's team completed an inventory of PU prevention program components and provided copies of accompanying documentation, along with prevalence and incidence data. Site visits to the four participating hospitals were arranged to provide opportunities for more in-depth analysis and support. Following the initial site visit, the project team at each hospital developed action plans for the top three barriers to PU program implementation. A series of conference calls was held between the site visits. Pressure Ulcer Program Gaps and Recommendations. The four hospitals shared common gaps in terms of limitations in staff education and training; lack of physician involvement; limited involvement of unlicensed nursing staff; lack of plan for communicating at-risk status; and limited quality improvement evaluations of bedside practices. Detailed recommendations were identified for addressing each of these gaps. these Recommendations for eliminating gaps have been implemented by the participating teams to drive improvement and to reduce hospital-acquired PU rates. The nurse scholars will continue to study implementation of best practices for PU prevention.

  15. Medical Simulation as a Vital Adjunct to Identifying Clinical Life-Threatening Gaps in Austere Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Adaora M; Koka, Rahul; Lee, Benjamin; Tran, Tina; Ogbuagu, Onyebuchi U; Nelson-Williams, Howard; Rosen, Michael; Koroma, Michael; Sampson, John B

    2018-04-01

    Maternal mortality and morbidity are major causes of death in low-resource countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare workforce scarcities present in these locations result in poor perioperative care access and quality. These scarcities also limit the capacity for progressive development and enhancement of workforce training, and skills through continuing medical education. Newly available low-cost, in-situ simulation systems make it possible for a small cadre of trainers to use simulation to identify areas needing improvement and to rehearse best practice approaches, relevant to the context of target environments. Nurse anesthetists were recruited throughout Sierra Leone to participate in simulation-based obstetric anesthesia scenarios at the country's national referral maternity hospital. All subjects participated in a detailed computer assisted training program to familiarize themselves with the Universal Anesthesia Machine (UAM). An expert panel rated the morbidity/mortality risk of pre-identified critical incidents within the scenario via the Delphi process. Participant responses to critical incidents were observed during these scenarios. Participants had an obstetric anesthesia pretest and post-test as well as debrief sessions focused on reviewing the significance of critical incident responses observed during the scenario. 21 nurse anesthetists, (20% of anesthesia providers nationally) participated. Median age was 41 years and median experience practicing anesthesia was 3.5 years. Most participants (57.1%) were female, two-thirds (66.7%) performed obstetrics anesthesia daily but 57.1% had no experience using the UAM. During the simulation, participants were observed and assessed on critical incident responses for case preparation with a median score of 7 out of 13 points, anesthesia management with a median score of 10 out of 20 points and rapid sequence intubation with a median score of 3 out of 10 points. This study identified

  16. rf impedance of the accelerating beam gap and its significance to the TRIUMF rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, R.

    1979-03-01

    The rf system at TRIUMF is now operating with the highest Q, the lowest rf leakage into the beam gap, the best voltage stability, and the lowest resonator strongback temperatures ever measured since it was first put into operation. This paper describes the calculation of the rf impedance of the beam gap and its correlation to the rf problems encountered, which eventually led to modifications to the flux guides and resonator tips to accomplish the improved operation of the rf system

  17. Enhancing the Employability of Chinese International Students: Identifying Achievements and Gaps in the Research Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows what achievements have been made by existing studies on graduate employability, and what gaps need to be filled in this field. It starts with a retrospective account of the changing concept of employability, followed by a presentation of the practices that have been used to support graduate employability enhancement in different countries. Moreover, this article gives a critical review of Chinese contexts of graduate labour market. Last but not least, limitations of existing studies are identified, which reflect an expectation for future research on graduate employability to meet the demand of an increasingly international dimension of higher education.

  18. Spinal Cord Injury Clinical Registries: Improving Care across the SCI Care Continuum by Identifying Knowledge Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Marcel F; Cheng, Christiana L; Fallah, Nader; Santos, Argelio; Atkins, Derek; Humphreys, Suzanne; Rivers, Carly S; White, Barry A B; Ho, Chester; Ahn, Henry; Kwon, Brian K; Christie, Sean; Noonan, Vanessa K

    2017-10-15

    Timely access and ongoing delivery of care and therapeutic interventions is needed to maximize recovery and function after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI). To ensure these decisions are evidence-based, access to consistent, reliable, and valid sources of clinical data is required. The Access to Care and Timing Model used data from the Rick Hansen SCI Registry (RHSCIR) to generate a simulation of healthcare delivery for persons after tSCI and to test scenarios aimed at improving outcomes and reducing the economic burden of SCI. Through model development, we identified knowledge gaps and challenges in the literature and current health outcomes data collection throughout the continuum of SCI care. The objectives of this article were to describe these gaps and to provide recommendations for bridging them. Accurate information on injury severity after tSCI was hindered by difficulties in conducting neurological assessments and classifications of SCI (e.g., timing), variations in reporting, and the lack of a validated SCI-specific measure of associated injuries. There was also limited availability of reliable data on patient factors such as multi-morbidity and patient-reported measures. Knowledge gaps related to structures (e.g., protocols) and processes (e.g., costs) at each phase of care have prevented comprehensive evaluation of system performance. Addressing these knowledge gaps will enhance comparative and cost-effectiveness evaluations to inform decision-making and standards of care. Recommendations to do so were: standardize data element collection and facilitate database linkages, validate and adopt more outcome measures for SCI, and increase opportunities for collaborations with stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  19. Identifying an Education Gap in Wound Care Training in United States Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emily Stamell; Ingram, Amber; Landriscina, Angelo; Tian, Jiaying; Kirsner, Robert S; Friedman, Adam

    2015-07-01

    As restoration of the integument is paramount to wound healing, dermatologists should be central to managing wounds; yet this is often not the case. If a training gap exists during residency training, this may account for the observed discrepancy. To identify United States (US) dermatology residents' impressions regarding their preparedness to care for wounds, and to assess the amount and type of training devoted to wound care during residency. An online survey among current US dermatology residents enrolled in a residency training program. The primary goal was to determine whether dermatology residents believe more wound care education is needed, evaluate preparedness to care for wounds, and identify future plans to manage wounds. Responses were received from 175 of 517 (33.8%) US Dermatology residents contacted. The majority of residents did not feel prepared to manage acute (78.3%) and chronic (84.6%) wounds. Over three quarters (77.1%) felt that more education is needed. Fewer than half (49.1% and 35.4%) of residents planned to care for acute and chronic wounds, respectively, when in practice. There is a gap in wound care education in US dermatology residency training. This translates to a low percentage of dermatology residents planning to care for wounds in future practice. Dermatology residents need to receive focused wound care training in order to translate the underpinnings of wound healing biology and ultimately better serve patients.

  20. 42 CFR 137.22 - May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and administrative functions... Tribes for Participation in Self-Governance Planning Phase § 137.22 May the Secretary consider uncorrected significant and material audit exceptions identified regarding centralized financial and...

  1. Identifying performance gaps in hydrogen safety sensor technology for automotive and stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon-Brett, L.; Bousek, J.; Black, G.; Moretto, P.; Castello, P.; Huebert, T.; Banach, U.

    2010-01-01

    A market survey has been performed of commercially available hydrogen safety sensors, resulting in a total sample size of 53 sensors from 21 manufacturers. The technical specifications, as provided by the manufacturer, have been collated and are displayed herein as a function of sensor working principle. These specifications comprise measuring range, response and recovery times, ambient temperature, pressure and relative humidity, power consumption and lifetime. These are then compared against known performance targets for both automotive and stationary applications in order to establish in how far current technology satisfies current requirements of sensor end users. Gaps in the performance of hydrogen sensing technologies are thus identified and areas recommended for future research and development. (author)

  2. Strategies to Address Identified Education Gaps in the Preparation of a National Security Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    This report will discuss strategies available to address identified gaps and weaknesses in education efforts aimed at the preparation of a skilled and properly trained national security workforce.The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This is contributing to an inability to fill vacant positions at NNSA resulting from high personnel turnover from the large number of retirements. Further, many of the retirees are practically irreplaceable because they are Cold War scientists that have experience and expertise with nuclear weapons.

  3. Identifying Gaps and Launching Resident Wellness Initiatives: The 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaver, Fareen; Battaglioli, Nicole; Denq, William; Messman, Anne; Chung, Arlene; Lin, Michelle; Liu, Emberlynn L

    2018-03-01

    Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus for the medical education community, especially among learners in graduate medical education. In 2017 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) updated the Common Program Requirements to focus more on resident wellbeing. To address this issue, one working group from the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit (RWCS) focused on wellness program innovations and initiatives in emergency medicine (EM) residency programs. Over a seven-month period leading up to the RWCS event, the Programmatic Initiatives workgroup convened virtually in the Wellness Think Tank, an online, resident community consisting of 142 residents from 100 EM residencies in North America. A 15-person subgroup (13 residents, two faculty facilitators) met at the RWCS to develop a public, central repository of initiatives for programs, as well as tools to assist programs in identifying gaps in their overarching wellness programs. An online submission form and central database of wellness initiatives were created and accessible to the public. Wellness Think Tank members collected an initial 36 submissions for the database by the time of the RWCS event. Based on general workplace, needs-assessment tools on employee wellbeing and Kern's model for curriculum development, a resident-based needs-assessment survey and an implementation worksheet were created to assist residency programs in wellness program development. The Programmatic Initiatives workgroup from the resident-driven RWCS event created tools to assist EM residency programs in identifying existing initiatives and gaps in their wellness programs to meet the ACGME's expanded focus on resident wellbeing.

  4. Identifying Gaps and Launching Resident Wellness Initiatives: The 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Battaglioli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus for the medical education community, especially among learners in graduate medical education. In 2017 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME updated the Common Program Requirements to focus more on resident wellbeing. To address this issue, one working group from the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit (RWCS focused on wellness program innovations and initiatives in emergency medicine (EM residency programs. Methods: Over a seven-month period leading up to the RWCS event, the Programmatic Initiatives workgroup convened virtually in the Wellness Think Tank, an online, resident community consisting of 142 residents from 100 EM residencies in North America. A 15-person subgroup (13 residents, two faculty facilitators met at the RWCS to develop a public, central repository of initiatives for programs, as well as tools to assist programs in identifying gaps in their overarching wellness programs. Results: An online submission form and central database of wellness initiatives were created and accessible to the public. Wellness Think Tank members collected an initial 36 submissions for the database by the time of the RWCS event. Based on general workplace, needs-assessment tools on employee wellbeing and Kern’s model for curriculum development, a resident-based needs-assessment survey and an implementation worksheet were created to assist residency programs in wellness program development. Conclusion: The Programmatic Initiatives workgroup from the resident-driven RWCS event created tools to assist EM residency programs in identifying existing initiatives and gaps in their wellness programs to meet the ACGME’s expanded focus on resident wellbeing.

  5. Identifying the gaps: Armenian health care legislation and human rights in patient care protections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopunyan, Violeta; Krmoyan, Suren; Quinn, Ryan

    2013-12-12

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia has undergone an extensive legislative overhaul. Although a number of developments have aimed to improve the quality and accessibility of Armenia's health care system, a host of factors has prevented the country from fully introducing measures to ensure respect for human rights in patient care. In particular, inadequate health care financing continues to oblige patients to make both formal and informal payments to obtain basic medical care and services. More generally, a lack of oversight and monitoring mechanisms has obstructed the implementation of Armenia's commitments to human rights in several international agreements. Within the framework of a broader project on promoting human rights in patient care, research was carried out to examine Armenia’s health care legislation with the aim of identifying gaps in comparison with international and regional standards. This research was designed using the 14 rights enshrined in the European Charter on Patient Rights as guiding principles, along with domestic legal acts relevant to the rights of health care providers. The gaps analysis revealed numerous problems with Armenian legislation governing the relationships between stakeholders in health care service delivery. It also identified several practical inconsistencies with the international legal instruments ratified by the Armenian government. These legislative shortcomings are illustrated by highlighting key health-related rights violations experienced by patients and their health care providers, and by indicating opportunities for improved rights protections. A full list of human rights relevant to patient care and recommendations for promoting them in the Armenian context is provided in Tables 1 and 2. A number of initiatives must be undertaken in order to promote the full spectrum of human rights in patient care in Armenia. This section highlights certain recommendations flowing from the findings of

  6. Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: A Scoping Review to Identify Gaps in Service Delivery, Research, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dana C; Choi, Kristen R; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Lori, Jody R

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking. There were also some reports of organ trafficking and other closely related human rights violations, such as child marriage, child soldiering, and exploitative intercountry adoption. Risk factors for trafficking included push factors (poverty, political instability, economic problems, and gender discrimination) and pull factors (demand for cheap labor). Trafficking was associated with poor health and economic outcomes for victims. Key recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy are identified, including establishing comprehensive services for survivor rehabilitation and reintegration, conducting quantitative health outcomes research, and reforming policy around migration and trafficking. Implementing the recommendations identified by this review will allow policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to take meaningful steps toward confronting human trafficking in Ethiopia.

  7. Setting Priorities for Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research and Identifying Evidence Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jimmy T; Hutfless, Susan; Li, Tianjing; Bressler, Neil M; Heyward, James; Bittner, Ava K; Glassman, Adam; Dickersin, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Prioritizing comparative effectiveness research may contribute to obtaining answers that clinicians perceive they need and may minimize research that could be considered wasteful. Our objective was to identify evidence gaps and set priorities for new systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials for managing diabetic retinopathy (DR), including diabetic macular edema (DME). Cross-sectional study. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) investigators. We provided recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology's 2012 Preferred Practice Patterns for Diabetic Retinopathy as 91 answerable clinical research questions about intervention effectiveness to 410 DRCR.net investigators to rate each question's importance from 0 (not important) to 10 (very important) using a 2-round Delphi survey and to suggest additional questions. We considered questions as high priority if at least 75% of respondents to both rounds assigned an importance rating of 5 or more in round 2. We also extracted outcome measures relevant to DR and asked respondents to identify those that must be measured in all studies. We mapped Cochrane reviews published up to March 2016 to high-priority clinical research questions. Ranking of importance of each clinical question. Thirty-two individuals completed rounds 1 and 2 and suggested 15 questions. Among the final list of 106 clinical research questions, 22 questions met our definition of high priority: 9 of 22 concerned the effectiveness of anti-VEGF therapy, and 13 of 22 focused on how often patients should be followed up (re-examination) and treatment effectiveness in patients with specific characteristics (e.g., DME). Outcomes that 75% or more of respondents marked as "must be measured in all studies" included visual acuity and visual loss, death of participants, and intraocular pressure. Only 1 prioritized question was associated with conclusive evidence from a Cochrane systematic review. A limited response rate among

  8. Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Bassein, Jed A; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers. To help address these issues, we conducted a substantive review of wildfire smoke effects on population health, wildfire smoke exposure in occupational health, and experimental wood smoke exposure. Our goal was to evaluate the current literature on wildfire smoke and highlight important gaps in research. In particular we emphasize long-term health effects of wildfire smoke, recovery following wildfire smoke exposure, and health consequences of exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Obesity educational interventions in U.S. medical schools: a systematic review and identified gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolins, Mara Z; Crandall, Sonia; Miller, David; Ip, Eddie; Marion, Gail; Spangler, John G

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. However, physicians feel poorly trained to address the obesity epidemic. This article examines effective training methods for overweight and obesity intervention in undergraduate medical education. Using indexing terms related to overweight, obesity, and medical student education, we conducted a literature searched PubMed PsycINFO, Cochrane, and ERIC for relevant articles in English. References from articles identified were also reviewed to located additional articles. We included all studies that incorporated process or outcome evaluations of obesity educational interventions for U.S. medical students. Of an initial 168 citations, 40 abstracts were retrieved; 11 studies were found to be pertinent to medical student obesity education, but only 5 included intervention and evaluation elements. Quality criteria for inclusion consisted of explicit evaluation of the educational methods used. Data extraction identified participants (e.g., year of medical students), interventions, evaluations, and results. These 5 studies successfully used a variety of teaching methods including hands on training, didactic lectures, role-playing, and standardized patient interaction to increase medical students' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding overweight and obesity intervention. Two studies addressed medical student bias toward overweight and obese patients. No studies addressed health disparities in the epidemiology and bias of obesity. Despite the commonly cited "obesity epidemic," there are very few published studies that report the effectiveness of medical school obesity educational programs. Gaps still exist within undergraduate medical education including specific training that addresses obesity and long-term studies showing that such training is retained.

  10. Implant-abutment gap versus microbial colonization : Clinical significance based on a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; May, Liliana Gressler; Faria, Renata; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms from the oral cavity may settle at the implant-abutment interface (IAI). As a result, tissue inflammation could occur around these structures. The databases MEDLINE/PubMed and PubMed Central were used to identify articles published from 1981 through 2012 related to the microbial

  11. Research gaps identified during systematic reviews of clinical trials: glass-ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickenautsch, Steffen

    2012-06-29

    To report the results of an audit concerning research gaps in clinical trials that were accepted for appraisal in authored and published systematic reviews regarding the application of glass-ionomer cements (GIC) in dental practice Information concerning research gaps in trial precision was extracted, following a framework that included classification of the research gap reasons: 'imprecision of information (results)', 'biased information', 'inconsistency or unknown consistency' and 'not the right information', as well as research gap characterization using PICOS elements: population (P), intervention (I), comparison (C), outcomes (O) and setting (S). Internal trial validity assessment was based on the understanding that successful control for systematic error cannot be assured on the basis of inclusion of adequate methods alone, but also requires empirical evidence about whether such attempt was successful. A comprehensive and interconnected coverage of GIC-related clinical topics was established. The most common reasons found for gaps in trial precision were lack of sufficient trials and lack of sufficient large sample size. Only a few research gaps were ascribed to 'Lack of information' caused by focus on mainly surrogate trial outcomes. According to the chosen assessment criteria, a lack of adequate randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding/masking in trials covering all reviewed GIC topics was noted (selection- and detection/performance bias risk). Trial results appear to be less affected by loss-to-follow-up (attrition bias risk). This audit represents an adjunct of the systematic review articles it has covered. Its results do not change the systematic review's conclusions but highlight existing research gaps concerning the precision and internal validity of reviewed trials in detail. These gaps should be addressed in future GIC-related clinical research.

  12. Research gaps identified during systematic reviews of clinical trials: glass-ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickenautsch Steffen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report the results of an audit concerning research gaps in clinical trials that were accepted for appraisal in authored and published systematic reviews regarding the application of glass-ionomer cements (GIC in dental practice Methods Information concerning research gaps in trial precision was extracted, following a framework that included classification of the research gap reasons: ‘imprecision of information (results’, ‘biased information’, ‘inconsistency or unknown consistency’ and ‘not the right information’, as well as research gap characterization using PICOS elements: population (P, intervention (I, comparison (C, outcomes (O and setting (S. Internal trial validity assessment was based on the understanding that successful control for systematic error cannot be assured on the basis of inclusion of adequate methods alone, but also requires empirical evidence about whether such attempt was successful. Results A comprehensive and interconnected coverage of GIC-related clinical topics was established. The most common reasons found for gaps in trial precision were lack of sufficient trials and lack of sufficient large sample size. Only a few research gaps were ascribed to ‘Lack of information’ caused by focus on mainly surrogate trial outcomes. According to the chosen assessment criteria, a lack of adequate randomisation, allocation concealment and blinding/masking in trials covering all reviewed GIC topics was noted (selection- and detection/performance bias risk. Trial results appear to be less affected by loss-to-follow-up (attrition bias risk. Conclusion This audit represents an adjunct of the systematic review articles it has covered. Its results do not change the systematic review’s conclusions but highlight existing research gaps concerning the precision and internal validity of reviewed trials in detail. These gaps should be addressed in future GIC-related clinical research.

  13. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Global Trends in Gender Disparity Among the Radiology Physician Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Sarah Wallace; Yoon, Sora C; Lowell, Dorothy A; Campbell, James C; Sulioti, Gary; Qin, Rosie; Jiang, Brian; Grimm, Lars J

    2018-02-01

    Women make up half of American medical school graduates, but remain underrepresented among radiologists. This study sought to determine whether workforce gender disparities exist in other countries, and to identify any country-specific indices associated with increased female representation. In this cross-sectional study, 95 professional radiology organizations in 75 countries were contacted via email to provide membership statistics, including proportion of female members, female members aged 35 or under, and women in society leadership positions. Country-specific metrics collected included gross domestic product, Gini index, percent female medical school enrollment, and Gender Development Index for the purposes of univariate multiple regression analysis. Twenty-nine organizations provided data on 184,888 radiologists, representing 26 countries from Europe (n = 12), North America (n = 2), Central/South America (n = 6), Oceania (n = 2), Asia (n = 3), and Africa (n = 1) for a response rate of 34.7% (26/75). Globally, 33.5% of radiologists are female. Women constitute a higher proportion of younger radiologists, with 48.5% of radiologists aged 35 or under being female. Female representation in radiology is lowest in the United States (27.2%), highest in Thailand (85.0%), and most variable in Europe (mean 40.1%, range 28.8%-68.9%). The proportion of female radiologists was positively associated with a country's Gender Development Index (P = .006), percent female medical student enrollment (P = .001), and Gini index (P = .002), and negatively associated with gross domestic product (P = .03). Women are underrepresented in radiology globally, most notably in the United States. Countries with greater representation of women had higher gender equality and percent female medical school enrollment, suggesting these factors may play a role in the gender gap. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by

  14. Identifying Gaps in the Performance of Pediatric Trainees Who Receive Marginal/Unsatisfactory Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Ting T; Tancredi, Daniel J; Schwartz, Alan; Guillot, Ann; Burke, Ann; Trimm, R Franklin; Guralnick, Susan; Mahan, John D; Gifford, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    To perform a derivation study to determine in which subcompetencies marginal/unsatisfactory pediatric residents had the greatest deficits compared with their satisfactorily performing peers and which subcompetencies best discriminated between marginal/unsatisfactory and satisfactorily performing residents. Multi-institutional cohort study of all 21 milestones (rated on four or five levels) reported to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and global marginal/unsatisfactory versus satisfactory performance reported to the American Board of Pediatrics. Data were gathered in 2013-2014. For each level of training (postgraduate year [PGY] 1, 2, and 3), mean differences between milestone levels of residents with marginal/unsatisfactory and satisfactory performance adjusted for clustering by program and C-statistics (area under receiver operating characteristic curve) were calculated. A Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold of .0007963 was used to account for multiple comparisons. Milestone and overall performance evaluations for 1,704 pediatric residents in 41 programs were obtained. For PGY1s, two subcompetencies had almost a one-point difference in milestone levels between marginal/unsatisfactory and satisfactory trainees and outstanding discrimination (≥ 0.90): organize/prioritize (0.93; C-statistic: 0.91) and transfer of care (0.97; C-statistic: 0.90). The largest difference between marginal/unsatisfactory and satisfactory PGY2s was trustworthiness (0.78). The largest differences between marginal/unsatisfactory and satisfactory PGY3s were ethical behavior (1.17), incorporating feedback (1.03), and professionalization (0.96). For PGY2s and PGY3s, no subcompetencies had outstanding discrimination. Marginal/unsatisfactory pediatric residents had different subcompetency gaps at different training levels. While PGY1s may have global deficits, senior residents may have different performance deficiencies requiring individualized counseling and

  15. Nutrition strategies before and during ultra-endurance event: A significant gap between science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, S K; Xyla, E E; Methenitis, S; Feidantsis, K G; Kotsis, Y; Pagkalos, I G; Hassapidou, M N

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and assess the nutritional practices of open-water swimmers, during the preparation period and the competition, as well as their implications on performance and anthropometric parameters according to their age. Twenty-four (n = 24) men open-water swimmers, twelve young (26.3 ± 4.9 years) and twelve older athletes (45.8 ± 9.7 years), participated in this study. Nutritional behavior-energy intake consumption, and anthropometric characteristics were evaluated prior to the Toroneos Gulf crossing (26 km). In addition, nutritional intakes during the race and anthropometrics after the race were also evaluated. Significant differences between the two groups were found for Toroneos Gulf crossing performance, BMI, and all variables of body composition at the preparation period (P nutritional intakes during the preparation period and the competition, and athletes' performance. In summary, this study provides strong evidence about the malnutrition of ultra-endurance swimmers prior and during their competition, with potential dangers for their health and performance as certain deficiencies in both macro- and micronutrient contents are present. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A students' survey of cultural competence as a basis for identifying gaps in the medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeleman, Conny; Hermans, Jessie; Lamkaddem, Majda; Suurmond, Jeanine; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2014-10-11

    competence of medical students and physicians identified gaps in knowledge and culturally competent behaviour. Such data can be used to guide improvement efforts to the diversity content of educational curricula. Based on this study, improvements should focus on increasing knowledge and improving diversity-sensitive consultation behaviour and less on reflection skills. The weak association between overall self-perceived cultural competence and assessed knowledge, reflection ability and consultation behaviour supports the hypothesis that measures of sell-perceived competence are insufficient to assess actual cultural competence.

  17. Active Learning with Rationales for Identifying Operationally Significant Anomalies in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manali; Das, Kamalika; Bilgic, Mustafa; Matthews, Bryan; Nielsen, David Lynn; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2016-01-01

    A major focus of the commercial aviation community is discovery of unknown safety events in flight operations data. Data-driven unsupervised anomaly detection methods are better at capturing unknown safety events compared to rule-based methods which only look for known violations. However, not all statistical anomalies that are discovered by these unsupervised anomaly detection methods are operationally significant (e.g., represent a safety concern). Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) have to spend significant time reviewing these statistical anomalies individually to identify a few operationally significant ones. In this paper we propose an active learning algorithm that incorporates SME feedback in the form of rationales to build a classifier that can distinguish between uninteresting and operationally significant anomalies. Experimental evaluation on real aviation data shows that our approach improves detection of operationally significant events by as much as 75% compared to the state-of-the-art. The learnt classifier also generalizes well to additional validation data sets.

  18. Top IS research on quality of transaction standards: a structured literature review to identify a research gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Berends, W.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains the results of a systematic literature review executed to determine the coverage of transaction standards in top information systems (IS) and management journals. Specifically, it aims to identify a research gap with respect to this topic. The top 25 journals are thoroughly

  19. Learning in context: identifying gaps in research on the transfer of medical communication skills to the clinical workplace.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, V. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Dalen, J. van; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning

  20. Learning in context: identifying gaps in research on the transfer of medical communication skills to the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, V. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Dalen, J. Van; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning

  1. Identifying Adult Dengue Patients at Low Risk for Clinically Significant Bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua G X Wong

    Full Text Available Clinically significant bleeding is important for subsequent optimal case management in dengue patients, but most studies have focused on dengue severity as an outcome. Our study objective was to identify differences in admission parameters between patients who developed clinically significant bleeding and those that did not. We sought to develop a model for discriminating between these patients.We conducted a retrospective study of 4,383 adults aged >18 years who were hospitalized with dengue infection at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore from 2005 to 2008. Patients were divided into those with clinically significant bleeding (n = 188, and those without (n = 4,195. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables on admission were compared between groups to determine factors associated with clinically significant bleeding during hospitalization.On admission, female gender (p38°C (p38°C (aOR 1.81; 95% CI: 1.27-2.61, nausea/vomiting (aOR 1.39; 95% CI: 0.94-2.12, ANC (aOR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.15-1.46, ALC (aOR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.25-0.64, hematocrit percentage (aOR 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92-1.002 and platelet count (aOR 0.993; 95% CI: 0.988-0.998. At the cutoff of -3.919, the model achieved an AUC of 0.758 (sensitivity:0.87, specificity: 0.38, PPV: 0.06, NPV: 0.98.Clinical risk factors associated with clinically significant bleeding were identified. This model may be useful to complement clinical judgement in triaging adult dengue patients given the dynamic nature of acute dengue, particularly in pre-identifying those less likely to develop clinically significant bleeding.

  2. Identifying significant temporal variation in time course microarray data without replicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Weston

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of time course microarray studies is the identification of genes that demonstrate significant time-dependent variation in their expression levels. Until recently, available methods for performing such significance tests required replicates of individual time points. This paper describes a replicate-free method that was developed as part of a study of the estrous cycle in the rat mammary gland in which no replicate data was collected. Results A temporal test statistic is proposed that is based on the degree to which data are smoothed when fit by a spline function. An algorithm is presented that uses this test statistic together with a false discovery rate method to identify genes whose expression profiles exhibit significant temporal variation. The algorithm is tested on simulated data, and is compared with another recently published replicate-free method. The simulated data consists both of genes with known temporal dependencies, and genes from a null distribution. The proposed algorithm identifies a larger percentage of the time-dependent genes for a given false discovery rate. Use of the algorithm in a study of the estrous cycle in the rat mammary gland resulted in the identification of genes exhibiting distinct circadian variation. These results were confirmed in follow-up laboratory experiments. Conclusion The proposed algorithm provides a new approach for identifying expression profiles with significant temporal variation without relying on replicates. When compared with a recently published algorithm on simulated data, the proposed algorithm appears to identify a larger percentage of time-dependent genes for a given false discovery rate. The development of the algorithm was instrumental in revealing the presence of circadian variation in the virgin rat mammary gland during the estrous cycle.

  3. Mind the Gap. A systematic review to identify usability and safety challenges and practices during electronic health record implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratwani, Raj; Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew

    2016-11-16

    Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders' perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders' perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical workflow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation.

  4. Health Research and Millennium Development Goals: Identifying the Gap From Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Lawindi, Mona I; Galal, Yasmine S; Khairy, Walaa A

    2015-08-23

    Assessing the research output within the universities could provide an effective means for tracking the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) progress. This analytical database study was designed to assess the trend of research theses conducted by the Public Health Department (PHD), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University during the period 1990 to 2014 as related to the: MDGS, Faculty and department research priority plans and to identify the discrepancies between researchers' priorities versus national and international research priorities. A manual search of the theses was done at the Postgraduate Library using a specially designed checklist to chart adherence of each thesis to: MDGs, Faculty and department research plans (RPs). The theses' profile showed that the highest research output was for addressing the MDGS followed by the PHD and Faculty RPs. Compliance to MDGs 5 and 6 was obvious, whereas; MDGs 2, 3, and 7 were not represented at all after year 2000. No significant difference was found between PH theses addressing the Faculty RPs and those which were not before and after 2010. A significantly lower percent of PH theses was fulfilling the PHD research priorities compared to those which were not after 2010. This study showed a definite decline in research output tackling the MDGS and PHD research priorities, with a non-significant increase in the production of theses addressing the Faculty RPs. The present study is a practical model for policy makers within the universities to develop and implement a reliable monitoring and evaluation system for assessment of research output.

  5. [Identifying gaps between guidelines and clinical practice in Clostridium difficile infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martín, C; Serrano-Morte, A; Sánchez-Muñoz, L A; de Santos-Castro, P A; Bratos-Pérez, M A; Ortiz de Lejarazu-Leonardo, R

    2016-01-01

    The first aim was to determine whether patients are being treated in accordance with the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA/SHEA) Clostridium difficile guidelines and whether adherence impacts patient outcomes. The second aim was to identify specific action items in the guidelines that are not being translated into clinical practice, for their subsequent implementation. A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted over a 36 month period, on patients with compatible clinical symptoms and positive test for C. difficile toxins A and/or B in stool samples, in an internal medicine department of a tertiary medical centre. Patient demographic and clinical data (outcomes, comorbidity, risk factors) and compliance with guidelines, were examined A total of 77 patients with C. difficile infection were identified (87 episodes). Stratified by disease severity criteria, 49.3% of patients were mild-moderate, 35.1% severe, and 15.6% severe-complicated. Full adherence with the guidelines was observed in only 40.2% of patients, and was significantly better for mild-moderate (71.0%), than in severe (7.4%) or severe-complicated patients (16.6%) (PClostridium difficile infection was poor, especially in severe and severe-complicated patients, being associated with worse clinical outcomes. Educational interventions aimed at improving guideline adherence are warranted. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining coding CpG islands by identifying regions significant for pattern statistics on Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Meromit; Engström, Alexander; Schönhuth, Alexander; Pachter, Lior

    2011-09-23

    Recent experimental and computational work confirms that CpGs can be unmethylated inside coding exons, thereby showing that codons may be subjected to both genomic and epigenomic constraint. It is therefore of interest to identify coding CpG islands (CCGIs) that are regions inside exons enriched for CpGs. The difficulty in identifying such islands is that coding exons exhibit sequence biases determined by codon usage and constraints that must be taken into account. We present a method for finding CCGIs that showcases a novel approach we have developed for identifying regions of interest that are significant (with respect to a Markov chain) for the counts of any pattern. Our method begins with the exact computation of tail probabilities for the number of CpGs in all regions contained in coding exons, and then applies a greedy algorithm for selecting islands from among the regions. We show that the greedy algorithm provably optimizes a biologically motivated criterion for selecting islands while controlling the false discovery rate. We applied this approach to the human genome (hg18) and annotated CpG islands in coding exons. The statistical criterion we apply to evaluating islands reduces the number of false positives in existing annotations, while our approach to defining islands reveals significant numbers of undiscovered CCGIs in coding exons. Many of these appear to be examples of functional epigenetic specialization in coding exons.

  7. Kernel density surface modelling as a means to identify significant concentrations of vulnerable marine ecosystem indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kenchington

    Full Text Available The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105, concerning sustainable fisheries in the marine ecosystem, calls for the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VME from destructive fishing practices. Subsequently, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO produced guidelines for identification of VME indicator species/taxa to assist in the implementation of the resolution, but recommended the development of case-specific operational definitions for their application. We applied kernel density estimation (KDE to research vessel trawl survey data from inside the fishing footprint of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO Regulatory Area in the high seas of the northwest Atlantic to create biomass density surfaces for four VME indicator taxa: large-sized sponges, sea pens, small and large gorgonian corals. These VME indicator taxa were identified previously by NAFO using the fragility, life history characteristics and structural complexity criteria presented by FAO, along with an evaluation of their recovery trajectories. KDE, a non-parametric neighbour-based smoothing function, has been used previously in ecology to identify hotspots, that is, areas of relatively high biomass/abundance. We present a novel approach of examining relative changes in area under polygons created from encircling successive biomass categories on the KDE surface to identify "significant concentrations" of biomass, which we equate to VMEs. This allows identification of the VMEs from the broader distribution of the species in the study area. We provide independent assessments of the VMEs so identified using underwater images, benthic sampling with other gear types (dredges, cores, and/or published species distribution models of probability of occurrence, as available. For each VME indicator taxon we provide a brief review of their ecological function which will be important in future assessments of significant adverse impact on these habitats here

  8. BLAT2DOLite: An Online System for Identifying Significant Relationships between Genetic Sequences and Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cheng

    Full Text Available The significantly related diseases of sequences could play an important role in understanding the functions of these sequences. In this paper, we introduced BLAT2DOLite, an online system for annotating human genes and diseases and identifying the significant relationships between sequences and diseases. Currently, BLAT2DOLite integrates Entrez Gene database and Disease Ontology Lite (DOLite, which contain loci of gene and relationships between genes and diseases. It utilizes hypergeometric test to calculate P-values between genes and diseases of DOLite. The system can be accessed from: http://123.59.132.21:8080/BLAT2DOLite. The corresponding web service is described in: http://123.59.132.21:8080/BLAT2DOLite/BLAT2DOLiteIDMappingPort?wsdl.

  9. Top IS research on quality of transaction standards: a structured literature review to identify a research gap

    OpenAIRE

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Berends, W.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg, J. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains the results of a systematic literature review executed to determine the coverage of transaction standards in top information systems (IS) and management journals. Specifically, it aims to identify a research gap with respect to this topic. The top 25 journals are thoroughly searched and the selected publications are classified in order to make grounded statements. A moderate amount of literature found specifically aims at transaction standards. Hardly any research is found...

  10. Cloud-based solution to identify statistically significant MS peaks differentiating sample categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jun; Ling, Jeffrey; Jiang, Helen; Wen, Qiaojun; Whitin, John C; Tian, Lu; Cohen, Harvey J; Ling, Xuefeng B

    2013-03-23

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has evolved to become the primary high throughput tool for proteomics based biomarker discovery. Until now, multiple challenges in protein MS data analysis remain: large-scale and complex data set management; MS peak identification, indexing; and high dimensional peak differential analysis with the concurrent statistical tests based false discovery rate (FDR). "Turnkey" solutions are needed for biomarker investigations to rapidly process MS data sets to identify statistically significant peaks for subsequent validation. Here we present an efficient and effective solution, which provides experimental biologists easy access to "cloud" computing capabilities to analyze MS data. The web portal can be accessed at http://transmed.stanford.edu/ssa/. Presented web application supplies large scale MS data online uploading and analysis with a simple user interface. This bioinformatic tool will facilitate the discovery of the potential protein biomarkers using MS.

  11. Identifying gaps between current and expected ICT competencies of nurses in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunic, Sanja; Stojkovic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Introducing of ICT in the health care system in Serbia started 19 years ago and systematic training of nurses and technicians has not been realized yet. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the gap between the sets of ICT competencies of nurses and technicians acquiring education and experience and the necessary skill set required for their daily work. The qualitative research included questioning of the focus group of experts and 400 nurses and technicians employed in secondary and tertiary health institutions in Serbia. Based on the analysis of existing literature we choose the Informatics competencies for nurses at four levels of practice (Staggers, Gassert, Curran, 2001), and for the purposes of this study, we used a list of competencies of the first, and partially of the second and third level. At the start, the group of 12 experts had the task to eliminate some of listed competencies to express the subjective expectations of the ICT competencies of nurses. After that nurses and medical technicians were expected to grade, by Likert scale, their level of knowledge and skills for each of the 39 competencies, respectively. The answers were analyzed using measure of central tendency and distribution of results was done by median. Comparison of perceived competence of the nurses and the desired/expected level by managers shows that there is difference in 25 of the 39 offered statements. Managers expect that nurses are great users of administrative applications for staff scheduling and for maintaining employee records, while nurses declared that these programs they use relatively poorly or not at all. The larger gap is also observed when it comes to computer skill for documenting patient care--experts expect that nurses do it well, and nurses, again, estimate that their documentation skills are relatively poor. The same situation is with use of ICT for patient education. It can be concluded that further training is required in the field of ICT, either

  12. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  13. An Investigation to Validate the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) Test to Identify Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Payne, Elisabeth; McClelland, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Background The extraordinarily high incidence of grammatical language impairments in developmental disorders suggests that this uniquely human cognitive function is “fragile”. Yet our understanding of the neurobiology of grammatical impairments is limited. Furthermore, there is no “gold-standard” to identify grammatical impairments and routine screening is not undertaken. An accurate screening test to identify grammatical abilities would serve the research, health and education communities, further our understanding of developmental disorders, and identify children who need remediation, many of whom are currently un-diagnosed. A potential realistic screening tool that could be widely administered is the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test – a 10 minute test that can be administered by professionals and non-professionals alike. Here we provide a further step in evaluating the validity and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the GAPS test in identifying children who have Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Methods and Findings We tested three groups of children; two groups aged 3;6–6:6, a typically developing (n = 30) group, and a group diagnosed with SLI: (n = 11) (Young (Y)-SLI), and a further group aged 6;9–8;11 with SLI (Older (O)-SLI) (n = 10) who were above the test age norms. We employed a battery of language assessments including the GAPS test to assess the children's language abilities. For Y-SLI children, analyses revealed a sensitivity and specificity at the 5th and 10th percentile of 1.00 and 0.98, respectively, and for O-SLI children at the 10th and 15th percentile .83 and .90, respectively. Conclusions The findings reveal that the GAPS is highly accurate in identifying impaired vs. non-impaired children up to 6;8 years, and has moderate-to-high accuracy up to 9 years. The results indicate that GAPS is a realistic tool for the early identification of grammatical abilities and impairment in young children. A larger

  14. Using a research framework to identify knowledge gaps in research on food marketing to children in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget; King, Lesley

    2009-06-01

    Research in the field of food marketing to children requires a better understanding of the research gaps in order to inform policy development. The purpose of this paper was to propose a framework for classifying food marketing research, using Australian research on food marketing to children to demonstrate how this framework can be used to determine knowledge gaps. A literature review of research databases and 'grey' material was conducted to identify research from the previous 10 years. Studies were classified according to their research focus, and media type, as either: exposure, including content analyses; effects of exposure, including opinions, attitudes and actions resulting from food marketing exposure; regulations, including the type and level of regulation that applies to food marketing; or breaches of regulations, including instances where marketing regulations have been violated. The majority of Australian research on food marketing to children has focused on television advertising and exposure research. Research has consistently shown that the content of food marketing directed at children is predominately for unhealthy foods. There is a lack of research on the effects of food marketing, which would be valuable to inform policy. The development of a logical framework for food marketing research allows for the identification of research gaps and enables research priorities to be identified.

  15. Using Satellite Data to Identify the Causes of and Potential Solutions for Yield Gaps in India's Wheat Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, B.; Srivastava, A.; Malik, R. K.; McDonald, A.; Lobell, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Food security will be increasingly challenged by climate change, natural resource degradation, and population growth. Wheat yields, in particular, have already stagnated in many regions and will be further affected by warming temperatures. Despite these challenges, wheat yields can be increased by improving management practices in regions with existing yield gaps. We present two studies that are using satellite data to better understand the factors contributing to yield gaps and potential interventions to close yield gaps in India's main wheat belt, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). To identify the magnitude and causes of current yield gaps, we produced 30 meter resolution yield maps from 2001 to 2015 using Landsat sallite data and a new method that translates satellite vegetation indices to yield estimates using crop model simulations, bypassing the need for ground calibration data. This is one of the first attempts to apply this method to a smallholder agriculture system, where ground calibration data are rarely available. We find that yields can be increased by 11% on average and up to 32% in the eastern IGP by improving management to current best practices within a given district. Additionally, if current best practices from the highest-yielding state of Punjab are implemented in the eastern IGP, yields could increase by almost 110%. Considering the factors that most influence yields, later sow dates and warmer temperatures are most associated with low yields across the IGP. This suggests that strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress, like earlier sowing and planting heat-tolerant wheat varieties, are critical to increasing wheat yields in this globally-important agricultural region. We also apply this method to high-resolution micro-satellite data (impacts of a new fertilizer spreader technology and identify whether satellite data can be used to appropriately target this intervention.

  16. Scoping review identifies significant number of knowledge translation theories, models and frameworks with limited use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strifler, Lisa; Cardoso, Roberta; McGowan, Jessie; Cogo, Elise; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Scott, Alistair; Ghassemi, Marco; MacDonald, Heather; Lai, Yonda; Treister, Victoria; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E

    2018-04-13

    To conduct a scoping review of knowledge translation (KT) theories, models and frameworks that have been used to guide dissemination or implementation of evidence-based interventions targeted to prevention and/or management of cancer or other chronic diseases. We used a comprehensive multistage search process from 2000-2016, which included traditional bibliographic database searching, searching using names of theories, models and frameworks, and cited reference searching. Two reviewers independently screened the literature and abstracted data. We found 596 studies reporting on the use of 159 KT theories, models or frameworks. A majority (87%) of the identified theories, models or frameworks were used in five or fewer studies, with 60% used once. The theories, models and frameworks were most commonly used to inform planning/design, implementation and evaluation activities, and least commonly used to inform dissemination and sustainability/scalability activities. Twenty-six were used across the full implementation spectrum (from planning/design to sustainability/scalability) either within or across studies. All were used for at least individual-level behavior change, while 48% were used for organization-level, 33% for community-level and 17% for system-level change. We found a significant number of KT theories, models and frameworks with a limited evidence base describing their use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Perceptions of Effective Teaching Methods for Age 50+ Baby Boomer Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…

  18. Strengthening the dementia care triad: identifying knowledge gaps and linking to resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christine J; Inker, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    This article describes a project to identify the needs of family caregivers and health care providers caring for persons with dementia. Participants included 128 caregivers, who completed a survey, and 27 health care providers, who participated in a focus group and completed a survey. Caregivers reported their primary source of information about the disease was the doctor; however, the majority also reported they were primarily informed of medications and not about needed resources. Health care providers identified limited time with patients and families, and lack of awareness of community services, as their main challenges. Recommendations include strengthening the partnership between physicians, patients, and caregivers (the dementia care triad) through additional support and training for physicians and caregivers, increasing awareness of the Alzheimer's Association, and utilization of technology for families and professionals to track the needs of persons with dementia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care- lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  20. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-­‐income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-­‐tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-­‐23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-­‐23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-­‐out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care-­‐ lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  1. Identifying the most significant indicators of the total road safety performance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tešić, Milan; Hermans, Elke; Lipovac, Krsto; Pešić, Dalibor

    2018-04-01

    The review of the national and international literature dealing with the assessment of the road safety level has shown great efforts of the authors who tried to define the methodology for calculating the composite road safety index on a territory (region, state, etc.). The procedure for obtaining a road safety composite index of an area has been largely harmonized. The question that has not been fully resolved yet concerns the selection of indicators. There is a wide range of road safety indicators used to show a road safety situation on a territory. Road safety performance index (RSPI) obtained on the basis of a larger number of safety performance indicators (SPIs) enable decision makers to more precisely define the earlier goal- oriented actions. However, recording a broader comprehensive set of SPIs helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of a country's road safety system. Providing high quality national and international databases that would include comparable SPIs seems to be difficult since a larger number of countries dispose of a small number of identical indicators available for use. Therefore, there is a need for calculating a road safety performance index with a limited number of indicators (RSPI ln n ) which will provide a comparison of a sufficient quality, of as many countries as possible. The application of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and correlative analysis has helped to check if the RSPI ln n is likely to be of sufficient quality. A strong correlation between the RSPI ln n and the RSPI has been identified using the proposed methodology. Based on this, the most contributing indicators and methodologies for gradual monitoring of SPIs, have been defined for each country analyzed. The indicator monitoring phases in the analyzed countries have been defined in the following way: Phase 1- the indicators relating to alcohol, speed and protective systems; Phase 2- the indicators relating to roads and Phase 3- the indicators relating to

  2. Using simulation technology to identify gaps between education and practice among new graduate nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett-Thomas, Ruth; Valdes, Beatriz; Valdes, Guillermo R; Shekhter, Ilya; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Rosen, Lisa F; Arheart, Kristopher L; Birnbach, David J

    2015-01-01

    Applied knowledge was observed among nurse groups from a medical-surgical residency program to measure clinical performance during simulation training. Twenty groups of new graduate nurses were observed during five simulated clinical scenarios, and their performances were scored on a 24-item checklist. Nurse groups showed significant improvement (p new graduate nurses, and standardized training during the residency program may help instructors recognize specific factors to address during the transition from education to practice. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Bridging the gap: academic and practitioner perspectives to identify early career competencies needed in healthcare management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewchuk, Richard M; O'Connor, Stephen J; Fine, David J

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare organizations, health management professional associations, and educational institutions have begun to examine carefully what it means to be a fully competent healthcare executive. As a result, an upsurge in interest in healthcare management competencies has been observed recently. The present study uses two critically important groups of informants as participants: health management practitioners and faculty. Using the nominal group process, health administrators identified critical environmental issues perceived to have an impact on healthcare executives today. These issues were employed in a card-sort assessment and a survey was administered to a nationwide sample of health administrators. These data were used to create a map and five clusters of the environmental landscape of healthcare management. These clusters of environmental issues provided a framework for having groups of administrators and faculty members generate and rank perceived behavioral competencies relative to each cluster. Implications for healthcare management practice, education, and research are discussed.

  4. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... significantly affecting the environment. (a) General guidelines. The phrase, “major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment,” as used in this part, shall be construed with a...

