WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify response levels

  1. The study of using earth tide response of groundwater level and rainfall recharge to identify groundwater aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W. J.; Hsu, C. H.; Chang, L. C.; Chiang, C. J.; Wang, Y. S.; Lu, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological framework is the most important basis for groundwater analysis and simulation. Conventionally, the core drill is a most commonly adopted skill to acquire the core's data with the help of other research methods to artificially determine the result. Now, with the established groundwater station network, there are a lot of groundwater level information available. Groundwater level is an integrated presentation of the hydrogeological framework and the external pumping and recharge system. Therefore, how to identify the hydrogeological framework from a large number of groundwater level data is an important subject. In this study, the frequency analysis method and rainfall recharge mechanism were used to identify the aquifer where the groundwater level's response frequency and amplitude react to the earth tide. As the earth tide change originates from the gravity caused by the paths of sun and moon, it leads to soil stress and strain changes, which further affects the groundwater level. The scale of groundwater level's change varies with the influence of aquifer pressure systems such as confined or unconfined aquifers. This method has been applied to the identification of aquifers in the Cho-Shui River Alluvial Fan. The results of the identification are compared to the records of core drill and they both are quite consistent. It is shown that the identification methods developed in this study can considerably contribute to the identification of hydrogeological framework.

  2. Deep sequencing of Brachypodium small RNAs at the global genome level identifies microRNAs involved in cold stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Kang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with close evolutionary relationship to cool-season cereals, has recently emerged as a novel model plant. There are few reports of Brachypodium miRNAs. Results High-throughput sequencing and whole-genome-wide data mining led to the identification of 27 conserved miRNAs, as well as 129 predicted miRNAs in Brachypodium. For multiple-member conserved miRNA families, their sizes in Brachypodium were much smaller than those in rice and Populus. The genome organization of miR395 family in Brachypodium was quite different from that in rice. The expression of 3 conserved miRNAs and 25 predicted miRNAs showed significant changes in response to cold stress. Among these miRNAs, some were cold-induced and some were cold-suppressed, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated under cold stress condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that Brachypodium miRNAs are composed of a set of conserved miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved miRNAs with low expression levels. Both kinds of miRNAs were involved in cold stress response, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated, implying an important role for cold-induced miRNAs. The different size and genome organization of miRNA families in Brachypodium and rice suggest that the frequency of duplication events or the selection pressure on duplicated miRNAs are different between these two closely related plant species.

  3. Identifying mechanistic similarities in drug responses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, C.; Hua, J.; Bittner, M. L.; Ivanov, I.; Dougherty, a. E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: In early drug development, it would be beneficial to be able to identify those dynamic patterns of gene response that indicate that drugs targeting a particular gene will be likely or not to elicit the desired response. One approach

  4. The rate of high ovarian response in women identified at risk by a high serum AMH level is influenced by the type of gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; Klein, Bjarke M; La Marca, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to compare ovarian response and clinical outcome of potential high-responders after stimulation with highly purified menotropin (HP-hMG) or recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) for in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Retrospective analysis was performed on data collected in two randomized controlled trials, one conducted following a long GnRH agonist protocol and the other with an antagonist protocol. Potential high-responders (n = 155 and n = 188 in the agonist and antagonist protocol, respectively) were defined as having an initial anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) value >75th percentile (5.2 ng/ml). In both protocols, HP-hMG stimulation in women in the high AMH category was associated with a significantly lower occurrence of high response (≥15 oocytes retrieved) than rFSH stimulation; 33% versus 51% (p = 0.025) and 31% versus 49% (p = 0.015) in the long agonist and antagonist protocol, respectively. In the potential high-responder women, trends for improved live birth rate were observed with HP-hMG compared with rFSH (long agonist protocol: 33% versus 20%, p = 0.074; antagonist protocol: 34% versus 23%, p = 0.075; overall population: 34% versus 22%, p = 0.012). In conclusion, the type of gonadotropin used for ovarian stimulation influences high-response rates and potentially clinical outcome in women identified as potential high-responders.

  5. Identifying mechanistic similarities in drug responses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, C.

    2012-05-15

    Motivation: In early drug development, it would be beneficial to be able to identify those dynamic patterns of gene response that indicate that drugs targeting a particular gene will be likely or not to elicit the desired response. One approach would be to quantitate the degree of similarity between the responses that cells show when exposed to drugs, so that consistencies in the regulation of cellular response processes that produce success or failure can be more readily identified.Results: We track drug response using fluorescent proteins as transcription activity reporters. Our basic assumption is that drugs inducing very similar alteration in transcriptional regulation will produce similar temporal trajectories on many of the reporter proteins and hence be identified as having similarities in their mechanisms of action (MOA). The main body of this work is devoted to characterizing similarity in temporal trajectories/signals. To do so, we must first identify the key points that determine mechanistic similarity between two drug responses. Directly comparing points on the two signals is unrealistic, as it cannot handle delays and speed variations on the time axis. Hence, to capture the similarities between reporter responses, we develop an alignment algorithm that is robust to noise, time delays and is able to find all the contiguous parts of signals centered about a core alignment (reflecting a core mechanism in drug response). Applying the proposed algorithm to a range of real drug experiments shows that the result agrees well with the prior drug MOA knowledge. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated mRNA and microRNA analysis identifies genes and small miRNA molecules associated with transcriptional and post-transcriptional-level responses to both drought stress and re-watering treatment in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiansi; Li, Meng; Zhang, Zhongchun; Tie, Weiwei; Chen, Xia; Jin, Lifeng; Zhai, Niu; Zheng, Qingxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Wang, Ran; Xu, Guoyun; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Pingping; Zhou, Huina

    2017-01-10

    Drought stress is one of the most severe problem limited agricultural productivity worldwide. It has been reported that plants response to drought-stress by sophisticated mechanisms at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing the responses of tobacco leaves to drought stress and water status are not well understood. To identify genes and miRNAs involved in drought-stress responses in tobacco, we performed both mRNA and small RNA sequencing on tobacco leaf samples from the following three treatments: untreated-control (CL), drought stress (DL), and re-watering (WL). In total, we identified 798 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the DL and CL (DL vs. CL) treatments and identified 571 DEGs between the WL and DL (WL vs. DL) treatments. Further analysis revealed 443 overlapping DEGs between the DL vs. CL and WL vs. DL comparisons, and, strikingly, all of these genes exhibited opposing expression trends between these two comparisons, strongly suggesting that these overlapping DEGs are somehow involved in the responses of tobacco leaves to drought stress. Functional annotation analysis showed significant up-regulation of genes annotated to be involved in responses to stimulus and stress, (e.g., late embryogenesis abundant proteins and heat-shock proteins) antioxidant defense (e.g., peroxidases and glutathione S-transferases), down regulation of genes related to the cell cycle pathway, and photosynthesis processes. We also found 69 and 56 transcription factors (TFs) among the DEGs in, respectively, the DL vs. CL and the WL vs. DL comparisons. In addition, small RNA sequencing revealed 63 known microRNAs (miRNA) from 32 families and 368 novel miRNA candidates in tobacco. We also found that five known miRNA families (miR398, miR390, miR162, miR166, and miR168) showed differential regulation under drought conditions. Analysis to identify negative correlations between the differentially expressed mi

  7. Identifying Careless Responses in Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Adam W.; Craig, S. Bartholomew

    2012-01-01

    When data are collected via anonymous Internet surveys, particularly under conditions of obligatory participation (such as with student samples), data quality can be a concern. However, little guidance exists in the published literature regarding techniques for detecting careless responses. Previously several potential approaches have been…

  8. Identifying and Fostering Higher Levels of Geometric Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbec, Maja; Cadež, Tatjana Hodnik

    2015-01-01

    Pierre M. Van Hiele created five levels of geometric thinking. We decided to identify the level of geometric thinking in the students in Slovenia, aged 9 to 11 years. The majority of students (60.7%) are at the transition between the zero (visual) level and the first (descriptive) level of geometric thinking. Nearly a third (31.7%) of students is…

  9. Identifying salt stress-responsive transcripts from Roselle ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Identifying the potentially novel transcripts responsible for salt stress tolerance in roselle will increase knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress responses. In this study, differential display reverse ...

  10. Identifying Heterogeneities in Subsurface Environment using the Level Set Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Hongzhuan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lu, Zhiming [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    These are slides from a presentation on identifying heterogeneities in subsurface environment using the level set method. The slides start with the motivation, then explain Level Set Method (LSM), the algorithms, some examples are given, and finally future work is explained.

  11. Decision Level Fusion of Fingerprint Minutiae Based Pseudonymous Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph; de Groot, Koen; Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2011-01-01

    In a biometric template protected authentication system, a pseudonymous identifier is the part of a protected biometric template that can be compared directly against other pseudonymous identifiers. Each compared pair of pseudonymous identifiers results in a verification decision testing whether

  12. TAMING TROJAN HORSES: IDENTIFYING AND MITIGATING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    P. P. M. A. R. HEUGENS; N. A. DENTCHEV

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations are exposed to increasing pressures from their constituents to integrate corporate social responsibility (CSR) principles into their ongoing business practices. But accepting new and potentially open-ended commitments is not a harmless exercise, and companies may well expose themselves to serious risks when embracing such principles. To identify these risks, we conducted two naturalistic studies: one exploratory, the other corroborative. The results show that CSR ado...

  13. Adaptive response after low level irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelevina, I I; Afanasjev, G G; JaGotlib, V; Tereschenko, D G; Tronov, V A; Serebrjany, A M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemical Physics

    1996-02-01

    The experiments conducted on cultured HeLa (tissue culture) cells revealed that there is a limit of dose above which adaptive response was not observed and a limit of dose below which this response was not induced. The exposure of cells in the territories with elevated radiation background leads to genome instability which results in enhanced radiosensitivity. Investigations on the blood lymphocytes of people living in contaminated regions revealed that adaptive response was more significant in children whereas in adults there was slight increase. Acute irradiation serves as a tool revealing the changes that took place in DNA during chronic low level irradiations after Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  14. Identifying Demand Responses to Illegal Drug Supply Interdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Scott; Finlay, Keith

    2016-10-01

    Successful supply-side interdictions into illegal drug markets are predicated on the responsiveness of drug prices to enforcement and the price elasticity of demand for addictive drugs. We present causal estimates that targeted interventions aimed at methamphetamine input markets ('precursor control') can temporarily increase retail street prices, but methamphetamine consumption is weakly responsive to higher drug prices. After the supply interventions, purity-adjusted prices increased then quickly returned to pre-treatment levels within 6-12 months, demonstrating the short-term effects of precursor control. The price elasticity of methamphetamine demand is -0.13 to -0.21 for self-admitted drug treatment admissions and between -0.24 and -0.28 for hospital inpatient admissions. We find some evidence of a positive cross-price effect for cocaine, but we do not find robust evidence that increases in methamphetamine prices increased heroin, alcohol, or marijuana drug use. This study can inform policy discussions regarding other synthesized drugs, including illicit use of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Taming Trojan Horses: Identifying and Mitigating Corporate Social Responsibility Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey); N.A. Dentchev (Nikolay)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOrganizations are exposed to increasing pressures from their constituents to integrate corporate social responsibility (CSR) principles into their ongoing business practices. But accepting new and potentially open-ended commitments is not a harmless exercise, and companies may well

  16. Escitalopram plasma levels and antidepressant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Vincenzo; Porcelli, Stefano; Saria, Alois; Serretti, Alessandro; Conca, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Major Depression Disorder (MDD) has a highly variable treatment response due to the large inter-individual variation in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drug treatments. In detail the correlation between plasma level and efficacy has been much debated. Among first-line drugs for MDD, one of the most used is escitalopram. In the present study we investigated the association between serum concentration of escitalopram (SCE) and antidepressant response (AR). 70 MDD patients treated with escitalopram monotherapy were recruited and followed for three months. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale - 21 (HAMD-21) was administrated at baseline, month 1, and month 3 to assess AR. SCE was measured at steady state. Linear regression analysis and nonlinear least-squares regression were used to estimate association between SCE and AR. We found an association between SCE and AR both at month 1 (pescitalopram the association between SCE and AR likely follows a nearly-asymptotic function, with poor AR at sub-therapeutic SCE and stable AR response at therapeutic SCE. Thus, when a patient reaches the therapeutic SCE range, further increase of escitalopram dosage seems to be useless, although further studies are needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying the Source of Misfit in Item Response Theory Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    When an item response theory model fails to fit adequately, the items for which the model provides a good fit and those for which it does not must be determined. To this end, we compare the performance of several fit statistics for item pairs with known asymptotic distributions under maximum likelihood estimation of the item parameters: (a) a mean and variance adjustment to bivariate Pearson's X(2), (b) a bivariate subtable analog to Reiser's (1996) overall goodness-of-fit test, (c) a z statistic for the bivariate residual cross product, and (d) Maydeu-Olivares and Joe's (2006) M2 statistic applied to bivariate subtables. The unadjusted Pearson's X(2) with heuristically determined degrees of freedom is also included in the comparison. For binary and ordinal data, our simulation results suggest that the z statistic has the best Type I error and power behavior among all the statistics under investigation when the observed information matrix is used in its computation. However, if one has to use the cross-product information, the mean and variance adjusted X(2) is recommended. We illustrate the use of pairwise fit statistics in 2 real-data examples and discuss possible extensions of the current research in various directions.

  18. Multi-level damage identification with response reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-Dong; Xu, You-Lin

    2017-10-01

    Damage identification through finite element (FE) model updating usually forms an inverse problem. Solving the inverse identification problem for complex civil structures is very challenging since the dimension of potential damage parameters in a complex civil structure is often very large. Aside from enormous computation efforts needed in iterative updating, the ill-condition and non-global identifiability features of the inverse problem probably hinder the realization of model updating based damage identification for large civil structures. Following a divide-and-conquer strategy, a multi-level damage identification method is proposed in this paper. The entire structure is decomposed into several manageable substructures and each substructure is further condensed as a macro element using the component mode synthesis (CMS) technique. The damage identification is performed at two levels: the first is at macro element level to locate the potentially damaged region and the second is over the suspicious substructures to further locate as well as quantify the damage severity. In each level's identification, the damage searching space over which model updating is performed is notably narrowed down, not only reducing the computation amount but also increasing the damage identifiability. Besides, the Kalman filter-based response reconstruction is performed at the second level to reconstruct the response of the suspicious substructure for exact damage quantification. Numerical studies and laboratory tests are both conducted on a simply supported overhanging steel beam for conceptual verification. The results demonstrate that the proposed multi-level damage identification via response reconstruction does improve the identification accuracy of damage localization and quantization considerably.

  19. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects.

  20. Item response theory at subject- and group-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, Hilde

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California

  1. Identifying and Prioritizing Information Needs and Research Priorities of Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Alexa L; Carbone, Eric G; Meit, Michael B; Kennedy, Mallory J; Yusuf, Hussain; Kahn, Emily B

    2017-10-01

    This study describes findings from an assessment conducted to identify perceived knowledge gaps, information needs, and research priorities among state, territorial, and local public health preparedness directors and coordinators related to public health emergency preparedness and response (PHPR). The goal of the study was to gather information that would be useful for ensuring that future funding for research and evaluation targets areas most critical for advancing public health practice. We implemented a mixed-methods approach to identify and prioritize PHPR research questions. A web survey was sent to all state, city, and territorial health agencies funded through the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) Cooperative Agreement program and a sample of local health departments (LHDs). Three focus groups of state and local practitioners and subject matter experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were subsequently conducted, followed by 3 meetings of an expert panel of PHPR practitioners and CDC experts to prioritize and refine the research questions. We identified a final list of 44 research questions that were deemed by study participants as priority topics where future research can inform PHPR programs and practice. We identified differences in perceived research priorities between PHEP awardees and LHD survey respondents; the number of research questions rated as important was greater among LHDs than among PHEP awardees (75%, n=33, compared to 24%, n=15). The research questions identified provide insight into public health practitioners' perceived knowledge gaps and the types of information that would be most useful for informing and advancing PHPR practice. The study also points to a higher level of information need among LHDs than among PHEP awardees. These findings are important for CDC and the PHPR research community to ensure that future research studies are responsive to practitioners' needs and provide the information

  2. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human immune responses to H. pylori HLA Class II epitopes identified by immunoinformatic methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Zhang

    Full Text Available H. pylori persists in the human stomach over decades and promotes several adverse clinical sequelae including gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer that are linked to the induction and subsequent evasion of chronic gastric inflammation. Emerging evidence indicates that H. pylori infection may also protect against asthma and some other immune-mediated conditions through regulatory T cell effects outside the stomach. To characterize the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response generated during H. pylori infection, computational methods were previously used to generate a panel of 90 predicted epitopes conserved among H. pylori genomes that broadly cover HLA Class II diversity for maximum population coverage. Here, these sequences were tested individually for their ability to induce in vitro responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interferon-γ ELISpot assay. The average number of spot-forming cells/million PBMCs was significantly elevated in H. pylori-infected subjects over uninfected persons. Ten of the 90 peptides stimulated IFN-γ secretion in the H. pylori-infected group only, whereas two out of the 90 peptides elicited a detectable IFN-γ response in the H. pylori-uninfected subjects but no response in the H. pylori-infected group. Cytokine ELISA measurements performed using in vitro PBMC culture supernatants demonstrated significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β1 in the H. pylori-infected subjects, whereas IL-17A expression was not related to the subjects H. pylori-infection status. Our results indicate that the human T cell responses to these 90 peptides are generally increased in actively H. pylori-infected, compared with H. pylori-naïve, subjects. This information will improve understanding of the complex immune response to H. pylori, aiding rational epitope-driven vaccine design as well as helping identify other H. pylori epitopes with potentially immunoregulatory effects.

  4. Identifying Assets Associated with Quality Extension Programming at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Harder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available County Extension offices are responsible for the majority of programming delivered in the United States. The purpose of this study was to identify and explore assets influencing the quality of county Extension programs. A basic qualitative research design was followed to conduct constant comparative analysis of five Extension county program review reports. Using the appreciative inquiry process as the lens through which to view the county program review reports revealed multiple assets leading to quality programming. Assets of the reviewed county Extension programs were found to cluster within the following themes: competent and enthusiastic Extension faculty, community partnerships, engaged and supportive stakeholders, effective resource management, sufficient and stable workforce, meeting stakeholder needs, positive reputation, access to facilities, positive relationships between county and state faculty, and innovative practices. The use of both needs-based and assets-based paradigms will provide Extension organizations with a more holistic understanding of its assets and a research-based foundation from which to make decisions about strengthening the organization at all levels.

  5. Exercise responses in patients with chronically high creatine kinase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christopher B; Dolezal, Brett A; Neufeld, Eric V; Shieh, Perry; Jenner, John R; Riley, Marshall

    2017-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) is often taken to reflect muscle disease, but many individuals have elevated CK without a specific diagnosis. How elevated CK reflects muscle metabolism during exercise is not known. Participants (46 men, 48 women) underwent incremental exercise testing to assess aerobic performance, cardiovascular response, and ventilatory response. Serum lactate, ammonia, and CK were measured at rest, 4 minutes into exercise, and 2 minutes into recovery. High-CK and control subjects demonstrated similar aerobic capacities and cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Those with CK ≥ 300 U/L exhibited significantly higher lactate and ammonia levels after maximal exercise, together with increased ventilatory responses, whereas those with CK ≥200 U/L but ≤ 300 U/L did not. We recommend measurement of lactate and ammonia profiles during a maximal incremental exercise protocol to help identify patients who warrant muscle biopsy to rule out myopathy. Muscle Nerve 56: 264-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. State-level emergency preparedness and response capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Sharon M; Perrotta, Dennis M; Stanbury, Martha; Heumann, Michael; Anderson, Henry; Simms, Erin; Huang, Monica

    2011-03-01

    Prior assessments of public health readiness had identified gaps in radiation preparedness. In recent years, preparedness planning has involved an "all-hazards" approach. Current assessment of the national status related to radiation public health emergency preparedness capabilities at the state and local health department levels was needed. A survey of state health departments related to radiation readiness was undertaken in 2010 by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). States with nuclear power plants were instructed to consider their responses exclusive of capabilities and resources related to the plants given that the emergency response plans for nuclear power plants are specific and unique. Thirty-eight (76%) state health departments responded to the survey, including 26 of the 31 states with nuclear power plants. Specific strengths noted at the state level included that the majority of states had a written radiation response plan and most plans include a detailed section for communications issues during a radiation emergency. In addition, more than half of the states indicated that their relationship with federal partners is sufficient to provide resources for radiation emergencies, indicating the importance states placed on federal resources and expertise. Specific weaknesses are discussed and include that most states had completed little to no planning for public health surveillance to assess potential human health impacts of a radiation event; less than half had written plans to address exposure assessment, environmental sampling, human specimen collection and analysis, and human health assessment. Few reported having sufficient resources to do public health surveillance, radiation exposure assessment, laboratory functions and other capabilities. Levels of planning, resources and partnerships varied among states, those with nuclear power plants were better prepared. Gaps were evident in all states; however and additional training and

  7. Methodological approaches to the assessment level of social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Vorona, E.

    2010-01-01

    A study of current approaches to assessing the level of social responsibility. Proposed methodological approach to evaluating the performance of the social responsibility of railway transport. Conceptual Basis of social reporting in rail transport.

  8. Climate change adapatation response at local government level

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The climate change response policy gives the mandate to all municipalities and other levels of government to develop and implement climate chnage adaptation response. The availability of appropriate information is essential for this process...

  9. Identifying the relevant dependencies of the neural network response on characteristics of the input space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    This talk presents an approach to identify those characteristics of the neural network inputs that are most relevant for the response and therefore provides essential information to determine the systematic uncertainties.

  10. Parametric Response Maps of Perfusion MRI May Identify Recurrent Glioblastomas Responsive to Bevacizumab and Irinotecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Domenico; Cuppini, Lucia; Anghileri, Elena; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Eoli, Marica

    2014-01-01

    Background Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) can be used to measure key aspects of tumor vascularity in vivo and recent studies suggest that perfusion imaging may be useful in the early assessment of response to angiogenesis inhibitors. Aim of this work is to compare Parametric Response Maps (PRMs) with the Region Of Interest (ROI) approach in the analysis of tumor changes induced by bevacizumab and irinotecan in recurrent glioblastomas (rGBM), and to evaluate if changes in tumor blood volume measured by perfusion MRI may predict clinical outcome. Methods 42 rGBM patients with KPS ≥50 were treated until progression, as defined by MRI with RANO criteria. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) variation after 8 weeks of treatment was calculated through semi-automatic ROI placement in the same anatomic region as in baseline. Alternatively, rCBV variations with respect to baseline were calculated into the evolving tumor region using a voxel-by-voxel difference. PRMs were created showing where rCBV significantly increased, decreased or remained unchanged. Results An increased blood volume in PRM (PRMCBV+) higher than 18% (first quartile) after 8 weeks of treatment was associated with increased progression free survival (PFS; 24 versus 13 weeks, p = 0.045) and overall survival (OS; 38 versus 25 weeks, p = 0.016). After 8 weeks of treatment ROI analysis showed that mean rCBV remained elevated in non responsive patients (4.8±0.9 versus 5.1±1.2, p = 0.38), whereas decreased in responsive patients (4.2±1.3 versus 3.8±1.6 p = 0.04), and re-increased progressively when patients approached tumor progression. Conclusions Our data suggest that PRMs can provide an early marker of response to antiangiogenic treatment and warrant further confirmation in a larger cohort of GBM patients. PMID:24675671

  11. On-line structural response analysis: using the extended Kalman estimator/identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    This report disucsses the development of on-line state and parameter estimators used to analyze the structural response of buildings. The estimator/identifier is an extended Kalman filter (EKF), which has been applied with great success in other technological areas. It is shown that the EKF can perform quite well on simulated noisy structural response data

  12. Identifying ozone-sensitive communities of (semi-)natural vegetation suitable for mapping exceedance of critical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.; Hayes, F.; Jones, M.L.M.; Cinderby, S.

    2007-01-01

    Using published data on the responses of individual species to ozone, 54 EUNIS (European Nature Information System) level 4 communities with six or more ozone-sensitive species (%OS) and c. 20% or more species tested for ozone sensitivity, were identified as potentially ozone-sensitive. The largest number of these communities (23) was associated with Grasslands, with Heathland, scrub and tundra, and Mires, bogs and fens having the next highest representation at 11 and 8 level 4 communities each respectively. Within the grasslands classification, E4 (Alpine and sub-alpine grasslands), E5 (Woodland fringes and clearings) and E1 (Dry grasslands) were the most sensitive with 68.1, 51.6 and 48.6%OS respectively. It is feasible to map the land-cover for these and other communities at level 2, but it may not be currently possible to map the land-cover for all communities identified to be ozone-sensitive at levels 3 and 4. - Grassland communities such as alpine and sub-alpine grasslands have the highest potential sensitivity ozone, based on the responses of their component species

  13. Identifying a compound modifying a cellular response, comprises attaching cells having a reporter system onto solid supports, releasing a library member, screening and identifying target cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for identifying compounds capable of modulating a cellular response. The methods involve attaching living cells to solid supports comprising a library of test compounds. Test compounds modulating a cellular response, for example via a cell surface molecule...... may be identified by selecting solid supports comprising cells, wherein the cellular response of interest has been modulated. The cellular response may for example be changes in signal transduction pathways modulated by a cell surface molecule....

  14. Identifying FRBR Work-Level Data in MARC Bibliographic Records for Manifestations of Moving Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Bisko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The library metadata community is dealing with the challenge of implementing the conceptual model, Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR. In response, the Online Audiovisual Catalogers (OLAC created a task force to study the issues related to creating and using FRBR-based work-level records for moving images. This article presents one part of the task force's work: it looks at the feasibility of creating provisional FRBR work-level records for moving images by extracting data from existing manifestation-level bibliographic records. Using a sample of 941 MARC records, a subgroup of the task force conducted a pilot project to look at five characteristics of moving image works. Here they discuss their methodology; analysis; selected results for two elements, original date (year and director name; and conclude with some suggested changes to MARC coding and current cataloging policy.

  15. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  16. The Fukushima radiological emergency and challenges identified for future public health responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charles W

    2012-05-01

    On 11 March 2011, northern Japan was rocked by first a magnitude 9.0 earthquake off the eastern coast and then an ensuing tsunami. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant complex was hit by these twin disasters, and a cascade of events was initiated that led to radionuclide releases causing widespread radioactive contamination of residential areas, agricultural land, and coastal waters. Radioactive material from Japan was subsequently transmitted to locations around the globe, including the U.S. The levels of radioactive material that arrived in the U.S. were never large enough to be a concern for health effects, but the presence of this material in the environment was enough to create a public health emergency in the U.S. The radiation safety and public health communities in the U.S. are identifying challenges they faced in responding to this incident. This paper discusses three of those challenges: (1) The growing shortage of trained radiation subject matter experts in the field of environmental transport and dosimetry of radionuclides; (2) the need to begin expressing all radiation-related quantities in terms of the International System of Units; and (3) the need to define when a radiation dose is or is not one of "public health concern." This list represents only a small subset of the list of challenges being identified by public health agencies that responded to the Fukushima incident. However, these three challenges are fundamental to any radiological emergency response. Addressing them will have a significant positive impact on how the U.S. responds to the next radiological emergency.

  17. Identifying attentional bias and emotional response after appearance-related stimuli exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ara; Kwak, Soo-Min; Lee, Jang-Han

    2013-01-01

    The effect of media images has been regarded as a significant variable in the construction or in the activation of body images. Individuals who have a negative body image use avoidance coping strategies to minimize damage to their body image. We identified attentional biases and negative emotional responses following exposure to body stimuli. Female university students were divided into two groups based on their use of avoidance coping strategies (high-level group: high avoidance [HA]; low-group: low avoidance [LA]), and were assigned to two different conditions (exposure to thin body pictures, ET, and exposure to oversized body pictures, EO). Results showed that the HA group paid more attention to slim bodies and reported more negative emotions than the LA group, and that the EO had more negative effects than the ET. We suggest that HAs may attend more to slim bodies as a way of avoiding overweight bodies, influenced by social pressure, and in the search for a compensation of a positive emotional balance. However, attentional bias toward slim bodies can cause an upward comparison process, leading to increased body dissatisfaction, which is the main factor in the development of eating disorders (EDs). Therefore, altering avoidance coping strategies should be considered for people at risk of EDs.

  18. Consumer factors predicting level of treatment response to illness management and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dominique A; McGuire, Alan B; Luther, Lauren; Anderson, Adrienne I; Phalen, Peter; McGrew, John H

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to identify consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response to illness management and recovery (IMR) to target the appropriate consumers and aid psychiatric rehabilitation settings in developing intervention adaptations. Secondary analyses from a multisite study of IMR were conducted. Self-report data from consumer participants of the parent study (n = 236) were analyzed for the current study. Consumers completed prepost surveys assessing illness management, coping, goal-related hope, social support, medication adherence, and working alliance. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were run to identify self-report variables that predicted level of treatment response to IMR. Analyses revealed that goal-related hope significantly predicted level of improved illness self-management, F(1, 164) = 10.93, p consumer-level predictors of level of treatment response have not been explored for IMR. Although 2 significant predictors were identified, study findings suggest more work is needed. Future research is needed to identify additional consumer-level factors predictive of IMR treatment response in order to identify who would benefit most from this treatment program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  20. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art…

  1. Identifying and prioritizing industry-level competitiveness factors: evidence from pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabaninejad, Hosein; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Rashidian, Arash; Baratimarnani, Ahmad; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2014-04-03

    Pharmaceutical industry is knowledge-intensive and highly globalized, in both developed and developing countries. On the other hand, if companies want to survive, they should be able to compete well in both domestic and international markets. The main purpose of this paper is therefore to develop and prioritize key factors affecting companies' competitiveness in pharmaceutical industry. Based on an extensive literature review, a valid and reliable questionnaire was designed, which was later filled up by participants from the industry. To prioritize the key factors, we used the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The results revealed that human capital and macro-level policies were two key factors placed at the highest rank in respect of their effects on the competitiveness considering the industry-level in pharmaceutical area. This study provides fundamental evidence for policymakers and managers in pharma context to enable them formulating better polices to be proactively competitive and responsive to the markets' needs.

  2. Identifying Industry-Specific Components of Product Liability Response System Using Delphi-AHP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo JunHyeok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PL (product liability response system is an enterprise-wide system that prevents company’s financial loss due to PL-related accidents. Existing researches on PL response system are mainly focused on preventive and/or defense strategies for the companies. Also, it is obvious that each industry has their original characteristics related on PL issues. It means industry-specific characteristics should be considered to adopt PL response strategies. Thus, this paper aims to discuss industry-specific PL response system and their components. Based on prior researches, we tried to reveal the possibility of its application to manufacturing companies of existing PL response strategies using Delphi method with PL experts. Based on first round results, we tried to classify existing PL strategies of manufacturing companies into several categories. To validate our suggestion for essential components of PL response system, second round Delphi method are applied. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP technique will be applied to identify a prioritized list of each components and strategies. Existing PL response strategies could be categorized with six components – strategy, technology, investment, training, awareness, and organization. Among six components, Technology – it represents the technology needed for improving the safety of all products – is the most important components to prepare PL accidents. The limitation of this paper is on the size of survey and variety of examples. However, the future study will enhance the potential of the proposed method. Regardless of rich research efforts to identify PL response strategies, there is no effort to categorize these strategies and prioritized them. Well-coordinated and actionable PL response strategies and their priorities could help small-and-medium sized enterprise (SME to develop their own PL response system with their limited resources.

  3. Can biomass responses to warming at plant to ecosystem levels be predicted by leaf-level responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Shao, J.; Zhou, X.; Yan, W.; Lu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming has the profound impacts on terrestrial C processes from leaf to ecosystem scales, potentially feeding back to climate dynamics. Although numerous studies had investigated the effects of warming on C processes from leaf to plant and ecosystem levels, how leaf-level responses to warming scale up to biomass responses at plant, population, and community levels are largely unknown. In this study, we compiled a dataset from 468 papers at 300 experimental sites and synthesized the warming effects on leaf-level parameters, and plant, population and ecosystem biomass. Our results showed that responses of plant biomass to warming mainly resulted from the changed leaf area rather than the altered photosynthetic capacity. The response of ecosystem biomass to warming was weaker than those of leaf area and plant biomass. However, the scaling functions from responses of leaf area to plant biomass to warming were different in diverse forest types, but functions were similar in non-forested biomes. In addition, it is challenging to scale the biomass responses from plant up to ecosystem. These results indicated that leaf area might be the appropriate index for plant biomass response to warming, and the interspecific competition might hamper the scaling of the warming effects on plant and ecosystem levels, suggesting that the acclimation capacity of plant community should be incorporated into land surface models to improve the prediction of climate-C cycle feedback.

  4. Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, V.

    1996-04-01

    In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

  5. Seven Steps in Identifying Local Climate Change Responses for Agriculture in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Ngo, An T.; Huynh, Chuong V.; Le, Huong T.; Dang, Nhan K.; Van, Tri P.D.; Halsema, van G.E.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a seven-step approach to identify and support local climate change (CC) responses in agriculture. The following seven steps comprise this approach: 1. Analyse past trends on the climatic factors and model the future trends. 2. Simulate the possible impacts of CC on the selected

  6. Errors and conflict at the task level and the response level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Charlotte; Fias, Wim; Hartstra, Egbert; Brass, Marcel

    2011-01-26

    In the last decade, research on error and conflict processing has become one of the most influential research areas in the domain of cognitive control. There is now converging evidence that a specific part of the posterior frontomedian cortex (pFMC), the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ), is crucially involved in the processing of errors and conflict. However, error-related research has focused primarily on a specific error type, namely, response errors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether errors on the task level rely on the same neural and functional mechanisms. Here we report a dissociation of both error types in the pFMC: whereas response errors activate the RCZ, task errors activate the dorsal frontomedian cortex. Although this last region shows an overlap in activation for task and response errors on the group level, a closer inspection of the single-subject data is more in accordance with a functional anatomical dissociation. When investigating brain areas related to conflict on the task and response levels, a clear dissociation was perceived between areas associated with response conflict and with task conflict. Overall, our data support a dissociation between response and task levels of processing in the pFMC. In addition, we provide additional evidence for a dissociation between conflict and errors both at the response level and at the task level.

  7. Androgen receptors and serum testosterone levels identify different subsets of postmenopausal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secreto Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen receptors (AR are frequently expressed in breast cancers, but their implication in cancer growth is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the role of the androgen/AR pathway in breast cancer development. Methods AR expression was evaluated by immunochemistry in a cohort of 528 postmenopausal breast cancer patients previously examined for the association of serum testosterone levels with patient and tumor characteristics. AR expression was classified according to the percentage of stained cells: AR-absent (0% and AR-poorly (1%-30%, AR-moderately (>30%-60%, and AR-highly (>60% positive. Results Statistical analysis was performed in 451 patients who experienced natural menopause. AR-high expression was significantly related with low histologic grade and estrogen receptor (ER- and progesterone receptor (PR-positive status (P trendP=0.022, although a trend across the AR expression categories was not present. When women defined by ER status were analyzed separately, regression analysis in the ER-positive group showed a significant association of high testosterone levels with AR-highly-positive expression (OR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.10-3.16, but the association was essentially due to patients greater than or equal to 65 years (OR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82. In ER-positive group, elevated testosterone levels appeared also associated with AR-absent expression, although the small number of patients in this category limited the appearance of significant effects (OR 1.92; 95% CI, 0.73–5.02: the association was present in both age groups ( Conclusions The findings in the present study confirm that testosterone levels are a marker of hormone-dependent breast cancer and suggest that the contemporary evaluation of ER status, AR expression, and circulating testosterone levels may identify different subsets of cancers whose growth may be influenced by androgens.

  8. Ethnic differences in the ability of triglyceride levels to identify insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Cowie, Catherine C

    2008-02-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome is used to predict the onset of coronary artery disease and Type 2 diabetes. As the predictive value of the Metabolic Syndrome has been challenged, alternative syndromes have been developed. All of these syndromes were developed in populations that were predominantly non-Hispanic white (NHW). They include the Enlarged Waist Elevated Triglyceride Syndrome, the Overweight-Lipid Syndrome and the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Syndrome. The first applies to postmenopausal women, the second to overweight individuals (BMI> or =25 kg/m(2)), and the third to men. Each syndrome uses hypertriglyceridemia as a criterion. However, the definition of hypertriglyceridemia varies by syndrome i.e. TG> or =128 mg/dL for the Enlarged Waist Elevated Triglyceride Syndrome, TG> or =130 mg/dL for the Overweight-Lipid Syndrome, > or =150 mg/dL for the Metabolic Syndrome, and TG> or =176 mg/dL for the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Syndrome. Insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia are highly correlated. But as insulin resistant non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) often have triglyceride (TG) levels below the thresholds set by these syndromes, the ability of either TG or these syndromes to identify high risk NHB is unknown. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002, our goals were to determine by ethnicity: (1) the prevalence of each of these syndromes; (2) the ability of fasting TG concentrations to identify insulin resistance at cut-off levels established by these syndromes, specifically 130, 150 and 176 mg/dL. Participants were 2804 adults from NHANES 1999-2002. The cohort was divided into tertiles of homeostasis model assessment. Insulin resistance was defined as the upper tertile (> or =2.73). The prevalence of each syndrome was lower in NHB than NHW or Mexican Americans (MA) (all Pidentify individuals at high risk for conditions such as cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes, ethnic differences in TG levels should be considered.

  9. Identifying predictors, moderators, and mediators of antidepressant response in major depressive disorder: neuroimaging approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Chase, Henry W; Sheline, Yvette I; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R C; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes.

  10. Identifying Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L.; Chase, Henry W.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R.C.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. Method In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. Results The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Conclusions Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:25640931

  11. Metabolomic screening using ESI-FT MS identifies potential radiation-responsive molecules in mouse urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Daisuke; Yoshioka, Susumu; Kawai, Hidehiko; Izumi, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Fumio; Kamiya, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    The demand for establishment of high-throughput biodosimetric methods is increasing. Our aim in this study was to identify low-molecular-weight urinary radiation-responsive molecules using electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ESI-FT MS), and our final goal was to develop a sensitive biodosimetry technique that can be applied in the early triage of a radiation emergency medical system. We identified nine metabolites by statistical comparison of mouse urine before and 8 h after irradiation. Time-course analysis showed that, of these metabolites, thymidine and either thymine or imidazoleacetic acid were significantly increased dose-dependently 8 h after radiation exposure; these molecules have already been reported as potential radiation biomarkers. Phenyl glucuronide was significantly decreased 8 h after radiation exposure, irrespective of the dose. Histamine and 1-methylhistamine were newly identified by MS/MS and showed significant, dose-dependent increases 72 h after irradiation. Quantification of 1-methylhistamine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis also showed a significant increase 72 h after 4 Gy irradiation. These results suggest that urinary metabolomics screening using ESI-FT MS can be a powerful tool for identifying promising radiation-responsive molecules, and that urinary 1-methylhistamine is a potential radiation-responsive molecule for acute, high-dose exposure.

  12. Determination of response level for imported meat and poultry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, Donald L; Engel, Ronald E

    1986-07-01

    The response level of 75,000 picocuries per kilogram (pci/kg) for imported meat and poultry was determined in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds, Recommendations for State and Local Agencies which was published in the Federal Register of October 22, 1982, and in consultation with FDA. The response level takes into account the total intake of activity from a radionuclide and the average daily consumption of food in the United States. This response level value is based, in part, upon the expectation that the major contributors of radiation to imported meat and poultry will be cesium-134 (half-life 2.1 years) and cesium-137 (half-life 30 years)

  13. Determination of response level for imported meat and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, Donald L.; Engel, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    The response level of 75,000 picocuries per kilogram (pci/kg) for imported meat and poultry was determined in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Accidental Radioactive Contamination of Human Food and Animal Feeds, Recommendations for State and Local Agencies which was published in the Federal Register of October 22, 1982, and in consultation with FDA. The response level takes into account the total intake of activity from a radionuclide and the average daily consumption of food in the United States. This response level value is based, in part, upon the expectation that the major contributors of radiation to imported meat and poultry will be cesium-134 (half-life 2.1 years) and cesium-137 (half-life 30 years)

  14. Diagnostic value of MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate level in identifying children with mitochondrial disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Strating, Kim [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Child Neurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Koning, Tom J. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Groningen (Netherlands); Sijens, Paul E. [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of children with or without neurometabolic disease is used for the first time for quantitative assessment of brain tissue lactate signals, to elaborate on previous suggestions of MRS-detected lactate as a marker of mitochondrial disease. Multivoxel MRS of a transverse plane of brain tissue cranial to the ventricles was performed in 88 children suspected of having neurometabolic disease, divided into 'definite' (n = 17, ≥1 major criteria), 'probable' (n = 10, ≥2 minor criteria), 'possible' (n = 17, 1 minor criterion) and 'unlikely' mitochondrial disease (n = 44, none of the criteria). Lactate levels, expressed in standardized arbitrary units or relative to creatine, were derived from summed signals from all voxels. Ten 'unlikely' children with a normal neurological exam served as the MRS reference subgroup. For 61 of 88 children, CSF lactate values were obtained. MRS lactate level (>12 arbitrary units) and the lactate-to-creatine ratio (L/Cr >0.22) differed significantly between the definite and the unlikely group (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). MRS L/Cr also differentiated between the probable and the MRS reference subgroup (p = 0.03). No significant group differences were found for CSF lactate. MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate levels can serve as diagnostic marker for identifying mitochondrial disease in children. (orig.)

  15. Total serum homocysteine levels do not identify cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstermann, S; Laemmler, G; Hanemann, A; Schweter, A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Lun, A; Schulz, R-J

    2009-02-01

    Total blood homocysteine (Hcys) and folate levels have been investigated in association with cognitive dysfunction in healthy but not in multimorbid elderly patients. We hypothesized that total serum Hcys is an adequate marker to identify multimorbid elderly patients with cognitive dysfunction assessed by the Short Cognitive Performance Test (SKT) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cross-sectional study. The study center was an acute geriatric hospital. A total of 189 multimorbid elderly patients were recruited. Cognitive dysfunction was determined according to the SKT and MMSE. Biochemical parameters (Hcys, folate, vitamin B12, hemoglobin), nutritional status (BMI, Mini Nutritional Assessment, nutritional intake), and activities of daily living were assessed. According to the SKT, 25.4% of patients showed no cerebral cognitive dysfunction, 21.2% had suspected incipient cognitive dysfunction, 12.7% showed mild cognitive dysfunction, 9.0% had moderate cognitive dysfunction, and 31.7% of patients were demented. The median plasma Hcys value was elevated by approximately 20% in multimorbid elderly patients, independent of cognitive dysfunction. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were within normal ranges. We did not find significant differences in nutritional status, activities of daily living, numbers of diseases or medications, or selected biochemical parameters between the SKT groups. Elevated serum Hcys levels with normal plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were observed in multimorbid elderly patients. The plasma Hcys level did not appear to be an important biological risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid geriatric patients.

  16. Identifying meaning and perceived level of satisfaction within the context of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angie; Kitchell, Molly; O'Neill, Tiffany; Lockliear, Jennifer; Vosler, Alyson; Kubek, Dayna; Dale, Lucinda

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objectives of this study were to identify sources of meaning for individuals within the context of a work environment, and to compare varied sources of meaning for individuals with high and low work satisfaction levels. METHOD: Participants were chosen based on satisfaction levels in employment, full-time employment status within an organization for at least one year, and diversity in the work setting. Data were gathered through a series of interviews and observations of the participants' workplaces. A comparative analysis of transcribed interviews was conducted by the researchers and with an expert occupational therapy faculty panel. From these analyses, the researchers developed work narratives for a mechanical engineer, a high school teacher, an employee of mechanical services, and a career service counselor. RESULTS: Emerging themes from the work narratives indicated that the various meanings employees found in work had an effect on their perceived levels of job satisfaction. Participants conveyed that organization identification, financial benefits, independent decision-making, reciprocal respect, opportunities for creativity, and maintaining significant relationships outside of work enhanced meaning and satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: The worker role is a significant source of an individual's identity, meaning, and satisfaction in life. Professionals in various fields can work with employers to develop meaningful work environments for increased job satisfaction, greater motivation for work, increased productivity, and decreased employee turnover.

  17. Diagnostic value of MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate level in identifying children with mitochondrial disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Strating, Kim; Koning, Tom J. de; Sijens, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of children with or without neurometabolic disease is used for the first time for quantitative assessment of brain tissue lactate signals, to elaborate on previous suggestions of MRS-detected lactate as a marker of mitochondrial disease. Multivoxel MRS of a transverse plane of brain tissue cranial to the ventricles was performed in 88 children suspected of having neurometabolic disease, divided into 'definite' (n = 17, ≥1 major criteria), 'probable' (n = 10, ≥2 minor criteria), 'possible' (n = 17, 1 minor criterion) and 'unlikely' mitochondrial disease (n = 44, none of the criteria). Lactate levels, expressed in standardized arbitrary units or relative to creatine, were derived from summed signals from all voxels. Ten 'unlikely' children with a normal neurological exam served as the MRS reference subgroup. For 61 of 88 children, CSF lactate values were obtained. MRS lactate level (>12 arbitrary units) and the lactate-to-creatine ratio (L/Cr >0.22) differed significantly between the definite and the unlikely group (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). MRS L/Cr also differentiated between the probable and the MRS reference subgroup (p = 0.03). No significant group differences were found for CSF lactate. MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate levels can serve as diagnostic marker for identifying mitochondrial disease in children. (orig.)

  18. Metabolomics Analysis of Hormone-Responsive and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Responses to Paclitaxel Identify Key Metabolic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Delisha A; Winnike, Jason H; McRitchie, Susan L; Clark, Robert F; Pathmasiri, Wimal W; Sumner, Susan J

    2016-09-02

    To date, no targeted therapies are available to treat triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), while other breast cancer subtypes are responsive to current therapeutic treatment. Metabolomics was conducted to reveal differences in two hormone receptor-negative TNBC cell lines and two hormone receptor-positive Luminal A cell lines. Studies were conducted in the presence and absence of paclitaxel (Taxol). TNBC cell lines had higher levels of amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, nucleotides, and nucleotide sugars and lower levels of proliferation-related metabolites like choline compared with Luminal A cell lines. In the presence of paclitaxel, each cell line showed unique metabolic responses, with some similarities by type. For example, in the Luminal A cell lines, levels of lactate and creatine decreased while certain choline metabolites and myo-inositol increased with paclitaxel. In the TNBC cell lines levels of glutamine, glutamate, and glutathione increased, whereas lysine, proline, and valine decreased in the presence of drug. Profiling secreted inflammatory cytokines in the conditioned media demonstrated a greater response to paclitaxel in the hormone-positive Luminal cells compared with a secretion profile that suggested greater drug resistance in the TNBC cells. The most significant differences distinguishing the cell types based on pathway enrichment analyses were related to amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways, whereas several biological pathways were differentiated between the cell lines following treatment.

  19. Identifying Links between Corporate Social Responsibility and Reputation: Some Considerations for Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iguácel Melero-Polo

    2017-07-01

    To this end—following consultations with a panel of internationally recognized scholars—a selection of leading management, marketing and ethics, corporate governance and family firm management journals were reviewed. The results—based on a content analysis of 55 articles considering the global link between RSC and reputation—allowed us to identify, among others, topics related to consumer attitude and market response to CSR activities (via brand value, along with the impact of CSR on financial value and risk management.

  20. A distributed water level network in ephemeral river reaches to identify hydrological processes within anthropogenic catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, B.; Braud, I.; Lagouy, M.; Bailly, J. S.; Puech, C.; Ayroles, H.

    2009-04-01

    In order to study the impact of land use change on the water cycle, distributed hydrological models are more and more used, because they have the ability to take into account the land surface heterogeneity and its evolution due to anthropogenic pressure. These models provide continuous distributed simulations of streamflow, runoff, soil moisture, etc, which, ideally, should be evaluated against continuous distributed measurements, taken at various scales and located in nested sub-catchments. Distributed network of streamflow gauging stations are in general scarce and very expensive to maintain. Furthermore, they can hardly be installed in the upstream parts of the catchments where river beds are not well defined. In this paper, we present an alternative to these standard streamflow gauging stations network, based on self powered high resolution water level sensors using a capacitive water height data logger. One of their advantages is that they can be installed even in ephemeral reaches and from channel head locations to high order streams. Furthermore, these innovative and easily adaptable low cost sensors offer the possibility to develop in the near future, a wireless network application. Such a network, including 15 sensors has been set up on nested watersheds in small and intermittent streams of a 7 km² catchment, located in the mountainous "Mont du Lyonnais" area, close to the city of Lyon, France. The land use of this catchment is mostly pasture, crop and forest, but the catchment is significantly affected by human activities, through the existence of a dense roads and paths network and urbanized areas. The equipment provides water levels survey during precipitation events in the hydrological network with a very accurate time step (2 min). Water levels can be related to runoff production and catchment response as a function of scale. This response will depend, amongst other, on variable soil water storage capacity, physiographic data and characteristics of

  1. A target based approach identifies genomic predictors of breast cancer patient response to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallett Robin M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of chemotherapy regimens in breast cancer patients is variable and unpredictable. Whether individual patients either achieve long-term remission or suffer recurrence after therapy may be dictated by intrinsic properties of their breast tumors including genetic lesions and consequent aberrant transcriptional programs. Global gene expression profiling provides a powerful tool to identify such tumor-intrinsic transcriptional programs, whose analyses provide insight into the underlying biology of individual patient tumors. For example, multi-gene expression signatures have been identified that can predict the likelihood of disease reccurrence, and thus guide patient prognosis. Whereas such prognostic signatures are being introduced in the clinical setting, similar signatures that predict sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy are not currently clinically available. Methods We used gene expression profiling to identify genes that were co-expressed with genes whose transcripts encode the protein targets of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. Results Here, we present target based expression indices that predict breast tumor response to anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy. Indeed, these signatures were independently predictive of chemotherapy response after adjusting for standard clinic-pathological variables such as age, grade, and estrogen receptor status in a cohort of 488 breast cancer patients treated with adriamycin and taxotere/taxol. Conclusions Importantly, our findings suggest the practicality of developing target based indices that predict response to therapeutics, as well as highlight the possibility of using gene signatures to guide the use of chemotherapy during treatment of breast cancer patients.

  2. Factors identified with higher levels of career satisfaction of physicians in Andalusia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nicolás Peña-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The satisfaction of physicians is a world-wide issue linked with the quality of health services; their satisfaction needs to be studied from a multi-dimensional perspective, considering lower- and higher-order needs. The objectives of this study were to: i measure the career satisfaction of physicians; ii identify differences in the dimensions of career satisfaction; and iii test factors that affect higher- and lower-order needs of satisfaction among physicians working in Andalusian hospitals (Spain. Forty-one percent of 299 eligible physicians participated in a study conducted in six selected hospitals. Physicians reported higher professional, inherent, and performance satisfaction than personal satisfaction. Foreign physicians reported higher levels of personal and performance satisfaction than local physicians, and those who received non-monetary incentives had higher professional and performance satisfaction. In conclusion, physicians in the selected Andalusian hospitals reported low levels of personal satisfaction. Non-monetary incentives were more relevant to influence their career satisfaction. Further investigations are recommended to study differences in the career satisfaction between foreign and local physicians.

  3. SCA-1 Expression Level Identifies Quiescent Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina N.F. Morcos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood cell generation depends on continuous cellular output by the sequential hierarchy of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC and progenitor populations that all contain quiescent and actively cycling cells. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs express the surface molecule Stem cell antigen 1 (SCA-1/LY6A. Using histone 2B-red fluorescent fusion protein label retention and cell-cycle reporter mice, we demonstrate that high SCA-1 expression (SCA-1hi identifies not only quiescent HSCs but quiescent cells on all hierarchical levels within the lineage−SCA-1+KIT+ (LSK population. Each transplanted SCA-1hi HSPC population also displayed self-renewal potential superior to that of the respective SCA-1lo population. SCA-1 expression is inducible by type I interferon (IFN. We show, however, that quiescence and high self-renewal capacity of cells with brighter SCA-1 expression at steady state were independent of type I IFN signaling. We conclude that SCA-1 expression levels can be used to prospectively isolate functionally heterogeneous HSPC subpopulations.

  4. Identifying and training non-technical skills of nuclear emergency response teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crichton, M.T.; Flin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial, particularly as the management of an emergency situation often requires that teams are extended by members from various other sections and strategic groups throughout the company, as well as members of external agencies. A series of interviews was recently conducted with members of a UK nuclear emergency response organisation to identify the non-technical skills required by team members that would be required for managing an emergency. Critical skills have been identified as decision making and situation assessment, as well as communication, teamwork, and stress management. A number of training strategies are discussed which can be tailored to the roles and responsibilities of the team members and the team leader, based on the roles within the team being defined as either Decision Maker, Evaluator, or Implementor, according to Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) classifications. It is anticipated that enhanced learning of the necessary non-technical skills, through experience and directed practice, will improve the skills of members of emergency response teams

  5. Identifying and training non-technical skills of nuclear emergency response teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crichton, M.T. E-mail: m.crichton@abdn.ac.uk; Flin, R

    2004-08-01

    Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial, particularly as the management of an emergency situation often requires that teams are extended by members from various other sections and strategic groups throughout the company, as well as members of external agencies. A series of interviews was recently conducted with members of a UK nuclear emergency response organisation to identify the non-technical skills required by team members that would be required for managing an emergency. Critical skills have been identified as decision making and situation assessment, as well as communication, teamwork, and stress management. A number of training strategies are discussed which can be tailored to the roles and responsibilities of the team members and the team leader, based on the roles within the team being defined as either Decision Maker, Evaluator, or Implementor, according to Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) classifications. It is anticipated that enhanced learning of the necessary non-technical skills, through experience and directed practice, will improve the skills of members of emergency response teams.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of rice aleurone cells identified a novel abscisic acid response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kenneth A; Homayouni, Arielle; Gu, Lingkun; Huang, Kuan-Ying; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Shen, Qingxi J

    2017-09-01

    Seeds serve as a great model to study plant responses to drought stress, which is largely mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). The ABA responsive element (ABRE) is a key cis-regulatory element in ABA signalling. However, its consensus sequence (ACGTG(G/T)C) is present in the promoters of only about 40% of ABA-induced genes in rice aleurone cells, suggesting other ABREs may exist. To identify novel ABREs, RNA sequencing was performed on aleurone cells of rice seeds treated with 20 μM ABA. Gibbs sampling was used to identify enriched elements, and particle bombardment-mediated transient expression studies were performed to verify the function. Gene ontology analysis was performed to predict the roles of genes containing the novel ABREs. This study revealed 2443 ABA-inducible genes and a novel ABRE, designated as ABREN, which was experimentally verified to mediate ABA signalling in rice aleurone cells. Many of the ABREN-containing genes are predicted to be involved in stress responses and transcription. Analysis of other species suggests that the ABREN may be monocot specific. This study also revealed interesting expression patterns of genes involved in ABA metabolism and signalling. Collectively, this study advanced our understanding of diverse cis-regulatory sequences and the transcriptomes underlying ABA responses in rice aleurone cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Linear response at the 4-component relativistic level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saue, T.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2003-01-01

    The theory, implementation, and application of linear response at the 4-component relativistic closed-shell Hartree-Fock level based on the concept of quasienergy and time averaging are reported. As such, an efficient AO-driven algorithm is obtained by assigning specific Hermiticity and time...

  8. Cardiac response and anxiety levels in psychopathic murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Antonio de Pádua; Barros, Daniel Martins de; Valim, André; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2009-09-01

    To compare the emotional response and level of anxiety of psychopathic murderers, non-psychopathic murderers, and nonpsychopathic non-criminals. 110 male individuals aged over 18 years were divided into three groups: psychopathic murderers (n = 38); non-psychopathic murderers (n = 37) serving sentences for murder convictions in Maximum Security Prisons in the State of Sao Paulo; and non-criminal, non-psychopathic individuals (n = 35) according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. The emotional response of subjects was assessed by heart rate variation and anxiety level (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) after viewing standardized pictures depicting pleasant, unpleasant and neutral content from the International Affective Picture System. Psychopathic murderers presented lower anxiety levels and smaller heart rate variations when exposed to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli than nonpsychopathic murderers or non-psychopathic non-criminals. The results also demonstrated that the higher the score for factor 1 on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, the lower the heart rate variation and anxiety level. The results suggest that psychopathic murderers do not present variation in emotional response to different visual stimuli. Although the non-psychopathic murderers had committed the same type of crime as the psychopathic murderers, the former tended to respond with a higher level of anxiety and heart rate variation.

  9. Multi-level Strategy for Identifying Proteasome-Catalyzed Spliced Epitopes Targeted by CD8+ T Cells during Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk C.M. Platteel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proteasome-catalyzed peptide splicing (PCPS generates peptides that are presented by MHC class I molecules, but because their identification is challenging, the immunological relevance of spliced peptides remains unclear. Here, we developed a reverse immunology-based multi-level approach to identify proteasome-generated spliced epitopes. Applying this strategy to a murine Listeria monocytogenes infection model, we identified two spliced epitopes within the secreted bacterial phospholipase PlcB that primed antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in L. monocytogenes-infected mice. While reacting to the spliced epitopes, these CD8+ T cells failed to recognize the non-spliced peptide parts in the context of their natural flanking sequences. Thus, we here show that PCPS expands the CD8+ T cell response against L. monocytogenes by exposing spliced epitopes on the cell surface. Moreover, our multi-level strategy opens up opportunities to systematically investigate proteins for spliced epitope candidates and thus strategies for immunotherapies or vaccine design.

  10. Global phosphotyrosine proteomics identifies PKCδ as a marker of responsiveness to Src inhibition in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot T McKinley

    Full Text Available Sensitive and specific biomarkers of protein kinase inhibition can be leveraged to accelerate drug development studies in oncology by associating early molecular responses with target inhibition. In this study, we utilized unbiased shotgun phosphotyrosine (pY proteomics to discover novel biomarkers of response to dasatinib, a small molecule Src-selective inhibitor, in preclinical models of colorectal cancer (CRC. We performed unbiased mass spectrometry shotgun pY proteomics to reveal the pY proteome of cultured HCT-116 colonic carcinoma cells, and then extended this analysis to HCT-116 xenograft tumors to identify pY biomarkers of dasatinib-responsiveness in vivo. Major dasatinib-responsive pY sites in xenograft tumors included sites on delta-type protein kinase C (PKCδ, CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1, Type-II SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2, and receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPα. The pY313 site PKCδ was further supported as a relevant biomarker of dasatinib-mediated Src inhibition in HCT-116 xenografts by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting with a phosphospecific antibody. Reduction of PKCδ pY313 was further correlated with dasatinib-mediated inhibition of Src and diminished growth as spheroids of a panel of human CRC cell lines. These studies reveal PKCδ pY313 as a promising readout of Src inhibition in CRC and potentially other solid tumors and may reflect responsiveness to dasatinib in a subset of colorectal cancers.

  11. Identifying novel glioma associated pathways based on systems biology level meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yangfan; Li, Jinquan; Yan, Wenying; Chen, Jiajia; Li, Yin; Hu, Guang; Shen, Bairong

    2013-01-01

    With recent advances in microarray technology, including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, it brings a great challenge for integrating this "-omics" data to analysis complex disease. Glioma is an extremely aggressive and lethal form of brain tumor, and thus the study of the molecule mechanism underlying glioma remains very important. To date, most studies focus on detecting the differentially expressed genes in glioma. However, the meta-analysis for pathway analysis based on multiple microarray datasets has not been systematically pursued. In this study, we therefore developed a systems biology based approach by integrating three types of omics data to identify common pathways in glioma. Firstly, the meta-analysis has been performed to study the overlapping of signatures at different levels based on the microarray gene expression data of glioma. Among these gene expression datasets, 12 pathways were found in GeneGO database that shared by four stages. Then, microRNA expression profiles and ChIP-seq data were integrated for the further pathway enrichment analysis. As a result, we suggest 5 of these pathways could be served as putative pathways in glioma. Among them, the pathway of TGF-beta-dependent induction of EMT via SMAD is of particular importance. Our results demonstrate that the meta-analysis based on systems biology level provide a more useful approach to study the molecule mechanism of complex disease. The integration of different types of omics data, including gene expression microarrays, microRNA and ChIP-seq data, suggest some common pathways correlated with glioma. These findings will offer useful potential candidates for targeted therapeutic intervention of glioma.

  12. Transient response of level instruments in a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lap Y.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed to simulate the dynamics of water level instruments in a research nuclear reactor. A bubble device, with helium gas as the working fluid, is used to monitor liquid level by sensing the static head pressure due to the height of liquid in the reactor vessel. A finite-difference model is constructed to study the transient response of the water level instruments to pressure perturbations. The field equations which describe the hydraulics of the helium gas in the bubbler device are arranged in the form of a tridiagonal matrix and the field variables are solved at each time step by the Thomas algorithm. Simulation results indicate that the dynamic response of the helium gas depends mainly on the volume and the inertia of the gas in the level instrument tubings. The anomalies in the simulated level indication are attributed to the inherent lag in the level instrument due to the hydraulics of the system. 1 ref., 5 figs

  13. Identifying and prioritizing ungulate migration routes for landscape-level conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Hall; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Nielson, Ryan M.; Horne, Jon S.

    2009-01-01

    As habitat loss and fragmentation increase across ungulate ranges, identifying and prioritizing migration routes for conservation has taken on new urgency. Here we present a general framework using the Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM) that: (1) provides a probabilistic estimate of the migration routes of a sampled population, (2) distinguishes between route segments that function as stopover sites vs. those used primarily as movement corridors, and (3) prioritizes routes for conservation based upon the proportion of the sampled population that uses them. We applied this approach to a migratory mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) population in a pristine area of southwest Wyoming, USA, where 2000 gas wells and 1609 km of pipelines and roads have been proposed for development. Our analysis clearly delineated where migration routes occurred relative to proposed development and provided guidance for on-the-ground conservation efforts. Mule deer migration routes were characterized by a series of stopover sites where deer spent most of their time, connected by movement corridors through which deer moved quickly. Our findings suggest management strategies that differentiate between stopover sites and movement corridors may be warranted. Because some migration routes were used by more mule deer than others, proportional level of use may provide a reasonable metric by which routes can be prioritized for conservation. The methods we outline should be applicable to a wide range of species that inhabit regions where migration routes are threatened or poorly understood.

  14. Identifying the influence of gender on motivation and engagement levels in student physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Susan

    2015-04-01

    There is an increasing focus in higher education on the role of learner characteristics and their influence on academic performance. Educators are interested in how students engage with learning activities as they progress through the curriculum. A previous study highlighted gender effects in academic performance in student physiotherapists, despite comparable entry scores. The aim of this study was to determine variation in student motivation and engagement, across the four year levels of the physiotherapy program at The University of Notre Dame Australia while considering gender and age. A cross-sectional design was adopted surveying 233 students utilising the Motivation and Engagement Scale - University/College (MES-UC), to review motivational thoughts and behaviours influencing learning. RESULTS identified gender effects with males having on average significantly lower scores for planning, task management and persistence; and higher scores for disengagement from their studies. Females displayed higher average scores for anxiety particularly in their first year and final clinical year. RESULTS were consistent with gender effects noted in academic performance throughout the program for previous student cohorts. The application of the MES-UC early in course would highlight to educators the areas where intervention can be targeted. Early individualized intervention is recommended to address learner characteristics influencing performance.

  15. Integrating Genetic and Gene Co-expression Analysis Identifies Gene Networks Involved in Alcohol and Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Xu, Pei; Cao, Peijian; Wan, Hongjian; Lv, Xiaonan; Xu, Shengchun; Wang, Gangjun; Cook, Melloni N; Jones, Byron C; Lu, Lu; Wang, Xusheng

    2018-01-01

    Although the link between stress and alcohol is well recognized, the underlying mechanisms of how they interplay at the molecular level remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify molecular networks underlying the effects of alcohol and stress responses, as well as their interaction on anxiety behaviors in the hippocampus of mice using a systems genetics approach. Here, we applied a gene co-expression network approach to transcriptomes of 41 BXD mouse strains under four conditions: stress, alcohol, stress-induced alcohol and control. The co-expression analysis identified 14 modules and characterized four expression patterns across the four conditions. The four expression patterns include up-regulation in no restraint stress and given an ethanol injection (NOE) but restoration in restraint stress followed by an ethanol injection (RSE; pattern 1), down-regulation in NOE but rescue in RSE (pattern 2), up-regulation in both restraint stress followed by a saline injection (RSS) and NOE, and further amplification in RSE (pattern 3), and up-regulation in RSS but reduction in both NOE and RSE (pattern 4). We further identified four functional subnetworks by superimposing protein-protein interactions (PPIs) to the 14 co-expression modules, including γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA) signaling, glutamate signaling, neuropeptide signaling, cAMP-dependent signaling. We further performed module specificity analysis to identify modules that are specific to stress, alcohol, or stress-induced alcohol responses. Finally, we conducted causality analysis to link genetic variation to these identified modules, and anxiety behaviors after stress and alcohol treatments. This study underscores the importance of integrative analysis and offers new insights into the molecular networks underlying stress and alcohol responses.

  16. Integrating Genetic and Gene Co-expression Analysis Identifies Gene Networks Involved in Alcohol and Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Luo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the link between stress and alcohol is well recognized, the underlying mechanisms of how they interplay at the molecular level remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to identify molecular networks underlying the effects of alcohol and stress responses, as well as their interaction on anxiety behaviors in the hippocampus of mice using a systems genetics approach. Here, we applied a gene co-expression network approach to transcriptomes of 41 BXD mouse strains under four conditions: stress, alcohol, stress-induced alcohol and control. The co-expression analysis identified 14 modules and characterized four expression patterns across the four conditions. The four expression patterns include up-regulation in no restraint stress and given an ethanol injection (NOE but restoration in restraint stress followed by an ethanol injection (RSE; pattern 1, down-regulation in NOE but rescue in RSE (pattern 2, up-regulation in both restraint stress followed by a saline injection (RSS and NOE, and further amplification in RSE (pattern 3, and up-regulation in RSS but reduction in both NOE and RSE (pattern 4. We further identified four functional subnetworks by superimposing protein-protein interactions (PPIs to the 14 co-expression modules, including γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA signaling, glutamate signaling, neuropeptide signaling, cAMP-dependent signaling. We further performed module specificity analysis to identify modules that are specific to stress, alcohol, or stress-induced alcohol responses. Finally, we conducted causality analysis to link genetic variation to these identified modules, and anxiety behaviors after stress and alcohol treatments. This study underscores the importance of integrative analysis and offers new insights into the molecular networks underlying stress and alcohol responses.

  17. Pathogenic mutations in TULP1 responsible for retinitis pigmentosa identified in consanguineous familial cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Inayat; Kabir, Firoz; Iqbal, Muhammad; Gottsch, Clare Brooks S.; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Assir, Muhammad Zaman; Khan, Shaheen N.; Akram, Javed; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ayyagari, Radha; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify pathogenic mutations responsible for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in consanguineous familial cases. Methods Seven large familial cases with multiple individuals diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa were included in the study. Affected individuals in these families underwent ophthalmic examinations to document the symptoms and confirm the initial diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from all participating members, and genomic DNA was extracted. An exclusion analysis with microsatellite markers spanning the TULP1 locus on chromosome 6p was performed, and two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated. All coding exons along with the exon–intron boundaries of TULP1 were sequenced bidirectionally. We constructed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype for the four familial cases harboring the K489R allele and estimated the likelihood of a founder effect. Results The ophthalmic examinations of the affected individuals in these familial cases were suggestive of RP. Exclusion analyses confirmed linkage to chromosome 6p harboring TULP1 with positive two-point LOD scores. Subsequent Sanger sequencing identified the single base pair substitution in exon14, c.1466A>G (p.K489R), in four families. Additionally, we identified a two-base deletion in exon 4, c.286_287delGA (p.E96Gfs77*); a homozygous splice site variant in intron 14, c.1495+4A>C; and a novel missense variation in exon 15, c.1561C>T (p.P521S). All mutations segregated with the disease phenotype in the respective families and were absent in ethnically matched control chromosomes. Haplotype analysis suggested (p<10−6) that affected individuals inherited the causal mutation from a common ancestor. Conclusions Pathogenic mutations in TULP1 are responsible for the RP phenotype in seven familial cases with a common ancestral mutation responsible for the disease phenotype in four of the seven families. PMID:27440997

  18. Identifying the nonlinear mechanical behaviour of micro-speakers from their quasi-linear electrical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilletti, Michele; Marker, Arthur; Elliott, Stephen John; Holland, Keith

    2017-05-01

    In this study model identification of the nonlinear dynamics of a micro-speaker is carried out by purely electrical measurements, avoiding any explicit vibration measurements. It is shown that a dynamic model of the micro-speaker, which takes into account the nonlinear damping characteristic of the device, can be identified by measuring the response between the voltage input and the current flowing into the coil. An analytical formulation of the quasi-linear model of the micro-speaker is first derived and an optimisation method is then used to identify a polynomial function which describes the mechanical damping behaviour of the micro-speaker. The analytical results of the quasi-linear model are compared with numerical results. This study potentially opens up the possibility of efficiently implementing nonlinear echo cancellers.

  19. Maize MeJA-responsive proteins identified by high-resolution 2-DE PAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA is well-known to induce plant defense mechanisms effective against a wide variety of insect and microbial pests. High-resolution 2-DE gel electrophoresis was used to discover changes in the leaf proteome of maize exposed to MeJA. We sequenced 62 MeJA-responsive proteins by tandem mass spectroscopy, and deposited the mass spectra and identities in the EMBL-EBI PRIDE repository under reference number PXD001793. An analysis and discussion of the identified proteins in relation to maize defense against Asian corn borer is published by Zhang et al. (2015 [1].

  20. Responses to Human Bioeffluents at Levels Recommended by Ventilation Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exposure to human bioeffluents, at the levels recommended by the current ventilation standards, would cause any effects on humans. Ten subjects were exposed in a low-emission stainless-steel climate chamber for 4.25 hours. The outdoor air supply rate...... was set to 33 or 4 l/s per person, creating two levels of bioeffluents with carbon dioxide (CO2) at 500 or 1600 ppm. Subjective ratings were collected, cognitive performance was examined and physiological responses were monitored. The results show that exposures to human bioeffluents at ventilation rate...

  1. 41 CFR 102-85.175 - Are the standard level services for cleaning, mechanical operation, and maintenance identified in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services for cleaning, mechanical operation, and maintenance identified in an OA? 102-85.175 Section 102-85... of Service § 102-85.175 Are the standard level services for cleaning, mechanical operation, and maintenance identified in an OA? Unless specified otherwise in the OA, standard level services for cleaning...

  2. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is “predicting” who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. Methods: A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Results: Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts. Citation: Kalmbach DA, Pillai V, Arnedt JT, Drake CL. Identifying at-risk individuals for insomnia using the ford insomnia response to stress test. SLEEP 2016;39(2):449–456. PMID:26446111

  3. Cardiac response and anxiety levels in psychopathic murderers

    OpenAIRE

    Serafim,Antonio de Pádua; Barros,Daniel Martins de; Valim,André; Gorenstein,Clarice

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the emotional response and level of anxiety of psychopathic murderers, non-psychopathic murderers, and nonpsychopathic non-criminals. METHOD: 110 male individuals aged over 18 years were divided into three groups: psychopathic murderers (n = 38); non-psychopathic murderers (n = 37) serving sentences for murder convictions in Maximum Security Prisons in the State of Sao Paulo; and non-criminal, non-psychopathic individuals (n = 35) according to the Psychopathy Checklist-R...

  4. Hemorheological alterations in adults with prediabetes identified by hemoglobin A1c levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, M A; Fiorentino, T V; Andreozzi, F; Mannino, G C; Succurro, E; Sciacqua, A; Perticone, F; Sesti, G

    2017-07-01

    A link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes has been previously reported. Herein, we investigated the association of blood viscosity with prediabetes, identified by glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) according to the new American Diabetes Association criteria, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The study cohort includes 1136 non-diabetic adults submitted to anthropometrical evaluation, an oral glucose tolerance test and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Whole blood viscosity was estimated using a validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins. After adjusting for age, and gender, individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4% [39-47 mmol/mol]) exhibited significantly higher values of hematocrit, and predicted blood viscosity as compared with controls. Increased levels of IMT were observed in subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes in comparison to controls. Predicted blood viscosity was positively correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting insulin, IMT and inversely correlated with HDL and Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity. Of the three glycemic parameters, i.e. HbA1c, fasting and 2-h post-load glucose, only HbA1c showed a significant correlation with predicted blood viscosity (β = 0.054, P = 0.04) in a multivariate regression analysis model including multiple atherosclerosis risk factors. The study shows that individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes have increased predicted blood viscosity and IMT. The HbA1c criterion may be helpful to capture individuals with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease who may benefit from an intensive lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical

  5. Response of sunflower to various levels of nitrogen and phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, M.; Karar, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    To study the response of sunflower to various levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, an experiment was conducted in pots at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, during 1997. Four nitrogen levels 0, 80, 120, 160 kg/ha and three phosphorous levels 0,60,90 kg/ha were included in the experiment. Increase in nitrogen levels significantly increased head diameter, grain yield per head and thousand-grain weight. Maximum head diameter (25.71), grain yield per head (114.84g) and thousand-grain weight (75.67g) was recorded at nitrogen level of 160 kg/ha. Increased in phosphorus level increased plant height and thousand grains weight. Tallest plants (198.92cm) were observed at 6Okg P/ha while heavy grains (70.67g) were recorded at P level of 9Okg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha. It is concluded that l60kg N/ha and 9Okg P/ha is proper dose of N and P for sunflower hybrid. (author)

  6. Compendium of Immune Signatures Identifies Conserved and Species-Specific Biology in Response to Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Jernej; Tan, Yan; Liberzon, Arthur; Tamayo, Pablo; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Butte, Atul J; Mesirov, Jill P; Haining, W Nicholas

    2016-01-19

    Gene-expression profiling has become a mainstay in immunology, but subtle changes in gene networks related to biological processes are hard to discern when comparing various datasets. For instance, conservation of the transcriptional response to sepsis in mouse models and human disease remains controversial. To improve transcriptional analysis in immunology, we created ImmuneSigDB: a manually annotated compendium of ∼5,000 gene-sets from diverse cell states, experimental manipulations, and genetic perturbations in immunology. Analysis using ImmuneSigDB identified signatures induced in activated myeloid cells and differentiating lymphocytes that were highly conserved between humans and mice. Sepsis triggered conserved patterns of gene expression in humans and mouse models. However, we also identified species-specific biological processes in the sepsis transcriptional response: although both species upregulated phagocytosis-related genes, a mitosis signature was specific to humans. ImmuneSigDB enables granular analysis of transcriptomic data to improve biological understanding of immune processes of the human and mouse immune systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pareto Optimization Identifies Diverse Set of Phosphorylation Signatures Predicting Response to Treatment with Dasatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammer, Martin; Dybowski, J Nikolaj; Hoffmann, Daniel; Schaab, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate biomarkers that can predict the effectiveness of targeted therapy in individual patients are highly desired. Previous biomarker discovery studies have largely focused on the identification of single biomarker signatures, aimed at maximizing prediction accuracy. Here, we present a different approach that identifies multiple biomarkers by simultaneously optimizing their predictive power, number of features, and proximity to the drug target in a protein-protein interaction network. To this end, we incorporated NSGA-II, a fast and elitist multi-objective optimization algorithm that is based on the principle of Pareto optimality, into the biomarker discovery workflow. The method was applied to quantitative phosphoproteome data of 19 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines from a previous biomarker study. The algorithm successfully identified a total of 77 candidate biomarker signatures predicting response to treatment with dasatinib. Through filtering and similarity clustering, this set was trimmed to four final biomarker signatures, which then were validated on an independent set of breast cancer cell lines. All four candidates reached the same good prediction accuracy (83%) as the originally published biomarker. Although the newly discovered signatures were diverse in their composition and in their size, the central protein of the originally published signature - integrin β4 (ITGB4) - was also present in all four Pareto signatures, confirming its pivotal role in predicting dasatinib response in NSCLC cell lines. In summary, the method presented here allows for a robust and simultaneous identification of multiple multivariate biomarkers that are optimized for prediction performance, size, and relevance.

  8. Transcriptome analysis identifies genes involved in ethanol response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Agave tequilana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Córdova, Jesús; Drnevich, Jenny; Madrigal-Pulido, Jaime Alberto; Arrizon, Javier; Allen, Kirk; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Alvarez-Maya, Ikuri

    2012-08-01

    During ethanol fermentation, yeast cells are exposed to stress due to the accumulation of ethanol, cell growth is altered and the output of the target product is reduced. For Agave beverages, like tequila, no reports have been published on the global gene expression under ethanol stress. In this work, we used microarray analysis to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes involved in the ethanol response. Gene expression of a tequila yeast strain of S. cerevisiae (AR5) was explored by comparing global gene expression with that of laboratory strain S288C, both after ethanol exposure. Additionally, we used two different culture conditions, cells grown in Agave tequilana juice as a natural fermentation media or grown in yeast-extract peptone dextrose as artificial media. Of the 6368 S. cerevisiae genes in the microarray, 657 genes were identified that had different expression responses to ethanol stress due to strain and/or media. A cluster of 28 genes was found over-expressed specifically in the AR5 tequila strain that could be involved in the adaptation to tequila yeast fermentation, 14 of which are unknown such as yor343c, ylr162w, ygr182c, ymr265c, yer053c-a or ydr415c. These could be the most suitable genes for transforming tequila yeast to increase ethanol tolerance in the tequila fermentation process. Other genes involved in response to stress (RFC4, TSA1, MLH1, PAU3, RAD53) or transport (CYB2, TIP20, QCR9) were expressed in the same cluster. Unknown genes could be good candidates for the development of recombinant yeasts with ethanol tolerance for use in industrial tequila fermentation.

  9. Objective Model Selection for Identifying the Human Feedforward Response in Manual Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drop, Frank M; Pool, Daan M; van Paassen, Marinus Rene M; Mulder, Max; Bulthoff, Heinrich H

    2018-01-01

    Realistic manual control tasks typically involve predictable target signals and random disturbances. The human controller (HC) is hypothesized to use a feedforward control strategy for target-following, in addition to feedback control for disturbance-rejection. Little is known about human feedforward control, partly because common system identification methods have difficulty in identifying whether, and (if so) how, the HC applies a feedforward strategy. In this paper, an identification procedure is presented that aims at an objective model selection for identifying the human feedforward response, using linear time-invariant autoregressive with exogenous input models. A new model selection criterion is proposed to decide on the model order (number of parameters) and the presence of feedforward in addition to feedback. For a range of typical control tasks, it is shown by means of Monte Carlo computer simulations that the classical Bayesian information criterion (BIC) leads to selecting models that contain a feedforward path from data generated by a pure feedback model: "false-positive" feedforward detection. To eliminate these false-positives, the modified BIC includes an additional penalty on model complexity. The appropriate weighting is found through computer simulations with a hypothesized HC model prior to performing a tracking experiment. Experimental human-in-the-loop data will be considered in future work. With appropriate weighting, the method correctly identifies the HC dynamics in a wide range of control tasks, without false-positive results.

  10. Identifying At-Risk Individuals for Insomnia Using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-02-01

    A primary focus of the National Institute of Mental Health's current strategic plan is "predicting" who is at risk for disease. As such, the current investigation examined the utility of premorbid sleep reactivity in identifying a specific and manageable population at elevated risk for future insomnia. A community-based sample of adults (n = 2,892; 59.3% female; 47.9 ± 13.3 y old) with no lifetime history of insomnia or depression completed web-based surveys across three annual assessments. Participants reported parental history of insomnia, demographic characteristics, sleep reactivity on the Ford Insomnia in Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and insomnia symptoms. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used to determine insomnia classification. Baseline FIRST scores were used to predict incident insomnia at 1-y follow-up. Two clinically meaningful FIRST cutoff values were identified: FIRST ≥ 16 (sensitivity 77%; specificity 50%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88, P insomnia onset, even after controlling for stress exposure and demographic characteristics. Of the incident cases, insomniacs with highly reactive sleep systems reported longer sleep onset latencies (FIRST ≥ 16: 65 min; FIRST ≥ 18: 68 min) than participants with nonreactive insomnia (FIRST insomnia based on trait sleep reactivity. The FIRST accurately identifies a focused target population in which the psychobiological processes complicit in insomnia onset and progression can be better investigated, thus improving future preventive efforts. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Identifying risk factors of avian infectious diseases at household level in Poyang Lake region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Zhou, Jieting; Jiang, Zhiben; Xu, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Poultry kept in backyard farms are susceptible to acquiring and spreading infectious diseases because of free ranging and poor biosecurity measures. Since some of these diseases are zoonoses, this is also a significant health concern to breeders and their families. Backyard farms are common in rural regions of China. However, there is lack of knowledge of backyard poultry in the country. To obtain first-hand information of backyard poultry and identify risk factors of avian infectious diseases, a cross-sectional study was carried out at household level in rural regions around Poyang Lake. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect data on husbandry practices, trading practices of backyard farmers, and surrounding environments of backyard farms. Farms were categorized into cases and controls based on their history of poultry death. Data were collected for 137 farms, and the association with occurrence of poultry death event was explored by chi-square tests. Results showed that vaccination implementation was a protective factor (odds ratio OR=0.40, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.20-0.80, p=0.01), while contact with other backyard flocks increased risk (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 0.79-3.74, p=0.16). A concept of "farm connectivity" characterized by the density of particular land-use types in the vicinity of the farm was proposed to characterize the degree of contact between poultry in one household farm and those in other household farms. It was found that housing density in a 20-m buffer zone of the farmhouse was most significantly associated with poultry death occurrence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17, p=0.03), and was in agreement with observation of villagers. Binary logistic regression was applied to evaluate the relationship between poultry death event and density of land-use types in all buffer zones. When integrated with vaccination implementation for poultry, prediction accuracy of poultry death event reached 72.0%. Results combining questionnaire survey with

  12. Circulating RNA transcripts identify therapeutic response in cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Milene T; Hughes, Grant J; Sanders, Linda A; Carr, Michelle; Rodman, David M; Coldren, Christopher D; Geraci, Mark W; Sagel, Scott D; Accurso, Frank J; West, James; Nick, Jerry A

    2008-11-01

    Circulating leukocyte RNA transcripts are systemic markers of inflammation, which have not been studied in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Although the standard assessment of pulmonary treatment response is FEV(1), a measure of airflow limitation, the lack of systemic markers to reflect changes in lung inflammation critically limits the testing of proposed therapeutics. We sought to prospectively identify and validate peripheral blood leukocyte genes that could mark resolution of pulmonary infection and inflammation using a model by which RNA transcripts could increase the predictive value of spirometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 10 patients with CF and acute pulmonary exacerbations before and after therapy. RNA expression profiling revealed that 10 genes significantly changed with treatment when compared with matched non-CF and control subjects with stable CF to establish baseline transcript abundance. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell RNA transcripts were prospectively validated, using real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification, in an independent cohort of acutely ill patients with CF (n = 14). Patients who responded to therapy were analyzed using general estimating equations and multiple logistic regression, such that changes in FEV(1)% predicted were regressed with transcript changes. Three genes, CD64, ADAM9, and CD36, were significant and independent predictors of a therapeutic response beyond that of FEV(1) alone (P < 0.05). In both cohorts, receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed greater accuracy when genes were combined with FEV(1). Circulating mononuclear cell transcripts characterize a response to the treatment of pulmonary exacerbations. Even in small patient cohorts, changes in gene expression in conjunction with FEV(1) may enhance current outcomes measures for treatment response.

  13. Identifying functional groups for response to disturbance in an abandoned pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavorel, Sandra; Touzard, Blaise; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Clément, Bernard

    1998-06-01

    In an abandoned pasture in Brittany, we compared artificial small-scale disturbances to natural disturbances by wild boar and undisturbed vegetation. We developed a multivariate statistical approach which analyses how species biological attributes explain the response of community composition to disturbances. This technique, which reconciles the inductive and deductive approaches for functional classifications, identifies groups of species with similar responses to disturbance and characterizes their biological profiles. After 5 months of recolonization, artificial disturbances had a greater species richness than undisturbed vegetation as a result of recruitment of new species without the exclusion of pre-existing matrix species. Species morphology, described by canopy structure, canopy height and lateral spread, explained a large part (16 %) of community response to disturbance. Regeneration strategies, described by life history, seed mass, dispersal agent, dormancy and the existence of vegetative multiplication, explained a smaller part of community response to disturbance (8 %). Artificial disturbances were characterized by therophyte and compact rosettes with moderately dormant seeds, including a number of Asteraceae and other early successional species. Natural disturbances were colonized by leafy guerrilla species without seed dormancy. Few species were tightly related to undisturbed vegetation and were essentially grasses with a phalanx rosette morphology. The functional classification obtained is consistent with the classification of the community into fugitives, regenerators and persistors. These groups are structured according to Grubb's model for temperate grasslands, with regenerators and persistors in the matrix and fugitives taking advantage of gaps open by small-scale disturbances. The conjunction of functional diversity and species diversity within functional groups is the key to resilience to disturbance, an important ecosystem function.

  14. Groundwater level responses to precipitation variability in Mediterranean insular aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; Garcia, Celso; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    Groundwater is one of the largest and most important sources of fresh water on many regions under Mediterranean climate conditions, which are exposed to large precipitation variability that includes frequent meteorological drought episodes, and present high evapotranspiration rates and water demand during the dry season. The dependence on groundwater increases in those areas with predominant permeable lithologies, contributing to aquifer recharge and the abundance of ephemeral streams. The increasing pressure of tourism on water resources in many Mediterranean coastal areas, and uncertainty related to future precipitation and water availability, make it urgent to understand the spatio-temporal response of groundwater bodies to precipitation variability, if sustainable use of the resource is to be achieved. We present an assessment of the response of aquifers to precipitation variability based on correlations between the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) at various time scales and the Standardized Groundwater Index (SGI) across a Mediterranean island. We detected three main responses of aquifers to accumulated precipitation anomalies: (i) at short time scales of the SPI (24 months). The differing responses were mainly explained by differences in lithology and the percentage of highly permeable rock strata in the aquifer recharge areas. We also identified differences in the months and seasons when aquifer storages are more dependent on precipitation; these were related to climate seasonality and the degree of aquifer exploitation or underground water extraction. The recharge of some aquifers, especially in mountainous areas, is related to precipitation variability within a limited spatial extent, whereas for aquifers located in the plains, precipitation variability influence much larger areas; the topography and geological structure of the island explain these differences. Results indicate large spatial variability in the response of aquifers to precipitation in

  15. Identifying behavioural differences in working donkeys in response to analgesic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, F H; Hockenhull, J; Pritchard, J C; Waterman-Pearson, A E; Whay, H R

    2016-01-01

    To identify pain-related behaviour in working donkeys in order to assist their owners and veterinarians to recognise and manage pain. To identify general and specific behaviours associated with pain or its relief using a trial with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam (Metacam). Observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Forty adult male working donkeys with common clinical abnormalities were randomly assigned to receive either a single loading dose of meloxicam (1.2 mg/kg bwt per os; n = 20) or a placebo (30 mg honey/250 ml water per os; n = 20). Observation of postural and event behaviours was undertaken at 2 pretreatment time points followed by 4 post treatment time points, using scan (instantaneous) and focal sampling. In comparison to pretreatment baselines, donkeys receiving meloxicam were more alert post treatment than the placebo group. They were observed lying down less frequently (P = 0.007), with their eyes closed less frequently (P = 0.04) and having a high head carriage more frequently (P = 0.02). Dozing behaviour decreased after meloxicam compared with the pretreatment baseline (P = 0.03). Donkeys given meloxicam also showed more interest in their environment, turning to look at environmental stimuli more frequently (P = 0.05) than those in the placebo group post treatment. Neither the meloxicam nor the placebo group showed a significant post treatment improvement in lameness scores. Working donkeys receiving meloxicam were more active and alert compared with their pretreatment behaviour, confirming the potential value of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in identifying behaviours indicative of pain in working donkeys. Behavioural assessment of pain in working donkeys in field clinic conditions will enable veterinary staff and owners to identify welfare issues promptly and monitor response to analgesia. The Summary is available in Chinese--see Supporting information. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  16. On analyzing free-response data on location level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandos, Andriy I.; Obuchowski, Nancy A.

    2017-03-01

    Free-response ROC (FROC) data are typically collected when primary question of interest is focused on the proportions of the correct detection-localization of known targets and frequencies of false positive responses, which can be multiple per subject (image). These studies are particularly relevant for CAD and related applications. The fundamental tool of the location-level FROC analysis is the FROC curve. Although there are many methods of FROC analysis, as we describe in this work, some of the standard and popular approaches, while important, are not suitable for analyzing specifically the location-level FROC performance as summarized by the FROC curve. Analysis of the FROC curve, on the other hand, might not be straightforward. Recently we developed an approach for the location-level analysis of the FROC data using the well-known tools for clustered ROC analysis. In the current work, based on previously developed concepts, and using specific examples, we demonstrate the key reasons why specifically location-level FROC performance cannot be fully addressed by the common approaches as well as illustrate the proposed solution. Specifically, we consider the two most salient FROC approaches, namely JAFROC and the area under the exponentially transformed FROC curve (AFE) and show that clearly superior FROC curves can have lower values for these indices. We describe the specific features that make these approaches inconsistent with FROC curves. This work illustrates some caveats for using the common approaches for location-level FROC analysis and provides guidelines for the appropriate assessment or comparison of FROC systems.

  17. Crossref an update on article level linking and digital object identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Description of the CrossRef initiative, "an independent non-profit membership organization that was established by the publishing community to permit article linking based on digital object identifiers (DOIs)" (1 page).

  18. Predicting multi-level drug response with gene expression profile in multiple myeloma using hierarchical ordinal regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyan; Li, Bingzong; Han, Huiying; Song, Sha; Xu, Hongxia; Hong, Yating; Yi, Nengjun; Zhuang, Wenzhuo

    2018-05-10

    Multiple myeloma (MM), like other cancers, is caused by the accumulation of genetic abnormalities. Heterogeneity exists in the patients' response to treatments, for example, bortezomib. This urges efforts to identify biomarkers from numerous molecular features and build predictive models for identifying patients that can benefit from a certain treatment scheme. However, previous studies treated the multi-level ordinal drug response as a binary response where only responsive and non-responsive groups are considered. It is desirable to directly analyze the multi-level drug response, rather than combining the response to two groups. In this study, we present a novel method to identify significantly associated biomarkers and then develop ordinal genomic classifier using the hierarchical ordinal logistic model. The proposed hierarchical ordinal logistic model employs the heavy-tailed Cauchy prior on the coefficients and is fitted by an efficient quasi-Newton algorithm. We apply our hierarchical ordinal regression approach to analyze two publicly available datasets for MM with five-level drug response and numerous gene expression measures. Our results show that our method is able to identify genes associated with the multi-level drug response and to generate powerful predictive models for predicting the multi-level response. The proposed method allows us to jointly fit numerous correlated predictors and thus build efficient models for predicting the multi-level drug response. The predictive model for the multi-level drug response can be more informative than the previous approaches. Thus, the proposed approach provides a powerful tool for predicting multi-level drug response and has important impact on cancer studies.

  19. Fitness Level Modulates Intraocular Pressure Responses to Strength Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Redondo, Beatríz; Cárdenas, David; García-Ramos, Amador

    2018-06-01

    Purpose/Aim: The execution of strength exercises has demonstrated to increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) levels, and it may have a negative impact on the ocular health. We aimed to explore the influence of fitness level on the acute IOP response to strength exercises performed under different loading conditions, as well as to test whether the IOP responses differ between the bench press and jump squat when performed against the same relative loads. Forty military personnel males were divided in two subgroups (20 high-fit and 20 low-fit) based on their relative to body mass one-repetition maximum (1-RM). Participants performed an incremental loading test in the bench press and jump squat exercises, and IOP was assessed before and after each repetition by rebound tonometry. IOP increased immediately after executing both exercises (p e., high-fit and low-fit) and in both exercises (R 2 range: 0.81-1.00). Higher fitness level attenuated the IOP rise produced by both exercises (p < 0.01 in both cases). The bench press induced higher IOP increments than the jump squat for both groups at relative loads of ~50%1-RM and ~60%1-RM (p < 0.01 in all cases). These data indicate that IOP increases as a consequence of performing strength exercises, being the increment accentuated with the increase of the load and in the bench press compared to the jump squat exercise. Of special importance would be that the IOP responses were significantly reduced in high-fit individuals. These findings should be addressed in glaucoma patients.

  20. Directional response of identifier Micro Detective ORTEC, N-type with 15% of detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbach, Mayara Nascimento; Karam, Rudnei M.; Cardoso, Domingos D.O.; Sant'anna, Viviane C.; Vellozo, Sergio de O.; Gomes, Renato G.; Amorim, Aneuri S. de; Oliveira, Luciano S.R.

    2016-01-01

    It was characterized the directional response of identifier Micro Detective ORTEC, N-type with 15% of detection efficiency by using sources of Cesium ("1"3"7Cs) with activity of 37,4 kBq and Cobalt ("6"0Co) with an activity of 41 kBq, manufactured on 04/17/2007. The work took place in distances (0,5m, 1,0m, 1,5m e 2,0m) and for the angles (0°, 45°, 60° e 90°), and the measure found in angle 0° of said evaluation was adopted as reference value; this same procedure was adopted for other distances evaluated in this work. The results achieved are provided in charts 1, 2 and 3. (author)

  1. 41 CFR 102-80.50 - Are Federal agencies responsible for identifying/estimating risks and for appropriate risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Management Risks and Risk Reduction Strategies § 102-80.50 Are Federal agencies responsible for... identify and estimate safety and environmental management risks and appropriate risk reduction strategies... responsible for identifying/estimating risks and for appropriate risk reduction strategies? 102-80.50 Section...

  2. Attention-level transitory response: a novel hybrid BCI approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Pablo F.; Garcés Correa, Agustina; Orosco, Lorena; Laciar, Eric; Mut, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    Objective. People with disabilities may control devices such as a computer or a wheelchair by means of a brain-computer interface (BCI). BCI based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) requires visual stimulation of the user. However, this SSVEP-based BCI suffers from the ‘Midas touch effect’, i.e., the BCI can detect an SSVEP even when the user is not gazing at the stimulus. Then, these incorrect detections deteriorate the performance of the system, especially in asynchronous BCI because ongoing EEG is classified. In this paper, a novel transitory response of the attention-level of the user is reported. It was used to develop a hybrid BCI (hBCI). Approach. Three methods are proposed to detect the attention-level of the user. They are based on the alpha rhythm and theta/beta rate. The proposed hBCI scheme is presented along with these methods. Hence, the hBCI sends a command only when the user is at a high-level of attention, or in other words, when the user is really focused on the task being performed. The hBCI was tested over two different EEG datasets. Main results. The performance of the hybrid approach is superior to the standard one. Improvements of 20% in accuracy and 10 bits min-1 are reported. Moreover, the attention-level is extracted from the same EEG channels used in SSVEP detection and this way, no extra hardware is needed. Significance. A transitory response of EEG signal is used to develop the attention-SSVEP hBCI which is capable of reducing the Midas touch effect.

  3. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, Linda M.; Foerlin, Lars; Karlsson, Goeran; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Larsson, D.G. Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used 1 H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE 2 ) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE 2 , which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants

  4. Difficulty identifying feelings and automatic activation in the fusiform gyrus in response to facial emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Mischa; Kugel, Harald; Suslow, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Difficulties in identifying and differentiating one's emotions are a central characteristic of alexithymia. In the present study, automatic activation of the fusiform gyrus to facial emotion was investigated as a function of alexithymia as assessed by the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. During 3 Tesla fMRI scanning, pictures of faces bearing sad, happy, and neutral expressions masked by neutral faces were presented to 22 healthy adults who also responded to the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The fusiform gyrus was selected as the region of interest, and voxel values of this region were extracted, summarized as means, and tested among the different conditions (sad, happy, and neutral faces). Masked sad facial emotions were associated with greater bilateral activation of the fusiform gyrus than masked neutral faces. The subscale, Difficulty Identifying Feelings, was negatively correlated with the neural response of the fusiform gyrus to masked sad faces. The correlation results suggest that automatic hyporesponsiveness of the fusiform gyrus to negative emotion stimuli may reflect problems in recognizing one's emotions in everyday life.

  5. Zero-field magnetic response functions in Landau levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Niu, Qian

    2017-07-01

    We present a fresh perspective on the Landau level quantization rule; that is, by successively including zero-field magnetic response functions at zero temperature, such as zero-field magnetization and susceptibility, the Onsager’s rule can be corrected order by order. Such a perspective is further reinterpreted as a quantization of the semiclassical electron density in solids. Our theory not only reproduces Onsager’s rule at zeroth order and the Berry phase and magnetic moment correction at first order but also explains the nature of higher-order corrections in a universal way. In applications, those higher-order corrections are expected to curve the linear relation between the level index and the inverse of the magnetic field, as already observed in experiments. Our theory then provides a way to extract the correct value of Berry phase as well as the magnetic susceptibility at zero temperature from Landau level fan diagrams in experiments. Moreover, it can be used theoretically to calculate Landau levels up to second-order accuracy for realistic models.

  6. Identifying the Relationship of Teacher Candidates' Humor Styles with Anxiety and Self-Compassion Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Teacher candidates who will soon be responsible for educating the future generations should possess certain characteristics. Specific teacher candidates should have specific characteristics taken into consideration: pre-school and primary teacher candidates should be seen as role models by younger students; psychological…

  7. Response of Wheat Genotypes to Different Levels of Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukra Raj Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted using six genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. for response to different levels of nitrogen (N use. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 as main plots and six wheat genotypes (BL 3623, BL 3629, BL 3872, NL 1008, NL 1055 and Vijay, a check variety as sub-plots. Grain yield and other yield components increased linearly in response to N concentrations in both seasons. Only two parameters: days to heading (DOH and days to maturity (DTM varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05 among wheat genotypes in both the years. None of the parameters showed interaction effects in both seasons. Vijay showed highest grain yield of 3.12 t ha-1 in 2013 with the application of 100 kg N ha-1, and 3.23 t ha-1 in 2014 with 150 kg N ha-1. Spike length, productive tillers m-2, number of spikes m-2 and test weight were greater with higher N rates. The straw yield of wheat fertilized with 150 kg N ha-1 was the highest in Vijay (4.35 t ha-1 and BL 3872 (4.33 t ha-1, respectively. Vijay with 100 kg N ha-1 produced the highest number of productive tillers m-2 (276.33 in 2013 and 296.00 with the application of 150 kg N ha-1 in 2014.

  8. Quantifying human response capabilities towards tsunami threats at community level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, J.; Mück, M.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Taubenböck, H.; Strunz, G.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.

    2009-04-01

    Decision makers at the community level need detailed information on tsunami risks in their area. Knowledge on potential hazard impact, exposed elements such as people, critical facilities and lifelines, people's coping capacity and recovery potential are crucial to plan precautionary measures for adaptation and to mitigate potential impacts of tsunamis on society and the environment. A crucial point within a people-centred tsunami risk assessment is to quantify the human response capabilities towards tsunami threats. Based on this quantification and spatial representation in maps tsunami affected and safe areas, difficult-to-evacuate areas, evacuation target points and evacuation routes can be assigned and used as an important contribution to e.g. community level evacuation planning. Major component in the quantification of human response capabilities towards tsunami impacts is the factor time. The human response capabilities depend on the estimated time of arrival (ETA) of a tsunami, the time until technical or natural warning signs (ToNW) can be received, the reaction time (RT) of the population (human understanding of a tsunami warning and the decision to take appropriate action), the evacuation time (ET, time people need to reach a safe area) and the actual available response time (RsT = ETA - ToNW - RT). If RsT is larger than ET, people in the respective areas are able to reach a safe area and rescue themselves. Critical areas possess RsT values equal or even smaller ET and hence people whin these areas will be directly affected by a tsunami. Quantifying the factor time is challenging and an attempt to this is presented here. The ETA can be derived by analyzing pre-computed tsunami scenarios for a respective area. For ToNW we assume that the early warning center is able to fulfil the Indonesian presidential decree to issue a warning within 5 minutes. RT is difficult as here human intrinsic factors as educational level, believe, tsunami knowledge and experience

  9. Identifying Multiple Levels of Discussion-Based Teaching Strategies for Constructing Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Grant; Clement, John

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to identify specific types of discussion-based strategies that two successful high school physics teachers using a model-based approach utilized in attempting to foster students' construction of explanatory models for scientific concepts. We found evidence that, in addition to previously documented dialogical strategies that…

  10. Low levels of docosahexaenoic acid identified in acute coronary syndrome patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon B; Heruc, Gabriella A; Hilton, Therese M; Olley, Amanda; Brotchie, Heather; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Friend, Cheryl; Walsh, Warren F; Stocker, Roland

    2006-03-30

    As deficiencies in n-3 PUFAs have been linked separately to depression and to cardiovascular disease, they could act as a higher order variable contributing to the established link between depression and cardiovascular disease. We therefore examine the relationship between depression and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including total n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Plasma phospholipid levels of n-3 PUFA were measured in 100 patients hospitalized with ACS. Current major depressive episode was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Depression severity was assessed by the 18-item Depression in the Medically Ill (DMI-18) measure. Patients clinically diagnosed with current depression had significantly lower mean total n-3 PUFA and DHA levels. Higher DMI-18 depression severity scores were significantly associated with lower DHA levels, with similar but non-significant trends observed for EPA and total n-3 PUFA levels. The finding that low DHA levels were associated with depression variables in ACS patients may explain links demonstrated between cardiovascular health and depression, and may have prophylactic and treatment implications.

  11. Level of Fecal Calprotectin Correlates With Endoscopic and Histologic Inflammation and Identifies Patients With Mucosal Healing in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Holck, Susanne; Ibsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    values of 0.71 and 0.65, respectively; negative predictive values were 0.90 and 0.93, respectively. A cutoff level of 171 mg/kg identified patients with histologic evidence of mucosal healing, with positive predictive value of 0.75 and negative predictive value of 0.90. Levels of FC increased...

  12. Understanding low levels of physical activity in people with intellectual disabilities : A systematic review to identify barriers and facilitators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) undertake extremely low levels of physical activity. Aims: To enhance understanding concerning low levels of physical activity in people with ID, this study has three aims: (1) to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in

  13. Metabolomics identifies a biological response to chronic low-dose natural uranium contamination in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Stéphane; Favé, Gaëlle; Maillot, Matthieu; Manens, Line; Delissen, Olivia; Blanchardon, Eric; Banzet, Nathalie; Defoort, Catherine; Bott, Romain; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Gourmelon, Patrick; Martin, Jean-Charles; Souidi, Maâmar

    2013-01-01

    Because uranium is a natural element present in the earth's crust, the population may be chronically exposed to low doses of it through drinking water. Additionally, the military and civil uses of uranium can also lead to environmental dispersion that can result in high or low doses of acute or chronic exposure. Recent experimental data suggest this might lead to relatively innocuous biological reactions. The aim of this study was to assess the biological changes in rats caused by ingestion of natural uranium in drinking water with a mean daily intake of 2.7 mg/kg for 9 months and to identify potential biomarkers related to such a contamination. Subsequently, we observed no pathology and standard clinical tests were unable to distinguish between treated and untreated animals. Conversely, LC-MS metabolomics identified urine as an appropriate biofluid for discriminating the experimental groups. Of the 1,376 features detected in urine, the most discriminant were metabolites involved in tryptophan, nicotinate, and nicotinamide metabolic pathways. In particular, N -methylnicotinamide, which was found at a level seven times higher in untreated than in contaminated rats, had the greatest discriminating power. These novel results establish a proof of principle for using metabolomics to address chronic low-dose uranium contamination. They open interesting perspectives for understanding the underlying biological mechanisms and designing a diagnostic test of exposure.

  14. Identifying abnormal connectivity in patients using Dynamic Causal Modelling of fMRI responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed L Seghier

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of brain damaged patients offer a unique opportunity to understand how sensori-motor and cognitive tasks can be carried out when parts of the neural system that support normal performance are no longer available. In addition to knowing which regions a patient activates, we also need to know how these regions interact with one another, and how these inter-regional interactions deviate from normal. Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM offers the opportunity to assess task-dependent interactions within a set of regions. Here we review its use in patients when the question of interest concerns the characterisation of abnormal connectivity for a given pathology. We describe the currently available implementations of DCM for fMRI responses, varying from the deterministic bilinear models with one-state equation to the stochastic nonlinear models with two-state equations. We also highlight the importance of the new Bayesian model selection and averaging tools that allow different plausible models to be compared at the single subject and group level. These procedures allow inferences to be made at different levels of model selection, from features (model families to connectivity parameters. Following a critical review of previous DCM studies that investigated abnormal connectivity we propose a systematic procedure that will ensure more flexibility and efficiency when using DCM in patients. Finally, some practical and methodological issues crucial for interpreting or generalising DCM findings in patients are discussed.

  15. Identifying consumer preference for beef produced with different levels of growth promotant technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate growth performance and carcass characteristics, and 2) determine environmental and economic impacts of cattle raised with different levels of growth promoting technology. Materials and Methods: Angus' Simmental,and crossbred steer calves (n =...

  16. A Systematic Approach for Identifying Level-1 Error Covariance Structures in Latent Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cherng G.; Jane, Ten-Der; Wu, Chiu-Hui; Lin, Hang-Rung; Shen, Chih-Kang

    2017-01-01

    It has been pointed out in the literature that misspecification of the level-1 error covariance structure in latent growth modeling (LGM) has detrimental impacts on the inferences about growth parameters. Since correct covariance structure is difficult to specify by theory, the identification needs to rely on a specification search, which,…

  17. Identifying the age cohort responsible for transmission in a natural outbreak of Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne H Long

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the major routes of disease transmission and reservoirs of infection are needed to increase our understanding of disease dynamics and improve disease control. Despite this, transmission events are rarely observed directly. Here we had the unique opportunity to study natural transmission of Bordetella bronchiseptica--a directly transmitted respiratory pathogen with a wide mammalian host range, including sporadic infection of humans--within a commercial rabbitry to evaluate the relative effects of sex and age on the transmission dynamics therein. We did this by developing an a priori set of hypotheses outlining how natural B. bronchiseptica infections may be transmitted between rabbits. We discriminated between these hypotheses by using force-of-infection estimates coupled with random effects binomial regression analysis of B. bronchiseptica age-prevalence data from within our rabbit population. Force-of-infection analysis allowed us to quantify the apparent prevalence of B. bronchiseptica while correcting for age structure. To determine whether transmission is largely within social groups (in this case litter, or from an external group, we used random-effect binomial regression to evaluate the importance of social mixing in disease spread. Between these two approaches our results support young weanlings--as opposed to, for example, breeder or maternal cohorts--as the age cohort primarily responsible for B. bronchiseptica transmission. Thus age-prevalence data, which is relatively easy to gather in clinical or agricultural settings, can be used to evaluate contact patterns and infer the likely age-cohort responsible for transmission of directly transmitted infections. These insights shed light on the dynamics of disease spread and allow an assessment to be made of the best methods for effective long-term disease control.

  18. Identifying response styles: A latent-class bilinear multinomial logit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rosmalen, J.; van Herk, H.; Groenen, P.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Respondents can vary strongly in the way they use rating scales. Specifically, respondents can exhibit a variety of response styles, which threatens the validity of the responses. The purpose of this article Is to investigate how response style and content of the items affect rating scale responses.

  19. Identifying Unknown Response Styles: A Latent-Class Bilinear Multinomial Logit Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); H. van Herk (Hester); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRespondents can vary significantly in the way they use rating scales. Specifically, respondents can exhibit varying degrees of response style, which threatens the validity of the responses. The purpose of this article is to investigate to what extent rating scale responses show response

  20. Bean leaf growth response to moderate ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L S

    1973-01-01

    The middle leaflet from the first trifoliate leaf of pinto bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) was subjected to various ozone levels for both 12 and 24 h to show moderate oxidant injury. Rates of leaf expansion were used as criteria to measure the effects of ozone at three leaflet positions. Growth analysis included Y-intercepts indicating growth after day 1, growth after day 3, and regression line slopes between days 1 and 7 after the beginning of the experiments. Slopes of growth rate regression lines differentiated untreated leaflets from leaflets exposed to a 0.60 ppm-h (0.05 ppm for 12 h) dose. Growth rates of plants exposed to 1.20 ppm-h (either 0.05 ppm for 24 h, or 0.10 ppm for 12 h) were distinguishable from untreated plants within three days. Basal leaf portions showed the most differential ozone response compared with lateral and tip positions.

  1. Dose response curves for effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The linear dose-response model used by international committees to assess the genetic and carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation appears to be the most reasonable interpretation of the available scientific data that are relevant to this topic. There are, of course, reasons to believe that this model may overestimate radiation hazards in certain instances, a fact acknowledged in recent reports of these committees. The linear model is now also being utilized to estimate the potential carcinogenic hazards of other agents such as asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This model implies that there is no safe dose for any of these agents and that potential health hazards will increase in direct proportion to total accumulated dose. The practical implication is the recommendation that all exposures should be kept 'as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account'. (auth)

  2. Low levels of serum serotonin and amino acids identified in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Caixia; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Juntuo; Liang, Hui; Wang, Yayun; Sun, Yinping; Ma, Bin; Yin, Yuxin

    2018-02-05

    Migraine is a highly disabling primary headache associated with a high socioeconomic burden and a generally high prevalence. The clinical management of migraine remains a challenge. This study was undertaken to identify potential serum biomarkers of migraine. Using Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), the metabolomic profile of migraine was compared with healthy individuals. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (orthoPLS-DA) showed the metabolomic profile of migraine is distinguishable from controls. Volcano plot analysis identified 10 serum metabolites significantly decreased during migraine. One of these was serotonin, and the other 9 were amino acids. Pathway analysis and enrichment analysis showed tryptophan metabolism (serotonin metabolism), arginine and proline metabolism, and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis are the three most prominently altered pathways in migraine. ROC curve analysis indicated Glycyl-l-proline, N-Methyl-dl-Alanine and l-Methionine are potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for migraine. Our results show Glycyl-l-proline, N-Methyl-dl-Alanine and l-Methionine may be as specific or more specific for migraine than serotonin which is the traditional biomarker of migraine. We propose that therapeutic manipulation of these metabolites or metabolic pathways may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of migraine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trophic level responses differ as climate warms in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison; Yu, Rong; Liu, Lingling

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem functioning relies on successful species interaction. However, this delicate balance may be disrupted if species do not respond to environmental change at a similar rate. Here we examine trends in the timing of spring phenophases of groups of species occupying three trophic levels as a potential indicator of ecosystem response to climate warming in Ireland. The data sets were of varying length (1976-2009) and from varying locations: (1) timing of leaf unfolding and May Shoot of a range of broadleaf and conifer tree species, (2) first appearance dates of a range of moth species, and (3) first arrival dates of a range of spring migrant birds. All three groups revealed a statistically significant ( Pphenology that was driven by rising spring temperature ( P<0.05; 0.45 °C /decade). However, the rate of advance was greater for moths (1.8 days/year), followed by birds (0.37 days/year) and trees (0.29 days/year). In addition, the length of time between (1) moth emergence and leaf unfolding and (2) moth emergence and bird arrival decreased significantly ( P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), indicating a decrease in the timing between food supply and demand. These differing trophic level response rates demonstrate the potential for a mismatch in the timing of interdependent phenophases as temperatures rise. Even though these data were not specifically collected to examine climate warming impacts, we conclude that such data may be used as an early warning indicator and as a means to monitor the potential for future ecosystem disruption to occur as climate warms.

  4. Identifying predictive features in drug response using machine learning: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Mathukumalli

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews several techniques from machine learning that can be used to study the problem of identifying a small number of features, from among tens of thousands of measured features, that can accurately predict a drug response. Prediction problems are divided into two categories: sparse classification and sparse regression. In classification, the clinical parameter to be predicted is binary, whereas in regression, the parameter is a real number. Well-known methods for both classes of problems are briefly discussed. These include the SVM (support vector machine) for classification and various algorithms such as ridge regression, LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator), and EN (elastic net) for regression. In addition, several well-established methods that do not directly fall into machine learning theory are also reviewed, including neural networks, PAM (pattern analysis for microarrays), SAM (significance analysis for microarrays), GSEA (gene set enrichment analysis), and k-means clustering. Several references indicative of the application of these methods to cancer biology are discussed.

  5. Estimating Derived Response Levels at the Savannah River Site for Use with Emergency Response Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Emergency response computer models at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are coupled with real-time meteorological data to estimate dose to individuals downwind of accidental radioactive releases. Currently, these models estimate doses for inhalation and shine pathways, but do not consider dose due to ingestion of contaminated food products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed derived intervention levels (DIL) which refer to the radionuclide-specific concentration in food present throughout the relevant period of time, with no intervention, that could lead to an individual receiving a radiation dose equal to the protective action guide. In the event of an emergency, concentrations in various food types are compared with these levels to make interdictions decisions. Prior to monitoring results being available, concentrations in the environmental media (i.e. soil), called derived response levels (DRLs), can be estimated from the DILs and directly compared with computer output to provide preliminary guidance as to whether intervention is necessary. Site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) are developed for ingestion pathways pertinent to SRS: milk, meat, fish, grain, produce, and beverage. This provides decision-makers with an additional tool for use immediately following an accident prior to the acquisition of food monitoring data

  6. Apolipoprotein A5: A newly identified gene impacting plasmatriglyceride levels in humans and mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2002-09-15

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is a newly described member of theapolipoprotein gene family whose initial discovery arose from comparativesequence analysis of the mammalian APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Functionalstudies in mice indicated that alteration in the level of APOA5significantly impacted plasma triglyceride concentrations. Miceover-expressing human APOA5 displayed significantly reducedtriglycerides, while mice lacking apoA5 had a large increase in thislipid parameter. Studies in humans have also suggested an important rolefor APOA5 in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations. In theseexperiments, polymorphisms in the human gene were found to define severalcommon haplotypes that were associated with significant changes intriglyceride concentrations in multiple populations. Several separateclinical studies have provided consistent and strong support for theeffect with 24 percent of Caucasians, 35 percent of African-Americans and53 percent of Hispanics carrying APOA5 haplotypes associated withincreased plasma triglyceride levels. In summary, APOA5 represents anewly discovered gene involved in triglyceride metabolism in both humansand mice whose mechanism of action remains to be deciphered.