  5. Low carbon mini grids 'Identifying the gaps; building the evidence base', Support Study for DFID - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    This report represents the final report on the support study on 'Identifying the gaps and building the evidence base on low carbon mini-grids'. The review forms part of a preliminary initiative of DFID to promote Green Mini-Grids (GMG) in Africa under the International Climate Fund (ICF) with the objective of providing guidance and recommendations for DFID intervention and program implementation. The support study started in November 2012 and ended in September 2013. The report is based on activities which have included kick-off meetings, development of the methodological framework, literature and web review of documents relevant to the state-of-the-art practices for mini-grids, collation of relevant international experience, and a field visit in 2 targeted African countries (Kenya and Mozambique) to conduct interviews with key stakeholders and to collect field data. The report is structured in 8 chapters as per the requirements of the TOR, with a 'Highlights' section: 1- International Review of Mini-Grids and Data Collection, overview of the technologies, and of implementation schemes. The reality of the target countries is that while there are a number of diesel based mini-grids run either by private operators with low service and high cost, outside any regulated framework, and some run through various forms of Public Private Partnerships, there are extremely few Green Mini-Grids. Some Renewable Energy Power Generation operations are found to be for self-consumption or feeding into the grid, but very seldom for powering a Mini-Grid isolated from the interconnected network. 2 - Relevance of Mini-Grid Solutions, proposes an approach to help the planner identify whether in a given country/region, Mini-Grids - and further Green Mini-Grids are a viable option for access to electricity services. These mini-grid areas are those which will remain out reach of the interconnected grid for a few years to come, and yet where there is sufficient load density to ensure the

  6. Collaboration in crisis and emergency management: Identifying the gaps in the case of storm 'Alexa'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Ihab Hanna Salman

    2014-01-01

    Failing to collaborate in crisis and emergency situations will increase the vulnerability of organisations and societies towards potential disasters. This paper highlights the significance of effective collaboration at different levels in times of crises. The case of snow storm 'Alexa', which hit Jordan in December 2013, was considered for the purpose of this research. The impact of Alexa raised many questions regarding the country's preparedness and the capacity of its infrastructure to maintain critical business functions across various industry sectors. First, should people individually take all the responsibility to manage crises and emergencies in order to protect themselves and their belongings? Secondly, should organisations join efforts with other organisations within the same or different sectors? Thirdly, should governments seek external collaboration for the ultimate goal of securing their economies? These issues are significant as they underline the element of collaboration. This paper contributes to the understanding of the role of collaboration in times of intense difficulty and loss of control. The proposition made by this research is that an effective collaborative process is positively associated with perceptions of improved disaster risk reduction practices.

  7. Medical Student Perceptions of Global Surgery at an Academic Institution: Identifying Gaps in Global Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ambar; Xu, Tim; Murray, Matthew; Casey, Kathleen M

    2017-12-01

    Robust global health demands access to safe, affordable, timely surgical care for all. The long-term success of global surgery requires medical students to understand and engage with this emerging field. The authors characterized medical students' perceptions of surgical care relative to other fields within global health. An optional, anonymous survey was given to all Johns Hopkins medical students from February to March 2016 to assess perceptions of surgical care and its role in global health. Of 480 students, 365 (76%) completed the survey, with 150 (41%) reporting global health interests. One-third (34%) of responding students felt that surgical care is one of two fields with the greatest potential global health impact in the future, second to infectious disease (49%). A minority (28%) correctly identified that trauma results in more deaths worldwide than obstetric complications or HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria combined. Relative to other examined fields, students perceived surgical care as the least preventive and cost-effective, and few students (3%) considered adequate surgical care the best indicator of a robust health care system. Students believed that practicing in a surgical field was least amenable to pursuing a global health career, citing several barriers. Medical students have several perceptions of global surgery that contradict current evidence and literature, which may have implications for their career choices. Opportunities to improve students' global health knowledge and awareness of global surgery career paths include updating curricula, fostering meaningful international academic opportunities, and creating centers of global surgery and global health consortia.

  8. Identifying children who may be cognitively gifted: the gap between practical demands and scientific supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLAUS D. KUBINGER

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to high cognitive ability assessment, traditional “IQ-diagnosis” has not proven to be particularly helpful. Psychological assessment aimed at promoting the development of gifted individuals requires a scientifically based theoretical model that identifies which cognitive strengths are necessary and which weaknesses can be compensated, and that takes the moderating effects of personality and environment into account when describing the interplay between ability and achievement. While such models – including the one described in the following paper – do exist, they currently lack an adequate theoretical foundation or at least a convincing empirical validation. Science still stands before the challenge of offering appropriate psychodiagnostic instruments to measure model components while fulfilling practitioners’ requirements. The following work describes a prototypic example of how such requirements might be met for ability testing. Yet in terms of personality and environmental variables, particularly caregiving, currently available methods are wholly unsuitable for meeting intended goals. Systematic behavioral observation offers a possible solution. Its validity, objectivity, comprehensiveness and efficiency in terms of high ability testing – as well as that of interview guides – must, however, be further explored.

  9. Acute toxicity tests and meta-analysis identify gaps in tropical ecotoxicology for amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sonia L; Donnelly, Maureen A; Kerby, Jacob; Whitfield, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian populations are declining worldwide, particularly in tropical regions where amphibian diversity is highest. Pollutants, including agricultural pesticides, have been identified as a potential contributor to decline, yet toxicological studies of tropical amphibians are very rare. The present study assesses toxic effects on amphibians of 10 commonly used commercial pesticides in tropical agriculture using 2 approaches. First, the authors conducted 8-d toxicity assays with formulations of each pesticide using individually reared red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) tadpoles. Second, they conducted a review of available data for the lethal concentration to kill 50% of test animals from the US Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX database to allow comparison with their findings. Lethal concentration estimates from the assays ranged over several orders of magnitude. The nematicides terbufos and ethoprophos and the fungicide chlorothalonil were very highly toxic, with evident effects within an order of magnitude of environmental concentrations. Acute toxicity assays and meta-analysis show that nematicides and fungicides are generally more toxic than herbicides yet receive far less research attention than less toxic herbicides. Given that the tropics have a high diversity of amphibians, the findings emphasize the need for research into the effects of commonly used pesticides in tropical countries and should help guide future ecotoxicological research in tropical regions. © 2014 SETAC.

  10. DISCONTOOLS: a database to identify research gaps on vaccines, pharmaceuticals and diagnostics for the control of infectious diseases of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Declan; Scudamore, Jim; Charlier, Johannes; Delavergne, Morgane

    2017-01-03

    The public and private sector in the EU spend around €800 million per year on animal health and welfare related research. An objective process to identify critical gaps in knowledge and available control tools should aid the prioritisation of research in order to speed up the development of new or improved diagnostics, vaccines and pharmaceuticals and reduce the burden of animal diseases. Here, we describe the construction of a database based on expert consultation for 52 infectious diseases of animals. For each disease, an expert group produced a disease and product analysis document that formed the basis for gap analysis and prioritisation. The prioritisation model was based on a closed scoring system, employing identical weights for six evaluation criteria (disease knowledge; impact on animal health and welfare; impact on public health; impact on wider society; impact on trade; control tools). The diseases were classified into three groups: epizootic diseases, food-producing animal complexes or zoonotic diseases. The highly ranked diseases in the prioritisation model comprised mostly zoonotic and epizootic diseases with important gaps identified in vaccine development and pharmaceuticals, respectively. The most important outcome is the identification of key research needs by disease. The rankings and research needs by disease are provided on a public website ( www.discontools.eu ) which is currently being updated based on new expert consultations. As such, it can become a reference point for funders of research including the European Commission, member states, foundations, trusts along with private industry to prioritise research. This will deliver benefits in terms of animal health and welfare but also public health, societal benefits and a safe and secure food supply.

  11. A Modified Delphi to Identify the Significant Works Pertaining to the Understanding of Reading Comprehension and Content Analysis of the Identified Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunker, Norma D.; Pearce, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this study explored the significant works pertaining to the understanding of reading comprehension using a Modified Delphi Method. A panel of reading comprehension experts identified 19 works they considered to be significant to the understanding of reading comprehension. The panel of experts identified the reasons they…

  12. Identifying and responding to gaps in domestic abuse services for older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate. Older women living with domestic abuse report more health-related concerns than any other group, and demonstrate a higher incidence of significant mental health issues. Research suggests that older women who have experienced domestic abuse are not having their psychological and physical support needs met by existing services. This article examines the physical and mental health issues that older women face as a result of abusive relationships, and the barriers to seeking help. Multidisciplinary healthcare professionals can facilitate the therapeutic engagement of older women living with domestic abuse. Refuges and related interventions are limited in terms of the support they can offer, however, research suggests that developing a stepped approach, tailored to suit older women's needs, could be beneficial.

  13. What is the clinical significance of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) in high anion gap metabolic acidosis following paracetamol (acetaminophen) exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, D B; Paden, M S; Schwarz, E S; Mullins, M E

    2013-11-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) ingestion is the most frequent pharmaceutical overdose in the developed world. Metabolic acidosis sometimes occurs, but the acidosis is infrequently persistent or severe. A growing number of case reports and case series describe high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) following paracetamol exposure with subsequent detection or measurement of 5-oxoproline (also called pyroglutamic acid) in blood, urine, or both. Typically 5-oxoprolinuria or 5-oxoprolinemia occurs in the setting of inborn genetic errors in glutathione metabolism. It is unknown whether 5-oxoprolinemia in the setting of paracetamol exposure reflects an acquired or transient derangement of glutathione metabolism or previously unrecognized genetic defects. We reviewed the published cases of 5-oxoprolinemia or 5-oxoprolinuria among patients with HAGMA in the setting of paracetamol exposure. Our goal was to identify any consistent features that might increase our understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of similar cases. We searched the medical literature using PUBMED and EMBASE from inception to 28 August 2013 applying search terms ("oxoproline" OR "pyroglutamic acid" AND "paracetamol" OR "acetaminophen"). The intersection of these two searches returned 77 articles, of which 64 involved human subjects and were in English. Two articles, one each in Spanish and Dutch, were reviewed. An additional Google Scholar search was done with the same terms. We manually searched the reference lists of retrieved articles to identify additional four relevant articles. We focused on articles including measured 5-oxoproline concentrations in urine or blood. Twenty-two articles included quantified 5-oxoproline concentrations. Several additional articles mentioned only qualitative detection of 5-oxoproline in urine or blood without concentrations being reported. Our manual reference search yielded four additional articles for a total of 24 articles describing 43 patients

  14. A matter of timing: identifying significant multi-dose radiotherapy improvements by numerical simulation and genetic algorithm search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Angus

    Full Text Available Multi-dose radiotherapy protocols (fraction dose and timing currently used in the clinic are the product of human selection based on habit, received wisdom, physician experience and intra-day patient timetabling. However, due to combinatorial considerations, the potential treatment protocol space for a given total dose or treatment length is enormous, even for relatively coarse search; well beyond the capacity of traditional in-vitro methods. In constrast, high fidelity numerical simulation of tumor development is well suited to the challenge. Building on our previous single-dose numerical simulation model of EMT6/Ro spheroids, a multi-dose irradiation response module is added and calibrated to the effective dose arising from 18 independent multi-dose treatment programs available in the experimental literature. With the developed model a constrained, non-linear, search for better performing cadidate protocols is conducted within the vicinity of two benchmarks by genetic algorithm (GA techniques. After evaluating less than 0.01% of the potential benchmark protocol space, candidate protocols were identified by the GA which conferred an average of 9.4% (max benefit 16.5% and 7.1% (13.3% improvement (reduction on tumour cell count compared to the two benchmarks, respectively. Noticing that a convergent phenomenon of the top performing protocols was their temporal synchronicity, a further series of numerical experiments was conducted with periodic time-gap protocols (10 h to 23 h, leading to the discovery that the performance of the GA search candidates could be replicated by 17-18 h periodic candidates. Further dynamic irradiation-response cell-phase analysis revealed that such periodicity cohered with latent EMT6/Ro cell-phase temporal patterning. Taken together, this study provides powerful evidence towards the hypothesis that even simple inter-fraction timing variations for a given fractional dose program may present a facile, and highly cost

  15. A matter of timing: identifying significant multi-dose radiotherapy improvements by numerical simulation and genetic algorithm search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Simon D; Piotrowska, Monika Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Multi-dose radiotherapy protocols (fraction dose and timing) currently used in the clinic are the product of human selection based on habit, received wisdom, physician experience and intra-day patient timetabling. However, due to combinatorial considerations, the potential treatment protocol space for a given total dose or treatment length is enormous, even for relatively coarse search; well beyond the capacity of traditional in-vitro methods. In constrast, high fidelity numerical simulation of tumor development is well suited to the challenge. Building on our previous single-dose numerical simulation model of EMT6/Ro spheroids, a multi-dose irradiation response module is added and calibrated to the effective dose arising from 18 independent multi-dose treatment programs available in the experimental literature. With the developed model a constrained, non-linear, search for better performing cadidate protocols is conducted within the vicinity of two benchmarks by genetic algorithm (GA) techniques. After evaluating less than 0.01% of the potential benchmark protocol space, candidate protocols were identified by the GA which conferred an average of 9.4% (max benefit 16.5%) and 7.1% (13.3%) improvement (reduction) on tumour cell count compared to the two benchmarks, respectively. Noticing that a convergent phenomenon of the top performing protocols was their temporal synchronicity, a further series of numerical experiments was conducted with periodic time-gap protocols (10 h to 23 h), leading to the discovery that the performance of the GA search candidates could be replicated by 17-18 h periodic candidates. Further dynamic irradiation-response cell-phase analysis revealed that such periodicity cohered with latent EMT6/Ro cell-phase temporal patterning. Taken together, this study provides powerful evidence towards the hypothesis that even simple inter-fraction timing variations for a given fractional dose program may present a facile, and highly cost-effecitive means

  16. Selective imaging modalities after first pyelonephritis failed to identify significant urological anomalies, despite normal antenatal ultrasounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mola, Gylli; Wenger, Therese Ramstad; Salomonsson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the consequences of applying different imaging guidelines for urological anomalies after first pyelonephritis in children with normal routine antenatal ultrasounds. METHODS: The cohort comprised 472 children treated for their first culture-positive pyelonephritis and investig......AIM: We investigated the consequences of applying different imaging guidelines for urological anomalies after first pyelonephritis in children with normal routine antenatal ultrasounds. METHODS: The cohort comprised 472 children treated for their first culture-positive pyelonephritis...... identified all patients initially treated with surgery and avoided 65 scintigraphies. CONCLUSION: Dilated VUR was the dominant anomaly in a cohort with first time pyelonephritis and normal antenatal ultrasound. The optimal imaging strategy after pyelonephritis must be identified....

  17. Methodology to identify risk-significant components for inservice inspection and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.T.; Hartley, R.S.; Jones, J.L. Jr.; Kido, C.; Phillips, J.H.

    1992-08-01

    Periodic inspection and testing of vital system components should be performed to ensure the safe and reliable operation of Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear processing facilities. Probabilistic techniques may be used to help identify and rank components by their relative risk. A risk-based ranking would allow varied DOE sites to implement inspection and testing programs in an effective and cost-efficient manner. This report describes a methodology that can be used to rank components, while addressing multiple risk issues

  18. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of Environment... performed by EPA, systems must respond in writing to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary survey... will address significant deficiencies noted in the survey. (d) Systems must correct significant...

  19. Significant Deregulated Pathways in Diabetes Type II Complications Identified through Expression Based Network Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukil, Sanchaita; Sinha, Meenakshee; Varshney, Lavneesh; Agrawal, Shipra

    Type 2 Diabetes is a complex multifactorial disease, which alters several signaling cascades giving rise to serious complications. It is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The present research work describes an integrated functional network biology approach to identify pathways that get transcriptionally altered and lead to complex complications thereby amplifying the phenotypic effect of the impaired disease state. We have identified two sub-network modules, which could be activated under abnormal circumstances in diabetes. Present work describes key proteins such as P85A and SRC serving as important nodes to mediate alternate signaling routes during diseased condition. P85A has been shown to be an important link between stress responsive MAPK and CVD markers involved in fibrosis. MAPK8 has been shown to interact with P85A and further activate CTGF through VEGF signaling. We have traced a novel and unique route correlating inflammation and fibrosis by considering P85A as a key mediator of signals. The next sub-network module shows SRC as a junction for various signaling processes, which results in interaction between NF-kB and beta catenin to cause cell death. The powerful interaction between these important genes in response to transcriptionally altered lipid metabolism and impaired inflammatory response via SRC causes apoptosis of cells. The crosstalk between inflammation, lipid homeostasis and stress, and their serious effects downstream have been explained in the present analyses.

  20. Children with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease can be identified through population-based registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Gunnar; Hærskjold, Ann; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research is facilitated in Sweden by a history of national health care registers, making large unselected national cohort studies possible. However, for complex clinical populations, such as children with congenital heart disease (CHD), register-based studies...... are challenged by registration limitations. For example, the diagnostic code system International Classification of Diseases, 10th version (ICD-10) does not indicate the clinical significance of abnormalities, therefore may be of limited use if used as the sole parameter in epidemiological research. Palivizumab...

  1. Shear-wave elastography of the liver and spleen identifies clinically significant portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Bogs, Christopher; Verlinden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) is associated with severe complications and decompensation of cirrhosis. Liver stiffness measured either by transient elastography (TE) or Shear-wave elastography (SWE) and spleen stiffness by TE might be helpful in the diagnosis...... correlate with portal pressure and can both be used as a non-invasive method to investigate CSPH. Even though external validation is still missing, these algorithms to rule-out and rule-in CSPH using sequential SWE of liver and spleen might change the clinical practice....

  2. Identifying and characterizing the most significant β-glucosidase of the novel species Aspergillus saccharolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Anette; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Lubeck, Mette; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Culley, David E.; Lubeck, Peter S.

    2012-08-20

    A newly discovered fungal species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus, was found to produce a culture broth rich in beta-glucosidase activity. In this present work, the main beta-glucosidase of A. saccharolyticus responsible for the efficient hydrolytic activity was identified, isolated, and characterized. Ion exchange chromatography was used to fractionate the culture broth, yielding fractions with high beta-glucosidase activity and only one visible band on an SDS-PAGE gel. Mass spectrometry analysis of this band gave peptide matches to beta-glucosidases from aspergilli. Through a PCR approach using degenerate primers and genome walking, a 2919 base pair sequence encoding the 860 amino acid BGL1 polypeptide was determined. BGL1 of A. saccharolyticus has 91% and 82% identity with BGL1 from Aspergillus aculeatus and BGL1 from Aspergillus niger, respectively, both belonging to Glycoside hydrolase family 3. Homology modeling studies suggested beta-glucosidase activity with preserved retaining mechanism and a wider catalytic pocket compared to other beta-glucosidases. The bgl1 gene was heterologously expressed in Trichoderma reesei QM6a, purified, and characterized by enzyme kinetics studies. The enzyme can hydrolyze cellobiose, pNPG, and cellodextrins. The enzyme showed good thermostability, was stable at 50°C, and at 60°C it had a half-life of approximately 6 hours.

  3. Refining Current Scientific Priorities and Identifying New Scientific Gaps in HIV-Related Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Homer L; Crystal, Ronald; Currier, Judith; Ridker, Paul; Berliner, Nancy; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Rutherford, George; Zou, Shimian; Glynn, Simone; Wong, Renee; Peprah, Emmanuel; Engelgau, Michael; Creazzo, Tony; Colombini-Hatch, Sandra; Caler, Elisabet

    2017-09-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) AIDS Program's goal is to provide direction and support for research and training programs in areas of HIV-related heart, lung, blood, and sleep (HLBS) diseases. To better define NHLBI current HIV-related scientific priorities and with the goal of identifying new scientific priorities and gaps in HIV-related HLBS research, a wide group of investigators gathered for a scientific NHLBI HIV Working Group on December 14-15, 2015, in Bethesda, MD. The core objectives of the Working Group included discussions on: (1) HIV-related HLBS comorbidities in the antiretroviral era; (2) HIV cure; (3) HIV prevention; and (4) mechanisms to implement new scientific discoveries in an efficient and timely manner so as to have the most impact on people living with HIV. The 2015 Working Group represented an opportunity for the NHLBI to obtain expert advice on HIV/AIDS scientific priorities and approaches over the next decade.

  4. Network Diffusion-Based Prioritization of Autism Risk Genes Identifies Significantly Connected Gene Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Mosca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is marked by a strong genetic heterogeneity, which is underlined by the low overlap between ASD risk gene lists proposed in different studies. In this context, molecular networks can be used to analyze the results of several genome-wide studies in order to underline those network regions harboring genetic variations associated with ASD, the so-called “disease modules.” In this work, we used a recent network diffusion-based approach to jointly analyze multiple ASD risk gene lists. We defined genome-scale prioritizations of human genes in relation to ASD genes from multiple studies, found significantly connected gene modules associated with ASD and predicted genes functionally related to ASD risk genes. Most of them play a role in synapsis and neuronal development and function; many are related to syndromes that can be in comorbidity with ASD and the remaining are involved in epigenetics, cell cycle, cell adhesion and cancer.

  5. Clinical significance of pontine high signals identified on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira; Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro.

    1993-01-01

    Spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated to 530 cases in order to investigate the clinical significance of pontine high signals. The subjects comprised 109 cases of pontine infarction with high signal on T 2 -weighted image and low signal on T 1 -weighted image (PI group), 145 of pontine high signal with high signal on T 2 -weighted image but normal signal on T 1 -weighted image (PH group) and 276 of age-matched control without abnormality either on T 1 or T 2 -weighted images (AC group). Subjective complaints such as vertigo-dizziness were more frequent in the PH group than in the PI group. In both PI and groups, periventricular hyperintensity as well as subcortical high signals in the supratentorium were more severe than in the AC group. These degrees were higher in the PI group than in the PH group. In conclusion, PH as well as PI may result from diffuse arteriosclerosis and PH is considered to be an early finding of pontine ischemia. (author)

  6. Clinical significance of pontine high signals identified on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Arahata, Yutaka; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Furuse, Masahiro

    1993-07-01

    Spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated to 530 cases in order to investigate the clinical significance of pontine high signals. The subjects comprised 109 cases of pontine infarction with high signal on T[sub 2]-weighted image and low signal on T[sub 1]-weighted image (PI group), 145 of pontine high signal with high signal on T[sub 2]-weighted image but normal signal on T[sub 1]-weighted image (PH group) and 276 of age-matched control without abnormality either on T[sub 1] or T[sub 2]-weighted images (AC group). Subjective complaints such as vertigo-dizziness were more frequent in the PH group than in the PI group. In both PI and groups, periventricular hyperintensity as well as subcortical high signals in the supratentorium were more severe than in the AC group. These degrees were higher in the PI group than in the PH group. In conclusion, PH as well as PI may result from diffuse arteriosclerosis and PH is considered to be an early finding of pontine ischemia. (author).

  7. Clinical Significance of Focal Breast Lesions Incidentally Identified by 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Su Jin; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Lee, Ji Young; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the incidence and malignant risk of focal breast lesions incidentally detected by 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Various PET/CT findings of the breast lesions were also analyzed to improve the differentiation between benign from malignant focal breast lesions. The subjects were 3,768 consecutive 18 F-FDG PET/CT exams performed in adult females without a history of breast cancer. A focal breast lesion was defined as a focal 18 F-FDG uptake or a focal nodular lesion on CT image irrespective of 18 F-FDG uptake in the breasts. The maximum SUV and CT pattern of focal breast lesions were evaluated, and were compared with final diagnosis. The incidence of focal breast lesions on PET/CT in adult female subjects was 1.4% (58 lesions in 53 subjects). In finally confirmed 53 lesions of 48 subjects, 11 lesions of 8 subjects (20.8%) were proven to be malignant. When the PET/CT patterns suggesting benignancy (maximum attenuation value > 75 HU or 20) were added as diagnostic criteria of PET/CT to differentiate benign from malignant breast lesions along with maximum SUV, the area under ROC curve of PET/CT was significantly increased compared with maximum SUV alone (0.680±0.093 vs. 0.786±0.076, p 18 F-FDG PET/CT is not low, deserving further diagnostic confirmation. Image interpretation considering both 18 F-FDG uptake and PET/CT pattern may be helpful to improve the differentiation from malignant and benign focal breast lesion

  8. Using satellite data to identify the causes of and potential solutions for yield gaps in India’s Wheat Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, Balwinder; Srivastava, A. A. K.; Malik, R. K.; McDonald, A. J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2017-09-01

    Food security will be increasingly challenged by climate change, natural resource degradation, and population growth. Wheat yields, in particular, have already stagnated in many regions and will be further affected by warming temperatures. Despite these challenges, wheat yields can be increased by improving management practices in regions with existing yield gaps. To identify the magnitude and causes of current yield gaps in India, one of the largest wheat producers globally, we produced 30 meter resolution yield maps from 2001 to 2015 across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), the nation’s main wheat belt. Yield maps were derived using a new method that translates satellite vegetation indices to yield estimates using crop model simulations, bypassing the need for ground calibration data. This is one of the first attempts to apply this method to a smallholder agriculture system, where ground calibration data are rarely available. We find that yields can be increased by 11% on average and up to 32% in the eastern IGP by improving management to current best practices within a given district. Additionally, if current best practices from the highest-yielding state of Punjab are implemented in the eastern IGP, yields could increase by almost 110%. Considering the factors that most influence yields, later sow dates and warmer temperatures are most associated with low yields across the IGP. This suggests that strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress, like earlier sowing and planting heat-tolerant wheat varieties, are critical to increasing wheat yields in this globally-important agricultural region.

  9. Learning in context: identifying gaps in research on the transfer of medical communication skills to the clinical workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eertwegh, Valerie; van Dulmen, Sandra; van Dalen, Jan; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2013-02-01

    In order to reduce the inconsistencies of findings and the apparent low transfer of communication skills from training to medical practice, this narrative review identifies some main gaps in research on medical communication skills training and presents insights from theories on learning and transfer to broaden the view for future research. Relevant literature was identified using Pubmed, GoogleScholar, Cochrane database, and Web of Science; and analyzed using an iterative procedure. Research findings on the effectiveness of medical communication training still show inconsistencies and variability. Contemporary theories on learning based on a constructivist paradigm offer the following insights: acquisition of knowledge and skills should be viewed as an ongoing process of exchange between the learner and his environment, so called lifelong learning. This process can neither be atomized nor separated from the context in which it occurs. Four contemporary approaches are presented as examples. The following shift in focus for future research is proposed: beyond isolated single factor effectiveness studies toward constructivist, non-reductionistic studies integrating the context. Future research should investigate how constructivist approaches can be used in the medical context to increase effective learning and transition of communication skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  11. Identifying and Assessing Gaps in Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction Skill using the North American Multi-model Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegion, K.; DelSole, T. M.; Becker, E.; Cicerone, T.

    2016-12-01

    Predictability represents the upper limit of prediction skill if we had an infinite member ensemble and a perfect model. It is an intrinsic limit of the climate system associated with the chaotic nature of the atmosphere. Producing a forecast system that can make predictions very near to this limit is the ultimate goal of forecast system development. Estimates of predictability together with calculations of current prediction skill are often used to define the gaps in our prediction capabilities on subseasonal to seasonal timescales and to inform the scientific issues that must be addressed to build the next forecast system. Quantification of the predictability is also important for providing a scientific basis for relaying to stakeholders what kind of climate information can be provided to inform decision-making and what kind of information is not possible given the intrinsic predictability of the climate system. One challenge with predictability estimates is that different prediction systems can give different estimates of the upper limit of skill. How do we know which estimate of predictability is most representative of the true predictability of the climate system? Previous studies have used the spread-error relationship and the autocorrelation to evaluate the fidelity of the signal and noise estimates. Using a multi-model ensemble prediction system, we can quantify whether these metrics accurately indicate an individual model's ability to properly estimate the signal, noise, and predictability. We use this information to identify the best estimates of predictability for 2-meter temperature, precipitation, and sea surface temperature from the North American Multi-model Ensemble and compare with current skill to indicate the regions with potential for improving skill.

  12. Ethical issues in pragmatic randomized controlled trials: a review of the recent literature identifies gaps in ethical argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Cory E; Weijer, Charles; Brehaut, Jamie C; Fergusson, Dean A; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Horn, Austin R; Taljaard, Monica

    2018-02-27

    Pragmatic randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are designed to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in real-world clinical conditions. However, these studies raise ethical issues for researchers and regulators. Our objective is to identify a list of key ethical issues in pragmatic RCTs and highlight gaps in the ethics literature. We conducted a scoping review of articles addressing ethical aspects of pragmatic RCTs. After applying the search strategy and eligibility criteria, 36 articles were included and reviewed using content analysis. Our review identified four major themes: 1) the research-practice distinction; 2) the need for consent; 3) elements that must be disclosed in the consent process; and 4) appropriate oversight by research ethics committees. 1) Most authors reject the need for a research-practice distinction in pragmatic RCTs. They argue that the distinction rests on the presumptions that research participation offers patients less benefit and greater risk than clinical practice, but neither is true in the case of pragmatic RCTs. 2) Most authors further conclude that pragmatic RCTs may proceed without informed consent or with simplified consent procedures when risks are low and consent is infeasible. 3) Authors who endorse the need for consent assert that information need only be disclosed when research participation poses incremental risks compared to clinical practice. Authors disagree as to whether randomization must be disclosed. 4) Finally, all authors view regulatory oversight as burdensome and a practical impediment to the conduct of pragmatic RCTs, and argue that oversight procedures ought to be streamlined when risks to participants are low. The current ethical discussion is framed by the assumption that the function of research oversight is to protect participants from risk. As pragmatic RCTs commonly involve usual care interventions, the risks may be minimal. This leads many to reject the research-practice distinction and question

  13. Predicting a graphene-like WB4 nanosheet with a double Dirac cone, an ultra-high Fermi velocity and significant gap opening by spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunmei; Jiao, Yalong; Ma, Fengxian; Bottle, Steven; Zhao, Mingwen; Chen, Zhongfang; Du, Aijun

    2017-02-15

    The zero-band gap nature of graphene prevents it from performing as a semi-conductor in modern electronics. Although various graphene modification strategies have been developed to address this limitation, the very small band gap of these materials and the suppressed charge carrier mobility of the devices developed still significantly hinder graphene's applications. In this work, a two dimensional (2D) WB 4 monolayer, which exhibits a double Dirac cone, was conceived and assessed using density functional theory (DFT) methods, which would provide a sizable band gap while maintaining higher charge mobility with a Fermi velocity of 1.099 × 10 6 m s -1 . Strong spin-orbit-coupling can generate an observable band gap of up to 0.27 eV that primarily originates from the d-orbit of the heavy metal atom W; therefore a 2D WB 4 nanosheet would be operable at room temperature (T = 300 K) and would be a promising candidate to fabricate nanoelectronics in the upcoming post-silicon era. The phonon-spectrum and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations further demonstrate the dynamic and thermal stability of such nanosheets, thus, suggesting a potentially synthesizable Dirac material.

  14. Diagnostic value of Doppler echocardiography for identifying hemodynamic significant pulmonary valve regurgitation in tetralogy of Fallot: comparison with cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurskens, Niek E G; Gorter, Thomas M; Pieper, Petronella G; Hoendermis, Elke S; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Ebels, Tjark; Berger, Rolf M F; Willems, Tineke P; van Melle, Joost P

    2017-11-01

    Quantification of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is essential in the management of patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We sought to evaluate the accuracy of first-line Doppler echocardiography in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify hemodynamic significant PR. Paired cardiac MRI and echocardiographic studies (n = 97) in patients with repaired TOF were retrospectively analyzed. Pressure half time (PHT) and pulmonary regurgitation index (PRi) were measured using continuous wave Doppler. The ratio of the color flow Doppler regurgitation jet width to pulmonary valve (PV) annulus (jet/annulus ratio) and diastolic to systolic time velocity integral (DSTVI; pulsed wave Doppler) were assessed. Accuracy of echocardiographic measurements was tested to identify significant PR as determined by phase-contrast MRI (PR fraction [PRF] ≥ 20%). Mean PRF was 29.4 ± 15.7%. PHT < 100 ms had a sensitivity of 93%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value (PPV) 92% and negative predictive value (NPV) 78% for identifying significant PR (C-statistic 0.82). PRi < 0.77 had sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 54%, respectively (C-statistic 0.63). Jet/annulus ratio ≥1/3 had sensitivity 96%, specificity 75%, PPV 92% and NPV 82% (C-statistic 0.87). DSTVI had sensitivity 84%, specificity 33%, PPV 84% and NPV 40%, (C-statistic 0.56). Combined jet/annulus ratio ≥1/3 and PHT < 100 ms was highly accurate in identifying PRF ≥ 20%, with sensitivity 97% and specificity 100%. PHT and jet/annulus ratio on Doppler echocardiography, especially when combined, are highly accurate in identifying significant PR and therefore seem useful in the follow-up of patients with repaired TOF.

  15. Identifying Important Gaps in Randomized Controlled Trials of Adult Cardiac Arrest Treatments: A Systematic Review of the Published Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shashank S.; Sukul, Devraj; Lazarus, John J.; Polavarapu, Vivek; Chan, Paul S.; Neumar, Robert W.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrests are a major public health concern worldwide. The extent and types of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) – our most reliable source of clinical evidence – conducted in these high-risk patients over recent years are largely unknown. Methods and Results We performed a systematic review, identifying all RCTs published in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from 1995 to 2014 that focused on acute treatment of non-traumatic cardiac arrest in adults. We then extracted data on the setting of study populations, types and timing of interventions studied, risk of bias, outcomes reported and how these factors have changed over time. Over this twenty-year period, 92 RCTs were published containing 64,309 patients (median, 225.5 per trial). Of these, 81 RCTs (88.0%) involved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest whereas 4 (4.3%) involved in-hospital cardiac arrest and 7 (7.6%) included both. Eighteen RCTs (19.6%) were performed in the U.S., 68 (73.9%) were performed outside the U.S., and 6 (6.5%) were performed in both settings. Thirty-eight RCTs (41.3%) evaluated drug therapy, 39 (42.4%) evaluated device therapy, and 15 (16.3%) evaluated protocol improvements. Seventy-four RCTs (80.4%) examined interventions during the cardiac arrest, 15 (16.3%) examined post-cardiac arrest treatment, and 3 (3.3%) studied both. Overall, reporting of risk of bias was limited. The most common outcome reported was ROSC: 86 (93.5%) with only 22 (23.9%) reporting survival beyond 6 months. Fifty-three RCTs (57.6%) reported global ordinal outcomes whereas 15 (16.3%) reported quality-of-life. RCTs in the last 5 years were more likely to be focused on protocol improvement and post-cardiac arrest care. Conclusions Important gaps in RCTs of cardiac arrest treatments exist, especially those examining in-hospital cardiac arrest, protocol improvement, post-cardiac arrest care, and long-term or quality-of-life outcomes. PMID:27756794

  16. Relating genes to function: identifying enriched transcription factors using the ENCODE ChIP-Seq significance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Raymond K; Chen, Bin; Butte, Atul J

    2013-08-01

    Biological analysis has shifted from identifying genes and transcripts to mapping these genes and transcripts to biological functions. The ENCODE Project has generated hundreds of ChIP-Seq experiments spanning multiple transcription factors and cell lines for public use, but tools for a biomedical scientist to analyze these data are either non-existent or tailored to narrow biological questions. We present the ENCODE ChIP-Seq Significance Tool, a flexible web application leveraging public ENCODE data to identify enriched transcription factors in a gene or transcript list for comparative analyses. The ENCODE ChIP-Seq Significance Tool is written in JavaScript on the client side and has been tested on Google Chrome, Apple Safari and Mozilla Firefox browsers. Server-side scripts are written in PHP and leverage R and a MySQL database. The tool is available at http://encodeqt.stanford.edu. abutte@stanford.edu Supplementary material is available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Significance of left ventricular apical-basal muscle bundle identified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gruner, Christiane; Chan, Raymond H.; Crean, Andrew; Rakowski, Harry; Rowin, Ethan J.; Care, Melanie; Deva, Djeven; Williams, Lynne; Appelbaum, Evan; Gibson, C. Michael; Lesser, John R.; Haas, Tammy S.; Udelson, James E.; Manning, Warren J.; Siminovitch, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Aims Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has improved diagnostic and management strategies in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by expanding our appreciation for the diverse phenotypic expression. We sought to characterize the prevalence and clinical significance of a recently identified accessory left ventricular (LV) muscle bundle extending from the apex to the basal septum or anterior wall (i.e. apical-basal). Methods and results CMR was performed in 230 genotyped HCM patients (48 ± 15...

  18. Cut points for identifying clinically significant diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes using the PAID-T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Hendrieckx, Christel; Cameron, Fergus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish cut point(s) for the Problem Areas in Diabetes-teen version (PAID-T) scale to identify adolescents with clinically meaningful, elevated diabetes distress. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were available from the Diabetes Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment...... variables were examined to identify a clinically meaningful threshold for elevated diabetes distress. ANOVA was used to test whether these variables differed by levels of distress. RESULTS Two cut points distinguished none-to-mild (90) diabetes distress.......Moderate distresswas experienced by 18%of adolescents and high distress by 36%. Mean depressive symptoms, self-reported HbA1c, and SMBG differed significantly across the three levels of diabetes distress (all P defined two...

  19. A High-Throughput Computational Framework for Identifying Significant Copy Number Aberrations from Array Comparative Genomic Hybridisation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable identification of copy number aberrations (CNA from comparative genomic hybridization data would be improved by the availability of a generalised method for processing large datasets. To this end, we developed swatCGH, a data analysis framework and region detection heuristic for computational grids. swatCGH analyses sequentially displaced (sliding windows of neighbouring probes and applies adaptive thresholds of varying stringency to identify the 10% of each chromosome that contains the most frequently occurring CNAs. We used the method to analyse a published dataset, comparing data preprocessed using four different DNA segmentation algorithms, and two methods for prioritising the detected CNAs. The consolidated list of the most commonly detected aberrations confirmed the value of swatCGH as a simplified high-throughput method for identifying biologically significant CNA regions of interest.

  20. Genome-wide significant localization for working and spatial memory: Identifying genes for psychosis using models of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Emma E M; Carless, Melanie A; de Almeida, Marcio A A; Curran, Joanne E; McKay, D Reese; Sprooten, Emma; Dyer, Thomas D; Göring, Harald H; Olvera, Rene; Fox, Peter; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Kent, Jack W; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that risk for developing psychosis is largely mediated by the influence of genes, but identifying precisely which genes underlie that risk has been problematic. Focusing on endophenotypes, rather than illness risk, is one solution to this problem. Impaired cognition is a well-established endophenotype of psychosis. Here we aimed to characterize the genetic architecture of cognition using phenotypically detailed models as opposed to relying on general IQ or individual neuropsychological measures. In so doing we hoped to identify genes that mediate cognitive ability, which might also contribute to psychosis risk. Hierarchical factor models of genetically clustered cognitive traits were subjected to linkage analysis followed by QTL region-specific association analyses in a sample of 1,269 Mexican American individuals from extended pedigrees. We identified four genome wide significant QTLs, two for working and two for spatial memory, and a number of plausible and interesting candidate genes. The creation of detailed models of cognition seemingly enhanced the power to detect genetic effects on cognition and provided a number of possible candidate genes for psychosis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Long-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injury Therapy Using Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (Sk-SCs): An Achievement of Significant Morphological, Numerical and Functional Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Hirata, Maki; Nakajima, Nobuyuki; Saito, Kosuke; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Soeda, Shuichi; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs) to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents. The Sk-SCs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34) and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN/29+) cells. Cells were separately cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks, then injected into the athymic nude mice sciatic nerve long-gap model (7-mm) bridging an acellular conduit. After 8-12 weeks, active cell engraftment was observed only in the Sk-34 cell transplanted group, showing preferential differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as formation of the myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium surrounding regenerated axons, resulted in 87% of numerical recovery. Differentiation into vascular cell lineage (pericyte and endothelial cells) were also observed. A significant tetanic tension recovery (over 90%) of downstream muscles following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (at upper portion of the gap) was also achieved. In contrast, Sk-DN/29+ cells were completely eliminated during the first 4 weeks, but relatively higher numerical (83% vs. 41% in axon) and functional (80% vs. 60% in tetanus) recovery than control were observed. Noteworthy, significant increase in the formation of vascular networks in the conduit during the early stage (first 2 weeks) of recovery was observed in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels), suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the human Sk

  2. A Long-Gap Peripheral Nerve Injury Therapy Using Human Skeletal Muscle-Derived Stem Cells (Sk-SCs: An Achievement of Significant Morphological, Numerical and Functional Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tamaki

    Full Text Available Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents. The Sk-SCs were isolated using conditioned collagenase solution, and sorted as CD34+/45- (Sk-34 and CD34-/45-/29+ (Sk-DN/29+ cells. Cells were separately cultured/expanded under optimal conditions for 2 weeks, then injected into the athymic nude mice sciatic nerve long-gap model (7-mm bridging an acellular conduit. After 8-12 weeks, active cell engraftment was observed only in the Sk-34 cell transplanted group, showing preferential differentiation into Schwann cells and perineurial/endoneurial cells, as well as formation of the myelin sheath and perineurium/endoneurium surrounding regenerated axons, resulted in 87% of numerical recovery. Differentiation into vascular cell lineage (pericyte and endothelial cells were also observed. A significant tetanic tension recovery (over 90% of downstream muscles following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve (at upper portion of the gap was also achieved. In contrast, Sk-DN/29+ cells were completely eliminated during the first 4 weeks, but relatively higher numerical (83% vs. 41% in axon and functional (80% vs. 60% in tetanus recovery than control were observed. Noteworthy, significant increase in the formation of vascular networks in the conduit during the early stage (first 2 weeks of recovery was observed in both groups with the expression of key factors (mRNA and protein levels, suggesting the paracrine effects to angiogenesis. These results suggested that the

  3. The reasons for the epilepsy treatment gap in Kilifi, Kenya: using formative research to identify interventions to improve adherence to antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julie A; Molyneux, Catherine S; Mbuba, Caroline K; Jenkins, Jo; Newton, Charles R J C; Hartley, Sally D

    2012-12-01

    Many people with epilepsy (PWE) in resource-poor countries do not receive appropriate treatment, a phenomenon referred to as the epilepsy treatment gap (ETG). We conducted a qualitative study to explore the reasons for this gap and to identify possible interventions in Kilifi, Kenya. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were carried out of PWE and their caregivers. Individual interviews were conducted of PWE, their caregivers, traditional healers, community health workers and leaders, nurses and doctors. In addition, a series of workshops was conducted, and four factors contributing to the ETG were identified: 1) lack of knowledge about the causes, treatment and prognosis of epilepsy; 2) inaccessibility to antiepileptic drugs; 3) misconceptions about epilepsy derived from superstitions about its origin; 4) and dissatisfaction with the communication skills of health providers. These data indicated possible interventions: 1) education and support for PWE and their caregivers; 2) communication skills training for health providers; 3) and improved drug provision. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies TF as a significant modifier gene of iron metabolism in HFE hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tayrac, Marie; Roth, Marie-Paule; Jouanolle, Anne-Marie; Coppin, Hélène; le Gac, Gérald; Piperno, Alberto; Férec, Claude; Pelucchi, Sara; Scotet, Virginie; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Ropert, Martine; Bouvet, Régis; Génin, Emmanuelle; Mosser, Jean; Deugnier, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is the most common form of genetic iron loading disease. It is mainly related to the homozygous C282Y/C282Y mutation in the HFE gene that is, however, a necessary but not a sufficient condition to develop clinical and even biochemical HH. This suggests that modifier genes are likely involved in the expressivity of the disease. Our aim was to identify such modifier genes. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using DNA collected from 474 unrelated C282Y homozygotes. Associations were examined for both quantitative iron burden indices and clinical outcomes with 534,213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotypes, with replication analyses in an independent sample of 748 C282Y homozygotes from four different European centres. One SNP met genome-wide statistical significance for association with transferrin concentration (rs3811647, GWAS p value of 7×10(-9) and replication p value of 5×10(-13)). This SNP, located within intron 11 of the TF gene, had a pleiotropic effect on serum iron (GWAS p value of 4.9×10(-6) and replication p value of 3.2×10(-6)). Both serum transferrin and iron levels were associated with serum ferritin levels, amount of iron removed and global clinical stage (pHFE-associated HH (HFE-HH) patients, identified the rs3811647 polymorphism in the TF gene as the only SNP significantly associated with iron metabolism through serum transferrin and iron levels. Because these two outcomes were clearly associated with the biochemical and clinical expression of the disease, an indirect link between the rs3811647 polymorphism and the phenotypic presentation of HFE-HH is likely. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying significant predictors of head-on conflicts on two-lane rural roads using inductive loop detectors data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat-Mohaymany, Afshin; Tavakoli-Kashani, Ali; Nosrati, Hadi; Ranjbari, Andisheh

    2011-12-01

    To identify the significant factors that influence head-on conflicts resulting from dangerous overtaking maneuvers on 2-lane rural roads in Iran. A traffic conflict technique was applied to 12 two-lane rural roads in order to investigate the potential situations for accidents to occur and thus to identify the geometric and traffic factors affecting traffic conflicts. Traffic data were collected via the inductive loop detectors installed on these roads, and geometric characteristics were obtained through field observations. Two groups of data were then analyzed independently by Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate their relationship to traffic conflicts. The independent variables were percentage of time spent following (PTSF), percentage of heavy vehicles, directional distribution of traffic (DDT), mean speed, speed standard deviation, section type, road width, longitudinal slope, holiday or workday, and lighting condition. It was indicated that increasing the PTSF, decreasing the percentage of heavy vehicles, increasing the mean speed (up to 75 km/h), increasing DDT in the range of 0 to 60 percent, and decreasing the standard deviation of speed significantly increased the occurrence of traffic conflicts. It was also revealed that traffic conflicts occur more frequently on curve sections and on workdays. The variables road width, slope, and lighting condition were found to have a minor effect on conflict occurrence. To reduce the number of head-on conflicts on the aforementioned roads, some remedial measures are suggested, such as not constructing long "No Passing" zones and constructing passing lanes where necessary; keeping road width at the standard value; constructing roads with horizontal curves and a high radius and using appropriate road markings and overtaking-forbidden signs where it is impossible to modify the radius; providing enough light and installing caution signs/devices on the roads; and intensifying police control and supervision on workdays

  6. A comparison of prognostic significance of strong ion gap (SIG) with other acid-base markers in the critically ill: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok M; Lan, Norris S H; Williams, Teresa A; Harahsheh, Yusra; Chapman, Andrew R; Dobb, Geoffrey J; Magder, Sheldon

    2016-01-01

    This cohort study compared the prognostic significance of strong ion gap (SIG) with other acid-base markers in the critically ill. The relationships between SIG, lactate, anion gap (AG), anion gap albumin-corrected (AG-corrected), base excess or strong ion difference-effective (SIDe), all obtained within the first hour of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and the hospital mortality of 6878 patients were analysed. The prognostic significance of each acid-base marker, both alone and in combination with the Admission Mortality Prediction Model (MPM0 III) predicted mortality, were assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Of the 6878 patients included in the study, 924 patients (13.4 %) died after ICU admission. Except for plasma chloride concentrations, all acid-base markers were significantly different between the survivors and non-survivors. SIG (with lactate: AUROC 0.631, confidence interval [CI] 0.611-0.652; without lactate: AUROC 0.521, 95 % CI 0.500-0.542) only had a modest ability to predict hospital mortality, and this was no better than using lactate concentration alone (AUROC 0.701, 95 % 0.682-0.721). Adding AG-corrected or SIG to a combination of lactate and MPM0 III predicted risks also did not substantially improve the latter's ability to differentiate between survivors and non-survivors. Arterial lactate concentrations explained about 11 % of the variability in the observed mortality, and it was more important than SIG (0.6 %) and SIDe (0.9 %) in predicting hospital mortality after adjusting for MPM0 III predicted risks. Lactate remained as the strongest predictor for mortality in a sensitivity multivariate analysis, allowing for non-linearity of all acid-base markers. The prognostic significance of SIG was modest and inferior to arterial lactate concentration for the critically ill. Lactate concentration should always be considered regardless whether physiological, base excess or physical-chemical approach

  7. Addressing the Knowledge Gaps in Agroecology and Identifying Guiding Principles for Transforming Conventional Agri-Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Sanderson Bellamy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Today’s society faces many challenges when it comes to food production: producing food sustainably, producing enough of it, distributing food, consuming enough calories, consuming too many calories, consuming culturally-appropriate foods, and reducing the amount of food wasted. The distribution of power within the current mainstream agri-food system is dominated by multinational agri-businesses that control the flow of goods and wealth through the system. This hegemony has implemented a regime whose structures reinforce its control. A growing response to the current agri-food regime is the rise of agroecology, in both developed and developing country contexts. This is not a new phenomenon, but it has evolved over time from its Latin American origins. However, agroecology is not a monolithic block and represents many different perceptions of what it means to advance agroecology and ways in which it can help today’s society tackle the crisis of the agri-food system. This paper addresses these sometimes discordant view points, as well as the gaps in our knowledge regarding agroecology in an effort to lay out some guiding principles for how we can move forward in transforming the current agri-food system to achieve sustainability and a more equitable distribution of power and resources.