  7. Technical responsibilities in low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.; Walker, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    North Carolina will be the host state for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility serving the Southeast Compact for 20 yr beginning in 1993. Primary responsibility for the project rests with the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, a citizen board. The North Carolina project embodies a unique combination of factors that places the authority in a position to exercise technical leadership in the LLRW disposal field. First, the Southeast Compact is the largest in the United States in terms of area, population, and waste generation. second, it is in a humid rather than an arid region. Third, the citizens of the state are intensely interested in preserving life style, environment, and attractiveness of the region to tourists and are especially sensitive to the presence of waste facilities of any kind. Finally, disposal rules set by the Radiation Protection Commission and enforced by the Radiation Protection Section are stricter than the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10CFR61. These four factors support the authority's belief that development of the facility cannot be based solely on engineering and economics, but that social factors, including perceptions of human risk, concerns for the environment, and opinions about the desirability of hosting a facility, should be integral to the project. This philosophy guides the project's many technical aspects, including site selection, site characterization, technology selection and facility design, performance assessment modeling, and waste reduction policies. Each aspect presents its own unique problems

  8. Worldwide drinking water occurrence and levels of newly-identified perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Hermann A; Vo Duy, Sung; Munoz, Gabriel; Méité, Ladji; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Liu, Jinxia; Sory, Traoré Karim; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2018-03-01

    In the last decade or so, concerns have arisen with respect to the widespread occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment, food, drinking water, and humans. In this study, the occurrence and levels of a large range of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in drinking water (bottled and tap water samples) from various locations around the world. Automated off-line solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to analyze PFASs of various chain lengths and functional groups. In total, 29 target and 104 suspect-target PFASs were screened in drinking water samples (n=97) from Canada and other countries (Burkina Faso, Chile, Ivory Coast, France, Japan, Mexico, Norway, and the USA) in 2015-2016. Out of the 29 PFASs quantitatively analyzed, perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs: C 4/14 ), perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs: C 4 , C 6 , C 8 ), and perfluoroalkyl acid precursors (e.g., 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylate (5:3 FTCA)) were recurrently detected in drinking water samples (concentration range: water samples from Canada showed noteworthy differences depending on their source; for instance, ∑ 29 PFASwas significantly greater in those produced from the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence River ecosystem than those produced from other types of sources (14 versus 5.3ngL -1 , respectively). A suspect-target screening approach indicated that other perfluoroalkane sulfonamides (FBSA, FHxSA), perfluoroethyl cyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS), ultrashort chain (C 2 -C 3 ) PFSAs (PFEtS, PFPrS), and two additional PFSAs (PFPeS (C 5 ) and PFHpS (C 7 )) were repeatedly present in tap water samples (concentration ranges: water. According to the newly updated US EPA health advisory for PFOS and PFOA (70ngL -1 ), the drinking water samples collected in the present monitoring would not pose a health risk to consumers as regards PFAA levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  9. Whole-genome sequencing identifies genomic heterogeneity at a nucleotide and chromosomal level in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Pengyuan; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Zhang, Jianmin; Luo, Wei; Qin, Maochun; Bshara, Wiam; Conroy, Jeffrey M.; Sabatini, Linda; Vedell, Peter; Xiong, Donghai; Liu, Song; Wang, Jianmin; Shen, He; Li, Yinwei; Omilian, Angela R.; Hill, Annette; Head, Karen; Guru, Khurshid; Kunnev, Dimiter; Leach, Robert; Eng, Kevin H.; Darlak, Christopher; Hoeflich, Christopher; Veeranki, Srividya; Glenn, Sean; You, Ming; Pruitt, Steven C.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Using complete genome analysis, we sequenced five bladder tumors accrued from patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB) and identified a spectrum of genomic aberrations. In three tumors, complex genotype changes were noted. All three had tumor protein p53 mutations and a relatively large number of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs; average of 11.2 per megabase), structural variants (SVs; average of 46), or both. This group was best characterized by chromothripsis and the presence of subclonal populations of neoplastic cells or intratumoral mutational heterogeneity. Here, we provide evidence that the process of chromothripsis in TCC-UB is mediated by nonhomologous end-joining using kilobase, rather than megabase, fragments of DNA, which we refer to as “stitchers,” to repair this process. We postulate that a potential unifying theme among tumors with the more complex genotype group is a defective replication–licensing complex. A second group (two bladder tumors) had no chromothripsis, and a simpler genotype, WT tumor protein p53, had relatively few SNVs (average of 5.9 per megabase) and only a single SV. There was no evidence of a subclonal population of neoplastic cells. In this group, we used a preclinical model of bladder carcinoma cell lines to study a unique SV (translocation and amplification) of the gene glutamate receptor ionotropic N-methyl D-aspertate as a potential new therapeutic target in bladder cancer. PMID:24469795

  10. Treatment-responsive limbic encephalitis identified by neuropil antibodies: MRI and PET correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, Beau M.; Vitaliani, Roberta; Taylor, Robert A.; Liebeskind, David S.; Voloschin, Alfredo; Houghton, David J.; Galetta, Steven L.; Dichter, Marc; Alavi, Abass; Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Dalmau, Josep

    2007-01-01

    We report seven patients, six from a single institution, who developed subacute limbic encephalitis initially considered of uncertain aetiology. Four patients presented with symptoms of hippocampal dysfunction (i.e. severe short-term memory loss) and three with extensive limbic dysfunction (i.e. confusion, seizures and suspected psychosis). Brain MRI and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET complemented each other but did not overlap in 50% of the patients. Combining both tests, all patients had temporal lobe abnormalities, five with additional areas involved. In one patient, FDG hyperactivity in the brainstem that was normal on MRI correlated with central hypoventilation; in another case, hyperactivity in the cerebellum anticipated ataxia. All patients had abnormal CSF: six pleocytosis, six had increased protein concentration, and three of five examined had oligoclonal bands. A tumour was identified and removed in four patients (mediastinal teratoma, thymoma, thymic carcinoma and thyroid cancer) and not treated in one (ovarian teratoma). An immunohistochemical technique that facilitates the detection of antibodies to cell surface or synaptic proteins demonstrated that six patients had antibodies to the neuropil of hippocampus or cerebellum, and one to intraneuronal antigens. Only one of the neuropil antibodies corresponded to voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies; the other five (two with identical specificity) reacted with antigens concentrated in areas of high dendritic density or synaptic-enriched regions of the hippocampus or cerebellum. Preliminary characterization of these antigens indicates that they are diverse and expressed on the neuronal cell membrane and dendrites; they do not co-localize with VGKCs, but partially co-localize with spinophilin. A target autoantigen in one of the patients co-localizes with a cell surface protein involved in hippocampal dendritic development. All patients except the one with antibodies to intracellular antigens

  11. Comparative metatranscriptomics identifies molecular bases for the physiological responses of phytoplankton to varying iron availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Adrian; Schruth, David M; Durkin, Colleen A; Parker, Micaela S; Kodner, Robin B; Berthiaume, Chris T; Morales, Rhonda; Allen, Andrew E; Armbrust, E Virginia

    2012-02-07

    In vast expanses of the oceans, growth of large phytoplankton such as diatoms is limited by iron availability. Diatoms respond almost immediately to the delivery of iron and rapidly compose the majority of phytoplankton biomass. The molecular bases underlying the subsistence of diatoms in iron-poor waters and the plankton community dynamics that follow iron resupply remain largely unknown. Here we use comparative metatranscriptomics to identify changes in gene expression associated with iron-stimulated growth of diatoms and other eukaryotic plankton. A microcosm iron-enrichment experiment using mixed-layer waters from the northeastern Pacific Ocean resulted in increased proportions of diatom transcripts and reduced proportions of transcripts from most other taxa within 98 h after iron addition. Hundreds of diatom genes were differentially expressed in the iron-enriched community compared with the iron-limited community; transcripts of diatom genes required for synthesis of photosynthesis and chlorophyll components, nitrate assimilation and the urea cycle, and synthesis of carbohydrate storage compounds were significantly overrepresented. Transcripts of genes encoding rhodopsins in eukaryotic phytoplankton were significantly underrepresented following iron enrichment, suggesting rhodopsins help cells cope with low-iron conditions. Oceanic diatoms appear to display a distinctive transcriptional response to iron enrichment that allows chemical reduction of available nitrogen and carbon sources along with a continued dependence on iron-free photosynthetic proteins rather than substituting for iron-containing functional equivalents present within their gene repertoire. This ability of diatoms to divert their newly acquired iron toward nitrate assimilation may underlie why diatoms consistently dominate iron enrichments in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll regions.

  12. Characterization of the equine skeletal muscle transcriptome identifies novel functional responses to exercise training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGivney, Beatrice A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Digital gene expression profiling was used to characterize the assembly of genes expressed in equine skeletal muscle and to identify the subset of genes that were differentially expressed following a ten-month period of exercise training. The study cohort comprised seven Thoroughbred racehorses from a single training yard. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected at rest from the gluteus medius at two time points: T(1) - untrained, (9 +\\/- 0.5 months old) and T(2) - trained (20 +\\/- 0.7 months old). RESULTS: The most abundant mRNA transcripts in the muscle transcriptome were those involved in muscle contraction, aerobic respiration and mitochondrial function. A previously unreported over-representation of genes related to RNA processing, the stress response and proteolysis was observed. Following training 92 tags were differentially expressed of which 74 were annotated. Sixteen genes showed increased expression, including the mitochondrial genes ACADVL, MRPS21 and SLC25A29 encoded by the nuclear genome. Among the 58 genes with decreased expression, MSTN, a negative regulator of muscle growth, had the greatest decrease.Functional analysis of all expressed genes using FatiScan revealed an asymmetric distribution of 482 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 18 KEGG pathways. Functional groups displaying highly significant (P < 0.0001) increased expression included mitochondrion, oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism while functional groups with decreased expression were mainly associated with structural genes and included the sarcoplasm, laminin complex and cytoskeleton. CONCLUSION: Exercise training in Thoroughbred racehorses results in coordinate changes in the gene expression of functional groups of genes related to metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and muscle structure.

  13. "Everybody Identifies with Smokey the Bear": Employee Responses to Newsletter Identification Inducements at the U.S. Forest Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSanza, James R.; Bullis, Connie

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on organizational identification (linked to decision making) by examining the identification rhetoric of an in-house newsletter at the U. S. Forest Service and by examining employee responses to newsletter content. Discusses the four responses to the newsletter that were identified: non identification, textual…

  14. 25 CFR 256.16 - Who is responsible for identifying what work will be done on my dwelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on my dwelling? 256.16 Section 256.16 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... my dwelling? The servicing housing office is responsible for identifying what work is to be done on your dwelling or whether your dwelling will be replaced. This includes responsibility to communicate...

  15. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, E.M.; Karssen, L.C.; Deelen, J.; Isaacs, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Mbarek, H.; Kanterakis, A.; Trompet, S.; Postmus, I.; Verweij, N.; van Enckevort, D.; Huffman, J.E.; White, C.C.; Feitosa, M.F.; Bartz, T.M.; Manichaikul, A.; Joshi, P.K.; Peloso, G.M.; Deelen, P.; Dijk, F.; Willemsen, G.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Milaneschi, Y.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Francioli, L.C.; Menelaou, A.; Pulit, S.L.; Rivadeneira, F.; Hofman, A.; Oostra, B.A.; Franco, O.H.; Mateo Leach, I.; Beekman, M.; de Craen, A.J.; Uh, H.W.; Trochet, H.; Hocking, L.J.; Porteous, D.J.; Sattar, N.; Packard, C.J.; Buckley, B.M.; Brody, J.A.; Bis, J.C.; Rotter, J.I.; Mychaleckyj, J.C.; Campbell, H.; Duan, Q.; Lange, L.A.; Wilson, J.F.; Hayward, C.; Polasek, O.; Vitart, V.; Rudan, I.; Wright, A.F.; Rich, S.S.; Psaty, B.M.; Borecki, I.B.; Kearney, P.M.; Stott, D.J.; Cupples, L.A.; Jukema, J.W.; van der Harst, P.; Sijbrands, E.J.; Hottenga, J.J.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Swertz, M.A.; van Ommen, G.J.B; Bakker, P.I.W.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Wijmenga, C.; van Duijn, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Variants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (∼35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference panel created

  16. Leader Style and Anxiety Level: Their Relation to Autonomic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)

  17. Final report for sea-level rise response modeling for San Francisco Bay estuary tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Swanson, Kathleen M.; Drexler, Judith Z.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The International Panel on Climate Change has identified coastal ecosystems as areas that will be disproportionally affected by climate change. Current sea-level rise projections range widely with 0.57 to 1.9 meters increase in mea sea level by 2100. The expected accelerated rate of sea-level rise through the 21st century will put many coastal ecosystems at risk, especially those in topographically low-gradient areas. We assessed marsh accretion and plant community state changes through 2100 at 12 tidal salt marshes around San Francisco Bay estuary with a sea-level rise response model. Detailed ground elevation, vegetation, and water level data were collected at all sites between 2008 and 2011 and used as model inputs. Sediment cores (taken by Callaway and others, 2012) at four sites around San Francisco Bay estuary were used to estimate accretion rates. A modification of the Callaway and others (1996) model, the Wetland Accretion Rate Model for Ecosystem Resilience (WARMER), was utilized to run sea-level rise response models for all sites. With a mean sea level rise of 1.24 m by 2100, WARMER projected that the vast majority, 95.8 percent (1,942 hectares), of marsh area in our study will lose marsh plant communities by 2100 and to transition to a relative elevation range consistent with mudflat habitat. Three marshes were projected to maintain marsh vegetation to 2100, but they only composed 4.2 percent (85 hectares) of the total marsh area surveyed.

  18. A PR-4 gene identified from Malus domestica is involved in the defense responses against Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Suhua; Dong, Chaohua; Li, Baohua; Dai, Hongyi

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related protein-4 (PR-4) family is a group of proteins with a Barwin domain in C-terminus and generally thought to be involved in plant defense responses. However, their detailed roles are poorly understood in defense of apple plant against pathogenic infection. In the present study, a new PR-4 gene (designated as MdPR-4) was identified from Malus domestica, and its roles in defense responses of apple were investigated. The open reading frame of MdPR-4 gene is of 447 bp encoding a protein of 148 amino acids with a Barwin domain in C-terminus and a signal peptide of 26 amino acids in N-terminus. Sequence and structural analysis indicated that MdPR-4 protein belongs to class II of PR-4 family. The high-level expression of MdPR-4 was observed in flowers and leaves as revealed by quantitative real time PCR. The temporal expression analysis demonstrated that MdPR-4 expression could be up-regulated by Botryosphaeria dothidea infection and salicylic acid (SA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, but suppressed by diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA). In vitro assays, recombinant MdPR-4 protein exhibited ribonuclease activity specific for single strand RNA and significant inhibition to hyphal growth of three apple pathogenic fungi B. dothidea, Valsa ceratosperma and Glomerella cingulata. Moreover, the inhibition was reduced by the presence of 5'-ADP. Taken all together, the results indicate that MdPR-4 protein is involved in the defense responses of apple against pathogenic attack by directly inhibiting hyphal growth, and the inhibition is correlated with its ribonuclease activity, where as MdPR-4 expression is regulated by both SA and JA signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. University Social Responsibility (USR): Identifying an Ethical Foundation within Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Hsiang; Nasongkhla, Jaitip; Donaldson, J. Ana

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility is a responsibility not a requirement, of an organization for the impact of its decisions and activities on society and the environment, through transparent and ethical behavior that contributes to sustainable development, health and the welfare of society; which takes into account the expectations of stakeholders, is in…

  20. Microarray profiling of mononuclear peripheral blood cells identifies novel candidate genes related to chemoradiation response in rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Palma

    Full Text Available Preoperative chemoradiation significantly improves oncological outcome in locally advanced rectal cancer. However there is no effective method of predicting tumor response to chemoradiation in these patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells have emerged recently as pathology markers of cancer and other diseases, making possible their use as therapy predictors. Furthermore, the importance of the immune response in radiosensivity of solid organs led us to hypothesized that microarray gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells could identify patients with response to chemoradiation in rectal cancer. Thirty five 35 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were recruited initially to perform the study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained before neaodjuvant treatment. RNA was extracted and purified to obtain cDNA and cRNA for hybridization of microarrays included in Human WG CodeLink bioarrays. Quantitative real time PCR was used to validate microarray experiment data. Results were correlated with pathological response, according to Mandard´s criteria and final UICC Stage (patients with tumor regression grade 1-2 and downstaging being defined as responders and patients with grade 3-5 and no downstaging as non-responders. Twenty seven out of 35 patients were finally included in the study. We performed a multiple t-test using Significance Analysis of Microarrays, to find those genes differing significantly in expression, between responders (n = 11 and non-responders (n = 16 to CRT. The differently expressed genes were: BC 035656.1, CIR, PRDM2, CAPG, FALZ, HLA-DPB2, NUPL2, and ZFP36. The measurement of FALZ (p = 0.029 gene expression level determined by qRT-PCR, showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. Gene expression profiling reveals novel genes in peripheral blood samples of mononuclear cells that could predict responders and non-responders to chemoradiation in patients with

  1. Identifying individual- and population-level characteristics that influence rates of risky alcohol consumption in regional communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Courtney; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; D'Este, Catherine; Mattick, Richard P; Gilmour, Stuart

    2014-02-01

    To examine the extent to which individual- and community- level characteristics account for differences in risky alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2,977 randomly selected individuals from 20 regional communities in NSW, Australia. Individuals drinking at harmful levels on the AUDIT and for risk of harm in the short term and long-term were identified. Multi-level modelling of the correlates of risky alcohol consumption at the individual and community level was conducted. There were differences between communities in alcohol consumption patterns. Being male, unmarried and reporting worse health were significant individual-level correlates for drinking at levels for risk of harm in the long term. The number of GPs (+) and police (-) were significant community characteristics. Being younger (≤25), unmarried, Australian born and with a larger income was associated with drinking at levels for risk of harm in the short term and harmful drinking on the AUDIT. The number of hotels and clubs was positively associated with drinking at levels for risk of harm in the short term. Rates of risky drinking vary significantly between communities and both individual and community characteristics are significantly associated with risky alcohol consumption. A combination of individual- and population-level interventions, tailored to the risk profile of individual communities, is most likely to be optimally effective. © 2014 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    KAUST Repository

    Fanucchi, Francesca

    2012-06-01

    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acclimation increases freezing stress response of Arabidopsis thaliana at proteome level

    KAUST Repository

    Fanucchi, Francesca; Alpi, Emanuele; Olivieri, Stefano; Cannistraci, Carlo; Bachi, Angela; Alpi, Amedeo; Alessio, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This study used 2DE to investigate how Arabidopsis thaliana modulates protein levels in response to freezing stress after sub-lethal exposure at - 10 °C, both in cold-acclimated and in non-acclimated plants. A map was implemented in which 62 spots, corresponding to 44 proteins, were identified. Twenty-two spots were modulated upon treatments, and the corresponding proteins proved to be related to photosynthesis, energy metabolism, and stress response. Proteins demonstrated differences between control and acclimation conditions. Most of the acclimation-responsive proteins were either not further modulated or they were down-modulated by freezing treatment, indicating that the levels reached during acclimation were sufficient to deal with freezing. Anabolic metabolism appeared to be down-regulated in favor of catabolic metabolism. Acclimated plants and plants submitted to freezing after acclimation showed greater reciprocal similarity in protein profiles than either showed when compared both to control plants and to plants frozen without acclimation. The response of non-acclimated plants was aimed at re-modulating photosynthetic apparatus activity, and at increasing the levels of proteins with antioxidant-, molecular chaperone-, or post-transcriptional regulative functions. These changes, even less effective than the acclimation strategy, might allow the injured plastids to minimize the production of non-useful metabolites and might counteract photosynthetic apparatus injuries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. When not every response to climate change is a good one: identifying principles for sustainable adaptation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eriksen, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available to the need for sustainable adaptation strategies and measures that contribute to social justice and environmental integrity. This paper presents four normative principles to guide responses to climate change and illustrates the significance...

  5. Tomato whole genome transcriptional response to Tetranychus urticae identifies divergence of spider mite-induced responses between tomato and Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martel, C.; Zhurov, V.; Navarro, M.; Martinez, M.; Cazaux, M.; Auger, P.; Migeon, A.; Santamaria, M.E.; Wybouw, N.; Diaz, I.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Navajas, M.; Grbic, M.; Grbic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here, we describe timecourse tomato transcriptional responses to spider mite

  6. Clearance of low levels of HCV viremia in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manns Michael P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV has frequently been associated with the presence of HCV-specific cellular immunity. However, there had been also reports in chimpanzees demonstrating clearance of HCV-viremia in the absence of significant levels of detectable HCV-specific cellular immune responses. We here report seven asymptomatic acute hepatitis C cases with peak HCV-RNA levels between 300 and 100.000 copies/ml who all cleared HCV-RNA spontaneously. Patients were identified by a systematic screening of 1176 consecutive new incoming offenders in a German young offender institution. Four of the seven patients never developed anti-HCV antibodies and had normal ALT levels throughout follow-up. Transient weak HCV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detectable in five individuals which did not differ in strength and breadth from age- and sex-matched patients with chronic hepatitis C and long-term recovered patients. In contrast, HCV-specific MHC-class-I-tetramer-positive cells were found in 3 of 4 HLA-A2-positive patients. Thus, these cases highlight that clearance of low levels of HCV viremia is possible in the absence of a strong adaptive immune response which might explain the low seroconversion rate after occupational exposure to HCV.

  7. Genome-wide association study for levels of total serum IgE identifies HLA-C in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Yatagai

    Full Text Available Most of the previously reported loci for total immunoglobulin E (IgE levels are related to Th2 cell-dependent pathways. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify genetic loci responsible for IgE regulation. A total of 479,940 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were tested for association with total serum IgE levels in 1180 Japanese adults. Fine-mapping with SNP imputation demonstrated 6 candidate regions: the PYHIN1/IFI16, MHC classes I and II, LEMD2, GRAMD1B, and chr13∶60576338 regions. Replication of these candidate loci in each region was assessed in 2 independent Japanese cohorts (n = 1110 and 1364, respectively. SNP rs3130941 in the HLA-C region was consistently associated with total IgE levels in 3 independent populations, and the meta-analysis yielded genome-wide significance (P = 1.07×10(-10. Using our GWAS results, we also assessed the reproducibility of previously reported gene associations with total IgE levels. Nine of 32 candidate genes identified by a literature search were associated with total IgE levels after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that SNPs in the HLA-C region are strongly associated with total serum IgE levels in the Japanese population and that some of the previously reported genetic associations are replicated across ethnic groups.

  8. Plasma Levels of Aβ42 and Tau Identified Probable Alzheimer’s Dementia: Findings in Two Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lih-Fen Lue

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The utility of plasma amyloid beta (Aβ and tau levels for the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD dementia has been controversial. The main objective of this study was to compare Aβ42 and tau levels measured by the ultra-sensitive immunomagnetic reduction (IMR assays in plasma samples collected at the Banner Sun Health Institute (BSHRI (United States with those from the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH (Taiwan. Significant increase in tau levels were detected in AD subjects from both cohorts, while Aβ42 levels were increased only in the NTUH cohort. A regression model incorporating age showed that tau levels identified probable ADs with 81 and 96% accuracy in the BSHRI and NTUH cohorts, respectively, while computed products of Aβ42 and tau increased the accuracy to 84% in the BSHRI cohorts. Using 382.68 (pg/ml2 as the cut-off value, the product achieved 92% accuracy in identifying AD in the combined cohorts. Overall findings support that plasma Aβ42 and tau assayed by IMR technology can be used to assist in the clinical diagnosis of AD.

  9. Identifying extensions required by RUP (Rational Unified Process) to comply with CMM (Capability Maturity Model) levels 2 and 3

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoni, Lisandra Vielmo; Price, Roberto Tom

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of the Rational Unified Process (RUP) based on the Capability Maturity Model (CMM). For each key practice (KP) identified in each key process area (KPA) of CMM levels 2 and 3, the Rational Unified Process was assessed to determine whether it satisfied the KP or not. For each KPA, the percentage of the key practices supported was calculated, and the results were tabulated. The report includes considerations about the coverage of each key process area, describ...

  10. Identifying and engineering promoters for high level and sustainable therapeutic recombinant protein production in cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Steven C L; Yang, Yuansheng

    2014-08-01

    Promoters are essential on plasmid vectors to initiate transcription of the transgenes when generating therapeutic recombinant proteins expressing mammalian cell lines. High and sustained levels of gene expression are desired during therapeutic protein production while gene expression is useful for cell engineering. As many finely controlled promoters exhibit cell and product specificity, new promoters need to be identified, optimized and carefully evaluated before use. Suitable promoters can be identified using techniques ranging from simple molecular biology methods to modern high-throughput omics screenings. Promoter engineering is often required after identification to either obtain high and sustained expression or to provide a wider range of gene expression. This review discusses some of the available methods to identify and engineer promoters for therapeutic recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells.

  11. Screening with an NMNAT2-MSD platform identifies small molecules that modulate NMNAT2 levels in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yousuf O; Bradley, Gillian; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2017-03-07

    Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2) is a key neuronal maintenance factor and provides potent neuroprotection in numerous preclinical models of neurological disorders. NMNAT2 is significantly reduced in Alzheimer's, Huntington's, Parkinson's diseases. Here we developed a Meso Scale Discovery (MSD)-based screening platform to quantify endogenous NMNAT2 in cortical neurons. The high sensitivity and large dynamic range of this NMNAT2-MSD platform allowed us to screen the Sigma LOPAC library consisting of 1280 compounds. This library had a 2.89% hit rate, with 24 NMNAT2 positive and 13 negative modulators identified. Western analysis was conducted to validate and determine the dose-dependency of identified modulators. Caffeine, one identified NMNAT2 positive-modulator, when systemically administered restored NMNAT2 expression in rTg4510 tauopathy mice to normal levels. We confirmed in a cell culture model that four selected positive-modulators exerted NMNAT2-specific neuroprotection against vincristine-induced cell death while four selected NMNAT2 negative modulators reduced neuronal viability in an NMNAT2-dependent manner. Many of the identified NMNAT2 positive modulators are predicted to increase cAMP concentration, suggesting that neuronal NMNAT2 levels are tightly regulated by cAMP signaling. Taken together, our findings indicate that the NMNAT2-MSD platform provides a sensitive phenotypic screen to detect NMNAT2 in neurons.

  12. Promoting social responsibility for health: health impact assessment and healthy public policy at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmark, M B

    2001-09-01

    The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for.

  13. The Silence of Corruption : Identifying Underreporting of Business Corruption through Randomized Response Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Nathan M.; Rahman, Aminur

    2011-01-01

    Research on the economic consequences of corruption has been hampered by the inability to directly measure corruption. Using an innovative methodology that allows respondents to report individual experiences with corruption while minimizing self-incrimination and an objective diagnostic to evaluate lying (false responses), this paper explores the extent of business corruption in Bangladesh...

  14. Proteomics approach to identify dehydration responsive nuclear proteins from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Aarti; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2008-01-01

    Dehydration or water-deficit is one of the most important environmental stress factors that greatly influences plant growth and development and limits crop productivity. Plants respond and adapt to such stress by altering their cellular metabolism and activating various defense machineries. Mechanisms that operate signal perception, transduction, and downstream regulatory events provide valuable information about the underlying pathways involved in environmental stress responses. The nuclear proteins constitute a highly organized, complex network that plays diverse roles during cellular development and other physiological processes. To gain a better understanding of dehydration response in plants, we have developed a comparative nuclear proteome in a food legume, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Three-week-old chickpea seedlings were subjected to progressive dehydration by withdrawing water and the changes in the nuclear proteome were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Approximately 205 protein spots were found to be differentially regulated under dehydration. Mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 147 differentially expressed proteins, presumably involved in a variety of functions including gene transcription and replication, molecular chaperones, cell signaling, and chromatin remodeling. The dehydration responsive nuclear proteome of chickpea revealed a coordinated response, which involves both the regulatory as well as the functional proteins. This study, for the first time, provides an insight into the complex metabolic network operating in the nucleus during dehydration.

  15. Identifying a predictive model for response to atypical antipsychotic monotherapy treatment in south Indian schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Meenal; Moily, Nagaraj S; Kaur, Harpreet; Jajodia, Ajay; Jain, Sanjeev; Kukreti, Ritushree

    2013-08-01

    Atypical antipsychotic (AAP) drugs are the preferred choice of treatment for schizophrenia patients. Patients who do not show favorable response to AAP monotherapy are subjected to random prolonged therapeutic treatment with AAP multitherapy, typical antipsychotics or a combination of both. Therefore, prior identification of patients' response to drugs can be an important step in providing efficacious and safe therapeutic treatment. We thus attempted to elucidate a genetic signature which could predict patients' response to AAP monotherapy. Our logistic regression analyses indicated the probability that 76% patients carrying combination of four SNPs will not show favorable response to AAP therapy. The robustness of this prediction model was assessed using repeated 10-fold cross validation method, and the results across n-fold cross-validations (mean accuracy=71.91%; 95%CI=71.47-72.35) suggest high accuracy and reliability of the prediction model. Further validations of these results in large sample sets are likely to establish their clinical applicability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Response Properties of a Newly Identified Tristratified Narrow Field Amacrine Cell in the Mouse Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Newkirk

    Full Text Available Amacrine cells were targeted for whole cell recording using two-photon fluorescence microscopy in a transgenic mouse line in which the promoter for dopamine receptor 2 drove expression of green fluorescent protein in a narrow field tristratified amacrine cell (TNAC that had not been studied previously. Light evoked a multiphasic response that was the sum of hyperpolarizing and depolarization synaptic inputs consistent with distinct dendritic ramifications in the off and on sublamina of the inner plexiform layer. The amplitude and waveform of the response, which consisted of an initial brief hyperpolarization at light onset followed by recovery to a plateau potential close to dark resting potential and a hyperpolarizing response at the light offset varied little over an intensity range from 0.4 to ~10^6 Rh*/rod/s. This suggests that the cell functions as a differentiator that generates an output signal (a transient reduction in inhibitory input to downstream retina neurons that is proportional to the derivative of light input independent of its intensity. The underlying circuitry appears to consist of rod and cone driven on and off bipolar cells that provide direct excitatory input to the cell as well as to GABAergic amacrine cells that are synaptically coupled to TNAC. Canonical reagents that blocked excitatory (glutamatergic and inhibitory (GABA and glycine synaptic transmission had effects on responses to scotopic stimuli consistent with the rod driven component of the proposed circuit. However, responses evoked by photopic stimuli were paradoxical and could not be interpreted on the basis of conventional thinking about the neuropharmacology of synaptic interactions in the retina.

  17. Identifying parasitic current pathways in CIGS solar cells by modelling dark J-V response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, B.L.; Smit, S.; Kniknie, B.J.; Bakker, K.; Keuning, W.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Creatore, M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The non-uniform presence of shunting defects is a significant cause of poor reproducibility across large-area solar cells, or from batch-to-batch for small area cells, but the most commonly used value for shunt parameterisation (the shunt resistance) fails to identify the cause for shunting. Here,

  18. Identifying serotonergic mechanisms underlying the corticolimbic response to threat in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick M; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    . Integrating these methodological approaches offers novel opportunities to identify mechanisms through which serotonin signalling contributes to differences in brain function and behaviour, which in turn can illuminate factors that confer risk for illness and inform the development of more effective treatment...

  19. Identifying Green Infrastructure as a Basis for an Incentive Mechanism at the Municipality Level in Biscay (Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Rodríguez-Loinaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of green infrastructure (GI to human well-being have been widely recognised; however, pathways for its systematic implementation are missing. Local governments can play a crucial role in the conservation of GI, and a formal recognition of this role in budgeting systems would foster the inclusion of GI in their agenda. The aim of this study is to identify the principal components of GI at the local level to form a basis for a compensatory economic scheme. We identified the principal components of GI based on the mapping of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. Furthermore, we analysed the potentiality of an incentive mechanism to promote GI based on the protection status of GI. Finally, an incentive mechanism to promote GI at the municipality level was proposed. The results showed that the GI of Biscay is mainly composed of the natural forests presented in the area, and that 50% of the principal components of the GI are not protected. Furthermore, one third of the protected principal components of the GI only has protection at the municipality level. So, we propose a Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES-like scheme at the municipality level based on the cover of natural forests, where the objective is the conservation and promotion of the GI.

  20. Systems analysis of apoptotic priming in ovarian cancer identifies vulnerabilities and predictors of drug response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervantonakis, Ioannis K; Iavarone, Claudia; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Selfors, Laura M; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Liu, Joyce F; Drapkin, Ronny; Matulonis, Ursula; Leverson, Joel D; Sampath, Deepak; Mills, Gordon B; Brugge, Joan S

    2017-08-28

    The lack of effective chemotherapies for high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGS-OvCa) has motivated a search for alternative treatment strategies. Here, we present an unbiased systems-approach to interrogate a panel of 14 well-annotated HGS-OvCa patient-derived xenografts for sensitivity to PI3K and PI3K/mTOR inhibitors and uncover cell death vulnerabilities. Proteomic analysis reveals that PI3K/mTOR inhibition in HGS-OvCa patient-derived xenografts induces both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signaling responses that limit cell killing, but also primes cells for inhibitors of anti-apoptotic proteins. In-depth quantitative analysis of BCL-2 family proteins and other apoptotic regulators, together with computational modeling and selective anti-apoptotic protein inhibitors, uncovers new mechanistic details about apoptotic regulators that are predictive of drug sensitivity (BIM, caspase-3, BCL-X L ) and resistance (MCL-1, XIAP). Our systems-approach presents a strategy for systematic analysis of the mechanisms that limit effective tumor cell killing and the identification of apoptotic vulnerabilities to overcome drug resistance in ovarian and other cancers.High-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGS-OvCa) frequently develop chemotherapy resistance. Here, the authors through a systematic analysis of proteomic and drug response data of 14 HGS-OvCa PDXs demonstrate that targeting apoptosis regulators can improve response of these tumors to inhibitors of the PI3K/mTOR pathway.

  1. Responses to the low-level-radiation controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Some data sets dealing with the hazards of low-level radiation are discussed. It is concluded that none of these reports, individually or collectively, changes appreciably or even significantly the evaluations of possible low-level radiation effects that have been made by several authoritative national and international groups

  2. Barrier response to Holocene sea-level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejrup, Morten; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter N

    Normally it is believed that sea-level rise causes coastal barrier retreat. However, sea-level is only one of the parameters determining the long term coastal development of barrier coasts. Sediment supply is an equally important determinant and may overshadow the effects of sea-level rise....... Conceptually this has been known for a long time but for the first time we can show the relative effect of these two parameters. We have studied three neighboring barrier islands in the Wadden Sea, and described their 3D morphological evolution during the last 8000 years. It appears that the barrier islands...... a much stronger component of sea-level control. The distance between the islands is only 50 km, and therefore our study shows that prediction of barrier development during a period of rising sea level may be more complicated than formerly believed....

  3. Objective Model Selection for Identifying the Human Feedforward Response in Manual Control

    OpenAIRE

    Drop, F.M.; Pool, D.M.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2017-01-01

    Realistic manual control tasks typically involve predictable target signals and random disturbances. The human controller (HC) is hypothesized to use a feedforward control strategy for target-following, in addition to feedback control for disturbance-rejection. Little is known about human feedforward control, partly because common system identification methods have difficulty in identifying whether, and (if so) how, the HC applies a feedforward strategy. In this paper, an identification proce...

  4. Identifying community thresholds for lotic benthic diatoms in response to human disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Tang, Ting; Tan, Lu; Gu, Yuan; Jiang, Wanxiang; Cai, Qinghua

    2017-06-23

    Although human disturbance indirectly influences lotic assemblages through modifying physical and chemical conditions, identifying thresholds of human disturbance would provide direct evidence for preventing anthropogenic degradation of biological conditions. In the present study, we used data obtained from tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir in China to detect effects of human disturbance on streams and to identify disturbance thresholds for benthic diatoms. Diatom species composition was significantly affected by three in-stream stressors including TP, TN and pH. Diatoms were also influenced by watershed % farmland and natural environmental variables. Considering three in-stream stressors, TP was positively influenced by % farmland and % impervious surface area (ISA). In contrast, TN and pH were principally affected by natural environmental variables. Among measured natural environmental variables, average annual air temperature, average annual precipitation, and topsoil % CaCO 3 , % gravel, and total exchangeable bases had significant effects on study streams. When effects of natural variables were accounted for, substantial compositional changes in diatoms occurred when farmland or ISA land use exceeded 25% or 0.3%, respectively. Our study demonstrated the rationale for identifying thresholds of human disturbance for lotic assemblages and addressed the importance of accounting for effects of natural factors for accurate disturbance thresholds.

  5. Item Response Theory at Subject- and Group-Level. Research Report 90-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, Hilde

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California Assessment Program. In the Netherlands, these…

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Identifies Differential Response to Pro-Oxidant Chemotherapy in a Xenograft Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry H. Landowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Induction of oxidative stress is a key component of cancer therapy. Pro-oxidant drugs have been demonstrated to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. An emerging concept is that therapeutic outcomes are dictated by the differential redox buffering reserve in subpopulations of malignant cells, indicating the need for noninvasive biomarkers of tumor redox that can be used for dose identification and response assessment in a longitudinal setting. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI enhanced with the thiol-binding contrast agent Gd-LC6-SH, and hemodynamic response imaging (HRI in combination with hypercapnia and hyperoxia were investigated as biomarkers of the pharmacodynamics of the small molecule pro-oxidant imexon (IMX. Human multiple myeloma cell lines 8226/S and an IMX-resistant variant, 8226/IM10, were established as contralateral tumors in SCID mice. T1slope, an MRI measure of the washout rate of Gd-LC6-SH, was significantly lower post-IMX therapy in 8226/S tumors compared with vehicle controls, indicating treatment-related oxidization of the tumor microenvironment, which was confirmed by analysis of tumor tissue for thiols. T1slope and ex vivo assays for thiols both indicated a more reduced microenvironment in 8226/IM10 tumors following IMX therapy. HRI with hypercapnia challenge revealed IMX inhibition of vascular dilation in 8226/S tumors but not 8226/IM10 tumors, consistent with decreased immunohistochemical staining for smooth muscle actin in treated 8226/S tumors. MRI enhanced with Gd-LC6-SH, and HRI coupled with a hypercapnic challenge provide noninvasive biomarkers of tumor response to the redox modulator imexon.

  7. Population level response of downy brome to soil growing medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) is the most ubiquitous exotic invasive weed in the Intermountain West. A major issue for management is the extreme generalist plastic nature of downy brome. We hypothesized that soil growing medium would effect all measured response variables representing some degree of...

  8. Haloperidol plasmatic levels and their clinical response to the treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabranes, J.A.; Almoguera, I.; Santos, J.L.; Prieto, P.; Ramos, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Schizophrenic patients were treated with haloperidol. Their haloperidol levels in plasma were determined with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and radioreceptor assay (RRA). The results obtained are compared with the clinical improvement. (M.C.B.)

  9. Identifying mild and severe preeclampsia in asymptomatic pregnant women by levels of cell-free fetal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tanja Roien; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Rode, Line

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate whether women who develop preeclampsia can be identified in a routine analysis when determining fetal RHD status at 25 weeks' gestation in combination with PAPP-A levels at the first-trimester combined risk assessment for Trisomy 21. STUDY DESIGN......-A was measured at 11 to 14 weeks. Information about pregnancy outcome and complications was obtained from the National Fetal Medicine Database, medical charts, and discharge letters. RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) of developing severe preeclampsia given a cffDNA level above the 90th percentile compared to cff......DNA below the 90th percentile was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-25.5). The OR of developing mild preeclampsia given a cffDNA level below the 5th percentile compared to cffDNA levels above the 5th percentile was 3.6 (95% CI, 1.1-11.7). PAPP-A levels below the 5th percentile were associated with mild...

  10. The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD200R identifies cells involved in type 2 immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars H; Martel, Britta C; Larsen, Lau F

    2017-01-01

    of this investigation was to identify surface markers associated with type 2 inflammation. METHODS: Naïve human CD4(+) T-cells were short-term activated in the presence or absence of IL-4, and analysed for expression of >300 cell-surface proteins. Ex vivo isolated PBMCs from peanut and non-allergic allergic subjects......, were stimulated (14-16h) with peanut extract to detect peanut-specific CD4(+) CD154(+) T-cells. Biopsies were obtained for transcriptomic analysis from healthy controls and patients with extrinsic or intrinsic atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. RESULTS: Expression analysis of >300 surface proteins...... and ILC2 cells and basophils. In peanut-allergic subjects the peanut-specific Th2 (CD154(+) CRTh2(+) ) cells expressed more CD200R than the non-allergen specific Th2 (CD154(-) CRTh2(+) ) cells. Moreover, co-staining of CD161 and CD200R identified peanut-specific highly differentiated IL-4(+) IL-5(+) Th2...

  11. High throughput sequencing identifies chilling responsive genes in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zeyi; Zhou, Zhilin; Li, Hongmin; Yu, Jingjing; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Tang, Zhonghou; Ma, Daifu; Zhang, Baohong; Han, Yonghua; Li, Zongyun

    2018-05-21

    Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a globally important economic food crop. It belongs to Convolvulaceae family and origins in the tropics; however, sweetpotato is sensitive to cold stress during storage. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing to investigate the sweetpotato response to chilling stress during storage. A total of 110,110 unigenes were generated via high-throughput sequencing. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis showed that 18,681 genes were up-regulated and 21,983 genes were down-regulated in low temperature condition. Many DEGs were related to the cell membrane system, antioxidant enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism, and hormone metabolism, which are potentially associated with sweetpotato resistance to low temperature. The existence of DEGs suggests a molecular basis for the biochemical and physiological consequences of sweetpotato in low temperature storage conditions. Our analysis will provide a new target for enhancement of sweetpotato cold stress tolerance in postharvest storage through genetic manipulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Seismic response of reinforced concrete frames at different damage levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-González, Merangeli; Vidot-Vega, Aidcer L.

    2017-03-01

    Performance-based seismic engineering is focused on the definition of limit states to represent different levels of damage, which can be described by material strains, drifts, displacements or even changes in dissipating properties and stiffness of the structure. This study presents a research plan to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) moment resistant frames at different performance levels established by the ASCE 41-06 seismic rehabilitation code. Sixteen RC plane moment frames with different span-to-depth ratios and three 3D RC frames were analyzed to evaluate their seismic behavior at different damage levels established by the ASCE 41-06. For each span-to-depth ratio, four different beam longitudinal reinforcement steel ratios were used that varied from 0.85 to 2.5% for the 2D frames. Nonlinear time history analyses of the frames were performed using scaled ground motions. The impact of different span-to-depth and reinforcement ratios on the damage levels was evaluated. Material strains, rotations and seismic hysteretic energy changes at different damage levels were studied.

  13. Forward genetic screens identify a role for the mitochondrial HER2 in E-2-hexenal responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Alessandra; Mirabella, Rossana; Goedhart, Joachim; de Vries, Michel; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2017-11-01

    This work adds a new player, HER2, downstream of the perception of E-2-hexenal, a green leaf volatile, and shows that E-2-hexenal specifically changes the redox status of the mitochondria. It is widely accepted that plants produce and respond to green leaf volatiles (GLVs), but the molecular components involved in transducing their perception are largely unknown. The GLV E-2-hexenal inhibits root elongation in seedlings and, using this phenotype, we isolated E-2-hexenal response (her) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Using map-based cloning we positioned the her2 mutation to the At5g63620 locus, resulting in a phenylalanine instead of serine on position 223. Knockdown and overexpression lines of HER2 confirmed the role of HER2, which encodes an oxidoreductase, in the responsiveness to E-2-hexenal. Since E-2-hexenal is a reactive electrophile species, which are known to influence the redox status of cells, we utilized redox sensitive GFP2 (roGFP2) to determine the redox status of E-2-hexenal-treated root cells. Since the signal peptide of HER2 directed mCherry to the mitochondria, we targeted the expression of roGFP2 to this organelle besides the cytosol. E-2-hexenal specifically induced a change in the redox status in the mitochondria. We did not see a difference in the redox status in her2 compared to wild-type Arabidopsis. Still, the mitochondrial redox status did not change with Z-3-hexenol, another abundant GLV. These results indicate that HER2 is involved in transducing the perception of E-2-hexenal, which changes the redox status of the mitochondria.

  14. Learning to attain an advanced level of professional responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Maten-Speksnijder, Ada; Grypdonck, Mieke; Pool, Aart; Meurs, Pauline; Van Staa, AnneLoes

    2015-08-01

    After graduation, nurse practitioner students are expected to be capable of providing complex, evidence-based nursing care independently, combined with standardized medical care. The students who follow work-study programs have to develop their competencies in a healthcare environment dominated by efficiency policies. This study aims to explore nurse practitioner students' perceptions of their professional responsibility for patient care. This qualitative interpretative study entails a content analysis of 46 reflective case studies written by nurse practitioner students. The students felt responsible for the monitoring of patients' health status, attending to psychosocial problems, emphasizing compliance, and optimizing the family's role as informal caregivers. At the same time, students struggled to understand the complexities of their patients' needs, and they had difficulty applying their knowledge and skills to complex medical, psychological, and social problems. The students' perceptions of their new responsibility were characterized by a strong focus on curative care, while psychosocial components of health and illness concerns were often overlooked. The students experienced difficulties in meeting the criteria of advanced practice nursing described in the Dutch competency framework. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Deelen, Joris; Isaacs, Aaron; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mbarek, Hamdi; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Trompet, Stella; Postmus, Iris; Verweij, Niek; van Enckevort, David J.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; White, Charles C.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Bartz, Traci M.; Manichaikul, Ani; Joshi, Peter K.; Peloso, Gina M.; Deelen, Patrick; van Dijk, Freerk; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Francioli, Laurent C.; Menelaou, Androniki; Pulit, Sara L.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Uh, Hae-Won; Trochet, Holly; Hocking, Lynne J.; Porteous, David J.; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Bis, Joshua C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Campbell, Harry; Duan, Qing; Lange, Leslie A.; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F.; Rich, Stephen S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Stott, David J.; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Neerincx, Pieter B.T.; Elbers, Clara C.; Francesco Palamara, Pier; Pe'er, Itsik; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; van Oven, Mannis; Vermaat, Martijn; Li, Mingkun; Laros, Jeroen F.J.; Stoneking, Mark; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Byelas, Heorhiy; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Dijkstra, Martijn; Amin, Najaf; Joeri van der Velde, K.; van Setten, Jessica; Kattenberg, Mathijs; van Schaik, Barbera D.C.; Bot, Jan; Nijman, Isaäc J.; Mei, Hailiang; Koval, Vyacheslav; Ye, Kai; Lameijer, Eric-Wubbo; Moed, Matthijs H.; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Sohail, Mashaal; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Marschall, Tobias; Schönhuth, Alexander; Guryev, Victor; Suchiman, H. Eka D.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Platteel, Mathieu; Pitts, Steven J.; Potluri, Shobha; Cox, David R.; Li, Qibin; Li, Yingrui; Du, Yuanping; Chen, Ruoyan; Cao, Hongzhi; Li, Ning; Cao, Sujie; Wang, Jun; Bovenberg, Jasper A.; Jukema, J. Wouter; van der Harst, Pim; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Eline Slagboom, P.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Variants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (~35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference panel created by the Genome of the Netherlands Project and perform association testing with blood lipid levels. We report the discovery of five novel associations at four loci (P value <6.61 × 10−4), including a rare missense variant in ABCA6 (rs77542162, p.Cys1359Arg, frequency 0.034), which is predicted to be deleterious. The frequency of this ABCA6 variant is 3.65-fold increased in the Dutch and its effect (βLDL-C=0.135, βTC=0.140) is estimated to be very similar to those observed for single variants in well-known lipid genes, such as LDLR. PMID:25751400

  16. Child-Level Predictors of Responsiveness to Evidence-Based Mathematics Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R; Cirino, Paul T; Malone, Amelia S

    2017-07-01

    We identified child-level predictors of responsiveness to 2 types of mathematics (calculation and word-problem) intervention among 2nd-grade children with mathematics difficulty. Participants were 250 children in 107 classrooms in 23 schools pretested on mathematics and general cognitive measures and posttested on mathematics measures. We assigned classrooms randomly assigned to calculation intervention, word-problem intervention, or business-as-usual control. Intervention lasted 17 weeks. Path analyses indicated that scores on working memory and language comprehension assessments moderated responsiveness to calculation intervention. No moderators were identified for responsiveness to word-problem intervention. Across both intervention groups and the control group, attentive behavior predicted both outcomes. Initial calculation skill predicted the calculation outcome, and initial language comprehension predicted word-problem outcomes. These results indicate that screening for calculation intervention should include a focus on working memory, language comprehension, attentive behavior, and calculations. Screening for word-problem intervention should focus on attentive behavior and word problems.

  17. Identifying long-term memory B-cells in vaccinated children despite waning antibody levels specific for Bordetella pertussis proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H; Oztürk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G H; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-02-04

    Whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. Since the 1950s in developed countries pertussis vaccinations are included in the national immunization program. However, antibody levels rapidly wane after both whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccination. Therefore protection against pertussis may depend largely on long-term B- and T-cell immunities. We investigated long-term pertussis-specific memory B-cell responses in children who were primed at infant age with the Dutch wP-vaccine (ISRCTN65428640). Purified B-cells were characterized by FACS-analysis and after polyclonal stimulation memory B-cells were detected by ELISPOT-assays specific for pertussis toxin, filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and tetanus. In addition, plasma IgG levels directed to the same antigens were measured by a fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassay. Two and 3 years after wP priming as well as 2 and 5 years after the aP booster at the age of 4, low plasma IgG levels to the pertussis proteins were found. At the same time, however pertussis protein-specific memory B-cells could be detected and their number increased with age. The number of tetanus-specific memory B-cells was similar in all age groups, whereas IgG-tetanus levels were high 2 years after tetanus booster compared to pre- and 5 years post-booster levels. This study shows the presence of long-term pertussis protein-specific memory B-cells in children despite waning antibody levels after vaccination, which suggests that memory B-cells in addition to antibodies may contribute to protection against pertussis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly identified power-holders feel responsible: The interplay between social identification and social power within groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Annika; Sassenberg, Kai; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan; de Wit, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Power relations affect dynamics within groups. Power-holders' decisions not only determine their personal outcomes, but also the outcomes of others in the group that they control. Yet, power-holders often tend to overlook this responsibility to take care of collective interests. The present research investigated how social identification - with the group to which both the powerful and the powerless belong - alters perceived responsibility among power-holders (and the powerless). Combining research on social power and social identity, we argue that power-holders perceive more responsibility than the powerless when strongly (rather than when weakly) identifying with the group. A study among leaders and an experiment supported this, highlighting that although power-holders are often primarily concerned about personal outcomes, they do feel responsible for considering others' interests when these others are included in the (social) self. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Response of Anopheles gambiae detoxification enzymes to levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the sampled larvae were reared to pupae and adult life stages. Levels of 7 physical (pH, temperature, conductivity, transparency, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen and biological oxygen demand) and 6 chemical (sulphates, phosphates, nitrites, nitrates, carbon content and oil and grease) environmental ...

  20. Dynamics in Responsible Land Administration; Change at Five Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, Jaap; de Vries, W.T.; Bennett, Rohan

    2018-01-01

    Fundamentally, the term 'administration' suggests bureaucratic, controlled and steady, if not slow, paces of change. However the relations between people and land, that land administration attempts to capture, are the very opposite and are changing rapidly. At all levels of abstraction, land

  1. Individual and population-level responses to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben P; McKeown, Niall J; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Bertolini, Camilla; Foggo, Andy; Graham, Helen; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Milazzo, Marco; Shaw, Paul W; Small, Daniel P; Moore, Pippa J

    2016-01-29

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have detrimental effects on many marine organisms and ecological processes. Despite growing evidence for direct impacts on specific species, few studies have simultaneously considered the effects of ocean acidification on individuals (e.g. consequences for energy budgets and resource partitioning) and population level demographic processes. Here we show that ocean acidification increases energetic demands on gastropods resulting in altered energy allocation, i.e. reduced shell size but increased body mass. When scaled up to the population level, long-term exposure to ocean acidification altered population demography, with evidence of a reduction in the proportion of females in the population and genetic signatures of increased variance in reproductive success among individuals. Such increased variance enhances levels of short-term genetic drift which is predicted to inhibit adaptation. Our study indicates that even against a background of high gene flow, ocean acidification is driving individual- and population-level changes that will impact eco-evolutionary trajectories.

  2. Reactive inspection response of NRC Region III to potential technical deficiencies identified in recent Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    In order to effectively meet its responsibility to protect the public health and safety, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) nuclear power plant licensing and inspection programs respond to potential technical deficiencies identified by conference and professional society meeting papers when deemed appropriate. The NRC staff's response mechanisms for such technical deficiencies include: generic letters, Bulletins, Information Notices, Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800) revisions, docketed Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) questions, special studies, special (reactive) inspection, and inspection program revisions. This paper describes reactive inspection efforts by Region III in response to potential technical deficiencies identified in recent air cleaning conference papers, including: post-accident effluent sample line deposition losses; failure to implement good engineering practices in the design, construction, and testing of Nuclear Air Treatment Systems (NATS); filter bypass via filter housing drain lines; spinster carbon degradation; use of silicone sealants and other temporary patching material in NATS; filter housing fire protection deluge system problems; lack of charcoal batch traceability; Quality Assurance records problems involving equipment, vendor, filter, and personnel qualifications; inadequate ANSI/ASME N510 acceptance criteria and tests; and failure to adequately demonstrate control room habitability per 10 CFR 50, Appendix A, General Design Criterion-19. Region III inspections indicate that many of these deficiencies appear to be prevalent. Inspection findings and utility responses to the findings are discussed. NRC Region III and Headquarters programmatic reactions to the identified generic problem areas are also discussed

  3. Integrating plant ecological responses to climate extremes from individual to ecosystem levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Andrew J; Smith, Melinda D

    2017-06-19

    Climate extremes will elicit responses from the individual to the ecosystem level. However, only recently have ecologists begun to synthetically assess responses to climate extremes across multiple levels of ecological organization. We review the literature to examine how plant responses vary and interact across levels of organization, focusing on how individual, population and community responses may inform ecosystem-level responses in herbaceous and forest plant communities. We report a high degree of variability at the individual level, and a consequential inconsistency in the translation of individual or population responses to directional changes in community- or ecosystem-level processes. The scaling of individual or population responses to community or ecosystem responses is often predicated upon the functional identity of the species in the community, in particular, the dominant species. Furthermore, the reported stability in plant community composition and functioning with respect to extremes is often driven by processes that operate at the community level, such as species niche partitioning and compensatory responses during or after the event. Future research efforts would benefit from assessing ecological responses across multiple levels of organization, as this will provide both a holistic and mechanistic understanding of ecosystem responses to increasing climatic variability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Transcriptional profiling identifies physicochemical properties of nanomaterials that are determinants of the in vivo pulmonary response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halappanavar, Sabina; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Decan, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    meta-analysis showed that the combination of smaller size, large deposited surface area, and surface amidation contributes to TiO2NP gene expression response. Embedding of TiO2NP in paint dampens the overall transcriptional effects. The magnitude of the expression changes associated with pulmonary...... inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were confirmed by ELISA. The data were collapsed to 659 differentially expressed genes (P ≤ 0.05; fold change ≥ 1.5). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of these genes revealed that TiO2NPs clustered mainly by postexposure timepoint followed by particle type. A pathway-based...... in paint matrices. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed via single intratracheal instillations to free forms of TiO2NPs (10, 20.6, or 38 nm in diameter) with different surface coatings, or TiO2NPs embedded in paint matrices. Controls were exposed to dispersion medium devoid of NPs. TiO2NPs were characterized...