  8. Surgical site infection prevention: a survey to identify the gap between evidence and practice in University of Toronto teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskicioglu, Cagla; Gagliardi, Anna R; Fenech, Darlene S; Forbes, Shawn S; McKenzie, Marg; McLeod, Robin S; Nathens, Avery B

    2012-08-01

    A gap exists between the best evidence and practice with regards to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention. Awareness of evidence is the first step in knowledge translation. A web-based survey was distributed to 59 general surgeons and 68 residents at University of Toronto teaching hospitals. Five domains pertaining to SSI prevention with questions addressing knowledge of prevention strategies, efficacy of antibiotics, strategies for changing practice and barriers to implementation of SSI prevention strategies were investigated. Seventy-six individuals (60%) responded. More than 90% of respondents stated there was evidence for antibiotic prophylaxis and perioperative normothermia and reported use of these strategies. There was a discrepancy in the perceived evidence for and the self-reported use of perioperative hyperoxia, omission of hair removal and bowel preparation. Eighty-three percent of respondents felt that consulting published guidelines is important in making decisions regarding antibiotics. There was also a discrepancy between what respondents felt were important strategies to ensure timely administration of antibiotics and what strategies were in place. Checklists, standardized orders, protocols and formal surveillance programs were rated most highly by 75%-90% of respondents, but less than 50% stated that these strategies were in place at their institutions. Broad-reaching initiatives that increase surgeon and trainee awareness and implementation of multifaceted hospital strategies that engage residents and attending surgeons are needed to change practice.

  9. Identifying significant genetic regulatory networks in the prostate cancer from microarray data based on transcription factor analysis and conditional independency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Cheng-Yu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is a world wide leading cancer and it is characterized by its aggressive metastasis. According to the clinical heterogeneity, prostate cancer displays different stages and grades related to the aggressive metastasis disease. Although numerous studies used microarray analysis and traditional clustering method to identify the individual genes during the disease processes, the important gene regulations remain unclear. We present a computational method for inferring genetic regulatory networks from micorarray data automatically with transcription factor analysis and conditional independence testing to explore the potential significant gene regulatory networks that are correlated with cancer, tumor grade and stage in the prostate cancer. Results To deal with missing values in microarray data, we used a K-nearest-neighbors (KNN algorithm to determine the precise expression values. We applied web services technology to wrap the bioinformatics toolkits and databases to automatically extract the promoter regions of DNA sequences and predicted the transcription factors that regulate the gene expressions. We adopt the microarray datasets consists of 62 primary tumors, 41 normal prostate tissues from Stanford Microarray Database (SMD as a target dataset to evaluate our method. The predicted results showed that the possible biomarker genes related to cancer and denoted the androgen functions and processes may be in the development of the prostate cancer and promote the cell death in cell cycle. Our predicted results showed that sub-networks of genes SREBF1, STAT6 and PBX1 are strongly related to a high extent while ETS transcription factors ELK1, JUN and EGR2 are related to a low extent. Gene SLC22A3 may explain clinically the differentiation associated with the high grade cancer compared with low grade cancer. Enhancer of Zeste Homolg 2 (EZH2 regulated by RUNX1 and STAT3 is correlated to the pathological stage

  10. Identifying significant genetic regulatory networks in the prostate cancer from microarray data based on transcription factor analysis and conditional independency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiang-Yuan; Cheng, Shih-Wu; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Shih-Fang; Soo, Von-Wun

    2009-12-21

    Prostate cancer is a world wide leading cancer and it is characterized by its aggressive metastasis. According to the clinical heterogeneity, prostate cancer displays different stages and grades related to the aggressive metastasis disease. Although numerous studies used microarray analysis and traditional clustering method to identify the individual genes during the disease processes, the important gene regulations remain unclear. We present a computational method for inferring genetic regulatory networks from micorarray data automatically with transcription factor analysis and conditional independence testing to explore the potential significant gene regulatory networks that are correlated with cancer, tumor grade and stage in the prostate cancer. To deal with missing values in microarray data, we used a K-nearest-neighbors (KNN) algorithm to determine the precise expression values. We applied web services technology to wrap the bioinformatics toolkits and databases to automatically extract the promoter regions of DNA sequences and predicted the transcription factors that regulate the gene expressions. We adopt the microarray datasets consists of 62 primary tumors, 41 normal prostate tissues from Stanford Microarray Database (SMD) as a target dataset to evaluate our method. The predicted results showed that the possible biomarker genes related to cancer and denoted the androgen functions and processes may be in the development of the prostate cancer and promote the cell death in cell cycle. Our predicted results showed that sub-networks of genes SREBF1, STAT6 and PBX1 are strongly related to a high extent while ETS transcription factors ELK1, JUN and EGR2 are related to a low extent. Gene SLC22A3 may explain clinically the differentiation associated with the high grade cancer compared with low grade cancer. Enhancer of Zeste Homolg 2 (EZH2) regulated by RUNX1 and STAT3 is correlated to the pathological stage. We provide a computational framework to reconstruct

  11. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo H C G de Sá

    Full Text Available The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  12. Mis-fitting Menstrual Hygiene Products: An Examination of Advertisements to Identify Gaps in the Diffusion of Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpan Yagnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research examines advertisements for menstrual hygiene products to discover the roadblocks in the diffusion of innovation of menstrual hygiene products. The objective is to evaluate the advertisements to comprehend the cultural relevance of the diffusion, justify the rate of diffusion of innovation, identify the bottlenecks prohibiting the diffusion, and suggest ideas for a successful diffusion of innovation. A convenient sample of 75 television advertisements and print advertisements of sanitary hygiene products was selected for analysis. Using thematic analysis this research identifies and extracts themes that are the potential bottlenecks to successful diffusion of innovation. The main themes identified were the assumption regarding the knowledge of usage, knowledge of disposal, knowledge of sharing, existing clothing standards, affordability, role of woman, and comfort with insertion. The discovery of themes not only demonstrate ignorance and incompetent market research but also give us a sense of the glacial diffusion of menstrual hygiene products in the recipient country.

  13. Navigating Fragmented Ocean Law in the California Current: Tools to Identify and Measure Gaps and Overlaps for Ecosystem-Based Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrom, Julia A.

    2008-01-01

    Fragmented ocean management contributes significantly to the declining health of the world’s oceans. The sector-based piecemeal approach to management has produced a governance system filled with gaps and overlaps. These inefficiencies impede effective mitigation and confrontation of major environmental stressors. Historically, industries such as mining, fishing, and shipping, have driven management decisions for ocean-related uses. Government agencies, scientists, and other natural resource ...

  14. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  15. A critical assessment of the photodegradation of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments: defining our current understanding and identifying knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challis, Jonathan K; Hanson, Mark L; Friesen, Ken J; Wong, Charles S

    2014-04-01

    This work presents a critical assessment of the state and quality of knowledge around the aquatic photochemistry of human- and veterinary-use pharmaceuticals from laboratory experiments and field observations. A standardized scoring rubric was used to assess relevant studies within four categories: experimental design, laboratory-based direct and indirect photolysis, and field/solar photolysis. Specific metrics for each category are defined to evaluate various aspects of experimental design (e.g., higher scores are given for more appropriate characterization of light source wavelength distribution). This weight of evidence-style approach allowed for identification of knowledge strengths and gaps covering three areas: first, the general extent of photochemical data for specific pharmaceuticals and classes; second, the overall quality of existing data (i.e., strong versus weak); and finally, trends in the photochemistry research around these specific compounds, e.g. the observation of specific and consistent oversights in experimental design. In general, those drugs that were most studied also had relatively good quality data. The four pharmaceuticals studied experimentally at least ten times in the literature had average total scores (lab and field combined) of ≥29, considered decent quality; carbamazepine (13 studies; average score of 31), diclofenac (12 studies; average score of 31), sulfamethoxazole (11 studies; average score of 34), and propranolol (11 studies; average score of 29). Major oversights and errors in data reporting and/or experimental design included: lack of measurement and reporting of incident light source intensity, lack of appropriate controls, use of organic co-solvents in irradiation solutions, and failure to consider solution pH. Consequently, a number of these experimental parameters were likely a cause of inconsistent measurements of direct photolysis rate constants and quantum yields, two photochemical properties that were highly

  16. Measuring outcomes in adult spinal deformity surgery: a systematic review to identify current strengths, weaknesses and gaps in patient-reported outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Sayf S A; van Hooff, Miranda L; Holewijn, Roderick M; Polly, David W; Haanstra, Tsjitske M; de Kleuver, Marinus

    2017-08-01

    Adult spinal deformity (ASD) causes severe disability, reduces overall quality of life, and results in a substantial societal burden of disease. As healthcare is becoming more value based, and to facilitate global benchmarking, it is critical to identify and standardize patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). This study aims to identify the current strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in PROMs used for ASD. Studies were included following a systematic search in multiple bibliographic databases between 2000 and 2015. PROMs were extracted and linked to the outcome domains of WHO's International Classification of Functioning and Health (ICF) framework. Subsequently, the clinimetric quality of identified PROMs was evaluated. The literature search identified 144 papers that met the inclusion criteria, and nine frequently used PROMs were identified. These covered 29 ICF outcome domains, which could be grouped into three of the four main ICF chapters: body function (n = 7), activity and participation (n = 19), environmental factors (n = 3), and body structure (n = 0). A low quantity (n = 3) of papers was identified that studied the clinimetric quality of PROMs. The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 has the highest level of clinimetric quality for ASD. Outcome domains related to mobility and pain were well represented. We identified a gap in current outcome measures regarding neurological and pulmonary function. In addition, no outcome domains were measured in the ICF chapter body structure. These results will serve as a foundation for the process of seeking international consensus on a standard set of outcome domains, accompanied PROMs and contributing factors to be used in future clinical trials and spine registries.

  17. Sex and gender differences in autism spectrum disorder: summarizing evidence gaps and identifying emerging areas of priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Alycia K; Bishop, Somer; Constantino, John N; Daniels, Amy M; Koenig, Katheen; Palmer, Kate; Messinger, Daniel; Pelphrey, Kevin; Sanders, Stephan J; Singer, Alison Tepper; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Szatmari, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research is a higher rate of ASD diagnosis in males than females. Despite this, remarkably little research has focused on the reasons for this disparity. Better understanding of this sex difference could lead to major advancements in the prevention or treatment of ASD in both males and females. In October of 2014, Autism Speaks and the Autism Science Foundation co-organized a meeting that brought together almost 60 clinicians, researchers, parents, and self-identified autistic individuals. Discussion at the meeting is summarized here with recommendations on directions of future research endeavors.

  18. Managing agricultural emissions to the atmosphere: State of the science, fate and mitigation, and identifying research gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of agriculture on regional air quality creates significant challenges to sustainability of food supplies and to the quality of national resources. Agricultural emissions to the atmosphere can lead to many nuisances, such as smog, haze, or offensive odors. They can also create more seriou...

  19. Bridging the gap between postembryonic cell lineages and identified embryonic neuroblasts in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Birkholz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The clarification of complete cell lineages, which are produced by specific stem cells, is fundamental for understanding mechanisms, controlling the generation of cell diversity and patterning in an emerging tissue. In the developing Central Nervous System (CNS of Drosophila, neural stem cells (neuroblasts exhibit two periods of proliferation: During embryogenesis they produce primary lineages, which form the larval CNS. After a phase of mitotic quiescence, a subpopulation of them resumes proliferation in the larva to give rise to secondary lineages that build up the CNS of the adult fly. Within the ventral nerve cord (VNC detailed descriptions exist for both primary and secondary lineages. However, while primary lineages have been linked to identified neuroblasts, the assignment of secondary lineages has so far been hampered by technical limitations. Therefore, primary and secondary neural lineages co-existed as isolated model systems. Here we provide the missing link between the two systems for all lineages in the thoracic and abdominal neuromeres. Using the Flybow technique, embryonic neuroblasts were identified by their characteristic and unique lineages in the living embryo and their further development was traced into the late larval stage. This comprehensive analysis provides the first complete view of which embryonic neuroblasts are postembryonically reactivated along the anterior/posterior-axis of the VNC, and reveals the relationship between projection patterns of primary and secondary sublineages.

  20. Identifying Obstacles and Research Gaps of Telemedicine Projects: Approach for a State-of-the-Art Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harst, Lorenz; Timpel, Patrick; Otto, Lena; Wollschlaeger, Bastian; Richter, Peggy; Schlieter, Hannes

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for an evaluation of finished telemedicine projects using qualitative methods. Telemedicine applications are said to improve the performance of health care systems. While there are countless telemedicine projects, the vast majority never makes the threshold from testing to implementation and diffusion. Projects were collected from German project databases in the area of telemedicine following systematically developed criteria. In a testing phase, ten projects were subject to a qualitative content analysis to identify limitations, need for further research, and lessons learned. Using Mayring's method of inductive category development, six categories of possible future research were derived. Thus, the proposed method is an important contribution to diffusion and translation research regarding telemedicine, as it is applicable to a systematic research of databases.

  1. “Just-in-Time” Unmediated Document Delivery Service Provides Fast Delivery, Helps Identify Collection Gaps, but Incurs Extra Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather MacDonald

    2017-06-01

    patrons, helping boost the total number of requests. The date of the Taylor and Francis materials ordered through CCC-GiN tended to be more recent compared to other publishers. The authors suggest CCC-GiN is a possible solution for acquiring embargoed material. Average fulfillment time increased during the three year time period from 1:34 (hr:min to 3:52. The percentage of requests outside of ILL working hours was consistent across all three years (62% each academic year. The authors note CCC-GiN service provided the most expedient way for patrons to receive requested material. A number of the most requested CCC-GiN publications were also available in print format. The quality of print serials data was uncertain hence the decision was made to not upload this data to the CCC-GiN service. This resulted in some overlap in requests with the library’s print holdings. Older content was requested through CCC-GiN rather than through traditional ILL. This resulted in increased costs from copyright fees that would have been avoided using traditional ILL services. Conclusion – The authors reference the impact of e-commerce on library patron expectations about ease of access and just-in-time delivery. They found that the CCC-GiN service meets these expectations as patrons were able to access a broad selection of materials in a timely and easy to use manner. From the analysis come suggestions to help reduce costs associated with the service. They include adjusting system settings to cap spending limits, limiting who can use the service, selecting only titles that cover a gap in the collection, and including quality print serials holdings data to prevent purchase of already owned material. The authors also discuss using a mediated rather than unmediated service to help lower costs but they note this would slow down turnaround time. The authors close by saying each library will have to consider its own needs and those of its patrons with respect to ease of use, delivery time, and

  2. Identifying the gaps in Nepalese migrant workers' health and well-being: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkhada, Padam P; Regmi, Pramod R; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Aryal, Nirmal

    2017-07-01

    The health and well-being of migrant workers from low-income countries is often neglected in travel medicine. This article uses Nepal as a case study to highlight key issues affecting this particular group of international travellers. This narrative review used a comprehensive systematic literature search to identify relevant studies on Nepal. The included articles were thematically analysed leading to four key themes or risk factors. The search found 18 articles from which we identified 3 key themes related directly to migrant workers: (1) sexual risk taking; (2) occupational health and (3) lifestyles, and a fourth theme related to partners and family of migrant workers who are left behind in Nepal. Of the 18 included articles, 11 articles discussed sexual risk taking and HIV, whilst considerably fewer focused on work-related risk factors and lifestyle factors in migrant workers. Migrant workers who are generally healthy appear to be similar to tourist travellers in regarding sexual health as a key issue related to being abroad. Risky sexual behaviour increases in individuals separated from their usual sexual partners, away from their own communities and families, leading to the so-called 'situational disinhibition'. Considering the recent media coverage of deaths and injuries among migrant workers in the Middle East, it is interesting to see that their sexual health is more prevalent in the research literature. This article argues that travel medicine should provide more emphasis to the health and well-being of migrant workers as a highly vulnerable group of travellers with additional impact on the health of those left behind. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Exploring the e-cigarette e-commerce marketplace: Identifying Internet e-cigarette marketing characteristics and regulatory gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Miner, Angela; Cuomo, Raphael E

    2015-11-01

    The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) market is maturing into a billion-dollar industry. Expansion includes new channels of access not sufficiently assessed, including Internet sales of e-cigarettes. This study identifies unique e-cigarette Internet vendor characteristics, including geographic location, promotional strategies, use of social networking, presence/absence of age verification, and consumer warning representation. We performed structured Internet search engine queries and used inclusion/exclusion criteria to identify e-cigarette vendors. We then conducted content analysis of characteristics of interest. Our examination yielded 57 e-cigarette Internet vendors including 54.4% (n=31) that sold exclusively online. The vast majority of websites (96.5%, n=55) were located in the U.S. Vendors used a variety of sales promotion strategies to market e-cigarettes including 70.2% (n=40) that used more than one social network service (SNS) and 42.1% (n=24) that used more than one promotional sales strategies. Most vendors (68.4%, n=39) displayed one or more health warnings on their website, but often displayed them in smaller font or in their terms and conditions. Additionally, 35.1% (n=20) of vendors did not have any detectable age verification process. E-cigarette Internet vendors are actively engaged in various promotional activities to increase the appeal and presence of their products online. In the absence of FDA regulations specific to the Internet, the e-cigarette e-commerce marketplace is likely to grow. This digital environment poses unique challenges requiring targeted policy-making including robust online age verification, monitoring of SNS marketing, and greater scrutiny of certain forms of marketing promotional practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biodiversity and Climate Modeling Workshop Series: Identifying gaps and needs for improving large-scale biodiversity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, S. R.; Myers, B.; Beard, T. D.; Jackson, S. T.; Tittensor, D.; Harfoot, M.; Senay, G. B.

    2017-12-01

    At the global scale, well-accepted global circulation models and agreed-upon scenarios for future climate from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are available. In contrast, biodiversity modeling at the global scale lacks analogous tools. While there is great interest in development of similar bodies and efforts for international monitoring and modelling of biodiversity at the global scale, equivalent modelling tools are in their infancy. This lack of global biodiversity models compared to the extensive array of general circulation models provides a unique opportunity to bring together climate, ecosystem, and biodiversity modeling experts to promote development of integrated approaches in modeling global biodiversity. Improved models are needed to understand how we are progressing towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, many of which are not on track to meet the 2020 goal, threatening global biodiversity conservation, monitoring, and sustainable use. We brought together biodiversity, climate, and remote sensing experts to try to 1) identify lessons learned from the climate community that can be used to improve global biodiversity models; 2) explore how NASA and other remote sensing products could be better integrated into global biodiversity models and 3) advance global biodiversity modeling, prediction, and forecasting to inform the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, and the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Global Assessment of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. The 1st In-Person meeting focused on determining a roadmap for effective assessment of biodiversity model projections and forecasts by 2030 while integrating and assimilating remote sensing data and applying lessons learned, when appropriate, from climate modeling. Here, we present the outcomes and lessons learned from our first E-discussion and in-person meeting and discuss the next steps for future meetings.

  5. Ethics in Community-University-Artist Partnered Research: Tensions, Contradictions and Gaps Identified in an 'Arts for Social Change' Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jennifer Beth; Lockhart, Karen; Fels, Lynn; Boydell, Katherine; Marcuse, Judith

    Academics from diverse disciplines are recognizing not only the procedural ethical issues involved in research, but also the complexity of everyday "micro" ethical issues that arise. While ethical guidelines are being developed for research in aboriginal populations and low-and-middle-income countries, multi-partnered research initiatives examining arts-based interventions to promote social change pose a unique set of ethical dilemmas not yet fully explored. Our research team, comprising health, education, and social scientists, critical theorists, artists and community-activists launched a five-year research partnership on arts-for-social change. Funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council in Canada and based in six universities, including over 40 community-based collaborators, and informed by five main field projects (circus with street youth, theatre by people with disabilities, dance for people with Parkinson's disease, participatory theatre with refugees and artsinfused dialogue), we set out to synthesize existing knowledge and lessons we learned. We summarized these learnings into 12 key points for reflection, grouped into three categories: community-university partnership concerns ( n  = 3), dilemmas related to the arts ( n  = 5), and team issues ( n  = 4). In addition to addressing previous concerns outlined in the literature (e.g., related to consent, anonymity, dangerous emotional terrain, etc.), we identified power dynamics (visible and hidden) hindering meaningful participation of community partners and university-based teams that need to be addressed within a reflective critical framework of ethical practice. We present how our team has been addressing these issues, as examples of how such concerns could be approached in community-university partnerships in arts for social change.

  6. Identifying the gaps in infection prevention and control resources for long-term care facilities in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Bruce; Schall, Valerie; Grant, Jennifer

    2012-03-01

    Infection prevention and control (IPC) is a critical, although often neglected, part of long-term care (LTC) management. Little is known about what IPC resources are available for LTC and how that impacts patient care and safety. One hundred eighty-eight LTC facilities were randomly selected out of all British Columbia facilities and surveyed using a validated survey tool. The tool was used to collect data regarding IPC resources grouped within 6 indices: (1) leadership, (2) infection control professionals (ICP) coverage, (3) policies and procedures, (4) support through partnerships, (5) surveillance, and (6) control activities. All components measured have been identified as key for an effective IPC program. Survey responses were used to calculate scores for IPC programs as a whole and for each of the 6 indices. Of 188 randomly selected facilities, 86 institutions participated. Facilities were compared by region, funding source, and ICP coverage. Overall, LTC facilities lacked IPC leadership, especially physician support. Having no dedicated ICP was associated with poorer scores on all indices. Only 41% of practicing ICPs had more than 2 years experience, and only 14% were professionally certified. Twenty-two percent of ICPs had additional roles within the institution, and 44% had additional roles outside of the institution. Thirty-five percent of institutions had no IPC dedicated budget. LTC institutions-with bed numbers exceeding those in acute care-represent an important aspect of health services. These data show that many LTC facilities lack the necessary resources to provide quality infection control programs. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergency Department Visits Following Elective Total Hip and Knee Replacement Surgery: Identifying Gaps in Continuity of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Micaela A; Shaffer, Robyn; Remington, Austin; Kwong, Jereen; Curtin, Catherine; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina

    2017-06-21

    Major joint replacement surgical procedures are common, elective procedures with a care episode that includes both inpatient readmissions and postoperative emergency department (ED) visits. Inpatient readmissions are well studied; however, to our knowledge, little is known about ED visits following these procedures. We sought to characterize 30-day ED visits following a major joint replacement surgical procedure. We used administrative records from California, Florida, and New York, from 2010 through 2012, to identify adults undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty. Factors associated with increased risk of an ED visit were estimated using hierarchical regression models controlling for patient variables with a fixed hospital effect. The main outcome was an ED visit within 30 days of discharge. Among the 152,783 patients who underwent major joint replacement, 5,229 (3.42%) returned to the inpatient setting and 8,883 (5.81%) presented to the ED for care within 30 days. Among ED visits, 17.94% had a primary diagnosis of pain and 25.75% had both a primary and/or a secondary diagnosis of pain. Patients presenting to the ED for subsequent care had more comorbidities and were more frequently non-white with public insurance relative to those not returning to the ED (p care insurance coverage expansions are uncertain; however, there are ongoing attempts to improve quality across the continuum of care. It is therefore essential to ensure that all patients, particularly vulnerable populations, receive appropriate postoperative care, including pain management. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. Performance differences between male and female marines on standardized physical fitness tests and combat proxy tasks: identifying the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Jason; Pappa, Leon; McGuire, Brian; Kelly, Karen R

    2015-01-01

    For decades women have been restricted from direct assignment to certain military occupational specialties such as infantry. These restrictions can limit the advancement of women through the ranks of military leadership. Thus, the purpose of this effort was to identify those physical requirements most likely to serve as barriers for women wanting to enter closed combat arms positions, and to evaluate the quality of existing physical fitness tests as potential measures of assessment of combat readiness. Data were collected from 3 different sites within the US Marine Corps Training and Education Command. All participants (409 male, 379 femaile) were active-duty Marines who recently completed the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and Combat Fitness Test (CFT). Participants completed 6 physical tasks: 120-mm tank loading drill, 155-mm artillery round carry, negotiating an obstacle course wall while wearing a fighting load (≈30 lb), pull-ups, deadlift, and clean and press. Overall, there was a high rate of successful completion on the combat proxy tasks (men, ≈80% to 100%; women, ≈70% to 100%), with the notable exception being the clean and press (men, 80%; women, 9%) and pull-ups (men, 16±4; women, 4±2). The PFT and CFT components tasks were also related, strongly in some cases, with performance on combat-related proxy tasks (Spearman's ρ typically ranged from 0.60 to 0.80). Estimates of fat-free mass and VO2max were also strongly related to an overall measure of combat readiness (Spearman's ρ=0.77 and ρ=0.56, respectively). The primary physical obstacle for women is upper body strength. However, some women could successfully complete all of the proxy tasks and thus are physically capable of meeting the demands of closed combat occupations. The fact that some female Marines could complete the most challenging upper body strength tasks suggests that these barriers are not inherent but may be due to a lack of training specificity.

  9. SigTree: A Microbial Community Analysis Tool to Identify and Visualize Significantly Responsive Branches in a Phylogenetic Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, John R.; Jones, Todd R.; Lefevre, Michael; Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Weimer, Bart C.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial community analysis experiments to assess the effect of a treatment intervention (or environmental change) on the relative abundance levels of multiple related microbial species (or operational taxonomic units) simultaneously using high throughput genomics are becoming increasingly common. Within the framework of the evolutionary phylogeny of all species considered in the experiment, this translates to a statistical need to identify the phylogenetic branches that exhibit a significan...

  10. Can positron emission mammography help to identify clinically significant breast cancer in women with suspicious calcifications on mammography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, Almir G.V.; Lima, Eduardo N.P.; Macedo, Bruna R.C.; Conrado, Jorge L.F.A.; Marques, Elvira F.; Chojniak, Rubens [A C Camargo Cancer Center-Department of Imaging, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission mammography (PEM) for identifying malignant lesions in patients with suspicious microcalcifications detected on mammography. A prospective, single-centre study that evaluated 40 patients with suspicious calcifications at mammography and indication for percutaneous or surgical biopsy, with mean age of 56.4 years (range: 28-81 years). Patients who agreed to participate in the study underwent PEM with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose before the final histological evaluation. PEM findings were compared with mammography and histological findings. Most calcifications (n = 34; 85.0 %) were classified as BIRADS 4. On histology, there were 25 (62.5 %) benign and 15 (37.5 %) malignant lesions, including 11 (27.5 %) ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 4 (10 %) invasive carcinomas. On subjective analysis, PEM was positive in 15 cases (37.5 %) and most of these cases (n = 14; 93.3 %) were confirmed as malignant on histology. There was one false-positive result, which corresponded to a fibroadenoma, and one false negative, which corresponded to an intermediate-grade DCIS. PEM had a sensitivity of 93.3 %, specificity of 96.0 % and accuracy of 95 %. PEM was able to identify all invasive carcinomas and high-grade DCIS (nuclear grade 3) in the presented sample, suggesting that this method may be useful for further evaluation of patients with suspected microcalcifications. (orig.)

  11. Mutation screening of the HGD gene identifies a novel alkaptonuria mutation with significant founder effect and high prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Srinivasan; Zatkova, Andrea; Nemethova, Martina; Surovy, Milan; Kadasi, Ludevit; Saravanan, Madurai P

    2014-05-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder; caused by the mutations in the homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase (HGD) gene located on Chromosome 3q13.33. AKU is a rare disorder with an incidence of 1: 250,000 to 1: 1,000,000, but Slovakia and the Dominican Republic have a relatively higher incidence of 1: 19,000. Our study focused on studying the frequency of AKU and identification of HGD gene mutations in nomads. HGD gene sequencing was used to identify the mutations in alkaptonurics. For the past four years, from subjects suspected to be clinically affected, we found 16 positive cases among a randomly selected cohort of 41 Indian nomads (Narikuravar) settled in the specific area of Tamil Nadu, India. HGD gene mutation analysis showed that 11 of these patients carry the same homozygous splicing mutation c.87 + 1G > A; in five cases, this mutation was found to be heterozygous, while the second AKU-causing mutation was not identified in these patients. This result indicates that the founder effect and high degree of consanguineous marriages have contributed to AKU among nomads. Eleven positive samples were homozygous for a novel mutation c.87 + 1G > A, that abolishes an intron 2 donor splice site and most likely causes skipping of exon 2. The prevalence of AKU observed earlier seems to be highly increased in people of nomadic origin. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  12. A Noise Trimming and Positional Significance of Transposon Insertion System to Identify Essential Genes in Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng Rong; Bullifent, Helen L.; Moore, Karen; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Saint, Richard J.; Southern, Stephanie J.; Champion, Olivia L.; Senior, Nicola J.; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Atkins, Timothy P.; Titball, Richard W.

    2017-02-01

    Massively parallel sequencing technology coupled with saturation mutagenesis has provided new and global insights into gene functions and roles. At a simplistic level, the frequency of mutations within genes can indicate the degree of essentiality. However, this approach neglects to take account of the positional significance of mutations - the function of a gene is less likely to be disrupted by a mutation close to the distal ends. Therefore, a systematic bioinformatics approach to improve the reliability of essential gene identification is desirable. We report here a parametric model which introduces a novel mutation feature together with a noise trimming approach to predict the biological significance of Tn5 mutations. We show improved performance of essential gene prediction in the bacterium Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. This method would have broad applicability to other organisms and to the identification of genes which are essential for competitiveness or survival under a broad range of stresses.

  13. Integrating themes, evidence gaps, and research needs identified by workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Patsy M; Stover, Patrick J; Taylor, Christine L

    2017-12-01

    This report addresses the evidence and the uncertainties, knowledge gaps, and research needs identified by participants at the NIH workshop related to iron screening and routine iron supplementation of largely iron-replete pregnant women and young children (6-24 mo) in developed countries. The workshop presentations and panel discussions focused on current understanding and knowledge gaps related to iron homeostasis, measurement of and evidence for iron status, and emerging concerns about supplementing iron-replete members of these vulnerable populations. Four integrating themes emerged across workshop presentations and discussion and centered on 1 ) physiologic or developmental adaptations of iron homeostasis to pregnancy and early infancy, respectively, and their implications, 2 ) improvement of the assessment of iron status across the full continuum from iron deficiency anemia to iron deficiency to iron replete to iron excess, 3 ) the linkage of iron status with health outcomes beyond hematologic outcomes, and 4 ) the balance of benefit and harm of iron supplementation of iron-replete pregnant women and young children. Research that addresses these themes in the context of the full continuum of iron status is needed to inform approaches to the balancing of benefits and harms of screening and routine supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. APPLICATION OF MULTIPLE LOGISTIC REGRESSION, BAYESIAN LOGISTIC AND CLASSIFICATION TREE TO IDENTIFY THE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS INFLUENCING CRASH SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAD TAZIK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identifying cases in which road crashes result in fatality or injury of drivers may help improve their safety. In this study, datasets of crashes happened in TehranQom freeway, Iran, were examined by three models (multiple logistic regression, Bayesian logistic and classification tree to analyse the contribution of several variables to fatal accidents. For multiple logistic regression and Bayesian logistic models, the odds ratio was calculated for each variable. The model which best suited the identification of accident severity was determined based on AIC and DIC criteria. Based on the results of these two models, rollover crashes (OR = 14.58, %95 CI: 6.8-28.6, not using of seat belt (OR = 5.79, %95 CI: 3.1-9.9, exceeding speed limits (OR = 4.02, %95 CI: 1.8-7.9 and being female (OR = 2.91, %95 CI: 1.1-6.1 were the most important factors in fatalities of drivers. In addition, the results of the classification tree model have verified the findings of the other models.

  15. Coronary heart disease is not significantly linked to acute kidney injury identified using Acute Kidney Injury Group criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayan, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction are at risk of acute kidney injury, which may be aggravated by the iodine-containing contrast agent used during coronary angiography; however, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. The current study investigated the relationship between acute kidney injury and coronary heart disease prior to coronary angiography. All patients were evaluated after undergoing coronary angiography in the cardiac catheterization laboratory of the Vinzentius Hospital in Landau, Germany, in 2011. The study group included patients with both acute coronary heart disease and acute kidney injury (as defined according to the classification of the Acute Kidney Injury Group); the control group included patients without acute coronary heart disease. Serum creatinine profiles were evaluated in all patients, as were a variety of demographic and health characteristics. Of the 303 patients examined, 201 (66.34%) had coronary artery disease. Of these, 38 (18.91%) also had both acute kidney injury and acute coronary heart disease prior to and after coronary angiography, and of which in turn 34 (16.91%) had both acute kidney injury and acute coronary heart disease only prior to the coronary angiography. However, the occurrence of acute kidney injury was not significantly related to the presence of coronary heart disease (P = 0.95, Chi-square test). The results of this study indicate that acute kidney injury is not linked to acute coronary heart disease. However, physicians should be aware that many coronary heart patients may develop kidney injury while hospitalized for angiography.

  16. Interactive cervical motion kinematics: sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. GAP Analysis Program (GAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification...

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding travel health among Muscat International Airport travelers in Oman: Identifying the gaps and addressing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Abdel-Hady, Doaa M; Al-Abaidani, Idris S

    2016-06-01

    Although the majority of travel-associated communicable diseases can be prevented, the public health burden of these diseases remains significant. Relatively little is known about how travelers know and perceive the health risks associated with travel and how they utilize preventive measures before and while traveling abroad. This study was conducted to determine the level of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Muscat International Airport travelers about travel health in order to assess the knowledge gap and the need for travel health services in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1week using a self-administered questionnaire. The overall level of knowledge about vaccine-preventable diseases, food safety, and preventive measures against insect bites of the participants was inadequate. The practice concerning preventive travel health measures, such as the use of specific immunizations and antimalarial prophylaxis, was very limited, and influenced by some personal and travel-related factors. The inadequate level of travelers' knowledge and poor utilization of travel medicine services highlights the need for the provisions of specialized travel medicine services at the national level and to develop educational materials promoting the importance of pre-travel health advice. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Caregiving for Uganda's elders with disability: Using cross-sectional surveillance data to identify healthcare service gaps in low- and middle-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Bentley, Jacob A; Zia, Nukhba; Galiwango, Edward; Lum, Jeremiah; Tuli, Gulnar; Ho, Shuen-En

    2017-12-31

    Disability is highly prevalent in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs), but there is a relative dearth of disability and caregiving research from LMICs. To examine type and severity of disability experienced by individuals 60 years and older, caregivers and type of caregiving assistance, and the interrelationships between sociodemographic factors involved in Uganda. Data was collected from two Eastern Ugandan districts using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Data on availability of caregiver was analyzed for 816 participants with disability. Group comparisons and regression analyses examined differences based on caregiver availability. Approximately 66% of individuals with disability had a caregiver. The mean age of those with a caregiver (74.7 ± 8.9 years) was statistically significantly (p = .0004) higher than that of individuals without caregiver (72.4 ± 8.2 years). Significant differences based on caregiver availability were found relative to sex (p = .009), age (p≤.001), education level (p≤.001), occupation (p≤.001) and head of household status (p≤.001). The most frequent types of disability were related to vision (78.4%) and ambulation (71.7%). Caregiving most often fell to family members. Logistic regression results showed that individuals over the age of 80 years were 2.51 times more likely to have a caregiver compared to those 60-69 years (p≤.001). Those in the highest wealth quintile were 1.77 times more likely to have a caregiver. Findings demonstrate gaps in caring for aging individuals with disabilities in LMICs and highlight the importance of understanding caregiver access in generating effective healthy aging initiatives and long-term care systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A large survey among European trainees in clinical microbiology and infectious disease on training systems and training adequacy: identifying the gaps and suggesting improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, E; Ong, D S Y; Martin-Quiros, A; Skevaki, C; Cortez, J; Dedić, K; Maraolo, A E; Dušek, D; Maver, P J; Sanguinetti, M; Tacconelli, E

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to perform a survey among European clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious disease (ID) trainees on training satisfaction, training tools, and competency assessment. An online, anonymous survey in the English language was carried out between April and July 2015. There were 25 questions: seven in a 5-point Likert scale (1: worst scenario, 5: best scenario) and the remainder as closed multiple-choice questions in five areas (satisfaction, adequacy, system, mentorship, and evaluation of training). Included were 419 respondents (215 CM, 159 ID, and 45 combined CM/ID) from 31 European countries [mean age (standard deviation) 32.4 (5.3) years, 65.9 % women]. Regarding satisfaction on the training scheme, CM and ID scored 3.6 (0.9) and 3.2 (1.0), respectively. These scores varied between countries, ranging from 2.5 (1.0) for Italian ID to 4.3 (0.8) for Danish CM trainees. The majority of respondents considered training in management and health economics inadequate and e-learning and continuing medical education programs insufficient. Many trainees (65.3 % of CM and 62.9 % of ID) would like to have more opportunities to spend a part of their training abroad and expected their mentor to be more involved in helping with future career plans (63.5 % of CM and 53.4 % of ID) and practical skills (53.0 % of CM and 61.2 % of ID). Two-thirds of the respondents across the specialties agreed that a European exam should be developed, but half of them thought it should not be made mandatory. This survey shows high heterogeneity in training conditions in European countries, identifies perceived gaps in training, and suggests areas for improvements.

  1. A critical assessment of marine aquarist biodiversity data and commercial aquaculture: identifying gaps in culture initiatives to inform local fisheries managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Murray

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry "greenwashing" from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns

  2. Bridging the Gap in Military Robotics : Report on the Requirements and Gaps in Short-Term Military Robotics as identified during the IST-032 Workshop held in Bonn, Germany, September 2004.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roning, J.; Zijderveld, E.J.A. van; Walle, L.; Castelli, R.

    2008-01-01

    There appears to exist a gap between the ideas of the military on the use of ground robotics for their purposes and the technical possibilities offered by industry and research. In many cases the military are offered robots created by industry, but to a lesser degree robots developed to explicitly

  3. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Schubert, Kirsten; Tinnemann, Peter

    2010-10-08

    In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ≤ 0.006). Participation in tropical medicine (p educational system' (p = 0.007) and the 'health system structure' (p = 0.007), while the item 'politics' was marginally significant (p = 0.053).In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0), 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0) from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032), participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038) and global health (p = 0.258) courses. The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students' mobility, and participation in tropical medicine and global health courses. The knowledge assessment revealed deficits and outlined needs to further analyse education gaps in global health. Developing concerted educational interventions aimed at fostering students' engagement with SDH

  4. Identifying significant factors which can contribute to successful transitions from school to lasting employment affiliation for pupils in vocational training programs

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Breilid; Eva Dyrnes

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study deals with young people receiving special needs education in schools and their transition to lasting employment in private or public sector. Through a qualitative approach, the article aims at “identifying significant factors which can, contribute to successful transitions from school to lasting employment affiliation for pupils in vocational training programs”Theoretical approach: The theoretical approach of this article is descriptions and interpretation of the Norw...

  5. Identifying gaps in flaring Herbig Ae/Be disks using spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging. Are all group I disks transitional?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, K.M.; Honda, M.; Waters, L.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Verhoeff, A.; Meeus, G.; Ancker, van den M.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The evolution of young massive protoplanetary disks toward planetary systems is expected to correspond to structural changes in observational appearance, which includes the formation of gaps and the depletion of dust and gas. Aims: A special group of disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars do not

  6. Identifying gaps in flaring Herbig Ae/Be disks using spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging. Are all group I disks transitional?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, K.M.; Honda, M.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Verhoeff, A.; Meeus, G.; van den Ancker, M.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The evolution of young massive protoplanetary disks toward planetary systems is expected to correspond to structural changes in observational appearance, which includes the formation of gaps and the depletion of dust and gas. Aims. A special group of disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars do not

  7. Identifying and closing gaps in environmental monitoring by means of metadata, ecological regionalization and geostatistics using the UNESCO biosphere reserve Rhoen (Germany) as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland; Schmidt, Gunther

    2006-03-01

    In Germany, environmental monitoring is intended to provide a holistic view of the environmental condition. To this end the monitoring operated by the federal states must use harmonized, resp., standardized methods. In addition, the monitoring sites should cover the ecoregions without any geographical gaps, the monitoring design should have no gaps in terms of ecologically relevant measurement parameters, and the sample data should be spatially without any gaps. This article outlines the extent to which the Rhoen Biosphere Reserve, occupying a part of the German federal states of Bavaria, Hesse and Thuringia, fulfills the listed requirements. The investigation considered collection, data banking and analysis of monitoring data and metadata, ecological regionalization and geostatistics. Metadata on the monitoring networks were collected by questionnaires and provided a complete inventory and description of the monitoring activities in the reserve and its surroundings. The analysis of these metadata reveals that most of the monitoring methods are harmonized across the boundaries of the three federal states the Rhoen is part of. The monitoring networks that measure precipitation, surface water levels, and groundwater quality are particularly overrepresented in the central ecoregions of the biosphere reserve. Soil monitoring sites are more equally distributed within the ecoregions of the Rhoen. The number of sites for the monitoring of air pollutants is not sufficient to draw spatially valid conclusions. To fill these spatial gaps, additional data on the annual average values of the concentrations of air pollutants from monitoring sites outside of the biosphere reserve had therefore been subject to geostatistical analysis and estimation. This yields valid information on the spatial patterns and temporal trends of air quality. The approach illustrated is applicable to similar cases, as, for example, the harmonization of international monitoring networks.

  8. Targeted Resequencing and Functional Testing Identifies Low-Frequency Missense Variants in the Gene Encoding GARP as Significant Contributors to Atopic Dermatitis Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Judith; Rodríguez, Elke; ElSharawy, Abdou; Oesau, Eva-Maria; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Mayr, Gabriele; Weber, Susanne; Harder, Jürgen; Reischl, Eva; Schwarz, Agatha; Novak, Natalija; Franke, Andre; Weidinger, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Gene-mapping studies have consistently identified a susceptibility locus for atopic dermatitis and other inflammatory diseases on chromosome band 11q13.5, with the strongest association observed for a common variant located in an intergenic region between the two annotated genes C11orf30 and LRRC32. Using a targeted resequencing approach we identified low-frequency and rare missense mutations within the LRRC32 gene encoding the protein GARP, a receptor on activated regulatory T cells that binds latent transforming growth factor-β. Subsequent association testing in more than 2,000 atopic dermatitis patients and 2,000 control subjects showed a significant excess of these LRRC32 variants in individuals with atopic dermatitis. Structural protein modeling and bioinformatic analysis predicted a disruption of protein transport upon these variants, and overexpression assays in CD4 + CD25 - T cells showed a significant reduction in surface expression of the mutated protein. Consistently, flow cytometric (FACS) analyses of different T-cell subtypes obtained from atopic dermatitis patients showed a significantly reduced surface expression of GARP and a reduced conversion of CD4 + CD25 - T cells into regulatory T cells, along with lower expression of latency-associated protein upon stimulation in carriers of the LRRC32 A407T variant. These results link inherited disturbances of transforming growth factor-β signaling with atopic dermatitis risk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Flash visual evoked potentials are not specific enough to identify parieto-occipital lobe involvement in term neonates after significant hypoglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liyuan; Gu, Qiufang; Zhu, Zhen; Yang, Chenhao; Chen, Chao; Cao, Yun; Zhou, Wenhao

    2014-08-01

    Hypoglycaemia is a significant problem in high-risk neonates and predominant parieto-occipital lobe involvement has been observed after severe hypoglycaemic insult. We explored the use of flash visual evoked potentials (FVEP) in detecting parieto-occipital lobe involvement after significant hypoglycaemia. Full-term neonates (n = 15) who underwent FVEP from January 2008 to May 2013 were compared with infants (n = 11) without hypoglycaemia or parietal-occipital lobe injury. Significant hypoglycaemia was defined as being symptomatic or needing steroids, glucagon or a glucose infusion rate of ≥12 mg/kg/min. The hypoglycaemia group exhibited delayed latency of the first positive waveform on FVEP. The initial detected time for hypoglycaemia was later in the eight subjects with seizures (median 51-h-old) than those without (median 22-h-old) (P = 0.003). Magnetic resonance imaging showed that 80% of the hypoglycaemia group exhibited occipital-lobe injuries, and they were more likely to exhibit abnormal FVEP morphology (P = 0.007) than the controls. FVEP exhibited 100% sensitivity, but only 25% specificity, for detecting injuries to the parieto-occipital lobes. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP) was sensitive, but not sufficiently specific, in identifying parieto-occipital lobe injuries among term neonates exposed to significant hypoglycaemia. Larger studies exploring the potential role of FVEP in neonatal hypoglycaemia are required. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Significance of fragmented QRS complexes for identifying culprit lesions in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a single-center, retrospective analysis of 183 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Rong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragmented QRS (fQRS complexes are novel electrocardiographic signals, which reflect myocardial conduction delays in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. The importance of fQRS complexes in identifying culprit vessels was evaluated in this retrospective study. Methods A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram was obtained in 183 patients who had non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and subsequently underwent coronary angiography (CAG. On the basis of the frequency of fQRS complexes, indices such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratio were evaluated to determine the ability of fQRS complexes to identify the culprit vessels. Results Among the patients studied, elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years and those with diabetes had a significantly higher frequency of fQRS complexes (p = 0.005, p = 0.003, respectively. The fQRS complexes recorded in the 4 precordial leads had the highest specificity (81.8% for indentifying the culprit vessel (left anterior descending artery. However, the specificity of fQRS complexes to identify lesions in the left circumflex and right coronary arteries was lower for the inferior and lateral leads than for the limb leads (65.5% versus 71.7%; however, the limb leads had higher sensitivity (92.3% versus 89.4%. And the total sensitivity and specificity of fQRS (77.1% and 71.5% were higher than those values for ischemic T-waves. Conclusions The frequency of fQRS complexes was higher in elderly and diabetic patients with NSTEMI. The frequency of fQRS complexes recorded in each of the ECG leads can be used to identify culprit vessels in patients with NSTEMI.

  11. Effect modification of air pollution on Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine by genotypes: an application of the multiple testing procedure to identify significant SNP interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiani David C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution is associated with adverse human health, but mechanisms through which pollution exerts effects remain to be clarified. One suggested pathway is that pollution causes oxidative stress. If so, oxidative stress-related genotypes may modify the oxidative response defenses to pollution exposure. Methods We explored the potential pathway by examining whether an array of oxidative stress-related genes (twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs in nine genes modified associations of pollutants (organic carbon (OC, ozone and sulfate with urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxygunosine (8-OHdG, a biomarker of oxidative stress among the 320 aging men. We used a Multiple Testing Procedure in R modified by our team to identify the significance of the candidate genes adjusting for a priori covariates. Results We found that glutathione S-tranferase P1 (GSTP1, rs1799811, M1 and catalase (rs2284367 and group-specific component (GC, rs2282679, rs1155563 significantly or marginally significantly modified effects of OC and/or sulfate with larger effects among those carrying the wild type of GSTP1, catalase, non-wild type of GC and the non-null of GSTM1. Conclusions Polymorphisms of oxidative stress-related genes modified effects of OC and/or sulfate on 8-OHdG, suggesting that effects of OC or sulfate on 8-OHdG and other endpoints may be through the oxidative stress pathway.

  12. Identifying significant factors which can contribute to successful transitions from school to lasting employment affiliation for pupils in vocational training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Breilid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study deals with young people receiving special needs education in schools and their transition to lasting employment in private or public sector. Through a qualitative approach, the article aims at “identifying significant factors which can, contribute to successful transitions from school to lasting employment affiliation for pupils in vocational training programs”Theoretical approach: The theoretical approach of this article is descriptions and interpretation of the Norwegian educational legislation and the theory of «empowerment». These theoretical perspectives will be included in the empirical discussion. Method: The methodological approach is qualitative. Through four semi-structured interviews of young informants who have completed upper secondary school in a vocational education program, and have had a minimum of one-year training in an enterprise. Thematic analysis of the data is conducted with the application of NVivo 11, a computer program that is suitable for qualitative data-analysis and mixed research methods.Results and discussion: Through thematic analysis of the data, we found three significant factors contributing to successful transitions from school to lasting employment:      a Application and development of the pupil’s competence - mastery and meaning      b The significance of relations, communication and well-functioning socio-ecological          networks      c The importance of pupil participation and involvement in decision making

  13. Determination of the substrate repertoire of ADAMTS2, 3, and 14 significantly broadens their functions and identifies extracellular matrix organization and TGF-β signaling as primary targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhouche, Mourad; Leduc, Cedric; Dupont, Laura; Janssen, Lauriane; Delolme, Frederic; Vadon-Le Goff, Sandrine; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Baiwir, Dominique; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Dubail, Johanne; De Pauw, Edwin; Nusgens, Betty; Hulmes, David J S; Moali, Catherine; Colige, Alain

    2016-05-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motif (ADAMTS)2, 3, and 14 are collectively named procollagen N-proteinases (pNPs) because of their specific ability to cleave the aminopropeptide of fibrillar procollagens. Several reports also indicate that they could be involved in other biological processes, such as blood coagulation, development, and male fertility, but the potential substrates associated with these activities remain unknown. Using the recently described N-terminal amine isotopic labeling of substrate approach, we analyzed the secretomes of human fibroblasts and identified 8, 17, and 22 candidate substrates for ADAMTS2, 3, and 14, respectively. Among these newly identified substrates, many are components of the extracellular matrix and/or proteins related to cell signaling such as latent TGF-β binding protein 1, TGF-β RIII, and dickkopf-related protein 3. Candidate substrates for the 3 ADAMTS have been biochemically validated in different contexts, and the implication of ADAMTS2 in the control of TGF-β activity has been further demonstrated in human fibroblasts. Finally, the cleavage site specificity was assessed showing a clear and unique preference for nonpolar or slightly hydrophobic amino acids. This work shows that the activities of the pNPs extend far beyond the classically reported processing of the aminopropeptide of fibrillar collagens and that they should now be considered as multilevel regulators of matrix deposition and remodeling.-Bekhouche, M., Leduc, C., Dupont, L., Janssen, L., Delolme, F., Vadon-Le Goff, S., Smargiasso, N., Baiwir, D., Mazzucchelli, G., Zanella-Cleon, I., Dubail, J., De Pauw, E., Nusgens, B., Hulmes, D. J. S., Moali, C., Colige, A. Determination of the substrate repertoire of ADAMTS2, 3, and 14 significantly broadens their functions and identifies extracellular matrix organization and TGF-β signaling as primary targets. © FASEB.

  14. The significance of socially-assigned ethnicity for self-identified Māori accessing and engaging with primary healthcare in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer; Cormack, Donna; Crowe, Marie

    2016-03-01

    Despite increased focus in New Zealand on reducing health inequities between Māori and New Zealand European ethnic groups, research on barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access for Māori remains limited. In particular, there has been little interrogation of the significance of social-assignment of ethnicity for Māori in relation to engagement with predominantly non-Māori primary healthcare services and providers. A qualitative study was undertaken with a subsample (n = 40) of the broader Hauora Manawa Study to examine experiences of accessing and engaging with primary healthcare among adult urban Māori. Thematic analysis of in-depth interviews identified that participants perceived social-assignment as New Zealand European as an efficacious form of capital when interacting with predominantly non-Māori health professionals. Skin colour that was 'white' or was perceived to identify Māori as belonging to the 'dominant' New Zealand European ethnic group was reported as broadly advantageous and protective. In contrast, social-assignment as Māori was seen to be associated with risk of exposure to differential and discriminatory healthcare. Reducing the negative impacts of racialisation in a (neo)colonial society where 'White' cultural capital dominates requires increased recognition of the health-protective advantages of 'White' privilege and concomitant risks associated with socially-assigned categorisation of ethnicity as non-'White'. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Association analysis of bitter receptor genes in five isolated populations identifies a significant correlation between TAS2R43 variants and coffee liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Traglia, Michela; Robino, Antonietta; Willems, Sara M; Pistis, Giorgio; d'Adamo, Pio; Amin, Najaf; d'Eustacchio, Angela; Navarini, Luciano; Sala, Cinzia; Karssen, Lennart C; van Duijn, Cornelia; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Coffee, one of the most popular beverages in the world, contains many different physiologically active compounds with a potential impact on people's health. Despite the recent attention given to the genetic basis of its consumption, very little has been done in understanding genes influencing coffee preference among different individuals. Given its markedly bitter taste, we decided to verify if bitter receptor genes (TAS2Rs) variants affect coffee liking. In this light, 4066 people from different parts of Europe and Central Asia filled in a field questionnaire on coffee liking. They have been consequently recruited and included in the study. Eighty-eight SNPs covering the 25 TAS2R genes were selected from the available imputed ones and used to run association analysis for coffee liking. A significant association was detected with three SNP: one synonymous and two functional variants (W35S and H212R) on the TAS2R43 gene. Both variants have been shown to greatly reduce in vitro protein activity. Surprisingly the wild type allele, which corresponds to the functional form of the protein, is associated to higher liking of coffee. Since the hTAS2R43 receptor is sensible to caffeine, we verified if the detected variants produced differences in caffeine bitter perception on a subsample of people coming from the FVG cohort. We found a significant association between differences in caffeine perception and the H212R variant but not with the W35S, which suggests that the effect of the TAS2R43 gene on coffee liking is mediated by caffeine and in particular by the H212R variant. No other significant association was found with other TAS2R genes. In conclusion, the present study opens new perspectives in the understanding of coffee liking. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of the TAS2R43 gene in coffee hedonics and to identify which other genes and pathways are involved in its genetics.

  16. Association analysis of bitter receptor genes in five isolated populations identifies a significant correlation between TAS2R43 variants and coffee liking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pirastu

    Full Text Available Coffee, one of the most popular beverages in the world, contains many different physiologically active compounds with a potential impact on people's health. Despite the recent attention given to the genetic basis of its consumption, very little has been done in understanding genes influencing coffee preference among different individuals. Given its markedly bitter taste, we decided to verify if bitter receptor genes (TAS2Rs variants affect coffee liking. In this light, 4066 people from different parts of Europe and Central Asia filled in a field questionnaire on coffee liking. They have been consequently recruited and included in the study. Eighty-eight SNPs covering the 25 TAS2R genes were selected from the available imputed ones and used to run association analysis for coffee liking. A significant association was detected with three SNP: one synonymous and two functional variants (W35S and H212R on the TAS2R43 gene. Both variants have been shown to greatly reduce in vitro protein activity. Surprisingly the wild type allele, which corresponds to the functional form of the protein, is associated to higher liking of coffee. Since the hTAS2R43 receptor is sensible to caffeine, we verified if the detected variants produced differences in caffeine bitter perception on a subsample of people coming from the FVG cohort. We found a significant association between differences in caffeine perception and the H212R variant but not with the W35S, which suggests that the effect of the TAS2R43 gene on coffee liking is mediated by caffeine and in particular by the H212R variant. No other significant association was found with other TAS2R genes. In conclusion, the present study opens new perspectives in the understanding of coffee liking. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of the TAS2R43 gene in coffee hedonics and to identify which other genes and pathways are involved in its genetics.

  17. Clinical significance of coryneform Gram-positive rods from blood identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and their susceptibility profiles - a retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ammara; Chen, Derrick J; Strand, Gregory J; Dylla, Brenda L; Cole, Nicolynn C; Mandrekar, Jayawant; Patel, Robin

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), most Gram-positive rods (GPRs) are readily identified; however, their clinical relevance in blood cultures remains unclear. Herein, we assessed the clinical significance of GPRs isolated from blood and identified in the era of MALDI-TOF MS. A retrospective chart review of patients presenting to the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, from January 1, 2013, to October 13, 2015, was performed. Any episode of a positive blood culture for a GPR was included. We assessed the number of bottles positive for a given isolate, time to positivity of blood cultures, patient age, medical history, interpretation of culture results by the healthcare team and whether infectious diseases consultation was obtained. We also evaluated the susceptibility profiles of a larger collection of GPRs tested in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from January 1, 2013, to October 31, 2015. There were a total of 246 GPRs isolated from the blood of 181 patients during the study period. 56% (n = 101) were deemed contaminants by the healthcare team and were not treated; 33% (n = 59) were clinically determined to represent true bacteremia and were treated; and 8% (n = 14) were considered of uncertain significance, with patients prescribed treatment regardless. Patient characteristics associated with an isolate being treated on univariate analysis included younger age (P = 0.02), identification to the species level (P = 0.02), higher number of positive blood culture sets (P < 0.0001), lower time to positivity (P < 0.0001), immunosuppression (P = 0.03), and recommendation made by an infectious disease consultant (P = 0.0005). On multivariable analysis, infectious diseases consultation (P = 0.03), higher number of positive blood culture sets (P = 0.0005) and lower time to positivity (P = 0.03) were associated with an isolate being treated. 100, 83, 48 and 34% of GPRs

  18. CIEEM Skills Gap Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the research conducted for the Chartered Institute for Ecology and Environmental Management to identify skills gaps within the profession. It involved surveys of professionals, conference workshops and an investigation into the views of employers regarding graduate recruitment.

  19. Measuring outcomes in adult spinal deformity surgery: a systematic review to identify current strengths, weaknesses and gaps in patient-reported outcome measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraj, S.S.; Hooff, M.L. Van; Holewijn, R.M.; Polly, D.W.; Haanstra, T.M.; Kleuver, M. de

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adult spinal deformity (ASD) causes severe disability, reduces overall quality of life, and results in a substantial societal burden of disease. As healthcare is becoming more value based, and to facilitate global benchmarking, it is critical to identify and standardize patient-reported

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity in the critically endangered Australian corroboree frogs, Pseudophryne corroboree and Pseudophryne pengilleyi, identifies four evolutionarily significant units for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew J; Hunter, David; Pietsch, Rod; Osborne, William; Keogh, J Scott

    2008-08-01

    The iconic and brightly coloured Australian northern corroboree frog, Pseudophryne pengilleyi, and the southern corroboree frog, Pseudophryne corroboree are critically endangered and may be extinct in the wild within 3 years. We have assembled samples that cover the current range of both species and applied hypervariable microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences to assess the levels and patterns of genetic variation. The four loci used in the study were highly variable, the total number of alleles observed ranged from 13 to 30 and the average number of alleles per locus was 19. Expected heterozygosity of the four microsatellite loci across all populations was high and varied between 0.830 and 0.935. Bayesian clustering analyses in STRUCTURE strongly supported four genetically distinct populations, which correspond exactly to the four main allopatric geographical regions in which the frogs are currently found. Individual analyses performed on the separate regions showed that breeding sites within these four regions could not be separated into distinct populations. Twelve mtND2 haplotypes were identified from 66 individuals from throughout the four geographical regions. A statistical parsimony network of mtDNA haplotypes shows two distinct groups, which correspond to the two species of corroboree frog, but with most of the haplotype diversity distributed in P. pengilleyi. These results demonstrate an unexpectedly high level of genetic diversity in both species. Our data have important implications for how the genetic diversity is managed in the future. The four evolutionarily significant units must be protected and maintained in captive breeding programmes for as long as it is possible to do.

  1. Identifying and Prioritizing Gaps in Neuroendocrine Tumor Research: A Modified Delphi Process With Patients and Health Care Providers to Set the Research Action Plan for the Newly Formed Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelov, Eva; Chan, David; Lawrence, Ben; Pavlakis, Nick; Kennecke, Hagen F; Jackson, Christopher; Law, Calvin; Singh, Simron

    2017-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. The Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration (CommNETS) was established in 2015 to enhance outcomes for patients with NETs in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Patient/advocate and health care provider/researcher expert panels undertook Round 1, which canvassed 17 research priorities and 42 potential topics; in Round 2, these priorities were ranked. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. The Delphi groups consisted of 203 participants in Round 1 (64% health care providers/researchers, 36% patient/advocates; 52% Canadian, 32% Australian, and 17% New Zealander), of whom 132 participated in Round 2. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. Two major areas were ranked significantly higher by patients/advocates: early diagnosis and curative surgery. Six CommNETS working parties were established. This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans reflect unmet needs and priorities in the field.

  2. Identifying and Prioritizing Gaps in Neuroendocrine Tumor Research: A Modified Delphi Process With Patients and Health Care Providers to Set the Research Action Plan for the Newly Formed Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segelov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. The Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration (CommNETS was established in 2015 to enhance outcomes for patients with NETs in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. Methods: A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Patient/advocate and health care provider/researcher expert panels undertook Round 1, which canvassed 17 research priorities and 42 potential topics; in Round 2, these priorities were ranked. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. Results: The Delphi groups consisted of 203 participants in Round 1 (64% health care providers/researchers, 36% patient/advocates; 52% Canadian, 32% Australian, and 17% New Zealander, of whom 132 participated in Round 2. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. Two major areas were ranked significantly higher by patients/advocates: early diagnosis and curative surgery. Six CommNETS working parties were established. Conclusion: This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans

  3. Patients Commonly Believe Their Heart Failure Hospitalizations Are Preventable and Identify Worsening Heart Failure, Nonadherence, and a Knowledge Gap as Reasons for Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilotra, Nisha A; Shpigel, Adam; Okwuosa, Ike S; Tamrat, Ruth; Flowers, Deirdre; Russell, Stuart D

    2017-03-01

    There are few data describing patient-identified precipitants of heart failure (HF) hospitalization. We hypothesized a patient's perception of reason for or preventability of an admission may be related to 30-day readmission rates. Ninety-four patients admitted with decompensated HF from July 2014 to March 2015 completed a brief questionnaire regarding circumstances leading to admission. Thirty-day outcomes were assessed via telephone call and chart review. Mean age was 58 ± 14 years, with 60% blacks (n = 56) and 41% females (n = 39). Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 30%; 27 had preserved ejection fraction. Seventy-two patients identified their hospitalization to be due to HF (± another condition). Most common patient-identified precipitants of admission were worsening HF (n = 37) and dietary nonadherence (n = 11). Readmitted patients tended to have longer time until first follow-up appointment (21 vs 8 days). Seven of the 42 patients who identified their hospitalization as preventable were readmitted compared with 21/49 who believed their hospitalization was unpreventable (P = .012). On multivariate regression analysis, patients who thought their hospitalization was preventable were less likely to be readmitted (odds ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.91; P = .04). Almost 50% of patients believe their HF hospitalization is preventable, and these patients appear to be less likely to be readmitted within 30 days. Notably, patients cite nonadherence and lack of knowledge as reasons hospitalizations are preventable. These results lend insight into possible interventions to reduce HF readmissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8 %) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0 %). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10 % of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6 % at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13 % and 10 %, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23 % versus 6 %) within gaps. Both sites demonstrate limited gap contagiousness defined by an

  5. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  6. Workforce capacity to address obesity: a Western Australian cross-sectional study identifies the gap between health priority and human resources needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Andrea; Pollard, Christina Mary

    2016-08-25

    The disease burden due to poor nutrition, physical inactivity and obesity is high and increasing. An adequately sized and skilled workforce is required to respond to this issue. This study describes the public health nutrition and physical activity (NAPA) practice priorities and explores health managers and practitioner's beliefs regarding workforce capacity to deliver on these priorities. A workforce audit was conducted including a telephone survey of all managers and a postal survey of practitioners working in the area of NAPA promotion in Western Australia in 2004. Managers gave their perspective on workforce priorities, current competencies and future needs, with a 70 % response rate. Practitioners reported on public health workforce priorities, qualifications and needs, with a 56 % response rate. The top practice priorities for managers were diabetes (35 %), alcohol and other drugs (33 %), and cardiovascular disease (27 %). Obesity (19 %), poor nutrition (15 %) and inadequate physical activity (10 %) were of lower priority. For nutrition, managers identified lack of staff (60.4 %), organisational and management factors (39.5 %) and insufficient financial resources (30.2 %) as the major barriers to adequate service delivery. For physical activity services, insufficient financial resources (41.7 %) and staffing (35.4 %) and a lack of specific physical activity service specifications (25.0 %) were the main barriers. Practitioners identified inadequate staffing as the main barrier to service delivery for nutrition (42.3 %) and physical activity (23.3 %). Ideally, managers said they required 152 % more specialist nutritionists in the workforce and 131 % specialists for physical activity services to meet health outcomes in addition to other generalist staff. Human and financial resources and organisational factors were the main barriers to meeting obesity, and public health nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Services were being delivered by

  7. A Large-Scale Multi-ancestry Genome-wide Study Accounting for Smoking Behavior Identifies Multiple Significant Loci for Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sung, Yun J; Winkler, Thomas W; de Las Fuentes, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its genetic architecture. We performed genom...

  8. A Large-Scale Multi-ancestry Genome-wide Study Accounting for Smoking Behavior Identifies Multiple Significant Loci for Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sung, Yun J.; Winkler, Thomas W.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Bentley, Amy R.; Brown, Michael R.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Schwander, Karen; Ntalla, Ioanna; Guo, Xiuqing; Franceschini, Nora; Lu, Yingchang; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Sim, Xueling; Vojinovic, Dina; Marten, Jonathan; Musani, Solomon K.; Li, Changwei; Feitosa, Mary F.; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Richard, Melissa A.; Noordam, Raymond; Aslibekyan, Stella; Aschard, Hugues; Bartz, Traci M.; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Liu, Yongmei; Manning, Alisa K.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Smith, Albert Vernon; Tajuddin, Salman M.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Warren, Helen R.; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Yanhua; Matoba, Nana; Sofer, Tamar; Alver, Maris; Amini, Marzyeh; Boissel, Mathilde; Chai, Jin Fang; Chen, Xu; Divers, Jasmin; Gandin, Ilaria; Gao, Chuan; Giulianini, Franco; Goel, Anuj; Harris, Sarah E.; Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Jackson, Anne U.; Kahonen, Mika; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Kuhnel, Brigitte; Leander, Karin; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lin, Keng-Hung; Luan, Jian' an; McKenzie, Colin A.; He Meian,; Nelson, Christopher P.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Schupf, Nicole; Scott, Robert A.; Sheu, Wayne H. H.; Stancakova, Alena; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; van der Most, Peter J.; Varga, Tibor V.; Wang, Heming; Wang, Yajuan; Ware, Erin B.; Weiss, Stefan; Wen, Wanqing; Yanek, Lisa R.; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Afaq, Saima; Alfred, Tamuno; Amin, Najaf; Arking, Dan; Aung, Tin; Barr, R. Graham; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Braund, Peter S.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Broeckel, Ulrich; Cabrera, Claudia P.; Cade, Brian; Yu Caizheng,; Campbell, Archie; Canouil, Mickael; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Christensen, Kaare; Cocca, Massimiliano; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John M.; de Mutsert, Renee; de Silva, H. Janaka; Debette, Stephanie; Dorr, Marcus; Duan, Qing; Eaton, Charles B.; Ehret, Georg; Evangelou, Evangelos; Faul, Jessica D.; Fisher, Virginia A.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Franco, Oscar H.; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gao, He; Gigante, Bruna; Graff, Misa; Gu, C. Charles; Gu, Dongfeng; Gupta, Preeti; Hagenaars, Saskia P.; Harris, Tamara B.; He, Jiang; Heikkinen, Sami; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Hirata, Makoto; Hofman, Albert; Howard, Barbara V.; Hunt, Steven; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Jia, Yucheng; Joehanes, Roby; Justice, Anne E.; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Kaufman, Joel; Kerrison, Nicola D.; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Koh, Woon-Puay; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kooperberg, Charles; Krieger, Jose E.; Kubo, Michiaki; Kuusisto, Johanna; Langefeld, Carl D.; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J.; Lehne, Benjamin; Lewis, Cora E.; Li, Yize; Lim, Sing Hui; Lin, Shiow; Liu, Ching-Ti; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Jingmin; Liu, Kiang; Liu, Yeheng; Loh, Marie; Lohman, Kurt K.; Long, Jirong; Louie, Tin; Magi, Reedik; Mahajan, Anubha; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Milani, Lili; Momozawa, Yukihide; Morris, Andrew P.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Munson, Peter; Murray, Alison D.; Nalls, Mike A.; Nasri, Ubaydah; Norris, Jill M.; North, Kari; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmas, Walter R.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Pankow, James S.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Peters, Annette; Peyser, Patricia A.; Polasek, Ozren; Raitakari, Olli T.; Renstrom, Frida; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Robino, Antonietta; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Rose, Lynda M.; Rudan, Igor; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Salako, Babatunde L.; Sandow, Kevin; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Scott, William R.; Seshadri, Sudha; Sever, Peter; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Snieder, Harold; Starr, John M.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tang, Hua; Taylor, Kent D.; Teo, Yik Ying; Tham, Yih Chung; Ultterlinden, Andre G.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wang, Lihua; Wang, Ya X.; Bin Wei, Wen; Williams, Christine; Wilson, Gregory; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Yao, Jie; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zonderman, Alan B.; Becker, Diane M.; Boehnke, Michael; Bowden, Donald W.; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; de Faire, Ulf; Deary, Ian J.; Esko, Tonu; Farrall, Martin; Forrester, Terrence; Franks, Paul W.; Freedman, Barry I.; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Hung, Yi-Jen; Jonas, Jost B.; Kato, Norihiro; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Laakso, Markku; Lehtimaki, Terho; Liang, Kae-Woei; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Newman, Anne B.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Redline, Susan; Rettig, Rainer; Samani, Nilesh J.; Scott, James; Shu, Xiao-Ou; van der Harst, Pim; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Weir, David R.; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R.; Wu, Tangchun; Zheng, Wei; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Laurie, Cathy C.; Bouchard, Claude; Cooper, Richard S.; Evans, Michele K.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Levy, Daniel; O'Connell, Jeff R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; van Dam, Rob M.; Sims, Mario; Arnett, Donna K.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Kelly, Tanika N.; Fox, Ervin R.; Hayward, Caroline; Fornage, Myriam; Rotimi, Charles N.; Province, Michael A.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Tai, E. Shyong; Wong, Tien Yin; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Bierut, Laura J.; Gauderman, W. James; Caulfield, Mark J.; Elliott, Paul; Rice, Kenneth; Munroe, Patricia B.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Study, Lifelines Cohort

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its genetic architecture. We performed

  9. Mythic gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of omissions sometimes occur, or are perceived to occur, in traditional narratives and in tradition-inspired literature. A familiar instance is when a narrator realizes that he or she does not fully remember the story that he or she has begun to tell, and so leaves out part of it, which for listeners may possibly result in an unintelligible narrative. But many instances of narrative gap are not so obvious. From straightforward, objective gaps one can distinguish less-obvious subjective gaps: in many cases narrators do not leave out anything crucial or truly relevant from their exposition, and yet readers perceive gaps and take steps to fill them. The present paper considers four examples of subjective gaps drawn from ancient Greek literature (the Pandora myth, ancient Roman literature (the Pygmalion legend, ancient Hebrew literature (the Joseph legend, and early Christian literature (the Jesus legend. I consider the quite varied ways in which interpreters expand the inherited texts of these stories, such as by devising names, manufacturing motives, creating backstories, and in general filling in biographical ellipses. Finally, I suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of subjective gaps, arguing that, despite their variety, they have a single cause.

  10. SRTC - Gap Analysis Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.L. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing SRTC design against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards and supplemental requirements can not fully meet these safety requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Site Rail Transfer Cart (SRTC) Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 14]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements are provided in the SRTC and associated rails gap analysis table in Appendix A. Because SRTCs are credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the SRTC and rail design perform required safety Functions and meet performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis table supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed

  11. The Gap of Self - States and Its Association to an Individual‟s Interaction and Emotional Bond to their Significant Relationships: A Correlational Study about Filipino Youth‟s Self - Discrepancy and Their Attachment Styl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae R. Galing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A youth is expected to experience difficulties due to the opposing desire to be free while still remaining dependent to family and other significant individuals in their lives. Filipino youth are known as being family - oriented and being submissive which is one of the factors that pounds the importance of what people around them utters. Thus, creating a gap or discrepancy between what they truly want and what other people expect them to do. When these internal battles began, significant external aspects such as social interaction can be compromised. These occurrences can be elucidated by using the two frameworks Self - Discrepancy Theory and Attachment Style. In this study, correlational research design and survey method were employed to 384 Filipino Youth from Makati whom are selected through convenience sampling. Results of the study showed that the respondents have positive image of themselves. Also, a big majority of the respondents were discerned to have high discrepancies between their self - states. In this study, it was also seen that the respondents were dismissive and were characterized to be independent, self - reliant, and gave low importance to relationships. Finally, findings of this study revealed a weak positive correlation between secure attachment s tyle towards the self - discrepancy of the respondents while weak negative correlation was found between the rest of the attachment styles towards the discrepancy among their self - states. With this, the researchers recommended stabilizing internal discrepanc ies and strengthening significant relationships as the two were seen as big factors in respondents’ social interaction and self - esteem.

  12. Sustainability Tools Inventory Initial Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consu...

  13. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  14. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  15. Identificação de atributos críticos de satisfação em um serviço através da análise competitiva do gap de melhoria Identifying critical attributes of satisfaction in a service using the competitive analysis of the improvement gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérson Tontini

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar um método para identificar atributos críticos para a satisfação do cliente e oportunidades de melhoria em bens e serviços em um mercado competitivo, reduzindo os problemas apresentados pela análise através da matriz de importância e desempenho proposta por Martilla e James (1977. Quanto a sua metodologia, a pesquisa foi do tipo exploratório-descritiva. A coleta de dados se deu em dois momentos. Inicialmente, foi realizada uma discussão com um grupo de foco com oito clientes de videolocadoras, procurando-se descobrir quais os atributos-chave para sua satisfação. Em seguida, 240 clientes de videolocadoras e alunos de graduação de uma instituição de ensino superior responderam um questionário modificado do modelo proposto por Kano et al. (1984. Para classificação dos atributos, segundo o Modelo Kano, foi utilizada uma análise de gap derivada do método proposto por Tontini e Silveira (2005. Dezenove atributos foram pesquisados, sendo que destes, quatro foram classificados como atrativos, dez como obrigatórios, dois como unidimensionais e três como neutros. Conclui-se que o método de gap corrigido, proposto neste trabalho, pôde auxiliar na identificação de atributos atrativos e obrigatórios para os clientes, permitindo priorizar quais deles deveriam ser objeto de melhoria e quais poderiam se tornar fonte de diferencial competitivo, superando algumas limitações da análise de importância x desempenho e do Modelo Kano tradicional.Using attributes of Video Rental Stores as a case study, this paper presents a method to identify satisfaction attributes and improvement opportunities in products and services in a competitive market, overcoming some of the limitations of the importance performance analysis proposed by Martilla and James (1977. The methodology was of an exploratory-descriptive type. The data collection was carried out in two steps. First, a focus group with 8

  16. Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders’ perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Materials and Methods Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders’ perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. Results We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical work-flow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Discussion Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Conclusion Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation. PMID:27847961

  17. Site-directed Mutagenesis Shows the Significance of Interactions with Phospholipids and the G-protein OsYchF1 for the Physiological Functions of the Rice GTPase-activating Protein 1 (OsGAP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yuk-Lin; Cheung, Ming-Yan; Miao, Rui; Fong, Yu-Hang; Li, Kwan-Pok; Yu, Mei-Hui; Chye, Mee-Len; Wong, Kam-Bo; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2015-09-25

    The C2 domain is one of the most diverse phospholipid-binding domains mediating cellular signaling. One group of C2-domain proteins are plant-specific and are characterized by their small sizes and simple structures. We have previously reported that a member of this group, OsGAP1, is able to alleviate salt stress and stimulate defense responses, and bind to both phospholipids and an unconventional G-protein, OsYchF1. Here we solved the crystal structure of OsGAP1 to a resolution of 1.63 Å. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we successfully differentiated between the clusters of surface residues that are required for binding to phospholipids versus OsYchF1, which, in turn, is critical for its role in stimulating defense responses. On the other hand, the ability to alleviate salt stress by OsGAP1 is dependent only on its ability to bind OsYchF1 and is independent of its phospholipid-binding activity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money...... actually available to meet these costs – a difference known as the “adaptation finance gap”. Like the 2014 report, the 2016 report focuses on developing countries, where adaptation capacity is often the lowest and needs the highest, and concentrates on the period up to 2050. The report identifies trends...

  19. Sustainability Tools Inventory - Initial Gaps Analysis | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influence resource consumption, waste generation, and hazard generation including air pollution and greenhouse gases. In addition, the tools have been evaluated using four screening criteria: relevance to community decision making, tools in an appropriate developmental stage, tools that may be transferrable to situations useful for communities, and tools with requiring skill levels appropriate to communities. This document provides an initial gap analysis in the area of community sustainability decision support tools. It provides a reference to communities for existing decision support tools, and a set of gaps for those wishing to develop additional needed tools to help communities to achieve sustainability. It contributes to SHC 1.61.4

  20. Electron Elevator: Excitations across the Band Gap via a Dynamical Gap State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A; Foulkes, W M C; Horsfield, A P; Mason, D R; Schleife, A; Draeger, E W; Correa, A A

    2016-01-29

    We use time-dependent density functional theory to study self-irradiated Si. We calculate the electronic stopping power of Si in Si by evaluating the energy transferred to the electrons per unit path length by an ion of kinetic energy from 1 eV to 100 keV moving through the host. Electronic stopping is found to be significant below the threshold velocity normally identified with transitions across the band gap. A structured crossover at low velocity exists in place of a hard threshold. An analysis of the time dependence of the transition rates using coupled linear rate equations enables one of the excitation mechanisms to be clearly identified: a defect state induced in the gap by the moving ion acts like an elevator and carries electrons across the band gap.

  1. Closing the gap between research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Marcia Patton-Mallory

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the reasons for gaps in communication between researchers and natural resource managers and identify methods to close these gaps. Gaps originate from differing patterns of language use, disparities in organizational culture and values, generation of knowledge that is too narrowly-focused to solve complex problems, failure by managers to relay...

  2. Gender gap in entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Startienė, Gražina; Remeikienė, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The article considers a significant global issue - gender gap starting and developing own business. The field of business was for a long time reserved to men, thus, despite of an increasing number of female entrepreneurs during last decade, the number of female entrepreneurs in Europe, including Lithuania, remains lower than the one of male entrepreneurs. According to the data of various statistical sources, an average ratio of enterprises newly established by men and women in EU countries is...

  3. The gap-startle paradigm to assess auditory temporal processing: Bridging animal and human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Philippe; Hébert, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm is the primary test used in animal research to identify gap detection thresholds and impairment. When a silent gap is presented shortly before a loud startling stimulus, the startle reflex is inhibited and the extent of inhibition is assumed to reflect detection. Here, we applied the same paradigm in humans. One hundred and fifty-seven normal-hearing participants were tested using one of five gap durations (5, 25, 50, 100, 200 ms) in one of the following two paradigms-gap-embedded in or gap-following-the continuous background noise. The duration-inhibition relationship was observable for both conditions but followed different patterns. In the gap-embedded paradigm, GPIAS increased significantly with gap duration up to 50 ms and then more slowly up to 200 ms (trend only). In contrast, in the gap-following paradigm, significant inhibition-different from 0--was observable only at gap durations from 50 to 200 ms. The finding that different patterns are found depending on gap position within the background noise is compatible with distinct mechanisms underlying each of the two paradigms. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Gap Analysis: Rethinking the Conceptual Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    there could exist a basis for gap in capability and, therefore, a desire to close the capability gap . What one desires versus what one has is, in...Analysis is not intended to close the space between the most distant extremes or the rarest occurrences. Rather, Gap Analysis is centered on the larger...åÖÉ=======- 13 - = = Research Objectives The process of identifying needs and unsatisfied desires, or gaps in capability—in essence, the goal—is

  5. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG. XV. A substellar companion around a K giant star identified with quasi-simultaneous HARPS-N and GIANO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvarez, E.; Affer, L.; Micela, G.; Maldonado, J.; Carleo, I.; Damasso, M.; D'Orazi, V.; Lanza, A. F.; Biazzo, K.; Poretti, E.; Gratton, R.; Sozzetti, A.; Desidera, S.; Sanna, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Massi, F.; Oliva, E.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Maggio, A.; Masiero, S.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Smareglia, R.; Benatti, S.; Bonomo, A. S.; Borsa, F.; Esposito, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Malavolta, L.; Martinez-Fiorenzano, A.; Nascimbeni, V.; Pedani, M.; Rainer, M.; Scandariato, G.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Identification of planetary companions of giant stars is made difficult because of the astrophysical noise, that may produce radial velocity variations similar to those induced by a companion. On the other hand any stellar signal is wavelength dependent, while signals due to a companion are achromatic. Aims: Our goal is to determine the origin of the Doppler periodic variations observed in the thick disk K giant star TYC 4282-605-1 by HARPS-N at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and verify if they can be due to the presence of a substellar companion. Methods: Several methods have been used to exclude the stellar origin of the observed signal including detailed analysis of activity indicators and bisector and the analysis of the photometric light curve. Finally we have conducted an observational campaign to monitor the near infrared (NIR) radial velocity with GIANO at the TNG in order to verify whether the NIR amplitude variations are comparable with those observed in the visible. Results: Both optical and NIR radial velocities show consistent variations with a period at 101 days and similar amplitude, pointing to the presence of a companion orbiting the target. The main orbital properties obtained for our giant star with a derived mass of M = 0.97 ± 0.03M⊙ are MPsini = 10.78 ± 0.12MJ; P = 101.54 ± 0.05 days; e = 0.28 ± 0.01 and a = 0.422 ± 0.009 AU. The chemical analysis shows a significant enrichment in the abundance of Na I, Mg I, Al I and Si I while the rest of analyzed elements are consistent with the solar value demonstrating that the chemical composition corresponds with an old K giant (age = 10.1 Gyr) belonging to local thick disk. Conclusions: We conclude that the substellar companion hypothesis for this K giant is the best explanation for the observed periodic radial velocity variation. This study also shows the high potential of multi-wavelength radial velocity observations for the validation of planet candidates. Based on

  6. miR-155, identified as anti-metastatic by global miRNA profiling of a metastasis model, inhibits cancer cell extravasation and colonization in vivo and causes significant signaling alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravgaard, Karina Hedelund; Terp, Mikkel G; Lund, Rikke R

    2015-01-01

    To gain insight into miRNA regulation in metastasis formation, we used a metastasis cell line model that allows investigation of extravasation and colonization of circulating cancer cells to lungs in mice. Using global miRNA profiling, 28 miRNAs were found to exhibit significantly altered...... proliferation or apoptosis in established lung tumors. To identify proteins regulated by miR-155 and thus delineate its function in our cell model, we compared the proteome of xenograft tumors derived from miR-155-overexpressing CL16 cells and CL16 control cells using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. >4......,000 proteins were identified, of which 92 were consistently differentially expressed. Network analysis revealed that the altered proteins were associated with cellular functions such as movement, growth and survival as well as cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. Downregulation of the three metastasis...

  7. Constellations of gaps in Eratosthenes sieve

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Fred B.

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago we identified a recursion that works directly with the gaps among the generators in each stage of Eratosthenes sieve. This recursion provides explicit enumerations of sequences of gaps among the generators, which sequences are known as constellations. Over the last year we identified a discrete linear system that exactly models the population of any gap across all stages of the sieve. In August 2014 we summarized our results from analyzing this discrete model on populations of...

  8. Comparing identified and statistically significant lipids and polar metabolites in 15-year old serum and dried blood spot samples for longitudinal studies: Comparing lipids and metabolites in serum and DBS samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Casey, Cameron P. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Stratton, Kelly G. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zink, Erika M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zheng, Xueyun [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Monroe, Matthew E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Weitz, Karl K. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bloodsworth, Kent J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Orton, Daniel J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ibrahim, Yehia M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Moore, Ronald J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lee, Christine G. [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Research Service, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland OR USA; Pedersen, Catherine [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Orwoll, Eric [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Smith, Richard D. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Baker, Erin S. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-02-05

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) has many advantages over traditional plasma and serum samples such as smaller blood volume required, storage at room temperature, and ability for sampling in remote locations. However, understanding the robustness of different analytes in DBS samples is essential, especially in older samples collected for longitudinal studies. Here we analyzed DBS samples collected in 2000-2001 and stored at room temperature and compared them to matched serum samples stored at -80°C to determine if they could be effectively used as specific time points in a longitudinal study following metabolic disease. Four hundred small molecules were identified in both the serum and DBS samples using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) and LC-ion mobility spectrometry-MS (LC-IMS-MS). The identified polar metabolites overlapped well between the sample types, though only one statistically significant polar metabolite in a case-control study was conserved, indicating degradation occurs in the DBS samples affecting quantitation. Differences in the lipid identifications indicated that some oxidation occurs in the DBS samples. However, thirty-six statistically significant lipids correlated in both sample types indicating that lipid quantitation was more stable across the sample types.

  9. The Primary Solid Waste Storage Gaps Experienced By Nairobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    This study identifies and analyses the solid waste management service gaps and situations in these different socio-economic ... identifying gaps existing at primary (household) SW ... internal structure is based on land uses and income levels.

  10. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mognet, S.A.I., E-mail: mognet@astro.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aramaki, T. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bando, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fuke, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Mori, K.; Okazaki, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Ong, R.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Yoshida, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Zweerink, J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded.

  11. The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mognet, S.A.I.; Aramaki, T.; Bando, N.; Boggs, S.E.; Doetinchem, P. von; Fuke, H.; Gahbauer, F.H.; Hailey, C.J.; Koglin, J.E.; Madden, N.; Mori, K.; Okazaki, S.; Ong, R.A.; Perez, K.M.; Tajiri, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zweerink, J.

    2014-01-01

    The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (∼33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded

  12. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2009-06-01

    Previous research [S. J. Pollock , Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007)] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo , Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006)]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2) . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression) to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  13. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Kost

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research [S. J. Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo et al., Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2. The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  14. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Pollock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research [S. J. Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo et al., Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2 . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  15. Hydrogen Safety Sensor Performance and Use Gap Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schmidt, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartmann, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Hannah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weidner, Eveline [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Cebolla, Rafael O. [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Bonato, Christian [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands; Moretto, Pietro [Joint Research Centre, Petten, the Netherlands

    2017-11-15

    Hydrogen sensors are recognized as an important technology for facilitating the safe implementation of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and there are numerous reports of a sensor alarm successfully preventing a potentially serious event. However, gaps in sensor metrological specifications, as well as in their performance for some applications, exist.The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technology Office published a short list of critical gaps in the 2007 and 2012 multiyear project plans; more detailed gap analyses were independently performed by the JRC and NREL. There have been, however, some significant advances in sensor technologies since these assessments, including the commercial availability of hydrogen sensors with fast response times (t90 less than 1 s, which had been an elusive DOE target since 2007), improved robustness to chemical poisons, improved selectivity, and improved lifetime and stability. These improvements, however, have not been universal and typically pertain to select platforms or models. Moreover, as hydrogen markets grow and new applications are being explored, more demands will be imposed on sensor performance. The hydrogen sensor laboratories at NREL and JRC are currently updating the hydrogen safety sensor gap analysis through direct interaction with international stakeholders in the hydrogen community, especially end-users. NREL and the JRC are currently organizing a series of workshops (in Europe and the U.S.) with sensor developers, end-users, and other stakeholders in 2017 to identify technology gaps and to develop a path forward to address them. One workshop is scheduled for May 10 in Brussels, Belgium at the Headquarters of the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking. A second workshop is planned at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, CO, USA. This presentation will review improvements in sensor technologies in the past 5 to 10 years, identify gaps in sensor performance and use requirements, and identify

  16. Avian diversity in forest gaps of Kibale Forest National Park, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been conducted in forest gaps, particularly in Africa. It is likely that gap ... of gaps used by elephants was significantly greater in the logged forest than ... 1996). Consequently, gaps are considered as keystone habitats for such species.

  17. Ontology of gaps in content-based image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Thomas M; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2009-04-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is a promising technology to enrich the core functionality of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). CBIR has a potential for making a strong impact in diagnostics, research, and education. Research as reported in the scientific literature, however, has not made significant inroads as medical CBIR applications incorporated into routine clinical medicine or medical research. The cause is often attributed (without supporting analysis) to the inability of these applications in overcoming the "semantic gap." The semantic gap divides the high-level scene understanding and interpretation available with human cognitive capabilities from the low-level pixel analysis of computers, based on mathematical processing and artificial intelligence methods. In this paper, we suggest a more systematic and comprehensive view of the concept of "gaps" in medical CBIR research. In particular, we define an ontology of 14 gaps that addresses the image content and features, as well as system performance and usability. In addition to these gaps, we identify seven system characteristics that impact CBIR applicability and performance. The framework we have created can be used a posteriori to compare medical CBIR systems and approaches for specific biomedical image domains and goals and a priori during the design phase of a medical CBIR application, as the systematic analysis of gaps provides detailed insight in system comparison and helps to direct future research.

  18. Behind the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  19. AUDIT EXPECTATION GAP IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherai Dana Simona

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme – It is know that the large public and auditors hold different beliefs about the auditors’ duties and responsibilities. In this conditions audit expectation gap represents that level of expectation that remains uncovered. In this study paper, audit expectation gap represents the difference between the achievements of public auditors and the expectations that general public (students have beyond those responsibility. Purpose – The evolution of audit expectation gap has been examined in various countries, but the extent of the concept has not been investigated so much in public area. This study attempts to assess the perceptions of possible future auditors, students, regarding the existence of expectation gap in public area. Literature review – A review of the literature identifies many researches who define the concept since was given the first definition of audit expectation gap as the difference between the levels of expected performance and the results that auditors give, but just a few analysis the public area using students’ knowledge to understand the perception of future users of accounting information or potential bidders of accounting information. Methodology – This paper represents the beginning of a broader study that will be part of the doctoral thesis entitled “Organization and exercise of public audit in Romania”, started in 2009 at University Babes Bolyai from Cluj Napoca, coordinated by PhD Professor Matis Dumitru. The aim of this paper is to explore the findings of an empirical study, made on 352 students, were the primary data used were obtained through a questionnaire technique regarding the audit expectation gap in the public sector in Romania, looking into future to obtain responses using a larger respondent group. Findings – A reasonableness gap was uncovered, there is a gap between the expectation of students regarding the public auditors' profession and their results and there are differences

  20. Closing the value gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    It's a predicament. For the most part, investor-owned electric utilities trade at a deep discount to the actual (that is, replacement-cost) value to their assets. That's because most utilities fail to earn real returns large enough to justify raising and investing capital. The result is a value gap, where overall market value is significantly lower than the replacement costs of the assets. This gap is wider for utilities than for virtually any other industry in our economy. In addition to providing education and awareness, senior management must determine which businesses and activities create value and which diminish it. Then, management must allocate capital and human resources appropriately, holding down investments in value-diminishing areas until they can improve their profitability, and aggressively investing in value-enhancing businesses while preserving their profitability. But value management must not stop with resource-allocation decisions. To create a lasting transition to a value management philosophy, the utility's compensation system must also change: executives will have motivation to create value when compensation stems from this goal, not from such misleading accounting measures as earnings-per-share growth or ROE. That requires clear value-creation goals, and the organization must continuously evaluate top management's performance in light of the progress made toward those goals

  1. Gender Pay Gap, Productivity Gap and Discrimination in Canadian Clothing Manufacturing in 1870

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine L McDevitt; James R Irwin; Kris Inwood

    2009-01-01

    Women's earnings were less than men's in Canadian clothing factories in 1870. Orthodox neoclassical theory would explain that gender pay gap as a reflection of a gender productivity gap. Using classical hypothesis testing we reject that view, based on a large cross-section of 1870 census data. We find the gender pay gap was significantly larger than the gender productivity gap, much as Hellerstein et al. [1999] found for US manufacturing circa 1990. Our results are clear and compell...

  2. Gender gap or program gap? Students' negotiations of study practice in a course in electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Staffan; Johansson, Anders

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This study of achievement differences, as reflected by course grades, on a third-semester electromagnetism course at a Swedish research university was motivated by instructor concerns about gender inequalities. Quantitative analysis showed a gender gap in course grades between female and male students for the period of fall 2007 to spring 2013. Dynamics behind this gap were explored through interpretative discourse analysis on interviews of 21 students who had recently passed the course. A recurring pattern was identified in the interviews. Students described studying electromagnetism as either studying to pass or studying to learn. Their choice of practice was influenced by the significance recognized in the course, which primarily was discussed in relation to program affiliation. Students stressed that perceived differences, in their study context, were larger between students affiliated with different programs than between male and female students on the same program. This was supported by quantitative analysis of course grades in relation to study programs, where the grade difference between female and male students on the same program in most cases were not statistically significant. The gender gap in grades for the whole course was related to different achievements on different programs. Programs further from the discipline of physics had lower mean grades and also enrolled a larger fraction of female students. Society-wide gender differences in interest and study choice are reflected in the grades on this single course. These results displace the achievement gap from the level of individuals to that of programs, and the gender gap from a difference in achievement to a difference in study choice. We discuss the implications of this shift of perspective in relation to gender differences for both research and teaching.

  3. Minding the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Carlberg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The plan for the Round table session was to focus on organizational and social/cultural differences between librarians and faculty with the aim to increase our awareness of the differences when we try to find ways to cooperate within the academy or school. This may help us to sort things out, experience acceptance and take adequate actions, saving energy and perhaps be less frustrated.  The questions that the workshop addressed were: What is in the gap between librarians and faculty when dealing with information literacy? How can we fill the gap? Participants discussed this in detail with the aim of together finding ways to understand it better and make it possible to find ways to fill this gap. By defining it and thereby making it easier to work out a strategy for future action to improve the teaching of information literacy, including listing possible, impossible or nearly impossible ways. The springboard to the discussion was extracted from some projects that the workshop leader has been engaged in since 2009. The first example is a research circle where Uppsala University Library used action research to observe and understand the process when we had the opportunity to implement information literacy classes with progression in an undergraduate program. What worked well? What did not? Why? This work was described together with other examples from Uppsala University to an international panel working with quality issues. What did they think of our work? May this change the ways we are working? How? Another example is an ongoing joint project where librarians and faculty members are trying to define ways to increase the cooperation between the library and faculty and make this cooperation sustainable. Recent experience from this was brought to the discussion.   There are an overwhelming number of papers written in this field. A few papers have inspired these ideas. One article in particular: Christiansen, L., Stombler, M. & Thaxton, L. (2004. A

  4. ROSS Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities Training Evaluation. Gaps and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala, Maureen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gruidl, Jeremiah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, Brooke [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This document describes the development of the ROSS SKAs, the cross-mapping of the SKAs to the available training, identifies gaps in the SKA and training, and provides recommendations to address those gaps.

  5. Vehicle Codes and Standards: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, C.; Buttner, W.; Rivkin, C.

    2010-02-01

    This report identifies gaps in vehicle codes and standards and recommends ways to fill the gaps, focusing on six alternative fuels: biodiesel, natural gas, electricity, ethanol, hydrogen, and propane.

  6. The early career gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Napari

    2006-01-01

    In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16...