  5. A macroepigenetic approach to identify factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufault Renee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of children ages 6 to 21 in the United States receiving special education services under the autism disability category increased 91% between 2005 to 2010 while the number of children receiving special education services overall declined by 5%. The demand for special education services continues to rise in disability categories associated with pervasive developmental disorders. Neurodevelopment can be adversely impacted when gene expression is altered by dietary transcription factors, such as zinc insufficiency or deficiency, or by exposure to toxic substances found in our environment, such as mercury or organophosphate pesticides. Gene expression patterns differ geographically between populations and within populations. Gene variants of paraoxonase-1 are associated with autism in North America, but not in Italy, indicating regional specificity in gene-environment interactions. In the current review, we utilize a novel macroepigenetic approach to compare variations in diet and toxic substance exposure between these two geographical populations to determine the likely factors responsible for the autism epidemic in the United States.

  6. Development of national level preparedness for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    In India, DAE being the nodal agency for technical support for response to any radiation emergency nuclear disaster and various nuclear and radiological emergency scenarios and their impacts are identified. To reduce their consequences development of methodologies for detection and quick impact assessment, trained First Responders and Quick Response Teams (QRTs), twenty two DAE Emergency Response Centers, mobile and aerial radiation monitoring systems, aerial and ground based validation trials etc. are carried out. Study related to radiological threats and simulated RDD experiments conducted using stable isotopes indicates that radiation levels for distances more than 50 m will not be very high as hotspots may be restricted to nearby area. The biggest challenge from an RDD explosion will be handling of the radioactive contamination and 'fear factor' compared to radiation exposure to public or First Responders. Level and pattern of radioactive contamination on ground following releases during nuclear accidents and minimum strength of orphan radioactive sources to be detected are taken into account for optimizing systems and monitoring methodology required for emergency preparedness

  7. Survey of innate immune responses to Burkholderia pseudomallei in human blood identifies a central role for lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narisara Chantratita

    Full Text Available B. pseudomallei is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the tropical infection melioidosis. In northeast Thailand, mortality from melioidosis approaches 40%. As exemplified by the lipopolysaccharide-Toll-like receptor 4 interaction, innate immune responses to invading bacteria are precipitated by activation of host pathogen recognition receptors by pathogen associated molecular patterns. Human melioidosis is characterized by up-regulation of pathogen recognition receptors and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. In contrast to many gram-negative pathogens, however, the lipopolysaccharide of B. pseudomallei is considered only weakly inflammatory. We conducted a study in 300 healthy Thai subjects to investigate the ex vivo human blood response to various bacterial pathogen associated molecular patterns, including lipopolysaccharide from several bacteria, and to two heat-killed B. pseudomallei isolates. We measured cytokine levels after stimulation of fresh whole blood with a panel of stimuli. We found that age, sex, and white blood cell count modulate the innate immune response to B. pseudomallei. We further observed that, in comparison to other stimuli, the innate immune response to B. pseudomallei is most highly correlated with the response to lipopolysaccharide. The magnitude of cytokine responses induced by B. pseudomallei lipopolysaccharide was significantly greater than those induced by lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli and comparable to many responses induced by lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella minnesota despite lower amounts of lipid A in the B. pseudomallei lipopolysaccharide preparation. In human monocytes stimulated with B. pseudomallei, addition of polymyxin B or a TLR4/MD-2 neutralizing antibody inhibited the majority of TNF-α production. Challenging existing views, our data indicate that the innate immune response to B. pseudomallei in human blood is largely driven by lipopolysaccharide, and that the response to B

  8. Identifying the optical phenomena responsible for the blue appearance of veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Spencer R.; Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.

    2017-09-01

    Blue in nature is often associated with beauty. It can be observed all around us, from captivating blue eyes to iridescent blue butterfly wings. While colours in nature are often the result of pigmentation, the majority of natural blue is produced by structural coloration. The colour of the sky, for example, is primarily caused by Rayleigh scattering. In this paper, we examine a single occurrence of blue in nature, specifically the blue appearance of veins near the surface of human skin. The most comprehensive investigation of this coloration to date showed that it arises from a combination of the scattering properties of skin and the absorptance of venous blood. However, that work only considered broad optical properties of these mediums and did not identify the source of the colour. In this paper, we employ in silico experiments, performed using first-principles light interaction models for skin and blood, to investigate the net effect of skin and vein optical properties on their aggregate reflectance across the visible range. We show that the contribution of skin to the distinct appearance of veins primarily results from Rayleigh scattering occurring within the papillary dermis, a sublayer of the skin. The results of this paper, in addition to addressing an old open scientific question, may have practical implications for performing non-invasive measurements of the physiological properties of skin and blood.

  9. Global metabolic analyses identify key differences in metabolite levels between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maifiah, Mohd Hafidz Mahamad; Cheah, Soon-Ee; Johnson, Matthew D; Han, Mei-Ling; Boyce, John D; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Forrest, Alan; Kaye, Keith S; Hertzog, Paul; Purcell, Anthony W; Song, Jiangning; Velkov, Tony; Creek, Darren J; Li, Jian

    2016-02-29

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii presents a global medical crisis and polymyxins are used as the last-line therapy. This study aimed to identify metabolic differences between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant A. baumannii using untargeted metabolomics. The metabolome of each A. baumannii strain was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate and univariate statistics and pathway analyses were employed to elucidate metabolic differences between the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. Significant differences were identified between the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) deficient, polymyxin-resistant 19606R showed perturbation in specific amino acid and carbohydrate metabolites, particularly pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Levels of nucleotides were lower in the LPS-deficient 19606R. Furthermore, 19606R exhibited a shift in its glycerophospholipid profile towards increased abundance of short-chain lipids compared to the parent polymyxin-susceptible ATCC 19606. In contrast, in a pair of clinical isolates 03-149.1 (polymyxin-susceptible) and 03-149.2 (polymyxin-resistant, due to modification of lipid A), minor metabolic differences were identified. Notably, peptidoglycan biosynthesis metabolites were significantly depleted in both of the aforementioned polymyxin-resistant strains. This is the first comparative untargeted metabolomics study to show substantial differences in the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii.

  10. Using cluster analysis to identify patterns in students’ responses to contextually different conceptual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stewart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the evolution of student responses to seven contextually different versions of two Force Concept Inventory questions in an introductory physics course at the University of Arkansas. The consistency in answering the closely related questions evolved little over the seven-question exam. A model for the state of student knowledge involving the probability of selecting one of the multiple-choice answers was developed. Criteria for using clustering algorithms to extract model parameters were explored and it was found that the overlap between the probability distributions of the model vectors was an important parameter in characterizing the cluster models. The course data were then clustered and the extracted model showed that students largely fit into two groups both pre- and postinstruction: one that answered all questions correctly with high probability and one that selected the distracter representing the same misconception with high probability. For the course studied, 14% of the students were left with persistent misconceptions post instruction on a static force problem and 30% on a dynamic Newton’s third law problem. These students selected the answer representing the predominant misconception slightly more consistently postinstruction, indicating that the course studied had been ineffective at moving this subgroup of students nearer a Newtonian force concept and had instead moved them slightly farther away from a correct conceptual understanding of these two problems. The consistency in answering pairs of problems with varied physical contexts is shown to be an important supplementary statistic to the score on the problems and suggests that the inclusion of such problem pairs in future conceptual inventories would be efficacious. Multiple, contextually varied questions further probe the structure of students’ knowledge. To allow working instructors to make use of the additional insight gained from cluster analysis, it

  11. Identifying the Role of E2 Domains on Alphavirus Neutralization and Protective Immune Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Weger-Lucarelli

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV and other alphaviruses are the etiologic agents of numerous diseases in both humans and animals. Despite this, the viral mediators of protective immunity against alphaviruses are poorly understood, highlighted by the lack of a licensed human vaccine for any member of this virus genus. The alphavirus E2, the receptor-binding envelope protein, is considered to be the predominant target of the protective host immune response. Although envelope protein domains have been studied for vaccine and neutralization in flaviviruses, their role in alphaviruses is less characterized. Here, we describe the role of the alphavirus E2 domains in neutralization and protection through the use of chimeric viruses.Four chimeric viruses were constructed in which individual E2 domains of CHIKV were replaced with the corresponding domain from Semliki Forest virus (SFV (ΔDomA/ΔDomB/ΔDomC/ ΔDomA+B. Vaccination studies in mice (both live and inactivated virus revealed that domain B was the primary determinant of neutralization. Neutralization studies with CHIKV immune serum from humans were consistent with mouse studies, as ΔDomB was poorly neutralized.Using chimeric viruses, it was determined that the alphavirus E2 domain B was the critical target of neutralizing antibodies in both mice and humans. Therefore, chimeric viruses may have more relevance for vaccine discovery than peptide-based approaches, which only detect linear epitopes. This study provides new insight into the role of alphavirus E2 domains on neutralization determinants and may be useful for the design of novel therapeutic technologies.

  12. Identifying clinically meaningful symptom response cut-off values on the SANS in predominant negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The treatment and measurement of negative symptoms are currently at issue in schizophrenia, but the clinical meaning of symptom severity and change is unclear. To offer a clinically meaningful interpretation of severity and change scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Patients were intention-to-treat participants (n=383) in two double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that compared amisulpride with placebo for the treatment of predominant negative symptoms. Equipercentile linking was used to examine extrapolation from (a) CGI-S to SANS severity ratings, and (b) CGI-I to SANS percentage change (n=383). Linking was conducted at baseline, 8-14 days, 28-30 days, and 56-60 days of the trials. Across visits, CGI-S ratings of 'not ill' linked to SANS scores of 0-13, and ranged to 'extreme' ratings that linked to SANS scores of 102-105. The relationship between the CGI-S and the SANS severity scores assumed a linear trend (1=0-13, 2=15-56, 3=37-61, 4=49-66, 5=63-75, 6=79-89, 7=102-105). Similarly the relationship between CGI-I ratings and SANS percentage change followed a linear trend. For instance, CGI-I ratings of 'very much improved' were linked to SANS percent changes of -90 to -67, 'much improved' to -50 to -42, and 'minimally improved' to -21 to -13. The current results uniquely contribute to the debate surrounding negative symptoms by providing clinical meaning to SANS severity and change scores and so offer direction regarding clinically meaningful response cut-off scores to guide treatment targets of predominant negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C D; Rogers, K; McKee, K L; Lovelock, C E; Mendelssohn, I A; Saintilan, N

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  14. Income Levels and Response to Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Núñez, Carla; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-06-07

    Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating many drug addictions, including nicotine. However, one of the most commonly perceived limitations with regard to its dissemination into community settings is whether this protocol could be equally effective for treating patients across different income levels. This study aimed to examine whether individuals' income levels affect treatment success in a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that included a voucher-based CM protocol for smoking cessation. A total of 92 treatment-seeking smokers in a community setting were randomly assigned to a CBT group (N = 49) or to a CBT plus CM group (N = 43). The CM procedure included a voucher program through which smoking abstinence was reinforced on a schedule of escalating magnitude of reinforcement with a reset contingency. We analyzed the impact of self-reported monthly income, alone and in combination with treatment condition, on short-term (treatment retention) and long-term (self-reported number of days of continuous smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up) results. Income had no effect on treatment retention and continuous abstinence outcomes at 6-month follow-up in either treatment condition. Treatment modality emerged as the only significant predictor of treatment success. Our findings suggest that treatment-seeking smokers from the general population respond equally well to CM regardless of their income levels. The results of this randomized controlled trial support the generalizability of this evidenced-based program into community settings.

  15. Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, CD; Rogers, K.; Mckee, Karen L.; Lovelock, CE; Mendelssohn, IA; Saintilan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions influence mangrove distributions, primarily related to elevation and hydroperiod; this review considers how these adjust through time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks; tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon, but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas Surface Elevation Table-Marker Horizon measurements (SET-MH) provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  16. Chemoreceptor Responsiveness at Sea Level Does Not Predict the Pulmonary Pressure Response to High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoiland, Ryan L; Foster, Glen E; Donnelly, Joseph; Stembridge, Mike; Willie, Chris K; Smith, Kurt J; Lewis, Nia C; Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, Jim D; Yeoman, David J; Thomas, Kate N; Day, Trevor A; Tymko, Mike M; Burgess, Keith R; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-07-01

    The hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) at sea level (SL) is moderately predictive of the change in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) to acute normobaric hypoxia. However, because of progressive changes in the chemoreflex control of breathing and acid-base balance at high altitude (HA), HVR at SL may not predict PASP at HA. We hypothesized that resting oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo₂) at HA would correlate better than HVR at SL with PASP at HA. In 20 participants at SL, we measured normobaric, isocapnic HVR (L/min · -%Spo₂⁻¹) and resting PASP using echocardiography. Both resting Spo₂ and PASP measures were repeated on day 2 (n = 10), days 4 to 8 (n = 12), and 2 to 3 weeks (n = 8) after arrival at 5,050 m. These data were also collected at 5,050 m in life-long HA residents (ie, Sherpa [n = 21]). Compared with SL, Spo₂ decreased from 98.6% to 80.5% (P HVR at SL was not related to Spo₂ or PASP at any time point at 5,050 m (all P > .05). Sherpa had lower PASP (P .50), there was a weak relationship in the Sherpa (R² = 0.16, P = .07). We conclude that neither HVR at SL nor resting Spo₂ at HA correlates with elevations in PASP at HA.

  17. Intraguild Predation Responses in Two Aphidophagous Coccinellids Identify Differences among Juvenile Stages and Aphid Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondoni, Gabriele; Ielo, Fulvio; Ricci, Carlo; Conti, Eric

    2014-12-08

    (1) Intraguild predation (IGP) can occur among aphidophagous predators thus reducing their effectiveness in controlling crop pests. Among ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata L. and Hippodamia variegata Goeze are the most effective predators upon Aphis gossypii Glov., which is an economically important pest of melon. Understanding their likelihood to engage in reciprocal predation is a key point for conservation of biological control. Here, we aim to investigate, under laboratory conditions, the level of IGP between the two above mentioned aphidophagous species. (2) Fourth-instars of the two species were isolated in petri dishes with combinations of different stages of the heterospecific ladybird and different densities of A. gossypii. The occurrence of IGP events was recorded after six hours. (3) C. septempunctata predated H. variegata at a higher rate than vice versa (70% vs. 43% overall). Higher density of the aphid or older juvenile stage of the IG-prey (22% of fourth instars vs. 74% of eggs and second instars) reduces the likelihood of predation. (4) To our knowledge, IGP between C. septempunctata and H. variegata was investigated for the first time. Results represent a baseline, necessary to predict the likelihood of IGP occurrence in the field.

  18. Epistasis between dopamine regulating genes identifies a nonlinear response of the human hippocampus during memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Alessandro; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Blasi, Giuseppe; Sambataro, Fabio; Caforio, Grazia; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Latorre, Valeria; Rampino, Antonio; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Romano, Raffaella; Douzgou, Sofia; Popolizio, Teresa; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Nardini, Marcello; Weinberger, Daniel R; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2008-08-01

    Dopamine modulation of neuronal activity in prefrontal cortex maps to an inverted U-curve. Dopamine is also an important factor in regulation of hippocampal mediated memory processing. Here, we investigated the effect of genetic variation of dopamine inactivation via catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and the dopamine transporter (DAT) on hippocampal activity in healthy humans during different memory conditions. Using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 82 subjects matched for a series of demographic and genetic variables, we studied the effect of the COMT valine (Val)(158)methionine (Met) and the DAT 3' variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms on function of the hippocampus during encoding of recognition memory and during working memory. Our results consistently demonstrated a double dissociation so that DAT 9-repeat carrier alleles modulated activity in the hippocampus in the exact opposite direction of DAT 10/10-repeat alleles based on COMT Val(158)Met genotype during different memory conditions. Similar results were evident in ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that genetically determined dopamine signaling during memory processing maps to a nonlinear relationship also in the hippocampus. Our data also demonstrate in human brain epistasis of two genes implicated in dopamine signaling on brain activity during different memory conditions.

  19. Gravimetric phenotyping of whole plant transpiration responses to atmospheric vapour pressure deficit identifies genotypic variation in water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Annette C; Dodd, Ian C; Rothwell, Shane A; Jones, Ros; Tardieu, Francois; Draye, Xavier; Davies, William J

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in rapidly identifying genotypes with improved water use efficiency, exemplified by the development of whole plant phenotyping platforms that automatically measure plant growth and water use. Transpirational responses to atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and whole plant water use efficiency (WUE, defined as the accumulation of above ground biomass per unit of water used) were measured in 100 maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. Using a glasshouse based phenotyping platform with naturally varying VPD (1.5-3.8kPa), a 2-fold variation in WUE was identified in well-watered plants. Regression analysis of transpiration versus VPD under these conditions, and subsequent whole plant gas exchange at imposed VPDs (0.8-3.4kPa) showed identical responses in specific genotypes. Genotype response of transpiration versus VPD fell into two categories: 1) a linear increase in transpiration rate with VPD with low (high WUE) or high (low WUE) transpiration rate at all VPDs, 2) a non-linear response with a pronounced change point at low VPD (high WUE) or high VPD (low WUE). In the latter group, high WUE genotypes required a significantly lower VPD before transpiration was restricted, and had a significantly lower rate of transpiration in response to VPD after this point, when compared to low WUE genotypes. Change point values were significantly positively correlated with stomatal sensitivity to VPD. A change point in stomatal response to VPD may explain why some genotypes show contradictory WUE rankings according to whether they are measured under glasshouse or field conditions. Furthermore, this novel use of a high throughput phenotyping platform successfully reproduced the gas exchange responses of individuals measured in whole plant chambers, accelerating the identification of plants with high WUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumer segmentation based on the level of environmental responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ham

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless, there is an environmentally responsible segment of consumers in the market. However, with an increasing number of suppliers entering the green market, it is no longer sufficient to be aware of this fact. What is needed now are complex strategies of segmentation, targeting and positioning. The aim of this paper was to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key concepts related to the green consumer segment and to help create a clearer picture of Croatia’s green consumers by gathering secondary data from the available literature, previous research and primary data from own research. Primary research was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire on a sample of 552 respondents. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, each measuring, respectively, attitudes, knowledge and activities undertaken. After the segmentation (three segments: green, neutral and brown consumers, a chi-square test was used in an attempt to prove statistically significant differences when comparing the given segment structure with the respondents’ demographic characteristics. The results of this research describe the average green consumer in the Republic of Croatia as a person who is 55 and older, with higher or university education, who is married, who responds to the advertising claims about eco-friendliness of products and is influenced by those claims, who occasionally or frequently makes purchasing decisions and shows readiness to pay a 20 percent mark-up for an environmentally friendly product.

  1. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained during...

  2. Low-level wind response to mesoscale pressure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Physick, W. L.

    1983-09-01

    Observations are presented which show a strong correlation between low-level wind behaviour (e.g., rotation near the surface) and the passage of mesoscale pressure systems. The latter are associated with frontal transition zones, are dominated by a pressure-jump line and a mesoscale high pressure area, and produce locally large horizontal pressure gradients. The wind observations are simulated by specifying a time sequence of perturbation pressure gradient and subsequently solving the vertically-integrated momentum equations with appropriate initial conditions. Very good agreement is found between observed and calculated winds; in particular, (i) a 360 ° rotation in wind on passage of the mesoscale high; (ii) wind-shift lines produced dynamically by the pressure-jump line; (iii) rapid linear increase in wind speed on passage of the pressure jump.

  3. Ecosystem Responses To Plant Phenology Across Scales And Trophic Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, D.; Sexton, J. O.; Nagol, J. R.; Ironside, K.; Choate, D.; Longshore, K.; Edwards, T., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Plant phenology in arid and semi-arid ecoregions is constrained by water availability and governs the life history characteristics of primary and secondary consumers. We related the behavior, demography, and distribution of mammalian herbivores and their principal predator to remotely sensed vegetation and climatological indices across the western United States for the period 2000-2014. Across scales, terrain and topographic position moderates the effects of climatological drought on primary productivity, resulting in differential susceptibility among plant functional types to water stress. At broad scales, herbivores tie parturition to moist sites during the period of maximum increase in local forage production. Consequently, juvenile mortality is highest in regions of extreme phenological variability. Although decoupled from primary production by one or more trophic levels, carnivore home range size and density is negatively correlated to plant productivity and growing season length. At the finest scales, predation influences the behavior of herbivore prey through compromised habitat selection, in which maternal females trade nutritional benefits of high plant biomass for reduced mortality risk associated with increased visibility. Climate projections for the western United States predict warming combined with shifts in the timing and form of precipitation. Our analyses suggest that these changes will propagate through trophic levels as increased phenological variability and shifts in plant distributions, larger consumer home ranges, altered migration behavior, and generally higher volatility in wildlife populations. Combined with expansion and intensification of human land use across the region, these changes will likely have economic implications stemming from increased human-wildlife conflict (e.g., crop damage, vehicle collisions) and changes in wildlife-related tourism.

  4. Global mapping of protein phosphorylation events identifies novel signalling hubs mediating fatty acid starvation responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pultz, Dennis; Bennetzen, Martin; Rødkær, Steven Vestergaard

    2011-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends the life span of multiple species, ranging from single-celled organisms like yeast to mammals. This increase in longevity by dietary restriction is coupled to profound beneficial effects on age-related pathology. Despite the number of studies on DR...... and the physiological changes DR induces, only little is known about the genetics and signalling networks, which regulate the DR response. We have recently shown that inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces autophagy mediated by TORC1 signalling and affects life span. In the present study...... in a temporal manner in response to inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by cerulenin. By in silico analysis of these phosphorylation events, we have identified the major downstream regulated processes and signalling networks mediating the cellular response to fatty acid starvation. The analysis further...

  5. Identifying the Factors Influence Turkish Deposit Banks to Join Corporate Social Responsibility Activities by Using Panel Probit Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yuksel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influencing factors of the banks to join corporate social responsibility activities. Within this scope, annual data of 23 deposit banks in Turkey for the periods between 2005 and 2015 was taken into the consideration. In addition to this situation, panel probit model was used in the analysis so as to achieve this objective. According to the results of the analysis, it was determined that there is a negative relationship between CSR activities and nonperforming loans ratio. This situation shows that banks do not prefer to make social responsibility activities in case of higher financial losses. In addition to this situation, it was also identified that there is a positive relationship between return on asset and corporate social responsibility activities of the banks. In other words, it can be understood that Turkish deposit banks, which have higher profitability, joint more CSR activities in comparison with others.

  6. A genome-wide association study identifies rs2000999 as a strong genetic determinant of circulating haptoglobin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Froguel

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin is an acute phase inflammatory marker. Its main function is to bind hemoglobin released from erythrocytes to aid its elimination, and thereby haptoglobin prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species in the blood. Haptoglobin levels have been repeatedly associated with a variety of inflammation-linked infectious and non-infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C, diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis, and acute myocardial infarction. However, a comprehensive genetic assessment of the inter-individual variability of circulating haptoglobin levels has not been conducted so far.We used a genome-wide association study initially conducted in 631 French children followed by a replication in three additional European sample sets and we identified a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2000999 located in the Haptoglobin gene (HP as a strong genetic predictor of circulating Haptoglobin levels (P(overall = 8.1 × 10(-59, explaining 45.4% of its genetic variability (11.8% of Hp global variance. The functional relevance of rs2000999 was further demonstrated by its specific association with HP mRNA levels (β = 0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.007. Finally, SNP rs2000999 was associated with decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 8,789 European children (P(total cholesterol = 0.002 and P(LDL = 0.0008.Given the central position of haptoglobin in many inflammation-related metabolic pathways, the relevance of rs2000999 genotyping when evaluating haptoglobin concentration should be further investigated in order to improve its diagnostic/therapeutic and/or prevention impact.

  7. Preclinical studies identify non-apoptotic low-level caspase-3 as therapeutic target in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Luyet

    Full Text Available The majority of pemphigus vulgaris (PV patients suffer from a live-threatening loss of intercellular adhesion between keratinocytes (acantholysis. The disease is caused by auto-antibodies that bind to desmosomal cadherins desmoglein (Dsg 3 or Dsg3 and Dsg1 in mucous membranes and skin. A currently unresolved controversy in PV is whether apoptosis is involved in the pathogenic process. The objective of this study was to perform preclinical studies to investigate apoptotic pathway activation in PV pathogenesis with the goal to assess its potential for clinical therapy. For this purpose, we investigated mouse and human skin keratinocyte cultures treated with PV antibodies (the experimental Dsg3 monospecific antibody AK23 or PV patients IgG, PV mouse models (passive transfer of AK23 or PVIgG into adult and neonatal mice as well as PV patients' biopsies (n=6. A combination of TUNEL assay, analyses of membrane integrity, early apoptotic markers such as cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP and the collapse of actin cytoskeleton failed to provide evidence for apoptosis in PV pathogenesis. However, the in vitro and in vivo PV models, allowing to monitor progression of lesion formation, revealed an early, transient and low-level caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition confirmed the functional implication of caspase-3 in major events in PV such as shedding of Dsg3, keratin retraction, proliferation including c-Myc induction, p38MAPK activation and acantholysis. Together, these data identify low-level caspase-3 activation downstream of disrupted Dsg3 trans- or cis-adhesion as a major event in PV pathogenesis that is non-synonymous with apoptosis and represents, unlike apoptotic components, a promising target for clinical therapy. At a broader level, these results posit that an impairment of adhesive functions in concert with low-level, non-lethal caspase-3 activation can evoke profound cellular changes which may be of relevance for other

  8. IDENTIFYING AND SELECTING THE STRATEGIC PROCESS USING THE CROSS-EFFICIENCY APPROACH BASED ON SATISFACTION LEVEL AND EXTENDDED BALANCED SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Bazrkar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The strategy is a macro and strategic plan, and will only be implemented when it is defined in the form of various projects. In order to exploit the benefits of lean six sigma projects, these projects should be in line with the strategic goals of the organization. Organizations should select projects which are compatible with the organization overall goals and fulfill the strategic requirements of the organization. The purpose of this study is to identify the strategic process among the bank facility processes to use it in lean six sigma methodology in order to improve process performance and efficiency using a combination of cross-efficiency and extended balanced scorecard methods. In the first step, the criteria for selecting the strategic process were identified using the six measures of the balanced scorecard method. In the second step, after collecting information using the cross-efficiency model based on satisfaction level, the bank facility processes are ranked based on the efficiency score. The results show that the ranking of the processes under consideration is carried out without any interference, and one of the processes (process 3 is considered as the strategic process to use in the six sigma methodology.

  9. Barriers and strategies for identifying and managing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in levels of preventing, screening, and treating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami Aghdash

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are of the main causes of mortality in the world and impose a heavy economic, social, and health burden on society. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the barriers and strategies for identifying and managing risk factors of CVD in levels of preventing, screening, and treating. Methods: During present qualitative study with phenomenological approach, 60 subjects of cardiologists, nurses, patients, and their relatives were selected based on purposive sampling from educational-medical cardiothoracic subspecialty centers. Data were collected using an open-ended questionnaire and was extracted and analyzed with content analysis method. Results: Barriers were divided into three groups of individual barriers (low awareness, delay in referring for treatment and screening, incorrect beliefs, and not caring about health, socio-economic barriers (high costs, lack of resources, mental and psychological pressures, and health care barriers (non-alignment of doctors, being therapy-oriented, managerial and planning weaknesses, and lack of health care facilities. The most important presenting strategies are: providing public educations, improving family physician program, reduction of costs, cooperation of patients, and using functional indices to evaluate and improve the quality of services. Conclusion: Low awareness of people, high costs of services, lack of health care facilities, socio-cultural problems of people, and delay in referring of people, for treatment and screening are of the most important barriers of proper identifying and managing risk factors of CVD. Strategies provided in this study to overcome these barriers could be used.

  10. A Socio-Ecological Approach for Identifying and Contextualising Spatial Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Priorities at the Sub-National Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Amanda; Holness, Stephen; Holden, Petra; Scorgie, Sarshen; Donatti, Camila I.; Midgley, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity to existing sustainable development and biodiversity conservation challenges. The impacts of global climate change are felt locally, and thus local governance structures will increasingly be responsible for preparedness and local responses. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) options are gaining prominence as relevant climate change solutions. Local government officials seldom have an appropriate understanding of the role of ecosystem functioning in sustainable development goals, or access to relevant climate information. Thus the use of ecosystems in helping people adapt to climate change is limited partially by the lack of information on where ecosystems have the highest potential to do so. To begin overcoming this barrier, Conservation South Africa in partnership with local government developed a socio-ecological approach for identifying spatial EbA priorities at the sub-national level. Using GIS-based multi-criteria analysis and vegetation distribution models, the authors have spatially integrated relevant ecological and social information at a scale appropriate to inform local level political, administrative, and operational decision makers. This is the first systematic approach of which we are aware that highlights spatial priority areas for EbA implementation. Nodes of socio-ecological vulnerability are identified, and the inclusion of areas that provide ecosystem services and ecological resilience to future climate change is innovative. The purpose of this paper is to present and demonstrate a methodology for combining complex information into user-friendly spatial products for local level decision making on EbA. The authors focus on illustrating the kinds of products that can be generated from combining information in the suggested ways, and do not discuss the nuance of climate models nor present specific technical details of the model outputs here. Two representative case studies from rural South Africa

  11. A Socio-Ecological Approach for Identifying and Contextualising Spatial Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Priorities at the Sub-National Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Bourne

    Full Text Available Climate change adds an additional layer of complexity to existing sustainable development and biodiversity conservation challenges. The impacts of global climate change are felt locally, and thus local governance structures will increasingly be responsible for preparedness and local responses. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA options are gaining prominence as relevant climate change solutions. Local government officials seldom have an appropriate understanding of the role of ecosystem functioning in sustainable development goals, or access to relevant climate information. Thus the use of ecosystems in helping people adapt to climate change is limited partially by the lack of information on where ecosystems have the highest potential to do so. To begin overcoming this barrier, Conservation South Africa in partnership with local government developed a socio-ecological approach for identifying spatial EbA priorities at the sub-national level. Using GIS-based multi-criteria analysis and vegetation distribution models, the authors have spatially integrated relevant ecological and social information at a scale appropriate to inform local level political, administrative, and operational decision makers. This is the first systematic approach of which we are aware that highlights spatial priority areas for EbA implementation. Nodes of socio-ecological vulnerability are identified, and the inclusion of areas that provide ecosystem services and ecological resilience to future climate change is innovative. The purpose of this paper is to present and demonstrate a methodology for combining complex information into user-friendly spatial products for local level decision making on EbA. The authors focus on illustrating the kinds of products that can be generated from combining information in the suggested ways, and do not discuss the nuance of climate models nor present specific technical details of the model outputs here. Two representative case studies from

  12. Cortisol levels in response to starting school in children at increased risk for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Stephanie J; Herbert, Joe; Cooper, Peter; Gunnar, Megan R; Goodyer, Ian; Croudace, Tim; Murray, Lynne

    2012-04-01

    Research on depression has identified hyperactivity of the HPA axis as a potential contributory factor to the intergenerational transmission of affective symptoms. This has not yet been examined in the context of social phobia. The current study compared HPA axis activity in response to a universal social stressor (starting school) in children of 2 groups of women: one with social phobia and one with no history of anxiety (comparison group). To determine specificity of effects of maternal social phobia, a third group of children were also examined whose mothers had generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Children provided salivary cortisol samples in the morning, afternoon and at bedtime across 3 time-blocks surrounding the school start: a month before starting school (baseline), the first week at school (stress response), and the end of the first school term (stress recovery). Child behavioural inhibition at 14 months was assessed to explore the influence of early temperament on later stress responses. All children displayed an elevation in morning and afternoon cortisol from baseline during the first week at school, which remained elevated until the end of the first term. Children in the social phobia group, however, also displayed an equivalent elevation in bedtime cortisol, which was not observed for comparison children or for children of mothers with GAD. Children in the social phobia group who were classified as 'inhibited' at 14 months displayed significantly higher afternoon cortisol levels overall. A persistent stress response to school in the morning and afternoon is typical for all children, but children of mothers with social phobia also display atypical elevations in evening cortisol levels when at school--signalling longer-term disruption of the circadian rhythm in HPA axis activity. This is the first study to report HPA axis disruption in children at increased risk of developing social phobia. Future research should determine whether this represents a

  13. Requirement of trained first responders and national level preparedness for prevention and response to radiological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the usage of radioactive sources in various fields and the present scenario of adopting various means of terrorism indicates a possible environment for malicious usage of radioactive sources. Many nations, India inclusive, have to strengthen further it's capability to deal with Nuclear/Radiological Emergencies. The probable radiological emergency scenario in public domain involves inadvertent melting of radioactive material, transport accident involving radioactive material/sources and presence of orphan sources as reported elsewhere. Explosion of Radiological Dispersal Device (RDDs) or Improvised Nuclear Devices (IND) leading to spread of radioactive contamination in public places have been identified by IAEA as probable radiological threats. The IAEA documents put lot of emphasis, at national level, on training and educational issues related with Radiological Emergencies. The agencies and institutions dealing with radioactive sources have few personnel trained in radiation protection. Experience so far indicates that public awareness is also not adequate in the field of radiological safety which may create difficulties during emergency response in public domain. The major challenges are associated with mitigation, monitoring methodology, contaminated and overexposed casualties, decontamination and media briefing. In this paper, we have identified the educational needs for response to radiological emergency in India with major thrust on training. The paper has also enumerated the available educational and training infrastructure, the human resources, as well as the important stake holders for development of sustainable education and training programme. (author)

  14. Setting-level influences on implementation of the responsive classroom approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Shannon B; Patton, Christine L; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Deutsch, Nancy L

    2013-02-01

    We used mixed methods to examine the association between setting-level factors and observed implementation of a social and emotional learning intervention (Responsive Classroom® approach; RC). In study 1 (N = 33 3rd grade teachers after the first year of RC implementation), we identified relevant setting-level factors and uncovered the mechanisms through which they related to implementation. In study 2 (N = 50 4th grade teachers after the second year of RC implementation), we validated our most salient Study 1 finding across multiple informants. Findings suggested that teachers perceived setting-level factors, particularly principal buy-in to the intervention and individualized coaching, as influential to their degree of implementation. Further, we found that intervention coaches' perspectives of principal buy-in were more related to implementation than principals' or teachers' perspectives. Findings extend the application of setting theory to the field of implementation science and suggest that interventionists may want to consider particular accounts of school setting factors before determining the likelihood of schools achieving high levels of implementation.

  15. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Urinary Iodine Concentration at the Sub-National Level in India, Ghana, and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jacky; Kupka, Roland; Dumble, Sam; Garrett, Greg S.; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Touré, Ndeye Khady; Foriwa Amoaful, Esi; Gorstein, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Single and multiple variable regression analyses were conducted using data from stratified, cluster sample design, iodine surveys in India, Ghana, and Senegal to identify factors associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among women of reproductive age (WRA) at the national and sub-national level. Subjects were survey household respondents, typically WRA. For all three countries, UIC was significantly different (p regression analysis, UIC was significantly associated with strata and household salt iodine category in India and Ghana (p < 0.001). Estimated UIC was 1.6 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.3, 2.0) times higher (India) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2, 1.6) times higher (Ghana) among WRA from households using adequately iodised salt than among WRA from households using non-iodised salt. Other significant associations with UIC were found in India, with having heard of iodine deficiency (1.2 times higher; CI 1.1, 1.3; p < 0.001) and having improved dietary diversity (1.1 times higher, CI 1.0, 1.2; p = 0.015); and in Ghana, with the level of tomato paste consumption the previous week (p = 0.029) (UIC for highest consumption level was 1.2 times lowest level; CI 1.1, 1.4). No significant associations were found in Senegal. Sub-national data on iodine status are required to assess equity of access to optimal iodine intake and to develop strategic responses as needed. PMID:29690505

  17. Direct and indirect costs for adverse drug events identified in medical records across care levels, and their distribution among payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanaelsson, Jennie; Hakkarainen, Katja M; Hägg, Staffan; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K; Gyllensten, Hanna

    2017-11-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) cause considerable costs in hospitals. However, little is known about costs caused by ADEs outside hospitals, effects on productivity, and how the costs are distributed among payers. To describe the direct and indirect costs caused by ADEs, and their distribution among payers. Furthermore, to describe the distribution of patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity caused by ADEs according to socio-economic characteristics. In a random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county, prevalence-based costs for ADEs were calculated. Two different methods were used: 1) based on resource use judged to be caused by ADEs, and 2) as costs attributable to ADEs by comparing costs among individuals with ADEs to costs among matched controls. Payers of costs caused by ADEs were identified in medical records among those with ADEs (n = 596), and costs caused to individual patients were described by socio-economic characteristics. Costs for resource use caused by ADEs were €505 per patient with ADEs (95% confidence interval €345-665), of which 38% were indirect costs. Compared to matched controls, the costs attributable to ADEs were €1631, of which €410 were indirect costs. The local health authorities paid 58% of the costs caused by ADEs. Women had higher productivity loss than men (€426 vs. €109, p = 0.018). Out-of-pocket costs displaced a larger proportion of the disposable income among low-income earners than higher income earners (0.7% vs. 0.2%-0.3%). We used two methods to identify costs for ADEs, both identifying indirect costs as an important component of the overall costs for ADEs. Although the largest payers of costs caused by ADEs were the local health authorities responsible for direct costs, employers and patients costs for lost productivity contributed substantially. Our results indicate inequalities in costs caused by ADEs, by sex and income. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-p-benzoquinone antibody level as a prospective biomarker to identify smokers at risk for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee S

    2017-06-01

    .935 for identifying smokers with COPD from their low antibody level. The antibody cutoff value of 29.4 mg/dL was constructed from the ROC coordinates to estimate the risk for COPD in smokers. While 90.3% of smokers with COPD had a low antibody value (≤29.4 mg/dL, the majority (86.4% of smokers without COPD had a high antibody value (>29.4 mg/dL; 13.6% of current smokers without COPD having an antibody level below this cutoff value (odds ratio [OR] =59.3, 95% CI: 34.15–101.99 were considered to be at risk for COPD.Conclusion and future directions: Our results indicate that serum anti-p-BQ antibody level may be used as a biomarker to identify asymptomatic smokers at risk for COPD for early intervention of the disease. Keywords: COPD, cigarette smoke, biomarker, anti-p-benzoquinone antibody, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA 

  19. Identifying drought response of semi-arid aeolian systems using near-surface luminescence profiles and changepoint analysis, Nebraska Sandhills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Catherine; Bailey, Richard; Thomas, David

    2017-04-01

    Two billion people living in drylands are affected by land degradation. Sediment erosion by wind and water removes fertile soil and destabilises landscapes. Vegetation disturbance is a key driver of dryland erosion caused by both natural and human forcings: drought, fire, land use, grazing pressure. A quantified understanding of vegetation cover sensitivities and resultant surface change to forcing factors is needed if the vegetation and landscape response to future climate change and human pressure are to be better predicted. Using quartz luminescence dating and statistical changepoint analysis (Killick & Eckley, 2014) this study demonstrates the ability to identify step-changes in depositional age of near-surface sediments. Lx/Tx luminescence profiles coupled with statistical analysis show the use of near-surface sediments in providing a high-resolution record of recent system response and aeolian system thresholds. This research determines how the environment has recorded and retained sedimentary evidence of drought response and land use disturbances over the last two hundred years across both individual landforms and the wider Nebraska Sandhills. Identifying surface deposition and comparing with records of climate, fire and land use changes allows us to assess the sensitivity and stability of the surface sediment to a range of forcing factors. Killick, R and Eckley, IA. (2014) "changepoint: An R Package for Changepoint Analysis." Journal of Statistical Software, (58) 1-19.

  20. SigTree: A Microbial Community Analysis Tool to Identify and Visualize Significantly Responsive Branches in a Phylogenetic Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, John R.; Jones, Todd R.; Lefevre, Michael; Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Weimer, Bart C.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial community analysis experiments to assess the effect of a treatment intervention (or environmental change) on the relative abundance levels of multiple related microbial species (or operational taxonomic units) simultaneously using high throughput genomics are becoming increasingly common. Within the framework of the evolutionary phylogeny of all species considered in the experiment, this translates to a statistical need to identify the phylogenetic branches that exhibit a significan...

  1. Looking Past Primary Productivity: Benchmarking System Processes that Drive Ecosystem Level Responses in Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, E.; Dietze, M.

    2017-12-01

    As atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide levels continue to increase, it is critical that terrestrial ecosystem models can accurately predict ecological responses to the changing environment. Current predictions of net primary productivity (NPP) in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration are highly variable and contain a considerable amount of uncertainty. Benchmarking model predictions against data are necessary to assess their ability to replicate observed patterns, but also to identify and evaluate the assumptions causing inter-model differences. We have implemented a novel benchmarking workflow as part of the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer (PEcAn) that is automated, repeatable, and generalized to incorporate different sites and ecological models. Building on the recent Free-Air CO2 Enrichment Model Data Synthesis (FACE-MDS) project, we used observational data from the FACE experiments to test this flexible, extensible benchmarking approach aimed at providing repeatable tests of model process representation that can be performed quickly and frequently. Model performance assessments are often limited to traditional residual error analysis; however, this can result in a loss of critical information. Models that fail tests of relative measures of fit may still perform well under measures of absolute fit and mathematical similarity. This implies that models that are discounted as poor predictors of ecological productivity may still be capturing important patterns. Conversely, models that have been found to be good predictors of productivity may be hiding error in their sub-process that result in the right answers for the wrong reasons. Our suite of tests have not only highlighted process based sources of uncertainty in model productivity calculations, they have also quantified the patterns and scale of this error. Combining these findings with PEcAn's model sensitivity analysis and variance decomposition strengthen our ability to identify which processes

  2. Dose-response relationships and threshold levels in skin and respiratory allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mommers, C.; Heer, C.de

    2006-01-01

    A literature study was performed to evaluate dose-response relationships and no-effect levels for sensitization and elicitation in skin- and respiratory allergy. With respect to the skin, dose-response relationships and no-effect levels were found for both intradermal and topical induction, as well

  3. Backward Response-Level Crosstalk in the Psychological Refractory Period Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Alderton, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Bottleneck models of psychological refractory period (PRP) tasks suggest that a Task 1 response should be unaffected by the Task 2 response in the same trial, because selection of the former finishes before selection of the latter begins. Contrary to this conception, the authors found backward response-level crosstalk effects in which Task 2…

  4. Item level diagnostics and model - data fit in item response theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Item response theory (IRT) is a framework for modeling and analyzing item response data. Item-level modeling gives IRT advantages over classical test theory. The fit of an item score pattern to an item response theory (IRT) models is a necessary condition that must be assessed for further use of item and models that best fit ...

  5. Genetic differences in transcript responses to low-dose ionizing radiation identify tissue functions associated with breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Antoine M; Marchetti, Francesco; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Duru, Nadire; Han, Ju; Hu, Zhi; Mao, Jian-Hua; Gray, Joe W; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    High dose ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer but the health effects after low-dose (LD, differences in their sensitivity to radiation-induced mammary cancer (BALB/c and C57BL/6) for the purpose of identifying mechanisms of mammary cancer susceptibility. Unirradiated mammary and blood tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of DNA repair, tumor suppressor, and stress response genes. LD exposures of 7.5 cGy (weekly for 4 weeks) did not induce detectable genomic instability in either strain. However, the mammary glands of the sensitive strain but not the resistant strain showed early transcriptional responses involving: (a) diminished immune response, (b) increased cellular stress, (c) altered TGFβ-signaling, and (d) inappropriate expression of developmental genes. One month after LD exposure, the two strains showed opposing responses in transcriptional signatures linked to proliferation, senescence, and microenvironment functions. We also discovered a pre-exposure expression signature in both blood and mammary tissues that is predictive for poor survival among human cancer patients (p = 0.0001), and a post-LD-exposure signature also predictive for poor patient survival (pidentify genetic features that predispose or protect individuals from LD-induced breast cancer.

  6. Cytokines in the host response to Candida vaginitis: Identifying a role for non-classical immune mediators, S100 alarmins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects a significant number of women during their reproductive years. More than two decades of research have been focused on the mechanisms associated with susceptibility or resistance to symptomatic infection. Adaptive immunity by Th1-type CD4+ T cells and downstream cytokine responses are considered the predominant host defense mechanisms against mucosal Candida infections. However, numerous clinical and animal studies have indicated no or limited protective role of cells and cytokines of the Th1 or Th2 lineage against vaginal infection. The role for Th17 is only now begun to be investigated in-depth for VVC with results already showing significant controversy. On the other hand, a clinical live-challenge study and an established animal model have shown that a symptomatic condition is intimately associated with the vaginal infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) but with no effect on vaginal fungal burden. Subsequent studies identified S100A8 and S100A9 Alarmins as key chemotactic mediators of the acute PMN response. These chemotactic danger signals appear to be secreted by vaginal epithelial cells upon interaction and early adherence of Candida. Thus, instead of a putative immunodeficiency against Candida involving classical immune cells and cytokines of the adaptive response, the pathological inflammation in VVC is now considered a consequence of a non-productive innate response initiated by non-classical immune mediators. PMID:22182685

  7. Identifying EGFR-Expressed Cells and Detecting EGFR Multi-Mutations at Single-Cell Level by Microfluidic Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren; Zhou, Mingxing; Li, Jine; Wang, Zihua; Zhang, Weikai; Yue, Chunyan; Ma, Yan; Peng, Hailin; Wei, Zewen; Hu, Zhiyuan

    2018-03-01

    EGFR mutations companion diagnostics have been proved to be crucial for the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeted cancer therapies. To uncover multiple mutations occurred in minority of EGFR-mutated cells, which may be covered by the noises from majority of un-mutated cells, is currently becoming an urgent clinical requirement. Here we present the validation of a microfluidic-chip-based method for detecting EGFR multi-mutations at single-cell level. By trapping and immunofluorescently imaging single cells in specifically designed silicon microwells, the EGFR-expressed cells were easily identified. By in situ lysing single cells, the cell lysates of EGFR-expressed cells were retrieved without cross-contamination. Benefited from excluding the noise from cells without EGFR expression, the simple and cost-effective Sanger's sequencing, but not the expensive deep sequencing of the whole cell population, was used to discover multi-mutations. We verified the new method with precisely discovering three most important EGFR drug-related mutations from a sample in which EGFR-mutated cells only account for a small percentage of whole cell population. The microfluidic chip is capable of discovering not only the existence of specific EGFR multi-mutations, but also other valuable single-cell-level information: on which specific cells the mutations occurred, or whether different mutations coexist on the same cells. This microfluidic chip constitutes a promising method to promote simple and cost-effective Sanger's sequencing to be a routine test before performing targeted cancer therapy.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Calprotectin and TNF trough serum levels identify power Doppler ultrasound synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis patients in remission or with low disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inciarte-Mundo, José; Ramirez, Julio; Hernández, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Esquide, Virginia; Cuervo, Andrea; Cabrera-Villalba, Sonia Raquel; Pascal, Mariona; Yagüe, Jordi; Cañete, Juan D; Sanmarti, Raimon

    2016-07-08

    Serum levels of calprotectin, a major S100 leucocyte protein, are associated with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. Higher drug trough serum levels are associated with good response in patients treated with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). Power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) synovitis is predictive of flare and progression of structural damage in patients in clinical remission. The purpose of this study was to analyse the accuracy of calprotectin and TNFi trough serum levels in detecting PDUS synovitis in RA and PsA patients in clinical remission or with low disease activity who were receiving TNFi. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 92 patients (42 with RA, 50 with PsA) receiving adalimumab (ADA), etanercept (ETN) or infliximab who were in remission or had low disease activity (28-joint Disease Activity Score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate ultrasound scores (all r coefficients >0.50 in RA). Calprotectin correlated with the PDUS synovitis score in patients treated with ADA and ETN. Using PDUS synovitis (yes or no) as the reference variable, calprotectin had an AUC of 0.826. The best cut-off was ≥1.66 μg/ml, with a likelihood ratio of 2.77. C-reactive protein (AUC 0.673) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (AUC 0.731) had a lower discriminatory capacity. TNFi trough serum levels were significantly associated with PDUS synovitis (OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.52-0.85, p < 0.001) but their accuracy (AUC <0.5) was less than that of calprotectin. TNFi trough serum levels were inversely correlated with calprotectin and PDUS synovitis in RA and PsA patients receiving ADA and ETN. Calprotectin and TNFi trough serum levels may help identify PDUS synovitis in RA and PsA patients in clinical remission or with low disease activity.

  9. A simple method to identify radiation and annealing biases that lead to worst-case CMOS static RAM postirradiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors illustrate a simple method to identify bias conditions that lead to worst-case postirradiation speed and timing response for SRAMs. Switching cell states between radiation and anneal should lead to maximum speed and timing degradation for many hardened designs and technologies. The greatest SRAM cell imbalance is also established by these radiation and annealing conditions for the hardened and commercial parts that we have examined. These results should provide insight into the behavior of SRAMs during and after irradiation. The results should also be useful to establishing guidelines for integrated-circuit functionality testing, and SEU and dose-rate upset testing, after total-dose irradiation

  10. Individual and culture-level components of survey response styles: A multi-level analysis using cultural models of selfhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter B; Vignoles, Vivian L; Becker, Maja; Owe, Ellinor; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Brown, Rupert; Bourguignon, David; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B; Kreuzbauer, Robert; Cendales Ayala, Boris; Yuki, Masaki; Zhang, Jianxin; Lv, Shaobo; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Fischer, Ronald; Milfont, Taciano L; Gavreliuc, Alin; Baguma, Peter; Bond, Michael Harris; Martin, Mariana; Gausel, Nicolay; Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Tatarko, Alexander; González, Roberto; Didier, Nicolas; Carrasco, Diego; Lay, Siugmin; Nizharadze, George; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Abuhamdeh, Sami; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J; Koller, Silvia H; Herman, Ginette; Courtois, Marie; Fritsche, Immo; Espinosa, Agustín; Villamar, Juan A; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Zinkeng, Martina; Jalal, Baland; Kusdil, Ersin; Amponsah, Benjamin; Çağlar, Selinay; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Möller, Bettina; Zhang, Xiao; Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Prieto Gil, Paula; Lorente Clemares, Raquel; Campara, Gabriella; Aldhafri, Said; Fülöp, Márta; Pyszczynski, Tom; Kesebir, Pelin; Harb, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Variations in acquiescence and extremity pose substantial threats to the validity of cross-cultural research that relies on survey methods. Individual and cultural correlates of response styles when using 2 contrasting types of response mode were investigated, drawing on data from 55 cultural groups across 33 nations. Using 7 dimensions of self-other relatedness that have often been confounded within the broader distinction between independence and interdependence, our analysis yields more specific understandings of both individual- and culture-level variations in response style. When using a Likert-scale response format, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as similar to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour harmony, similarity with others and receptiveness to influence. However, when using Schwartz's (2007) portrait-comparison response procedure, acquiescence is strongest among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant but also connected to others, and where cultural models of selfhood favour self-reliance and self-consistency. Extreme responding varies less between the two types of response modes, and is most prevalent among individuals seeing themselves as self-reliant, and in cultures favouring self-reliance. As both types of response mode elicit distinctive styles of response, it remains important to estimate and control for style effects to ensure valid comparisons. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Designing Iranian Model to Assess the Level of Health System Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Roohollah; Arab, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Akbari-Sari, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Gharaee, Hojat

    2016-03-01

    Given the rapid pace of changes in community health needs and the mission of healthcare organizations to provide and promote the community's health, the growing need to increase health system responsiveness to people as a key element of observance and fulfillment of justice is felt more than ever. This study was aimed at designing the native model of responsiveness for Iran and to validate the aspects of the proposed model. Our study had a cross-sectional design and was a validation study performed in 2014. In order to define and identify responsiveness model aspects, the first phase recorded the views of 200 key informants from 19 provinces of Iran. Snowball sampling was used to select experts (based on WHO guideline). Then, the opinions of 18 comments were received from service recipients in the form of three focus group discussions and were analyzed by the frame framework analysis (interviewed recipients were selected using the purposive sampling method). Finally, in order to confirm the model's efficacy, a responsiveness questionnaire with 7 aspects (domains) and 52 indicators (items) obtained from the initial proposed model was answered by 600 members of the selected families in the two provinces of Fars and Yazd. A multi-stage cluster sampling approach was used for the household survey. The results were analyzed by the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) test and through the use of Lisrel software. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, based on the results of the key informant survey and group discussions, showed that according to quantities of GFI = 0.91, CFI = 0.93, NFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.074, SRMR = 0.061 and Hoelter (CN) = 178.54 in outpatient services and where GFI = 0.89, CFI = 0.91, NFI = 0.86, RMSEA = 0.064, SRMR = 0.053 and Hoelter (CN) = 158.93 for inpatient services, seven factors (F) (dignity, informed choice, confidentiality, patient training and informing, access to services, quality of basic amenities, and access to social support) are the main

  12. The climate response of the Indo-Pacific warm pool to glacial sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nezio, Pedro N.; Timmermann, Axel; Tierney, Jessica E.; Jin, Fei-Fei; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Rosenbloom, Nan; Mapes, Brian; Neale, Rich; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Montenegro, Alvaro

    2016-06-01

    Growing climate proxy evidence suggests that changes in sea level are important drivers of tropical climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. These paleodata suggest that rainfall patterns over the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP) are highly sensitive to the landmass configuration of the Maritime Continent and that lowered sea level contributed to large-scale drying during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, approximately 21,000 years B.P.). Using the Community Earth System Model Version 1.2 (CESM1), we investigate the mechanisms by which lowered sea level influenced the climate of the IPWP during the LGM. The CESM1 simulations show that, in agreement with previous hypotheses, changes in atmospheric circulation are initiated by the exposure of the Sunda and Sahul shelves. Ocean dynamical processes amplify the changes in atmospheric circulation by increasing the east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean. The coupled mechanism driving this response is akin to the Bjerknes feedback and results in a large-scale climatic reorganization over the Indian Ocean with impacts extending from east Africa to the western tropical Pacific. Unlike exposure of the Sunda shelf, exposure of Sahul shelf and the associated changes in surface albedo play a key role because of the positive feedback. This mechanism could explain the pattern of dry (wet) eastern (western) Indian Ocean identified in climate proxies and LGM simulations. However, this response also requires a strengthened SST gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean, a pattern that is not evident in marine paleoreconstructions. Strategies to resolve this issue are discussed.

  13. Proteome and metabolome profiling of cytokinin action in Arabidopsis identifying both distinct and similar responses to cytokinin down- and up-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černý, Martin; Kuklová, Alena; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang; Fragner, Lena; Novák, Ondrej; Rotková, Gabriela; Jedelsky, Petr L; Žáková, Katerina; Šmehilová, Mária; Strnad, Miroslav; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Brzobohaty, Bretislav

    2013-11-01

    In plants, numerous developmental processes are controlled by cytokinin (CK) levels and their ratios to levels of other hormones. While molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory roles of CKs have been intensely researched, proteomic and metabolomic responses to CK deficiency are unknown. Transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings carrying inducible barley cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CaMV35S>GR>HvCKX2) and agrobacterial isopentenyl transferase (CaMV35S>GR>ipt) constructs were profiled to elucidate proteome- and metabolome-wide responses to down- and up-regulation of CK levels, respectively. Proteome profiling identified >1100 proteins, 155 of which responded to HvCKX2 and/or ipt activation, mostly involved in growth, development, and/or hormone and light signalling. The metabolome profiling covered 79 metabolites, 33 of which responded to HvCKX2 and/or ipt activation, mostly amino acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids. Comparison of the data sets obtained from activated CaMV35S>GR>HvCKX2 and CaMV35S>GR>ipt plants revealed unexpectedly extensive overlaps. Integration of the proteomic and metabolomic data sets revealed: (i) novel components of molecular circuits involved in CK action (e.g. ribosomal proteins); (ii) previously unrecognized links to redox regulation and stress hormone signalling networks; and (iii) CK content markers. The striking overlaps in profiles observed in CK-deficient and CK-overproducing seedlings might explain surprising previously reported similarities between plants with down- and up-regulated CK levels.