  7. Gaps in college biology students' understanding of photosynthesis: Implications for human constructivist learning theory and college classroom practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffard, Phyllis Baudoin

    1999-11-01

    The main research question of this study was: What gaps in biochemical understanding are revealed by a range of university introductory biology students as they work through a critically acclaimed multimedia program on photosynthesis, and what are the corresponding implications for elaboration of the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin Learning Theory (ANG, now Human Constructivism)? Twelve students, mixed for ability, gender and ethnicity, were recruited from two sections of "Bio 101." Before and after instruction in photosynthesis, in-depth clinical interviews were conducted during which participants completed a range of cognitive tasks such as sorting, concept mapping, explaining and predicting. Some tasks involved interacting with a computer simulation of photosynthesis. This study primarily employed qualitative case study and verbal analysis methods. Verbal analysis of the clinical interviews revealed numerous gaps that were categorized into typologies. The two major categories were propositional gaps and processing gaps. Propositional gaps were evident in development of participants' concepts, links and constructs. Significant among these were conceptual distance gaps and continuity of matter gaps. Gaps such as convention gaps and relative significance gaps seem to be due to naivete in the discipline. Processing gaps included gaps in graphic decoding skills and relevant cognitive habits such as self-monitoring and consulting prior knowledge. Although the gaps were easier to detect and isolate with the above-average participants, all participants showed evidence of at least some of these gaps. Since some gaps are not unexpected at all but the highest literacy levels, not all the gaps identified are to be considered deficiencies. The gaps identified support the attention given by ANG theorists to the role of prior knowledge and metacognition as well as the value of graphic organizers in knowledge construction. In addition, this study revealed numerous gaps in graphic decoding

  8. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  9. Bridging the Civil Military Gap Capitalizing on Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    solutions. Researchers identifying the sources of the gap discussed above, have also suggested some methods for reducing the gap . While some are policy...Strategy Research Project DATE: 09 April 2002 PAGES: 42 CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Researchers have identified a "civil-military gap ," an observable...would indicate a desire by the civilian populous to draw closer to the military, creating an opportunity to close or at least narrow this gap . The media

  10. Gap and density theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, N

    1940-01-01

    A typical gap theorem of the type discussed in the book deals with a set of exponential functions { \\{e^{{{i\\lambda}_n} x}\\} } on an interval of the real line and explores the conditions under which this set generates the entire L_2 space on this interval. A typical gap theorem deals with functions f on the real line such that many Fourier coefficients of f vanish. The main goal of this book is to investigate relations between density and gap theorems and to study various cases where these theorems hold. The author also shows that density- and gap-type theorems are related to various propertie

  11. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  12. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  14. The Wage Gap and Administrative Salaries Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirk D.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of national data on college administrator salaries by gender, minority/nonminority status, years of service, and institution type found that wage gaps related to gender and minority status persisted in 1991-92 but that interaction of length of service with other study variables explained a significant amount of this gap. (MSE)

  15. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  16. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  17. Understanding the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Claudia

    1985-01-01

    Despite the great influx of women into the labor market, the gap between men's and women's wages has remained stable at 40 percent since 1950. Analysis of labor data suggests that this has occurred because women's educational attainment compared to men has declined. Recently, however, the wage gap has begun to narrow, and this will probably become…

  18. Bridging the Transition Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    period and provide recommendations to guide future research and policy development. 4 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL SECURITY GAP There have been...BRIDGING THE TRANSITION GAP A Monograph by MAJ J.D. Hansen United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704

  19. Emplacement Gantry Gap Analysis Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, R.

    2005-01-01

    To date, the project has established important to safety (ITS) performance requirements for structures, systems, and components (SSCs) based on the identification and categorization of event sequences that may result in a radiological release. These performance requirements are defined within the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512], Table A-11). Further, SSCs credited with performing safety functions are classified as ITS. In turn, assurance that these SSCs will perform as required is sought through the use of consensus codes and standards. This gap analysis is based on the design completed for license application only. Accordingly, identification of ITS SSCs beyond those defined within the NSDB are based on designs that may be subject to further development during detail design. Furthermore, several design alternatives may still be under consideration to satisfy certain safety functions, and final selection will not be determined until further design development has occurred. Therefore, for completeness, alternative designs currently under consideration will be discussed throughout this study. This gap analysis will evaluate each code and standard identified within the ''Emplacement Gantry ITS Standards Identification Study'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173586]) to ensure each ITS performance requirement is fully satisfied. When a performance requirement is not fully satisfied, a gap is highlighted. This study will identify requirements to supplement or augment the code or standard to meet performance requirements. Further, this gap analysis will identify nonstandard areas of the design that will be subject to a design development plan. Nonstandard components and nonstandard design configurations are defined as areas of the design that do not follow standard industry practices or codes and standards. Whereby, assurance that an SSC will perform as required may not be readily sought though the use of consensus standards. This

  20. Incorporating shrub and snag specific LiDAR data into GAP wildlife models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J Lorenz; Kerri T Vierling; Jody Vogeler; Jeffrey Lonneker; Jocelyn Aycrigg

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Gap Analysis Program (hereafter, GAP) is a nationally based program that uses land cover, vertebrate distributions, and land ownership to identify locations where gaps in conservation coverage exist, and GAP products are commonly used by government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and private citizens. The GAP land-cover...

  1. 'Mind the Gap!'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar

    This paper challenges the widely held view that sharply falling real transport costs closed the transatlantic gap in grain prices in the second half of the 19th century. Several new results emerge from an analysis of a new data set of weekly wheat prices and freight costs from New York to UK...... markets. Firstly, there was a decline in the transatlantic price gap but it was not sharp and the gap remained substantial. Secondly, the fall in the transatlantic price differential had more to do with improved market and marketing efficiency than with falling transport costs. Thirdly, spurious price...

  2. Public perceptions and information gaps in solar energy in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Beck, Ariane L.

    2015-07-01

    Studying the behavioral aspects of the individual decision-making process is important in identifying and addressing barriers in the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV). However, there is little systematic research focusing on these aspects of residential PV in Texas, an important, large, populous state, with a range of challenges in the electricity sector including increasing demand, shrinking reserve margins, constrained water supply, and challenging emissions reduction targets under proposed federal regulations. This paper aims to address this gap through an empirical investigation of a new survey-based dataset collected in Texas on solar energy perceptions and behavior. The results of this analysis offer insights into the perceptions and motivations influencing intentions and behavior toward solar energy in a relatively untapped market and help identify information gaps that could be targeted to alleviate key barriers to adopting solar, thereby enabling significant emissions reductions in the residential sector in Texas.

  3. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  4. Gender-Pay-Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Eicker, Jannis

    2017-01-01

    Der Gender-Pay-Gap ist eine statistische Kennzahl zur Messung der Ungleichheit zwischen Männern* und Frauen* beim Verdienst. Es gibt zwei Versionen: einen "unbereinigten" und einen "bereinigten". Der "unbereinigte" Gender-Pay-Gap berechnet den geschlechtsspezifischen Verdienstunterschied auf Basis der Bruttostundenlöhne aller Männer* und Frauen* der Grundgesamtheit. Beim "bereinigten" Wert hingegen werden je nach Studie verschiedene Faktoren wie Branche, Position und Berufserfahrung herausger...

  5. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  6. Extension Systems in Tanzania: Identifying Gaps in Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Tanzania on agricultural extension systems; review research globally on agricultural ... cal techniques, unique results and major recommendations. .... participation in decision-making, natural .... soil and water management technologies in.

  7. Ghrelin and Obesity: Identifying Gaps and Dispelling Myths. A Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Marinos C; Alexandrou, Andreas; Papatsoutsos, Efstathios G; Malietzis, George; Tsilimigras, Diamantis I; Guerron, Alfredo D; Moris, Demetrios

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of obesity is complex. Environmental and genetic causes have been implicated in the development of this disease. Ghrelin is a hormone known to stimulate appetite. There are numerous possible actions through which ghrelin exerts its effect in the body: a) Overproduction of ghrelin, b) reduced ghrelin following meals, and c) increased receptor sensitivity to ghrelin action. Sleeve gastrectomy, a bariatric procedure, leads to reduction of ghrelin levels and subsequently to weight loss. However, there are many limitations to measurement of the fasting plasma level of the active form of ghrelin. The establishment of the exact correlation between ghrelin, appetite and obesity could be vital for the fight against obesity. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying Gaps in Knowledge, Prevalence and Care of Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a severe neuro-developmental disorder with onset in childhood and is being increasingly recognized worldwide. Recent statistics indicate an increase from 1 out of every 90 children to almost one out of every 60 children in USA. It has also been increasingly recognized in ...

  9. Extension Systems in Tanzania: Identifying Gaps in Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their interactions and communication networks among these ..... traders, processors and retailers have contracted extension ..... amount of ex post analysis will be able to get at the larger .... private provision of inputs or purchase of outputs,.

  10. US and territory telemedicine policies: identifying gaps in perinatal care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroh, Ekwutosi M.; Kroelinger, Charlan D.; Smith, Alexander M.; Goodman, David A.; Barfield, Wanda D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Perinatal regionalization is a system of maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate health care delivery in which resources are ideally allocated for mothers and newborns during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and postpartum, in order to deliver appropriate care. Typically, perinatal risk-appropriate care is provided in-person, but with the advancement of technologies, the opportunity to provide care remotely has emerged. Telemedicine provides distance-based care to patients by consultation, diagnosis, and treatment in rural or remote US jurisdictions (states and territories). OBJECTIVE We sought to summarize the telemedicine policies of states and territories and assess if maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate care is specified. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a 2014 systematic World Wide Web–based review of publicly available rules, statutes, regulations, laws, planning documents, and program descriptions among US jurisdictions (N=59) on telemedicine care. Policies including language on the topics of consultation, diagnosis, or treatment, and those specific to maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate care were categorized for analysis. RESULTS Overall, 36 jurisdictions (32 states; 3 territories; and District of Columbia) (61%) had telemedicine policies with language referencing consultation, diagnosis, or treatment; 29 (49%) referenced consultation, 30 (51%) referenced diagnosis, and 35 (59%) referenced treatment. In all, 26 jurisdictions (22 states; 3 territories; and District of Columbia) (44%), referenced all topics. Only 3 jurisdictions (3 states; 0 territories) (5%), had policy language specifically addressing perinatal care. CONCLUSION The majority of states have published telemedicine policies, but few specify policy language for perinatal risk-appropriate care. By ensuring that language specific to the perinatal population is included in telemedicine policies, access to maternal and neonatal care can be increased in rural, remote, and resource-challenged jurisdictions. PMID:27565048

  11. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Trunnion Collar Removal Machine - Gap Analysis Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing the trunnion collar removal machine against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards can not fully meet these requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Trunnion Collar Removal Machine Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 15]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements for the trunnion collar removal machine are provided in the gap analysis table (Appendix A, Table 1). Because the trunnion collar removal machine is credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the trunnion collar removal machine performs required safety functions and meets performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis tables supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed

  13. Intracellular trafficking pathways of Cx43 gap junction channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifantseva, Irina; Shaw, Robin M

    2018-01-01

    Gap Junction (GJ) channels, including the most common Connexin 43 (Cx43), have fundamental roles in excitable tissues by facilitating rapid transmission of action potentials between adjacent cells. For instance, synchronization during each heartbeat is regulated by these ion channels at the cardiomyocyte cell-cell border. Cx43 protein has a short half-life, and rapid synthesis and timely delivery of those proteins to particular subdomains are crucial for the cellular organization of gap junctions and maintenance of intracellular coupling. Impairment in gap junction trafficking contributes to dangerous complications in diseased hearts such as the arrhythmias of sudden cardiac death. Of recent interest are the protein-protein interactions with the Cx43 carboxy-terminus. These interactions have significant impact on the full length Cx43 lifecycle and also contribute to trafficking of Cx43 as well as possibly other functions. We are learning that many of the known non-canonical roles of Cx43 can be attributed to the recently identified six endogenous Cx43 truncated isoforms which are produced by internal translation. In general, alternative translation is a new leading edge for proteome expansion and therapeutic drug development. This review highlights recent mechanisms identified in the trafficking of gap junction channels, involvement of other proteins contributing to the delivery of channels to the cell-cell border, and understanding of possible roles of the newly discovered alternatively translated isoforms in Cx43 biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Gap Junction Proteins edited by Jean Claude Herve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Water resources management in Tanzania: identifying research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at identifying research gaps and needs and recommendations for a research agenda on water resources management in Tanzania. We reviewed published literature on water resources management in Tanzania in order to highlight what is currently known, and to identify knowledge gaps, and suggest ...

  15. Prediction of Gap Asymmetry in Differential Micro Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping He

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gap asymmetry in differential capacitors is the primary source of the zero bias output of force-balanced micro accelerometers. It is also used to evaluate the applicability of differential structures in MEMS manufacturing. Therefore, determining the asymmetry level has considerable significance for the design of MEMS devices. This paper proposes an experimental-theoretical method for predicting gap asymmetry in differential sensing capacitors of micro accelerometers. The method involves three processes: first, bi-directional measurement, which can sharply reduce the influence of the feedback circuit on bias output, is proposed. Experiments are then carried out on a centrifuge to obtain the input and output data of an accelerometer. Second, the analytical input-output relationship of the accelerometer with gap asymmetry and circuit error is theoretically derived. Finally, the prediction methodology combines the measurement results and analytical derivation to identify the asymmetric error of 30 accelerometers fabricated by DRIE. Results indicate that the level of asymmetry induced by fabrication uncertainty is about ±5 × 10−2, and that the absolute error is about ±0.2 µm under a 4 µm gap.

  16. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  17. The prostate health index selectively identifies clinically significant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Loeb (Stacy); M.G. Sanda (Martin G.); D.L. Broyles (Dennis L.); S.S. Shin (Sanghyuk S.); C.H. Bangma (Chris); J.T. Wei (John T.); A.W. Partin (Alan W.); G.G. Klee (George); K.M. Slawin (Kevin M.); L.S. Marks (Leonard S.); R.H.N. van Schaik (Ron); D.W. Chan (Daniel); L. Sokoll (Lori); A.B. Cruz (Amabelle B.); I.A. Mizrahi (Isaac A.); W.J. Catalona (William)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting

  18. Kaolinite: Defect defined material properties – A soft X-ray and first principles study of the band gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzsch, A., E-mail: annette.pietzsch@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research G-ISRR, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Nisar, J. [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 2151, Islamabad (Pakistan); Jämstorp, E. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Gråsjö, J. [Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Box 580, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Århammar, C. [Coromant R& D, S-126 80 Stockholm (Sweden); Ahuja, R.; Rubensson, J.-E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The respective electronic structure of synthetic and natural kaolinite is compared. • The size of the band gap and thus many important material properties are defined by defect states in the band gap. • The oxygen-based defect states are identified and analyzed. • The band gap of kaolinite decreases significantly due to the forming of defects. - Abstract: By combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first principles calculations we have determined the electronic structure of synthetic and natural kaolinite as a model system for engineered and natural clay materials. We have analyzed defect states in the band gap and find that both natural and synthetic kaolinite contain defects where oxygen replaces hydrogen in one of the Al (0 0 1)-hydroxyl groups of the kaolinite clay sheets. The band gap of both synthetic and natural kaolinite is found to decrease by about 3.2 eV as this defect is formed.

  19. Kaolinite: Defect defined material properties – A soft X-ray and first principles study of the band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietzsch, A.; Nisar, J.; Jämstorp, E.; Gråsjö, J.; Århammar, C.; Ahuja, R.; Rubensson, J.-E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The respective electronic structure of synthetic and natural kaolinite is compared. • The size of the band gap and thus many important material properties are defined by defect states in the band gap. • The oxygen-based defect states are identified and analyzed. • The band gap of kaolinite decreases significantly due to the forming of defects. - Abstract: By combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first principles calculations we have determined the electronic structure of synthetic and natural kaolinite as a model system for engineered and natural clay materials. We have analyzed defect states in the band gap and find that both natural and synthetic kaolinite contain defects where oxygen replaces hydrogen in one of the Al (0 0 1)-hydroxyl groups of the kaolinite clay sheets. The band gap of both synthetic and natural kaolinite is found to decrease by about 3.2 eV as this defect is formed

  20. The Health Gap: Beyond Pregnancy and Reproduction | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Health Gap identifies and addresses key gaps in gender and health research: women and AIDS, tropical disease, the working environment, barriers to quality health care, and the health of adolescent and older women. It also identifies new and emerging themes in women's health and sets priorities for future action.

  1. Closing the mycetoma knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Wendy; Fahal, Ahmed; Ahmed, Sarah Abdalla; Serrano, Julian Alberto; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Zijlstra, Ed

    2018-04-01

    On 28th May 2016, mycetoma was recognized as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. This was the result of a 4-year journey starting in February 2013 with a meeting of global mycetoma experts. Knowledge gaps were identified and included the incidence, prevalence, and mapping of mycetoma; the mode of transmission; the development of methods for early diagnosis; and better treatment. In this review, we review the road to recognition, the ISHAM working group meeting in Argentina, and we address the progress made in closing the knowledge gaps since 2013. Progress included adding another 9000 patients to the literature, which allowed us to update the prevalence map on mycetoma. Furthermore, based on molecular phylogeny, species names were corrected and four novel mycetoma causative agents were identified. By mapping mycetoma causative agents an association with Acacia trees was found. For early diagnosis, three different isothermal amplification techniques were developed, and novel antigens were discovered. To develop better treatment strategies for mycetoma patients, in vitro susceptibility tests for the coelomycete agents of black grain mycetoma were developed, and the first randomized clinical trial for eumycetoma started early 2017.

  2. Determining the ’Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Army training doctrine, and by adjusting the curriculum of the officer core in order to close the knowledge gap . The author closes by concluding...fight. The research to find these gaps begins with a process trace of doctrine from 1976 to the present, starting with the advent of Active Defense...discovering the one gap , three were found. Upon further examination below, even these initially perceived gaps dissipate under close scrutiny. Gap

  3. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  4. Detection of muscle gap by L-BIA in muscle injuries: clinical prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescolarde, L; Yanguas, J; Terricabras, J; Lukaski, H; Alomar, X; Rosell-Ferrer, J; Rodas, G

    2017-06-21

    Sport-related muscle injury classifications are based basically on imaging criteria such as ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without consensus because of a lack of clinical prognostics for return-to-play (RTP), which is conditioned upon the severity of the injury, and this in turn with the muscle gap (muscular fibers retraction). Recently, Futbol Club Barcelona's medical department proposed a new muscle injury classification in which muscle gap plays an important role, with the drawback that it is not always possible to identify by MRI. Localized bioimpedance measurement (L-BIA) has emerged as a non-invasive technique for supporting US and MRI to quantify the disrupted soft tissue structure in injured muscles. To correlate the severity of the injury according to the gap with the RTP, through the percent of change in resistance (R), reactance (Xc) and phase-angle (PA) by L-BIA measurements in 22 muscle injuries. After grouping the data according to the muscle gap (by MRI exam), there were significant differences in R between grade 1 and grade 2f (myotendinous or myofascial muscle injury with feather-like appearance), as well as between grade 2f and grade 2g (myotendinous or myofascial muscle injury with feather and gap). The Xc and PA values decrease significantly between each grade (i.e. 1 versus 2f, 1 versus 2g and 2f versus 2g). In addition, the severity of the muscle gap adversely affected the RTP with significant differences observed between 1 and 2g as well as between 2f and 2g. These results show that L-BIA could aid MRI and US in identifying the severity of an injured muscle according to muscle gap and therefore to accurately predict the RTP.

  5. Mind the Gap!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld; Simone, Carla

    2000-01-01

    CSCW at large seems to be pursuing two diverging strategies: on one hand a strategy aiming at coordination technologies that reduce the complexity of coordinating cooperative activities by regulating the coordinative interactions, and on the other hand a strategy that aims at radically flexible m...... and blended in the course of real world cooperative activities. On the basis of this discussion the paper outlines an approach which may help CSCW research to bridge this gap....... means of interaction which do not regulate interaction but rather leave it to the users to cope with the complexity of coordinating their activities. As both strategies reflect genuine requirements, we need to address the issue of how the gap can be bridged, that is, how the two strategies can...

  6. Closing the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fish going through turbines at hydroelectric power plants and the growing concern over the survival rate of salmon at the US Army Corps operated Bonneville lock and dam on the Columbia river in the Pacific Northwest is discussed. The protection of the fish, the assessment of the hazards facing fish passing through turbines, the development of a new turbine, and improved turbine efficiency that reduces cavitation, turbulence and shear flow are examined. The closing of the gap between the turbine blades, hub and discharge ring to increase efficiency and reduce the risk to fish, and the development of the minimum gap runner (MGR) are described, and the lower maximum permitted power output of MGR is noted. (UK)

  7. Minding the Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Millicent Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Neutron & X-ray scattering provides nano- to meso-scale details of complex fluid structure; 1D electronic density maps dervied from SAXS yield molecular level insights; Neutron reflectivity provides substructure details of substrate supported complex fluids; Complex fluids composition can be optimized to support a wide variety of both soluble and membrane proteins; The water gap dimensions can be finely tuned through polymer component.

  8. MV controlled spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimovich, V.M.; Evlampiev, S.B.; Korshunov, G.S.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Sviridov, Yu.F.; Khmyrov, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    A megavolt gas-filled trigatron gap with a sectional gas-discharge chamber having a more than three-fold range of operating voltages is described. The discharge chamber consists of ten sections, each 70 mm thick, made of organic glass. The sections are separated one from another by aluminium gradient rings to which ohmic voltage divider is connected. Insulational sections and gradient rings are braced between themselves by means of metal flanges through gaskets made of oil-resistant rubber with the help of fiberglass-laminate pins. The gap has two electrodes 110 mm in diameter. The trigatron ignition assembly uses a dielectric bushing projecting over the main electrode plane. Use has been made of a gas mixture containing 10% of SF 6 and 90% of air making possible to ensure stable gap operation without readjusting in the voltage range from 0.4 to 1.35 MV. The operation time lag in this range is equal to 10 μs at a spread of [ru

  9. A Conserved RhoGAP Limits M-phase Contractility and Coordinates with Microtubule Asters to Restrict Active RhoA to the Cell Equator During Cytokinesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Esther; Desai, Arshad; Poser, Ina; Toyoda, Yusuke; Andree, Cordula; Moebius, Claudia; Bickle, Marc; Conradt, Barbara; Piekny, Alisa; Oegema, Karen

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY During animal cell cytokinesis, the spindle directs contractile ring assembly by activating RhoA in a narrow equatorial zone. Rapid GTPase activating protein (GAP)-mediated inactivation (RhoA flux) is proposed to limit RhoA zone dimensions. Testing the significance of RhoA flux has been hampered by the fact that the GAP targeting RhoA is not known. Here, we identify M-phase GAP (MP-GAP) as the primary GAP targeting RhoA during mitosis/cytokinesis. MP-GAP inhibition caused excessive RhoA activation in M-phase leading to the uncontrolled formation of large cortical protrusions and late cytokinesis failure. RhoA zone width was broadened by attenuation of the centrosomal asters but was not affected by MP-GAP inhibition alone. Simultaneous aster attenuation and MP-GAP inhibition led to RhoA accumulation around the entire cell periphery. These results identify the major GAP restraining RhoA during cell division and delineate the relative contributions of RhoA flux and centrosomal asters in controlling RhoA zone dimensions. PMID:24012485

  10. The role of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapA-1 in Neisseria meningitidis adherence to human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooldridge Karl G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDHs are cytoplasmic glycolytic enzymes, which although lacking identifiable secretion signals, have also been found localized to the surface of several bacteria (and some eukaryotic organisms; where in some cases they have been shown to contribute to the colonization and invasion of host tissues. Neisseria meningitidis is an obligate human nasopharyngeal commensal which can cause life-threatening infections including septicaemia and meningitis. N. meningitidis has two genes, gapA-1 and gapA-2, encoding GAPDH enzymes. GapA-1 has previously been shown to be up-regulated on bacterial contact with host epithelial cells and is accessible to antibodies on the surface of capsule-permeabilized meningococcal cells. The aims of this study were: 1 to determine whether GapA-1 was expressed across different strains of N. meningitidis; 2 to determine whether GapA-1 surface accessibility to antibodies was dependant on the presence of capsule; 3 to determine whether GapA-1 can influence the interaction of meningococci and host cells, particularly in the key stages of adhesion and invasion. Results In this study, expression of GapA-1 was shown to be well conserved across diverse isolates of Neisseria species. Flow cytometry confirmed that GapA-1 could be detected on the cell surface, but only in a siaD-knockout (capsule-deficient background, suggesting that GapA-1 is inaccessible to antibody in in vitro-grown encapsulated meningococci. The role of GapA-1 in meningococcal pathogenesis was addressed by mutational analysis and functional complementation. Loss of GapA-1 did not affect the growth of the bacterium in vitro. However, a GapA-1 deficient mutant showed a significant reduction in adhesion to human epithelial and endothelial cells compared to the wild-type and complemented mutant. A similar reduction in adhesion levels was also apparent between a siaD-deficient meningococcal strain and an

  11. A gap analysis of meteorological requirements for commercial space operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Nicholas James

    Commercial space companies will soon be the primary method of launching people and supplies into orbit. Among the critical aspects of space launches are the meteorological concerns. Laws and regulations pertaining to meteorological considerations have been created to ensure the safety of the space industry and those living around spaceports; but, are they adequate? Perhaps the commercial space industry can turn to the commercial aviation industry to help answer that question. Throughout its history, the aviation industry has dealt with lessons learned from mishaps due to failures in understanding the significance of weather impacts on operations. Using lessons from the aviation industry, the commercial space industry can preempt such accidents and maintain viability as an industry. Using Lanicci's Strategic Planning Model, this study identified the weather needs of the commercial space industry by conducting three gap analyses. First, a comparative analysis was done between laws and regulations in commercial aviation and those in the commercial space industry pertaining to meteorological support, finding a "legislative gap" between the two industries, as no legal guarantee is in place to ensure weather products remain available to the commercial space industry. A second analysis was conducted between the meteorological services provided for the commercial aviation industry and commercial space industry, finding a gap at facilities not located at an established launch facility or airport. At such facilities, many weather observational technologies would not be present, and would need to be purchased by the company operating the spaceport facility. A third analysis was conducted between the meteorological products and regulations that are currently in existence, and those needed for safe operations within the commercial space industry, finding gaps in predicting lightning, electric field charge, and space weather. Recommendations to address these deficiencies have

  12. Gender pay gap and employment sector: sources of earnings disparities in the United States, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas; Semyonov, Moshe

    2014-10-01

    Using data from the IPUMS-USA, the present research focuses on trends in the gender earnings gap in the United States between 1970 and 2010. The major goal of this article is to understand the sources of the convergence in men's and women's earnings in the public and private sectors as well as the stagnation of this trend in the new millennium. For this purpose, we delineate temporal changes in the role played by major sources of the gap. Several components are identified: the portion of the gap attributed to gender differences in human-capital resources; labor supply; sociodemographic attributes; occupational segregation; and the unexplained portion of the gap. The findings reveal a substantial reduction in the gross gender earnings gap in both sectors of the economy. Most of the decline is attributed to the reduction in the unexplained portion of the gap, implying a significant decline in economic discrimination against women. In contrast to discrimination, the role played by human capital and personal attributes in explaining the gender pay gap is relatively small in both sectors. Differences between the two sectors are not only in the size and pace of the reduction but also in the significance of the two major sources of the gap. Working hours have become the most important factor with respect to gender pay inequality in both sectors, although much more dominantly in the private sector. The declining gender segregation may explain the decreased impact of occupations on the gender pay gap in the private sector. In the public sector, by contrast, gender segregation still accounts for a substantial portion of the gap. The findings are discussed in light of the theoretical literature on sources of gender economic inequality and in light of the recent stagnation of the trend.

  13. THE PAL 5 STAR STREAM GAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hetherington, Nathan; Grillmair, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Pal 5 is a low-mass, low-velocity-dispersion, globular cluster with spectacular tidal tails. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 data to extend the density measurements of the trailing star stream to 23 deg distance from the cluster, at which point the stream runs off the edge of the available sky coverage. The size and the number of gaps in the stream are measured using a filter which approximates the structure of the gaps found in stream simulations. We find 5 gaps that are at least 99% confidence detections with about a dozen gaps at 90% confidence. The statistical significance of a gap is estimated using bootstrap resampling of the control regions on either side of the stream. The density minimum closest to the cluster is likely the result of the epicyclic orbits of the tidal outflow and has been discounted. To create the number of 99% confidence gaps per unit length at the mean age of the stream requires a halo population of nearly a thousand dark matter sub-halos with peak circular velocities above 1 km s –1 within 30 kpc of the galactic center. These numbers are a factor of about three below cold stream simulation at this sub-halo mass or velocity but, given the uncertainties in both measurement and more realistic warm stream modeling, are in substantial agreement with the LCDM prediction.

  14. Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    we would like to web developer; gather comments from GAP researchers and data users. We are * facilitate collaboration among GAP projects by...N.Y. Research Grant #012/01 A. 42 Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13, December 2005 Ga pAnalysis Smith, S. D., W. A. Brown, C. R. Smith, and M. E. Richmond... GAP will be focusing activities have greatly reduced the habitat available to support on the enduring features of the Great Lakes basin. Influences

  15. Deep and wide gaps by super Earths in low-viscosity discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Sari, Re'em

    2018-06-01

    Planets can open cavities (gaps) in the protoplanetary gaseous discs in which they are born by exerting gravitational torques. Viscosity counters these torques and limits the depletion of the gaps. We present a simple one-dimensional scheme to calculate the gas density profile inside gaps by balancing the gravitational and viscous torques. By generalizing the results of Goodman & Rafikov (2001), our scheme properly accounts for the propagation of angular momentum by density waves. This method allows us to easily study low-viscosity discs, which are challenging for full hydrodynamical simulations. We complement our numerical integration by analytical equations for the gap's steady-state depth and width as a function of the planet's to star's mass ratio μ, the gas disc's aspect ratio h, and its Shakura & Sunyaev viscosity parameter α. Specifically, we focus on low-mass planets (μ < μth ≡ h3) and identify a new low-viscosity regime, α < h(μ/μth)5, in which the classical analytical scaling relations are invalid. Equivalently, this low-viscosity regime applies to every gap that is depleted by more than a factor of (μth/μ)3 relative to the unperturbed density. We show that such gaps are significantly deeper and wider than previously thought, and consequently take a longer time to reach equilibrium.

  16. The homeownership gap

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F. Haughwout; Richard Peach; Joseph Tracy

    2009-01-01

    After rising for a decade, the U.S. homeownership rate peaked at 69 percent in the third quarter of 2006. Over the next two and a half years, as home prices fell in many parts of the country and the unemployment rate rose sharply, the homeownership rate declined by 1.7 percentage points. An important question is, how much more will this rate decline over the current economic downturn? To address this question, we propose the concept of the 'homeownership gap' as a gauge of downward pressure o...

  17. Gaps in nonsymmetric numerical semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel, Leonid G.; Aicardi, Francesca

    2006-12-01

    There exist two different types of gaps in the nonsymmetric numerical semigroups S(d 1 , . . . , d m ) finitely generated by a minimal set of positive integers {d 1 , . . . , d m }. We give the generating functions for the corresponding sets of gaps. Detailed description of both gap types is given for the 1st nontrivial case m = 3. (author)

  18. The Politics of Achievement Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valant, J.; Newark, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap...

  19. Structural analyses of Legionella LepB reveal a new GAP fold that catalytically mimics eukaryotic RasGAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Hu, Liyan; Yao, Qing; Zhu, Yongqun; Dong, Na; Wang, Da-Cheng; Shao, Feng

    2013-06-01

    Rab GTPases are emerging targets of diverse bacterial pathogens. Here, we perform biochemical and structural analyses of LepB, a Rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) effector from Legionella pneumophila. We map LepB GAP domain to residues 313-618 and show that the GAP domain is Rab1 specific with a catalytic activity higher than the canonical eukaryotic TBC GAP and the newly identified VirA/EspG family of bacterial RabGAP effectors. Exhaustive mutation analyses identify Arg444 as the arginine finger, but no catalytically essential glutamine residues. Crystal structures of LepB313-618 alone and the GAP domain of Legionella drancourtii LepB in complex with Rab1-GDP-AlF3 support the catalytic role of Arg444, and also further reveal a 3D architecture and a GTPase-binding mode distinct from all known GAPs. Glu449, structurally equivalent to TBC RabGAP glutamine finger in apo-LepB, undergoes a drastic movement upon Rab1 binding, which induces Rab1 Gln70 side-chain flipping towards GDP-AlF3 through a strong ionic interaction. This conformationally rearranged Gln70 acts as the catalytic cis-glutamine, therefore uncovering an unexpected RasGAP-like catalytic mechanism for LepB. Our studies highlight an extraordinary structural and catalytic diversity of RabGAPs, particularly those from bacterial pathogens.

  20. Tunable transport gap in phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Zhang, Wei; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoffmann, Axel; Dubey, Madan; Roelofs, Andreas

    2014-10-08

    In this article, we experimentally demonstrate that the transport gap of phosphorene can be tuned monotonically from ∼0.3 to ∼1.0 eV when the flake thickness is scaled down from bulk to a single layer. As a consequence, the ON current, the OFF current, and the current ON/OFF ratios of phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) were found to be significantly impacted by the layer thickness. The transport gap was determined from the transfer characteristics of phosphorene FETs using a robust technique that has not been reported before. The detailed mathematical model is also provided. By scaling the thickness of the gate oxide, we were also able to demonstrate enhanced ambipolar conduction in monolayer and few layer phosphorene FETs. The asymmetry of the electron and the hole current was found to be dependent on the layer thickness that can be explained by dynamic changes of the metal Fermi level with the energy band of phosphorene depending on the layer number. We also extracted the Schottky barrier heights for both the electron and the hole injection as a function of the layer thickness. Finally, we discuss the dependence of field effect hole mobility of phosphorene on temperature and carrier concentration.

  1. GAP-REACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A.; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E.; Alarcón, Renato D.; Oquendo, María A.; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C.; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N.; Jacobsen, Frederick M.; Foulks, Edward F.; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E.

    2015-01-01

    Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-itemGAP-REACH© checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article. PMID:24080673

  2. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  3. The influence of gap to the mass flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Kang, C. H.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2000-01-01

    It was known that the release of gap is very important for I-129, Cs, which have high solubility. According to the disposal concept of spent fuel, there is a little gap between fuel rods and a canister. There is a concept that this gap may be filled with sand or beads, but it is impossible to perfectly fill for this gap, so the gap is one of important parameter in release mechanism. In this paper, the influence of gap was carried out. Gap volume have a little influence in the early stage(within a year), but there is not to significantly affect after 1 year. We have to consider the influence of filling material in canister such as cast iron, which have not considered on this paper

  4. Board affiliation and pay gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of board affiliation on the corporate pay gap. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2011, we find that boards with a greater presence of directors appointed by block shareholders have lower pay gaps. Furthermore, the governance effects of board affiliation with and without pay are distinguished. The empirical results show that board affiliation without pay is negatively related to the pay gap, while board affiliation with pay is positively related to the pay gap. Overall, the results shed light on how block shareholders affect their companies’ pay gaps through board affiliation.

  5. Bridging the Gap in Knowledge Transfer between Academia and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Rajat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper intends to identify the causes or gaps in transfer of managerial knowledge between academia and practitioners and to develop a framework that overcomes the gaps through knowledge management, information technology and human resource practices. The paper aims to suggest a strategic approach based on the knowledge transfer cycle.…

  6. School Counselors: Closing Achievement Gaps and Writing Results Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartline, Julie; Cobia, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Charged with closing the achievement gap for marginalized students, school counselors need to be able to identify gaps, develop interventions, evaluate effectiveness, and share results. This study examined 100 summary results reports submitted by school counselors after having received four days of training on the ASCA National Model. Findings…

  7. Reducing Excellence Gaps: A Research-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucker, Jonathan A.; Peters, Scott J.; Schmalensee, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    As the awareness of the existence and negative effects of excellence gaps has grown among educators and policy makers, so too has a desire for research-supported interventions to reduce these gaps. A recent review of research related to promoting equitable outcomes for all gifted students identified six specific strategies for reducing excellence…

  8. Race, ethnicity, recreation, and leisure: An assessment of research gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Gomez

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify research gaps related to the race/ethnicity and leisure literature. This was done by first highlighting the trends involved in the ethnicity and leisure literature, and then presenting five gaps found in the literature for future researchers to consider.

  9. Adaptation to diverse nitrogen-limited environments by deletion or extrachromosomal element formation of the GAP1 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gresham, D.; Usaite, Renata; Germann, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    and deletions at the GAP1 locus. GAP1 encodes the general amino acid permease, which transports amino acids across the plasma membrane. We identified a self-propagating extrachromosomal circular DNA molecule that results from intrachromosomal recombination between long terminal repeats (LTRs) flanking GAP1....... Extrachromosomal DNA circles (GAP1(circle)) contain GAP1, the replication origin ARS1116, and a single hybrid LTR derived from recombination between the two flanking LTRs. Formation of the GAP1(circle) is associated with deletion of chromosomal GAP1 (gap1 Delta) and production of a single hybrid LTR at the GAP1...

  10. Bridging the Evaluation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wouters

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Wouters’ essay is concerned with bridging the gap between what we value in our academic work and how we are assessed in formal evaluation exercises. He reflects on the recent evaluation of his own center, and reminds us that it is productive to see evaluations not as the (obviously impossible attempt to produce a true representation of past work, but rather as the exploration and performance of “who one wants to be.” Reflecting on why STS should do more than just play along to survive in the indicator game, he suggests that our field should contribute to changing its very rules. In this endeavor, the attitude and sensibilities developed in our field may be more important than any specific theoretical concepts or methodologies.

  11. The GAP-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, B.; Anastasio, A.; Boiano, A.; Cocco, A.G.; Meo, P. Di; Vanzanella, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Covone, G.; Longo, G.; Walker, S.; Fiorillo, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency

  12. Finding the gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, A. M.

    Much of the pioneering work on radiation damage was based on very simple potentials. Potentials are now much more sophisticated and accurate. Self-consistent molecular dynamics is routine for adiabatic energy surfaces, at least for modest numbers of atoms and modest timescales. This means that non-equilibrium nuclear processes can be followed dynamically. It might also give the illusion that any damage process can be modelled with success. Sadly, this is not yet so. This paper discusses where the gaps lie, and specifically three groups of challenges. The first challenge concerns electronic excited states. The second challenge concerns timescales, from femtoseconds to tens of years. The third challenge concerns length scales, and the link between microscopic (atomistic) and mesoscopic (microstructural) scales. The context of these challenges is materials modification by excitation: the removal of material, the modification of bulk or surface material, the altering of rates of processes or changing of branching ratios, and damage, good or bad.

  13. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  14. The Earnings Gap between Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The size of the earnings gap between men and women has not changed substantially in recent years. The sustained earnings differential contrasts significantly with recent gains women have made in the job market. Several factors contribute to the wage differences: (1) The majority of women are in lower-paying occupations and lower-status jobs even…

  15. The Wage Gap: Briefing Paper #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee on Pay Equity, Washington, DC.

    Women have made slow, steady progress in the labor market since 1979, but the wage gap has not narrowed significantly. This briefing paper updates a September 1987 paper based on "Male-Female Differences in Work Experience, Occupations, and Earnings: 1984" (Current Population Reports, Household Economic Studies, Series P-70, No. 10, issued in…

  16. Technique for estimating relocated gap width for gap conductance calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Thermally induced fuel fragmentation and relocation has been demonstrated to influence the thermal behavior of a fuel rod in two ways. The effective fuel pellet conductivity is decreased and pellet-to-cladding heat transfer is improved. This paper presents a correlation between as-built and relocated gap width which, used with the Ross and Stoute Gap Conductance Correlation and an appropriate fuel thermal expansion model, closely predicts the measured gap conductances

  17. Gap analysis: a method to assess core competency development in the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fater, Kerry H

    2013-01-01

    To determine the extent to which safety and quality improvement core competency development occurs in an undergraduate nursing program. Rapid change and increased complexity of health care environments demands that health care professionals are adequately prepared to provide high quality, safe care. A gap analysis compared the present state of competency development to a desirable (ideal) state. The core competencies, Nurse of the Future Nursing Core Competencies, reflect the ideal state and represent minimal expectations for entry into practice from pre-licensure programs. Findings from the gap analysis suggest significant strengths in numerous competency domains, deficiencies in two competency domains, and areas of redundancy in the curriculum. Gap analysis provides valuable data to direct curriculum revision. Opportunities for competency development were identified, and strategies were created jointly with the practice partner, thereby enhancing relevant knowledge, attitudes, and skills nurses need for clinical practice currently and in the future.

  18. Gaps in perceived quality of facility services between stakeholders in the built learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Herman; Mobach, Mark P.; Omta, Onno; Alexander, K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to identify perception gaps on the quality of facility services among different users of educational buildings, and provide possible explanations for these perception gaps, and discussing the consequences regarding Facility Management (FM) governance.

  19. Experimental study of bypass flow in near wall gaps of a pebble bed reactor using hot wire anemometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Noushin; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Coolant flow behavior in near wall gaps of a pebble bed reactor is studied. • Hot wire anemometry is applied for high frequency velocity measurements. • Bypass flow is identified within the velocity profiles of near wall gaps. • Effect of gap geometry and Reynolds number on bypass flow is investigated. • Variation of velocity power spectra with radial location and Reynolds number is studied. - Abstract: Coolant flow behavior through the core of an annular pebble bed reactor is investigated in this experimental study. A high frequency hot wire anemometry system coupled with an X-probe is used for measurement of axial and radial velocity components at different points within two near wall gaps at five different modified Reynolds numbers (Re m = 2043–6857). The velocity profiles within the gaps verify the presence of an area of increased velocity close to the pebble bed outer reflector wall, which is known as the bypass flow. Moreover, the characteristics of the coolant flow profile are seen to be highly dependent on the gap geometry. The effect of Reynolds number on the velocity profiles varies as the geometry of the gap changes. The time histories of the local velocities measured with considerably high frequency are further analyzed using power spectral density technique. Power spectral plots illustrate substantial spatial variation of the energy content, spectral shape, and the slope of the energy cascade region. A significant correlation between Reynolds number and characteristics of the velocity power spectra is observed

  20. Managing Uncertainty in Water Infrastructure Design Using Info-gap Robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irias, X.; Cicala, D.

    2013-12-01

    Info-gap theory, a tool for managing deep uncertainty, can be of tremendous value for design of water systems in areas of high seismic risk. Maintaining reliable water service in those areas is subject to significant uncertainties including uncertainty of seismic loading, unknown seismic performance of infrastructure, uncertain costs of innovative seismic-resistant construction, unknown costs to repair seismic damage, unknown societal impacts from downtime, and more. Practically every major earthquake that strikes a population center reveals additional knowledge gaps. In situations of such deep uncertainty, info-gap can offer advantages over traditional approaches, whether deterministic approaches that use empirical safety factors to address the uncertainties involved, or probabilistic methods that attempt to characterize various stochastic properties and target a compromise between cost and reliability. The reason is that in situations of deep uncertainty, it may not be clear what safety factor would be reasonable, or even if any safety factor is sufficient to address the uncertainties, and we may lack data to characterize the situation probabilistically. Info-gap is a tool that recognizes up front that our best projection of the future may be wrong. Thus, rather than seeking a solution that is optimal for that projection, info-gap seeks a solution that works reasonably well for all plausible conditions. In other words, info-gap seeks solutions that are robust in the face of uncertainty. Info-gap has been used successfully across a wide range of disciplines including climate change science, project management, and structural design. EBMUD is currently using info-gap to help it gain insight into possible solutions for providing reliable water service to an island community within its service area. The island, containing about 75,000 customers, is particularly vulnerable to water supply disruption from earthquakes, since it has negligible water storage and is

  1. The Gap-Startle Paradigm for Tinnitus Screening in Animal Models: Limitations and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobarinas, Edward; Hayes, Sarah H.; Allman, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    as assessed with the traditional BBN gap-startle paradigm, resulting in a false-positive screening for tinnitus. Thus, the present study identifies significant caveats of the traditional gap-startle paradigm, and describes experimental parameters using an airpuff startle stimulus which may help to limit the negative consequences of reduced startle reactivity following noise exposure, thereby allowing researchers to better screen for tinnitus in animals with hearing loss. PMID:22728305

  2. Bridging the gap among healthcare workers and decision-makers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bridging the gap among healthcare workers and decision-makers through improved ... Through this project, researchers will build on insights gained from previous ... and identify the critical factors required for the scale-up and integration of the ...

  3. Defining the anesthesia gap for reproductive health procedures in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R Eleanor; Ahn, Roy; Nelson, Brett D; Chavez, Jean; de Redon, Emily; Burke, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    In resource-limited settings, severe shortages of anesthetists and anesthesiologists lead to surgical delays that increase maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. To more clearly understand the individual components of the anesthesia gap pertaining to reproductive health surgeries and procedures in resource-limited settings. Medline, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase, and POPLINE were systematically searched for reports published before December 31, 2013. Search terms were related to obstetric surgery, resource-limited settings, and anesthesia. Studies that addressed the use of anesthesia in reproductive procedures in resource-limited settings were included. Reviewers independently evaluated the full text of identified studies, extracted information related to study objectives and conclusions, and identified the anesthesia gap. Overall, 14 publications met the inclusion criteria. A significant lack of infrastructure, equipment and supplies, and trained personnel were identified as key factors responsible for a lack of anesthesia services. A shortage of trained anesthesia providers, equipment, supplies, medications, and infrastructure, along with limitations in transportation in resource-limited settings have produced a wide gap between available anesthesia services and the demand for them for reproductive health surgeries and procedures. Safe, affordable, and scalable solutions to address the anesthesia gap are urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Data Gap in the EHR for Clinical Research Eligibility Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Alex; Wei, Wei; Yuan, Chi; Kang, Tian; Si, Yuqi; Weng, Chunhua

    2018-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to leverage EHR data for matching patients into clinical trials. However, EHRs may not contain all important data elements for clinical research eligibility screening. To better design research-friendly EHRs, an important step is to identify data elements frequently used for eligibility screening but not yet available in EHRs. This study fills this knowledge gap. Using the Alzheimer's disease domain as an example, we performed text mining on the eligibility criteria text in Clinicaltrials.gov to identify frequently used eligibility criteria concepts. We compared them to the EHR data elements of a cohort of Alzheimer's Disease patients to assess the data gap by usingthe OMOP Common Data Model to standardize the representations for both criteria concepts and EHR data elements. We identified the most common SNOMED CT concepts used in Alzheimer 's Disease trials, andfound 40% of common eligibility criteria concepts were not even defined in the concept space in the EHR dataset for a cohort of Alzheimer 'sDisease patients, indicating a significant data gap may impede EHR-based eligibility screening. The results of this study can be useful for designing targeted research data collection forms to help fill the data gap in the EHR.

  5. Gender Pay Gap in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Oczki, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate the actual and explained gender pay gaps in Poland in comparison with selected highly developed countries, and to discuss the factors determining wage disparities between men and women. Data from Eurostat EU-SILC and the International Labour Organization were used. The article concludes that the gender pay gap in Poland is relatively small and decreasing, and that estimates of the explained gender pay gap published by the Internationa...

  6. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  7. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  8. KNOWLEDGE GAPS IN ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österberg, Marie; Holmlund, Anders; Sunzel, Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate available knowledge and identify knowledge gaps within the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery, by systematically collecting and evaluating systematic reviews. Twelve specific domains were selected: surgical removal of teeth, antibiotic....... However, in all domains, the search revealed a large number of knowledge gaps. Also of concern was the lack of data regarding health economics and ethics. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, there is a need for well-conducted clinical research in the fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery........ RESULTS: In all, 1,778 abstracts were identified, of which 200 met the inclusion criteria. Forty-five systematic reviews were assessed as of high to moderate quality. The results disclosed some existing evidence in a few domains, such as surgical removal of teeth and implant survival after sinus lifts...

  9. Radiating gap filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In May, corrosion on the outside wall of the over 50 year old Canadian Chalk River reactor vessel caused a heavy water leak and the reactor was shut down triggering worldwide a nuclear medicine shortage. The reactor is also a major supplier of the isotope molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), a precursor of the medically widely used technetium-99 m . To fill the gap in demand, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has now arranged with US company Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc., a world leader in medical imaging, to supply Mo-99. Subject to pending Australian regulatory processes, the deal is expected to assist in alleviating the world's current nuclear medicine shortage. As ANSTO is currently also the only global commercial supplier that produces Mo-99 from low enriched uranium (LEU) targets, Lantheus will be the first company bringing LEU derived Tc-99 m to the US market. To date, over 95% of Mo-99 is derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, there are concerns regarding proliferation risks associated with HEU targets and for commercial uses production from LEU targets would be desirable. ANSTO says that global Mo-99 supply chain is fragile and limited and it is working closely with nuclear safety and healthy regulators, both domestically and overseas, to expedite all necessary approvals to allow long-term production and export of medical isotopes.