  14. A proteomic study to identify soya allergens--the human response to transgenic versus non-transgenic soya samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Rita; Martins, Isabel; Jeno, Paul; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Oliveira, Maria Margarida

    2007-01-01

    In spite of being among the main foods responsible for allergic reactions worldwide, soybean (Glycine max)-derived products continue to be increasingly widespread in a variety of food products due to their well-documented health benefits. Soybean also continues to be one of the elected target crops for genetic modification. The aim of this study was to characterize the soya proteome and, specifically, IgE-reactive proteins as well as to compare the IgE response in soya-allergic individuals to genetically modified Roundup Ready soya versus its non-transgenic control. We performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts from a 5% genetically modified Roundup Ready flour sample and its non-transgenic control followed by Western blotting with plasma from 5 soya-sensitive individuals. We used peptide tandem mass spectrometry to identify soya proteins (55 protein matches), specifically IgE-binding ones, and to evaluate differences between transgenic and non-transgenic samples. We identified 2 new potential soybean allergens--one is maturation associated and seems to be part of the late embryogenesis abundant proteins group and the other is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. None of the individuals tested reacted differentially to the transgenic versus non-transgenic samples under study. Soybean endogenous allergen expression does not seem to be altered after genetic modification. Proteomics should be considered a powerful tool for functional characterization of plants and for food safety assessment. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Groundwater decline and tree change in floodplain landscapes: Identifying non-linear threshold responses in canopy condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater decline is widespread, yet its implications for natural systems are poorly understood. Previous research has revealed links between groundwater depth and tree condition; however, critical thresholds which might indicate ecological ‘tipping points’ associated with rapid and potentially irreversible change have been difficult to quantify. This study collated data for two dominant floodplain species, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (river red gum and E. populnea (poplar box from 118 sites in eastern Australia where significant groundwater decline has occurred. Boosted regression trees, quantile regression and Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis were used to investigate the relationship between tree condition and groundwater depth. Distinct non-linear responses were found, with groundwater depth thresholds identified in the range from 12.1 m to 22.6 m for E. camaldulensis and 12.6 m to 26.6 m for E. populnea beyond which canopy condition declined abruptly. Non-linear threshold responses in canopy condition in these species may be linked to rooting depth, with chronic groundwater decline decoupling trees from deep soil moisture resources. The quantification of groundwater depth thresholds is likely to be critical for management aimed at conserving groundwater dependent biodiversity. Identifying thresholds will be important in regions where water extraction and drying climates may contribute to further groundwater decline. Keywords: Canopy condition, Dieback, Drought, Tipping point, Ecological threshold, Groundwater dependent ecosystems

  16. Global Gene-Expression Analysis to Identify Differentially Expressed Genes Critical for the Heat Stress Response in Brassica rapa.

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    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available Genome-wide dissection of the heat stress response (HSR is necessary to overcome problems in crop production caused by global warming. To identify HSR genes, we profiled gene expression in two Chinese cabbage inbred lines with different thermotolerances, Chiifu and Kenshin. Many genes exhibited >2-fold changes in expression upon exposure to 0.5- 4 h at 45°C (high temperature, HT: 5.2% (2,142 genes in Chiifu and 3.7% (1,535 genes in Kenshin. The most enriched GO (Gene Ontology items included 'response to heat', 'response to reactive oxygen species (ROS', 'response to temperature stimulus', 'response to abiotic stimulus', and 'MAPKKK cascade'. In both lines, the genes most highly induced by HT encoded small heat shock proteins (Hsps and heat shock factor (Hsf-like proteins such as HsfB2A (Bra029292, whereas high-molecular weight Hsps were constitutively expressed. Other upstream HSR components were also up-regulated: ROS-scavenging genes like glutathione peroxidase 2 (BrGPX2, Bra022853, protein kinases, and phosphatases. Among heat stress (HS marker genes in Arabidopsis, only exportin 1A (XPO1A (Bra008580, Bra006382 can be applied to B. rapa for basal thermotolerance (BT and short-term acquired thermotolerance (SAT gene. CYP707A3 (Bra025083, Bra021965, which is involved in the dehydration response in Arabidopsis, was associated with membrane leakage in both lines following HS. Although many transcription factors (TF genes, including DREB2A (Bra005852, were involved in HS tolerance in both lines, Bra024224 (MYB41 and Bra021735 (a bZIP/AIR1 [Anthocyanin-Impaired-Response-1] were specific to Kenshin. Several candidate TFs involved in thermotolerance were confirmed as HSR genes by real-time PCR, and these assignments were further supported by promoter analysis. Although some of our findings are similar to those obtained using other plant species, clear differences in Brassica rapa reveal a distinct HSR in this species. Our data could also provide a

  17. Abiotic stressors and stress responses: What commonalities appear between species across biological organization levels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulmon, Cécile; Baaren, Joan van; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Hennion, Françoise; Mony, Cendrine; Renault, David; Bormans, Myriam; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Wiegand, Claudia; Gérard, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), we review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact life history traits of stressed organisms, and ii) to what extent trait responses influence individual and population responses. Common response mechanisms are evident at molecular and cellular scales but become rather difficult to define at higher levels due to evolutionary distance and environmental complexity. We provide new insights into the understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular responses on individual and population dynamics and assess the potential related effects on communities and ecosystem functioning. - Highlights: • Responses to chemical and thermal stressors are reviewed across organization levels. • Common responses between taxa are evident at the molecular and cellular scales. • At individual level, energy allocation connects species-specific stress responses. • Commonality decreases at higher levels due to increasing environmental complexity. - The commonality of stress responses to chemical and thermal stressors among taxa is evident at the molecular and cellular scales but remains unclear at higher levels of organization

  18. Whole exome sequencing identifies novel genes for fetal hemoglobin response to hydroxyurea in children with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Vivien A; Crosby, Jacy R; Sabo, Aniko; Mortier, Nicole A; Howard, Thad A; Muzny, Donna M; Dugan-Perez, Shannon; Aygun, Banu; Nottage, Kerri A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A; Ware, Russell E; Flanagan, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyurea has proven efficacy in children and adults with sickle cell anemia (SCA), but with considerable inter-individual variability in the amount of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) produced. Sibling and twin studies indicate that some of that drug response variation is heritable. To test the hypothesis that genetic modifiers influence pharmacological induction of HbF, we investigated phenotype-genotype associations using whole exome sequencing of children with SCA treated prospectively with hydroxyurea to maximum tolerated dose (MTD). We analyzed 171 unrelated patients enrolled in two prospective clinical trials, all treated with dose escalation to MTD. We examined two MTD drug response phenotypes: HbF (final %HbF minus baseline %HbF), and final %HbF. Analyzing individual genetic variants, we identified multiple low frequency and common variants associated with HbF induction by hydroxyurea. A validation cohort of 130 pediatric sickle cell patients treated to MTD with hydroxyurea was genotyped for 13 non-synonymous variants with the strongest association with HbF response to hydroxyurea in the discovery cohort. A coding variant in Spalt-like transcription factor, or SALL2, was associated with higher final HbF in this second independent replication sample and SALL2 represents an outstanding novel candidate gene for further investigation. These findings may help focus future functional studies and provide new insights into the pharmacological HbF upregulation by hydroxyurea in patients with SCA.

  19. A genetic screen in Myxococcus xanthus identifies mutants that uncouple outer membrane exchange from a downstream cellular response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arup; Wall, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Upon physical contact with sibling cells, myxobacteria transiently fuse their outer membranes (OMs) and exchange OM proteins and lipids. From previous work, TraA and TraB were identified to be essential factors for OM exchange (OME) in donor and recipient cells. To define the genetic complexity of OME, we carried out a comprehensive forward genetic screen. The screen was based on the observation that Myxococcus xanthus nonmotile cells, by a Tra-dependent mechanism, block swarm expansion of motile cells when mixed. Thus, mutants defective in OME or a downstream responsive pathway were readily identified as escape flares from mixed inocula seeded on agar. This screen was surprisingly powerful, as we found >50 mutants defective in OME. Importantly, all of the mutations mapped to the traAB operon, suggesting that there may be few, if any, proteins besides TraA and TraB directly required for OME. We also found a second and phenotypically different class of mutants that exhibited wild-type OME but were defective in a responsive pathway. This pathway is postulated to control inner membrane homeostasis by covalently attaching amino acids to phospholipids. The identified proteins are homologous to the Staphylococcus aureus MprF protein, which is involved in membrane adaptation and antibiotic resistance. Interestingly, we also found that a small number of nonmotile cells were sufficient to block the swarming behavior of a large gliding-proficient population. This result suggests that an OME-derived signal could be amplified from a few nonmotile producers to act on many responder cells. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Detecting the Subtle Shape Differences in Hemodynamic Responses at the Group Level

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    Gang eChen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the hemodynamic response (HDR is still not fully understood due to the multifaceted processes involved. Aside from the overall amplitude, the response may vary across cognitive states, tasks, brain regions, and subjects with respect to characteristics such as rise and fall speed, peak duration, undershoot shape, and overall duration. Here we demonstrate that the fixed-shape or adjusted-shape methods may fail to detect some shape subtleties. In contrast, the estimated-shape method (ESM through multiple basis functions can provide the opportunity to identify some subtle shape differences and achieve higher statistical power at both individual and group levels. Previously, some dimension reduction approaches focused on the peak magnitude, or made inferences based on the area under the curve or interaction, which can lead to potential misidentifications. By adopting a generic framework of multivariate modeling (MVM, we showcase a hybrid approach that is validated by simulations and real data. Unlike the few analyses that were limited to main effect, two- or three-way interactions, we extend the approach to an inclusive platform that is more adaptable than the conventional GLM, achieving a practical equipoise among representation, false positive control, statistical power, and modeling flexibility.

  1. Integrative analysis of deep sequencing data identifies estrogen receptor early response genes and links ATAD3B to poor survival in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Ovaska

    Full Text Available Identification of responsive genes to an extra-cellular cue enables characterization of pathophysiologically crucial biological processes. Deep sequencing technologies provide a powerful means to identify responsive genes, which creates a need for computational methods able to analyze dynamic and multi-level deep sequencing data. To answer this need we introduce here a data-driven algorithm, SPINLONG, which is designed to search for genes that match the user-defined hypotheses or models. SPINLONG is applicable to various experimental setups measuring several molecular markers in parallel. To demonstrate the SPINLONG approach, we analyzed ChIP-seq data reporting PolII, estrogen receptor α (ERα, H3K4me3 and H2A.Z occupancy at five time points in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line after estradiol stimulus. We obtained 777 ERa early responsive genes and compared the biological functions of the genes having ERα binding within 20 kb of the transcription start site (TSS to genes without such binding site. Our results show that the non-genomic action of ERα via the MAPK pathway, instead of direct ERa binding, may be responsible for early cell responses to ERα activation. Our results also indicate that the ERα responsive genes triggered by the genomic pathway are transcribed faster than those without ERα binding sites. The survival analysis of the 777 ERα responsive genes with 150 primary breast cancer tumors and in two independent validation cohorts indicated the ATAD3B gene, which does not have ERα binding site within 20 kb of its TSS, to be significantly associated with poor patient survival.

  2. Regression Analysis to Identify Factors Associated with Urinary Iodine Concentration at the Sub-National Level in India, Ghana, and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Knowles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Single and multiple variable regression analyses were conducted using data from stratified, cluster sample design, iodine surveys in India, Ghana, and Senegal to identify factors associated with urinary iodine concentration (UIC among women of reproductive age (WRA at the national and sub-national level. Subjects were survey household respondents, typically WRA. For all three countries, UIC was significantly different (p < 0.05 by household salt iodine category. Other significant differences were by strata and by household vulnerability to poverty in India and Ghana. In multiple variable regression analysis, UIC was significantly associated with strata and household salt iodine category in India and Ghana (p < 0.001. Estimated UIC was 1.6 (95% confidence intervals (CI 1.3, 2.0 times higher (India and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2, 1.6 times higher (Ghana among WRA from households using adequately iodised salt than among WRA from households using non-iodised salt. Other significant associations with UIC were found in India, with having heard of iodine deficiency (1.2 times higher; CI 1.1, 1.3; p < 0.001 and having improved dietary diversity (1.1 times higher, CI 1.0, 1.2; p = 0.015; and in Ghana, with the level of tomato paste consumption the previous week (p = 0.029 (UIC for highest consumption level was 1.2 times lowest level; CI 1.1, 1.4. No significant associations were found in Senegal. Sub-national data on iodine status are required to assess equity of access to optimal iodine intake and to develop strategic responses as needed.

  3. Identifying and validating a combined mRNA and microRNA signature in response to imatinib treatment in a chronic myeloid leukemia cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Bhutra

    Full Text Available Imatinib, a targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the gold standard for managing chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Despite its wide application, imatinib resistance occurs in 20-30% of individuals with CML. Multiple potential biomarkers have been identified to predict imatinib response; however, the majority of them remain externally uncorroborated. In this study, we set out to systematically identify gene/microRNA (miRNA whose expression changes are related to imatinib response. Through a Gene Expression Omnibus search, we identified two genome-wide expression datasets that contain expression changes in response to imatinib treatment in a CML cell line (K562: one for mRNA and the other for miRNA. Significantly differentially expressed transcripts/miRNAs post imatinib treatment were identified from both datasets. Three additional filtering criteria were applied 1 miRbase/miRanda predictive algorithm; 2 opposite direction of imatinib effect for genes and miRNAs; and 3 literature support. These criteria narrowed our candidate gene-miRNA to a single pair: IL8 and miR-493-5p. Using PCR we confirmed the significant up-regulation and down-regulation of miR-493-5p and IL8 by imatinib treatment, respectively in K562 cells. In addition, IL8 expression was significantly down-regulated in K562 cells 24 hours after miR-493-5p mimic transfection (p = 0.002. Furthermore, we demonstrated significant cellular growth inhibition after IL8 inhibition through either gene silencing or by over-expression of miR-493-5p (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.001 respectively. The IL8 inhibition also further sensitized K562 cells to imatinib cytotoxicity (p < 0.0001. Our study combined expression changes in transcriptome and miRNA after imatinib exposure to identify a potential gene-miRNA pair that is a critical target in imatinib response. Experimental validation supports the relationships between IL8 and miR-493-5p and between this gene-miRNA pair and imatinib sensitivity in a CML cell

  4. Plasma homovanillic acid levels in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychopathology and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreen, A R; Lieberman, J; Alvir, J; Mayerhoff, D; Loebel, A; Chakos, M; Amin, F; Cooper, T

    1994-02-01

    To examine plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in first-episode schizophrenia, to compare pHVA levels in patients and controls, and to assess the association of pHVA levels with psychopathology and treatment response. Forty-one patients entered the study, and pHVA levels were measured at baseline and on a weekly basis for up to 6 weeks of open standardized neuroleptic treatment. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Clinical Global Impressions scale. Ten healthy controls were used for comparison of baseline pHVA levels. No differences were observed between patients and controls. Baseline pHVA level was not associated with psychopathology but was associated with time to reach remission. Baseline pHVA levels and week-1 pHVA levels were higher in responders than nonresponders. Regardless of responsiveness, female participants had higher pHVA levels than male participants throughout the study. The pattern of pHVA levels with treatment was similar in all patients with a short-term rise initially and then a decrease toward baseline values. These findings suggest that pHVA levels have prognostic significance for response and time to reach remission. Qualitative and quantitative differences between first-episode patients' pHVA levels and studies using a long-term, neuroleptic-exposed population suggest that changes occur with neuroleptic treatment or the progression of the illness.

  5. Building resilience into practical conservation: identifying local management responses to global climate change in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, J. A.; Marshall, P. A.; Johnson, J. E.; Harman, S.

    2010-06-01

    Climate change is now considered the greatest long-term threat to coral reefs, with some future change inevitable despite mitigation efforts. Managers must therefore focus on supporting the natural resilience of reefs, requiring that resilient reefs and reef regions be identified. We develop a framework for assessing resilience and trial it by applying the framework to target management responses to climate change on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The framework generates a resilience score for a site based on the evaluation of 19 differentially weighted indicators known or thought to confer resilience to coral reefs. Scores are summed, and sites within a region are ranked in terms of (1) their resilience relative to the other sites being assessed, and (2) the extent to which managers can influence their resilience. The framework was applied to 31 sites in Keppel Bay of the southern Great Barrier Reef, which has a long history of disturbance and recovery. Resilience and ‘management influence potential’ were both found to vary widely in Keppel Bay, informing site selection for the staged implementation of resilience-based management strategies. The assessment framework represents a step towards making the concept of resilience operational to reef managers and conservationists. Also, it is customisable, easy to teach and implement and effective in building support among local communities and stakeholders for management responses to climate change.

  6. Expression Analysis of Immune Related Genes Identified from the Coelomocytes of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus in Response to LPS Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus occupies a basal position during the evolution of deuterostomes and is also an important aquaculture species. In order to identify more immune effectors, transcriptome sequencing of A. japonicus coelomocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge was performed using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. One hundred and seven differentially expressed genes were selected and divided into four functional categories including pathogen recognition (25 genes, reorganization of cytoskeleton (27 genes, inflammation (41 genes and apoptosis (14 genes. They were analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and downstream signaling transduction. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCRs of 10 representative genes validated the accuracy and reliability of RNA sequencing results with the correlation coefficients from 0.88 to 0.98 and p-value <0.05. Expression analysis of immune-related genes after LPS challenge will be useful in understanding the immune response mechanisms of A. japonicus against pathogen invasion and developing strategies for resistant markers selection.

  7. Transcriptome-wide analysis of the Trypanosoma cruzi proliferative cycle identifies the periodically expressed mRNAs and their multiple levels of control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Chávez

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan parasite causing American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease, a neglected parasitosis with important human health impact in Latin America. The efficacy of current therapy is limited, and its toxicity is high. Since parasite proliferation is a fundamental target for rational drug design, we sought to progress into its understanding by applying a genome-wide approach. Treating a TcI linage strain with hydroxyurea, we isolated epimastigotes in late G1, S and G2/M cell cycle stages at 70% purity. The sequencing of each phase identified 305 stage-specific transcripts (1.5-fold change, p≤0.01, coding for conserved cell cycle regulated proteins and numerous proteins whose cell cycle dependence has not been recognized before. Comparisons with the parasite T. brucei and the human host reveal important differences. The meta-analysis of T. cruzi transcriptomic and ribonomic data indicates that cell cycle regulated mRNAs are subject to sub-cellular compartmentalization. Compositional and structural biases of these genes- including CAI, GC content, UTR length, and polycistron position- may contribute to their regulation. To discover nucleotide motifs responsible for the co-regulation of cell cycle regulated genes, we looked for overrepresented motifs at their UTRs and found a variant of the cell cycle sequence motif at the 3' UTR of most of the S and G2 stage genes. We additionally identified hairpin structures at the 5' UTRs of a high proportion of the transcripts, suggesting that periodic gene expression might also rely on translation initiation in T. cruzi. In summary, we report a comprehensive list of T. cruzi cell cycle regulated genes, including many previously unstudied proteins, we show evidence favoring a multi-step control of their expression, and we identify mRNA motifs that may mediate their regulation. Our results provide novel information of the T. cruzi proliferative proteins and the integrated levels of

  8. Identifying the Misconceptions of Natural Science (IPA Using CRI (Certanty of Response Index at the Primary School Students in Tarakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsinah Annisa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the misconceptions of Natural Science (IPA on primary school students in Tarakan. The output of this study is presented into a national scientific journal with ISSN. This study absolutely contributes to the schools and the education providers (universities. This study can identify the misconceptions of what happens to the students, so that teachers know how to handle and remediate these misconceptions. This study employs quantitative descriptive research. The population is the sixth grade students of primary schools in Tarakan. It is because the students of this grade have got the learning material on force, light, and simple machine. The technique.;s used in taking the sample is cluster sampling by considering on the three criteria, namely: superior, medium, and low school category which is based on the mean scores of final test (UAS on natural science subject. So, the sixth grade students of SDN A, SDN B Tarakan, and SDN C Tarakan are chosen as the sample of this study. The instrument of this research is a written test in a form of multiple choice test equiped with the CRI (certainty of response index answer sheet. The data are collected by distributing multiple-choice test which is consisted of 40 questions that are equipped with the CRI answer sheet.

  9. Children's Self-Esteem, Level of Esteem Certainty, and Responsibility for Success and Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piers, Ellen V.

    1977-01-01

    Relationships between children's self esteem, certainty of self esteem appraisal, and intellectual achievement responsibility were examined in boys and girls at the sixth grade and tenth grade levels with use of the Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire. (MS)

  10. Extracting gene expression patterns and identifying co-expressed genes from microarray data reveals biologically responsive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paules Richard S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common observation in the analysis of gene expression data is that many genes display similarity in their expression patterns and therefore appear to be co-regulated. However, the variation associated with microarray data and the complexity of the experimental designs make the acquisition of co-expressed genes a challenge. We developed a novel method for Extracting microarray gene expression Patterns and Identifying co-expressed Genes, designated as EPIG. The approach utilizes the underlying structure of gene expression data to extract patterns and identify co-expressed genes that are responsive to experimental conditions. Results Through evaluation of the correlations among profiles, the magnitude of variation in gene expression profiles, and profile signal-to-noise ratio's, EPIG extracts a set of patterns representing co-expressed genes. The method is shown to work well with a simulated data set and microarray data obtained from time-series studies of dauer recovery and L1 starvation in C. elegans and after ultraviolet (UV or ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA damage in diploid human fibroblasts. With the simulated data set, EPIG extracted the appropriate number of patterns which were more stable and homogeneous than the set of patterns that were determined using the CLICK or CAST clustering algorithms. However, CLICK performed better than EPIG and CAST with respect to the average correlation between clusters/patterns of the simulated data. With real biological data, EPIG extracted more dauer-specific patterns than CLICK. Furthermore, analysis of the IR/UV data revealed 18 unique patterns and 2661 genes out of approximately 17,000 that were identified as significantly expressed and categorized to the patterns by EPIG. The time-dependent patterns displayed similar and dissimilar responses between IR and UV treatments. Gene Ontology analysis applied to each pattern-related subset of co-expressed genes revealed underlying

  11. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal

    2013-01-01

    , isoform, and transcription start site (TSS), and promoter level showed that several of the genes differed at all four levels. Interestingly, these genes were mainly annotated to the "electron transport chain" and neuronal differentiation, emphasizing that "tissue important" genes are regulated at several...

  12. Heavy Metals Induce Iron Deficiency Responses at Different Hierarchic and Regulatory Levels1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In plants, the excess of several heavy metals mimics iron (Fe) deficiency-induced chlorosis, indicating a disturbance in Fe homeostasis. To examine the level at which heavy metals interfere with Fe deficiency responses, we carried out an in-depth characterization of Fe-related physiological, regulatory, and morphological responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) exposed to heavy metals. Enhanced zinc (Zn) uptake closely mimicked Fe deficiency by leading to low chlorophyll but high ferric-chelate reductase activity and coumarin release. These responses were not caused by Zn-inhibited Fe uptake via IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER (IRT1). Instead, Zn simulated the transcriptional response of typical Fe-regulated genes, indicating that Zn affects Fe homeostasis at the level of Fe sensing. Excess supplies of cobalt and nickel altered root traits in a different way from Fe deficiency, inducing only transient Fe deficiency responses, which were characterized by a lack of induction of the ethylene pathway. Cadmium showed a rather inconsistent influence on Fe deficiency responses at multiple levels. By contrast, manganese evoked weak Fe deficiency responses in wild-type plants but strongly exacerbated chlorosis in irt1 plants, indicating that manganese antagonized Fe mainly at the level of transport. These results show that the investigated heavy metals modulate Fe deficiency responses at different hierarchic and regulatory levels and that the interaction of metals with physiological and morphological Fe deficiency responses is uncoupled. Thus, this study not only emphasizes the importance of assessing heavy metal toxicities at multiple levels but also provides a new perspective on how Fe deficiency contributes to the toxic action of individual heavy metals. PMID:28500270

  13. Heavy Metals Induce Iron Deficiency Responses at Different Hierarchic and Regulatory Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lešková, Alexandra; Giehl, Ricardo F H; Hartmann, Anja; Fargašová, Agáta; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2017-07-01

    In plants, the excess of several heavy metals mimics iron (Fe) deficiency-induced chlorosis, indicating a disturbance in Fe homeostasis. To examine the level at which heavy metals interfere with Fe deficiency responses, we carried out an in-depth characterization of Fe-related physiological, regulatory, and morphological responses in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) exposed to heavy metals. Enhanced zinc (Zn) uptake closely mimicked Fe deficiency by leading to low chlorophyll but high ferric-chelate reductase activity and coumarin release. These responses were not caused by Zn-inhibited Fe uptake via IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER (IRT1). Instead, Zn simulated the transcriptional response of typical Fe-regulated genes, indicating that Zn affects Fe homeostasis at the level of Fe sensing. Excess supplies of cobalt and nickel altered root traits in a different way from Fe deficiency, inducing only transient Fe deficiency responses, which were characterized by a lack of induction of the ethylene pathway. Cadmium showed a rather inconsistent influence on Fe deficiency responses at multiple levels. By contrast, manganese evoked weak Fe deficiency responses in wild-type plants but strongly exacerbated chlorosis in irt1 plants, indicating that manganese antagonized Fe mainly at the level of transport. These results show that the investigated heavy metals modulate Fe deficiency responses at different hierarchic and regulatory levels and that the interaction of metals with physiological and morphological Fe deficiency responses is uncoupled. Thus, this study not only emphasizes the importance of assessing heavy metal toxicities at multiple levels but also provides a new perspective on how Fe deficiency contributes to the toxic action of individual heavy metals. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Forget the Desk Job: Current Roles and Responsibilities in Entry-Level Reference Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detmering, Robert; Sproles, Claudene

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolving roles and responsibilities of entry-level academic reference positions, as stated in recent job advertisements posted on the American Library Association's JobLIST Web site and other sources. Findings from a content analysis of these advertisements indicate that current entry-level reference positions in academic…

  15. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  16. Thin-Film Magnetic-Field-Response Fluid-Level Sensor for Non-Viscous Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative method has been developed for acquiring fluid-level measurements. This method eliminates the need for the fluid-level sensor to have a physical connection to a power source or to data acquisition equipment. The complete system consists of a lightweight, thin-film magnetic-field-response fluid-level sensor (see Figure 1) and a magnetic field response recorder that was described in Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System (LAR-16908-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 28. The sensor circuit is a capacitor connected to an inductor. The response recorder powers the sensor using a series of oscillating magnetic fields. Once electrically active, the sensor responds with its own harmonic magnetic field. The sensor will oscillate at its resonant electrical frequency, which is dependent upon the capacitance and inductance values of the circuit.

  17. A noise level prediction method based on electro-mechanical frequency response function for capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingyu; Ji, Shengchang; Shen, Qi; Liu, Yuan; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The capacitors in high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) converter stations radiate a lot of audible noise which can reach higher than 100 dB. The existing noise level prediction methods are not satisfying enough. In this paper, a new noise level prediction method is proposed based on a frequency response function considering both electrical and mechanical characteristics of capacitors. The electro-mechanical frequency response function (EMFRF) is defined as the frequency domain quotient of the vibration response and the squared capacitor voltage, and it is obtained from impulse current experiment. Under given excitations, the vibration response of the capacitor tank is the product of EMFRF and the square of the given capacitor voltage in frequency domain, and the radiated audible noise is calculated by structure acoustic coupling formulas. The noise level under the same excitations is also measured in laboratory, and the results are compared with the prediction. The comparison proves that the noise prediction method is effective.

  18. Identifying long-term memory B-cells in vaccinated children despite waning antibody levels specific for Bordetella pertussis proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, Lotte H.; Ozturk, Kemal; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis. Since the 1950s in developed countries pertussis vaccinations are included in the national immunization program. However, antibody levels rapidly wane after both whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccination. Therefore

  19. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal; Thomsen, Bo; Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Jakob; Bendixen, Christian; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Transcriptome sequencing yielded 223 mill porcine RNA-seq reads, and 59,000 transcribed locations. •Establishment of unique transcription profiles for ten porcine tissues including four brain tissues. •Comparison of transcription profiles at gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level. •Highlights a high level of regulation of neuro-related genes at both gene, isoform, and TSS level. •Our results emphasize the pig as a valuable animal model with respect to human biological issues. -- Abstract: The transcriptome is the absolute set of transcripts in a tissue or cell at the time of sampling. In this study RNA-Seq is employed to enable the differential analysis of the transcriptome profile for ten porcine tissues in order to evaluate differences between the tissues at the gene and isoform expression level, together with an analysis of variation in transcription start sites, promoter usage, and splicing. Totally, 223 million RNA fragments were sequenced leading to the identification of 59,930 transcribed gene locations and 290,936 transcript variants using Cufflinks with similarity to approximately 13,899 annotated human genes. Pairwise analysis of tissues for differential expression at the gene level showed that the smallest differences were between tissues originating from the porcine brain. Interestingly, the relative level of differential expression at the isoform level did generally not vary between tissue contrasts. Furthermore, analysis of differential promoter usage between tissues, revealed a proportionally higher variation between cerebellum (CBE) versus frontal cortex and cerebellum versus hypothalamus (HYP) than in the remaining comparisons. In addition, the comparison of differential transcription start sites showed that the number of these sites is generally increased in comparisons including hypothalamus in contrast to other pairwise assessments. A comprehensive analysis of one of the tissue contrasts, i

  20. High serum level of the soluble CD30 identifies Chinese kidney transplant recipients at high risk of unfavorable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iv, R; He, Q; Wang, H P; Jin, J; Chen, Y; Chen, J H

    2008-12-01

    We sought to investigate the relationship between serum level of sCD30 and recipient/graft survival rates, rejection types, as well as other prognostic factors among Chinese kidney transplant patients. We performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of serum sCD30 levels in duplicate among retrospective cohort of 707 renal transplant patients. The incidences of rejection increased in relation to the pretransplant sCD30 level. The reversal rates of rejection were 100%, 90.6%, and 78.6% for the low, intermediate, and high sCD30 groups. This observation suggested that high levels of sCD30 and pretransplant panel-reactive antibody (PRA)-positive patients are risk factors for acute rejection with odds ratios of 6.862 and 1.756. High sCD30 was an independent risk factor for functional graft survival. The 5-year graft survival rates were 99.39% +/- 6.1%, 93.11% +/- 1.93%, and 82.07% +/- 3.97% among the low, intermediate, and high sCD30 groups, while the 5-year recipient survival rates were 89.25% +/- 2.41%, 91.82% +/- 1.64%, and 88.85% +/- 2.36%, respectively. Increased sCD30 levels were observed among patients who were PRA-positive, cytomegalovirus antigens or antibodies positive, on long-term dialysis, and sCD30 serum levels reflect immune status.

  1. Root Cause Analyses of Suicides of Mental Health Clients: Identifying Systematic Processes and Service-Level Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donna; Chicop, David; O'Halloran, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The ability to predict imminent risk of suicide is limited, particularly among mental health clients. Root cause analysis (RCA) can be used by health services to identify service-wide approaches to suicide prevention. To (a) develop a standardized taxonomy for RCAs; (b) to quantitate service-related factors associated with suicides; and (c) to identify service-related suicide prevention strategies. The RCAs of all people who died by suicide within 1 week of contact with the mental health service over 5 years were thematically analyzed using a data collection tool. Data were derived from RCAs of all 64 people who died by suicide between 2008 and 2012. Major themes were categorized as individual, situational, and care-related factors. The most common factor was that clients had recently denied suicidality. Reliance on carers, recent changes in medication, communication problems, and problems in follow-through were also commonly identified. Given the difficulty in predicting suicide in people whose expressions of suicidal ideation change so rapidly, services may consider the use of strategies aimed at improving the individual, stressor, support, and care factors identified in this study.

  2. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  3. Integrated physiological, biochemical and molecular analysis identifies important traits and mechanisms associated with differential response of rice genotypes to elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghireddy eSailaja

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In changing climate, heat stress caused by high temperature poses a serious threat to rice cultivation. A multiple organizational analysis at physiological, biochemical and molecular level is required to fully understand the impact of elevated temperature in rice. This study was aimed at deciphering the elevated temperature response in eleven popular and mega rice cultivars widely grown in India. Physiological and biochemical traits specifically membrane thermostability (MTS, antioxidants, and photosynthesis were studied at vegetative and reproductive phases which were used to establish a correlation with grain yield under stress. Several useful traits in different genotypes were identified which will be important resource to develop high temperature tolerant rice cultivars. Interestingly, Nagina22 emerged as best performer in terms of yield as well as expression of physiological and biochemical traits at elevated temperature. It showed lesser relative injury, lesser reduction in chlorophyll content, increased super oxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity, lesser reduction in net photosynthetic rate (PN, high transpiration rate (E and other photosynthetic/ fluorescence parameters contributing to least reduction in spikelet fertility and grain yield at elevated temperature. Further, expression of 14 genes including heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins was analyzed in Nagina22 (tolerant and Vandana (susceptible at flowering phase, strengthening the fact that N22 performs better at molecular level also during elevated temperature. This study shows that elevated temperature response is complex and involves multiple biological processes which are needed to be characterized to address the challenges of future climate extreme conditions.

  4. Response of maize ( Zea mays L.) to varied moisture levels under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory and glasshouse trials were used to determine the response of maize plants to varied moisture levels under Striga lutea infestation. Six moisture levels (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 ml) were applied to striga seed for germination count in the laboratory, while five moisture levels (300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 ml) ...

  5. Sequencing illustrates the transcriptional response of Legionella pneumophila during infection and identifies seventy novel small non-coding RNAs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weissenmayer, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    Second generation sequencing has prompted a number of groups to re-interrogate the transcriptomes of several bacterial and archaeal species. One of the central findings has been the identification of complex networks of small non-coding RNAs that play central roles in transcriptional regulation in all growth conditions and for the pathogen\\'s interaction with and survival within host cells. Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative facultative intracellular human pathogen with a distinct biphasic lifestyle. One of its primary environmental hosts in the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and its infection by L. pneumophila mimics that seen in human macrophages. Here we present analysis of strand specific sequencing of the transcriptional response of L. pneumophila during exponential and post-exponential broth growth and during the replicative and transmissive phase of infection inside A. castellanii. We extend previous microarray based studies as well as uncovering evidence of a complex regulatory architecture underpinned by numerous non-coding RNAs. Over seventy new non-coding RNAs could be identified; many of them appear to be strain specific and in configurations not previously reported. We discover a family of non-coding RNAs preferentially expressed during infection conditions and identify a second copy of 6S RNA in L. pneumophila. We show that the newly discovered putative 6S RNA as well as a number of other non-coding RNAs show evidence for antisense transcription. The nature and extent of the non-coding RNAs and their expression patterns suggests that these may well play central roles in the regulation of Legionella spp. specific traits and offer clues as to how L. pneumophila adapts to its intracellular niche. The expression profiles outlined in the study have been deposited into Genbank\\'s Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under the series accession GSE27232.

  6. Metabolites Identified during Varied Doses of Aspergillus Species in Zea mays Grains, and Their Correlation with Aflatoxin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilayo D. O. Falade

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination is associated with the development of aflatoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus on food grains. This study was aimed at investigating metabolites produced during fungal development on maize and their correlation with aflatoxin levels. Maize cobs were harvested at R3 (milk, R4 (dough, and R5 (dent stages of maturity. Individual kernels were inoculated in petri dishes with four doses of fungal spores. Fungal colonisation, metabolite profile, and aflatoxin levels were examined. Grain colonisation decreased with kernel maturity: milk-, dough-, and dent-stage kernels by approximately 100%, 60%, and 30% respectively. Aflatoxin levels increased with dose at dough and dent stages. Polar metabolites including alanine, proline, serine, valine, inositol, iso-leucine, sucrose, fructose, trehalose, turanose, mannitol, glycerol, arabitol, inositol, myo-inositol, and some intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA—also known as citric acid or Krebs cycle were important for dose classification. Important non-polar metabolites included arachidic, palmitic, stearic, 3,4-xylylic, and margaric acids. Aflatoxin levels correlated with levels of several polar metabolites. The strongest positive and negative correlations were with arabitol (R = 0.48 and turanose and (R = −0.53, respectively. Several metabolites were interconnected with the TCA; interconnections of the metabolites with the TCA cycle varied depending upon the grain maturity.

  7. Linking the Salt Transcriptome with Physiological Responses of a Salt-Resistant Populus Species as a Strategy to Identify Genes Important for Stress Acclimation1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Monika; Brosché, Mikael; Vinocur, Basia; Abo-Ogiala, Atef; Fayyaz, Payam; Janz, Dennis; Ottow, Eric A.; Cullmann, Andreas D.; Saborowski, Joachim; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Altman, Arie; Polle, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    To investigate early salt acclimation mechanisms in a salt-tolerant poplar species (Populus euphratica), the kinetics of molecular, metabolic, and physiological changes during a 24-h salt exposure were measured. Three distinct phases of salt stress were identified by analyses of the osmotic pressure and the shoot water potential: dehydration, salt accumulation, and osmotic restoration associated with ionic stress. The duration and intensity of these phases differed between leaves and roots. Transcriptome analysis using P. euphratica-specific microarrays revealed clusters of coexpressed genes in these phases, with only 3% overlapping salt-responsive genes in leaves and roots. Acclimation of cellular metabolism to high salt concentrations involved remodeling of amino acid and protein biosynthesis and increased expression of molecular chaperones (dehydrins, osmotin). Leaves suffered initially from dehydration, which resulted in changes in transcript levels of mitochondrial and photosynthetic genes, indicating adjustment of energy metabolism. Initially, decreases in stress-related genes were found, whereas increases occurred only when leaves had restored the osmotic balance by salt accumulation. Comparative in silico analysis of the poplar stress regulon with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) orthologs was used as a strategy to reduce the number of candidate genes for functional analysis. Analysis of Arabidopsis knockout lines identified a lipocalin-like gene (AtTIL) and a gene encoding a protein with previously unknown functions (AtSIS) to play roles in salt tolerance. In conclusion, by dissecting the stress transcriptome of tolerant species, novel genes important for salt endurance can be identified. PMID:20959419

  8. Linking the salt transcriptome with physiological responses of a salt-resistant Populus species as a strategy to identify genes important for stress acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Monika; Brosché, Mikael; Vinocur, Basia; Abo-Ogiala, Atef; Fayyaz, Payam; Janz, Dennis; Ottow, Eric A; Cullmann, Andreas D; Saborowski, Joachim; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Altman, Arie; Polle, Andrea

    2010-12-01

    To investigate early salt acclimation mechanisms in a salt-tolerant poplar species (Populus euphratica), the kinetics of molecular, metabolic, and physiological changes during a 24-h salt exposure were measured. Three distinct phases of salt stress were identified by analyses of the osmotic pressure and the shoot water potential: dehydration, salt accumulation, and osmotic restoration associated with ionic stress. The duration and intensity of these phases differed between leaves and roots. Transcriptome analysis using P. euphratica-specific microarrays revealed clusters of coexpressed genes in these phases, with only 3% overlapping salt-responsive genes in leaves and roots. Acclimation of cellular metabolism to high salt concentrations involved remodeling of amino acid and protein biosynthesis and increased expression of molecular chaperones (dehydrins, osmotin). Leaves suffered initially from dehydration, which resulted in changes in transcript levels of mitochondrial and photosynthetic genes, indicating adjustment of energy metabolism. Initially, decreases in stress-related genes were found, whereas increases occurred only when leaves had restored the osmotic balance by salt accumulation. Comparative in silico analysis of the poplar stress regulon with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) orthologs was used as a strategy to reduce the number of candidate genes for functional analysis. Analysis of Arabidopsis knockout lines identified a lipocalin-like gene (AtTIL) and a gene encoding a protein with previously unknown functions (AtSIS) to play roles in salt tolerance. In conclusion, by dissecting the stress transcriptome of tolerant species, novel genes important for salt endurance can be identified.

  9. An inorganic carbon transport system responsible for acclimation specific to air levels of CO2 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingjun; Spalding, Martin H

    2006-06-27

    Many photosynthetic microorganisms acclimate to CO(2) limited environments by induction and operation of CO(2)-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). Despite their central role in CCM function, inorganic carbon (Ci) transport systems never have been identified in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a mutant, pmp1, was described in 1983 with deficiencies in Ci transport, and a Pmp1 protein-associated Ci uptake system has been proposed to be responsible for Ci uptake in low CO(2) (air level)-acclimated cells. However, even though pmp1 represents the only clear genetic link to Ci transport in microalgae and is one of only a very few mutants directly affecting the CCM itself, the identity of Pmp1 has remained unknown. Physiological analyses indicate that C. reinhardtii possesses multiple Ci transport systems responsible for acclimation to different levels of limiting CO(2) and that the Pmp1-associated transport system is required specifically for low (air level) CO(2) acclimation. In the current study, we identified and characterized a pmp1 allelic mutant, air dier 1 (ad1) that, like pmp1, cannot grow in low CO(2) (350 ppm) but can grow either in high CO(2) (5% CO(2)) or in very low CO(2) (<200 ppm). Molecular analyses revealed that the Ad1/Pmp1 protein is encoded by LciB, a gene previously identified as a CO(2)-responsive gene. LciB and three related genes in C. reinhardtii compose a unique gene family that encode four closely related, apparently soluble plastid proteins with no clearly identifiable conserved motifs.

  10. Global transcriptomic profiling of aspen trees under elevated [CO2] to identify potential molecular mechanisms responsible for enhanced radial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hairong; Gou, Jiqing; Yordanov, Yordan; Zhang, Huaxin; Thakur, Ramesh; Jones, Wendy; Burton, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees growing under elevated [CO(2)] at a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) site produced significantly more biomass than control trees. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed increase in biomass by producing transcriptomic profiles of the vascular cambium zone (VCZ) and leaves, and then performed a comparative study to identify significantly changed genes and pathways after 12 years exposure to elevated [CO(2)]. In leaves, elevated [CO(2)] enhanced expression of genes related to Calvin cycle activity and linked pathways. In the VCZ, the pathways involved in cell growth, cell division, hormone metabolism, and secondary cell wall formation were altered while auxin conjugation, ABA synthesis, and cytokinin glucosylation and degradation were inhibited. Similarly, the genes involved in hemicellulose and pectin biosynthesis were enhanced, but some genes that catalyze important steps in lignin biosynthesis pathway were inhibited. Evidence from systemic analysis supported the functioning of multiple molecular mechanisms that underpin the enhanced radial growth in response to elevated [CO(2)].

  11. Development of a simple binary response questionnaire to identify airflow obstruction in a smoking population in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergna, Miguel A; García, Gabriel R; Alchapar, Ramon; Altieri, Hector; Casas, Juan C Figueroa; Larrateguy, Luis; Nannini, Luis J; Pascansky, Daniel; Grabre, Pedro; Zabert, Gustavo; Miravitlles, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The CODE questionnaire (COPD detection questionnaire), a simple, binary response scale (yes/no), screening questionnaire, was developed for the identification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a survey of 468 subjects with a smoking history in 10 public hospitals in Argentina. Patients with a previous diagnosis of COPD, asthma and other respiratory illness were excluded. Items that measured conceptual domains in terms of characteristics of symptoms, smoking history and demographics data were considered. 96 (20.5%) subjects had a diagnosis of COPD according to the 2010 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy document. The variables selected for the final questionnaire were based on univariate and multivariate analyses and clinical criteria. Finally, we selected the presence or absence of six variables (age ≥50 years, smoking history ≥30 pack-years, male sex, chronic cough, chronic phlegm and dyspnoea). Of patients without any of these six variables (0 points), none had COPD. The ability of the CODE questionnaire to discriminate between subjects with and without COPD was good (the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75). Higher scores were associated with a greater probability of COPD. The CODE questionnaire is a brief, accurate questionnaire that can identify smoking individuals likely to have COPD. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  12. Development of a simple binary response questionnaire to identify airflow obstruction in a smoking population in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Bergna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The CODE questionnaire (COPD detection questionnaire, a simple, binary response scale (yes/no, screening questionnaire, was developed for the identification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We conducted a survey of 468 subjects with a smoking history in 10 public hospitals in Argentina. Patients with a previous diagnosis of COPD, asthma and other respiratory illness were excluded. Items that measured conceptual domains in terms of characteristics of symptoms, smoking history and demographics data were considered. 96 (20.5% subjects had a diagnosis of COPD according to the 2010 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy document. The variables selected for the final questionnaire were based on univariate and multivariate analyses and clinical criteria. Finally, we selected the presence or absence of six variables (age ≥50 years, smoking history ≥30 pack-years, male sex, chronic cough, chronic phlegm and dyspnoea. Of patients without any of these six variables (0 points, none had COPD. The ability of the CODE questionnaire to discriminate between subjects with and without COPD was good (the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75. Higher scores were associated with a greater probability of COPD. The CODE questionnaire is a brief, accurate questionnaire that can identify smoking individuals likely to have COPD.

  13. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Deelen, Joris

    2015-01-01

    created by the Genome of the Netherlands Project and perform association testing with blood lipid levels. We report the discovery of five novel associations at four loci (P value -4), including a rare missense variant in ABCA6 (rs77542162, p.Cys1359Arg, frequency 0.034), which is predicted...

  14. Multi-level Strategy for Identifying Proteasome-Catalyzed Spliced Epitopes Targeted by CD8(+) T Cells during Bacterial Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375805613; Liepe, Juliane; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Keller, Christin; Henklein, Petra; Schalkwijk, Hanna H; Cardoso, Rebeca; Kloetzel, Peter M; Mishto, Michele; Sijts, Alice J A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/115553843

    2017-01-01

    Proteasome-catalyzed peptide splicing (PCPS) generates peptides that are presented by MHC class I molecules, but because their identification is challenging, the immunological relevance of spliced peptides remains unclear. Here, we developed a reverse immunology-based multi-level approach to

  15. Using Direct Policy Search to Identify Robust Strategies in Adapting to Uncertain Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, G. G.; Keller, K.

    2017-12-01

    Sea-level rise poses considerable risks to coastal communities, ecosystems, and infrastructure. Decision makers are faced with deeply uncertain sea-level projections when designing a strategy for coastal adaptation. The traditional methods have provided tremendous insight into this decision problem, but are often silent on tradeoffs as well as the effects of tail-area events and of potential future learning. Here we reformulate a simple sea-level rise adaptation model to address these concerns. We show that Direct Policy Search yields improved solution quality, with respect to Pareto-dominance in the objectives, over the traditional approach under uncertain sea-level rise projections and storm surge. Additionally, the new formulation produces high quality solutions with less computational demands than the traditional approach. Our results illustrate the utility of multi-objective adaptive formulations for the example of coastal adaptation, the value of information provided by observations, and point to wider-ranging application in climate change adaptation decision problems.

  16. Stathmin protein level, a potential predictive marker for taxane treatment response in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrica M J Werner

    Full Text Available Stathmin is a prognostic marker in many cancers, including endometrial cancer. Preclinical studies, predominantly in breast cancer, have suggested that stathmin may additionally be a predictive marker for response to paclitaxel. We first evaluated the response to paclitaxel in endometrial cancer cell lines before and after stathmin knock-down. Subsequently we investigated the clinical response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy in metastatic endometrial cancer in relation to stathmin protein level in tumors. Stathmin level was also determined in metastatic lesions, analyzing changes in biomarker status on disease progression. Knock-down of stathmin improved sensitivity to paclitaxel in endometrial carcinoma cell lines with both naturally higher and lower sensitivity to paclitaxel. In clinical samples, high stathmin level was demonstrated to be associated with poor response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy and to reduced disease specific survival only in patients treated with such combination. Stathmin level increased significantly from primary to metastatic lesions. This study suggests, supported by both preclinical and clinical data, that stathmin could be a predictive biomarker for response to paclitaxel treatment in endometrial cancer. Re-assessment of stathmin level in metastatic lesions prior to treatment start may be relevant. Also, validation in a randomized clinical trial will be important.

  17. Chemical fingerprinting identifies Echium vulgare, Eupatorium cannabinum and Senecio spp. as plant species mainly responsible for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in bee-collected pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Christina; Kilchenmann, Verena; Reinhard, Hans; Droz, Benoit; Lucchetti, Matteo Angelo; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Zoller, Otmar

    2018-02-01

    Various studies have shown that bee-collected pollen sold as nutritional supplements may contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and, thus, pose a potential health risk for consumers. The level of contamination may vary according to its geographical and botanical origin. Here, the PA content of pollen produced in Switzerland was studied and 32 commercially available bee-collected pollen supplements produced between 2010 and 2014 were analysed. In addition, at what time period bees collect PA-containing pollen was investigated. Hence, this study looked into the occurrence of PAs in pollen samples collected daily during two-to-three consecutive seasons. Furthermore, the PA spectrum in pollen was compared to the spectrum found in flower heads of PA-plants to unambiguously identify plants responsible for PA contamination of pollen. The PA concentration of commercial and daily collected pollen was determined by target analysis using an HPLC-MS/MS system, allowing the detection of 18 different PAs and PA N-oxides found in the genera Echium, Eupatorium and Senecio, while the comparison of the PA spectrum in pollen and flower heads was performed by LC-HR-MS, allowing the detection of all PA types in a sample, including saturated, non-carcinogenic PAs. Of the commercially available pollen, 31% contained PAs with a mean concentration of 319 ng/g, mainly Echium- and Eupatorium-type PAs, while the PA concentrations were below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in 69% of the pollen samples. Bees collected pollen containing Echium-type PAs mainly in June and July, while they gathered pollen containing Eupatorium-type PAs from mid-July to August. Senecio-type PAs appeared from June to September. Comparison of the PA array in pollen and plants identified E. vulgare and E. cannabinum as the main plants responsible for PA contamination of Swiss bee-collected pollen, and to a lesser extent also identified plants belonging to the genus Senecio.

  18. Using microarrays to identify positional candidate genes for QTL: the case study of ACTH response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffe, Vincent; Rowe, Suzanne; Liaubet, Laurence; Buitenhuis, Bart; Hornshøj, Henrik; SanCristobal, Magali; Mormède, Pierre; de Koning, D J

    2009-07-16

    Microarray studies can supplement QTL studies by suggesting potential candidate genes in the QTL regions, which by themselves are too large to provide a limited selection of candidate genes. Here we provide a case study where we explore ways to integrate QTL data and microarray data for the pig, which has only a partial genome sequence. We outline various procedures to localize differentially expressed genes on the pig genome and link this with information on published QTL. The starting point is a set of 237 differentially expressed cDNA clones in adrenal tissue from two pig breeds, before and after treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Different approaches to localize the differentially expressed (DE) genes to the pig genome showed different levels of success and a clear lack of concordance for some genes between the various approaches. For a focused analysis on 12 genes, overlapping QTL from the public domain were presented. Also, differentially expressed genes underlying QTL for ACTH response were described. Using the latest version of the draft sequence, the differentially expressed genes were mapped to the pig genome. This enabled co-location of DE genes and previously studied QTL regions, but the draft genome sequence is still incomplete and will contain many errors. A further step to explore links between DE genes and QTL at the pathway level was largely unsuccessful due to the lack of annotation of the pig genome. This could be improved by further comparative mapping analyses but this would be time consuming. This paper provides a case study for the integration of QTL data and microarray data for a species with limited genome sequence information and annotation. The results illustrate the challenges that must be addressed but also provide a roadmap for future work that is applicable to other non-model species.

  19. Cross-species global and subset gene expression profiling identifies genes involved in prostate cancer response to selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhir Rajiv

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression technologies have the ability to generate vast amounts of data, yet there often resides only limited resources for subsequent validation studies. This necessitates the ability to perform sorting and prioritization of the output data. Previously described methodologies have used functional pathways or transcriptional regulatory grouping to sort genes for further study. In this paper we demonstrate a comparative genomics based method to leverage data from animal models to prioritize genes for validation. This approach allows one to develop a disease-based focus for the prioritization of gene data, a process that is essential for systems that lack significant functional pathway data yet have defined animal models. This method is made possible through the use of highly controlled spotted cDNA slide production and the use of comparative bioinformatics databases without the use of cross-species slide hybridizations. Results Using gene expression profiling we have demonstrated a similar whole transcriptome gene expression patterns in prostate cancer cells from human and rat prostate cancer cell lines both at baseline expression levels and after treatment with physiologic concentrations of the proposed chemopreventive agent Selenium. Using both the human PC3 and rat PAII prostate cancer cell lines have gone on to identify a subset of one hundred and fifty-four genes that demonstrate a similar level of differential expression to Selenium treatment in both species. Further analysis and data mining for two genes, the Insulin like Growth Factor Binding protein 3, and Retinoic X Receptor alpha, demonstrates an association with prostate cancer, functional pathway links, and protein-protein interactions that make these genes prime candidates for explaining the mechanism of Selenium's chemopreventive effect in prostate cancer. These genes are subsequently validated by western blots showing Selenium based induction and using

  20. Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra A. Tsuji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake.

  1. Mitochondrial GWA Analysis of Lipid Profile Identifies Genetic Variants to Be Associated with HDL Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antònia Flaquer

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction has an influence on lipid metabolism. The fact that mitochondrial defects can be accumulated over time as a normal part of aging may explain why cholesterol levels often are altered with age. To test the hypothesis whether mitochondrial variants are associated with lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides we analyzed a total number of 978 mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs in a sample of 2,815 individuals participating in the population-based KORA F4 study. To assess mtSNP association while taking the presence of heteroplasmy into account we used the raw signal intensity values measured on the microarray and applied linear regression. Ten mtSNPs (mt3285, mt3336, mt5285, mt6591, mt6671, mt9163, mt13855, mt13958, mt14000, and mt14580 were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol and one mtSNP (mt15074 with triglycerides levels. These results highlight the importance of the mitochondrial genome among the factors that contribute to the regulation of lipid levels. Focusing on mitochondrial variants may lead to further insights regarding the underlying physiological mechanisms, or even to the development of innovative treatments. Since this is the first mitochondrial genome-wide association analysis (mtGWAS for lipid profile, further analyses are needed to follow up on the present findings.

  2. Application of Wavelet Decomposition to Removing Barometric and Tidal Response in Borehole Water Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Rui; Huang Fuqiong; Chen Yong

    2007-01-01

    Wavelet decomposition is used to analyze barometric fluctuation and earth tidal response in borehole water level changes. We apply wavelet analysis method to the decomposition of barometric fluctuation and earth tidal response into several temporal series in different frequency ranges. Barometric and tidal coefficients in different frequency ranges are computed with least squares method to remove barometric and tidal response. Comparing this method with general linear regression analysis method, we find wavelet analysis method can efficiently remove barometric and earth tidal response in borehole water level. Wavelet analysis method is based on wave theory and vibration theories. It not only considers the frequency characteristic of the observed data but also the temporal characteristic, and it can get barometric and tidal coefficients in different frequency ranges. This method has definite physical meaning.

  3. Stressors and Stressor Response Levels of Hong Kong Primary School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk; Chan, Edmund Sze Shing

    2018-01-01

    Responses from 309 randomly sampled Hong Kong primary school music teachers to the shortened version of the Chinese Teacher Stress Questionnaire were subjected to a descriptive percentage analysis, one-way ANOVA and independent t test. Obtained results identify five key stressors: "changing education policy of the government";…

  4. Can empathy, other personality attributes, and level of positive social influence in medical school identify potential leaders in medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Michalec, Barret; Veloski, J Jon; Tykocinski, Mark L

    2015-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that medical students recognized by peers as the most positive social influencers would score (1) high on measures of engaging personality attributes that are conducive to relationship building (empathy, sociability, activity, self-esteem), and (2) low on disengaging personality attributes that are detrimental to interpersonal relationships (loneliness, neuroticism, aggression-hostility, impulsive sensation seeking). The study included 666 Jefferson Medical College students who graduated in 2011-2013. Students used a peer nomination instrument to identify classmates who had a positive influence on their professional and personal development. At matriculation, these students had completed a survey that included the Jefferson Scale of Empathy and Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire short form and abridged versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and UCLA Loneliness Scale. In multivariate analyses of variance, the method of contrasted groups was used to compare the personality attributes of students nominated most frequently by their peers as positive influencers (top influencers [top 25% in their class distribution], n = 176) with those of students nominated least frequently (bottom influencers [bottom 25%], n = 171). The top influencers scored significantly higher on empathy, sociability, and activity and significantly lower on loneliness compared with the bottom influencers. However, the effect size estimates of the differences were moderate at best. The research hypotheses were partially confirmed. Positive social influencers appear to possess personality attributes conducive to relationship building, which is an important feature of effective leadership. The findings have implications for identifying and training potential leaders in medicine.

  5. Influence determination of social responsibility to the productivity enterprise activity level

    OpenAIRE

    Kavun, Sergii; Zhosan, Ganna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a scientific and methodical approach for determination of the comprehensive social responsibility indicator in this paper based on estimation of influence degree for the economical, ecological, social and labour, standard and legal components. There is allowance for determining of some level of enterprise social responsibility. In addition, there is a basis for development some ways of their increasing. The essence of the used approach is clotting of th...

  6. Basal blood DHEA-S/cortisol levels predicts EMDR treatment response in adolescents with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Say, Gokce Nur; Bozkurt, Abdullah; Şahin, Berkan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray

    2018-04-01

    In literature, recent evidence has shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and HPA axis hormones may predict the psychotherapy treatment response in patients with PTSD. In this study, it was aimed to investigate changing cortisol and DHEA-S levels post-eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and the relationship between treatment response and basal cortisol, and DHEA-S levels before treatment. The study group comprised 40 adolescents (age, 12-18 years) with PTSD. The PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Post-traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI) and the blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured with the chemiluminescence method before and after treatment. A maximum of six sessions of EMDR therapy were conducted by an EMDR level-1 trained child psychiatry resident. Treatment response was measured by the pre- to post-treatment decrease in self-reported and clinical PTSD severity. Pre- and post-treatment DHEA-S and cortisol levels did not show any statistically significant difference. Pre-treatment CDI scores were negatively correlated with pre-treatment DHEA-S levels (r: -0.39). ROC analysis demonstrated that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio predicts treatment response at a medium level (AUC: 0.703, p: .030, sensitivity: 0.65, specificity: 0.86). The results of this study suggested that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio may predict treatment response in adolescents with PTSD receiving EMDR therapy. The biochemical parameter of HPA-axis activity appears to be an important predictor of positive clinical response in adolescent PTSD patients, and could be used in clinical practice to predict PTSD treatment in the future.