  10. Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services: the GAPS in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne; Bennett, Shannon; Young, Margaret; Wissow, Lawrence S

    2003-05-01

    Pre- and post-Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) comparison of outcomes gathered via chart audit. A rural hospital-based general pediatric clinic. Adolescents who underwent annual examinations between April 1, 1998, and March 31, 2001. A random sample of 441 medical records was reviewed. Training in the GAPS model and use of the questionnaire began in April 1998. Detection of, discussion of, and referrals for GAPS-related risk behavior. The medical records of 162 younger adolescents (aged 11-15 years) and 279 older adolescents (aged 16-19 years) were audited. Detection of risk behaviors increased from 19% at baseline to 95% with the initial GAPS and 87% with the periodic GAPS. The most prevalent risk factor was having a rifle or gun in the home (younger adolescents, 47% and older adolescents, 39%). The mean number of risk behaviors and health concerns documented was higher in the initial GAPS (4.8 and 1.3, respectively) than in the periodic GAPS (3.8 and 0.7) (P =.01 and.006). The GAPS questionnaires detected lower levels of risk behavior compared with a local Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Controlling for sex, age, and clinician, discussion of psychosocial topics increased during the study period; however, there was considerable variation among clinicians regarding the topics addressed. The GAPS-related referral rate did not change significantly. The GAPS model increases clinicians' detection and discussion of risk behaviors.

  11. Rapidity gaps in jet events at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.

    1997-07-01

    Preliminary results from the D0 experiment on jet production with rapidity gaps in p anti p collisions are presented. A class of dijet events with a forward rapidity gap is observed at center-of-mass energies √s = 1800 GeV and 630 GeV. The number of events with rapidity gaps at both center-of-mass energies is significantly greater than the expectation from multiplicity fluctuations and is consistent with a hard diffractive process. A class of events with two forward gaps and central dijets is also observed at 1800 GeV. This topology is consistent with hard double pomeron exchange

  12. Gender and Racial Gaps in Earnings among Recent College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate graduates from 1993 (B&B 93/97/03), I explore factors that contribute to the gender and racial gap in earnings among recent college graduate. Results indicate that college major remains the most significant factor in accounting for the gender gap in pay. Female graduates are still left…

  13. The Importance of Physical Activity in Closing the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Laura J.; VanHeest, Jaci L.

    2007-01-01

    The most significant concern within the US educational community is the academic achievement gap. Investigation of the achievement gap reveals that minority students across all levels of education are not meeting the same academic measures as their non-Hispanic White peers. In addition, a disproportionate number of minority children are identified…

  14. Mind the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomers have been able to study planet-forming discs around young Sun-like stars in unsurpassed detail, clearly revealing the motion and distribution of the gas in the inner parts of the disc. This result, which possibly implies the presence of giant planets, was made possible by the combination of a very clever method enabled by ESO's Very Large Telescope. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 27a/08 Planet-forming Disc Planets could be home to other forms of life, so the study of exoplanets ranks very high in contemporary astronomy. More than 300 planets are already known to orbit stars other than the Sun, and these new worlds show an amazing diversity in their characteristics. But astronomers don't just look at systems where planets have already formed - they can also get great insights by studying the discs around young stars where planets may currently be forming. "This is like going 4.6 billion years back in time to watch how the planets of our own Solar System formed," says Klaus Pontoppidan from Caltech, who led the research. Pontoppidan and colleagues have analysed three young analogues of our Sun that are each surrounded by a disc of gas and dust from which planets could form. These three discs are just a few million years old and were known to have gaps or holes in them, indicating regions where the dust has been cleared and the possible presence of young planets. The new results not only confirm that gas is present in the gaps in the dust, but also enable astronomers to measure how the gas is distributed in the disc and how the disc is oriented. In regions where the dust appears to have been cleared out, molecular gas is still highly abundant. This can either mean that the dust has clumped together to form planetary embryos, or that a planet has already formed and is in the process of clearing the gas in the disc. For one of the stars, SR 21, a likely explanation is the presence of a massive giant planet orbiting at less than 3.5 times the distance

  15. Perceived Need Versus Current Spending: Gaps in Providing Foundational Public Health Services in Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekemeier, Betty; Marlowe, Justin; Squires, Linda Sharee; Tebaldi, Jennifer; Park, Seungeun

    Our objective was to estimate the gap between the costs for local health jurisdictions (LHJs) to provide foundational public health services (FPHS) and actual spending on FPHS and to examine factors associated with that gap. We employed resource-based cost estimation methods for this observational study and conducted multivariate analyses with measures derived from secondary administrative data. We used primary data collected from LHJ leaders that depicted 2014 spending and perceived need. We also included secondary administrative data depicting annual 2000-2013 expenditures organized into categories containing key elements of FPHS areas. We included primary data from a representative sample of 10 LHJs in Washington State and secondary data for all 35 LHJs in Washington. Participants were public health practice leaders from each sample LHJ. Our main outcome of interest was the gap identified between current spending and the perceived spending needed to provide FPHS in a jurisdiction. Actual FPHS spending was approximately 65% of spending needed to provide overall FPHS for our sample LHJs, but the size of the gap varied substantially by program. Some gaps also varied widely by LHJ, with spending gaps widest among rural and high poverty communities. Percent poverty and the metropolitan nature of a jurisdiction were factors significantly related to FPHS spending in our multivariate analyses. Actual spending lags far behind local officials' estimates of spending needed to provide FPHS and is likely influenced by local conditions. Major apparent gaps between spending and need, particularly in areas such as costly Business Competencies, underscore the need for cross-cutting capabilities to support public health system responsiveness and for attention to be paid to local conditions.

  16. What determines the income gap between French male and female GPs - the role of medical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumontet Magali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many OECD countries, the gender differences in physicians’ pay favour male doctors. Due to the feminisation of the doctor profession, it is essential to measure this income gap in the French context of Fee-for-service payment (FFS and then to precisely identify its determinants. The objective of this study is to measure and analyse the 2008 income gap between males and females general practitioners (GPs. This paper focuses on the role of gender medical practices differentials among GPs working in private practice in the southwest region of France. Methods Using data from 339 private-practice GPs, we measured an average gender income gap of approximately 26% in favour of men. Using the decomposition method, we examined the factors that could explain gender disparities in income. Results The analysis showed that 73% of the income gap can be explained by the average differences in doctors’ characteristics; for example, 61% of the gender income gap is explained by the gender differences in workload, i.e., number of consultations and visits, which is on average significantly lower for female GPs than for male GPs. Furthermore, the decomposition method allowed us to highlight the differences in the marginal returns of doctors’ characteristics and variables contributing to income, such as GP workload; we found that female GPs have a higher marginal return in terms of earnings when performing an additional medical service. Conclusions The findings of this study help to understand the determinants of the income gap between male and female GPs. Even though workload is clearly an essential determinant of income, FFS does not reduce the gender income gap, and there is an imperfect relationship between the provision of medical services and income. In the context of feminisation, it appears that female GPs receive a lower income but attain higher marginal returns when performing an additional consultation.

  17. What determines the income gap between French male and female GPs - the role of medical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontet, Magali; Le Vaillant, Marc; Franc, Carine

    2012-09-21

    In many OECD countries, the gender differences in physicians' pay favour male doctors. Due to the feminisation of the doctor profession, it is essential to measure this income gap in the French context of Fee-for-service payment (FFS) and then to precisely identify its determinants. The objective of this study is to measure and analyse the 2008 income gap between males and females general practitioners (GPs). This paper focuses on the role of gender medical practices differentials among GPs working in private practice in the southwest region of France. Using data from 339 private-practice GPs, we measured an average gender income gap of approximately 26% in favour of men. Using the decomposition method, we examined the factors that could explain gender disparities in income. The analysis showed that 73% of the income gap can be explained by the average differences in doctors' characteristics; for example, 61% of the gender income gap is explained by the gender differences in workload, i.e., number of consultations and visits, which is on average significantly lower for female GPs than for male GPs. Furthermore, the decomposition method allowed us to highlight the differences in the marginal returns of doctors' characteristics and variables contributing to income, such as GP workload; we found that female GPs have a higher marginal return in terms of earnings when performing an additional medical service. The findings of this study help to understand the determinants of the income gap between male and female GPs. Even though workload is clearly an essential determinant of income, FFS does not reduce the gender income gap, and there is an imperfect relationship between the provision of medical services and income. In the context of feminisation, it appears that female GPs receive a lower income but attain higher marginal returns when performing an additional consultation.

  18. PhoneGap for enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who wish to use PhoneGap to develop useful, rich, secure mobile applications for their enterprise environment. The book assumes you have working knowledge of PhoneGap, HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript, and a reasonable understanding of networking and n-tier architectures.

  19. Housing Instability and Children's Health Insurance Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Anne; Corman, Hope; Curtis, Marah A; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    To assess the extent to which housing instability is associated with gaps in health insurance coverage of preschool-age children. Secondary analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children born in the United States in 2001, was conducted to investigate associations between unstable housing-homelessness, multiple moves, or living with others and not paying rent-and children's subsequent health insurance gaps. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potentially confounding factors. Ten percent of children were unstably housed at age 2, and 11% had a gap in health insurance between ages 2 and 4. Unstably housed children were more likely to have gaps in insurance compared to stably housed children (16% vs 10%). Controlling for potentially confounding factors, the odds of a child insurance gap were significantly higher in unstably housed families than in stably housed families (adjusted odds ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.61). The association was similar in alternative model specifications. In a US nationally representative birth cohort, children who were unstably housed at age 2 were at higher risk, compared to their stably housed counterparts, of experiencing health insurance gaps between ages 2 and 4 years. The findings from this study suggest that policy efforts to delink health insurance renewal processes from mailing addresses, and potentially routine screenings for housing instability as well as referrals to appropriate resources by pediatricians, would help unstably housed children maintain health insurance. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. From the Kohn-Sham band gap to the fundamental gap in solids. An integer electron approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerends, E J

    2017-06-21

    It is often stated that the Kohn-Sham occupied-unoccupied gap in both molecules and solids is "wrong". We argue that this is not a correct statement. The KS theory does not allow to interpret the exact KS HOMO-LUMO gap as the fundamental gap (difference (I - A) of electron affinity (A) and ionization energy (I), twice the chemical hardness), from which it indeed differs, strongly in molecules and moderately in solids. The exact Kohn-Sham HOMO-LUMO gap in molecules is much below the fundamental gap and very close to the much smaller optical gap (first excitation energy), and LDA/GGA yield very similar gaps. In solids the situation is different: the excitation energy to delocalized excited states and the fundamental gap (I - A) are very similar, not so disparate as in molecules. Again the Kohn-Sham and LDA/GGA band gaps do not represent (I - A) but are significantly smaller. However, the special properties of an extended system like a solid make it very easy to calculate the fundamental gap from the ground state (neutral system) band structure calculations entirely within a density functional framework. The correction Δ from the KS gap to the fundamental gap originates from the response part v resp of the exchange-correlation potential and can be calculated very simply using an approximation to v resp . This affords a calculation of the fundamental gap at the same level of accuracy as other properties of crystals at little extra cost beyond the ground state bandstructure calculation. The method is based on integer electron systems, fractional electron systems (an ensemble of N- and (N + 1)-electron systems) and the derivative discontinuity are not invoked.

  1. Forests under climate change and air pollution: gaps in understanding and future directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Calfapietra, C; de Vries, W; Dizengremel, P; Ernst, D; Jolivet, Y; Mikkelsen, T N; Mohren, G M J; Le Thiec, D; Tuovinen, J-P; Weatherall, A; Paoletti, E

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems ("supersites") will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic and functional analysis of the gene encoding GAP-43 in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Ho-Min; Cheng, Min-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Shih-Fen; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2012-02-01

    In earlier reports, growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) has been shown to be critical for initial establishment or reorganization of synaptic connections, a process thought to be disrupted in schizophrenia. Additionally, abnormal GAP-43 expression in different brain regions has been linked to this disorder in postmortem brain studies. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the gene encoding GAP-43 in the susceptibility to schizophrenia. We searched for genetic variants in the promoter region and 3 exons (including both UTR ends) of the GAP-43 gene using direct sequencing in a sample of patients with schizophrenia (n=586) and non-psychotic controls (n=576), both being Han Chinese from Taiwan, and conducted an association and functional study. We identified 11 common polymorphisms in the GAP-43 gene. SNP and haplotype-based analyses displayed no associations with schizophrenia. Additionally, we identified 4 rare variants in 5 out of 586 patients, including 1 variant located at the promoter region (c.-258-4722G>T) and 1 synonymous (V110V) and 2 missense (G150R and P188L) variants located at exon 2. No rare variants were found in the control subjects. The results of the reporter gene assay demonstrated that the regulatory activity of construct containing c.-258-4722T was significantly lower as compared to the wild type construct (c.-258-4722G; panalysis also demonstrated the functional relevance of other rare variants. Our study lends support to the hypothesis of multiple rare mutations in schizophrenia, and it provides genetic clues that indicate the involvement of GAP-43 in this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimating agricultural yield gap in Africa using MODIS NDVI dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y.; Zhu, W.; Luo, X.; Liu, J.; Cui, X.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification characterized as 'Green Revolution', except for Africa, which is the region most affected by unreliable food access and undernourishment. Increasing crop production will be one of the most challenges and most effectual way to mitigate food insecurity there, as Africa's agricultural yield is on a much lower level comparing to global average. In this study we characterize cropland vegetation phenology in Africa based on MODIS NDVI time series between 2000 and 2012. Cumulated NDVI is a proxy for net primary productivity and used as an indicator for evaluating the potential yield gap in Africa. It is achieved via translating the gap between optimum attainable productivity level in each classification of cropping systems and actual productivity level by the relationship of cumulated NDVI and cereal-equivalent production. The results show most of cropland area in Africa have decreasing trend in cumulated NDVI, distributing in the Nile Delta, Eastern Africa and central of semi-arid to arid savanna area, except significant positive cumulated NDVI trends are mainly found between Senegal and Benin. Using cumulated NDVI and statistics of cereal equivalent production, we find remarkable potential yield gap at the Horn of East Africa (especially in Somalia), Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Meanwhile, countries locating at the savanna area near Sahel desert and South Africa also show significant potential, though they already have a relatively high level of productivity. Our results can help provide policy recommendation for local government or NGO to tackle food security problems by identifying zones with high potential of yield improvement.

  4. The fluctuating gap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-15

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T{sub c} in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the

  5. The fluctuating gap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T c in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the quasi

  6. Bridging the terahertz gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Giles; Linfield, Edmund

    2004-01-01

    Over the last century or so, physicists and engineers have progressively explored and conquered the electromagnetic spectrum. Starting with visible light, we have encroached outwards, developing techniques for generating and detecting radiation at both higher and lower frequencies. And as each successive region of the spectrum has been colonized, we have developed technology to exploit the radiation found there. X-rays, for example, are routinely used to image hidden objects. Near-infrared radiation is used in fibre-optic communications and in compact-disc players, while microwaves are used to transmit signals from your mobile phone. But there is one part of the electromagnetic spectrum that has steadfastly resisted our advances. This is the terahertz region, which ranges from frequencies of about 300 GHz to 10 THz (10 x 10 sup 1 sup 2 Hz). This corresponds to wavelengths of between about 1 and 0.03 mm, and lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. However, the difficulties involved in making suitably compact terahertz sources and detectors has meant that this region of the spectrum has only begun to be explored thoroughly over the last decade. A particularly intriguing feature of terahertz radiation is that the semiconductor devices that generate radiation at frequencies above and below this range operate in completely different ways. At lower frequencies, microwaves and millimetre- waves can be generated by 'electronic' devices such as those found in mobile phones. At higher frequencies, near-infrared and visible light are generated by 'optical' devices such as semiconductor laser diodes, in which electrons emit light when they jump across the semiconductor band gap. Unfortunately, neither electronic nor optical devices can conveniently be made to work in the terahertz region because the terahertz frequency range sits between the electronic and optical regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Developing a terahertz source is therefore a

  7. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  8. The CO₂ GAP Project--CO₂ GAP as a prognostic tool in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Amith L; Lai, Kevin H; Byth, Karen

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether CO₂ GAP [(a-ET) PCO₂] value differs consistently in patients presenting with shortness of breath to the ED requiring ventilatory support. To determine a cut-off value of CO₂ GAP, which is consistently associated with measured outcome and to compare its performance against other derived variables. This prospective observational study was conducted in ED on a convenience sample of 412 from 759 patients who underwent concurrent arterial blood gas and ETCO₂ (end-tidal CO₂) measurement. They were randomized to test sample of 312 patients and validation set of 100 patients. The primary outcome of interest was the need for ventilatory support and secondary outcomes were admission to high dependency unit or death during stay in ED. The randomly selected training set was used to select cut-points for the possible predictors; that is, CO₂ GAP, CO₂ gradient, physiologic dead space and A-a gradient. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of these predictors were validated in the test set of 100 patients.   Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curves revealed the CO₂ GAP performed significantly better than the arterial-alveolar gradient in patients requiring ventilator support (area under the curve 0.950 vs 0.726). A CO₂ GAP ≥10 was associated with assisted ventilation outcomes when applied to the validation test set (100% sensitivity 70% specificity). The CO₂ GAP [(a-ET) PCO₂] differs significantly in patients requiring assisted ventilation when presenting with shortness of breath to EDs and further research addressing the prognostic value of CO₂ GAP in this specific aspect is required. © 2010 The Authors. EMA © 2010 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  9. Optimum design of band-gap beam structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Niels; Niu, Bin; Cheng, Gengdong

    2012-01-01

    The design of band-gap structures receives increasing attention for many applications in mitigation of undesirable vibration and noise emission levels. A band-gap structure usually consists of a periodic distribution of elastic materials or segments, where the propagation of waves is impeded...... or significantly suppressed for a range of external excitation frequencies. Maximization of the band-gap is therefore an obvious objective for optimum design. This problem is sometimes formulated by optimizing a parameterized design model which assumes multiple periodicity in the design. However, it is shown...... in the present paper that such an a priori assumption is not necessary since, in general, just the maximization of the gap between two consecutive natural frequencies leads to significant design periodicity. The aim of this paper is to maximize frequency gaps by shape optimization of transversely vibrating...

  10. The inverse F-BAR domain protein srGAP2 acts through srGAP3 to modulate neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth of mouse neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ma

    Full Text Available The inverse F-BAR (IF-BAR domain proteins srGAP1, srGAP2 and srGAP3 are implicated in neuronal development and may be linked to mental retardation, schizophrenia and seizure. A partially overlapping expression pattern and highly similar protein structures indicate a functional redundancy of srGAPs in neuronal development. Our previous study suggests that srGAP3 negatively regulates neuronal differentiation in a Rac1-dependent manner in mouse Neuro2a cells. Here we show that exogenously expressed srGAP1 and srGAP2 are sufficient to inhibit valporic acid (VPA-induced neurite initiation and growth in the mouse Neuro2a cells. While ectopic- or over-expression of RhoGAP-defective mutants, srGAP1(R542A and srGAP2(R527A exert a visible inhibitory effect on neuronal differentiation. Unexpectedly, knockdown of endogenous srGAP2 fails to facilitate the neuronal differentiation induced by VPA, but promotes neurite outgrowth of differentiated cells. All three IF-BAR domains from srGAP1-3 can induce filopodia formation in Neuro2a, but the isolated IF-BAR domain from srGAP2, not from srGAP1 and srGAP3, can promote VPA-induced neurite initiation and neuronal differentiation. We identify biochemical and functional interactions of the three srGAPs family members. We propose that srGAP3-Rac1 signaling may be required for the effect of srGAP1 and srGAP2 on attenuating neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, inhibition of Slit-Robo interaction can phenocopy a loss-of-function of srGAP3, indicating that srGAP3 may be dedicated to the Slit-Robo pathway. Our results demonstrate the interplay between srGAP1, srGAP2 and srGAP3 regulates neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth. These findings may provide us new insights into the possible roles of srGAPs in neuronal development and a potential mechanism for neurodevelopmental diseases.

  11. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  12. Gap analysis of the European Earth Observation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Guillem; Serral, Ivette; Maso, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Earth Observations (EO) are fundamental to enhance the scientific understanding of the current status of the Earth. Nowadays, there are a lot of EO services that provide large volume of data, and the number of datasets available for different geosciences areas is increasing by the day. Despite this coverage, a glance of the European EO networks reveals that there are still some issues that are not being met; some gaps in specific themes or some thematic overlaps between different networks. This situation requires a clarification process of the actual status of the EO European networks in order to set priorities and propose future actions that will improve the European EO networks. The aim of this work is to detect the existing gaps and overlapping problems among the European EO networks. The analytical process has been done by studying the availability and the completeness of the Essential Variables (EV) data captured by the European EO networks. The concept of EVs considers that there are a number of parameters that are essential to characterize the state and trends of a system without losing significant information. This work generated a database of the existing gaps in the European EO network based on the initial GAIA-CLIM project data structure. For each theme the missing or incomplete data about each EV was indentified. Then, if incomplete, the gap was described by adding its type (geographical extent, vertical extent, temporal extent, spatial resolution, etc), the cost, the remedy, the feasibility, the impact and the priority, among others. Gaps in EO are identified following the ConnectinGEO methodology structured in 5 threads; identification of observation requirements, incorporation of international research programs material, consultation process within the current EO actors, GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker analysis, and industry-driven challenges implementation. Concretely, the presented work focuses on the second thread, which is based on

  13. Examining the Gender Gap in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Lauren; Pollock, Steven; Finkelstein, Noah

    2009-05-01

    Our previous research[1] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques in the introductory physics course, the gap in performance between males and females on a mechanics conceptual learning survey persisted from pre- to post-test, at our institution. Such findings were counter to previously published work[2]. Follow-up studies[3] identified correlations between student performance on the conceptual learning survey and students' prior physics and math knowledge and their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics and learning physics. The results indicate that the gender gap at our institution is predominantly associated with differences in males' and females' previous physics and math knowledge, and attitudes and beliefs. Our current work extends these results in two ways: 1) we look at the gender gap in the second semester of the introductory sequence and find results similar to those in the first semester course and 2) we identify ways in which males and females differentially experience several aspects of the introductory course. [1] Pollock, et al, Phys Rev: ST: PER 3, 010107. [2] Lorenzo, et al, Am J Phys 74, 118. [3] Kost, et al, PERC Proceedings 2008.

  14. Engineers and the Web: An analysis of real life gaps in information usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen

    2007-01-01

    Engineers face a wide range of gaps when trying to identify, acquire, and utilize information from the Web. To be able to avoid creating such gaps, it is essential to understand them in detail. This paper reports the results of a study of the real life gaps in information usage processes of 17

  15. The generaltion gap in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G.P. van Niekerk

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Generation gap is one of those catch phrases that we so often use, and misuse, to excuse ourselves or to cover up for our shortcomings. It is like the shortage of nurses behind which we hide from all our nursing problems. Although it is such a commonly used phrase, do we really know what it means? When you consult the Oxford Dictionary, you will find that it defines generation gap as: differences of opinion between those of different generations. It will surprise most people that the generation gap becomes a problem only when there are differences of opinion.

  16. Wide gap semiconductor microwave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V V; Aroutiounian, V M

    2007-01-01

    A review of properties of wide gap semiconductor materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon films, SiC, GaP, GaN and AlGaN/GaN that are relevant to electronic, optoelectronic and microwave applications is presented. We discuss the latest situation and perspectives based on experimental and theoretical results obtained for wide gap semiconductor devices. Parameters are taken from the literature and from some of our theoretical works. The correspondence between theoretical results and parameters of devices is critically analysed. (review article)

  17. Gap Assessment in the Emergency Response Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Pike, William A.; Peddicord, Annie M Boe; Minsk, Brian S.

    2010-09-27

    This report describes a gap analysis of the emergency response and management (EM) community, performed during the fall of 2009. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook this effort to identify potential improvements to the functional domains in EM that could be provided by the application of current or future technology. To perform this domain-based gap analysis, PNNL personnel interviewed subject matter experts (SMEs) across the EM domain; to make certain that the analyses reflected a representative view of the community, the SMEs were from a variety of geographic areas and from various sized communities (urban, suburban, and rural). PNNL personnel also examined recent and relevant after-action reports and U.S. Government Accountability Office reports.

  18. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  19. Trends in publications regarding evidence-practice gaps: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Ann E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; D'Este, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2010-02-03

    Well-designed trials of strategies to improve adherence to clinical practice guidelines are needed to close persistent evidence-practice gaps. We studied how the number of these trials is changing with time, and to what extent physicians are participating in such trials. This is a literature-based study of trends in evidence-practice gap publications over 10 years and participation of clinicians in intervention trials to narrow evidence-practice gaps. We chose nine evidence-based guidelines and identified relevant publications in the PubMed database from January 1998 to December 2007. We coded these publications by study type (intervention versus non-intervention studies). We further subdivided intervention studies into those for clinicians and those for patients. Data were analyzed to determine if observed trends were statistically significant. We identified 1,151 publications that discussed evidence-practice gaps in nine topic areas. There were 169 intervention studies that were designed to improve adherence to well-established clinical guidelines, averaging 1.9 studies per year per topic area. Twenty-eight publications (34%; 95% CI: 24% - 45%) reported interventions intended for clinicians or health systems that met Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) criteria for adequate design. The median consent rate of physicians asked to participate in these well-designed studies was 60% (95% CI, 25% to 69%). We evaluated research publications for nine evidence-practice gaps, and identified small numbers of well-designed intervention trials and low rates of physician participation in these trials.

  20. Effect of nitrogen and water deficit type on the yield gap between the potential and attainable wheat yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit and N fertilizer are the two primary limiting factors for wheat yield in the North China plain, the most important winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production area in China. Analyzing the yield gap between the potential yield and the attainable yield can quantify the potential for increasing wheat production and exploring the limiting factors to yield gap in the high-yielding farming region of North China Plain. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT model was used to identify methods to increase the grain yield and decrease the gap. In order to explore the impact of N and cultivars on wheat yield in the different drought types, the climate conditions during 1981 to 2011 growing seasons was categorized into low, moderate, and severe water deficit classes according to the anomaly percentage of the water deficit rate during the entire wheat growing season. There are differences (P < 0.0001 in the variations of the potential yields among three cultivars over 30 yr. For all three water deficit types, the more recent cultivars Jimai22 and Shijiazhuang8 had higher yields compared to the older 'Jinan17'. As the N fertilizer rate increased, the yield gap decreased more substantially during the low water deficit years because of the significant increase in attainable yield. Overall, the yield gaps were smaller with less water stress. Replacement of cultivars and appropriate N fertilizer application based on the forecasted drought types can narrow the yield gap effectively.

  1. Acquiring Consumer Trust: Minimizing the GAP Between Environmental Concern and Environmental Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Frederico

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management has become an important managerial tool for creating conditions for greater competitiveness of organizations. A significant portion of the population considers environmental issues while consuming. However, despite the proposed relationship between environmental concern and consumption, some studies have identified a gap between declared environmental concern and consumer behavior. One possible explanation for this gap is the lack of trust in the ethics of retailers and the perception that environmental appealing offers would be only artifices of marketing. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the moderating effect of trust in the relationship between Environmental concern and environmental purchase intention. To operationalize the study, an online survey was conducted among 696 Brazilian consumers. The sample was characterized as non-probabilistic. Validated scales were used to measure the variables and data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results show that there is a significant relationship between environmental concern and environmental purchase intention, however, the low explanatory power of the model points to the gap between discourse and practice. By analyzing the trust of consumers as moderating variable, it is clear that, by increasing consumers’ trust, the gap between environmental concern and consumption is diminished.

  2. Closing the Cybersecurity Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vogel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current consensus is that there is a worldwide gap in skills needed for a competent cybersecurity workforce. This skills gap has implications for the national security sector, both public and private. Although the view is that this will take a concerted effort to rectify, it presents an opportunity for IT professionals, university students, and aspirants to take-up jobs in national security national intelligence as well military and law enforcement intelligence. This paper examines context of the issue, the nature of the cybersecurity skills gap, and some key responses by governments to address the problem. The paper also examines the emerging employment trends, some of the employment challenges, and what these might mean for practice. The paper argues that the imperative is to close the cyber skills gap by taking advantage of the window of opportunity, allowing individuals interested in moving into the cybersecurity field to do so via education and training.

  3. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  4. Information gaps in surveillance data and effects on the Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information gaps in surveillance data and effects on the Ghanaian response to the ... for Medical Research to determine its completeness and appropriateness for ... on CRFs can significantly reduce the utility of results of laboratory analysis for ...

  5. Information gaps in surveillance data and effects on the Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Gaps on CRFs can significantly reduce the utility of results of laboratory analysis for outbreak con- trol. Although ..... use of information in state agency decision-making. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 2012 ...

  6. The Oncogenic Role of RhoGAPs in Basal-Like Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    mouse models . c) In vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis assays. Milestones: Identify whether ArhGAP11A and RacGAP1 can promote tumor growth and/or...proteins. RacGAP1 is a component of the centralspindlin complex during mitosis and cytokinesis, but its function during interphase is not well...switches: Rho GTPase regulation during animal cell mitosis . Cell Signal 2014;26:2998-3006. 30. Zhao WM, Fang G. MgcRacGAP controls the assembly of the

  7. Understanding the carbon dioxide gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Thomas W L; Wicke, Jannis N; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2018-06-01

    The current review attempts to demonstrate the value of several forms of carbon dioxide (CO2) gaps in resuscitation of the critically ill patient as monitor for the adequacy of the circulation, as target for fluid resuscitation and also as predictor for outcome. Fluid resuscitation is one of the key treatments in many intensive care patients. It remains a challenge in daily practice as both a shortage and an overload in intravascular volume are potentially harmful. Many different approaches have been developed for use as target of fluid resuscitation. CO2 gaps can be used as surrogate for the adequacy of cardiac output (CO) and as marker for tissue perfusion and are therefore a potential target for resuscitation. CO2 gaps are easily measured via point-of-care analysers. We shed light on its potential use as nowadays it is not widely used in clinical practice despite its potential. Many studies were conducted on partial CO2 pressure differences or CO2 content (cCO2) differences either alone, or in combination with other markers for outcome or resuscitation adequacy. Furthermore, some studies deal with CO2 gap to O2 gap ratios as target for goal-directed fluid therapy or as marker for outcome. CO2 gap is a sensitive marker of tissue hypoperfusion, with added value over traditional markers of tissue hypoxia in situations in which an oxygen diffusion barrier exists such as in tissue oedema and impaired microcirculation. Venous-to-arterial cCO2 or partial pressure gaps can be used to evaluate whether attempts to increase CO should be made. Considering the potential of the several forms of CO2 measurements and its ease of use via point-of-care analysers, it is recommendable to implement CO2 gaps in standard clinical practice.

  8. Colour reconnections and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif

    1996-01-01

    I argue that the success of recently proposed models describing events with large rapidity gaps in DIS at HERA in terms of non-perturbative colour exchange is heavily reliant on suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the proton direction. There is little or no physical motivation for such suppression and I show that a model without this suppression cannot describe the rapidity gap events at HERA. (author)

  9. Bridging the Gap (BRIEFING CHARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-05

    1 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency “Bridging the Gap ” Dr. Robert F. Leheny Deputy Director Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bridging the Gap 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  10. The Speaker Gender Gap at Critical Care Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sangeeta; Rose, Louise; Cook, Deborah; Herridge, Margaret; Owais, Sawayra; Metaxa, Victoria

    2018-06-01

    To review women's participation as faculty at five critical care conferences over 7 years. Retrospective analysis of five scientific programs to identify the proportion of females and each speaker's profession based on conference conveners, program documents, or internet research. Three international (European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, International Symposium on Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine) and two national (Critical Care Canada Forum, U.K. Intensive Care Society State of the Art Meeting) annual critical care conferences held between 2010 and 2016. Female faculty speakers. None. Male speakers outnumbered female speakers at all five conferences, in all 7 years. Overall, women represented 5-31% of speakers, and female physicians represented 5-26% of speakers. Nursing and allied health professional faculty represented 0-25% of speakers; in general, more than 50% of allied health professionals were women. Over the 7 years, Society of Critical Care Medicine had the highest representation of female (27% overall) and nursing/allied health professional (16-25%) speakers; notably, male physicians substantially outnumbered female physicians in all years (62-70% vs 10-19%, respectively). Women's representation on conference program committees ranged from 0% to 40%, with Society of Critical Care Medicine having the highest representation of women (26-40%). The female proportions of speakers, physician speakers, and program committee members increased significantly over time at the Society of Critical Care Medicine and U.K. Intensive Care Society State of the Art Meeting conferences (p gap at critical care conferences, with male faculty outnumbering female faculty. This gap is more marked among physician speakers than those speakers representing nursing and allied health professionals. Several organizational strategies can address this gender gap.

  11. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  12. The emissions gap report 2012. A UNEP synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    One of the fundamental questions in the global climate negotiations is: what level of ''ambition'', in terms of collective emission reductions, is needed to protect global climate? To help answer this question UNEP and the scientific community have published a series of reports on the ''emissions gap1'' since 2010. Of particular interest to the ambition question is the gap in 2020 between emission levels consistent with the 2 deg. C climate target and emissions levels projected if country reduction pledges are fulfilled. If there is a gap, then there is doubt that the ambition of countries is great enough to meet the agreed-upon 2 deg. C climate target. In the 2010 Emissions Gap Report, scientists indicated that there would likely be a substantial emissions gap in 2020, although estimates of this gap ranged widely, depending on assumptions about how country pledges would be complied with. In the 2011 Bridging the Emissions Gap Report, scientists noted that enough technical potential existed to close the gap in 2020, but fast action by countries was needed. UNEP has now convened a group of 55 scientists and experts from 43 scientific groups across 22 countries to produce this third emissions gap report which covers the following: 1) An update of global greenhouse gas emission estimates, based on a number of different authoritative scientific sources; 2) An overview of national emission levels, both current (2010) and projected (2020) consistent with current pledges and other commitments; 3) An estimate of the level of global emissions consistent with the two degree target in 2020, 2030 and 2050; 4) An update of the assessment of the emissions gap for 2020; 5) A review of selected examples of the rapid progress being made in different parts of the world to implement policies already leading to substantial emission reductions. These policies could contribute significantly to narrowing the gap if they are scaled up and replicated in other countries. (Author)

  13. Is there a gap in the gap? Regional differences in the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Boris; König, Marion; Möller, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate regional differences in the gender pay gap both theoretically and empirically. Within a spatial oligopsony model, we show that more densely populated labour markets are more competitive and constrain employers' ability to discriminate against women. Utilising a large administrative data set for western Germany and a flexible semi-parametric propensity score matching approach, we find that the unexplained gender pay gap for young workers is substantially lower in ...

  14. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  15. Intangibles and the gender wage gap: An analysis of gender wage gaps across occupations in the Finnish private sector

    OpenAIRE

    Asplund, Rita; Napari, Sami

    2011-01-01

    The paper compares the gender wage differentials of two occupation groups - innovation and non-innovation workers - separately for manufacturing and services using Finnish private-sector data. We apply a decomposition method based on unconditional quantile regression techniques to identify key factors underlying the gender wage gaps observed along the whole wage distribution, as well as changes in these wage gaps between 2002 and 2009. This more nuanced approach provides important new insight...

  16. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  17. Proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustakas, T.D.; Pankove, J.I.; Hamakawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors. Wide band gap semiconductors are under intense study because of their potential applications in photonic devices in the visible and ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and devices for high temperature, high frequency and high power electronics. Additionally, due to their unique mechanical, thermal, optical, chemical, and electronic properties many wide band gap semiconductors are anticipated to find applications in thermoelectric, electrooptic, piezoelectric and acoustooptic devices as well as protective coatings, hard coatings and heat sinks. Material systems covered in this symposium include diamond, II-VI compounds, III-V nitrides, silicon carbide, boron compounds, amorphous and microcrystalline semiconductors, chalcopyrites, oxides and halides. The various papers addressed recent experimental and theoretical developments. They covered issues related to crystal growth (bulk and thin films), structure and microstructure, defects, doping, optoelectronic properties and device applications. A theoretical session was dedicated to identifying common themes in the heteroepitaxy and the role of defects in doping, compensation and phase stability of this unique class of materials. Important experimental milestones included the demonstrations of bright blue injection luminescence at room temperatures from junctions based on III-V nitrides and a similar result from multiple quantum wells in a ZnSe double heterojunction at liquid nitrogen temperatures

  18. Explaining the Gender Wealth Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Erin; Hauser, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess and explain the United States’ gender wealth gap, we use the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study to examine wealth accumulated by a single cohort over 50 years by gender, by marital status, and limited to the respondents who are their family’s best financial reporters. We find large gender wealth gaps between currently married men and women, and never-married men and women. The never-married accumulate less wealth than the currently married, and there is a marital disruption cost to wealth accumulation. The status-attainment model shows the most power in explaining gender wealth gaps between these groups explaining about one-third to one-half of the gap, followed by the human-capital explanation. In other words, a lifetime of lower earnings for women translates into greatly reduced wealth accumulation. A gender wealth gap remains between married men and women after controlling for the full model that we speculate may be related to gender differences in investment strategies and selection effects. PMID:23264038

  19. Supersize me: Cronobacter sakazakii phage GAP32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasifar, Reza; Griffiths, Mansel W. [Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sabour, Parviz M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph Food Research Centre, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 5C9 (Canada); Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang [Department of Microbiology-Infectiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Vandersteegen, Katrien; Lavigne, Rob [Laboratory of Gene Technology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Noben, Jean-Paul [Biomedical Research Institute and Transnational University Limburg, School of Life Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Alanis Villa, Argentina; Abbasifar, Arash [Canadian Research Institute for Food Safety, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Nash, John H.E. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3W4 (Canada); Kropinski, Andrew M., E-mail: akropins@uoguelph.ca [Public Health Agency of Canada, Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3W4 (Canada); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Cronobacter sakazakii is a Gram-negative pathogen found in milk-based formulae that causes infant meningitis. Bacteriophages have been proposed to control bacterial pathogens; however, comprehensive knowledge about a phage is required to ensure its safety before clinical application. We have characterized C. sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 (GAP32), which possesses the second largest sequenced phage genome (358,663 bp). A total of 571 genes including 545 protein coding sequences and 26 tRNAs were identified, thus more genes than in the smallest bacterium, Mycoplasma genitalium G37. BLASTP and HHpred searches, together with proteomic analyses reveal that only 23.9% of the putative proteins have defined functions. Some of the unique features of this phage include: a chromosome condensation protein, two copies of the large subunit terminase, a predicted signal-arrest-release lysin; and an RpoD-like protein, which is possibly involved in the switch from immediate early to delayed early transcription. Its closest relatives are all extremely large myoviruses, namely coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2, with whom it shares approximately 44% homologous proteins. Since the homologs are not evenly distributed, we propose that these three phages belong to a new subfamily. - Highlights: • Cronobacter sakazakii phage vB{sub C}saM{sub G}AP32 has a genome of 358,663 bp. • It encodes 545 proteins which is more than Mycoplasma genitalium G37. • It is a member of the Myoviridae. • It is peripherally related to coliphage PBECO4 and Klebsiella phage vB{sub K}leM-RaK2. • GAP32 encodes a chromosome condensation protein.

  20. A Pragmatic Study on the Service Gap Analysis of an Indian Public Sector Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengasamy Nalini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the major stakeholders and their satisfaction forms the basis of the sustainable competitive advantage of the firm. Attracting, satisfying and retaining customers lead to extended customer base and increased profit margins. Thus, the customer satisfaction is the ultimate objective of the firm which is possible by rendering quality service. The State Bank of India (SBI ranks as 67th in the list of largest banks in the world based on market capitalization as of March 31th 2014. The quality of service extended by the SBI has resulted in customer satisfaction and expanded customer base for the bank. Random sampling method is adopted for the collection of data from the respondents. In Tiruchirappalli regional office of State Bank of India, area operations are selected within 10 Kilometer radius from the Main branch and 60 questionnaires per branch have been distributed in 10 branches. Out of 600 questionnaires, 109 are found incomplete and 491 are fully complete with 81.83% of response rate. The data collected were analysed with the help of MS Excel to identify the gaps. The Cronbach alpha, a measure of internal consistency obtained is 0.925 which is considered to be excellent. This study aims to identify the gaps in the dimensions of service quality by administering SERVQUAL model among the customers in State Bank of India. An overall weighted SERVQUAL score of –1.42866 was arrived, representing a significant inconsistency in meeting customer expectations across all service dimensions. Highest gap scores for reliability and empathy depicts that there is a need for courtesy and politeness among SBI employees which in turn will help to establish a long term relationship with the customers. The relatively low gap scores were found for responsiveness, tangibles and assurance dimensions. The State Bank of India has to take steps to close the gaps and it can be closed by establishing and implementing a service quality information system.

  1. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  2. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  3. A direct method for computing extreme value (Gumbel) parameters for gapped biological sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terrance; Sinkala, Zachariah

    2014-01-01

    We develop a general method for computing extreme value distribution (Gumbel, 1958) parameters for gapped alignments. Our approach uses mixture distribution theory to obtain associated BLOSUM matrices for gapped alignments, which in turn are used for determining significance of gapped alignment scores for pairs of biological sequences. We compare our results with parameters already obtained in the literature.

  4. Applying revised gap analysis model in measuring hotel service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yu-Che; Chien, Chih-Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Lu, Shu-Chiung; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dong, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    With the number of tourists coming to Taiwan growing by 10-20 % since 2010, the number has increased due to an increasing number of foreign tourists, particularly after deregulation allowed admitting tourist groups, followed later on by foreign individual tourists, from mainland China. The purpose of this study is to propose a revised gap model to evaluate and improve service quality in Taiwanese hotel industry. Thus, service quality could be clearly measured through gap analysis, which was more effective for offering direction in developing and improving service quality. The HOLSERV instrument was used to identify and analyze service gaps from the perceptions of internal and external customers. The sample for this study included three main categories of respondents: tourists, employees, and managers. The results show that five gaps influenced tourists' evaluations of service quality. In particular, the study revealed that Gap 1 (management perceptions vs. customer expectations) and Gap 9 (service provider perceptions of management perceptions vs. service delivery) were more critical than the others in affecting perceived service quality, making service delivery the main area of improvement. This study contributes toward an evaluation of the service quality of the Taiwanese hotel industry from the perspectives of customers, service providers, and managers, which is considerably valuable for hotel managers. It was the aim of this study to explore all of these together in order to better understand the possible gaps in the hotel industry in Taiwan.

  5. The Emissions Gap Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    This fifth Emissions Gap report has a different focus from previous years. While it updates the 2020 emissions gap analysis, it gives particular attention to the implications of the global carbon dioxide emissions budget for staying within the 2 °C limit beyond 2020. It does so because countries...... are giving increasing attention to where they need to be in 2025, 2030 and beyond. Furthermore, this year’s update of the report benefits from the findings on the emissions budget from the latest series of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports...

  6. Kinetic calculation of plasma deposition in castellated tile gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejarnac, R.; Gunn, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma-facing divertors and limiters are armoured with castellated tiles to withstand intense heat fluxes. Recent experimental studies show that a non-negligible amount of deuterium is deposited in the gaps between tiles. We present here a numerical study of plasma deposition in this critical region. For this purpose we have developed a particle-in-cell code with realistic boundary conditions determined from kinetic calculations. We find a strong asymmetry of plasma deposition into the gaps. A significant fraction of the plasma influx is expelled from the gap to be deposited on the leading edge of the downstream tile

  7. Gender wage gap : Discrimination or Human Capital? A subgroup approach

    OpenAIRE

    Etoundi Atenga, Eric Martial; Chameni Nembua, Célestin; Meva Avoulou, Henri Joel

    2013-01-01

    The working population is becoming more and more feminized from 2000 to 2008 in Cameroon. Women receive on average a salary lower than that of the men and the sex remains a significant determiner of the professional position in Cameroon. From Oaxaca-Blinder(1973)decomposition, this work suggests studying gender wage gap composition in private and para public sectors by using subgroup approach. Results show that wage gap is estimated to 8.8% in favor of men. This gap is higher for employees ag...

  8. Closing the condom KAP gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, E L

    1977-01-01

    A number of program strategies have been suggested to close the gap between knowledge and awareness of family planning, and its practice. Most focus on the interim between awareness and usage. This article presents data to support the argument that the problem lies in the awareness stage. Its assumption is that the quality of the awareness is important. As opposed to the survey method of determining awareness, the author proposes the "Focus Group Discussion." As illustration, he presents results of a study using this method, on awareness about condoms, undertaken as part of a Population Center Foundation Condom Distribution Project, in 1975. Its purpose was to identify the more important attitudes toward condoms among married couples, the factors which motivate the couples to use or reject them, and the meanings associated with condoms and how these influence the time, manner, and reasons for rejecting or accepting them. 4 group discussions were carried out, with 8 or 10 married male and female respondents, age 18-35, with at least 2 children, of middle and lower class, and all having at least heard of condoms. Discussions were taped and subjected to content analysis. The 7 major findings are: 1) Quality of awareness depends on experience with use. 2) Experience with use does not guarantee positive quality awareness -- some regular users were still ignorant of some aspects of condom use. 3) Respondents perceive positive aspects of condoms, which should be reinforced. 4) Most of the negative qualities perceived by respondents were imaginary, but can be combatted by the positive statements of users. 5) Filipino men respond to their wives' reactions and project an image of sexual prowess, both possibly damaging to the reputation of condoms; communicators and educators must address the wives equally with their husbands. 6) Buying condoms is embarrassing: studies are needed on how this can be overcome at the places of purchase. 7) Brand awareness is low: only 3 or 4 out

  9. Gene Circuit Analysis of the Terminal Gap Gene huckebein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashyraliyev, Maksat; Siggens, Ken; Janssens, Hilde; Blom, Joke; Akam, Michael; Jaeger, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The early embryo of Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful model system to study the role of genes in pattern formation. The gap gene network constitutes the first zygotic regulatory tier in the hierarchy of the segmentation genes involved in specifying the position of body segments. Here, we use an integrative, systems-level approach to investigate the regulatory effect of the terminal gap gene huckebein (hkb) on gap gene expression. We present quantitative expression data for the Hkb protein, which enable us to include hkb in gap gene circuit models. Gap gene circuits are mathematical models of gene networks used as computational tools to extract regulatory information from spatial expression data. This is achieved by fitting the model to gap gene expression patterns, in order to obtain estimates for regulatory parameters which predict a specific network topology. We show how considering variability in the data combined with analysis of parameter determinability significantly improves the biological relevance and consistency of the approach. Our models are in agreement with earlier results, which they extend in two important respects: First, we show that Hkb is involved in the regulation of the posterior hunchback (hb) domain, but does not have any other essential function. Specifically, Hkb is required for the anterior shift in the posterior border of this domain, which is now reproduced correctly in our models. Second, gap gene circuits presented here are able to reproduce mutants of terminal gap genes, while previously published models were unable to reproduce any null mutants correctly. As a consequence, our models now capture the expression dynamics of all posterior gap genes and some variational properties of the system correctly. This is an important step towards a better, quantitative understanding of the developmental and evolutionary dynamics of the gap gene network. PMID:19876378

  10. Ginsenoside Rg1 alleviates corticosterone-induced dysfunction of gap junctions in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Cong-Yuan; Chu, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Shuai; Gao, Yan; Ren, Qian; Lou, Yu-Xia; Luo, Piao; Tian, Man-Tong; Wang, Zhi-Qi; Du, Guo-Hua; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Yamakuni, Tohru; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2017-08-17

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), one of the major bioactive ingredients of Panax ginseng C. A. Mey, has neuroprotective effects in animal models of depression, but the mechanism underlying these effects is still largely unknown AIM OF THE STUDY: Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) dysfunction is a potentially novel pathogenic mechanism for depression. Thus, we investigated that whether antidepressant-like effects of Rg1 were related to GJIC. Primary rat prefrontal cortical and hippocampal astrocytes cultures were treated with 50μM CORT for 24h to induce gap junction damage. Rg1 (0.1, 1, or 10μM) or fluoxetine (1μM) was added 1h prior to CORT treatment. A scrape loading and dye transfer assay was performed to identify the functional capacity of gap junctions. Western blot was used to detect the expression and phosphorylation of connexin43 (Cx43), the major component of gap junctions. Treatment of primary astrocytes with CORT for 24h inhibited GJIC, decreased total Cx43 expression, and increased the phosphorylation of Cx43 at serine368 in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with 1μM and 10μM Rg1 significantly improved GJIC in CORT-treated astrocytes from the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, respectively, and this was accompanied by upregulation of Cx43 expression and downregulation of Cx43 phosphorylation. These findings provide the first evidence indicating that Rg1 can alleviate CORT-induced gap junction dysfunction, which may have clinical significance in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New Workplace Practices and the Gender Wage Gap:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Eriksson, Tor Viking

    We estimate the effect of introducing new workplace practices on the gender gap in wages in the manufacturing sector. We use a unique 1999 survey on work and compensation practices of Danish private sector firms merged to a large matched employer-employee database. Self-managed teams, project...... organisation and job rotation schemes are the most widely implemented work practices. Our estimates from a difference-in-differences model of wages and work practices show that the wage gains from adopting new workplace practices accrue mainly to males so that the gender gap in pay increases at the level...... of the firm, in particular among hourly-paid workers. Considering practices individually, however, a few exceptions are seen: the gender wage gap among salaried workers is significantly reduced in firms which offer project organisation, while the gap in pay among workers paid by the hour is significantly...