  7. Transcriptome profiling to identify ATRA-responsive genes in human iPSC-derived endoderm for high-throughput point of departure analysis (SOT Annual Meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicological tipping points occur at chemical concentrations that overwhelm a cell’s adaptive response leading to permanent effects. We focused on retinoid signaling in differentiating endoderm to identify developmental pathways for tipping point analysis. Human induced pluripot...

  8. Response-only modal identification using random decrement algorithm with time-varying threshold level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chang Sheng; Tseng, Tse Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Modal Identification from response data only is studied for structural systems under nonstationary ambient vibration. The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from nonstationary ambient vibration data by applying the random decrement algorithm with time-varying threshold level. In the conventional random decrement algorithm, the threshold level for evaluating random dec signatures is defined as the standard deviation value of response data of the reference channel. The distortion of random dec signatures may be, however, induced by the error involved in noise from the original response data in practice. To improve the accuracy of identification, a modification of the sampling procedure in random decrement algorithm is proposed for modal-parameter identification from the nonstationary ambient response data. The time-varying threshold level is presented for the acquisition of available sample time history to perform averaging analysis, and defined as the temporal root-mean-square function of structural response, which can appropriately describe a wide variety of nonstationary behaviors in reality, such as the time-varying amplitude (variance) of a nonstationary process in a seismic record. Numerical simulations confirm the validity and robustness of the proposed modal-identification method from nonstationary ambient response data under noisy conditions.

  9. Plasma Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase in the First Trimester Identify High Risk Chinese Women for Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Cuiping; Wang, Peng; Li, Nan; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Ma, Ronald CW; Chan, Juliana CN; Yang, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) predicts type 2 diabetes but it is uncertain whether it also predicts gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We recruited 17359 Chinese women with ALT measured in their first trimester. At 24?28?weeks of gestation, all women underwent a 50-gram 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if GCT result was ?7.8?mmol/L. Restricted cubic spline analysis was used to examine full-range risk associations of ALT levels wit...

  10. The Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Tool: Identifying Combinations and Permutations of Multiple Chronic Diseases Using a Record-Level Computational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Nicholson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multimorbidity, or the co-occurrence of multiple chronic health conditions within an individual, is an increasingly dominant presence and burden in modern health care systems.  To fully capture its complexity, further research is needed to uncover the patterns and consequences of these co-occurring health states.  As such, the Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Tool and the accompanying Multimorbidity Cluster Analysis Toolkit have been created to allow researchers to identify distinct clusters that exist within a sample of participants or patients living with multimorbidity.  Development: The Tool and Toolkit were developed at Western University in London, Ontario, Canada.  This open-access computational program (JAVA code and executable file was developed and tested to support an analysis of thousands of individual records and up to 100 disease diagnoses or categories.  Application: The computational program can be adapted to the methodological elements of a research project, including type of data, type of chronic disease reporting, measurement of multimorbidity, sample size and research setting.  The computational program will identify all existing, and mutually exclusive, combinations and permutations within the dataset.  An application of this computational program is provided as an example, in which more than 75,000 individual records and 20 chronic disease categories resulted in the detection of 10,411 unique combinations and 24,647 unique permutations among female and male patients.  Discussion: The Tool and Toolkit are now available for use by researchers interested in exploring the complexities of multimorbidity.  Its careful use, and the comparison between results, will be valuable additions to the nuanced understanding of multimorbidity.

  11. [Diagnostic evaluation of the developmental level in children identified at risk of delay through the Child Development Evaluation Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Campos-Maldonado, Martha Carmen; Vélez-Andrade, Víctor Hugo; Delgado-Ginebra, Ismael; Baqueiro-Hernández, César Iván; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Ojeda-Lara, Lucía; Davis-Martínez, Erika Berenice; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; Carrasco-Mendoza, Joaquín; Villagrán-Muñoz, Víctor Manuel; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Sidonio-Aguayo, Beatriz; Palma-Tavera, Josuha Alexander; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre

    The Child Development Evaluation (or CDE Test) was developed in Mexico as a screening tool for child developmental problems. It yields three possible results: normal, slow development or risk of delay. The modified version was elaborated using the information obtained during the validation study but its properties according to the base population are not known. The objective of this work was to establish diagnostic confirmation of developmental delay in children 16- to 59-months of age previously identified as having risk of delay through the CDE Test in primary care facilities. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in one Mexican state. CDE test was administered to 11,455 children 16- to 59-months of age from December/2013 to March/2014. The eligible population represented the 6.2% of the children (n=714) who were identified at risk of delay through the CDE Test. For inclusion in the study, a block randomization stratified by sex and age group was performed. Each participant included in the study had a diagnostic evaluation using the Battelle Development Inventory, 2 nd edition. From the 355 participants included with risk of delay, 65.9% were male and 80.2% were from rural areas; 6.5% were false positives (Total Development Quotient ˃90) and 6.8% did not have any domain with delay (Domain Developmental Quotient <80). The proportion of delay for each domain was as follows: communication 82.5%; cognitive 80.8%; social-personal 33.8%; motor 55.5%; and adaptive 41.7%. There were significant differences in the percentages of delay both by age and by domain/subdomain evaluated. In 93.2% of the participants, developmental delay was corroborated in at least one domain evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional feedback regulation of YUCCA genes in response to auxin levels in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masashi; Yamazaki, Chiaki; Mitsui, Marie; Kakei, Yusuke; Mitani, Yuka; Nakamura, Ayako; Ishii, Takahiro; Soeno, Kazuo; Shimada, Yukihisa

    2015-08-01

    The IPyA pathway, the major auxin biosynthesis pathway, is transcriptionally regulated through a negative feedback mechanism in response to active auxin levels. The phytohormone auxin plays an important role in plant growth and development, and levels of active free auxin are determined by biosynthesis, conjugation, and polar transport. Unlike conjugation and polar transport, little is known regarding the regulatory mechanism of auxin biosynthesis. We discovered that expression of genes encoding indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway enzymes is regulated by elevated or reduced active auxin levels. Expression levels of TAR2, YUC1, YUC2, YUC4, and YUC6 were downregulated in response to synthetic auxins [1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)] exogenously applied to Arabidopsis thaliana L. seedlings. Concomitantly, reduced levels of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were observed. Alternatively, expression of these YUCCA genes was upregulated by the auxin biosynthetic inhibitor kynurenine in Arabidopsis seedlings, accompanied by reduced IAA levels. These results indicate that expression of YUCCA genes is regulated by active auxin levels. Similar results were also observed in auxin-overproduction and auxin-deficient mutants. Exogenous application of IPyA to Arabidopsis seedlings preincubated with kynurenine increased endogenous IAA levels, while preincubation with 2,4-D reduced endogenous IAA levels compared to seedlings exposed only to IPyA. These results suggest that in vivo conversion of IPyA to IAA was enhanced under reduced auxin levels, while IPyA to IAA conversion was depressed in the presence of excess auxin. Based on these results, we propose that the IPyA pathway is transcriptionally regulated through a negative feedback mechanism in response to active auxin levels.

  13. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Although elevated ground-level O 3 has a species–specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O 3 pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O 3 Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O 3 -tolerant (YD6) and the O 3 -sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O 3 pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O 3 negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O 3 pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O 3 pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - Highlights: • We investigated the soil biota in two rice cultivars in presence of elevated O 3 . • The contrasting responses of soil biota were found between two rice cultivars. • Some keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution. • The crop cultivar is important in determining soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - The crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3

  14. Solving a Location, Allocation, and Capacity Planning Problem with Dynamic Demand and Response Time Service Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Ka Yuk Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units, satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different response time service level. An initial solution is obtained from solving static location-allocation models, followed by iterative improvement of the three levels of decisions by ejection, reinsertion procedure with memory of feasible and infeasible service regions. Results indicate that a higher response time service level could be achieved by allocating a given resource under an appropriate decentralized policy. Given a response time requirement, the general trend is that the minimum total capacity initially decreases with more facilities. During this stage, variability in travel time has more impact on capacity than variability in demand arrivals. Thereafter, the total capacity remains stable and then gradually increases. When service level requirement is high, the dynamic dispatch based on first-come-first-serve rule requires smaller capacity than the one by nearest-neighbour rule.

  15. The correlation between osteopontin level and radiation response of malignant gliomas at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnaniah Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteopontin is an endogenous molecular marker for tumor hypoxia, and hypoxia is one of the factors that determine the aggressiveness of the disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between osteopontin levels and radiation response in malignant glioma. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 15 malignant glioma patients who underwent radiation therapy from July 2004 to May 2015 at the RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Osteopontin levels were measured from paraffin-embedded tissue using a commercial ELISA kit. Tumor volume was calculated using computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI images, based on three-dimensional volume measurements. Tumor response was evaluated by comparing pre- and post-radiation tumor volumes using CT scan and MRI images. The mean osteopontin level was 0.49 ± 0.45 ng/mL and the mean percentage change in tumor volume was 8.59 ± 54.22%, with a 60% enlargement in tumor volume. A progressive disease was found in 26.7% of patients. There was a weak but insignificant negative correlation (r = -0.39, p = 0.146 between the level of osteopontin and radiation response. In contrast, there was a strong but insignificant positive correlation (r = +0.68, p = 0.219 between the level of osteopontin and radiation response in the patient group that used the chemosensitizer temozolamide.

  16. 41 CFR 102-192.150 - What are your general responsibilities as a program level mail manager?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities as a program level mail manager? 102-192.150 Section 102-192.150 Public Contracts and Property... general responsibilities as a program level mail manager? Your responsibilities at the program level include— (a) Working closely with the agency mail manager and mail center managers who handle significant...

  17. Response of groundwater level and surface-water/groundwater interaction to climate variability: Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Raiber, Matthias; Pagendam, Dan; Gilfedder, Mat; Rassam, David

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the response of groundwater levels in alluvial and sedimentary basin aquifers to climatic variability and human water-resource developments is a key step in many hydrogeological investigations. This study presents an analysis of groundwater response to climate variability from 2000 to 2012 in the Queensland part of the sedimentary Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia. It contributes to the baseline hydrogeological understanding by identifying the primary groundwater flow pattern, water-level response to climate extremes, and the resulting dynamics of surface-water/groundwater interaction. Groundwater-level measurements from thousands of bores over several decades were analysed using Kriging and nonparametric trend analysis, together with a newly developed three-dimensional geological model. Groundwater-level contours suggest that groundwater flow in the shallow aquifers shows local variations in the close vicinity of streams, notwithstanding general conformance with topographic relief. The trend analysis reveals that climate variability can be quickly reflected in the shallow aquifers of the Clarence-Moreton Basin although the alluvial aquifers have a quicker rainfall response than the sedimentary bedrock formations. The Lockyer Valley alluvium represents the most sensitively responding alluvium in the area, with the highest declining (-0.7 m/year) and ascending (2.1 m/year) Sen's slope rates during and after the drought period, respectively. Different surface-water/groundwater interaction characteristics were observed in different catchments by studying groundwater-level fluctuations along hydrogeologic cross-sections. The findings of this study lay a foundation for future water-resource management in the study area.

  18. Signaling profiling at the single-cell level identifies a distinct signaling signature in murine hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Wang, Jinyong; Kong, Guangyao; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Jingfang; Liu, Yangang; Tong, Wei; Zhang, Jing

    2012-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function is tightly regulated by cytokine signaling. Although phospho-flow cytometry allows us to study signaling in defined populations of cells, there has been tremendous hurdle to carry out this study in rare HSCs due to unrecoverable critical HSC markers, low HSC number, and poor cell recovery rate. Here, we overcame these difficulties and developed a "HSC phospho-flow" method to analyze cytokine signaling in murine HSCs at the single-cell level and compare HSC signaling profile to that of multipotent progenitors (MPPs), a cell type immediately downstream of HSCs, and commonly used Lin(-) cKit(+) cells (LK cells, enriched for myeloid progenitors). We chose to study signaling evoked from three representative cytokines, stem cell factor (SCF) and thrombopoietin (TPO) that are essential for HSC function and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that is dispensable for HSCs. HSCs display a distinct TPO and GM-CSF signaling signature from MPPs and LK cells, which highly correlates with receptor surface expression. In contrast, although majority of LK cells express lower levels of cKit than HSCs and MPPs, SCF-evoked ERK1/2 activation in LK cells shows a significantly increased magnitude for a prolonged period. These results suggest that specific cellular context plays a more important role than receptor surface expression in SCF signaling. Our study of HSC signaling at the homeostasis stage paves the way to investigate signaling changes in HSCs under conditions of stress, aging, and hematopoietic diseases. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  20. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C; Shinneman, Douglas J; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2018-03-14

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  1. Cold Pain Threshold Identifies a Subgroup of Individuals With Knee Osteoarthritis That Present With Multimodality Hyperalgesia and Elevated Pain Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony; Benson, Heather A E; Will, Rob; Moss, Penny

    2017-09-01

    Cold hyperalgesia has been established as an important marker of pain severity in a number of conditions. This study aimed to establish the extent to which patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) demonstrate widespread cold, heat, and pressure hyperalgesia. OA participants with widespread cold hyperalgesia were compared with the remaining OA cohort to determine whether they could be distinguished in terms of hyperalgesia, pain report, pain quality, and physical function. A total of 80 participants with knee OA and 40 matched healthy, pain-free controls participated. OA participants completed a washout of their usual medication. Quantitative sensory testing was completed at 3 sites using standard methods. Cold pain threshold (CPT) and heat pain thresholds (HPT) were tested using a Peltier thermode and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) using a digital algometer. All participants completed the short-form health survey questionnaire and OA participants completed the PainDETECT, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index of the Knee (WOMAC), and pain quality assessment scale questionnaires. OA participants demonstrated widespread cold hyperalgesia (Ppain, decreased function, and more features of neuropathic pain. This study identified a specific subgroup of patients with knee OA who exhibited widespread, multimodality hyperalgesia, more pain, more features of neuropathic pain, and greater functional impairment. Identification of patients with this pain phenotype may permit more targeted and effective pain management.

  2. Association of basal serum androgen levels with ovarian response and ICSI cycle outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abide Yayla, C; Ozkaya, E; Kayatas Eser, S; Sanverdi, I; Devranoglu, B; Kutlu, T

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of basal serum testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels during follicular phase for ovarian response and outcome in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles of women with diminished ovarian reserve. We prospectively gathered data of basal serum androgen levels and ICSI cycle characteristics of 120 women with diminished ovarian reserve. Association of basal serum T and DHEAS levels with ovarian response was analyzed. Basal T and DHEAS levels were similar between pregnant and non-pregnant cases (P > 0.05). There were significant differences between groups with and without successful embryo implantation in terms of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), gonadotropin starting and total dose, and peak estradiol level (P stimulation due to unresponsiveness (n = 26, 21.7%), no oocyte at oocyte pickup (n = 11, 9.2%), no mature oocyte (n = 6, 5%), and failure of fertilization or embryo development (n = 15, 12.5%). Basal androgen levels were not significant predictors for any of the cycle outcome. AMH level was a significant predictor for failure of fertilization or embryo development (AUC 0.722, P = 0.01) and cancelation of stimulation (AUC 0.801, P stimulation (AUC 0.774, P basal T and DHEAS levels have no value in predicting any of the cycle outcome parameters.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Mediates the Response to Temperature and Water Activity Levels in Aspergillus flavus during Infection of Maize Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Gilbert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus that may colonize several important crops, including cotton, maize, peanuts and tree nuts. Concomitant with A. flavus colonization is its potential to secrete mycotoxins, of which the most prominent is aflatoxin. Temperature, water activity (aw and carbon dioxide (CO2 are three environmental factors shown to influence the fungus-plant interaction, which are predicted to undergo significant changes in the next century. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to better understand the transcriptomic response of the fungus to aw, temperature, and elevated CO2 levels. We demonstrate that aflatoxin (AFB1 production on maize grain was altered by water availability, temperature and CO2. RNA-Sequencing data indicated that several genes, and in particular those involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, exhibit different responses to water availability or temperature stress depending on the atmospheric CO2 content. Other gene categories affected by CO2 levels alone (350 ppm vs. 1000 ppm at 30 °C/0.99 aw, included amino acid metabolism and folate biosynthesis. Finally, we identified two gene networks significantly influenced by changes in CO2 levels that contain several genes related to cellular replication and transcription. These results demonstrate that changes in atmospheric CO2 under climate change scenarios greatly influences the response of A. flavus to water and temperature when colonizing maize grain.

  4. BRIC-21: Global Transcriptome Profiling to Identify Cellular Stress Mechanisms Responsible for Spaceflight-Induced Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of spaceflight stress responses in Bacillus subtilis spores and Staphylococcus epidermidis cells to ground-based controls will be conducted to uncover alterations in their antibiotic susceptibility.

  5. Use of competitive polymerase chain reaction to determine HIV-1 levels in response to antiviral treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruisten, S. M.; Koppelman, M. H.; Roos, M. T.; Loeliger, A. E.; Reiss, P.; Boucher, C. A.; Huisman, H. G.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a competitive polymerase chain reaction technique with which to evaluate the usefulness of HIV-1 level as a marker of response to antiviral treatment. DESIGN: HIV-1 sequences were assessed by competitive polymerase chain reaction in four subjects participating in a double-blind

  6. Research of Emotional Burning out in Teachers with Different Levels of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S I Kudinov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of emotional burning out in teachers is discussed in the article. The results of the empirical research characterizing the different stages of the emotional burning out depending on the level of the responsibility manifestation in teachers are given.

  7. Superovulatory Ovarian Response in Mangalica Gilts is Not Influenced by Feeding Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egerszegi, I.; Hazeleger, W.; Rátky, J.; Sarlós, P.; Kemp, B.; Bouwman, E.; Solti, L.; Brüssow, K.P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare how different feeding levels affect the ovarian potential of follicular development and oocyte maturation in response to superovulatory treatment in native Mangalica (M, n = 17) compared with Landrace (L, n = 20) pigs. Gilts of both breeds were fed high-energy

  8. USING RESPONSES OF OYSTERS IN ESTABLISHING MINIMUM FLOWS AND LEVELS IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volety, Aswani K., S. Gregory Tolley and James T. Winstead. 2002. Using Responses of Oysters in Establishing Minimum Flows and Levels in the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida (Abstract). Presented at the 6th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration, 20-24 November 2002, Ch...

  9. T cell responsiveness correlates differentially with antibody isotype levels in clinical and asymptomatic filariasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Paxton, W. A.; Kruize, Y. C.; Sartono, E.; Kurniawan, A.; van het Wout, A.; Selkirk, M. E.; Partono, F.; Maizels, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the relationships among T and B cell responses, active infection, and clinical manifestations in lymphatic filariasis, filarial-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IgG antibody isotypes, and IgE levels were determined in an exposed population: 31 asymptomatic amicrofilaremics, 43

  10. Translating crustacean biological responses from CO2 bubbling experiments into population-level predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies of animal responses to ocean acidification focus on uniformly conditioned age cohorts that lack complexities typically found in wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for predicting higher level ecological effects, but the roles of intras...

  11. Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on maize physiology and biochemical response under variable nitrogen levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known for colonizing plant roots, transporting water and nutrients from the soil to the plant. Therefore, environmental conditions set mainly by soil water and nutrient levels are important determinants of AM function and host plant response. Mechanisms of nitro...

  12. Tacrolimus drug level and response to treatment in idiopathic childhood steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.S.; Hafeez, F.; Akhtar, N.

    2015-01-01

    The management of Steroid Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome (SRNS) is an uphill task for paediatric nephrologists as immunosuppressive agents are the mainstay of treatment in these patients. Tacrolimus is used along with steroids. This study is conducted to see the relationship between the tacrolimus dose, drug level and response in the management of SRNS. Methods: This quasi experimental study was conducted at The Childrens Hospital Lahore over a period of one year. Patients with SRNS of either sex and 1-10 years of age were included and those with secondary nephrotic syndrome were excluded. Tacrolimus was given at a dose of 0.05-0.1 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses along with steroids. The follow-up was done for six months with proteinuria monitoring and tacrolimus drug levels done two weeks after initiation of treatment. Results: Out of 42 patients, 27 (64.3%) were males and 15 (35.7%) were females. The most common histological diagnosis observed was mesangio-proliferative glomerulonephritis in 30 (71.4%) patients. The tacrolimus trough level range was 0.5-15.20 ng/ml with a mean value of 4.68 ng/ml±2.85. Forty-one (97.6%) children showed complete response to treatment while one patient showed partial response. Conclusion: This study suggests that tacrolimus is an effective drug for treatment of SRNS in paediatric patients and there is no linear relationship between the drug dose, response and drug level. (author)

  13. Modelling Morphological Response of Large Tidal Inlet Systems to Sea Level Rise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dissanayake, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation qualitatively investigates the morphodynamic response of a large inlet system to IPCC projected relative sea level rise (RSLR). Adopted numerical approach (Delft3D) used a highly schematised model domain analogous to the Ameland inlet in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Predicted inlet

  14. Statin use and 25-hydroxyvitamin D blood level response to vitamin D treatment of older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: To determine whether statin use alters response of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level to vitamin D treatment. Design: Pooled analysis. Setting: Three double-blind randomized controlled trials that tested different doses of vitamin D. Participants: Participants of three trials (N = 646; ...

  15. Resting hormone level response to a 16-week dynamic and static ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The aim of the study was to evaluate hormonal responses of serum cortisol, growth hormone (GH), testesterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels during dynamic and static stress exercises in 20 male volunteer student athletes.

  16. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  17. Identifying environmental, social, and psychological correlates of meeting the recommended physical activity levels for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro

    2013-11-01

    Although physical activity reduces the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, a large proportion of the population is not sufficiently physically active. Therefore, the present study examined the environmental, social, and psychological correlates for meeting the 2 recommended physical activity criteria: ≥420 min per week of at least moderate-intensity activity (MPA criterion) and ≥210 min per week of vigorous activity (VPA criterion) for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults. Cross-sectional study. The sample included 2000 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. An Internet-based survey was used to assess seven sociodemographic variables (e.g., education level, employment status), environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, residential area), social variables (social support), psychological variables (self-efficacy, perceived positive (pros) and negative (cons) aspects of exercise), and physical activity. The adjusted odds of meeting each physical activity criterion by these variables were calculated. Overall, 22.3% of the study population met the criterion of MPA, and 7.3% met the criterion of VPA. Having high self-efficacy, fewer perceived cons, possessing home fitness equipment, reporting enjoyable scenery, and living in a rural area were significantly associated with meeting the recommended criteria. Participants who met the 2 activity recommendations differed by self-efficacy, cons, possession of home fitness equipment, reporting of enjoyable scenery, and residential area. These findings imply that strategies to promote more intense physical activities specifically in terms of these variables may be necessary for colon cancer prevention. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. California's response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980: policy and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The public and private corporations and institutions in California that use radioactive materials and generate low-level radioactive waste have played a major role in shaping and guiding California's response to the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. Working together as the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (CAL RAD FORUM), these organizations carry out legislative and public education programs with the objective of establishing, in California, a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and maintaining access to existing disposal facilities in other states until the California facility is licensed and operating

  19. Identifying the Physical Fitness, Anthropometric and Athletic Movement Qualities Discriminant of Developmental Level in Elite Junior Australian Football: Implications for the Development of Talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudion, Sarah L; Doma, Kenji; Sinclair, Wade; Banyard, Harry G; Woods, Carl T

    2017-07-01

    Gaudion, SL, Doma, K, Sinclair, W, Banyard, HG, and Woods, CT. Identifying the physical fitness, anthropometric and athletic movement qualities discriminant of developmental level in elite junior Australian football: implications for the development of talent. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1830-1839, 2017-This study aimed to identify the physical fitness, anthropometric and athletic movement qualities discriminant of developmental level in elite junior Australian football (AF). From a total of 77 players, 2 groups were defined according to their developmental level; under 16 (U16) (n = 40, 15.6 to 15.9 years), and U18 (n = 37, 17.1 to 17.9 years). Players performed a test battery consisting of 7 physical fitness assessments, 2 anthropometric measurements, and a fundamental athletic movement assessment. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of developmental level (2 levels: U16 and U18) on the assessment criterions, whilst binary logistic regression models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were built to identify the qualities most discriminant of developmental level. A significant effect of developmental level was evident on 9 of the assessments (d = 0.27-0.88; p ≤ 0.05). However, it was a combination of body mass, dynamic vertical jump height (nondominant leg), repeat sprint time, and the score on the 20-m multistage fitness test that provided the greatest association with developmental level (Akaike's information criterion = 80.84). The ROC curve was maximized with a combined score of 180.7, successfully discriminating 89 and 60% of the U18 and U16 players, respectively (area under the curve = 79.3%). These results indicate that there are distinctive physical fitness and anthropometric qualities discriminant of developmental level within the junior AF talent pathway. Coaches should consider these differences when designing training interventions at the U16 level to assist with the development of prospective U18 AF players.

  20. Explaining Cross-State Differences in Elderly Suicide Rates and Identifying State-Level Public Policy Responses that Reduce Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Sims, Jean; Lockhart, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Elderly Americans commit suicide at higher rates than other age groups. We contend that macro- and micro-social variables contribute distinct aspects to explanations of this tragic loss: the former focus on circumstances that affect overall rates, the latter reveal why certain individuals succumb to suicide. Our analysis focuses on the…

  1. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zhen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants.

  2. Intratumor partitioning and texture analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI identifies relevant tumor subregions to predict pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Gong, Guanghua; Cui, Yi; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-11-01

    To predict pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on quantitative, multiregion analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). In this Institutional Review Board-approved study, 35 patients diagnosed with stage II/III breast cancer were retrospectively investigated using 3T DCE-MR images acquired before and after the first cycle of NAC. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the DCE-MRI data with high temporal resolution. We then partitioned the whole tumor into multiple subregions using k-means clustering based on the PCA-defined eigenmaps. Within each tumor subregion, we extracted four quantitative Haralick texture features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The change in texture features in each tumor subregion between pre- and during-NAC was used to predict pathological complete response after NAC. Three tumor subregions were identified through clustering, each with distinct enhancement characteristics. In univariate analysis, all imaging predictors except one extracted from the tumor subregion associated with fast washout were statistically significant (P < 0.05) after correcting for multiple testing, with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) or AUCs between 0.75 and 0.80. In multivariate analysis, the proposed imaging predictors achieved an AUC of 0.79 (P = 0.002) in leave-one-out cross-validation. This improved upon conventional imaging predictors such as tumor volume (AUC = 0.53) and texture features based on whole-tumor analysis (AUC = 0.65). The heterogeneity of the tumor subregion associated with fast washout on DCE-MRI predicted pathological response to NAC in breast cancer. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1107-1115. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Transcriptional profiling of Medicago truncatula under salt stress identified a novel CBF transcription factor MtCBF4 that plays an important role in abiotic stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Salt stress hinders the growth of plants and reduces crop production worldwide. However, different plant species might possess different adaptive mechanisms to mitigate salt stress. We conducted a detailed pathway analysis of transcriptional dynamics in the roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under salt stress and selected a transcription factor gene, MtCBF4, for experimental validation. Results A microarray experiment was conducted using root samples collected 6, 24, and 48 h after application of 180 mM NaCl. Analysis of 11 statistically significant expression profiles revealed different behaviors between primary and secondary metabolism pathways in response to external stress. Secondary metabolism that helps to maintain osmotic balance was induced. One of the highly induced transcription factor genes was successfully cloned, and was named MtCBF4. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MtCBF4, which belongs to the AP2-EREBP transcription factor family, is a novel member of the CBF transcription factor in M. truncatula. MtCBF4 is shown to be a nuclear-localized protein. Expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula was induced by most of the abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, cold, and abscisic acid, suggesting crosstalk between these abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing MtCBF4 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress, and activated expression of downstream genes that contain DRE elements. Over-expression of MtCBF4 in M. truncatula also enhanced salt tolerance and induced expression level of corresponding downstream genes. Conclusion Comprehensive transcriptomic analysis revealed complex mechanisms exist in plants in response to salt stress. The novel transcription factor gene MtCBF4 identified here played an important role in response to abiotic stresses, indicating that it might be a good candidate gene for genetic improvement to produce stress-tolerant plants. PMID:21718548

  4. Microarray and growth analyses identify differences and similarities of early corn response to weeds, shade, and nitrogen stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed interference with crop growth is often attributed to water, nutrient, or light competition; however, specific physiological responses to these stresses are not well described. This study’s objective was to compare growth, yield, and gene expression responses of corn to nitrogen (N), low light (...

  5. "Identifying the hospitalised patient in crisis"--a consensus conference on the afferent limb of rapid response systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVita, Michael A; Smith, Gary B; Adam, Sheila K

    2010-01-01

    Most reports of Rapid Response Systems (RRS) focus on the efferent, response component of the system, although evidence suggests that improved vital sign monitoring and recognition of a clinical crisis may have outcome benefits. There is no consensus regarding how best to detect patient deteriora...

  6. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janat, M; Khalifa, K [Atomic Energy Commission, P.O.Box 6091, Damasucs, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    A two years field experiment 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0,5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0,60, 100, 140 and kg P{sub 2} O{sub 5}/ha. Irradiation doses and P. Fertilizer levels arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the subplots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting. Soil test for P revealed that enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. 8 tabs.

  7. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Khalifa, K.

    1995-07-01

    A two year field experiments 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 Kg P sub 2 O sub 5 ha- sub 1. Irradiation doses and P-Fertilizer levels were arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the sub-plots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting and after harvesting. Soil test for P revealed enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. (author). 26 refs., 49 tabs

  8. Cross-species multiple environmental stress responses: An integrated approach to identify candidate genes for multiple stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and related model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat

    Full Text Available Crop response to the changing climate and unpredictable effects of global warming with adverse conditions such as drought stress has brought concerns about food security to the fore; crop yield loss is a major cause of concern in this regard. Identification of genes with multiple responses across environmental stresses is the genetic foundation that leads to crop adaptation to environmental perturbations.In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to assess candidate genes for multiple stress responses across-species. The approach combines ontology based semantic data integration with expression profiling, comparative genomics, phylogenomics, functional gene enrichment and gene enrichment network analysis to identify genes associated with plant stress phenotypes. Five different ontologies, viz., Gene Ontology (GO, Trait Ontology (TO, Plant Ontology (PO, Growth Ontology (GRO and Environment Ontology (EO were used to semantically integrate drought related information.Target genes linked to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs controlling yield and stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and closely related species were identified. Based on the enriched GO terms of the biological processes, 1116 sorghum genes with potential responses to 5 different stresses, such as drought (18%, salt (32%, cold (20%, heat (8% and oxidative stress (25% were identified to be over-expressed. Out of 169 sorghum drought responsive QTLs associated genes that were identified based on expression datasets, 56% were shown to have multiple stress responses. On the other hand, out of 168 additional genes that have been evaluated for orthologous pairs, 90% were conserved across species for drought tolerance. Over 50% of identified maize and rice genes were responsive to drought and salt stresses and were co-located within multifunctional QTLs. Among the total identified multi-stress responsive genes, 272 targets were shown to be co-localized within QTLs

  9. CD68+ cell count, early evaluation with PET and plasma TARC levels predict response in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, Annarosa; Annunziata, Salvatore; Cupelli, Elisa; Martini, Maurizio; Calcagni, Maria L; Rufini, Vittoria; Giachelia, Manuela; Bartolomei, Francesca; Galli, Eugenio; D'Alò, Francesco; Voso, Maria T; Leone, Giuseppe; Giordano, Alessandro; Larocca, Luigi M; Hohaus, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Early response evaluation with [(18) F]fluordeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography after 2 cycles of chemotherapy (interim PET) has been indicated as the strongest predictor for outcome in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We studied the prognostic role of the number of tumor-infiltrating CD68+ cells and of the plasma levels of TARC (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine) in the context of interim PET in 102 patients with classical HL treated with Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine (ABVD). After 2 ABVD cycles, interim PET according to Deauville criteria was negative (score 0-3) in 85 patients and positive (score 4-5) in 15 patients (2 patients technically not evaluable). TARC levels were elevated in 89% of patients at diagnosis, and decreased after 2 cycles in 82% of patients. Persistently elevated TARC levels in 18% of patients were significantly associated with a positive PET result (P = 0.007). Strong predictors for progression-free survival (PFS) were a negative interim PET (85% vs. 28%, P evaluation had no prognostic role. In multivariate analysis, interim PET, CD68+ cell counts and presence of B-symptoms were independently associated with PFS. We conclude that although TARC levels are a biomarker for early response evaluation, they cannot substitute for interim PET as outcome predictor in HL. The evaluation of CD68 counts and B-symptoms at diagnosis may help to identify low-risk patients regardless positive interim PET. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Exome chip meta-analysis identifies novel loci and East Asian-specific coding variants that contribute to lipid levels and coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Peloso, Gina M; Liu, Dajiang J

    2017-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies have been of European individuals, even though most genetic variation in humans is seen only in non-European samples. To search for novel loci associated with blood lipid levels and clarify the mechanism of action at previously identified lipid loci, we used a...

  11. Identification of high school students' ability level of constructing free body diagrams to solve restricted and structured response items in force matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmaniar, Andinisa; Rusnayati, Heni; Sutiadi, Asep

    2017-05-01

    While solving physics problem particularly in force matter, it is needed to have the ability of constructing free body diagrams which can help students to analyse every force which acts on an object, the length of its vector and the naming of its force. Mix method was used to explain the result without any special treatment to participants. The participants were high school students in first grade totals 35 students. The purpose of this study is to identify students' ability level of constructing free body diagrams in solving restricted and structured response items. Considering of two types of test, every student would be classified into four levels ability of constructing free body diagrams which is every level has different characteristic and some students were interviewed while solving test in order to know how students solve the problem. The result showed students' ability of constructing free body diagrams on restricted response items about 34.86% included in no evidence of level, 24.11% inadequate level, 29.14% needs improvement level and 4.0% adequate level. On structured response items is about 16.59% included no evidence of level, 23.99% inadequate level, 36% needs improvement level, and 13.71% adequate level. Researcher found that students who constructed free body diagrams first and constructed free body diagrams correctly were more successful in solving restricted and structured response items.

  12. Influence Determination of Social Responsibility to the Productivity Enterprise Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Kavun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a scientific and methodical approach for determination of the comprehensive social responsibility indicator in this paper based on estimation of influence degree for the economical, ecological, social and labour, standard and legal components. There is allowance for determining of some level of enterprise social responsibility. In addition, there is a basis for development some ways of their increasing. The essence of the used approach is clotting of the individual indicators set to four intermediate indicators of the economic, ecological, social and labor, standard and legal components, which can be boiled down to the generalizing activity productivity indicator based on the matrix and range approach. An economical and mathematical model of the social responsibility influence level to the enterprise activity productivity level, which is based on enterprise propose harmonization with the participants’ interests, was being built. The paper proposes the mathematical model, which allows detecting a necessary time period for enterprise activity productivity ensuring due to social responsibility implementation.

  13. Trace levels of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs) synergize to break tolerance to therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verthelyi, Daniela; Wang, Vivian

    2010-12-22

    Therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies, replacement enzymes and toxins have significantly improved the therapeutic options for multiple diseases, including cancer and inflammatory diseases as well as enzyme deficiencies and inborn errors of metabolism. However, immune responses to these products are frequent and can seriously impact their safety and efficacy. Of the many factors that can impact protein immunogenicity, this study focuses on the role of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs) that could be present despite product purification and whether these impurities can synergize to facilitate an immunogenic response to therapeutic proteins. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CpG ODN as IIRMIs we showed that trace levels of these impurities synergized to induce IgM, IFNγ, TNFα and IL-6 expression. In vivo, trace levels of these impurities synergized to increase antigen-specific IgG antibodies to ovalbumin. Further, whereas mice treated with human erythropoietin showed a transient increase in hematocrit, those that received human erythropoietin containing low levels of IIRMIs had reduced response to erythropoietin after the 1(st) dose and developed long-lasting anemia following subsequent doses. This suggests that the presence of IIRMIs facilitated a breach in tolerance to the endogenous mouse erythropoietin. Overall, these studies indicate that the risk of enhancing immunogenicity should be considered when establishing acceptance limits of IIRMIs for therapeutic proteins.

  14. Trace levels of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs synergize to break tolerance to therapeutic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verthelyi

    Full Text Available Therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies, replacement enzymes and toxins have significantly improved the therapeutic options for multiple diseases, including cancer and inflammatory diseases as well as enzyme deficiencies and inborn errors of metabolism. However, immune responses to these products are frequent and can seriously impact their safety and efficacy. Of the many factors that can impact protein immunogenicity, this study focuses on the role of innate immune response modulating impurities (IIRMIs that could be present despite product purification and whether these impurities can synergize to facilitate an immunogenic response to therapeutic proteins. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS and CpG ODN as IIRMIs we showed that trace levels of these impurities synergized to induce IgM, IFNγ, TNFα and IL-6 expression. In vivo, trace levels of these impurities synergized to increase antigen-specific IgG antibodies to ovalbumin. Further, whereas mice treated with human erythropoietin showed a transient increase in hematocrit, those that received human erythropoietin containing low levels of IIRMIs had reduced response to erythropoietin after the 1(st dose and developed long-lasting anemia following subsequent doses. This suggests that the presence of IIRMIs facilitated a breach in tolerance to the endogenous mouse erythropoietin. Overall, these studies indicate that the risk of enhancing immunogenicity should be considered when establishing acceptance limits of IIRMIs for therapeutic proteins.

  15. Moderate variations in CDC25B protein levels modulate the response to DNA damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aressy, B.; Bugler, B.; Valette, A.; Ducommun, B.; Biard, D.

    2008-01-01

    CDC25B, one of the three members of the CDC25 dual-specificity phosphatase family, plays a critical role in the control of the cell cycle and in the checkpoint response to DNA damage. CDC25B is responsible for the initial dephosphorylation and activation of the cyclin-dependent kinases, thus initiating the train of events leading to entry into mitosis. The critical role played by CDC25B is illustrated by the fact that it is specifically required for checkpoint recovery and that unscheduled accumulation of CDC25B is responsible for illegitimate entry into mitosis. Here, we report that in p53 colon carcinoma cells, a moderate increase in the CDC25B level is sufficient to impair the DNA damage checkpoint, to increase spontaneous mutagenesis, and to sensitize cells to ionising radiation and genotoxic agents. Using a tumour cell spheroid assay as an alternative to animal studies, we demonstrate that the level of CDC25B expression modulates growth inhibition and apoptotic death. Since CDC25B overexpression has been observed in a significant number of human cancers, including colon carcinoma, and is often associated with high grade tumours and poor prognosis, our work suggests that the expression level of CDC25B might be a potential key parameter of the cellular response to cancer therapy. (authors)

  16. Requirement of trained first responders and national level preparedness for prevention and response to radiological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have identified the educational needs for response to radiological emergency in India with major thrust on training. The paper has also enumerated the available educational and training infrastructure, the human resources, as well as the important stake holders for development of sustainable education and training programme. The training of emergency response personnel will help in quick decision making, planning and effective response during such emergencies. Medical Emergency management requires planning by hospitals which includes up-gradation of earmarked hospitals, development of mobile hospitals and mobile medical teams supported by communication backups and adequate medical logistics for radiological emergency. Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is a nodal agency for advising authorities for any nuclear/radiological emergency in public domain. DAE through the various ERCs have already developed technical expertise, systems, software and methodology for quick impact assessment which may be required for the implementation of countermeasures if required following any nuclear disaster/radiological emergency

  17. Association between Serum Cortisol and DHEA-S Levels and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoja Babinkostova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. AIM: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with the response to antipsychotic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical prospective study were included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and they may be related to positive response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Examining multi-level effects on corporate social responsibility and irresponsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzei Matthew J.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available What influences firms to engage in socially responsible (irresponsible activities? Corporate social responsibility (CSR, the efforts of firms to create a positive and desirable impact on society, and corporate social irresponsibility (CSI, contrary actions of unethical behavior that negatively influence society, have become an important focus of discussion for both corporations and scholars. Despite this interest, our understanding of organizations’ socially responsible (irresponsible actions and their antecedents is still developing. A dearth of knowledge about the multi-level nature of the drivers of CSR and CSI continues to exist. Utilizing a longitudinal sample composed of 899 firms in 66 industries, we follow a prominent model to empirically examine industry-, firm-, and individual-level effects on CSR and CSI. Employing variance decomposition analysis, our results confirm that all three levels of investigation do indeed influence CSR and CSI. More substantively, our analysis estimates the magnitude of the effects attributable to each of the three levels for both CSR and CSI. We also compare multi-level influences on two separate CSR strategies, those targeting primary stakeholders (strategic CSR and those targeting secondary stakeholders (social CSR. We find greater industry- and firmlevel effects on social CSR, and higher individual-level effects on strategic CSR. Our results build on the conceptual work of previous authors by providing empirical analyses to confirm multilevel influences on CSR and extending prior multi-level theory to the concept of CSI. Further, we add to the emerging literature regarding stakeholder demands by examining the various influences on CSR strategies targeting different stakeholder groups.

  19. Effect of blood glucose level on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Stress has a considerable impact on welfare and productivity of fish, and blood glucose level of fish may be a factor modulating stress response. This study evaluated the effect of blood glucose level and handling on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg g -1 body mass (BM) and then were exposed to handling for 5 min. Glucose injection resulted in increase of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content and decrease of plasma lactate level. Handling resulted in increase of plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, and lactate and plasma lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and decrease of liver glycogen content. At 1 h post-stress, the plasma cortisol level was lower in the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0.5 mg g -1 BM than the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, and 1.0 mg g -1 BM. No significant differences were found in the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver between the stressed and unstressed fish, regardless of the dose of glucose injection. At 1 h post-stress, the liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity was higher in the fish without glucose injection than in the fish injected with glucose. This study reveals that blood glucose level can affect stress response of grass carp by modulating cortisol release and glucose homeostasis through glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis in the liver.

  20. Toward a More Responsive Consumable Materiel Supply Chain: Leveraging New Metrics to Identify and Classify Items of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    MATERIEL SUPPLY CHAIN: LEVERAGING NEW METRICS TO IDENTIFY AND CLASSIFY ITEMS OF CONCERN by Andrew R. Haley June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Robert...IDENTIFY AND CLASSIFY ITEMS OF CONCERN 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew R. Haley 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP), logistics, inventory, consumable, NSNs at Risk, Bad Actors, Bad Actors with Trend, items of concern , customer time

  1. Should We Leave? Attitudes towards Relocation in Response to Sea Level Rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The participation of individuals contributes significantly to the success of sea level rise adaptation. This study therefore addresses what influences people’s likelihood of relocating away from low-lying areas in response to rising sea levels. The analysis was based on a survey conducted in the City of Panama Beach in Florida (USA. Survey items relate to people’s risk perception, hazard experience, threat appraisal, and coping appraisal, whose theoretical background is Protection Motivation Theory. Descriptive and correlation analysis was first performed to highlight critical factors which were then examined by a multinomial Logit model. Results show that sea level rise awareness is the major explanatory variable. Coping appraisal is qualitatively viewed as a strong predictor for action, while threat appraisal is statistically significant in driving relocation intention. These factors should be integrated in current risk communication regarding sea level rise.

  2. Which level is responsible for gluteal pain in lumbar disc hernia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guofang; Zhou, Jianhe; Liu, Yutan; Sang, Hongxun; Xu, Xiangyang; Ding, Zihai

    2016-08-22

    There are many different reasons why patients could be experiencing pain in the gluteal area. Previous studies have shown an association between radicular low back pain (LBP) and gluteal pain (GP). Studies locating the specific level responsible for gluteal pain in lumbar disc hernias have rarely been reported. All patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in the Kanghua hospital from 2010 to 2014 were recruited. All patients underwent a lumbar spine MRI to clarify their LDH diagnosis, and patients were allocated to a GP group and a non-GP group. To determine the cause and effect relationship between LDH and GP, all of the patients were subjected to percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD). A total of 286 cases were included according to the inclusive criteria, with 168 cases in the GP group and 118 cases in the non-GP group. Of these, in the GP group, 159 cases involved the L4/5 level and 9 cases involved the L5/S1 level, while in the non-GP group, 43 cases involved the L4/5 level and 48 cases involved the L5/S1 level. PELD was performed in both groups. Gluteal pain gradually disappeared after surgery in all of the patients. Gluteal pain recrudesced in a patient with recurrent disc herniation (L4/5). As a clinical finding, gluteal pain is related to low lumbar disc hernia. The L4/5 level is the main level responsible for gluteal pain in lumbar disc hernia. No patients with gluteal pain exhibited involvement at the L3/4 level.

  3. High-resolution tide projections reveal extinction threshold in response to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher R; Bayard, Trina S; Gjerdrum, Carina; Hill, Jason M; Meiman, Susan; Elphick, Chris S

    2017-05-01

    Sea-level rise will affect coastal species worldwide, but models that aim to predict these effects are typically based on simple measures of sea level that do not capture its inherent complexity, especially variation over timescales shorter than 1 year. Coastal species might be most affected, however, by floods that exceed a critical threshold. The frequency and duration of such floods may be more important to population dynamics than mean measures of sea level. In particular, the potential for changes in the frequency and duration of flooding events to result in nonlinear population responses or biological thresholds merits further research, but may require that models incorporate greater resolution in sea level than is typically used. We created population simulations for a threatened songbird, the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus), in a region where sea level is predictable with high accuracy and precision. We show that incorporating the timing of semidiurnal high tide events throughout the breeding season, including how this timing is affected by mean sea-level rise, predicts a reproductive threshold that is likely to cause a rapid demographic shift. This shift is likely to threaten the persistence of saltmarsh sparrows beyond 2060 and could cause extinction as soon as 2035. Neither extinction date nor the population trajectory was sensitive to the emissions scenarios underlying sea-level projections, as most of the population decline occurred before scenarios diverge. Our results suggest that the variation and complexity of climate-driven variables could be important for understanding the potential responses of coastal species to sea-level rise, especially for species that rely on coastal areas for reproduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Canine postradiation histamine levels and subsequent response to Compound 48/80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Helgeson, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation-induced hypotension in the beagle is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and hematocrit (HCT). This study was performed to correlate these radiation-induced changes with plasma histamine (PH) levels following radiation. The histamine (H) levels were monitored in the systemic arterial circulation (SA) and the hepatic portal vein (HPV) before and after radiation. To examine the effect of radiation on the mobilization of total body H stores, Compound 48/80 was given I.V., and H responses were monitored in both control and radiated animals. Data obtained indicated that 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma-radiation produced a decrease in systemic mean blood pressure (BP), an increase in IBF and an increase in HCT. Concurrently, the mean PH/SA values increased and the PH/HPV levels decreased. Compound 48/80 produced a marked increase in PH levels in both control and radiated animals however, the levels found in the radiated animals were consistently lower than those in the controls, although not statistically different. This implies that H may mediate these observed intestinal responses and that the mobility of histamine is decreased in radiated animals. 19 references

  5. Coastal sea level response to the tropical cyclonic forcing in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Soumya, M.; Vethamony, P.; Vijaykumar, K.; Nair, T.M.B.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Jyoti, K.; Sudheesh, K.; Luis, R.; Lobo, S.; Halmalkar, B.

    –173, 2015 www.ocean-sci.net/11/159/2015/ doi:10.5194/os-11-159-2015 © Author(s) 2015. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Coastal sea level response to the tropical cyclonic forcing in the northern Indian Ocean P. Mehra1, M. Soumya1, P. Vethamony1, K. Vijaykumar1, T.... Note: sea level data at Colombo, Kochi, Karachi, Chabahar, Jask, Masirah, Minocoy and Hanimaadhoo are downloaded from www.gloss-sealevel.org and are shown with red stars. (Time is in Indian standard time (IST).) land locations of India are provided...

  6. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia; Calvo, Esperanza; Garcia-Breijo, Francisco-Jose; Reig-Arminana, Jose; Sanz, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD 1.6 ) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. - Ozone tolerance overlapped with leaf traits in four Quercus species.

  7. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, Vicent, E-mail: calatayud_viclor@gva.e [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Cervero, Julia; Calvo, Esperanza [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Breijo, Francisco-Jose [Laboratorio de Anatomia e Histologia Vegetal ' Julio Iranzo' , Jardin Botanico, Universitat de Valencia, c/Quart 80, 46008 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Reig-Arminana, Jose [Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Sanz, Maria Jose [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD{sub 1.6}) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. - Ozone tolerance overlapped with leaf traits in four Quercus species.

  8. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Canada’s response to refugees at the primary health care level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Pottie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Responsive primary health care systems and services must be at once complex and nimble. Policy makers may wish to believe that existing health systems effectively care for all populations equally, including refugees. However, we know that refugees may require a health equity approach: an approach where all levels of government, all types of health practitioners, and even the public sector, participate to ensure access to effective primary health care. This article outlines some of Canada’s healthcare responses for refugee populations. We provide field examples and guidelines that demonstrate responses, as well as ongoing inconsistencies and limitations. Refugee-receiving countries such as Australia, the US and Canada all have stories of success in resettlement and health systems. This article will focus on Canada.

  10. Evaluation of the level of social responsibility of the state in the field of employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernobay Liana Ivanivna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of public authorities in the development of society was grounded in terms of the Welfare State. The priority of employment policies was proved to ensure a sufficient level of social responsibility of the state. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of human resources were investigated at the current stage of development of Ukraine. Evaluation of the efficiency of the social state was proposed by means of the Social Responsibility Index (SRI. The method of selection of state policy was developed in the light of the evaluation of the social responsibility of the state in employment using the SRI and The Map of states of partial indicators. Measures were proposed on the base of method to enhance the functioning of Ukraine as a Social State.

  11. Social Responsibility At The Academic Level. Study Case: The University Of Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marinescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the corporate social responsibility (CSR has been a major subject both for universities, civil society and businesses. Although the CSR concept is especially promoted by large multinational and transnational corporations, it has become also a prominent issue for universities. Social responsibility represents more than a challenge for universities. It has to be a purpose of the universities, taking into account that young people formation also means creating a high level of awareness about the need to involve members of society in solving social problems. Our paper contributes for better clarifying the CSR concept and presents as a study case some of initiatives of the University of Bucharest related to the social responsibility.

  12. Adaptation or Resistance: a classification of responses to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    Societal responses to sea level rise and associated coastal change are apparently diverse in nature and motivation. Most are commonly referred to as 'adaptation'. Based on a review of current practice, however, it is argued that many of these responses do not involve adaptation, but are rather resisting change. There are several instances where formerly adaptive initiatives involving human adaptability are being replaced by initiatives that resist change. A classification is presented that recognises a continuum of responses ranging from adaptation to resistance, depending upon the willingness to change human activities to accommodate environmental change. In many cases climate change adaptation resources are being used for projects that are purely resistant and which foreclose future adaptation options. It is argued that a more concise definition of adaptation is needed if coastal management is to move beyond the current position of holding the shoreline, other tah n in a few showcase examples.

  13. Distinct Responses of Mycobacterium smegmatis to Exposure to Low and High Levels of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Li

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a natural oxidant produced by aerobic organisms and gives rise to oxidative damage, including DNA mutations, protein inactivation and lipid damage. The genus Mycobacterium utilizes redox sensors and H2O2 scavenging enzymes for the detoxification of H2O2. To date, the precise response to oxidative stress has not been fully elucidated. Here, we compared the effects of different levels of H2O2 on transcription in M. smegmatis using RNA-sequencing. A 0.2 mM H2O2 treatment had little effect on the growth and viability of M. smegmatis whereas 7 mM H2O2 was lethal. Analysis of global transcription showed that 0.2 mM H2O2 induced relatively few changes in gene expression, whereas a large proportion of the mycobacterial genome was found to be differentially expressed after treatment with 7 mM H2O2. Genes differentially expressed following treatment with 0.2 mM H2O2 included those coding for proteins involved in glycolysis-gluconeogenesis and fatty acid metabolism pathways, and expression of most genes encoding ribosomal proteins was lower following treatment with 7 mM H2O2. Our analysis shows that M. smegmatis utilizes the sigma factor MSMEG_5214 in response to 0.2 mM H2O2, and the RpoE1 sigma factors MSMEG_0573 and MSMEG_0574 in response to 7 mM H2O2. In addition, different transcriptional regulators responded to different levels of H2O2: MSMEG_1919 was induced by 0.2 mM H2O2, while high-level induction of DevR occurred in response to 7 mM H2O2. We detected the induction of different detoxifying enzymes, including genes encoding KatG, AhpD, TrxB and Trx, at different levels of H2O2 and the detoxifying enzymes were expressed at different levels of H2O2. In conclusion, our study reveals the changes in transcription that are induced in response to different levels of H2O2 in M. smegmatis.

  14. Framing crisis response messages on Facebook: a second level agenda analysis of MH370

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abang Ahmad Dayang Aizza Maisha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A crisis can certainly bring great threats to an organisation. In time of crisis, what the organisation says and does may impose significant effect on the organisation’s effort to survive its reputational damages. Although crisis responses are considered a common topic, this rapidly growing field of research is however vital to be critically explored. In light of Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT [1] and the Second-level Agenda Setting approach [2], this study seeks to analyse the message frames used by Malaysia Airlines System (MAS in the formation of MH370 crisis response messages that that were disseminated directly to the organisation’s stakeholders on Facebook. The convergence of framing and second level agenda setting has made this study significant as it advances the explication of potential crisis communication effects by underscoring the distinct importance held by certain attributes and frames, in the content of a crisis response message. This paper also includes discussion on the directions for future research on crisis response strategies particularly in the local context.

  15. Endocannabinoid and Mood Responses to Exercise in Adults with Varying Activity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brellenthin, Angelique G; Crombie, Kevin M; Hillard, Cecilia J; Koltyn, Kelli F

    2017-08-01

    Acute aerobic exercise improves mood and activates the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in physically active individuals; however, both mood and eCB responses to exercise may vary based on habitual levels of physical activity. This study aimed to examine eCB and mood responses to prescribed and preferred exercises among individuals with low, moderate, and high levels of physical activity. Thirty-six healthy adults (21 ± 4 yr) were recruited from low (≤60 min moderate-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] per week), moderate (150-299 min MVPA per week), and high (≥300 MVPA per week) physical activity groups. Participants performed both prescribed (approximately 70%-75% max) and preferred (i.e., self-selected) aerobic exercise on separate days. Mood states and eCB concentrations were assessed before and after exercise conditions. Both preferred and prescribed exercise resulted in significant increases (P exercise elicited positive mood improvements compared with preexercise values, but changes in state anxiety, total mood disturbance, and confusion were greater in the preferred condition (P mood disturbance in the preferred condition (P mood or eCB outcomes. These results indicate that eCB and mood responses to exercise do not differ significantly between samples with varying physical activity levels. This study also demonstrates that in addition to prescribed exercise, preferred exercise activates the eCB system, and this activation may contribute to positive mood outcomes with exercise.

  16. The use of differential item functioning analyses to identify cultural differences in responses to the EORTC QLQ-C30

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, N. W.; Fayers, P. M.; Aaronson, N. K.; Bottomley, A.; de Graeff, A.; Groenvold, M.; Koller, M.; Petersen, M. A.; Sprangers, M. A. G.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 is a widely used health-related quality of life instrument. The main aim of this study is to investigate whether there are international differences in response to the questionnaire that can be explained by

  17. Immune recognition surface construction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis epitope-specific antibody responses in tuberculosis patients identified by peptide microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Valentini

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: These data reveal the heterogeneity of epitope-dependent humoral immune responses in TB patients, partly due to geographical setting. These findings expose a new avenue for mining clinically meaningful vaccine targets, diagnostic tools, and the development of immunotherapeutics in TB disease management or prevention.

  18. Indoctrination and Social Context: A System-Based Approach to Identifying the Threat of Indoctrination and the Responsibilities of Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rebecca M.

    2017-01-01

    Debates about indoctrination raise fundamental questions about the ethics of teaching. This paper presents a philosophical analysis of indoctrination, including 1) an account of what indoctrination is and why it is harmful, and 2) a framework for understanding the responsibilities of teachers and other educational actors to avoid its negative…

  19. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-07-14

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly "domain general" conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects.

  20. EEG neural oscillatory dynamics reveal semantic and response conflict at difference levels of conflict awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Qinglin; Van Gaal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Although previous work has shown that conflict can be detected in the absence of awareness, it is unknown how different sources of conflict (i.e., semantic, response) are processed in the human brain and whether these processes are differently modulated by conflict awareness. To explore this issue, we extracted oscillatory power dynamics from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded while human participants performed a modified version of the Stroop task. Crucially, in this task conflict awareness was manipulated by masking a conflict-inducing color word preceding a color patch target. We isolated semantic from response conflict by introducing four color words/patches, of which two were matched to the same response. We observed that both semantic as well as response conflict were associated with mid-frontal theta-band and parietal alpha-band power modulations, irrespective of the level of conflict awareness (high vs. low), although awareness of conflict increased these conflict-related power dynamics. These results show that both semantic and response conflict can be processed in the human brain and suggest that the neural oscillatory mechanisms in EEG reflect mainly “domain general” conflict processing mechanisms, instead of conflict source specific effects. PMID:26169473

  1. Comparative proteomics as a tool for identifying specific alterations within interferon response pathways in human glioblastoma multiforme cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarasova, Irina A; Tereshkova, Alesya V; Lobas, Anna A

    2018-01-01

    An acquisition of increased sensitivity of cancer cells to viruses is a common outcome of malignant progression that justifies the development of oncolytic viruses as anticancer therapeutics. Studying molecular changes that underlie the sensitivity to viruses would help to identify cases where on...