  12. Automaticity of walking: functional significance, mechanisms, measurement and rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Clark

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Automaticity is a hallmark feature of walking in adults who are healthy and well-functioning. In the context of walking, ‘automaticity’ refers to the ability of the nervous system to successfully control typical steady state walking with minimal use of attention-demanding executive control resources. Converging lines of evidence indicate that walking deficits and disorders are characterized in part by a shift in the locomotor control strategy from healthy automaticity to compensatory executive control. This is potentially detrimental to walking performance, as an executive control strategy is not optimized for locomotor control. Furthermore, it places excessive demands on a limited pool of executive reserves. The result is compromised ability to perform basic and complex walking tasks and heightened risk for adverse mobility outcomes including falls. Strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity are not well defined, which is due to both a lack of systematic research into the causes of impaired automaticity and to a lack of robust neurophysiological assessments by which to gauge automaticity. These gaps in knowledge are concerning given the serious functional implications of compromised automaticity. Therefore, the objective of this article is to advance the science of automaticity of walking by consolidating evidence and identifying gaps in knowledge regarding: a functional significance of automaticity; b neurophysiology of automaticity; c measurement of automaticity; d mechanistic factors that compromise automaticity; and e strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity.

  13. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  14. Managing Low Back Pain in the Primary Care Setting: The Know-Do Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ann Scott

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To ascertain knowledge gaps in the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic low back pain (LBP in the primary care setting to prepare a scoping survey for identifying knowledge gaps in LBP management among Alberta’s primary care practitioners, and to identify potential barriers to implementing a multidisciplinary LBP guideline.

  15. The Differential Valuation of Women's Work: A New Look at the Gender Gap in Lawyers' Incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinovitzer, Ronit; Reichman, Nancy; Sterling, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the mechanisms underlying the gender wage gap among new lawyers. Relying on nationally representative data to examine the salaries of lawyers working fulltime in private practice, we find a gender gap of about 5 percent. Identifying four mechanisms--work profiles, opportunity paths and structures, credentials, and…

  16. The Use of Gap Analysis to Increase Student Completion Rates at Travelor Adult School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Blanca Estela

    2013-01-01

    This project applied the gap analysis problem-solving framework (Clark & Estes, 2008) in order to help develop strategies to increase completion rates at Travelor Adult School. The purpose of the study was to identify whether the knowledge, motivation and organization barriers were contributing to the identified gap. A mixed method approached…

  17. High doses of salicylate causes prepulse facilitation of onset-gap induced acoustic startle response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Doolittle, Lauren; Flowers, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Qiuju

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reflex (PPI), a well-established method for evaluating sensorimotor gating function, has been used to detect tinnitus in animal models. Reduced gap induced PPI (gap-PPI) was considered as a sign of tinnitus. The silent gap used in the test contains both onset and offset signals. Tinnitus may affect these cues differently. In this experiment, we studied the effects of a high dose of salicylate (250 mg/kg, i.p.), an inducer of reversible tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss, on gap-PPI induced by three different gaps: an onset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and 25 ms offset time, an offset-gap with 25 ms onset and 0.1 ms offset time, and an onset-offset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and offset time. We found that the onset-gaps induced smaller inhibitions than the offset-gaps before salicylate treatment. The offset-gap induced PPI was significantly reduced 1-3h after salicylate treatment. However, the onset-gap caused a facilitation of startle response. These results suggest that salicylate induced reduction of gap-PPI was not only caused by the decrease of offset-gap induced PPI, but also by the facilitation induced by the onset-gap. Since the onset-gap induced PPI is caused by neural offset response, our results suggest that salicylate may cause a facilitation of neural response to an offset acoustical signal. Treatment of vigabatrin (60 mg/kg/day, 14 days), which elevates the GABA level in the brain, blocked the offset-gap induced PPI and onset-gap induced facilitation caused by salicylate. These results suggest that enhancing GABAergic activities can alleviate salicylate induced tinnitus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  19. Closing the Gaps. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Achievement gaps between groups of students (minority and white, rich and poor, English speakers and English language learners) are complex and intractable. Increasingly, they are being seen as a result of disparities between opportunities for learning available to different groups. By changing the opportunity structures of schools and…

  20. The Emissions Gap Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Following the historic signing of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, this sixth edition of the UNEP Emissions Gap Report comes as world leaders start gathering in Paris to establish a new agreement on climate change. The report offers an independent assessment of the mitigation...

  1. Project LOCAL - Bridging The Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    Project LOCAL, a not-for-profit regional consortium, offers a broad spectrum of in-service training courses tailored to meet the needs of educators in various disciplines and levels of experience. The purpose of these offerings is to bridge the communication gap between innovative centers in computer-oriented education and staff members in Boston…

  2. Gender Wealth Gap in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Trommlerová (Sofia Karina)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractNo data on wealth has been available in Slovakia prior to Household Finance and Consumption Survey. Therefore, only studies on labor market participation and wage gender gaps are available to date. These studies indicate that Slovak women earn on average 25% less than men.

  3. Investigations of Pulsed Vacuum Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-10

    Violet Spectra of Hot Sparks in Hh’Iacua, ’ ?hys. Rev., Vol. 12, p. 167, (1913). 31A Maitland , "Spark CondiiIoning Equation for Olane ElectrodesI-in...Appl. Phys., Vol. 1, 1291 G. Thecohilus, K. Srivastava, and R. ’ ian Heeswi.k, ’tn-situ Observation of !Microparticles in a Vacuum-Tnsulated Gap Using

  4. Featured Image: Simulating Planetary Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    The authors model of howthe above disk would look as we observe it in a scattered-light image. The morphology of the gap can be used to estimate the mass of the planet that caused it. [Dong Fung 2017]The above image from a computer simulation reveals the dust structure of a protoplanetary disk (with the star obscured in the center) as a newly formed planet orbits within it. A recent study by Ruobing Dong (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona) and Jeffrey Fung (University of California, Berkeley) examines how we can determine mass of such a planet based on our observations of the gap that the planet opens in the disk as it orbits. The authors models help us to better understand how our observations of gaps might change if the disk is inclined relative to our line of sight, and how we can still constrain the mass of the gap-opening planet and the viscosity of the disk from the scattered-light images we have recently begun to obtain of distant protoplanetary disks. For more information, check out the paper below!CitationRuobing Dong () and Jeffrey Fung () 2017 ApJ 835 146. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/146

  5. Globalization and the Gender Gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as a widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for some country studies. This study contributes to the literature in three respects. First, it is a large

  6. PSS: beyond the implementation gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertman, S.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the last couple of decades, a large number of papers on planning support systems (PSS) have been published in national and international, scientific and professional journals. What is remarkable about PSS is that for quite some time their history has been dominated by an implementation gap, that

  7. Denmark and the gap year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Noemi; Juul, Tilde Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes three different educational offers to young people: “The Folk High School”, “The ‘After-school’” and 10th class. All can be considered optional Gap Years. The following diagram shows how the Danish education system is structured. The Folk High School is a training course...

  8. Closing the Racial Discipline Gap in Classrooms by Changing Teacher Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Anne; Hafen, Christopher A.; Ruzek, Erik; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Black students are issued school discipline sanctions at rates higher than members of other racial and ethnic groups, underscoring the need for professional development that addresses this gap. In 86 secondary classrooms, a randomized controlled trial examined the effects of a 2-year teacher coaching program, My Teaching Partner Secondary (MTP-S). Results from the second year of coaching and the year after coaching was discontinued replicated previous findings from the first year of coaching—intervention teachers had no significant disparities in discipline referral between Black students and their classmates, compared to teachers in the control condition, for whom racial discipline gaps remained. Thus, MTP-S effects were replicated in the second year of coaching and maintained when coaching was withdrawn. Mediational analyses identified mechanisms for these effects; Black students had a low probability of receiving disciplinary referrals with teachers who increased skills to engage students in high-level analysis and inquiry. PMID:28190913

  9. Optimizing Quality of Care and Patient Safety in Malaysia: The Current Global Initiatives, Gaps and Suggested Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrar, Mu?taman; Rahman, Hamzah Abdul; Don, Mohammad Sobri

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Demand for health care service has significantly increased, while the quality of healthcare and patient safety has become national and international priorities. This paper aims to identify the gaps and the current initiatives for optimizing the quality of care and patient safety in Malaysia. Design: Review of the current literature. Highly cited articles were used as the basis to retrieve and review the current initiatives for optimizing the quality of care and patie...

  10. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  11. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  12. Asymptomatic proteinuria. Clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, S

    1977-09-01

    Patients with asymptomatic proteinuria have varied reasons for the proteinuria and travel diverse courses. In the individual with normal renal function and no systemic cause, ie, idiopathic asymptomatic proteinuria, the outlook is generally favorable. Microscopic hematuria probably raises some degree of question about prognosis. The kidney shows normal glomeruli, subtle changes, or an identifiable lesion. The initial approach includes a clinical and laboratory search for systemic disease, repeated urinalyses, quantitative measurements of proteinuria, determination of creatinine clearance, protein electrophoresis where indicated, and intravenous pyelography. The need for regularly scheduled follow-up evaluation is emphasized. Although the initial approach need not include renal biopsy, a decline in creatinine clearance, an increase in proteinuria, or both are indications for biopsy and consideration of drug therapy.

  13. Clinical outcome of increased flexion gap after total knee arthroplasty. Can controlled gap imbalance improve knee flexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailidis, P; Kuster, M S; Jost, B; Giesinger, K; Behrend, H

    2017-06-01

    Increased range of motion (ROM) while maintaining joint stability is the goal of modern total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A biomechanical study has shown that small increases in flexion gap result in decreased tibiofemoral force beyond 90° flexion. The purpose of this paper was to investigate clinical implications of controlled increased flexion gap. Four hundred and four TKAs were allocated into one of two groups and analysed retrospectively. In the first group (n = 352), flexion gap exceeded extension gap by 2.5 mm, while in the second group (n = 52) flexion gap was equal to the extension gap. The procedures were performed from 2008 to 2012. The patients were reviewed 12 months postoperatively. Objective clinical results were assessed for ROM, mediolateral and sagittal stability. Patient-reported outcome measures were the WOMAC score and the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS-12). After categorizing postoperative flexion into three groups (poor < 90°, satisfactory 91°-119°, good ≥ 120°) significantly more patients in group 1 achieved satisfactory or good ROM (p = 0.006). Group 1 also showed a significantly higher mean FJS-12 (group 1: 73, group 2: 61, p = 0.02). The mean WOMAC score was 11 in the first and 14 in the second group (n.s.). Increase in flexion gap did not influence knee stability. The clinical relevance of this study is that a controlled flexion gap increase of 2.5 mm may have a positive effect on postoperative flexion and patient satisfaction after TKA. Neither knee stability in the coronal and sagittal planes nor complications were influenced by a controlled increase in flexion gap. III.

  14. Dictionary Pruning with Visual Word Significance for Medical Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Yang; Cai, Weidong; Hauptmann, Alexander G; Liu, Sidong; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron; Fulham, Michael J; Feng, David Dagan; Chen, Mei

    2016-02-12

    Content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) is an active research area for disease diagnosis and treatment but it can be problematic given the small visual variations between anatomical structures. We propose a retrieval method based on a bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) to identify discriminative characteristics between different medical images with Pruned Dictionary based on Latent Semantic Topic description. We refer to this as the PD-LST retrieval. Our method has two main components. First, we calculate a topic-word significance value for each visual word given a certain latent topic to evaluate how the word is connected to this latent topic. The latent topics are learnt, based on the relationship between the images and words, and are employed to bridge the gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantics. These latent topics describe the images and words semantically and can thus facilitate more meaningful comparisons between the words. Second, we compute an overall-word significance value to evaluate the significance of a visual word within the entire dictionary. We designed an iterative ranking method to measure overall-word significance by considering the relationship between all latent topics and words. The words with higher values are considered meaningful with more significant discriminative power in differentiating medical images. We evaluated our method on two public medical imaging datasets and it showed improved retrieval accuracy and efficiency.

  15. A Capstone Project Using the Gap Analysis Model: Closing the College Readiness Gap for Latino English Language Learners with a Focus on School Support and School Counseling Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    This capstone project applied Clark and Estes' (2008) gap analysis framework to identify performance gaps, develop perceived root causes, validate the causes, and formulate research-based solutions to present to Trojan High School. The purpose was to examine ways to increase the academic achievement of ELL students, specifically Latinos, by…

  16. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  17. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  18. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  19. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  20. Green Product Purchasing Phenomenon: Exploring The Gaps Of Theoretical, Methodological And Empirical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahab Bin Tafsir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify research gaps on green purchasing topics and proposes several recommendations for future research. To explain the phenomenon of green products  purchase, this study uses Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in framework. The research uses a  qualitative method approach by conducting a review of articles that traced through four popular journal providers: Ebsco, J-Stors, Proquest and Emeraldinsight. A literature search process held between April, 2015 until Juni, 2015 and resulted on 67 chosen articles. The outcome of the review identified four theoretical gaps, two  methodological gaps and one practical gap.

  1. [Gaps in effective coverage by socioeconomic status and poverty condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    To analyze, in the context of increased health protection in Mexico, the gaps by socioeconomic status and poverty condition on effective coverage of selected preventive interventions. Data from the National Health & Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006, using previously defined indicators of effective coverage and stratifying them by socioeconomic (SE) status and multidimensional poverty condition. For vaccination interventions, immunological equity has been maintained in Mexico. For indicators related to preventive interventions provided at the clinical setting, effective coverage is lower among those in the lowest SE quintile and among people living in multidimensional poverty. Comparing 2006 and 2012, there is no evidence on gap reduction. While health protection has significantly increased in Mexico, thus reducing SE gaps, those gaps are still important in magnitude for effective coverage of preventive interventions.

  2. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of branched gap plasmon resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Esfandyarpour, Majid; Koh, Ai Leen

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of integrated optical circuits below the diffraction limit for high-speed manipulation of information is one of the cornerstones in plasmonics research. By coupling to surface plasmons supported on nanostructured metallic surfaces, light can be confined to the nanoscale......, enabling the potential interface to electronic circuits. In particular, gap surface plasmons propagating in an air gap sandwiched between metal layers have shown extraordinary mode confinement with significant propagation length. In this work, we unveil the optical properties of gap surface plasmons...... in silver nanoslot structures with widths of only 25 nm. We fabricate linear, branched and cross-shaped nanoslot waveguide components, which all support resonances due to interference of counter-propagating gap plasmons. By exploiting the superior spatial resolution of a scanning transmission electron...

  3. Bridging the Gap Between Science and Clinical Efficacy: Physiology, Imaging, and Modeling of Aerosols in the Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darquenne, Chantal; Fleming, John S; Katz, Ira; Martin, Andrew R; Schroeter, Jeffry; Usmani, Omar S; Venegas, Jose; Schmid, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Development of a new drug for the treatment of lung disease is a complex and time consuming process involving numerous disciplines of basic and applied sciences. During the 2015 Congress of the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine, a group of experts including aerosol scientists, physiologists, modelers, imagers, and clinicians participated in a workshop aiming at bridging the gap between basic research and clinical efficacy of inhaled drugs. This publication summarizes the current consensus on the topic. It begins with a short description of basic concepts of aerosol transport and a discussion on targeting strategies of inhaled aerosols to the lungs. It is followed by a description of both computational and biological lung models, and the use of imaging techniques to determine aerosol deposition distribution (ADD) in the lung. Finally, the importance of ADD to clinical efficacy is discussed. Several gaps were identified between basic science and clinical efficacy. One gap between scientific research aimed at predicting, controlling, and measuring ADD and the clinical use of inhaled aerosols is the considerable challenge of obtaining, in a single study, accurate information describing the optimal lung regions to be targeted, the effectiveness of targeting determined from ADD, and some measure of the drug's effectiveness. Other identified gaps were the language and methodology barriers that exist among disciplines, along with the significant regulatory hurdles that need to be overcome for novel drugs and/or therapies to reach the marketplace and benefit the patient. Despite these gaps, much progress has been made in recent years to improve clinical efficacy of inhaled drugs. Also, the recent efforts by many funding agencies and industry to support multidisciplinary networks including basic science researchers, R&D scientists, and clinicians will go a long way to further reduce the gap between science and clinical efficacy.

  4. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  5. GAP Analysis. Bulletin Number 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    dynamics into ecotoxicology . Pages 281-317 in O.E. Rhodes, Jr., R.K. Chesser, and M.H. Smith, editors. Population dynamics in ecological space and time...current stewardship chapter of the GAP handbook states that ... human-induced barren, cultivated exotic-dominated, or ar- "...the process of categorizing...least some level of protection, very sible. The initial data used in developing the map was remotely little of our scrub/shrub, grassland, or cultivated

  6. Hyper-active gap filling

    OpenAIRE

    Omaki, Akira; Lau, Ellen F.; Davidson White, Imogen; Dakan, Myles L.; Apple, Aaron; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English) wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap d...

  7. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  8. Hyper-active gap filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaki, Akira; Lau, Ellen F; Davidson White, Imogen; Dakan, Myles L; Apple, Aaron; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English) wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap dependencies, where internal arguments are fronted and hence precede the verb. This configuration makes it possible to investigate whether the parser actively makes representational commitments on the gap position before verb transitivity information becomes available. A key prediction of the view that rich pre-verbal structure building is a general architectural property is that speakers of verb-medial languages should predictively construct dependencies in advance of verb transitivity information, and therefore that disruption should be observed when the verb has intransitive subcategorization frames that are incompatible with the predicted structure. In three reading experiments (self-paced and eye-tracking) that manipulated verb transitivity, we found evidence for reading disruption when the verb was intransitive, although no such reading difficulty was observed when the critical verb was embedded inside a syntactic island structure, which blocks filler-gap dependency completion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in English, as in verb-final languages, information from preverbal noun phrases is sufficient to trigger active dependency completion without having access to verb transitivity information.

  9. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  10. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  11. Skill gap analysis and training needs in Indian aerospace industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premkumar Balaraman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the paper is on assessing the global aerospace industry as well as Indian scenario, and attempts to assess the skill gaps and training needs of Indian aerospace industry.  Design/methodology/approach: The study is qualitative in nature, and employs wide array of qualitative tools which includes desktop study, focus group interviews and secondary sources of information. Around 10 focus groups were used in the study, with each focus group having a minimum of 6 members of experts in the aerospace and allied industries. The study evolved into a 2 staged one, with the first study elucidating the growing importance and potential of aerospace industry, justifying the significance to take forward the second part of the study. And the second study specifically focuses on skill gaps and training needs. Findings and Originality/value: The Study yields varied results on existing generic expectations of aerospace industry, specific needs of aerospace industry, identification of aerospace job categories unique to aerospace industry, key issues of training in Indian scenario and recommendations. The paper in summary reflects the current scenario of aerospace industry potentials for India and its likely impact on skills gap and training needs. Practical implications: Skills gap is a significant gap between an organization’s current capabilities and the skills it needs to achieve its goals. As a number of Global forecasts project, India as an emerging aviation market, the skill gaps in this sector is predicted to be huge and necessitates the study on assessing the skill gaps and its allied training needs. Originality/value: The Study is highly original and first one of its kind in reflecting the current situation of the skills gap and training needs in Indian Aerospace industry. The focus group interviews were conducted with the experts at various levels in the industyr without any bias yielding valid and realtime data for the

  12. [Research progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weisong; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthro-plasty (TKA). The domestic and foreign related literature about larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA, and its impact factors, biomechanical and kinematic features, and clinical results were summarized. During TKA, to adjust the relations of flexion gap and extension gap is one of the key factors of successful operation. The biomechanical, kinematic, and clinical researches show that properly larger flexion gap than extension gap can improve both the postoperative knee range of motion and the satisfaction of patients, but does not affect the stability of the knee joint. However, there are also contrary findings. So adjustment of flexion gap and extension gap during TKA is still in dispute. Larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA is a new joint space theory, and long-term clinical efficacy, operation skills, and related complications still need further study.

  13. Minding the Gap: Investing in a Skilled Manufacturing Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing is growing and thriving in the United States. Companies are in great need of reliable employees who can communicate well, effectively make decisions, and are interested in long-term careers with opportunity for advancement. Employers have identified a need for a more robust talent pipeline to narrow America's skills gap--a…

  14. HIV and AIDS workplace interventions; Gaps between policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction This study set out to identify gaps between policy and practice of HIV and AIDS workplace interventions in the University of Malawi, in particular College of Medicine in line with the UNIMA HIV and AIDS policy. Objectives The main objective was to establish whether the HIV and AIDS workplace interventions at ...

  15. Dinosaur extinction: closing the '3 m gap'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bercovici, Antoine; Chester, Stephen G B; Sargis, Eric J; Pearson, Dean; Joyce, Walter G

    2011-12-23

    Modern debate regarding the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs was ignited by the publication of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) asteroid impact theory and has seen 30 years of dispute over the position of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur. A zone devoid of dinosaur fossils reported from the last 3 m of the Upper Cretaceous, coined the '3 m gap', has helped drive controversy. Here, we report the discovery of the stratigraphically youngest in situ dinosaur specimen: a ceratopsian brow horn found in a poorly rooted, silty, mudstone floodplain deposit located no more than 13 cm below the palynologically defined boundary. The K-T boundary is identified using three criteria: (i) decrease in Cretaceous palynomorphs without subsequent recovery, (ii) the existence of a 'fern spike', and (iii) correlation to a nearby stratigraphic section where primary extraterrestrial impact markers are present (e.g. iridium anomaly, spherules, shocked quartz). The in situ specimen demonstrates that a gap devoid of non-avian dinosaur fossils does not exist and is inconsistent with the hypothesis that non-avian dinosaurs were extinct prior to the K-T boundary impact event.

  16. Active epilepsy prevalence, the treatment gap, and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Yang; Guo, Yi; Shen, Chunhong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Feng; Yan, Shengqiang; Ding, Meiping

    2018-01-01

    We measured the prevalence of active epilepsy and investigated the treatment gap and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China. This was a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Zhejiang, China, from October 2013 to March 2014. A total 54,976 people were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. A two-stage questionnaire-based process was used to identify patients with active epilepsy and to record their demographic, socioeconomic, and epilepsy-related features. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors of the treatment gap in eastern China, as adjusted for age and sex. We interviewed 50,035 people; 118 had active epilepsy (2.4‰), among which the treatment gap was 58.5%. In multivariate analysis, failure to receive appropriate antiepileptic treatment was associated with higher seizure frequency of 12-23 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=6.874; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.372-19.918), >24 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=19.623; 95% CI=4.999-77.024), and a lack of health insurance (adjusted odds ratio=7.284; 95% CI=1.321-40.154). Eastern China has relatively lower prevalence of active epilepsy and smaller treatment gap. Interventions aimed at reducing seizure frequency, improving the health insurance system should be investigated as potential targets to further bridge the treatment gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap. PMID:23433245

  18. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Nerina; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-02-25

    In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  19. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  20. Preliminary test of 5-gap glass multi-gap resistive plate chamber for photon detection for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganai, R.; Mondal, M.; Mehta, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) is a type of gas detector which uses constant and uniform electric field in between several high resistive electrodes and works on the principle of gas ionisation. In MRPC a particular gas gap is divided into several parts with the help of thin high resistive electrodes. Division of the gas gap helps to improve the time resolution of the detector significantly. MRPCs with time resolution of ∼15 ps have been reported

  1. Improving Oncology Quality Measurement in Accountable Care: Filling Gaps with Cross-Cutting Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuck, Tom; Blaisdell, David; Dugan, Donna P; Westrich, Kimberly; Dubois, Robert W; Miller, Robert S; McClellan, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Payment for health care services, including oncology services, is shifting from volume-based fee-for-service to value-based accountable care. The objective of accountable care is to support providers with flexibility and resources to reform care delivery, accompanied by accountability for maintaining or improving outcomes while lowering costs. These changes depend on health care payers, systems, physicians, and patients having meaningful measures to assess care delivery and outcomes and to balance financial incentives for lowering costs while providing greater value. Gaps in accountable care measure sets may cause missed signals of problems in care and missed opportunities for improvement. Measures to balance financial incentives may be particularly important for oncology, where high cost and increasingly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics intersect with the highly complex and heterogeneous needs and preferences of cancer patients. Moreover, the concept of value in cancer care, defined as the measure of outcomes achieved per costs incurred, is rarely incorporated into performance measurement. This article analyzes gaps in oncology measures in accountable care, discusses challenging measurement issues, and offers strategies for improving oncology measurement. Discern Health analyzed gaps in accountable care measure sets for 10 cancer conditions that were selected based on incidence and prevalence; impact on cost and mortality; a diverse range of high-cost diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities (e.g., genomic tumor testing, molecularly targeted therapies, and stereotactic radiotherapy); and disparities or performance gaps in patient care. We identified gaps by comparing accountable care set measures with high-priority measurement opportunities derived from practice guidelines developed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and other oncology specialty societies. We found significant gaps in accountable care measure sets across all 10 conditions. For

  2. Bridging the gaps: An overview of wood across time and space in diverse rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 50 years of research focused on large wood (LW) in rivers provide a basis for understanding how wood enters rivers; how wood decays, breaks, and is transported downstream; and how at least temporarily stable wood influences channel geometry, fluxes of water, sediment, and organic matter, and the abundance and diversity of aquatic and riparian organisms. Field-based studies have led to qualitative conceptual models and to numerical stimulations of river processes involving wood. Numerous important gaps remain, however, in our understanding of wood dynamics. The majority of research on wood in rivers focuses on small- to medium-sized rivers, defined using the ratio of wood piece size to channel width as channels narrower than the locally typical wood-piece length (small) and slightly narrower than the longer wood pieces present (medium). Although diverse geographic regions and biomes are represented by one or a few studies in each region, the majority of research comes from perennial rivers draining temperate conifer forests. Regional syntheses most commonly focus on the Pacific Northwest region of North America where most of these studies originate. Consequently, significant gaps in our understanding include lack of knowledge of wood-related processes in large rivers, dryland rivers, and rivers of the high and low latitudes. Using a wood budget as an organizing framework, this paper identifies other gaps related to wood recruitment, transport, storage, and how beavers influence LW dynamics. With respect to wood recruitment, we lack information on the relative importance of mass tree mortality and transport of buried or surficial downed wood from the floodplain into the channel in diverse settings. Knowledge gaps related to wood transport include transport distances of LW and thresholds for LW mobility in small to medium rivers. With respect to wood storage, we have limited data on longitudinal trends in LW loads within unaltered large and great rivers and on

  3. 40 CFR 255.10 - Criteria for identifying regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... institutional gaps or inadequacies are found, regions should be identified keeping in mind which agencies would... section 208 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, with underground injection control agencies...

  4. Electrophysiological gap detection thresholds: effects of age and comparison with a behavioral measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shannon B; Musiek, Frank E

    2014-01-01

    Temporal processing ability has been linked to speech understanding ability and older adults often complain of difficulty understanding speech in difficult listening situations. Temporal processing can be evaluated using gap detection procedures. There is some research showing that gap detection can be evaluated using an electrophysiological procedure. However, there is currently no research establishing gap detection threshold using the N1-P2 response. The purposes of the current study were to 1) determine gap detection thresholds in younger and older normal-hearing adults using an electrophysiological measure, 2) compare the electrophysiological gap detection threshold and behavioral gap detection threshold within each group, and 3) investigate the effect of age on each gap detection measure. This study utilized an older adult group and younger adult group to compare performance on an electrophysiological and behavioral gap detection procedure. The subjects in this study were 11 younger, normal-hearing adults (mean = 22 yrs) and 11 older, normal-hearing adults (mean = 64.36 yrs). All subjects completed an adaptive behavioral gap detection procedure in order to determine their behavioral gap detection threshold (BGDT). Subjects also completed an electrophysiologic gap detection procedure to determine their electrophysiologic gap detection threshold (EGDT). Older adults demonstrated significantly larger gap detection thresholds than the younger adults. However, EGDT and BGDT were not significantly different in either group. The mean difference between EGDT and BGDT for all subjects was 0.43 msec. Older adults show poorer gap detection ability when compared to younger adults. However, this study shows that gap detection thresholds can be measured using evoked potential recordings and yield results similar to a behavioral measure. American Academy of Audiology.

  5. Mango: multiple alignment with N gapped oligos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zefeng; Lin, Hao; Li, Ming

    2008-06-01

    Multiple sequence alignment is a classical and challenging task. The problem is NP-hard. The full dynamic programming takes too much time. The progressive alignment heuristics adopted by most state-of-the-art works suffer from the "once a gap, always a gap" phenomenon. Is there a radically new way to do multiple sequence alignment? In this paper, we introduce a novel and orthogonal multiple sequence alignment method, using both multiple optimized spaced seeds and new algorithms to handle these seeds efficiently. Our new algorithm processes information of all sequences as a whole and tries to build the alignment vertically, avoiding problems caused by the popular progressive approaches. Because the optimized spaced seeds have proved significantly more sensitive than the consecutive k-mers, the new approach promises to be more accurate and reliable. To validate our new approach, we have implemented MANGO: Multiple Alignment with N Gapped Oligos. Experiments were carried out on large 16S RNA benchmarks, showing that MANGO compares favorably, in both accuracy and speed, against state-of-the-art multiple sequence alignment methods, including ClustalW 1.83, MUSCLE 3.6, MAFFT 5.861, ProbConsRNA 1.11, Dialign 2.2.1, DIALIGN-T 0.2.1, T-Coffee 4.85, POA 2.0, and Kalign 2.0. We have further demonstrated the scalability of MANGO on very large datasets of repeat elements. MANGO can be downloaded at http://www.bioinfo.org.cn/mango/ and is free for academic usage.

  6. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  7. Experimental study of a spark-gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, H.; Moreno, C.; Vieytes, R.

    1990-01-01

    Some experimental results concerning to the resistance of an atmospheric pressure spark-gap, operating in the self breakdown regime are presented. The influence of the energy discharging through the gap on this resistance is discussed. (Author)

  8. Convergent use of RhoGAP toxins by eukaryotic parasites and bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Colinet

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Inactivation of host Rho GTPases is a widespread strategy employed by bacterial pathogens to manipulate mammalian cellular functions and avoid immune defenses. Some bacterial toxins mimic eukaryotic Rho GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs to inactivate mammalian GTPases, probably as a result of evolutionary convergence. An intriguing question remains whether eukaryotic pathogens or parasites may use endogenous GAPs as immune-suppressive toxins to target the same key genes as bacterial pathogens. Interestingly, a RhoGAP domain-containing protein, LbGAP, was recently characterized from the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, and shown to protect parasitoid eggs from the immune response of Drosophila host larvae. We demonstrate here that LbGAP has structural characteristics of eukaryotic RhoGAPs but that it acts similarly to bacterial RhoGAP toxins in mammals. First, we show by immunocytochemistry that LbGAP enters Drosophila immune cells, plasmatocytes and lamellocytes, and that morphological changes in lamellocytes are correlated with the quantity of LbGAP they contain. Demonstration that LbGAP displays a GAP activity and specifically interacts with the active, GTP-bound form of the two Drosophila Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2, both required for successful encapsulation of Leptopilina eggs, was then achieved using biochemical tests, yeast two-hybrid analysis, and GST pull-down assays. In addition, we show that the overall structure of LbGAP is similar to that of eukaryotic RhoGAP domains, and we identify distinct residues involved in its interaction with Rac GTPases. Altogether, these results show that eukaryotic parasites can use endogenous RhoGAPs as virulence factors and that despite their differences in sequence and structure, eukaryotic and bacterial RhoGAP toxins are similarly used to target the same immune pathways in insects and mammals.

  9. IAEA Review for Gap Analysis of Safety Analysis Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, Ivica; Kim, Manwoong; Huges, Peter; Lim, B-K; D'Auria, Francesco; Louis, Vidard Michael

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA Asian Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN) was launched in 2002 in the framework of the Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP) on the Safety of Nuclear Installations in the South East Asia, Pacific and Far East Countries. The main objective is to strengthen and expand human and advanced Information Technology (IT) network to pool, analyse and share nuclear safety knowledge and practical experience for peaceful uses in this region. Under the ANSN framework, a technical group on Safety Analysis (SATG) was established in 2004 aimed to providing a forum for the exchange of experience in the following areas of safety analysis: · To provide a forum for an exchange of experience in the area of safety analysis, · To maintain and improve the knowledge on safety analysis method, · To enhance the utilization of computer codes, · To pool and analyse the issues related with safety analysis of research reactor, and · To facilitate mutual interested on safety analysis among member countries. A sustainable and successful nuclear energy programme requires a strong technical infrastructure, including a workforce made up of highly specialized and well-educated professionals. A significant portion of this technical capacity must be dedicated to safety- especially to safety analysis- as only then can it serve as the basis for making the right decisions during the planning, licensing, construction and operation of new nuclear facilities. In this regard, the IAEA has provided ANSN member countries with comprehensive training opportunities for capacity building in safety analysis. Nevertheless, the SATG recognizes that it is difficult to achieve harmonization in this area among all member countries because of their different competency levels. Therefore, it is necessary to quickly identify the most obvious gaps in safety analysis capability and then to use existing resources to begin to fill those gaps. The goal of this Expert Mission (EM) for gap finding service is to facilitate

  10. Building that Bridge over the Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Ramanathan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Employers worldwide are seeking and failing to find in new recruits many skills that are critical for success. Skills that enable employees to work as part of a team, communicate effectively, take decisions, lead, adapt to change and solve problems creatively are not often found in fresh graduates. Education does not impart these skills as efficiently as it does academic knowledge and subject-specific skills. A change in the pedagogy and content of education is required to bridge the increasing skills gap we face today. The World University Consortium has identified themes that must be part of our future education, and this article highlights methods and strategies that can implement these ideas.

  11. Characterizing the Variable Dust Permeability of Planet-induced Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Philipp; Benítez-Llambay, Pablo; Gressel, Oliver; Krapp, Leonardo; Pessah, Martin E.

    2018-02-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that dust grains in protoplanetary disks will drift radially inward on comparatively short timescales. In this context, it has long been known that the presence of a gap opened by a planet can significantly alter the dust dynamics. In this paper, we carry out a systematic study employing long-term numerical simulations aimed at characterizing the critical particle size for retention outside a gap as a function of particle size, as well as various key parameters defining the protoplanetary disk model. To this end, we perform multifluid hydrodynamical simulations in two dimensions, including different dust species, which we treat as pressureless fluids. We initialize the dust outside of the planet’s orbit and study under which conditions dust grains are able to cross the gap carved by the planet. In agreement with previous work, we find that the permeability of the gap depends both on dust dynamical properties and the gas disk structure: while small dust follows the viscously accreting gas through the gap, dust grains approaching a critical size are progressively filtered out. Moreover, we introduce and compute a depletion factor that enables us to quantify the way in which higher viscosity, smaller planet mass, or a more massive disk can shift this critical size to larger values. Our results indicate that gap-opening planets may act to deplete the inner reaches of protoplanetary disks of large dust grains—potentially limiting the accretion of solids onto forming terrestrial planets.

  12. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.; Vries, W. de; Dizengremel, P.; Ernst, D.; Jolivet, Y.; Mikkelsen, T.N.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Le Thiec, D.; Tuovinen, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing these gaps by enabling integration of experimentation and modelling within the soil-plant-atmosphere interface, as well as further model development. - Highlights: ► Research needs are identified for forests under climate change and air pollution. ► Abiotic–biotic interactions in response impede tree-ecosystem upscaling. ► Integration of empirical and modelling research is advocated. ► The concept of multi-scale investigations at novel “Supersites” is propagated. ► “Supersites” warrant mechanistic understanding of soil-plant-atmosphere interface. - Forests under climate change and air pollution require empirical and modelling research needs to be integrated at novel “Supersites” through multi-scale investigations.

  14. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Roy H.M. Sembel

    2015-01-01

    Some concerns in the field of Business Management regarding the gap between theory and practice have been raised by practitioners and academicians. This keynote speech describes some lessons learned from the academic literature regarding this gap (whether the gap really exists, and if it exists, whether it needs to be bridged or closed, and how to bridge or close this gap), and shares the author's personal and professional experiences of living as both an academician and a practitioner. The m...

  15. Gap Year: Time off, with a Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    A gap year allows people to step off the usual educational or career path and reassess their future. According to people who have taken a gap year, the time away can be well worth it. This article can help a person decide whether to take a gap year and how to make the most of his time off. It describes what a gap year is, including its pros and…

  16. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Khitarishvili

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  17. Gap Analysis between Perceptions and Expectations of Medical-Surgical Patients in a Public Hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Momani, Mohammed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    To investigate patients' satisfaction with nursing care by measuring the gap between patients' expectations of care and perceptions of the actual care provided and to identify the areas of nursing care that need improvement. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients who were admitted to the Departments of Medicine and Surgery at King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A modified Service Quality (SERVQUAL) instrument was adapted to collect information from a convenience sample of 432 patients from November 25, 2012, to February 3, 2013. The instrument comprised 22 pairs of questions assessing 5 dimensions of the nursing care provided to patients during hospitalizations. The mean patient expectations and perceptions as well as the gap score values for each dimension of nursing service were tested for differences between the mean scores of the sample at a level of significance of 0.05 using a t test. The gap score for all of the 5 dimensions of nursing services were: responsiveness, -1.71; reliability, -1.48; tangibles, -1.36; assurance, -1.26, and empathy, -0.96. Service quality across the dimensions of responsiveness and reliability was statistically significant (p < 0.05). This result indicated that patients were not satisfied with the nursing service quality in relation to all dimensions. Our study showed negative gaps for the 5 nursing service quality dimensions evaluated. This could provide nurses with information about the aspects of nursing care that promote more positive patient outcomes and satisfaction. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Hyper-active gap filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOmaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Much work has demonstrated that speakers of verb-final languages are able to construct rich syntactic representations in advance of verb information. This may reflect general architectural properties of the language processor, or it may only reflect a language-specific adaptation to the demands of verb-finality. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether speakers of a verb-medial language (English wait to consult verb transitivity information before constructing filler-gap dependencies, where internal arguments are fronted and hence precede the verb. This configuration makes it possible to investigate whether the parser actively makes representational commitments on the gap position before verb transitivity information becomes available. A key prediction of the view that rich pre-verbal structure-building is a general architectural property is that speakers of verb-medial languages should predictively construct dependencies in advance of verb transitivity information, and therefore that disruption should be observed when the verb has intransitive subcategorization frames that are incompatible with the predicted structure. In three reading experiments (self-paced and eye-tracking that manipulated verb transitivity, we found evidence for reading disruption when the verb was intransitive, although no such reading difficulty was observed when the critical verb was embedded inside a syntactic island structure, which blocks filler-gap dependency completion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in English, as in verb-final languages, information from preverbal NPs is sufficient to trigger active dependency completion without having access to verb transitivity information.

  19. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  20. Bridging the Vector Calculus Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne

    2003-05-01

    As with Britain and America, mathematicians and physicists are separated from each other by a common language. In a nutshell, mathematics is about functions, but physics is about things. For the last several years, we have led an NSF-supported effort to "bridge the vector calculus gap" between mathematics and physics. The unifying theme we have discovered is to emphasize geometric reasoning, not (just) algebraic computation. In this talk, we will illustrate the language differences between mathematicians and physicists, and how we are trying reconcile them in the classroom. For further information about the project go to: http://www.physics.orst.edu/bridge

  1. The Generation Gap: Age or Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Kenneth

    1971-01-01

    The author examines the breakdown in family communication, the parent youth ideological gap, and the issues affecting family polarization. He suggests that the generation gap may be an issues gap and briefly explores the possible role of the social worker in dealing with such differences. (Author)

  2. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a pseudo-gap due to superconductivity and the signature of a hybridization gap at the. Fermi level. For the choice of the model parameters, the DOS shows that the HFS is a metal and undergoes a transition to the gap-less superconducting state. Keywords. Heavy fermion superconductor; Narrow band system; Valence ...

  3. Do air-gaps behind soft body armour affect protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsley, Lee; Carr, D J; Lankester, C; Malbon, C

    2018-02-01

    Body armour typically comprises a fabric garment covering the torso combined with hard armour (ceramic/composite). Some users wear only soft armour which provides protection from sharp weapons and pistol ammunition. It is usually recommended that body armour is worn against the body with no air-gaps being present between the wearer and the armour. However, air-gaps can occur in certain situations such as females around the breasts, in badly fitting armour and where manufacturers have incorporated an air-gap claiming improvements in thermophysiological burden. The effect of an air-gap on the ballistic protection and the back face signature (BFS) as a result of a non-perforating ballistic impact was determined. Armour panels representative of typical police armour (400x400 mm) were mounted on calibrated Roma Plastilina No 1 and impacted with 9 mm Luger FMJ (9×19 mm; full metal jacket; Dynamit Nobel DM11A1B2) ammunition at 365±10 m/s with a range of air-gaps (0-15 mm). Whether or not the ammunition perforated the armour was noted, the BFS was measured and the incidence of pencilling (a severe, deep and narrow BFS) was identified. For 0° impacts, a critical air-gap size of 10 mm is detrimental to armour performance for the armour/ammunition combination assessed in this work. Specifically, the incidences of pencilling were more common with a 10 mm air-gap and resulted in BFS depth:volume ratios ≥1.0. For impacts at 30° the armour was susceptible to perforation irrespective of air-gap. This work suggested that an air-gap behind police body armour might result in an increased likelihood of injury. It is recommended that body armour is worn with no air-gap underneath. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Closing the antidepressant efficacy gap between clinical trials and real patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alan G

    2006-01-01

    Overall, patient outcomes in the primary care of depression are seldom as good as those achieved in clinical trials - the "efficacy gap". Many factors contribute to this, including poor patient compliance, poor family and social support and negative media reporting of antidepressants. Indeed, negative media reporting has had far more impact on physicians' prescribing of antidepressants than have regulatory agencies, partly as a result of changing public attitudes. Negative media reports linking SSRIs to increased child suicide rates have also resulted in a decline in the prescribing of SSRIs to this age group, but with no concomitant increase in the prescribing of fluoxetine, the only antidepressant recommended for the treatment of children. There are also inadequacies in the guidelines available to primary care givers that might contribute to the efficacy gap. Guidelines can be too specific for clinical practice - especially where depression coexists with anxiety disorders - and too passive, resulting in delayed or inadequate intervention. Evidence suggests that many physicians prefer to be more proactive. In the recent AHEAD survey, physicians identified faster resolution of symptoms as the property most desirable for improving antidepressant therapy. There is recent evidence that structured long-term therapy and easily-implemented measurement-based care procedures can improve remission rates and help bridge the efficacy gap. If these can be allied with greater public/media understanding of depression and its treatment, along with improved guidelines, then significant progress can be anticipated in the management of mood disorders.

  5. The research-practice relationship in ergonomics and human factors--surveying and bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy Z Q; Shorrock, Steven T

    2011-05-01

    Significant discord has been aired regarding the widening research-practice gap in several disciplines (e.g. psychology, healthcare), especially with reference to research published in academic journals. The research-practice gap has profound and wide-ranging implications for the adequacy of ergonomics and human factors (E/HF) research and the implementation of research findings into practice. However, no substantive research on this issue has been identified in E/HF. Using an online questionnaire, practitioners were asked about their application of scientific research findings published in peer-reviewed journals and to suggest ways to improve research application in practice. A total of 587 usable responses were collected, spanning 46 countries. This article describes some of the key differences and correlations concerning reading, usefulness and barriers to application among respondents, who varied in terms of organisational type, percentage of work time devoted to application vs. research, society membership and experience. Various solutions proposed by the survey respondents on ways to bridge the research-practice gap are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between research and practice in E/HF has long been a subject of discussion, with commentators pointing to tension and possible implications for the adequacy of the discipline. Findings from a cross-sectional survey provide ergonomics practitioners' views on research, leading to discussion of strategies for achieving better integration.

  6. Accounting Practitioners Reflect on Faculty Impact: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    A gap exists between the perception of accounting education in the classroom and accounting as it is practiced. This study explores qualitatively the perceptions and experiences of mid-career accounting professionals with respect to the impact of academic faculty on their careers in accounting. The study identifies a perception gap in the…

  7. Mitigating the Mathematical Knowledge Gap between High School and First Year University Chemical Engineering Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…

  8. When yield gaps are poverty traps: The paradigm of ecological intensification in African smallholder agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Yield gaps are pervasive in African smallholder agriculture, and are large for almost all crops in all regions. There is consensus that poor soil fertility and nutrient availability are the major biophysical limitations to agricultural production in the continent. We identify two major yield gaps:

  9. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 3 - vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. In this paper, we report updated findings in the field of FMD vaccine research. This paper consists of the following four sections: 1) Research priorities identified in the 2010 GFRA gap ana...

  10. Closing yield gaps: perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalan, Ben; Green, Rhys; Balmford, Andrew

    2014-04-05

    Increasing agricultural productivity to 'close yield gaps' creates both perils and possibilities for biodiversity conservation. Yield increases often have negative impacts on species within farmland, but at the same time could potentially make it more feasible to minimize further cropland expansion into natural habitats. We combine global data on yield gaps, projected future production of maize, rice and wheat, the distributions of birds and their estimated sensitivity to changes in crop yields to map where it might be most beneficial for bird conservation to close yield gaps as part of a land-sparing strategy, and where doing so might be most damaging. Closing yield gaps to attainable levels to meet projected demand in 2050 could potentially help spare an area equivalent to that of the Indian subcontinent. Increasing yields this much on existing farmland would inevitably reduce its biodiversity, and therefore we advocate efforts both to constrain further increases in global food demand, and to identify the least harmful ways of increasing yields. The land-sparing potential of closing yield gaps will not be realized without specific mechanisms to link yield increases to habitat protection (and restoration), and therefore we suggest that conservationists, farmers, crop scientists and policy-makers collaborate to explore promising mechanisms.

  11. Minimum period and the gap in periods of Cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Sienkiewicz, R.

    1983-01-01

    The 81 minute cutoff to the orbital periods of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic binaries is consistent with evolution of those systems being dominated by angular momentum losses due to gravitational radiation. Unfortunately, many uncertainties, mainly poorly known atmospheric opacities below 2000 K, make is physically impossible to verify the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation by using the observed cutoff at 81 minutes. The upper boundary of the gap in orbital periods observed at about 3 hours is almost certainly due to enhanced angular momentum losses from cataclysmic binaries which have longer periods. The physical mechanism of those losses is not identified, but a possible importance of stellar winds is pointed out. The lower boundary of the gap may be explained with the oldest cataclysmic binaries, whose periods evolved past the minimum at 81 minutes and reached the value of 2 hours within about 12 x 10 9 years after the binary had formed. Those binaries should have secondary components of only 0.02 solar masses, and their periods could be used to estimate ages of the oldest cataclysmic stars, and presumably the age of Galaxy. An alternative explanation for the gap requires that binaries should be detached while crossing the gap. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is discussed. It requires the secondary components to be about 0.2 solar masses in the binaries just below the gap

  12. Perceptions and experiences of a gender gap at a Canadian research institute and potential strategies to mitigate this gap: a sequential mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Tricco, Andrea C; Hamid, Jemila; Daly, Caitlin; Bain, Julie; Jassemi, Sabrina; Kiran, Tara; Baxter, Nancy; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-01-01

    The gender gap in academia is long-standing. Failure to ensure that our academic faculty reflect our student pool and national population deprives Canada of talent. We explored the gender distribution and perceptions of the gender gap at a Canadian university-affiliated, hospital-based research institute. We completed a sequential mixed-methods study. In phase 1, we used the research institute's registry of scientists (1999-2014) and estimated overall prevalence of a gender gap and the gap with respect to job description (e.g., associate v. full-time) and research discipline. In phase 2, we conducted qualitative interviews to provide context for phase 1 data. Both purposive and snowball sampling were used for recruitment. The institute included 30.1% ( n = 62) women and 69.9% ( n = 144) men, indicating a 39.8% gender gap. Most full-time scientists (60.3%, n = 70) were clinicians; there were 54.2% more male than female clinician scientists. Ninety-five percent of basic scientists were men, indicating a 90.5% gap. Seven key themes emerged from 21 interviews, including perceived impact of the gender gap, factors perceived to influence the gap, recruitment trends, presence of institutional support, mentorship and suggestions to mitigate the gap. Several factors were postulated to contribute to the gender gap, including unconscious bias in hiring. A substantial gender gap exists within this research institute. Participants identified strategies to address this gap, such as establishing transparent search processes, providing opportunities for informal networking and mentorship of female scientists and establishing institutional support for work-life balance.

  13. Japanese consumer preferences for milk certified with the good agricultural practice(GAP) label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizaki, Hideo; Nanseki, Teruaki; Zhou, Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Japanese consumers' valuation of a good agricultural practice (GAP) label on packaged milk and investigated the effect of detailed GAP information on valuation. A total of 624 Japanese consumers were asked to select their most preferred milk through an online survey. The milk was assumed to have three attributes: the GAP label, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points certification, and price. The results showed that consumers' valuation of GAP was significantly positive. Although providing additional GAP information to a respondent who was aware of GAP and what it means had a positive effect on the consumers' valuation of GAP, provision of this information had no effect if the respondent knew about GAP either moderately or slightly, and had a negative effect if the respondent did not know about GAP at all. To increase broad consumer awareness and valuation of GAP, it is important to provide GAP information according to the requirements of consumers. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Evaluation of gap heat transfer model in ELESTRES for CANDU fuel element under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Moon; Ohn, Myung Ryong; Im, Hong Sik; Choi, Jong Hoh; Hwang, Soon Taek

    1995-01-01

    The gap conductance between the fuel and the sheath depends strongly on the gap width and has a significant influence on the amount of initial stored energy. The modified Ross and Stoute gap conductance model in ELESTRES is based on a simplified thermal deformation model for steady-state fuel temperature calculations. A review on a series of experiments reveals that fuel pellets crack, relocate, and are eccentrically positioned within the sheath rather than solid concentric cylinders. In this paper, the two recently-proposed gap conductance models (offset gap model and relocated gap model) are described and are applied to calculate the fuel-sheath gap conductances under experimental conditions and normal operating conditions in CANDU reactors. The good agreement between the experimentally-inferred and calculated gap conductance values demonstrates that the modified Ross and Stoute model was implemented correctly in ELESTRES. The predictions of the modified Ross and Stoute model provide conservative values for gap heat transfer and fuel surface temperature compared to the offset gap and relocated gap models for a limiting power envelope. 13 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs. (Author)

  15. Study on models for gap conductance between fuel and sheath for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.M.; Ohn, M.Y.; Lim, H.S.; Choi, J.H.; Hwang, S.T.

    1995-01-01

    The gap conductance between the fuel and the sheath depends strongly on the gap width and has a significant influence on the amount of initial stored energy. The modified Ross and Stoute gap conductance model in ELESTRES is based on a simplified thermal deformation model for steady-state fuel temperature calculations. A review on a series of experiments reveals that fuel pellets crack, relocate, and are eccentrically positioned within the sheath rather than solid concentric cylinders. In this paper, the two recently-proposed gap conductance models (offset gap model and relocated gap model) are described and are applied to calculate the fuel-sheath gap conductances under experimental conditions and normal operating conditions in CANDU reactors. The good agreement between the experimentally-inferred and calculated gap conductance values demonstrates that the modified Ross and Stoute model was implemented correctly in ELESTRES. The predictions of the modified Ross and Stoute model provide conservative values for gap heat transfer and fuel surface temperature compared to the offset gap and relocated gap models for a limiting power envelope. (author)

  16. Phononic Band Gaps in 2D Quadratic and 3D Cubic Cellular Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmuth, Franziska; Körner, Carolin

    2015-12-02

    The static and dynamic mechanical behaviour of cellular materials can be designed by the architecture of the underlying unit cell. In this paper, the phononic band structure of 2D and 3D cellular structures is investigated. It is shown how the geometry of the unit cell influences the band structure and eventually leads to full band gaps. The mechanism leading to full band gaps is elucidated. Based on this knowledge, a 3D cellular structure with a broad full band gap is identified. Furthermore, the dependence of the width of the gap on the geometry parameters of the unit cell is presented.

  17. Spark gap produced plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    A Spark Gap (Applied voltage : 2-8KV, Capacitor : 4 Micro F. Dia of the tube : 1 inch, Electrode distance : .3 ∼.5 inch) was made to generate a small size dynamic plasma. To measure the plasma density and temperature as a function of time and position, we installed and have been installing four detection systems - Mach-Zehnder type Interferometer for the plasma refractivity, Expansion speed detector using two He-Ne laser beams, Image Processing using Lens and A Optical-Fiber Array for Pointwise Radiation Sensing, Faraday Rotation of a Optical Fiber to measure the azimuthal component of B-field generated by the plasma drift. These systems was used for the wire explosion diagnostics, and can be used for the Laser driven plasma also

  18. Photonic band gap structure simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiping; Shapiro, Michael A.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.

    2006-10-03

    A system and method for designing photonic band gap structures. The system and method provide a user with the capability to produce a model of a two-dimensional array of conductors corresponding to a unit cell. The model involves a linear equation. Boundary conditions representative of conditions at the boundary of the unit cell are applied to a solution of the Helmholtz equation defined for the unit cell. The linear equation can be approximated by a Hermitian matrix. An eigenvalue of the Helmholtz equation is calculated. One computation approach involves calculating finite differences. The model can include a symmetry element, such as a center of inversion, a rotation axis, and a mirror plane. A graphical user interface is provided for the user's convenience. A display is provided to display to a user the calculated eigenvalue, corresponding to a photonic energy level in the Brilloin zone of the unit cell.

  19. Soil erosion assessment - Mind the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongho; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Fatichi, Simone

    2016-12-01

    Accurate assessment of erosion rates remains an elusive problem because soil loss is strongly nonunique with respect to the main drivers. In addressing the mechanistic causes of erosion responses, we discriminate between macroscale effects of external factors - long studied and referred to as "geomorphic external variability", and microscale effects, introduced as "geomorphic internal variability." The latter source of erosion variations represents the knowledge gap, an overlooked but vital element of geomorphic response, significantly impacting the low predictability skill of deterministic models at field-catchment scales. This is corroborated with experiments using a comprehensive physical model that dynamically updates the soil mass and particle composition. As complete knowledge of microscale conditions for arbitrary location and time is infeasible, we propose that new predictive frameworks of soil erosion should embed stochastic components in deterministic assessments of external and internal types of geomorphic variability.

  20. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  1. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  2. First-principles investigation of strain effects on the energy gaps in silicon nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, X-H; Alizadeh, A; Bhate, N; Varanasi, K K; Kumar, S K; Nayak, S K

    2007-01-01

    First-principles density functional calculations were performed to study strain effects on the energy gaps in silicon nanoclusters with diameter ranging from 0.6 to 2 nm. Hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic strains have been found to affect the energy gaps differently. For the same strain energy density, non-hydrostatic strain leads to a significantly larger change in the energy gap of silicon clusters compared to that of the hydrostatic strain case. In contrast, hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic strain effects on the energy gaps of bulk Si or larger size Si quantum dots are comparable. Non-hydrostatic strains break the tetrahedral bonding symmetry in silicon, resulting in significant variation in the energy gaps due to the splitting of the degenerate orbitals in the clusters. Our results suggest that the combination of energy gaps and strains permits the engineering of photoluminescence in silicon nanoclusters and offers the possibility of designing novel optical devices and chemical sensors

  3. Forests under climate change and air pollution: Gaps in understanding and future directions for research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Calfapietra, C.

    2012-01-01

    Forests in Europe face significant changes in climate, which in interaction with air quality changes, may significantly affect forest productivity, stand composition and carbon sequestration in both vegetation and soils. Identified knowledge gaps and research needs include: (i) interaction between...... changes in air quality (trace gas concentrations), climate and other site factors on forest ecosystem response, (ii) significance of biotic processes in system response, (iii) tools for mechanistic and diagnostic understanding and upscaling, and (iv) the need for unifying modelling and empirical research...... for synthesis. This position paper highlights the above focuses, including the global dimension of air pollution as part of climate change and the need for knowledge transfer to enable reliable risk assessment. A new type of research site in forest ecosystems (“supersites”) will be conducive to addressing...

  4. Technical Barriers, Gaps, and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program. The objective of this report is to outline the technical1 barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program. This information will be used to provide guidance for new research necessary to enable the success of the approaches. Investigation for this report was conducted via publications related to home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, and a series of interviews with subject matter experts (contractors, consultants, program managers, manufacturers, trade organization representatives, and real estate agents). These experts specified technical barriers and gaps, and offered suggestions for how the technical community might address them. The potential benefits of home energy upgrades are many and varied: reduced energy use and costs; improved comfort, durability, and safety; increased property value; and job creation. Nevertheless, home energy upgrades do not comprise a large part of the overall home improvement market. Residential energy efficiency is the most complex climate intervention option to deliver because the market failures are many and transaction costs are high (Climate Change Capital 2009). The key reasons that energy efficiency investment is not being delivered are: (1) The opportunity is highly fragmented; and (2) The energy efficiency assets are nonstatus, low-visibility investments that are not properly valued. There are significant barriers to mobilizing the investment in home energy upgrades, including the 'hassle factor' (the time and effort required to identify and secure improvement works), access to financing, and the

  5. Gender Gaps in High School Students' Homework Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth; Holt, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in human capital investments made outside of the traditional school day suggest that males and females consume, respond to, and form habits relating to education differently. We document robust, statistically significant one-hour weekly gender gaps in secondary students' non-school study time using time diary data from the…

  6. The Influence of a "Gap Year" on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson-Brown, Lucy; Paterson-Brown, Flora; Simon, Elizabeth; Loudon, Joanna; Henderson-Howat, Susanna; Robertson, Josephine; Paterson-Brown, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the views of second year medical students from 6 Universities on the value or not of deferring entry to medical school in order to take a "Gap Year" obtained from an anonymous questionnaire. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test to produce a two tailed P value, with significance defined as p <0.05. A total of…

  7. Interindustry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Judith; Wolff, Edward N.

    1995-01-01

    Wages of female workers differ significantly by industry. The average woman earns about 65% as much as the average man; 12%-22% of the gap is explained by differences in patterns of interindustry wage differentials and 15%-19% by differences in gender distribution of workers. Combined industry effects explain about one-third of the gender wage…

  8. Precision of jaw-closing movements for different jaw gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmann, Daniel; Becker, Georg; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos N; Eberhard, Lydia; Fingerhut, Christopher; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schindler, Hans J

    2014-02-01

    Jaw-closing movements are basic components of physiological motor actions precisely achieving intercuspation without significant interference. The main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that, despite an imperfect intercuspal position, the precision of jaw-closing movements fluctuates within the range of physiological closing movements indispensable for meeting intercuspation without significant interference. For 35 healthy subjects, condylar and incisal point positions for fast and slow jaw-closing, interrupted at different jaw gaps by the use of frontal occlusal plateaus, were compared with uninterrupted physiological jaw closing, with identical jaw gaps, using a telemetric system for measuring jaw position. Examiner-guided centric relation served as a clinically relevant reference position. For jaw gaps ≤4 mm, no significant horizontal or vertical displacement differences were observed for the incisal or condylar points among physiological, fast, and slow jaw-closing. However, the jaw positions under these three closing conditions differed significantly from guided centric relation for nearly all experimental jaw gaps. The findings provide evidence of stringent neuromuscular control of jaw-closing movements in the vicinity of intercuspation. These results might be of clinical relevance to occlusal intervention with different objectives. © 2013 Eur J Oral Sci.

  9. Roles of gap junctions, connexins and pannexins in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthini eMylvaganam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced gap junctional communication (GJC between neurons is considered a major factor underlying the neuronal synchrony driving seizure activity. In addition, the hippocampal sharp wave ripple complexes, associated with learning and seizures, are diminished by GJC blocking agents. Although gap junctional blocking drugs inhibit experimental seizures, they all have other nonspecific actions. Besides interneuronal GJC between dendrites, inter-axonal and inter-glial GJC is also considered important for seizure generation. Interestingly, in most studies of cerebral tissue from animal seizure models and from human patients with epilepsy, there is up-regulation of glial, but not neuronal gap junctional mRNA and protein. Significant changes in the expression and post-translational modification of the astrocytic connexin Cx43, and Panx1 were observed in an in vitro Co++ seizure model, further supporting a role for glia in seizure-genesis, although the reasons for this remain unclear. Further suggesting an involvement of astrocytic GJC in epilepsy, is the fact that the expression of astrocytic Cx mRNAs (Cxs 30 and 43 is several fold higher than that of neuronal Cx mRNAs (Cxs 36 and 45, and the number of glial cells outnumber neuronal cells in mammalian hippocampal and cortical tissue. Pannexin expression is also increased in both animal and human epileptic tissues. Specific Cx43 mimetic peptides, Gap 27 and SLS, inhibit the docking of astrocytic connexin Cx43 proteins from forming intercellular gap junctions, diminishing spontaneous seizures. Besides GJs, Cx membrane hemichannels in glia and Panx membrane channels in neurons and glia are also inhibited by gap junctional pharmacological blockers. Although there is no doubt that connexin-based gap junctions and hemichannels, and pannexin-based membrane channels are related to epilepsy, the specific details of how they are involved and how we can modulate their function for therapeutic purposes remain to

  10. Closing the Gender Gap: Improved Performance of U.S.-Born Females on the National Assessment of Adult Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dale J.; White, Sheida; Cohen, Steffaney B.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the current state of the gender literacy gap and the change in the gender literacy gap between 1992 and 2003, using the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). The results revealed that although there were significant gender literacy gaps in 1992, virtually all…

  11. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels

  12. State of the Art in HIV Drug Resistance: Science and Technology Knowledge Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Charles A; Bobkova, Marina R; Geretti, Anna Maria; Hung, Chien-Ching; Kaiser, Rolf; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; van Wyk, Jean; Dorr, Pat; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2018-01-01

    Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) threatens the efficacy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment. We present a review of knowledge gaps in the science and technologies of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) in an effort to facilitate research, scientific exchange, and progress in clinical management. The expert authorship of this review convened to identify data gaps that exist in the field of HIVDR and discuss their clinical implications. A subsequent literature review of trials and current practices was carried out to provide supporting evidence. Several gaps were identified across HIVDR science and technology. A summary of the major gaps is presented, with an expert discussion of their implications within the context of the wider field. Crucial to optimizing the use of ART will be improved understanding of protease inhibitors and, in particular, integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) in the context of HIVDR. Limited experience with INSTI represents an important knowledge gap in HIV resistance science. Utilizing such knowledge in a clinical setting relies on accurate testing and analysis of resistance-associated mutations. As next-generation sequencing becomes more widely available, a gap in the interpretation of data is the lack of a defined, clinically relevant threshold of minority variants. Further research will provide evidence on where such thresholds lie and how they can be most effectively applied. Expert discussion identified a series of gaps in our knowledge of HIVDR. Addressing prefsuch gaps through further research and characterization will facilitate the optimal use of ART therapies and technologies.

  13. Gap analysis of service quality at Innibos Arts Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Welthagen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Events, specifically festivals, have experienced significant growth in South Africa over the past ten years in size, numbers, diversity and popularity (Van Zyl, 2011. Arts festivals have become a feature in the South African cultural landscape and long term success and sustainability of these events rely on the emphasis of service quality, thereby highlighting sustainability of festivals and events. The questionnaire, based on the SERVQUAL model and an adaption of the Grönroos model was used to identify service perceptions and expectations of service quality at Innibos National Arts Festival in Mbombela, South Africa. The data were collected in two phases, the first prior to the festival to measure attendee’s expectations, and the second after the festival to measure the attendee’s experience of service quality at the festival . The statistical analysis was performed on a construct level as well as an individual variable level. This study aimed at quantifying the gap between attendee’s expectations and perceptions of service quality and overall customer satisfaction.

  14. Gap Analysis between Students' Perceptions and Expectations of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abbasian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Assessing the educational services provided for students and determining the gap between the current status and the expected status can pave the way for developing programs to promote the quality of educational services. This study was performed aiming at determining the quality of educational services in Shahroud University of Medical Sciences in 2010.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 274 students of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences were selected by random sampling method. The data were collected using SERVQUAL standard questionnaire. The 27-question questionnaire included two sections of demographic data and five-dimension educational services quality, which was completed as self-administered. The data were analyzed through independent samples t-test, paired samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA.Results: There were quality gaps in all dimensions of educational services quality and the statements to assess them. The biggest quality gap was in the responsiveness dimension (-1.45, and the lowest gap was in the reliability dimension (-1.14. The mean gap scores in female students were higher than male students in all five dimensions of educational services quality, and this difference were statistically significant (p<0.001.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the students’ expectations are not fulfilled in all service dimensions. Therefore, responsiveness, customer-orientation, improvement of work processes and physical spaces, and paying attention to other dimensions could play a key role in promoting the quality of educational services.

  15. Band gap engineering for graphene by using Na+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, S. J.; Lee, P. R.; Kim, J. G.; Ryu, M. T.; Park, H. M.; Chung, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the noble electronic properties of graphene, its industrial application has been hindered mainly by the absence of a stable means of producing a band gap at the Dirac point (DP). We report a new route to open a band gap (E g ) at DP in a controlled way by depositing positively charged Na + ions on single layer graphene formed on 6H-SiC(0001) surface. The doping of low energy Na + ions is found to deplete the π* band of graphene above the DP, and simultaneously shift the DP downward away from Fermi energy indicating the opening of E g . The band gap increases with increasing Na + coverage with a maximum E g ≥0.70 eV. Our core-level data, C 1s, Na 2p, and Si 2p, consistently suggest that Na + ions do not intercalate through graphene, but produce a significant charge asymmetry among the carbon atoms of graphene to cause the opening of a band gap. We thus provide a reliable way of producing and tuning the band gap of graphene by using Na + ions, which may play a vital role in utilizing graphene in future nano-electronic devices.

  16. Wide gap, permanent magnet biased magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Karl

    1992-01-01

    The unique features and applications of the presented electrical permanent magnetic bearing system essentially result from three facts: (1) the only bearing rotor components are nonlaminated ferromagnetic steel collars or cylinders; (2) all radial and axial forces are transmitted via radial gaps; and (3) large radial bearing gaps can be provided with minimum electric power consumption. The large gaps allow for effective encapsulation and shielding of the rotors at elevated or low temperatures, corrosive or ultra clean atmosphere or vacuum or high pressure environment. Two significant applications are described: (1) a magnetically suspended x ray rotary anode was operated under high vacuum conditions at 100 KV anode potential, 600 C temperature at the rotor collars and speed 18000 rpm with 13 mm radial bearing gap; and (2) an improved Czochralski type crystal growth apparatus using the hot wall method for pulling GaAs single crystals of low dislocation density. Both crystal and crucible are carried and transported by magnetically suspended shafts inside a hermetically sealed housing at 800 C shaft and wall temperature. The radial magnetic bearing gap measures 24 mm.

  17. Has the gap between pancreas and islet transplantation closed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclauss, Nadja; Morel, Philippe; Berney, Thierry

    2014-09-27

    Both pancreas and islet transplantations are therapeutic options for complicated type 1 diabetes. Until recent years, outcomes of islet transplantation have been significantly inferior to those of whole pancreas. Islet transplantation is primarily performed alone in patients with severe hypoglycemia, and recent registry reports have suggested that results of islet transplantation alone in this indication may be about to match those of pancreas transplant alone in insulin independence. Figures of 50% insulin independence at 5 years for either procedure have been cited. In this article, we address the question whether islet transplantation has indeed bridged the gap with whole pancreas. Looking at the evidence to answer this question, we propose that although pancreas may still be more efficient in taking recipients off insulin than islets, there are in fact numerous "gaps" separating both procedures that must be taken into the equation. These "gaps" relate to organ utilization, organ allocation, indication for transplantation, and morbidity. In-depth analysis reveals that islet transplantation, in fact, has an edge on whole pancreas in some of these aspects. Accordingly, attempts should be made to bridge these gaps from both sides to achieve the same level of success with either procedure. More realistically, it is likely that some of these gaps will remain and that both procedures will coexist and complement each other, to ensure that β cell replacement can be successfully implemented in the greatest possible number of patients with type 1 diabetes.

  18. Band gap engineering of BC2N for nanoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei Hong; Hamzah, Afiq; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Ismail, Razali

    2017-12-01

    The BC2N as an example of boron-carbon-nitride (BCN), has the analogous structure as the graphene and boron nitride. It is predicted to have controllable electronic properties. Therefore, the analytical study on the engineer-able band gap of the BC2N is carried out based on the schematic structure of BC2N. The Nearest Neighbour Tight Binding (NNTB) model is employed with the dispersion relation and the density of state (DOS) as the main band gap analysing parameter. The results show that the hopping integrals having the significant effect on the band gap, band structure and DOS of BC2N nanowire (BC2NNW) need to be taken into consideration. The presented model indicates consistent trends with the published computational results around the Dirac points with the extracted band gap of 0.12 eV. Also, it is distinguished that wide energy gap of boron nitride (BN) is successfully narrowed by this carbon doped material which assures the application of BC2N on the nanoelectronics and optoelectronics in the near future.

  19. The identification of conduction gaps after pulmonary vein isolation using a new electroanatomic mapping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Masaharu; Fujita, Masashi; Iida, Osamu; Okamoto, Shin; Ishihara, Takayuki; Nanto, Kiyonori; Kanda, Takashi; Tsujimura, Takuya; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Okuno, Shota; Ohashi, Takuya; Tsuji, Aki; Mano, Toshiaki

    2017-11-01

    The reconnection of left atrial-pulmonary vein (LA-PV) conduction after the initial procedure of pulmonary vein (PV) isolation is not rare, and is one of the main cause of atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after PV isolation. We investigated feasibility of a new ultrahigh-resolution mapping system using a 64-pole small basket catheter for the identification of LA-PV conduction gaps. This prospective study included 31 consecutive patients (20 with persistent AF) undergoing a second ablation after a PV isolation procedure with LA-PV reconnected conduction at any of the 4 PVs. An LA-PV map was created using the mapping system, and ablation was performed at the estimated gap location. The propagation map identified 54 gaps from 39 ipsilateral PV pairs, requiring manual electrogram reannotation for 23 gaps (43%). Gaps at the anterior and carinal regions of left and right ipsilateral PVs required manual electrogram reannotation more frequently than the other regions. The voltage map could identify the gap only in 19 instances (35%). Electrophysiological properties of the gaps (multiple gaps in the same ipsilateral PVs, conduction time, velocity, width, and length) did not differ between those needing and not needing manual electrogram reannotation. During the gap ablation, either the activation sequence alteration or elimination of PV potentials was observed using a circular catheter placed in the PV, suggesting that all the identified gaps were correct. This new electroanatomic mapping system visualized all the LA-PV gaps in patients undergoing a second AF ablation. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.; Adjeroud, M.; Bellwood, D. R.; Berumen, Michael L.; Booth, D.; Bozec, Y.-M.; Chabanet, P.; Cheal, A.; Cinner, J.; Depczynski, M.; Feary, D. A.; Gagliano, M.; Graham, N. A. J.; Halford, A. R.; Halpern, B. S.; Harborne, A. R.; Hoey, A. S.; Holbrook, S. J.; Jones, G. P.; Kulbiki, M.; Letourneur, Y.; De Loma, T. L.; McClanahan, T.; McCormick, M. I.; Meekan, M. G.; Mumby, P. J.; Munday, P. L.; Ohman, M. C.; Pratchett, M. S.; Riegl, B.; Sano, M.; Schmitt, R. J.; Syms, C.

    2010-01-01

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef

  1. Technical Barriers, Gaps,and Opportunities Related to Home Energy Upgrade Market Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This report outlines the technical barriers, gaps, and opportunities that arise in executing home energy upgrade market delivery approaches, as identified through research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program.

  2. The gender wage gap in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increased attachment of women to the labour force in nearly all developed countries, a stubborn gender pay gap remains. This chapter provides a review of the economics literature on the gender wage gap, with an emphasis on developed countries. We begin with an overview of the trends in the gender differences in wages and employment rates. We then review methods used to decompose the gender wage gap and the results from such decompositions. We discuss how trends and differences in ...

  3. Wage compression and the gender pay gap

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence M. Kahn

    2015-01-01

    There are large international differences in the gender pay gap. In some developed countries in 2010–2012, women were close to earnings parity with men, while in others large gaps remained. Since women and men have different average levels of education and experience and commonly work in different industries and occupations, multiple factors can influence the gender pay gap. Among them are skill supply and demand, unions, and minimum wages, which influence the economywide wage returns to educ...

  4. New evidence on the motherhood wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Kimmel, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we assess the role of employment-based health insurance offers in explaining the motherhood wage gap. Researchers have been aware of the existence of a motherhood gap for many years; yet, the literature has failed to address the role of non-wage compensation in explaining the motherhood wage gap despite the increasing importance of non-wage benefits in total compensation packages. As hedonic wage theory suggests, mothers might vi...

  5. Toward identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Wendell P; Sedlak, David L; Barlaz, Morton A; Henry, Heather F; Muir, Derek C G; Swackhamer, Deborah L; Weber, Eric J; Arnold, Robert G; Ferguson, P Lee; Field, Jennifer A; Furlong, Edward T; Giesy, John P; Halden, Rolf U; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Howard, Philip H; Luthy, Richard G; Meyer, Anita K; Sáez, A Eduardo; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vulpe, Chris D; Wiesner, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled "Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation" held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants. Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants. Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific attributes: They are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, occur in large quantities, and have localized accumulation with a likelihood of exposure. Although still under development and incompletely applied, methods to quantify these attributes can assist in winnowing down the list of candidates from the universe of potential CECs. Unfortunately, significant research gaps exist in detection and quantification, environmental fate and transport, health and risk assessment, and site exploration and remediation for CECs. Addressing these gaps is prerequisite to a preventive approach to generating and managing hazardous waste sites. A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention.

  6. Redefining yield gaps at various spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, K.; Fishman, R.; Norstrom, A. V.; Diekert, F. K.; Engstrom, G.; Gars, J.; McCarney, G. R.; Sjostedt, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted the prevalence of 'yield gaps' around the world and the importance of closing them for global food security. However, the traditional concept of yield gap -defined as the difference between observed and optimal yield under biophysical conditions - omit relevant socio-economic and ecological constraints and thus offer limited guidance on potential policy interventions. This paper proposes alternative definitions of yield gaps by incorporating rich, high resolution, national and sub-national agricultural datasets. We examine feasible efforts to 'close yield gaps' at various spatial scales and across different socio-economic and ecological domains.

  7. The Los Alamos Gap Stick Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel; Hill, Larry; Johnson, Carl

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we describe a novel shock sensitivity test, the Gap Stick Test, which is a generalized variant of the ubiquitous Gap Test. Despite the popularity of the Gap Test, it has some disadvantages: multiple tests must be fired to obtain a single metric, and many tests must be fired to obtain its value to high precision and confidence. Our solution is a test wherein multiple gap tests are joined in series to form a rate stick. The complex re-initiation character of the traditional gap test is thereby retained, but the propagation speed is steady when measured at periodic intervals, and initiation delay in individual segments acts to decrement the average speed. We measure the shock arrival time before and after each inert gap, and compute the average detonation speed through the HE alone (discounting the gap thicknesses). We perform tests for a range of gap thicknesses. We then plot the aforementioned propagation speed as a function of gap thickness. The resulting curve has the same basic structure as a Diameter Effect (DE) curve, and (like the DE curve) terminates at a failure point. Comparison between experiment and hydrocode calculations using ALE3D and the Ignition and Growth reactive burn model calibrated for short duration shock inputs in PBX 9501 is discussed.

  8. Tensile-strain effect of inducing the indirect-to-direct band-gap transition and reducing the band-gap energy of Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaoka, Takeshi, E-mail: inaoka@phys.u-ryukyu.ac.jp; Furukawa, Takuro; Toma, Ryo; Yanagisawa, Susumu [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    By means of a hybrid density-functional method, we investigate the tensile-strain effect of inducing the indirect-to-direct band-gap transition and reducing the band-gap energy of Ge. We consider [001], [111], and [110] uniaxial tensility and (001), (111), and (110) biaxial tensility. Under the condition of no normal stress, we determine both normal compression and internal strain, namely, relative displacement of two atoms in the primitive unit cell, by minimizing the total energy. We identify those strain types which can induce the band-gap transition, and evaluate the critical strain coefficient where the gap transition occurs. Either normal compression or internal strain operates unfavorably to induce the gap transition, which raises the critical strain coefficient or even blocks the transition. We also examine how each type of tensile strain decreases the band-gap energy, depending on its orientation. Our analysis clearly shows that synergistic operation of strain orientation and band anisotropy has a great influence on the gap transition and the gap energy.

  9. NEN Division Funding Gap Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, Ernst I.; Goettee, Jeffrey D.; Desimone, David J.; Lakis, Rollin E.; Miko, David K.

    2012-01-01

    The work in NEN Division revolves around proliferation detection. The sponsor funding model seems to have shifted over the last decades. For the past three lustra, sponsors are mainly interested in funding ideas and detection systems that are already at a technical readiness level 6 (TRL 6 -- one step below an industrial prototype) or higher. Once this level is reached, the sponsoring agency is willing to fund the commercialization, implementation, and training for the systems (TRL 8, 9). These sponsors are looking for a fast turnaround (1-2 years) technology development efforts to implement technology. To support the critical national and international needs for nonprolifertion solutions, we have to maintain a fluent stream of subject matter expertise from the fundamental principals of radiation detection through prototype development all the way to the implementation and training of others. NEN Division has large funding gaps in the Valley of Death region. In the current competitive climate for nuclear nonproliferation projects, it is imminent to increase our lead in this field.

  10. Estimating yield gaps at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilpart, Nicolas; Grassini, Patricio; Sadras, Victor O; Timsina, Jagadish; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2017-05-01

    Yield gap analyses of individual crops have been used to estimate opportunities for increasing crop production at local to global scales, thus providing information crucial to food security. However, increases in crop production can also be achieved by improving cropping system yield through modification of spatial and temporal arrangement of individual crops. In this paper we define the cropping system yield potential as the output from the combination of crops that gives the highest energy yield per unit of land and time, and the cropping system yield gap as the difference between actual energy yield of an existing cropping system and the cropping system yield potential. Then, we provide a framework to identify alternative cropping systems which can be evaluated against the current ones. A proof-of-concept is provided with irrigated rice-maize systems at four locations in Bangladesh that represent a range of climatic conditions in that country. The proposed framework identified (i) realistic alternative cropping systems at each location, and (ii) two locations where expected improvements in crop production from changes in cropping intensity (number of crops per year) were 43% to 64% higher than from improving the management of individual crops within the current cropping systems. The proposed framework provides a tool to help assess food production capacity of new systems ( e.g. with increased cropping intensity) arising from climate change, and assess resource requirements (water and N) and associated environmental footprint per unit of land and production of these new systems. By expanding yield gap analysis from individual crops to the cropping system level and applying it to new systems, this framework could also be helpful to bridge the gap between yield gap analysis and cropping/farming system design.

  11. Impact of scaffolding and question structure on the gender gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Dawkins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We address previous hypotheses about possible factors influencing the gender gap in attainment in physics. Specifically, previous studies claim that scaffolding may preferentially benefit female students, and we present some alternative conclusions surrounding this hypothesis. By taking both student attainment level and the degree of question scaffolding into account, we identify questions that exhibit real bias in favor of male students. We find that both multidimensional context and use of diagrams are common elements of such questions.

  12. Impact of scaffolding and question structure on the gender gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Hillary; Hedgeland, Holly; Jordan, Sally

    2017-12-01

    We address previous hypotheses about possible factors influencing the gender gap in attainment in physics. Specifically, previous studies claim that scaffolding may preferentially benefit female students, and we present some alternative conclusions surrounding this hypothesis. By taking both student attainment level and the degree of question scaffolding into account, we identify questions that exhibit real bias in favor of male students. We find that both multidimensional context and use of diagrams are common elements of such questions.

  13. Looking for new emperor penguin colonies? Filling the gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ancel

    2017-01-01

    Our analysis highlights a fundamental requirement, that in order to predict how species might respond to regional climate change, we must better understand their biogeography and the factors that lead to their occupation of particular sites. Regarding emperor penguins, remote sensing should target the identified gaps apparently devoid of penguins in order to update the total number of colonies, to re-evaluate both the regional and global population of emperor penguins, and to gain a better understanding of their biogeography.

  14. Nitrogen dynamics across silvicultural canopy gaps in young forests of western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A.L.; Perakis, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    Silvicultural canopy gaps are emerging as an alternative management tool to accelerate development of complex forest structure in young, even-aged forests of the Pacific Northwest. The effect of gap creation on available nitrogen (N) is of concern to managers because N is often a limiting nutrient in Pacific Northwest forests. We investigated patterns of N availability in the forest floor and upper mineral soil (0-10 cm) across 6-8-year-old silvicultural canopy gaps in three 50-70-year-old Douglas-fir forests spanning a wide range of soil N capital in the Coast Range and Cascade Mountains of western Oregon. We used extractable ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) pools, net N mineralization and nitrification rates, and NH4+ and NO3- ion exchange resin (IER) concentrations to quantify N availability along north-south transects run through the centers of 0.4 and 0.1 ha gaps. In addition, we measured several factors known to influence N availability, including litterfall, moisture, temperature, and decomposition rates. In general, gap-forest differences in N availability were more pronounced in the mineral soil than in the forest floor. Mineral soil extractable NH4+ and NO3- pools, net N mineralization and nitrification rates, and NH4+ and NO3- IER concentrations were all significantly elevated in gaps relative to adjacent forest, and in several cases exhibited significantly greater spatial variability in gaps than forest. Nitrogen availability along the edges of gaps more often resembled levels in the adjacent forest than in gap centers. For the majority of response variables, there were no significant differences between northern and southern transect positions, nor between 0.4 and 0.1 ha gaps. Forest floor and mineral soil gravimetric percent moisture and temperature showed few differences along transects, while litterfall carbon (C) inputs and litterfall C:N ratios in gaps were significantly lower than in the adjacent forest. Reciprocal transfer incubations of

  15. "Prince Charming Syndrome?" Gender gap in preferences for defined contribution pensions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi P

    2017-01-01

    Using survey data collected by the Japan Institute of Life Insurance in 2002, this study finds that a significant gender gap existed in defined contribution (DC) pension knowledge among workers employed at small- to medium-sized private firms in Japan. Even with similar DC knowledge, however, men and women reveal different preferences for DC pensions, indicating that their perceptional responses may widely differ from actual behaviors. Apart from the knowledge gap, the result shows evidence of the Prince Charming Syndrome among female employees as a significant source of the gender gap in DC participation rates. Among corporate pension-covered employees, the gender difference in the efficacy of DC portability is a more significant gap-generating factor. DC tax advantage is particularly favored by pension-covered female employees over male counterparts, reducing the DC preference gap. No similar evidence is found for employees with no corporate pension coverage.

  16. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  17. The skills gap in nursing management in the South African public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Nurse managers are central to health delivery in South Africa. However, there is a paucity of research that analyzes their competence to successfully discharge their managerial role. To identify the competencies perceived to be important for effective nursing management in the South African public sector and the managers' self-assessed proficiency in these. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. 215 senior nursing managers at South African public sector hospitals. Respondents rated the level of importance that 51 proposed competencies had in their job and indicated their proficiency in each. Public sector managers ranked controlling as the most important competency, followed by leading, organizing, and self-management. Health/clinical skills, planning, and legal/ethical competencies were ranked as being relatively less important. They assessed themselves as being most competent in self-management, followed by planning, controlling, leading, and specific health skills. The competency gap was the largest for legal/ethical issues, organizing, and controlling. The competency gap for planning and self-management was relatively smaller. This research confirms that there is a lack of management capacity within the public health sector and also identifies the areas in which the lack of knowledge or skills is most significant. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Gaps in the evidence for prevention and treatment of maternal anaemia: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jacqui A; Barroso, Filipa; Stanworth, Simon J; Spiby, Helen; Hopewell, Sally; Doree, Carolyn J; Renfrew, Mary J; Allard, Shubha

    2012-06-24

    Anaemia, in particular due to iron deficiency, is common in pregnancy with associated negative outcomes for mother and infant. However, there is evidence of significant variation in management. The objectives of this review of systematic reviews were to analyse and summarise the evidence base, identify gaps in the evidence and develop a research agenda for this important component of maternity care. Multiple databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. All systematic reviews relating to interventions to prevent and treat anaemia in the antenatal and postnatal period were eligible. Two reviewers independently assessed data inclusion, extraction and quality of methodology. 27 reviews were included, all reporting on the prevention and treatment of anaemia in the antenatal (n = 24) and postnatal periods (n = 3). Using AMSTAR as the assessment tool for methodological quality, only 12 of the 27 were rated as high quality reviews. The greatest number of reviews covered antenatal nutritional supplementation for the prevention of anaemia (n = 19). Iron supplementation was the most extensively researched, but with ongoing uncertainty about optimal dose and regimen. Few identified reviews addressed anaemia management post-partum or correlations between laboratory and clinical outcomes, and no reviews reported on clinical symptoms of anaemia. The review highlights evidence gaps including the management of anaemia in the postnatal period, screening for anaemia, and optimal interventions for treatment. Research priorities include developing standardised approaches to reporting of laboratory outcomes, and information on clinical outcomes relevant to the experiences of pregnant women.

  19. Gender Gaps and Gendered Action in a First-Year Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James; Stang, Jared B.; Holmes, N. G.; Kumar, Dhaneesh; Bonn, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    It is established that male students outperform female students on almost all commonly used physics concept inventories. However, there is significant variation in the factors that contribute to the gap, as well as the direction in which they influence it. It is presently unknown if such a gender gap exists on the relatively new Concise Data…

  20. Bridging the Gap: Technology Trends and Use of Technology in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cher Ping; Zhao, Yong; Tondeur, Jo; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Considerable investment has been made to bring technology to schools and these investments have indeed resulted in many "success stories." However there are two significant gaps in educational uses of technology that must be addressed. The first is a usage gap. Compared to how and how much today's students use technology outside…

  1. Mind the Gap: School Leaver Aspirations and Delayed Pathways to Further and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlik, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The "gap year" is defined as a time between the end of school and the beginning of further studies in which young people engage in a variety of activities, including paid or voluntary work. "Gapping" is a significant trend globally for young people deferring formal study after completing school, before commencing further or…

  2. Stall in Women's Real Wage Growth Slows Progress in Closing the Wage Gap. Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Heidi; Whittaker, Julie

    Since 1979, the wage gap between women and men has narrowed significantly, falling by more than 10 percent overall. The closing of the wage gap has slowed considerably in the 1990's, however, with women's real wages (adjusted for inflation) stagnating in recent year and men's wages continuing to decline. The lack of growth in both women's and…

  3. Effect of Calcaneus Fracture Gap Without Step-Off on Stress Distribution Across the Subtalar Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Brett; Joyce, Donald A; Werner, Frederick W; Iannolo, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Subtalar arthritis is a common consequence following calcaneal fracture, and its development is related to the severity of the fracture. Previous calcaneal fracture models have demonstrated altered contact characteristics when a step-off is created in the posterior facet articular surface. Changes in posterior facet contact characteristics have not been previously characterized for calcaneal fracture gap without step-off. The contact characteristics (peak pressure, area of contact, and centroid of pressure) of the posterior facet of the subtalar joint were determined in 6 cadaveric specimens. After creating a calcaneal fracture to simulate a Sanders type II fracture, the contact characteristics were determined with the posterior facet anatomically reduced followed by an incremental increase in fracture gap displacement of 2, 3, and 5 mm without a step-off of the articular surface. Peak pressure on the medial fragment was significantly less with a 5-mm gap compared to a 2- or 3-mm gap, or reduced. On the lateral fragment, the peak pressure was significantly increased with a 5-mm gap compared to a 2- or 3-mm gap. Contact area significantly changed with increased gap. In this study, there were no significant differences in contact characteristics between a <3-mm gap and an anatomically reduced fracture, conceding the study limitations including limiting axial loading to 50% of donor body weight. A small amount of articular incongruity without a step-off can be tolerated by the subtalar joint, in contrast to articular incongruity with a step-off present.

  4. Evidence and evidence gaps - an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medical treatment requires the implementation of existing evidence in the decision making process in order to be able to find the best possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic measure for the individual patient based on the physician's own expertise. Clinical trials form the evidence base and ideally, their results are assembled, analyzed, summarized, and made available in systematic review articles. Beside planning, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials in conformity with GCP (good clinical practice), it is essential that all results of conducted studies are publicly available in order to avoid publication bias. This includes also the public registration of planned and cancelled trials. History: During the last 25 years, evidence-based medicine became increasingly important in medical care and research. It is closely associated with the names of Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. About 15 years ago, the Deutsche Cochrane Zentrum (Cochrane Germany) and the Deutsche Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin e.V. (German Network for Evidence-based Medicine, DNEbM) were founded in Germany. In the International Cochrane Collaboration, clinicians and methodologists come together on an interdisciplinary level to further develop methods of evidence-based medicine and to discuss the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as knowledge transfer. Problem: Evidence is particularly important for physicians in the process of decision making, however, at the same time it is the base of a scientific proof of benefit for the patient and finally for the payers in health care. The closure of evidence gaps requires enormously high staff and financial resources, significant organizational efforts, and it is only successful when clinical and methodical expertise as well as specific knowledge in the field of clinical research are included. On the other hand, the knowledge has to be transferred into practice. For this purpose, practice guidelines, meetings

  5. Demographic characteristics in patients with short-gap and long-gap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further analysis of this topic is warranted ... Keywords: demographic characteristics, long-gap esophageal atresia, short-gap ... Thus, we conducted the present study to analyze the character- ..... this issue, providing fundamental information.

  6. Sequence-based model of gap gene regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Konstantin; Gursky, Vitaly; Kulakovskiy, Ivan; Samsonova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The detailed analysis of transcriptional regulation is crucially important for understanding biological processes. The gap gene network in Drosophila attracts large interest among researches studying mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. It implements the most upstream regulatory layer of the segmentation gene network. The knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in gap gene regulation is far less complete than that of genetics of the system. Mathematical modeling goes beyond insights gained by genetics and molecular approaches. It allows us to reconstruct wild-type gene expression patterns in silico, infer underlying regulatory mechanism and prove its sufficiency. We developed a new model that provides a dynamical description of gap gene regulatory systems, using detailed DNA-based information, as well as spatial transcription factor concentration data at varying time points. We showed that this model correctly reproduces gap gene expression patterns in wild type embryos and is able to predict gap expression patterns in Kr mutants and four reporter constructs. We used four-fold cross validation test and fitting to random dataset to validate the model and proof its sufficiency in data description. The identifiability analysis showed that most model parameters are well identifiable. We reconstructed the gap gene network topology and studied the impact of individual transcription factor binding sites on the model output. We measured this impact by calculating the site regulatory weight as a normalized difference between the residual sum of squares error for the set of all annotated sites and for the set with the site of interest excluded. The reconstructed topology of the gap gene network is in agreement with previous modeling results and data from literature. We showed that 1) the regulatory weights of transcription factor binding sites show very weak correlation with their PWM score; 2) sites with low regulatory weight are important for the model output; 3

  7. Critical Gap distance in Laser Butt-welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    of "reference" welds are made and compared to sheets with the edges shear cut. The gap distance is precisely controlled by inserting spacers between the sheets. In the tests the gap is set at 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 mm. Mild steel (St 1203) with thickness? of 0.75 and 1.25 mm with and without zinc......When butt-welding metal sheets with high power lasers the gap distance between the sheets determine the final quality of the seam. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the critical gap distance that results in sound beads is identified. By grinding the edges of the sheets, a number...... coating were analysed. A total of 120 welds are made at different welding speeds.As quality norm DIN 8563 is used to divide the welds into quality classes. Since this norm only deals with surface defects a number of welds are also x-ray photographed.According to DIN 8563 the welds have classes of either B...

  8. Evolution of shell gaps with neutron richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Moumita Ray; Ray, I.; Kshetri, Ritesh; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sarkar, S.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to coordinate the recent data available over the periodic table, specially near the shell gaps and studied the evolution of the shell gaps as function of neutron numbers and/or other related quantities

  9. PhoneGap 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Natili, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, example-driven Beginner's Guide format, there are plenty of step-by-step instructions to help you get started with PhoneGap.If you are a web developer or mobile application developer interested in an examples-based approach to learning mobile application development basics with PhoneGap, then this book is for you.

  10. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy H.M. Sembel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Some concerns in the field of Business Management regarding the gap between theory and practice have been raised by practitioners and academicians. This keynote speech describes some lessons learned from the academic literature regarding this gap (whether the gap really exists, and if it exists, whether it needs to be bridged or closed, and how to bridge or close this gap, and shares the author's personal and professional experiences of living as both an academician and a practitioner. The main findings of this article are: (1 Yes the gap exists, however, it has to be viewed in a wider perspective to really understand the situation; (2 The gap in a specific area is bad and should become our concern, but in other areas it should not; (3 There are some ways to bridge or close the negative gap; (4 There exists hybrid career opportunities to become professionals that work both as an academician and a practitioner; (5 This new breed of hybrid professionals has a huge potential to bridge the bad theory-practice gap.

  11. School Choice and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility is examined that school choice programs could be a means to reducing the achievement gap. Data based on meta-analytic research and the examination of nationwide data sets suggest that school choice programs that include private schools could reduce the achievement gap by 25%. The propounding of this possibility is based on research…

  12. Delaying the Academy: A Gap Year Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This investigation serves as one of the first empirical analyses to examine the international volunteering gap year from an educational perspective, concluding an in-depth case study of a prominent gap year organisation in the UK. Contrary to widespread industry promotion of international development, the findings suggest that the experience can…

  13. Optical response and excitons in gapped graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Pedersen, K.

    2009-01-01

    Graphene can be rendered semiconducting via energy gaps introduced in a variety of ways, e.g., coupling to substrates, electrical biasing, or nanostructuring. To describe and compare different realizations of gapped graphene we propose a simple two-band model in which a "mass" term is responsible...

  14. Public Perceptions of the Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Women have made gains toward closing the gender pay gap during the past two decades. Much of the progress occurred during the 1980s, with smaller gains in the 1990s (Institute for Women's Policy Research 2004). Women's achievements in higher education are partly responsible for narrowing the pay gap in the 1980s and 1990s. As more women earned…

  15. Intersectionopoly: A Simulation of the Wage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paino, Maria; May, Matthew; Burrington, Lori A.; Becker, Jacob H.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a simulation activity designed to teach students about the wage gap. The wage gap is an important topic in many sociology classrooms, but it can be difficult to convey the accumulated disadvantage experienced by women and racial/ethnic minorities to students using in-class discussions, lectures, or assigned readings alone.…

  16. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps: A Data Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In the authors' 2011 "JEE" article, "Estimating Gender Wage Gaps," they described an interesting class project that allowed students to estimate the current gender earnings gap for recent college graduates using data from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE). Unfortunately, since 2012, NACE no longer…

  17. Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    Low band gap polymer materials and their application in organic photovoltaics (OPV) are reviewed. We detail the synthetic approaches to low band gap polymer materials starting from the early methodologies employing quinoid homopolymer structures to the current state of the art that relies...

  18. Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards to the individuals concerned and the economy. This new OECD report focuses on how best to close these gender gaps under four broad headings: (1) Gender equality, social norms and public policies; and gender equality…

  19. Broadband for all closing the infrastructure gap

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available than just addressing the infrastructure issue. The CSIR is mapping the country’s broadband infrastructure to understand where the largest gaps are, is developing models for how those gaps in broadband infrastructure can be closed. In this presentation...

  20. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the