  2. Positioning and number of nutritional levels in dose-response trials to estimate the optimal-level and the adjustment of the models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto de Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of the number and position of nutrient levels used in dose-response trials in the estimation of the optimal-level (OL and the goodness of fit on the models: quadratic polynomial (QP, exponential (EXP, linear response plateau (LRP and quadratic response plateau (QRP. It was used data from dose-response trials realized in FCAV-Unesp Jaboticabal considering the homogeneity of variances and normal distribution. The fit of the models were evaluated considered the following statistics: adjusted coefficient of determination (R²adj, coefficient of variation (CV and the sum of the squares of deviations (SSD.It was verified in QP and EXP models that small changes on the placement and distribution of the levels caused great changes in the estimation of the OL. The LRP model was deeply influenced by the absence or presence of the level between the response and stabilization phases (change in the straight to plateau. The QRP needed more levels on the response phase and the last level on stabilization phase to estimate correctly the plateau. It was concluded that the OL and the adjust of the models are dependent on the positioning and the number of the levels and the specific characteristics of each model, but levels defined near to the true requirement and not so spaced are better to estimate the OL.

  3. Responses of Four Rice Varieties to Elevated CO2 and Different Salinity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheidollah Kazemi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:: This study was carried out in 2014 at Isfahan University of Technology, Iran, to evaluate the responses of four rice varieties (Neda, Deylamani, Shiroudi and Domsorkh to ambient (360 ± 50 μmol/mol and elevated (700 ± 50 μmol/mol air carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations under four salinity levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 mmol/L NaCl. There was significant variation among rice varieties in response to elevated CO2 concentration under the four salinity levels. Under non-saline condition, elevated CO2 increased the dry weight of Neda, Deylamani and Domsorkh by 8%, 50% and 8%, respectively, but reversely decreased that of Shiroudi by 34%. Increasing CO2 concentration significantly reduced the negative effects of salinity on Shiroudi, but these effects were even increased in Deylamani and Domsorkh under all the salinity levels and in Neda only under 30 and 60 mmol/L NaCl. Significant correlations were established between plant dry weight, SPAD value and leaf area under both CO2 levels. However, this trend was observed only at ambient CO2 concentration in the presence of soluble carbohydrates. The results revealed the genotype and salinity dependence of the effects of CO2 concentrations on the rice traits investigated. Key words: CO2 concentration, genetic diversity, salt tolerance, water soluble carbohydrate

  4. Development, Characterization, and Optimization of Protein Level in Date Bars Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was designed to produce a nourishing date bar with commercial value especially for school going children to meet their body development requirements. Protein level of date bars was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. Economical and underutilized sources, that is, whey protein concentrate and vetch protein isolates, were explored for protein supplementation. Fourteen date bar treatments were produced using a central composite design (CCD with 2 variables and 3 levels for each variable. Date bars were then analyzed for nutritional profile. Proximate composition revealed that addition of whey protein concentrate and vetch protein isolates improved the nutritional profile of date bars. Protein level, texture, and taste were considerably improved by incorporating 6.05% whey protein concentrate and 4.35% vetch protein isolates in date bar without affecting any sensory characteristics during storage. Response surface methodology was observed as an economical and effective tool to optimize the ingredient level and to discriminate the interactive effects of independent variables.

  5. Barrier island response to an elevated sea-level anomaly: Onslow Beach, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.; Fegley, S. R.; Luettich, R.

    2012-12-01

    Variations in sea level over time scales ranging from hours to millennia influence coastal processes and evolution. At annual time scales, elevated sea-level anomalies produce coastal flooding and promote beach erosion. This study examines the coastal response of Onslow Beach, North Carolina to the summer 2009 East Coast sea-level anomaly. Onslow Beach is a 12-km-long wave-dominated barrier island with highly variable along-barrier morphology. The transgressive southern portion of the island is characterized by a narrow beach, low dunes, and multiple washover fans, while the regressive northern portion is characterized by a wide beach and continuous tall dunes. Hourly tide gauge data from adjacent NOAA stations (Beaufort and Wrightsville Beach) are used to determine the timing and extent of elevated water levels. The seasonal and longer term trends (relative sea level rise) are removed from both of the water level series and the sea-level anomaly is represented by a large residual between the observed and predicted water levels. Beach response is quantified using terrestrial laser scanning for morphology and from geoprobe cores to determine the maximum depth of erosion (MDOE). The mean high water (MHW) shoreline and dune toe are digitized from digital elevation models derived from the laser scans and analyzed using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS). Landward (negative) movement of these contacts indicates erosion. Wave data collected from an Acoustic Wave and Current Meter (AWAC) located offshore of the southern end of Onslow Beach is used to characterize the wave regime throughout the study. Water level is elevated in the tide gauge data from June 2009 to March 2010. This sea-level anomaly corresponds with an increase in the maximum depth of erosion between 2009 and 2010. Landward movement of the MHW shoreline and the dunetoe increased during the period between September 2009 and May 2010 indicating an increase in beach erosion during the sea-level

  6. Molecular profiling of short-term and long-term surviving patients identifies CD34 mRNA level as prognostic for glioblastoma survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Urup, Thomas; Olsen, Lars Rønn

    2018-01-01

    Despite extensive treatment, overall survival (OS) for glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. A small proportion of patients present long survival over 3 years, but the underlying molecular background separating these long-term survivors (LTS) from short-term survivors (STS) are insufficiently understood....... Accordingly, study aim was to identify independent prognostic biomarkers for survival. Study cohort consisted of 93 primary GBM patients treated with radiation-, chemo- and bevacizumab therapy, among which 14 STS (OS ≤ 12 months) and 6 LTS (OS ≥ 36 months) were identified, all confirmed being IDH wild......-type. RNA expression levels in diagnostic tumor specimen for 792 genes were analyzed by NanoString technology. While no differences were found with regard to GBM subtype between LTS versus STS, comparative analysis of individual genes identified 14 significantly differently expressed candidate genes...

  7. Characterization of Staphylococcus spp. strains in milk from buffaloes with mastitis in Brazil: the need to identify to species level to avoid misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coimbra-e-Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that affects dairy cattle worldwide causing economic losses. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are the predominant cause of this type of infection. We have recently showed that coagulase-positive staphylococci could be misidentified. So, the aim of this study was to characterize the Staphylococcus spp. strains initially classified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci, isolated from buffalo with subclinical mastitis. Milk of buffaloes with mastitis in herds was collected and 9 strains were identified as CNS by phenotypic tests. Molecular methodologies latter identified the strains as coagulase-negative Staphylococcus chromogenes (5, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus hyicus (2 and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus (2. Our results strongly support the need to identify the isolates to a species level in order to avoid misidentification and to be aware of the classification using the coagulase test alone.

  8. Use of signature-tagged mutagenesis to identify virulence determinants in Haemophilus ducreyi responsible for ulcer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Angela; Cameron, D William; Desjardins, Marc; Lee, B Craig

    2011-02-01

    Elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for chancroid, a genital ulcer disease caused by Haemophilus ducreyi, has been hampered in part by the relative genetic intractability of the organism. A whole genome screen using signature-tagged mutagenesis in the temperature-dependent rabbit model (TDRM) of H. ducreyi infection uncovered 26 mutants with a presumptive attenuated phenotype. Insertions in two previously recognized virulence determinants, hgbA and lspA1, validated this genome scanning technique. Database interrogation allowed assignment of 24 mutants to several functional classes, including transport, metabolism, DNA repair, stress response and gene regulation. The attenuated virulence for a 3 strain with a mutation in hicB was confirmed by individual infection in the TDRM. The results from this preliminary study indicate that this high throughput strategy will further the understanding of the pathogenesis of H. ducreyi infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying the Impact of Individual Differences on the Basis of Affect Intensity Measure on Consumers Response to Advertising Appeals

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This study aims (i) to find out the individuals scoring on Larsen Affect intensity measurement Scale (AIM) for emotional ads and (ii) to know whether the individual differences of response diminishes when they are exposed to the nonemotional (rational) advertisements, (iii) to know whether the cultural differences among other countries and Pakistan mediate the applicability and implications of AIM scale in the field of advertising research. Variety of researchers including consumers behavior,...

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of tritiated thymidine incorporation and ELISPOT assays in identifying antigen specific T cell immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLeod Beth

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardization of cell-based immunologic monitoring is becoming increasingly important as methods for measuring cellular immunity become more complex. We assessed the ability of two commonly used cell-based assays, tritiated thymidine incorporation (proliferation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT, to predict T cell responses to HER-2/neu, tetanus toxoid (tt, and cytomegalovirus (CMV antigens. These antigens were determined to be low (HER-2/neu, moderate (tt, and robustly (CMV immunogenic proteins. Samples from 27 Stage II, III, and IV HER-2/neu positive breast cancer patients, vaccinated against the HER-2/neu protein and tt, were analyzed by tritiated thymidine incorporation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT for T cell response. Results Linear regression analysis indicates that both stimulation index (SI (p = 0.011 and IFN-gamma secreting precursor frequency (p Conclusion These data underscore the importance of taking into consideration the performance characteristics of assays used to measure T cell immunity. This consideration is particularly necessary when determining which method to utilize for assessing responses to immunotherapeutic manipulations in cancer patients.

  11. A survey of antiepileptic drug responses identifies drugs with potential efficacy for seizure control in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Karen S; Markham, Leah M; Twede, Hope; Lortz, Amanda; Olson, Lenora M; Sheng, Xiaoming; Weng, Cindy; Wassman, E Robert; Newcomb, Tara; Wassman, E Robert; Carey, John C; Battaglia, Agatino

    2018-04-01

    Seizures are present in over 90% of infants and children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). When present, they significantly affect quality of life. The goal of this study was to use caregiver reports to describe the comparative efficacies of commonly used antiepileptic medications in a large population of individuals with WHS. A web-based, confidential caregiver survey was developed to capture seizure semiology and a chronologic record of seizure treatments as well as responses to each treatment. Adverse events for each drug were also cataloged. We received 141 complete survey responses (47% response rate) describing the seizures of individuals ranging in age from 4months to 61years (90 females: 51 males). Using the Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Scale (E-Chess), WHS-associated seizures are demonstrably severe regardless of deletion size. The best-performing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for controlling seizures in this cohort were broad spectrum drugs clobazam, levetiracetam, and lamotrigine; whereas, the three commonly used carboxamide class drugs: carbamazepine, phenytoin, and oxcarbazepine, were reported to have little effect on, or even exacerbate, seizures. The carboxamide class drugs, along with phenobarbital and topiramate, were also associated with the highest rate of intolerance due to cooccurrence of adverse events. Levetiracetam, clobazam, and clonazepam demonstrated higher tolerability and comparatively less severe adverse events (Wilcoxon rank sum comparison between performance of levetiracetam and carboxamide class drugs gives a psyndromes which may have complex seizure etiologies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Litter quality and its response to water level drawdown in boreal peatlands at plant species and community level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straková, Petra; Anttila, Jani; Spetz, Peter; Kitunen, Veikko; Tapanila, Tarja; Laiho, Raija

    2010-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that changes in the species composition and structure of plant communities induced by global change will have much more impact on plant-mediated carbon cycling than any phenotypic responses. These impacts are largely mediated by shifts in litter quality. There are few documentations of these changes so far, due to the relatively long time scale required for their direct observation. Here, we examine the changes in litter inputs induced by persistent water-level drawdown in boreal peatland sites. Peatlands contain a major proportion of the terrestrial carbon pool, and it is thus important to be able to predict their behaviour and role in the global C cycle under different global change factors. We studied the effects of short-term (ca. 4 years) and long-term (ca. 40 years) persistent water level (WL) drawdown on the quantity and chemical quality of above-ground plant litter inputs at three sites: bog, oligotrophic fen and mesotrophic fen. The parameters used to characterize litter quality included various extractable substances, cellulose, holocellulose, composition of hemicellulose (neutral sugars, uronic acids), lignin, CuO oxidation phenolic products, and concentrations of C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium, magnesium, manganese and calcium. Four different groups of litter were clearly distinct based on their chemical quality: foliar litters, graminoids, mosses and woody litters. The pristine conditions were characterized by Sphagnum moss and graminoid litter. Following short-term WL drawdown, changes in the quality and quantity of litter inputs were small. Following long-term WL drawdown, total litter inputs dramatically increased, due to increased tree litter inputs, and the litter type composition greatly changed. These changes resulted in annual inputs of 1901-2010 kg•ha-1 C, 22-24 kg•ha-1 N, 1.5-2.2 kg•ha-1 P, 967-1235 kg•ha-1 lignin and lignin-like compounds and 254-300 kg•ha-1 water solubles after long-term WL

  13. Stratigraphic response of salt marshes to slow rates of sea-level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J.; Bell, T.

    2006-12-01

    Conventional models of salt-marsh development show an idealized spatial relationship between salt-marsh floral and foraminiferal zones, where the landward margin of the marsh gradually migrates inland in response to sea-level rise. This model predicts that transgression will result in persistent and possibly expanded salt marshes at the surface, depending on a variety of factors including sediment supply, hydrologic conditions, tidal range, and rate of sea-level rise. However, in areas with abundant sediment supply and slow rates of sea- level rise, the extent of back-barrier salt marshes may decline over time as the barrier-spits mature. Sea level around the northeast coast of Newfoundland is rising at a very slow rate during the late Holocene (flora. These transitions are interpreted to reflect the progradation of the spit, decreased tidal exchange in the back-barrier, and increased influence of freshwater streams discharging into the back-barrier setting. Decreased marine influence on the back-barrier environment leads to a floral and faunal shift associated with a regressive stratigraphy in an area experiencing sea-level rise. For studies of Holocene sea-level change requiring salt-marsh stratigraphic records, it is necessary to account for changing micro-environments to locate sites appropriate for study; salt marshes may play an important role in defining the record, but may not exist at the surface to guide investigation.

  14. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  15. Plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites predict the response to sulpiride or fluvoxamine in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, N; Yoshimura, R; Shinkai, K; Nakamura, J

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between the changes in plasma catecholamine metabolites obtained from depressed patients before and after administration of sulpiride, a benzamide compound, or fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and between clinical responses to treatment with each of these drugs. Responders to sulpiride had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels before administration of sulpiride than did non-responders or controls (responders: 4.5 +/- 3.1 ng/ml, non-responders: 11.1 +/- 5.9 ng/ml, controls: 10.9 +/- 5.3 ng/ml). Positive relationships were observed between changes in pHVA levels and improvement rates in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). In contrast, responders to fluvoxamine had significantly higher plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) levels before administration of fluvoxamine than did non-responders or controls (responders: 8.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml, non-responders: 5.9 +/- 2.I ng/ml, controls: 5.2 +/- 2.9 ng/ml). Negative relationships were observed between changes in pMHPG levels and improvement rates in Ham-D. These results suggest that lower pretreatment pHVA levels and higher pretreatment levels of pMHPG might be predictors of response to sulpiride and fluvoxamine, respectively, and that sulpiride might produce a functional increase in the dopaminergic system, resulting in improvement in some depressive symptoms; fluvoxamine, on the other hand, might produce a functional decrease in the noradrenergic system via serotonergic neurons, resulting in improvement of those symptoms.

  16. Periovulatory follicular fluid levels of estradiol trigger inflammatory and DNA damage responses in oviduct epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Palma-Vera

    Full Text Available Ovarian steroid hormones (mainly E2 and P4 regulate oviduct physiology. Serum-E2 acts on the oviduct epithelium from the basolateral cell compartment. Upon ovulation, the apical compartment of the oviduct epithelium is temporarily exposed to follicular fluid, which contains much higher levels of E2 than serum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of human periovulatory follicular fluid levels of E2 on oviduct epithelial cells using two porcine in vitro models.A cell line derived from the porcine oviductal epithelium (CCLV-RIE270 was characterized (lineage markers, proliferation characteristics and transformation status. Primary porcine oviduct epithelial cells (POEC were cultured in air-liquid interface and differentiation was assessed histologically. Both cultures were exposed to E2 (10 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. Proliferation of CCLV-RIE270 and POEC was determined by real-time impedance monitoring and immunohistochemical detection of Ki67. Furthermore, marker gene expression for DNA damage response (DDR and inflammation was quantified.CCLV-RIE270 was not transformed and exhibited properties of secretory oviduct epithelial cells. Periovulatory follicular fluid levels of E2 (200 ng/ml upregulated the expression of inflammatory genes in CCLV-RIE270 but not in POEC (except for IL8. Expression of DDR genes was elevated in both models. A significant increase in cell proliferation could not be detected in response to E2.CCLV-RIE270 and POEC are complementary models to evaluate the consequences of oviduct exposure to follicular fluid components. Single administration of periovulatory follicular fluid E2 levels trigger inflammatory and DNA damage responses, but not proliferation in oviduct epithelial cells.

  17. Intraspecific variation shapes community-level behavioral responses to urbanization in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahirel, Maxime; Dierick, Jasper; De Cock, Maarten; Bonte, Dries

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas are an extreme example of human-changed environments, exposing organisms to multiple and strong selection pressures. Adaptive behavioral responses are thought to play a major role in animals' success or failure in such new environments. Approaches based on functional traits have proven especially valuable to understand how species communities respond to environmental gradients. Until recently, they have, however, often ignored the potential consequences of intraspecific trait variation (ITV). When ITV is prevalent, it may highly impact ecological processes and resilience against stressors. This may be especially relevant in animals, in which behavioral traits can be altered very flexibly at the individual level to track environmental changes. We investigated how species turnover and ITV influenced community-level behavioral responses in a set of 62 sites of varying levels of urbanization, using orb web spiders and their webs as models of foraging behavior. ITV alone explained around one-third of the total trait variation observed among communities. Spider web structure changed according to urbanization, in ways that increase the capture efficiency of webs in a context of smaller urban prey. These trait shifts were partly mediated by species turnover, but ITV increased their magnitude, potentially helping to buffer the effects of environmental changes on communities. The importance of ITV varied depending on traits and on the spatial scale at which urbanization was considered. Despite being neglected from community-level analyses in animals, our results highlight the importance of accounting for intraspecific trait variation to fully understand trait responses to (human-induced) environmental changes and their impact on ecosystem functioning. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. NRC Information No. 90-01: Importance of proper response to self-identified violations by licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    NRC expects a high standard of compliance by its licensees and requires that licensees provide NRC accurate and complete information and that required records will also be complete and accurate in all material respects. Licensees should be aware of the importance placed by NRC on licensee programs for self detection, correction and reporting of violations or errors related to regulatory requirements. The General Statement of Policy and Procedures for NRC Enforcement Actions in Appendix C to 10 CFR Part 2 underscores the importance of licensees responding promptly and properly to self-identified violations in two ways. It is suggested that when a licensee identifies a violation involving an NRC-required record, the licensee should make a dated notation indicating identification, either on the record itself or other appropriate documentation retrievable for NRC review. The record with the self-identified violation noted should not be altered in any way to mask the correction. The licensee should determine the cause of the violation, correct the root cause of the violation, and document such findings in an appropriate manner. Licensees should also assure that if a report of the violation is required, the report is submitted to NRC in a timely manner. These actions will be considered by NRC in making any enforcement decision, and generally lead to lesser or no civil penalty

  19. Is metal contamination responsible for increasing aneuploidy levels in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum?

    KAUST Repository

    Piló, D.

    2016-11-03

    The present study assessed the metal genotoxicity potential at chromosome-level in the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum collected along different areas of the Tagus estuary. Higher levels of aneuploidy on gill cells were detected at the most sediment contaminated area both in May (31.7%) and October (36.0%) when compared to a less contaminated area over the same periods (20.3% and 29.0% respectively). Interestingly, metal bioaccumulation in gills was higher in the specimens collected at the least contaminated area with the exception of Pb. Indeed, the multivariate analysis revealed a stronger relation between aneuploidy and sediment contamination than between aneuploidy and the bioaccumulation of the metals. The temporal and spatial inconsistency found for the bioaccumulation of metals in R. philippinarum and the positive correlation between sediment contamination and aneuploidy at the most contaminated area suggest that these chromosome-level effects might be due to chronic metal contamination occurring in the Tagus estuary, rather than a direct result of the temporal variation of bioavailable contaminants. The vertical transmission phenomenon of bivalve aneuploidy levels may then be perpetuating those levels on clams from the most contaminated area. The present results shed light about the effect of metal toxicity at the chromosome-level in species inhabiting chronic contaminated areas and highlight the use of aneuploidy as an effective tool to identify persistent contamination in worldwide transitional waters.

  20. Insulin and C peptide response, and antibody levels in hepatitis C related chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Z.; Tariq, N.; Iqbal, M.; Shah, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C (HC) have an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus. The pathogenic mechanism by which HC predisposes to DM is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the insulin and C-peptide response to 75 gram oral glucose load and measure anti phospholipid antibody levels in patients with chronic liver disease due to HC. Design: a prospective study. Place and duration of study: This study was conducted at the department of medicine, Jinnah postgraduate medical centre over period of three months. Subjects and methods: An analytical case control study was carried out on 37 patients (m-18,f=19); none of these patients had received interferon. They were divided into four groups: (a) HC cirrhosis with DM (n=9 ), (b) HC cirrhosis without DM (n=11), (c) hepatitis B (HB) cirrhosis without DM (n=7), (d) chronic hepatitis C without DM (n=10). Group C and D were taken as controls. Fasting blood samples were taken and repeated after 2 hours of 75 gram oral glucose load (2 h PG). Result: mean ages of group A,B,C and D were (yr +- SD) 51.3 +- 7.6,48.9 +- 2.4, 33.7 +-10.8 and 31.7 +- 8.8 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the age, Pugh score and body mass index of HC cirrhotic patients with and without DM. Patients of group A had higher fasting and 2 h PG glucose levels (P=0.003 and 0.000) and higher fasting insulin level (p=0.045). However, increments in insulin and c peptide levels 2 h PG were much less (p=0.048 and 0.003). HB cirrhotics without diabetes (group C behaved just like HC cirrhotic without diabetes (group B). Patients of group D had normal glucose tolerance and insulin and C peptide levels. All four groups had normal anti phospholipid antibody levels. Conclusion: Patients with cirrhosis due to HC nd HB show evidence of glucose intolerance in spite of hyperinsulinaemia probably due to insulin resistance. HC cirrhotics with diabetes have fasting hyperglycemia in spite of

  1. Rats with decreased brain cholecystokinin levels show increased responsiveness to peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L X; Li, X L; Wang, L; Han, J S

    1997-01-16

    Using the P77PMC strain of rat, which is genetically prone to audiogenic seizures, and also has decreased levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), we examined the analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, which is, in part, opiate-mediated. A number of studies have suggested that CCK may function as an antagonist to endogenous opiate effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that the P77PMC animals would show an enhanced analgesic response based on their decreased CCK levels producing a diminished endogenous opiate antagonism. We found that the analgesic effect on tail flick latency produced by 100 Hz peripheral electrical stimulation was more potent and longer lasting in P77PMC rats than in control rats. Moreover, the potency of the stimulation-produced analgesia correlated with the vulnerability to audiogenic seizures in these rats. We were able to block the peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia (PSIA) using a cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) administered parenterally. Radioimmunoassay showed that the content of CCK-8 in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and periaqueductal gray was much lower in P77PMC rat than in controls. These results suggest that low CCK-8 content in the central nervous system of the P77PMC rats may be related to the high analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, and further support the notion that CCK may be endogenous opiate antagonist.

  2. The adaptive response of E. coli to low levels of alkylating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.; Defais, M.; Samson, L.; Schendel, P.

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to characterise which gene products may be involved in the repair system induced in E. coli by growth on low levels of alkylating agent (the adaptive response) we have analysed mutants deficient in other known pathways of DNA repair for the ability to adapt to MNNG. Adaptive resistance to the killing effects of MNNG seems to require a functional DNA polymerase I whereas resistance to the mutagenic effects can occur in polymerase I deficient strains; similarly killing adaptation could not be observed in a dam3 mutant, which was nonetheless able to show mutational adaptation. These results suggest that these two parts of the adaptive response must, at least to some extent, be separable. Both adaptive responses can be seen in the absence of uvrD + uvrE + -dependent mismatch repair, DNA polymerase II activity, or recF-mediated recombination and they are not affected by decreased levels of adenyl cyclase. The data presented support our earlier conclusion that adaptive resistance to the killing and mutagenic effect of MNNG is the result of previously uncharacterised repair pathways. (orig.) [de

  3. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Key Metabolic Changes in the Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata Brain in Response to Hypoxia and Reoxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Leivas Müller Hoff

    Full Text Available The brain of diving mammals tolerates low oxygen conditions better than the brain of most terrestrial mammals. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the neurons in brain slices of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata withstand hypoxia longer than those of mouse, and also tolerate reduced glucose supply and high lactate concentrations. This tolerance appears to be accompanied by a shift in the oxidative energy metabolism to the astrocytes in the seal while in terrestrial mammals the aerobic energy production mainly takes place in neurons. Here, we used RNA-Seq to compare the effect of hypoxia and reoxygenation in vitro on brain slices from the visual cortex of hooded seals. We saw no general reduction of gene expression, suggesting that the response to hypoxia and reoxygenation is an actively regulated process. The treatments caused the preferential upregulation of genes related to inflammation, as found before e.g. in stroke studies using mammalian models. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses showed a downregulation of genes involved in ion transport and other neuronal processes, indicative for a neuronal shutdown in response to a shortage of O2 supply. These differences may be interpreted in terms of an energy saving strategy in the seal's brain. We specifically analyzed the regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism. Hypoxia and reoxygenation caused a similar response, with upregulation of genes involved in glucose metabolism and downregulation of the components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. We also observed upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporter Mct4, suggesting increased lactate efflux. Together, these data indicate that the seal brain responds to the hypoxic challenge by a relative increase in the anaerobic energy metabolism.

  4. Structural Response of the Earth's Crust to an Extra-Terrestrial Source of Stress by Identifying its Characteristic Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, B.

    2016-12-01

    The earth's crust is a geodynamic realm, which is constantly evolving. Due to its dynamic nature, the crust is constantly being subjected to remodelling. The earth's crustal response to stress is a result of isostatic compensation. The crust is also a living proof of yesteryears' dynamics. Extra-terrestrial agents of deformation refers to meteorites, asteroids etc. These are catastrophic events that influence a larger area (considering larger impact bodies). They effect the crust from outside, hence leave behind very specific structural signatures.Consider an extra-terrestrial object impacting the earth's crust. The problem can be broken down into 3 parts: Pre Impact (kinematics of the object and nature of surface of impact); Syn Impact (dissipation of energy and formation of crater); and Post Impact (structural response, geophysical anomalies and effect on biota)Upon impact, the projectile penetrates the earth's crust to a depth of twice its diameter. Shock waves generated due impact propagate in all possible directions. The reflected waves cause complete melting and vaporization of the impact body. At the same time, increased internal energy of the system melts the target rock. Depending on the thickness and density of crustal matter, its' interaction with the mantle is determined. Data collection from such impact sites is the first step towards its theoretical modeling. Integrating geophysical (seismic, magnetic), paleomagnetic, geochemical and geo-chronological data one can determine the kinematic parameters that governed the event. A working model that illustrates the crustal responses to extraterrestrial stress of extreme magnitude cannot be qualitative. Hence the most fundamental thing at this point is quantification of these parameters. The variables form a `mass-energy equation', a simple theorem in Classical Physics. This project is directed to give the equation its shape. The equation will be the foundation on which the simulation model will rest. Mass

  5. The Art of Athlete Leadership: Identifying High-Quality Athlete Leadership at the Individual and Team Level Through Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Loughead, Todd M; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed to introduce social network analysis as a novel technique in sports teams to identify the attributes of high-quality athlete leadership, both at the individual and at the team level. Study 1 included 25 sports teams (N = 308 athletes) and focused on athletes' general leadership quality. Study 2 comprised 21 sports teams (N = 267 athletes) and focused on athletes' specific leadership quality as a task, motivational, social, and external leader. The extent to which athletes felt connected with their leader proved to be most predictive for athletes' perceptions of that leader's quality on each leadership role. Also at the team level, teams with higher athlete leadership quality were more strongly connected. We conclude that social network analysis constitutes a valuable tool to provide more insight in the attributes of high-quality leadership both at the individual and at the team level.

  6. Predatory functional response and prey choice identify predation differences between native/invasive and parasitised/unparasitised crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Wilcox, Ruth H; Heptonstall, Rachael E A; Griffiths, Hannah M; Mortimer, Robert J G; Christmas, Martin; Dunn, Alison M

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators may change the structure of invaded communities through predation and competition with native species. In Europe, the invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is excluding the native white clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. This study compared the predatory functional responses and prey choice of native and invasive crayfish and measured impacts of parasitism on the predatory strength of the native species. Invasive crayfish showed a higher (>10%) prey (Gammarus pulex) intake rate than (size matched) natives, reflecting a shorter (16%) prey handling time. The native crayfish also showed greater selection for crustacean prey over molluscs and bloodworm, whereas the invasive species was a more generalist predator. A. pallipes parasitised by the microsporidian parasite Thelohania contejeani showed a 30% reduction in prey intake. We suggest that this results from parasite-induced muscle damage, and this is supported by a reduced (38%) attack rate and increased (30%) prey handling time. Our results indicate that the per capita (i.e., functional response) difference between the species may contribute to success of the invader and extinction of the native species, as well as decreased biodiversity and biomass in invaded rivers. In addition, the reduced predatory strength of parasitized natives may impair their competitive abilities, facilitating exclusion by the invader.

  7. VEGF-121 plasma level as biomarker for response to anti-angiogenetic therapy in recurrent glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Maurizio; de Pascalis, Ivana; D'Alessandris, Quintino Giorgio; Fiorentino, Vincenzo; Pierconti, Francesco; Marei, Hany El-Sayed; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Pallini, Roberto; Larocca, Luigi Maria

    2018-05-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoforms, particularly the diffusible VEGF-121, could play a major role in the response of recurrent glioblastoma (GB) to anti-angiogenetic treatment with bevacizumab. We hypothesized that circulating VEGF-121 may reduce the amount of bevacizumab available to target the heavier isoforms of VEGF, which are the most clinically relevant. We assessed the plasma level of VEGF-121 in a brain xenograft model, in human healthy controls, and in patients suffering from recurrent GB before and after bevacizumab treatment. Data were matched with patients' clinical outcome. In athymic rats with U87MG brain xenografts, the level of plasma VEGF-121 relates with tumor volume and it significantly decreases after iv infusion of bevacizumab. Patients with recurrent GB show higher plasma VEGF-121 than healthy controls (p = 0.0002) and treatment with bevacizumab remarkably reduced the expression of VEGF-121 in plasma of these patients (p = 0.0002). Higher plasma level of VEGF-121 was significantly associated to worse PFS and OS (p = 0.0295 and p = 0.0246, respectively). Quantitative analysis of VEGF-121 isoform in the plasma of patients with recurrent GB could be a promising predictor of response to anti-angiogenetic treatment.

  8. Evaluating bronchodilator response in pediatric patients with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans: use of different criteria for identifying airway reversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Rita; Vidal, Paula Cristina; Sarria, Edgar Enrique; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Mocelin, Helena Teresinha; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Pinto, Leonardo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a clinical entity that has been classified as constrictive, fixed obstruction of the lumen by fibrotic tissue. However, recent studies using impulse oscillometry have reported bronchodilator responses in PIBO patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate bronchodilator responses in pediatric PIBO patients, comparing different criteria to define the response. We evaluated pediatric patients diagnosed with PIBO and treated at one of two pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinics in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Spirometric parameters were measured in accordance with international recommendations. We included a total of 72 pediatric PIBO patients. The mean pre- and post-bronchodilator values were clearly lower than the reference values for all parameters, especially FEF25-75%. There were post-bronchodilator improvements. When measured as mean percent increases, FEV1 and FEF25-75%, improved by 11% and 20%, respectively. However, when the absolute values were calculated, the mean FEV1 and FEF25-75% both increased by only 0.1 L. We found that age at viral aggression, a family history of asthma, and allergy had no significant effects on bronchodilator responses. Pediatric patients with PIBO have peripheral airway obstruction that is responsive to treatment but is not completely reversible with a bronchodilator. The concept of PIBO as fixed, irreversible obstruction does not seem to apply to this population. Our data suggest that airway obstruction is variable in PIBO patients, a finding that could have major clinical implications. A bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa (BOPI) é uma entidade clínica que tem sido classificada como obstrução fixa e constritiva do lúmen por tecido fibrótico. Entretanto, estudos recentes utilizando oscilometria de impulso relataram resposta ao broncodilatador em pacientes com BOPI. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resposta broncodilatadora em pacientes pediátricos com

  9. Natural and Human-Induced Variability in Barrier-Island Response to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    Storm-driven sediment fluxes onto and behind barrier islands help coastal barrier systems keep pace with sea level rise (SLR). Understanding what controls cross-shore sediment flux magnitudes is critical for making accurate forecasts of barrier response to increased SLR rates. Here, using an existing morphodynamic model for barrier island evolution, observations are used to constrain model parameters and explore potential variability in future barrier behavior. Using modeled drowning outcomes as a proxy for vulnerability to SLR, 0%, 28%, and 100% of the barrier is vulnerable to SLR rates of 4, 7, and 10 mm/yr, respectively. When only overwash fluxes are increased in the model, drowning vulnerability increases for the same rates of SLR, suggesting that future increases in storminess may increase island vulnerability particularly where sediment resources are limited. Developed sites are more vulnerable to SLR, indicating that anthropogenic changes to overwash fluxes and estuary depths could profoundly affect future barrier response to SLR.

  10. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P athletics training. PMID:26635619

  11. Physiological responses to four hours of low-level repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Jensen, Bente R

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study investigated physiological responses to 4 hours of standardized low-level repetitive work. It was hypothesized that accumulative effects not observed after 1 hour could be found after 4 hours of repetitive work. METHODS: Ten healthy women performed intermittent (5 seconds + 5...... muscle activity during a mental reference task with low exerted force indicated attention-related muscle activity. Finally, it was indicated that repetitive work including high demands for attention is performed at the expense of the precision of the exerted force....... seconds) handgrip contractions at 10% of the maximal voluntary contraction combined with mental demands for concentration and attention. Muscle activity in the working forearm muscles, cardiovascular responses, and concentrations of biomarkers in biological fluids were recorded along with exerted force...

  12. Frequency response testing at Experimental Breeder Reactor II using discrete-level periodic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, W.D.; Larson, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) reactivity-to-power frequency-response function was measured with pseudo-random, discrete-level, periodic signals. The reactor power deviation was small with insignificant perturbation of normal operation and in-place irradiation experiments. Comparison of results with measured rod oscillator data and with theoretical predictions show good agreement. Moreover, measures of input signal quality (autocorrelation function and energy spectra) confirm the ability to enable this type of frequency response determination at EBR-2. Measurements were made with the pseudo-random binary sequence, quadratic residue binary sequence, pseudo-random ternary sequence, and the multifrequency binary sequence. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  13. RNA-Seq Analysis of IL-1B and IL-36 Responses in Epidermal Keratinocytes Identifies a Shared MyD88-Dependent Gene Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, William R; Beamer, Maria A; Sarkar, Mrinal K; Loftus, Shannon; Fullmer, Joseph; Xing, Xianying; Ward, Nicole L; Tsoi, Lam C; Kahlenberg, Michelle J; Liang, Yun; Gudjonsson, Johann E

    2018-01-01

    IL-36 cytokines have recently emerged as mediators of inflammation in autoimmune conditions including psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP). This study used RNA-seq to profile the transcriptome of primary epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) treated with IL-1B, IL-36A, IL-36B, or IL-36G. We identified some early IL-1B-specific responses (8 h posttreatment), but nearly all late IL-1B responses were replicated by IL-36 cytokines (24 h posttreatment). Type I and II interferon genes exhibited time-dependent response patterns, with early induction (8 h) followed by no response or repression (24 h). Altogether, we identified 225 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with shared responses to all 4 cytokines at both time points (8 and 24 h). These involved upregulation of ligands ( IL1A, IL1B , and IL36G ) and activating proteases ( CTSS ) but also upregulation of inhibitors such as IL1RN and IL36RN . Shared IL-1B/IL-36 DEGs overlapped significantly with genes altered in PsV and GPP skin lesions, as well as genes near GWAS loci linked to autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases (e.g., PsV, psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and primary biliary cholangitis). Inactivation of MyD88 adapter protein using CRISPR/Cas9 completely abolished expression responses of such DEGs to IL-1B and IL-36G stimulation. These results provide a global view of IL-1B and IL-36 expression responses in epidermal KCs with fine-scale characterization of time-dependent and cytokine-specific response patterns. Our findings support an important role for IL-1B and IL-36 in autoimmune or autoinflammatory conditions and show that MyD88 adaptor protein mediates shared IL-1B/IL-36 responses.

  14. Plasma Metabolomics Biosignature According to HIV Stage of Infection, Pace of Disease Progression, Viremia Level and Immunological Response to Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Scarpellini

    Full Text Available We evaluated plasma samples HIV-infected individuals with different phenotypic profile among five HIV-infected elite controllers and five rapid progressors after recent HIV infection and one year later and from 10 individuals subjected to antiretroviral therapy, five of whom were immunological non-responders (INR, before and after one year of antiretroviral treatment compared to 175 samples from HIV-negative patients. A targeted quantitative tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was used in order to determine plasma metabolomics biosignature that may relate to HIV infection, pace of HIV disease progression, and immunological response to treatment.Twenty-five unique metabolites were identified, including five metabolites that could distinguish rapid progressors and INRs at baseline. Severe deregulation in acylcarnitine and sphingomyelin metabolism compatible with mitochondrial deficiencies was observed. β-oxidation and sphingosine-1-phosphate-phosphatase-1 activity were down-regulated, whereas acyl-alkyl-containing phosphatidylcholines and alkylglyceronephosphate synthase levels were elevated in INRs. Evidence that elite controllers harbor an inborn error of metabolism (late-onset multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency [MADD] was detected.Blood-based markers from metabolomics show a very high accuracy of discriminating HIV infection between varieties of controls and have the ability to predict rapid disease progression or poor antiretroviral immunological response. These metabolites can be used as biomarkers of HIV natural evolution or treatment response and provide insight into the mechanisms of the disease.

  15. Plasma Metabolomics Biosignature According to HIV Stage of Infection, Pace of Disease Progression, Viremia Level and Immunological Response to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, Bruno; Zanoni, Michelle; Sucupira, Maria Cecilia Araripe; Truong, Hong-Ha M; Janini, Luiz Mario Ramos; Segurado, Ismael Dale Cotrin; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated plasma samples HIV-infected individuals with different phenotypic profile among five HIV-infected elite controllers and five rapid progressors after recent HIV infection and one year later and from 10 individuals subjected to antiretroviral therapy, five of whom were immunological non-responders (INR), before and after one year of antiretroviral treatment compared to 175 samples from HIV-negative patients. A targeted quantitative tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was used in order to determine plasma metabolomics biosignature that may relate to HIV infection, pace of HIV disease progression, and immunological response to treatment. Twenty-five unique metabolites were identified, including five metabolites that could distinguish rapid progressors and INRs at baseline. Severe deregulation in acylcarnitine and sphingomyelin metabolism compatible with mitochondrial deficiencies was observed. β-oxidation and sphingosine-1-phosphate-phosphatase-1 activity were down-regulated, whereas acyl-alkyl-containing phosphatidylcholines and alkylglyceronephosphate synthase levels were elevated in INRs. Evidence that elite controllers harbor an inborn error of metabolism (late-onset multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency [MADD]) was detected. Blood-based markers from metabolomics show a very high accuracy of discriminating HIV infection between varieties of controls and have the ability to predict rapid disease progression or poor antiretroviral immunological response. These metabolites can be used as biomarkers of HIV natural evolution or treatment response and provide insight into the mechanisms of the disease.

  16. Responses to Projected Changes in Climate and UV-B at the Species Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaghan, Terry V. [Abisko Scientific Research Station, Abisko (Sweden); Bjoern, Lars Olof [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Organism Biology; Cernov, Yuri [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.N. Severtsov Inst. of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal Ecology] (and others)

    2004-11-01

    Environmental manipulation experiments showed that species respond individualistically to each environmental-change variable. The greatest responses of plants were generally to nutrient, particularly nitrogen, addition. Summer warming experiments showed that woody plant responses were dominant and that mosses and lichens became less abundant. Responses to warming were controlled by moisture availability and snow cover. Many invertebrates increased population growth in response to summer warming, as long as desiccation was not induced. CO{sub 2} and UV-B enrichment experiments showed that plant and animal responses were small. However, some microorganisms and species of fungi were sensitive to increased UV-B and some intensive mutagenic actions could, perhaps, lead to unexpected epidemic outbreaks. Tundra soil heating, CO{sub 2} enrichment and amendment with mineral nutrients generally accelerated microbial activity. Algae are likely to dominate cyanobacteria in milder climates. Expected increases in winter freeze-thaw cycles leading to ice-crust formation are likely to severely reduce winter survival rate and disrupt the population dynamics of many terrestrial animals. A deeper snow cover is likely to restrict access to winter pastures by reindeer/caribou and their ability to flee from predators while any earlier onset of the snow-free period is likely to stimulate increased plant growth. Initial species responses to climate change might occur at the sub-species level: an Arctic plant or animal species with high genetic/racial diversity has proved an ability to adapt to different environmental conditions in the past and is likely to do so also in the future. Indigenous knowledge, air photographs, satellite images and monitoring show that changes in the distributions of some species are already occurring: Arctic vegetation is becoming more shrubby and more productive, there have been recent changes in the ranges of caribou, and 'new' species of insects and

  17. Transcriptome analysis reveals a stress response of Shewanella oneidensis deprived of background levels of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoping; Schilkey, Faye; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Natural ionizing background radiation has exerted a constant pressure on organisms since the first forms of life appeared on Earth, so that cells have developed molecular mechanisms to avoid or repair damages caused directly by radiation or indirectly by radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the transcriptional effect of depriving Shewanella oneidensis cultures of background levels of radiation by growing the cells in a mine 655 m underground, thus reducing the dose rate from 72.1 to 0.9 nGy h-1 from control to treatment, respectively. RNASeq transcriptome analysis showed the differential expression of 4.6 and 7.6% of the S. oneidensis genome during early- and late-exponential phases of growth, respectively. The greatest change observed in the treatment was the downregulation of ribosomal proteins (21% of all annotated ribosomal protein genes during early- and 14% during late-exponential) and tRNA genes (14% of all annotated tRNA genes in early-exponential), indicating a marked decrease in protein translation. Other significant changes were the upregulation of membrane transporters, implying an increase in the traffic of substrates across the cell membrane, as well as the up and downregulation of genes related to respiration, which could be interpreted as a response to insufficient oxidants in the cells. In other reports, there is evidence in multiple species that some ROS not just lead to oxidative stress, but act as signaling molecules to control cellular metabolism at the transcriptional level. Consistent with these reports, several genes involved in the metabolism of carbon and biosynthesis of amino acids were also regulated, lending support to the idea of a wide metabolic response. Our results indicate that S. oneidensis is sensitive to the withdrawal of background levels of ionizing radiation and suggest that a transcriptional response is required to maintain homeostasis and retain normal growth. PMID:29768440

  18. Exploration of the Influence of Factors Identified in the Literature on School-aged Children's Emotional Responses to Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Verónica García

    Approximately 6.3 million US children suffer from asthma. The purpose of this study was to explore factors on school-aged children's emotional responses to asthma, N=85, ages 6-12. Correlations included Asthma related child emotional functioning QOL and (a) asthma severity, r=-0.30, pchild internalizing behaviors, r=-0.26, pchild externalizing behaviors r=-0.43, pasthma severity, r=-0.39, pchild internalizing behaviors, r=-0.22, pchild externalizing behaviors, r=-0.25; pasthma severity and child externalizing problems accounted for 26% of the variance in asthma related child emotional functioning QOL, F (4, 79)=7.051, pasthma severity, β=-0.31, pchild externalizing problem behaviors, β=-0.43, pasthma research should consider problem behaviors of school-aged children when addressing asthma related emotional functioning QOL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Integration of supercapacitive storage in renewable energy system to compare the response of two level and five level inverter with RL type load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Suman; Biswas, Pabitra Kumar; Das, Upama

    2018-04-01

    The analytical and simulation-based study in this presented paper shows a comparative report between two level inverter and five-level inverter with the integration of Supercapacitive storage in Renewable Energy system. Sometime dependent numerical models are used to measure the voltage and current response of two level and five level inverter in MATLAB Simulink based environment. In this study supercapacitive sources, which are fed by solar cells are used as input sources to experiment the response of multilevel inverter with integration of su-percapacitor as a storage device of Renewable Energy System. The RL load is used to compute the time response in MATLABSimulink based environment. With the simulation results a comparative study has been made of two different level types of inverters. Two basic types of inverter are discussed in the study with reference to their electrical behavior. It is also simulated that multilevel inverter can convert stored energy within supercapacitor which is extracted from Renewable Energy System.

  20. Limitations of variable number of tandem repeat typing identified through whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a national and herd level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christina; Barkema, Herman W; Stevenson, Karen; Zadoks, Ruth N; Biek, Roman; Kao, Rowland; Trewby, Hannah; Haupstein, Deb; Kelton, David F; Fecteau, Gilles; Labrecque, Olivia; Keefe, Greg P; McKenna, Shawn L B; De Buck, Jeroen

    2015-03-08

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative bacterium of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, is widespread in the Canadian dairy industry and has significant economic and animal welfare implications. An understanding of the population dynamics of MAP can be used to identify introduction events, improve control efforts and target transmission pathways, although this requires an adequate understanding of MAP diversity and distribution between herds and across the country. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers a detailed assessment of the SNP-level diversity and genetic relationship of isolates, whereas several molecular typing techniques used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of MAP, such as variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, target relatively unstable repetitive elements in the genome that may be too unpredictable to draw accurate conclusions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of bovine MAP isolates in Canadian dairy herds using WGS and then determine if VNTR typing can distinguish truly related and unrelated isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 3,039 SNPs identified through WGS of 124 MAP isolates identified eight genetically distinct subtypes in dairy herds from seven Canadian provinces, with the dominant type including over 80% of MAP isolates. VNTR typing of 527 MAP isolates identified 12 types, including "bison type" isolates, from seven different herds. At a national level, MAP isolates differed from each other by 1-2 to 239-240 SNPs, regardless of whether they belonged to the same or different VNTR types. A herd-level analysis of MAP isolates demonstrated that VNTR typing may both over-estimate and under-estimate the relatedness of MAP isolates found within a single herd. The presence of multiple MAP subtypes in Canada suggests multiple introductions into the country including what has now become one dominant type, an important finding for Johne's disease control. VNTR typing often failed to

  1. Implications of Glutathione Levels in the Plasmodium berghei Response to Chloroquine and Artemisinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vega-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide. Plasmodium drug resistance remains a major challenge to malaria control and has led to the re-emergence of the disease. Chloroquine (CQ and artemisinin (ART are thought to exert their anti-malarial activity inducing cytotoxicity in the parasite by blocking heme degradation (for CQ and increasing oxidative stress. Besides the contribution of the CQ resistance transporter (PfCRT and the multidrug resistant gene (pfmdr, CQ resistance has also been associated with increased parasite glutathione (GSH levels. ART resistance was recently shown to be associated with mutations in the K13-propeller protein. To analyze the role of GSH levels in CQ and ART resistance, we generated transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites either deficient in or overexpressing the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene (pbggcs encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis. These lines produce either lower (pbggcs-ko or higher (pbggcs-oe levels of GSH than wild type parasites. In addition, GSH levels were determined in P. berghei parasites resistant to CQ and mefloquine (MQ. Increased GSH levels were detected in both, CQ and MQ resistant parasites, when compared to the parental sensitive clone. Sensitivity to CQ and ART remained unaltered in both pgggcs-ko and pbggcs-oe parasites when tested in a 4 days drug suppressive assay. However, recrudescence assays after the parasites have been exposed to a sub-lethal dose of ART showed that parasites with low levels of GSH are more sensitive to ART treatment. These results suggest that GSH levels influence Plasmodium berghei response to ART treatment.

  2. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  3. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  4. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected

  5. Meta-analysis reveals profound responses of plant traits to glacial CO2 levels

    OpenAIRE

    Temme, A A; Cornwell, W K; Cornelissen, J H C; Aerts, R

    2013-01-01

    A general understanding of the links between atmospheric CO2 concentration and the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere requires not only an understanding of plant trait responses to the ongoing transition to higher CO2 but also the legacy effects of past low CO2. An interesting question is whether the transition from current to higher CO2 can be thought of as a continuation of the past trajectory of low to current CO2 levels. Determining this trajectory requires quantifying the effect si...

  6. Identifying ADHD children using hemodynamic responses during a working memory task measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yue; Miao, Shuo; Han, Junxia; Liang, Zhenhu; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Yang, Jian; Li, Xiaoli

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting children and adults. Previous studies found that functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can reveal significant group differences in several brain regions between ADHD children and healthy controls during working memory tasks. This study aimed to use fNIRS activation patterns to identify ADHD children from healthy controls. Approach. FNIRS signals from 25 ADHD children and 25 healthy controls performing the n-back task were recorded; then, multivariate pattern analysis was used to discriminate ADHD individuals from healthy controls, and classification performance was evaluated for significance by the permutation test. Main results. The results showed that 86.0% (pADHD children from healthy controls based on fNIRS signals, which argues for the potential utility of fNIRS in future assessments.

  7. Using microarrays to identify positional candidate genes for QTL: the case study of ACTH response in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffe, Vincent; Rowe, Suzanne; Liaubet, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    this with information on published QTL. The starting point is a set of 237 differentially expressed cDNA clones in adrenal tissue from two pig breeds, before and after treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Results: Different approaches to localize the differentially expressed (DE) genes to the pig genome....... Different approaches to localize the differentially expressed (DE) genes to the pig genome showed different levels of success and a clear lack of concordance for some genes between the various approaches. For a focused analysis on 12 genes, overlapping QTL from the public domain were presented. Also...

  8. Circulating FGF23 levels in response to acute changes in plasma Ca(2+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, E; Mace, M.L.; Hofman-Bang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) synthesis and secretion is still incompletely understood. FGF23 is an important regulator of renal phosphate excretion and has regulatory effects on the calciotropic hormones calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate...... FGF23 levels and whether a close relationship, similar that known for Ca and PTH, exists between Ca and FGF23. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia regulate FGF23 levels in the rat. Acute hypercalcemia was induced by an intravenous Ca infusion...... and hypocalcemia by infusion of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) in normal and acutely parathyroidectomized rats. Intact plasma FGF23 and intact plasma PTH and plasma Ca(2+) and phosphate were measured. Acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia resulted as expected in adequate PTH secretory responses. Plasma FGF...

  9. Levels of active tyrosine kinase receptor determine the tumor response to Zalypsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moneo, Victoria; Serelde, Beatriz G; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Diaz-Uriarte, Ramon; Avilés, Pablo; Santamaría, Gemma; Tercero, Juan C; Cuevas, Carmen; Carnero, Amancio

    2014-01-01

    Zalypsis® is a marine compound in phase II clinical trials for multiple myeloma, cervical and endometrial cancer, and Ewing’s sarcoma. However, the determinants of the response to Zalypsis are not well known. The identification of biomarkers for Zalypsis activity would also contribute to broaden the spectrum of tumors by selecting those patients more likely to respond to this therapy. Using in vitro drug sensitivity data coupled with a set of molecular data from a panel of sarcoma cell lines, we developed molecular signatures that predict sensitivity to Zalypsis. We verified these results in culture and in vivo xenograft studies. Zalypsis resistance was dependent on the expression levels of PDGFRα or constitutive phosphorylation of c-Kit, indicating that the activation of tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs) may determine resistance to Zalypsis. To validate our observation, we measured the levels of total and active (phosphorylated) forms of the RTKs PDGFRα/β, c-Kit, and EGFR in a new panel of diverse solid tumor cell lines and found that the IC50 to the drug correlated with RTK activation in this new panel. We further tested our predictions about Zalypsis determinants for response in vivo in xenograft models. All cells lines expressing low levels of RTK signaling were sensitive to Zalypsis in vivo, whereas all cell lines except two with high levels of RTK signaling were resistant to the drug. RTK activation might provide important signals to overcome the cytotoxicity of Zalypsis and should be taken into consideration in current and future clinical trials

  10. Conceptual framework and trend analysis of water-level responses to hydrologic stresses, Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley groundwater basin, Nevada, 1966-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Tracie R.; Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2018-05-31

    This report identifies water-level trends in wells and provides a conceptual framework that explains the hydrologic stresses and factors causing the trends in the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley (PMOV) groundwater basin, southern Nevada. Water levels in 79 wells were analyzed for trends between 1966 and 2016. The magnitude and duration of water-level responses to hydrologic stresses were analyzed graphically, statistically, and with water-level models.The conceptual framework consists of multiple stress-specific conceptual models to explain water-level responses to the following hydrologic stresses: recharge, evapotranspiration, pumping, nuclear testing, and wellbore equilibration. Dominant hydrologic stresses affecting water-level trends in each well were used to categorize trends as nonstatic, transient, or steady state.The conceptual framework of water-level responses to hydrologic stresses and trend analyses provide a comprehensive understanding of the PMOV basin and vicinity. The trend analysis links water-level fluctuations in wells to hydrologic stresses and potential factors causing the trends. Transient and steady-state trend categorizations can be used to determine the appropriate water-level data for groundwater studies.

  11. Single-molecule spectroscopy of LHCSR1 protein dynamics identifies two distinct states responsible for multi-timescale photosynthetic photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Toru; Pinnola, Alberta; Chen, Wei Jia; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.

    2017-08-01

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, light harvesting is regulated to safely dissipate excess energy and prevent the formation of harmful photoproducts. Regulation is known to be necessary for fitness, but the molecular mechanisms are not understood. One challenge has been that ensemble experiments average over active and dissipative behaviours, preventing identification of distinct states. Here, we use single-molecule spectroscopy to uncover the photoprotective states and dynamics of the light-harvesting complex stress-related 1 (LHCSR1) protein, which is responsible for dissipation in green algae and moss. We discover the existence of two dissipative states. We find that one of these states is activated by pH and the other by carotenoid composition, and that distinct protein dynamics regulate these states. Together, these two states enable the organism to respond to two types of intermittency in solar intensity—step changes (clouds and shadows) and ramp changes (sunrise), respectively. Our findings reveal key control mechanisms underlying photoprotective dissipation, with implications for increasing biomass yields and developing robust solar energy devices.

  12. Time-based comparative transcriptomics in engineered xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies temperature-responsive genes during ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-09-01

    Agricultural residues comprising lignocellulosic materials are excellent sources of pentose sugar, which can be converted to ethanol as fuel. Ethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing requires a suitable microorganism to withstand the harsh fermentation environment of high temperature, high ethanol concentration, and exposure to inhibitors. We genetically enhanced an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, sun049, enabling it to uptake xylose as the sole carbon source at high fermentation temperature. This strain was able to produce 13.9 g/l ethanol from 50 g/l xylose at 38 °C. To better understand the xylose consumption ability during long-term, high-temperature conditions, we compared by transcriptomics two fermentation conditions: high temperature (38 °C) and control temperature (30 °C) during the first 12 h of fermentation. This is the first long-term, time-based transcriptomics approach, and it allowed us to discover the role of heat-responsive genes when xylose is the sole carbon source. The results suggest that genes related to amino acid, cell wall, and ribosomal protein synthesis are down-regulated under heat stress. To allow cell stability and continuous xylose uptake in order to produce ethanol, hexose transporter HXT5, heat shock proteins, ubiquitin proteins, and proteolysis were all induced at high temperature. We also speculate that the strong relationship between high temperature and increased xylitol accumulation represents the cell's mechanism to protect itself from heat degradation.

  13. Identifying deficiencies in national and foreign medical team responses through expert opinion surveys: implications for education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Corte, Francesco Della; Foletti, Marco; Gallardo, Alba Ripoll; Ragazzoni, Luca; Kaptan, Kubilay; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Gotz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Heselmann, Deike; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Khorrram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Kostanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Fisher, Philipp

    2014-08-01

    Unacceptable practices in the delivery of international medical assistance are reported after every major international disaster; this raises concerns about the clinical competence and practice of some foreign medical teams (FMTs). The aim of this study is to explore and analyze the opinions of disaster management experts about potential deficiencies in the art and science of national and FMTs during disasters and the impact these opinions might have on competency-based education and training. This qualitative study was performed in 2013. A questionnaire-based evaluation of experts' opinions and experiences in responding to disasters was conducted. The selection of the experts was done using the purposeful sampling method, and the sample size was considered by data saturation. Content analysis was used to explore the implications of the data. This study shows that there is a lack of competency-based training for disaster responders. Developing and performing standardized training courses is influenced by shortcomings in budget, expertise, and standards. There is a lack of both coordination and integration among teams and their activities during disasters. The participants of this study emphasized problems concerning access to relevant resources during disasters. The major findings of this study suggest that teams often are not competent during the response phase because of education and training deficiencies. Foreign medical teams and medically related nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) do not always provide expected capabilities and services. Failures in leadership and in coordination among teams are also a problem. All deficiencies need to be applied to competency-based curricula.

  14. The Complex Transcriptional Response of Acaryochloris marina to Different Oxygen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Hernández-Prieto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ancient oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes produced oxygen as a waste product, but existed for a long time under an oxygen-free (anoxic atmosphere, before an oxic atmosphere emerged. The change in oxygen levels in the atmosphere influenced the chemistry and structure of many enzymes that contained prosthetic groups that were inactivated by oxygen. In the genome of Acaryochloris marina, multiple gene copies exist for proteins that are normally encoded by a single gene copy in other cyanobacteria. Using high throughput RNA sequencing to profile transcriptome responses from cells grown under microoxic and hyperoxic conditions, we detected 8446 transcripts out of the 8462 annotated genes in the Cyanobase database. Two-thirds of the 50 most abundant transcripts are key proteins in photosynthesis. Microoxic conditions negatively affected the levels of expression of genes encoding photosynthetic complexes, with the exception of some subunits. In addition to the known regulation of the multiple copies of psbA, we detected a similar transcriptional pattern for psbJ and psbU, which might play a key role in the altered components of photosystem II. Furthermore, regulation of genes encoding proteins important for reactive oxygen species-scavenging is discussed at genome level, including, for the first time, specific small RNAs having possible regulatory roles under varying oxygen levels.

  15. The Complex Transcriptional Response of Acaryochloris marina to Different Oxygen Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Prieto, Miguel A.; Lin, Yuankui; Chen, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ancient oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes produced oxygen as a waste product, but existed for a long time under an oxygen-free (anoxic) atmosphere, before an oxic atmosphere emerged. The change in oxygen levels in the atmosphere influenced the chemistry and structure of many enzymes that contained prosthetic groups that were inactivated by oxygen. In the genome of Acaryochloris marina, multiple gene copies exist for proteins that are normally encoded by a single gene copy in other cyanobacteria. Using high throughput RNA sequencing to profile transcriptome responses from cells grown under microoxic and hyperoxic conditions, we detected 8446 transcripts out of the 8462 annotated genes in the Cyanobase database. Two-thirds of the 50 most abundant transcripts are key proteins in photosynthesis. Microoxic conditions negatively affected the levels of expression of genes encoding photosynthetic complexes, with the exception of some subunits. In addition to the known regulation of the multiple copies of psbA, we detected a similar transcriptional pattern for psbJ and psbU, which might play a key role in the altered components of photosystem II. Furthermore, regulation of genes encoding proteins important for reactive oxygen species-scavenging is discussed at genome level, including, for the first time, specific small RNAs having possible regulatory roles under varying oxygen levels. PMID:27974439

  16. Projected Response of Low-Level Convergence and Associated Precipitation to Greenhouse Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Evan; Jakob, Christian; Reeder, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    The parameterization of convection in climate models is a large source of uncertainty in projecting future precipitation changes. Here an objective method to identify organized low-level convergence lines has been used to better understand how atmospheric convection is organized and projected to change, as low-level convergence plays an important role in the processes leading to precipitation. The frequency and strength of convergence lines over both ocean and land in current climate simulations is too low compared to reanalysis data. Projections show a further reduction in the frequency and strength of convergence lines over the midlatitudes. In the tropics, the largest changes in frequency are generally associated with shifts in major low-latitude convergence zones, consistent with changes in the precipitation. Further, examining convergence lines when in the presence or absence of precipitation results in large spatial contrasts, providing a better understanding of regional changes in terms of thermodynamic and dynamic effects.

  17. Atoll groundwater movement and its response to climatic and sea-level fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater resources of low-lying atoll islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in rainfall, wave climate, and sea level. A better understanding of how these forcings affect the limited groundwater resources was explored on Roi-Namur in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. As part of a 16-month study, a rarely recorded island-overwash event occurred and the island’s aquifer’s response was measured. The findings suggest that small-scale overwash events cause an increase in salinity of the freshwater lens that returns to pre-overwash conditions within one month. The overwash event is addressed in the context of climate-related local sea-level change, which suggests that overwash events and associated degradations in freshwater resources are likely to increase in severity in the future due to projected rises in sea level. Other forcings, such as severe rainfall events, were shown to have caused a sudden freshening of the aquifer, with salinity levels retuning to pre-rainfall levels within three months. Tidal forcing of the freshwater lens was observed in electrical resistivity profiles, high-resolution conductivity, groundwater-level well measurements and through submarine groundwater discharge calculations. Depth-specific geochemical pore water measurements further assessed and confirmed the distinct boundaries between fresh and saline water masses in the aquifer. The identification of the freshwater lens’ saline boundaries is essential for a quantitative evaluation of the aquifers freshwater resources and help understand how these resources may be impacted by climate change and anthropogenic activities.

  18. Atoll Groundwater Movement and Its Response to Climatic and Sea-Level Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand K. J. Oberle

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater resources of low-lying atoll islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in rainfall, wave climate, and sea level. A better understanding of how these forcings affect the limited groundwater resources was explored on Roi-Namur in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. As part of a 16-month study, a rarely recorded island-overwash event occurred and the island’s aquifer’s response was measured. The findings suggest that small-scale overwash events cause an increase in salinity of the freshwater lens that returns to pre-overwash conditions within one month. The overwash event is addressed in the context of climate-related local sea-level change, which suggests that overwash events and associated degradations in freshwater resources are likely to increase in severity in the future due to projected rises in sea level. Other forcings, such as severe rainfall events, were shown to have caused a sudden freshening of the aquifer, with salinity levels retuning to pre-rainfall levels within three months. Tidal forcing of the freshwater lens was observed in electrical resistivity profiles, high-resolution conductivity, groundwater-level well measurements and through submarine groundwater discharge calculations. Depth-specific geochemical pore water measurements further assessed and confirmed the distinct boundaries between fresh and saline water masses in the aquifer. The identification of the freshwater lens’ saline boundaries is essential for a quantitative evaluation of the aquifers freshwater resources and help understand how these resources may be impacted by climate change and anthropogenic activities.

  19. A protocol for a systematic review to identify allergenic tree nuts and the molecules responsible for their allergenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Bushra; Padfield, Philip; Sperrin, Matthew; Simpson, Angela; Mills, E N Clare

    2017-08-01

    Food regulations require that tree nuts and derived ingredients are included on food labels in order to help individuals with IgE-mediated allergies to avoid them. However, there is no consensus regarding which tree nut species should be included in this definition and specified on food labels. Allergen detection methods used for monitoring foods target allergen molecules, but it not clear which are the most relevant molecules to choose. A modified population-exposure-comparators-outcome (PECO) approach has been developed to systematically review the evidence regarding (1) which allergenic tree nuts should be included in food allergen labelling lists and (2) which are the clinically relevant allergens which should be used as analytical targets. A search strategy and criteria against which the evidence will be evaluated have been developed. The resulting evidence will be used to rank tree nuts with regards their ability to cause IgE-mediated allergies, and allergen molecules regarding their capacity to elicit an allergic reaction. The results of the systematic review will enable risk assessors and managers to identify tree nut species that should be included in food allergen labelling lists and ensure analytical methods for determination of allergens in foods are targeting appropriate molecules. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. De novo assembly of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin leucocyte transcriptome to identify putative genes involved in the aquatic adaptation and immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Gui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis, a marine mammal species inhabited in the waters of Southeast Asia, South Africa and Australia, has attracted much attention because of the dramatic decline in population size in the past decades, which raises the concern of extinction. So far, this species is poorly characterized at molecular level due to little sequence information available in public databases. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing provide an efficient approach to generate abundant sequences for functional genomic analyses in the species with un-sequenced genomes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a de novo assembly of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin leucocyte transcriptome by Illumina sequencing. 108,751 high quality sequences from 47,840,388 paired-end reads were generated, and 48,868 and 46,587 unigenes were functionally annotated by BLAST search against the NCBI non-redundant and Swiss-Prot protein databases (E-value<10(-5, respectively. In total, 16,467 unigenes were clustered into 25 functional categories by searching against the COG database, and BLAST2GO search assigned 37,976 unigenes to 61 GO terms. In addition, 36,345 unigenes were grouped into 258 KEGG pathways. We also identified 9,906 simple sequence repeats and 3,681 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms as potential molecular markers in our assembled sequences. A large number of unigenes were predicted to be involved in immune response, and many genes were predicted to be relevant to adaptive evolution and cetacean-specific traits. CONCLUSION: This study represented the first transcriptome analysis of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, an endangered species. The de novo transcriptome analysis of the unique transcripts will provide valuable sequence information for discovery of new genes, characterization of gene expression, investigation of various pathways and adaptive evolution, as well as identification of genetic markers.

  1. Identified peptidergic neurons in the Drosophila brain regulate insulin-producing cells, stress responses and metabolism by coexpressed short neuropeptide F and corazonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Neval; Lushchak, Oleh V; Luo, Jiangnan; Nässel, Dick R

    2012-12-01

    Insulin/IGF-like signaling regulates the development, growth, fecundity, metabolic homeostasis, stress resistance and lifespan in worms, flies and mammals. Eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) are found in Drosophila. Three of these (DILP2, 3 and 5) are produced by a set of median neurosecretory cells (insulin-producing cells, IPCs) in the brain. Activity in the IPCs of adult flies is regulated by glucose and several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. One of these, short neuropeptide F (sNPF), regulates food intake, growth and Dilp transcript levels in IPCs via the sNPF receptor (sNPFR1) expressed on IPCs. Here we identify a set of brain neurons that utilizes sNPF to activate the IPCs. These sNPF-expressing neurons (dorsal lateral peptidergic neurons, DLPs) also produce the neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ) and have axon terminations impinging on IPCs. Knockdown of either sNPF or CRZ in DLPs extends survival in flies exposed to starvation and alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Expression of sNPF in DLPs in the sNPF mutant background is sufficient to rescue wild-type metabolism and response to starvation. Since CRZ receptor RNAi in IPCs affects starvation resistance and metabolism, similar to peptide knockdown in DLPs, it is likely that also CRZ targets the IPCs. Knockdown of sNPF, but not CRZ in DLPs decreases transcription of Dilp2 and 5 in the brain, suggesting different mechanisms of action on IPCs of the two co-released peptides. Our findings indicate that sNPF and CRZ co-released from a small set of neurons regulate IPCs, stress resistance and metabolism in adult Drosophila.

  2. Genome-wide analysis identifies chickpea (Cicer arietinum) heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) responsive to heat stress at the pod development stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaranathan, Parameswaran; Jagannadham, Prasanth Tej Kumar; Satheesh, Viswanathan; Kohli, Deshika; Basavarajappa, Santosh Halasabala; Chellapilla, Bharadwaj; Kumar, Jitendra; Jain, Pradeep Kumar; Srinivasan, R

    2018-05-01

    The heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) play a prominent role in thermotolerance and eliciting the heat stress response in plants. Identification and expression analysis of Hsfs gene family members in chickpea would provide valuable information on heat stress responsive Hsfs. A genome-wide analysis of Hsfs gene family resulted in the identification of 22 Hsf genes in chickpea in both desi and kabuli genome. Phylogenetic analysis distinctly separated 12 A, 9 B, and 1 C class Hsfs, respectively. An analysis of cis-regulatory elements in the upstream region of the genes identified many stress responsive elements such as heat stress elements (HSE), abscisic acid responsive element (ABRE) etc. In silico expression analysis showed nine and three Hsfs were also expressed in drought and salinity stresses, respectively. Q-PCR expression analysis of Hsfs under heat stress at pod development and at 15 days old seedling stage showed that CarHsfA2, A6, and B2 were significantly upregulated in both the stages of crop growth and other four Hsfs (CarHsfA2, A6a, A6c, B2a) showed early transcriptional upregulation for heat stress at seedling stage of chickpea. These subclasses of Hsfs identified in this study can be further evaluated as candidate genes in the characterization of heat stress response in chickpea.

  3. Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Christoffersen, Bradley; Nardini, Andrea; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Radio-adaptation: cellular and molecular features of a response to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaud, O.

    1998-01-01

    It is well established that sublethal doses of DNA damaging agents induce protective mechanisms against a subsequent high dose treatment ; for instance, the phenomenon of radio-adaptation in the case of ionizing radiations. Since the early observation described in 1984, numerous studies have confirmed the radio-adaptive response in terms of reduction of chromosomal breaks for varied biological models in vitro and in vivo. Evidence for an adaptive response against the induction of gene mutations and the lethal effect is clearly demonstrated. This paper reviews the experimental results describing various aspects of these adaptive responses expressed on these different biological end-points. The molecular mechanism underlying radio-adaptation still remains nuclear. The development of this phenomenon requires de novo synthesis of transcripts and proteins during the time interval between the two doses. Some data are consistent with the hypotheses that these gene products would be involved in the activation of DNA repair pathways and antioxidant systems. However, a major question still remains unanswered; indeed, it is not clear whether or not the radio-adaptation could affect the estimation of cancer risk related with low level exposure to ionizing radiation, a major concern in radioprotection. Until such data are available, it is yet unwise to evoke the beneficial effects of radio-adaptation. (authors)

  5. Using response-time latencies to measure athletes’ doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes’ real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). Methods We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping–dislike/like–[health food]). Results Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges’s g = -0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95 = -0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. Conclusion This study demonstrates that athletes’ attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports

  6. Using response-time latencies to measure athletes' doping attitudes: the brief implicit attitude test identifies substance abuse in bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ralf; Wolff, Wanja; Thieme, Detlef

    2014-09-10

    Knowing and, if necessary, altering competitive athletes' real attitudes towards the use of banned performance-enhancing substances is an important goal of worldwide doping prevention efforts. However athletes will not always be willing to reporting their real opinions. Reaction time-based attitude tests help conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant and impede strategic answering. This study investigated how well a reaction time-based attitude test discriminated between athletes who were doping and those who were not. We investigated whether athletes whose urine samples were positive for at least one banned substance (dopers) evaluated doping more favorably than clean athletes (non-dopers). We approached a group of 61 male competitive bodybuilders and collected urine samples for biochemical testing. The pictorial doping Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) was used for attitude measurement. This test quantifies the difference in response latencies (in milliseconds) to stimuli representing related concepts (i.e. doping-dislike/like-[health food]). Prohibited substances were found in 43% of all tested urine samples. Dopers had more lenient attitudes to doping than non-dopers (Hedges's g = -0.76). D-scores greater than -0.57 (CI95 = -0.72 to -0.46) might be indicative of a rather lenient attitude to doping. In urine samples evidence of administration of combinations of substances, complementary administration of substances to treat side effects and use of stimulants to promote loss of body fat was common. This study demonstrates that athletes' attitudes to doping can be assessed indirectly with a reaction time-based test, and that their attitudes are related to their behavior. Although bodybuilders may be more willing to reveal their attitude to doping than other athletes, these results still provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT may be useful in athletes from other sports, perhaps as a complementary measure in evaluations of

  7. Natural functional SNPs in miR-155 alter its expression level, blood cell counts and immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available miR-155 has been confirmed to be a key factor in immune responses in humans and other mammals. Therefore, investigation of variations in miR-155 could be useful for understanding the differences in immunity between individuals. In this study, four SNPs in miR-155 were identified in mice (Mus musculus and humans (Homo sapiens. In mice, the four SNPs were closely linked and formed two miR-155 haplotypes (A and B. Ten distinct types of blood parameters were associated with miR-155 expression under normal conditions. Additionally, 4 and 14 blood parameters were significantly different between these two genotypes under normal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation conditions, respectively. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-155, the inflammatory response to LPS stimulation and the lethal ratio following Salmonella typhimurium infection were significantly increased in mice harboring the AA genotype. Further, two SNPs, one in the loop region and the other near the 3' terminal of pre-miR-155, were confirmed to be responsible for the differential expression of miR-155 in mice. Interestingly, two additional SNPs, one in the loop region and the other in the middle of miR-155*, modulated the function of miR-155 in humans. Predictions of secondary RNA structure using RNAfold showed that these SNPs affected the structure of miR-155 in both mice and humans. Our results provide novel evidence of the natural functional SNPs of miR-155 in both mice and humans, which may affect the expression levels of mature miR-155 by modulating its secondary structure. The SNPs of human miR-155 may be considered as causal mutations for some immune-related diseases in the clinic. The two genotypes of mice could be used as natural models for studying the mechanisms of immune diseases caused by abnormal expression of miR-155 in humans.

  8. Determination of the Timing and Level of Activities of Lumbopelvic Muscles in Response to Postural Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ebrahimi Takamjani

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important concerns in orthopedic medicine is the low back. Considering the importance of muscle function in preventing LBT by controlling too much load and stress applied on the spinal joints and ligaments. Materials and Methods: The aim of this research was to determine the timing and level of activities of lumbopelvic muscles in response to postural perturbations caused by unexpected loading of the upper limbs in standing on three different supporting surfaces (neutral, positive slope, negative slope in 20 healthy females 18 to 30 years old ( = 23.20 SD = 2.55 . The electromyographic signals were recorded from the deltoid, gluteus maximus, internal oblique abdominis and lumbar paraspinal muscles of the dominant side of the body to evaluate the onset time, end time, level of muscle activity (RMS and duration of different muscles in one task and one muscle in different tasks. Results: The results showed that the agonists (posterior muscles activated at first to compensate the flexor torque caused by loading and then the antagonists (anterior muscles switched-on to compensate the reaction forces caused by agonist activities. With regards to continuous activity of internal oblique and its attachments via thoracalumbar fascia to the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae, it can be considered as one of the major stabilizer muscles of the trunk . Conclusion: Finally the results indicated that supporting surface type didn’t have any effect on timing and scaling of muscle activities in different tasks suggesting that probably spinal and trunk priprioceptors are just responsible for triggering postural responses and they don’t have any role in determining timing and scaling.

  9. Characteristics and treatment response of self-identified problematic Internet users in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël; Khazaal, Yasser; Khan, Riaz; Pivin, Edward; Gupta, Vishal; Zullino, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Controversies remain about the validity of the diagnosis of problematic Internet use. This might be due in part to the lack of longitudinal naturalistic studies that have followed a cohort of patients who self-identify as having Internet-related problems. This retrospective study included 57 patients who consulted the Geneva Addiction Outpatient Clinic from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2010. Patients underwent an initial clinical psychiatric evaluation that included collection of data on socio-demographics, method of referral, specific Internet usage, psychiatric diagnosis, and Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) scores. Treatment consisted of individual psychotherapeutic sessions. Of these patients, 98% were male and 37% were 18 years or younger. Most patients were online gamers (46% playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games). The mean IAT score was 52.9 (range 20-90). Sixty-eight percent of patients had a co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis, with social phobia being the most prevalent (17.8%). Patients who remained in treatment (dropout rate 24%) showed an overall improvement of symptoms: 38.6% showed significant or average improvement on their CGI score, 26.3% showed minimal improvement, and 14% showed no change. Our results support the hypothesis that there are specific types of Internet use, with online gaming mainly affecting young male patients. As Internet addiction is not yet an official diagnosis, better instruments are needed to screen patients and to avoid false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Successful care should integrate the treatment of co-morbid symptoms and involve families and relatives in the therapeutic process.

  10. Sex trafficking and health care in Metro Manila: identifying social determinants to inform an effective health system response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy P; Alpert, Elaine J; Ahn, Roy; Cafferty, Elizabeth; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; Wolferstan, Nadya; Castor, Judith Palmer; McGahan, Anita M; Burke, Thomas F

    2010-12-15

    This social science case study examines the sex trafficking of women and girls in Metro Manila through a public health lens. Through key informant interviews with 51 health care and anti-trafficking stakeholders in Metro Manila, this study reports on observations about sex trafficking in Metro Manila that provide insight into understanding of risk factors for sex trafficking at multiple levels of the social environment: individual (for example, childhood abuse), socio-cultural (for example, gender inequality and a "culture of migration"), and macro (for example, profound poverty caused, inter alia, by environmental degradation disrupting traditional forms of labor). It describes how local health systems currently assist sex-trafficking victims, and provides a series of recommendations, ranging from prevention to policy, for how health care might play a larger role in promoting the health and human rights of this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2010 Williams, Alpert, Ahn, Cafferty, Konstantopoulos, Wolferstan, Castor, McGahan, and Burke. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  11. Measuring patient safety culture: an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient

  12. Measuring patient safety culture : an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, G. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient

  13. Use of Whole-Genus Genome Sequence Data To Develop a Multilocus Sequence Typing Tool That Accurately Identifies Yersinia Isolates to the Species and Subspecies Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Miquette; Chattaway, Marie A.; Reuter, Sandra; Savin, Cyril; Strauch, Eckhard; Carniel, Elisabeth; Connor, Thomas; Van Damme, Inge; Rajakaruna, Lakshani; Rajendram, Dunstan; Jenkins, Claire; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Yersinia is a large and diverse bacterial genus consisting of human-pathogenic species, a fish-pathogenic species, and a large number of environmental species. Recently, the phylogenetic and population structure of the entire genus was elucidated through the genome sequence data of 241 strains encompassing every known species in the genus. Here we report the mining of this enormous data set to create a multilocus sequence typing-based scheme that can identify Yersinia strains to the species level to a level of resolution equal to that for whole-genome sequencing. Our assay is designed to be able to accurately subtype the important human-pathogenic species Yersinia enterocolitica to whole-genome resolution levels. We also report the validation of the scheme on 386 strains from reference laboratory collections across Europe. We propose that the scheme is an important molecular typing system to allow accurate and reproducible identification of Yersinia isolates to the species level, a process often inconsistent in nonspecialist laboratories. Additionally, our assay is the most phylogenetically informative typing scheme available for Y. enterocolitica. PMID:25339391

  14. Sea-level response to abrupt ocean warming of Antarctic ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica's contribution to global sea-level rise increases steadily. A fundamental question remains whether the ice discharge will lead to marine ice sheet instability (MISI) and collapse of certain sectors of the ice sheet or whether ice loss will increase linearly with the warming trends. Therefore, we employ a newly developed ice sheet model of the Antarctic ice sheet, called f.ETISh (fast Elementary Thermomechanical Ice Sheet model) to simulate ice sheet response to abrupt perturbations in ocean and atmospheric temperature. The f.ETISh model is a vertically integrated hybrid (SSA/SIA) ice sheet model including ice shelves. Although vertically integrated, thermomechanical coupling is ensured through a simplified representation of ice sheet thermodynamics based on an analytical solution of the vertical temperature profile, including strain heating and horizontal advection. The marine boundary is represented by a flux condition either coherent with power-law basal sliding (Pollard & Deconto (2012) based on Schoof (2007)) or according to Coulomb basal friction (Tsai et al., 2015), both taking into account ice-shelf buttressing. Model initialization is based on optimization of the basal friction field. Besides the traditional MISMIP tests, new tests with respect to MISI in plan-view models have been devised. The model is forced with stepwise ocean and atmosphere temperature perturbations. The former is based on a parametrised sub-shelf melt (limited to ice shelves), while the latter is based on present-day mass balance/surface temperature and corrected for elevation changes. Surface melting is introduced using a PDD model. Results show a general linear response in mass loss to ocean warming. Nonlinear response due to MISI occurs under specific conditions and is highly sensitive to the basal conditions near the grounding line, governed by both the initial conditions and the basal sliding/deformation model. The Coulomb friction model leads to significantly higher

  15. Myocardial Creatine Levels Do Not Influence Response to Acute Oxidative Stress in Isolated Perfused Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksentijević, Dunja; Zervou, Sevasti; Faller, Kiterie M. E.; McAndrew, Debra J.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple studies suggest creatine mediates anti-oxidant activity in addition to its established role in cellular energy metabolism. The functional significance for the heart has yet to be established, but antioxidant activity could contribute to the cardioprotective effect of creatine in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Objectives To determine whether intracellular creatine levels influence responses to acute reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure in the intact beating heart. We hypothesised that mice with elevated creatine due to over-expression of the creatine transporter (CrT-OE) would be relatively protected, while mice with creatine-deficiency (GAMT KO) would fare worse. Methods and Results CrT-OE mice were pre-selected for creatine levels 20–100% above wild-type using in vivo 1H–MRS. Hearts were perfused in isovolumic Langendorff mode and cardiac function monitored throughout. After 20 min equilibration, hearts were perfused with either H2O2 0.5 µM (30 min), or the anti-neoplastic drug doxorubicin 15 µM (100 min). Protein carbonylation, creatine kinase isoenzyme activities and phospho-PKCδ expression were quantified in perfused hearts as markers of oxidative damage and apoptotic signalling. Wild-type hearts responded to ROS challenge with a profound decline in contractile function that was ameliorated by co-administration of catalase or dexrazoxane as positive controls. In contrast, the functional deterioration in CrT-OE and GAMT KO hearts was indistinguishable from wild-type controls, as was the extent of oxidative damage and apoptosis. Exogenous creatine supplementation also failed to protect hearts from doxorubicin-induced dysfunction. Conclusions Intracellular creatine levels do not influence the response to acute ROS challenge in the intact beating heart, arguing against creatine exerting (patho-)physiologically relevant anti-oxidant activity. PMID:25272153

  16. Consideration of epigenetic responses at organisms chronically exposed to low levels of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombeau, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This work integrates within the general framework of the European program COMET (7. Framework Programme EURATOM) and aims to assess the epigenetic responses, and particularly DNA methylation, during chronic exposure to low levels of radioactive materials within two particularly representative contexts of radioecological issues (i.e. uranium mining area and Fukushima post-accidental context). During a first experiment, zebra fish (Danio rerio) were exposed in laboratory controlled conditions to environmentally relevant concentrations of depleted uranium: 2 and 20 μg L"-"1. This experiment allowed an impact on the genomic DNA methylation to be demonstrated, mainly in exposed males, which increased with the duration and level of exposure. In a second experiment, we observed an impact on DNA methylation patterns in the progeny of exposed parents, as well as a perturbation of transcriptomics (i.e. epigenetic processes, DNA damage signaling and repair pathways, embryogenesis) and histological damage in larvae skeletal muscle from exposed parents. The methods developed were applied to the second context focusing on the study of biological effects induced by radionuclides emitted following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The analyses performed on the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) revealed a positive correlation between the total dose of radiation absorbed by these frogs (correlated to "1"3"7Cs accumulation), hyper-methylation of genomic DNA as well as increasing damage to mitochondrial DNA. This work highlighted the sensitivity of epigenetic responses in different biological models exposed to low levels of radionuclides. Additionally, these epigenetic modifications are stable over the time and involved in the transfer of the parental toxicity of depleted uranium. As such, the epigenetic marks could be used to further characterize adaptation mechanisms and potential trans-generational effects induced by radionuclides. (author)

  17. Diminished humoral responses against and reduced gene expression levels of human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi; Michaud, Henri-Alexandre; Zeng, Xue; Debbaneh, Maya; Arron, Sarah T; Jones, R Brad; Ormsby, Christopher E; Nixon, Douglas F; Liao, Wilson

    2014-09-16

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial, chronic disease of skin affecting 2-3% of the world's population. Genetic studies of psoriasis have identified a number of susceptibility genes that are involved in anti-viral immunity. Furthermore, physiological studies have also found an increase in anti-viral proteins in psoriatic skin. These findings suggest the presence of an anti-viral state in psoriatic skin. However, the triggers for this anti-viral cascade and its consequences for host immunity are not known. Endogenous retroviruses have previously been described in many autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. In the present study we examined the humoral immune response against human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) proteins and the cutaneous expression levels of multiple HERV-K genes in psoriasis patients and healthy controls. In psoriatic sera we observed a significant decrease in IgM response against three HERV-K proteins: Env surface unit (SU), Env transmembrane protein (TM), and Gag capsid (CA) in comparison to sera obtained from blood bank healthy controls. A decrease in IgG response was also observed against CA. Furthermore, using quantitative RT-PCR we observed a decrease in the expression of HERV-K Env, Gag, Pol and Rec as well as ERV-9 genes in lesional psoriatic skin as compared to healthy skin. Together, our results suggest that the pro-inflammatory, anti-viral state in psoriasis is associated with diminished expression of HERV-K gene transcripts and a concomitant decrease in humoral responses to HERV-K. Our results indicate that a simple model where continuous, minimally changing HERV-K expression serves as an antigenic trigger in psoriasis might not be correct and further studies are needed to decipher the possible relationship between psoriasis and HERVs.

  18. Identifying cochlear implant channels with poor electrode-neuron interface: electrically-evoked auditory brainstem responses measured with the partial tripolar configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Julie Arenberg; Faulkner, Kathleen F.; Tremblay, Kelly L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to compare cochlear implant behavioral measures and electrically-evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABRs) obtained with a spatially focused electrode configuration. It has been shown previously that channels with high thresholds, when measured with the tripolar configuration, exhibit relatively broad psychophysical tuning curves (Bierer and Faulkner, 2010). The elevated threshold and degraded spatial/spectral selectivity of such channels are consistent with a poor electrode-neuron interface, such as suboptimal electrode placement or reduced nerve survival. However, the psychophysical methods required to obtain these data are time intensive and may not be practical during a clinical mapping procedure, especially for young children. Here we have extended the previous investigation to determine if a physiological approach could provide a similar assessment of channel functionality. We hypothesized that, in accordance with the perceptual measures, higher EABR thresholds would correlate with steeper EABR amplitude growth functions, reflecting a degraded electrode-neuron interface. Design Data were collected from six cochlear implant listeners implanted with the HiRes 90k cochlear implant (Advanced Bionics). Single-channel thresholds and most comfortable listening levels were obtained for stimuli that varied in presumed electrical field size by using the partial tripolar configuration, for which a fraction of current (σ) from a center active electrode returns through two neighboring electrodes and the remainder through a distant indifferent electrode. EABRs were obtained in each subject for the two channels having the highest and lowest tripolar (σ=1 or 0.9) behavioral threshold. Evoked potentials were measured with both the monopolar (σ=0) and a more focused partial tripolar (σ ≥ 0.50) configuration. Results Consistent with previous studies, EABR thresholds were highly and positively correlated with behavioral thresholds

  19. Identifying cochlear implant channels with poor electrode-neuron interfaces: electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses measured with the partial tripolar configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, Julie Arenberg; Faulkner, Kathleen F; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare cochlear implant behavioral measures and electrically evoked auditory brain stem responses (EABRs) obtained with a spatially focused electrode configuration. It has been shown previously that channels with high thresholds, when measured with the tripolar configuration, exhibit relatively broad psychophysical tuning curves. The elevated threshold and degraded spatial/spectral selectivity of such channels are consistent with a poor electrode-neuron interface, defined as suboptimal electrode placement or reduced nerve survival. However, the psychophysical methods required to obtain these data are time intensive and may not be practical during a clinical mapping session, especially for young children. Here, we have extended the previous investigation to determine whether a physiological approach could provide a similar assessment of channel functionality. We hypothesized that, in accordance with the perceptual measures, higher EABR thresholds would correlate with steeper EABR amplitude growth functions, reflecting a degraded electrode-neuron interface. Data were collected from six cochlear implant listeners implanted with the HiRes 90k cochlear implant (Advanced Bionics). Single-channel thresholds and most comfortable listening levels were obtained for stimuli that varied in presumed electrical field size by using the partial tripolar configuration, for which a fraction of current (σ) from a center active electrode returns through two neighboring electrodes and the remainder through a distant indifferent electrode. EABRs were obtained in each subject for the two channels having the highest and lowest tripolar (σ = 1 or 0.9) behavioral threshold. Evoked potentials were measured with both the monopolar (σ = 0) and a more focused partial tripolar (σ ≥ 0.50) configuration. Consistent with previous studies, EABR thresholds were highly and positively correlated with behavioral thresholds obtained with both the monopolar and partial

  20. Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV. While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector.

  1. Detailed assessment of gene activation levels by multiple hypoxia-responsive elements under various hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuto; Inubushi, Masayuki; Jin, Yong-Nan; Murai, Chika; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Hata, Hironobu; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-12-01

    HIF-1/HRE pathway is a promising target for the imaging and the treatment of intractable malignancy (HIF-1; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HRE; hypoxia-responsive element). The purposes of our study are: (1) to assess the gene activation levels resulting from various numbers of HREs under various hypoxic conditions, (2) to evaluate the bidirectional activity of multiple HREs, and (3) to confirm whether multiple HREs can induce gene expression in vivo. Human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were transiently transfected by the constructs containing a firefly luciferase reporter gene and various numbers (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of HREs (nHRE+, nHRE-). The relative luciferase activities were measured under various durations of hypoxia (6, 12, 18, and 24 h), O2 concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 %), and various concentrations of deferoxamine mesylate (20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 µg/mL growth medium). The bidirectional gene activation levels by HREs were examined in the constructs (dual-luc-nHREs) containing firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes at each side of nHREs. Finally, to test whether the construct containing 12HRE and the NIS reporter gene (12HRE-NIS) can induce gene expression in vivo, SPECT imaging was performed in a mouse xenograft model. (1) gene activation levels by HREs tended to increase with increasing HRE copy number, but a saturation effect was observed in constructs with more than 6 or 8 copies of an HRE, (2) gene activation levels by HREs increased remarkably during 6-12 h of hypoxia, but not beyond 12 h, (3) gene activation levels by HREs decreased with increasing O2 concentrations, but could be detected even under mild hypoxia at 16 % O2, (4) the bidirectionally proportional activity of the HRE was confirmed regardless of the hypoxic severity, and (5) NIS expression driven by 12 tandem copies of an HRE in response to hypoxia could be visualized on in vivo SPECT imaging. The results of this study will help in the understanding and assessment of

  2. Evaluation of Dynamic Coastal Response to Sea-level Rise Modifies Inundation Likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.

    2016-01-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30x30m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 sq km of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.

  3. DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Saptarshi; Chandan, Vikas; Arya, Vijay; Kar, Koushik

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we exploit the inherent hierarchy of heat exchangers in District Heating and Cooling (DHC) networks and propose DReAM, a novel Demand Response (DR) architecture for Multi-level DHC networks. DReAM serves to economize system operation while still respecting comfort requirements of individual consumers. Contrary to many present day DR schemes that work on a consumer level granularity, DReAM works at a level of hierarchy above buildings, i.e. substations that supply heat to a group of buildings. This improves the overall DR scalability and reduce the computational complexity. In the first step of the proposed approach, mathematical models of individual substations and their downstream networks are abstracted into appropriately constructed low-complexity structural forms. In the second step, this abstracted information is employed by the utility to perform DR optimization that determines the optimal heat inflow to individual substations rather than buildings, in order to achieve the targeted objectives across the network. We validate the proposed DReAM framework through experimental results under different scenarios on a test network.

  4. Seasonal responses of six Poaceae to differential levels of solar UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckmyn, G.; Impens, I.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of changes in solar UV-B on the growth and pigmentation of six grass species from cold-temperate grasslands (Lolium perenne, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca arundinacea, Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata) in spring and summer were studied. The grasses were grown in greenhouses with different foils, resulting in three treatments: no UV-B, 80% of ambient and 90% of ambient UV-BBE (biologically effective UV-B). The results indicated important effects of ambient UV-B levels on grass, but the different species reacted in very different ways. Both morphology and biomass production were influenced by UV-B in some species. However, changes in biomass production did not necessarily occur within the same species as changes in morphology. The grasses were more sensitive in summer. Overall, only F. rubra was positively influenced by UV-B under all circumstances. The biomass of D. glomerata and L. perenne was reduced by UV-B in spring and summer. Morphological changes included reduced height and increased tillering. The sensitivity of the different species was partially explained by their ability to reduce their specific leaf area in response to UV-B. Only the more sensitive species showed increased production of protective pigments. Overall, there were important differences between the effect of a low level of UV-B, and the further increase in UV-B, indicating that several mechanisms are operating at different light levels. (author)

  5. Dose-Response of High-Intensity Training (HIT) on Atheroprotective miRNA-126 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Schelleckes, Katrin; Nedele, Johanna; Thorwesten, Lothar; Klose, Andreas; Lenders, Malte; Krüger, Michael; Brand, Eva; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) exerts beneficial effects on vascular integrity, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque stability. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the dose-response relationship of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on miR-126-3p and -5p levels. Methods: Sixty-one moderately trained individuals (females = 31 [50.8%]; 22.0 ± 1.84 years) were consecutively recruited and allocated into three matched groups using exercise capacity. During a 4-week intervention a HIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out), a progressive HIIT (proHIIT) group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out) with one extra session every week (up to 7 × 30 s) and a low-intensity training (LIT) control group performed three exercise sessions/week for 25 min HIIT groups (after 4 min of high-intensity running). After the intervention, the LIT group presented an increase in miR-126-3p, while in the HIIT group, miR-126-3p levels were still reduced (all p HIIT (−1.05 ± 2.6 units). Conclusions: LIT and proHIIT may be performed to increase individual miR-126 levels. HIIT without progression was less effective in increasing miR-126. PMID:28611681

  6. Exercise electrocardiographic responses and serum cystatin C levels among metabolic syndrome patients without overt diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanindi A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Asli Tanindi1 Hilal Olgun1 Ayse Tuncel2 Bulent Celik3 Hatice Pasaoglu2 Bulent Boyaci11Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Statistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gazi University, Ankara, TurkeyObjectives: An impaired heart rate response during exercise (chronotropic incompetence and an impaired heart rate recovery (HRR after exercise are predictors of cardiovascular risk and mortality. Cystatin C is a novel marker for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate exercise electrocardiographic responses in patients with metabolic syndrome who were without overt diabetes mellitus, in addition to the association of serum cystatin C levels with the exercise electrocardiographic test results.Method: Forty-three consecutive patients admitted to a cardiology outpatient clinic without angina pectoris were recruited if they met criteria for metabolic syndrome but did not have overt diabetes mellitus. Serum cystatin C levels were measured, and all participants underwent exercise electrocardiographic testing. Patients who were found to have ischemia had a coronary angiography procedure.Results: The mean cystatin C level of patients was higher in metabolic syndrome group than healthy controls (610.1 ± 334.02 vs 337.3 ± 111.01 µg/L; P < 0.001. The percentage of patients with ischemia confirmed by coronary angiography was 13.9% in the metabolic syndrome group. Cystatin C levels in the ischemic patients of the metabolic syndrome group were higher than that in nonischemic patients (957.00 ± 375.6 vs 553.8 ± 295.3 µg /L; P = 0.005. Chronotropic incompetence was observed in 30.2% of the patients with metabolic syndrome compared with 16.7% in the control group (P = 0.186. Chronotropic response indices were 0.8 ± 0.18 versus 0.9 ± 0.10 for the two groups, respectively (P = 0.259. HRR was significantly lower in the metabolic syndrome patients compared with the controls (20.1 ± 8.01 vs 25.2

  7. Baseline serum CXCL10 and IL-12 levels may predict severe asthmatics' responsiveness to omalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzukawa, Maho; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Tashimo, Hiroyuki; Asari, Isao; Tajiri, Tomoko; Niimi, Akio; Nagase, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Shoji, Shunsuke; Ohta, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Omalizumab, a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, is the first molecularly targeted drug for severe asthmatics. However, responses to omalizumab vary widely among patients. This study aimed to assess the potential of baseline serum cytokine levels as predictors of responsiveness to omalizumab. Thirty-one patients with severe, persistent asthma were enrolled in this study and administered omalizumab for at least 1 year. Response to omalizumab was assessed based on the physician's global evaluation of treatment effectiveness (GETE) at 48 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 and 32 weeks after starting omalizumab and measured for 30 cytokines by Luminex 200 and ELISA. Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels, peripheral blood eosinophil counts, pre-bronchodilator pulmonary functions and Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire scores were determined at baseline and 16, 32 and 48 weeks after starting omalizumab. The numbers of clinically significant asthma exacerbations in the previous year and during 48 weeks of treatment with omalizumab were assessed. GETE assessment showed 19 responders (61.3%) and 12 non-responders (38.7%). Responders showed significantly higher levels of CXCL10 and IL-12 at baseline compared to non-responders (CXCL10: responders, 1530.0 ± 315.2 pg/ml vs. non-responders, 1066.0 ± 396.8 pg/ml, P = 0.001; IL-12: responders, 60.2 ± 39.2 pg/ml vs. non-responders, 32.2 ± 26.3 pg/ml, P = 0.04). ROC curves to distinguish responders from non-responders using the baseline serum CXCL10 level showed a good AUC of 0.83. At 32 weeks of omalizumab therapy, serum CXCL10 tended to be increased (1350 ± 412.3 pg/ml at baseline vs. 1529 ± 637.6 pg/ml at 32 weeks, P = 0.16) and serum IL-12 tended to be decreased (49.4 ± 37.0 pg/ml at baseline vs. 43.9 ± 30.9 pg/ml at 32 weeks, P = 0.05). On the other hand, serum IL-5 and PDGF were significantly decreased (IL-5: 54.2 ± 13.8 pg/ml at baseline vs. 49

  8. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: Could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb and 204 Pb/ 206 Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. - Highlights: • Pb isotopes of environmental media and children's blood and urine were analyzed. • Pb exposure and pollution source were studied in lead-acid battery and coking areas. • Pb isotope ratios in blood and urine were similar to those of food, water and PM. • Urine Pb level may not be used as a proxy for indicating the lead levels in blood. • Urine Pb isotope ratios is an alternative to identify source and exposure pathways. - Urinary lead is not a preferable proxy to estimate blood lead level, but urinary lead isotope ratios could be an alternative for identifying the sources of lead exposure in children

  9. Striatal response to reward anticipation: evidence for a systems-level intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Oliver; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Kirsch, Peter; Erk, Susanne; Haddad, Leila; Plichta, Michael M; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pöhland, Lydia; Mohnke, Sebastian; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Mattheisen, Manuel; Witt, Stephanie H; Schäfer, Axel; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus; Rietschel, Marcella; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Attenuated ventral striatal response during reward anticipation is a core feature of schizophrenia that is seen in prodromal, drug-naive, and chronic schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia is highly heritable, raising the possibility that this phenotype is related to the genetic risk for the disorder. To examine a large sample of healthy first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients and compare their neural responses to reward anticipation with those of carefully matched controls without a family psychiatric history. To further support the utility of this phenotype, we studied its test-retest reliability, its potential brain structural contributions, and the effects of a protective missense variant in neuregulin 1 (NRG1) linked to schizophrenia by meta-analysis (ie, rs10503929). Examination of a well-established monetary reward anticipation paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging at a university hospital; voxel-based morphometry; test-retest reliability analysis of striatal activations in an independent sample of 25 healthy participants scanned twice with the same task; and imaging genetics analysis of the control group. A total of 54 healthy first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients and 80 controls matched for demographic, psychological, clinical, and task performance characteristics were studied. Blood oxygen level-dependent response during reward anticipation, analysis of intraclass correlations of functional contrasts, and associations between striatal gray matter volume and NRG1 genotype. Compared with controls, healthy first-degree relatives showed a highly significant decrease in ventral striatal activation during reward anticipation (familywise error-corrected P systems-level functional phenotype is reliable (with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.59-0.73), independent of local gray matter volume (with no corresponding group differences and no correlation to function, and with all uncorrected P values >.05), and affected by

  10. Dose-Response of High-Intensity Training (HIT on Atheroprotective miRNA-126 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Schmitz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: MicroRNA-126 (miR-126 exerts beneficial effects on vascular integrity, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque stability. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the dose-response relationship of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on miR-126-3p and -5p levels.Methods: Sixty-one moderately trained individuals (females = 31 [50.8%]; 22.0 ± 1.84 years were consecutively recruited and allocated into three matched groups using exercise capacity. During a 4-week intervention a HIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out, a progressive HIIT (proHIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out with one extra session every week (up to 7 × 30 s and a low-intensity training (LIT control group performed three exercise sessions/week for 25 min <75% of maximum heart rate. Exercise miR-126-3p/-5p plasma levels were determined using capillary blood from earlobes.Results: No exercise-induced increase in miR-126 levels was detected at baseline, neither in the LIT (after 25 min low-intensity running nor the HIIT groups (after 4 min of high-intensity running. After the intervention, the LIT group presented an increase in miR-126-3p, while in the HIIT group, miR-126-3p levels were still reduced (all p < 0.05. An increase for both, miR-126-3p and -5p levels (all p < 0.05, pre- vs. during and post-exercise was detected in the proHIIT group. Between group analysis revealed that miR-126-3p levels after LIT and proHIIT increased by 2.12 ± 2.55 and 1.24 ± 2.46 units (all p < 0.01, respectively, compared to HIIT (−1.05 ± 2.6 units.Conclusions: LIT and proHIIT may be performed to increase individual miR-126 levels. HIIT without progression was less effective in increasing miR-126.

  11. Low baseline levels of NK cells may predict a positive response to ipilimumab in melanoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Julia K; Angelova, Daniela; Heppt, Markus V; Ruzicka, Thomas; Berking, Carola

    2017-07-01

    The introduction of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has been a breakthrough in the therapy of metastatic melanoma. The influence of ICB on T-cell populations has been studied extensively, but little is known about the effect on NK cells. In this study, we analysed the relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of the subpopulations of CD56 dim and CD56 bright NK cells among the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 32 patients with metastatic melanoma before and under treatment with ipilimumab or pembrolizumab by flow cytometry. In 15 (47%) patients, an abnormal low amount of NK cells was found at baseline. Analysis of the subpopulations showed also low or normal baseline levels for CD56 dim NK cells, whereas the baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells were either normal or abnormally high. The relative and absolute amounts of NK cells and of CD56 dim and CD56 bright NK cell subpopulations in patients with a normal baseline did not change under treatment. However, patients with a low baseline of NK cells and CD56 dim NK cells showed a significant increase in these immune cell subsets, but the amounts remained to be lower than the normal baseline. The amount of CD56 bright NK cells was unaffected by treatment. The baseline levels of NK cells were correlated with the number of metastatic organs. Their proportion increased, whereas the expression of NKG2D decreased significantly when more than one organ was affected by metastases. Low baseline levels of NK cells and CD56 dim NK cells as well as normal baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells correlated significantly with a positive response to ipilimumab but not to pembrolizumab. Survival curves of patients with low amounts of CD56 dim NK cells treated with ipilimumab showed a trend to longer survival. Normal baseline levels of CD56 bright NK cells were significantly correlated with longer survival as compared to patients with high baseline levels. In conclusion, analysis of the amounts of total NK cells

  12. Wetland Responses to Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizad, K.; Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Morris, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal regions are vulnerable to flood risk due to climate change, sea level rise, and wetland losses. The Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) is a region in which extreme events are projected to be more intense under climate change and sea level rise scenarios [Wang et al., 2013; Bilskie et al., 2014]. Considering increased frequency and intensity of coastal flooding, wetlands are valuable natural resources that protect shorelines by dissipating waves and storm surges [Costanza et al., 2008]. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the response of salt marsh systems in different estuaries to sea level rise in the NGOM and their effects on storm surges to inform coastal managers to choose effective restoration plans. This research applies the coupled Hydro-MEM model [Alizad et al., 2016] to study three different estuarine systems in the NGOM. The model incorporates both sea level rise rate and feedbacks between physics and biology by coupling a hydrodynamic (ADCIRC) and salt marsh (MEM) model. The results of the model provide tidal hydrodynamics and biomass density change under four sea level rise projections during a 100-year period. The results are used to investigate marsh migration path in the estuarine systems. In addition, this study shows how marsh migration and biomass density change can impact storm surge modeling. The results imply the broader impacts of sea level rise on the estuarine systems in the NGOM. ReferencesAlizad, K., S. C. Hagen, J. T. Morris, P. Bacopoulos, M. V. Bilskie, J. Weishampel, and S. C. Medeiros (2016), A coupled, two-dimensional hydrodynamic-marsh model with biological feedback, Ecological Modeling, 327, 29-43. Bilskie, M. V., S. C. Hagen, S. C. Medeiros, and D. L. Passeri (2014), Dynamics of sea level rise and coastal flooding on a changing landscape, Geophysical Research Letters, 41(3), 927-934. Costanza, R., O. Pérez-Maqueo, M. L. Martinez, P. Sutton, S. J. Anderson, and K. Mulder (2008), The Value of Coastal Wetlands for Hurricane

  13. Elevated urinary levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma identify a clinically high-risk group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorio, Claudio; Scarpa, Aldo; Mafficini, Andrea; Furlan, Federico; Barbi, Stefano; Bonora, Antonio; Brocco, Giorgio; Blasi, Francesco; Talamini, Giorgio; Bassi, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is highly expressed and its gene is amplified in about 50% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas; this last feature is associated with worse prognosis. It is unknown whether the level of its soluble form (suPAR) in urine may be a diagnostic-prognostic marker in these patients. The urinary level of suPAR was measured in 146 patients, 94 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and 52 chronic pancreatitis. Urine from 104 healthy subjects with similar age and gender distribution served as controls. suPAR levels were normalized with creatinine levels (suPAR/creatinine, ng/mg) to remove urine dilution effect. Urinary suPAR/creatinine values of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients were significantly higher (median 9.8; 25 th -75 th percentiles 5.3-20.7) than those of either healthy donors (median 0; 0-0.5) or chronic pancreatitis patients (median 2.7; 0.9-4.7). The distribution of values among cancer patients was widespread and asymmetric, 53% subjects having values beyond the 95 th percentile of healthy donors. The values of suPAR/creatinine did not correlate with tumour stage, Ca19-9 or CEA levels. Higher values correlated with poor prognosis among non-resected patients at univariate analysis; multivariate Cox regression identified high urinary suPAR/creatinine as an independent predictor of poor survival among all cancer patients (odds ratio 2.10, p = 0.0023), together with tumour stage (stage III odds ratio 2.65, p = 0.0017; stage IV odds ratio 4.61, p < 0.0001) and female gender (odds ratio 1.85, p = 0.01). A high urinary suPAR/creatinine ratio represents a useful marker for the identification of a subset of patients with poorer outcome

  14. Genome-Wide Transcriptome Analysis of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Identifies Candidate Gene Signatures in Response to Aflatoxin Producing Fungus Aspergillus flavus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renesh Bedre

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are toxic and potent carcinogenic metabolites produced from the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins can contaminate cottonseed under conducive preharvest and postharvest conditions. United States federal regulations restrict the use of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed at >20 ppb for animal feed. Several strategies have been proposed for controlling aflatoxin contamination, and much success has been achieved by the application of an atoxigenic strain of A. flavus in cotton, peanut and maize fields. Development of cultivars resistant to aflatoxin through overexpression of resistance associated genes and/or knocking down aflatoxin biosynthesis of A. flavus will be an effective strategy for controlling aflatoxin contamination in cotton. In this study, genome-wide transcriptome profiling was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in response to infection with both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of A. flavus on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. pericarp and seed. The genes involved in antifungal response, oxidative burst, transcription factors, defense signaling pathways and stress response were highly differentially expressed in pericarp and seed tissues in response to A. flavus infection. The cell-wall modifying genes and genes involved in the production of antimicrobial substances were more active in pericarp as compared to seed. The genes involved in auxin and cytokinin signaling were also induced. Most of the genes involved in defense response in cotton were highly induced in pericarp than in seed. The global gene expression analysis in response to fungal invasion in cotton will serve as a source for identifying biomarkers for breeding, potential candidate genes for transgenic manipulation, and will help in understanding complex plant-fungal interaction for future downstream research.

  15. The glomerular parietal epithelial cell's responses are influenced by SM22 alpha levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Shokichi; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2014-11-06

    Studies have shown in several diseases initially affecting podocytes, that the neighboring glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs) are secondarily involved. The PEC response might be reparative under certain circumstances, yet injurious under others. The factors governing these are not well understood. We have shown that SM22α, an actin-binding protein considered a marker of smooth muscle differentiation, is upregulated in podocytes and PECs in several models of podocyte disease. However, the impact of SM22α levels on PECs is not known. Experimental glomerular disease, characterized by primary podocyte injury, was induced in aged-matched SM22α+/+ and SM22α-/-mice by intraperitoneal injection of sheep anti-rabbit glomeruli antibody. Immunostaining methods were employed on days 7 and 14 of disease. The number of PEC transition cells, defined as cells co-expressing a PEC protein (PAX2) and podocyte protein (Synaptopodin) was higher in diseased SM22α-/-mice compared with SM22α+/+mice. WT1 staining along Bowman's capsule is higher in diseased SM22α-/-mice. This was accompanied by increased PEC proliferation (measured by ki-67 staining), and an increase in immunostaining for the progenitor marker NCAM, in a subpopulation of PECs in diseased SM22α-/-mice. In addition, immunostaining for vimentin and alpha smooth muscle actin, markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was lower in diseased SM22α-/-mice compared to diseased SM22α+/+mice. SM22α levels may impact how PECs respond following a primary podocyte injury in experimental glomerular disease. Absent/lower levels favor an increase in PEC transition cells and PECs expressing a progenitor marker, and a lower EMT rate compared to SM22α+/+mice, where SM22 levels are markedly increased in PECs.

  16. Reef-scale modeling of coral calcification responses to ocean acidification and sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Watanabe, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Blanco, Ariel C.

    2018-03-01

    To predict coral responses to future environmental changes at the reef scale, the coral polyp model (Nakamura et al. in Coral Reefs 32:779-794, 2013), which reconstructs coral responses to ocean acidification, flow conditions and other factors, was incorporated into a reef-scale three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model. This coupled reef-scale model was compared to observations from the Shiraho fringing reef, Ishigaki Island, Japan, where the model accurately reconstructed spatiotemporal variation in reef hydrodynamic and geochemical parameters. The simulated coral calcification rate exhibited high spatial variation, with lower calcification rates in the nearshore and stagnant water areas due to isolation of the inner reef at low tide, and higher rates on the offshore side of the inner reef flat. When water is stagnant, bottom shear stress is low at night and thus oxygen diffusion rate from ambient water to the inside of the coral polyp limits respiration rate. Thus, calcification decreases because of the link between respiration and calcification. A scenario analysis was conducted using the reef-scale model with several pCO2 and sea-level conditions based on IPCC (Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013) scenarios. The simulation indicated that the coral calcification rate decreases with increasing pCO2. On the other hand, sea-level rise increases the calcification rate, particularly in the nearshore and the areas where water is stagnant at low tide under present conditions, as mass exchange, especially oxygen exchange at night, is enhanced between the corals and their ambient seawater due to the reduced stagnant period. When both pCO2 increase and sea-level rise occur concurrently, the calcification rate generally decreases due to the effects of ocean acidification. However, the

  17. Estimating aquifer properties from the water level response to Earth tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillo, Paula A; Bredehoeft, John D

    2011-01-01

    Water level fluctuations induced by tidal strains can be analyzed to estimate the elastic properties, porosity, and transmissivity of the surrounding aquifer material. We review underutilized methods for estimating aquifer properties from the confined response to earth tides. The earth tide analyses are applied to an open well penetrating a confined carbonate aquifer. The resulting range of elastic and hydraulic aquifer properties are in general agreement with that determined by other investigators for the area of the well. The analyses indicate that passive monitoring data from wells completed in sufficiently stiff, low porosity formations can provide useful information on the properties of the surrounding formation. Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  18. Analytical and empirical evaluation of low-level waste drum response to accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.A.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Baker, W.E.; Hokanson, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Based on results of tests to date, it was found that the structural response of low-level waste drums to impact environments can be generally predicted, both analytically and with subscale models. As currently represented, only the 1/4 scale models would adequately represent full scale drum deformation; however, additional work has shown that with proper heat treating the strength of the material used in the 1/8 scale containers can be reduced to the correct value. Both analytical models give results that are expected to be within the range of behavior of the full scale drums. Failure of the drum closure can be adequately inferred from the radial deformation results of both subscale tests and computer analyses. 6 figures

  19. Louisiana's Coastal Crisis: Characterizing Household and Community-Level Impacts and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Rich in natural resources and critical ecosystems, the Mississippi delta also is the site of numerous human communities, from sparsely populated towns to dense urban neighborhoods. People who live and work within the delta face major challenges as they confront land loss, subsidence, and storms. This presentation outlines key household and community-level impacts of these environmental changes and both individual and collective responses to them. Based on two decades of applied ethnographic research in the region, as well as the author's participation as an advisor to federal, state, and local organizations, the presentation considers historical and contemporary processes and practices, social organization, and cultural dynamics to analyze proposed policies for addressing the impacts.

  20. Response after Infection-Associated Rise in Clozapine Levels in Treatment-Resistant Schizoaffective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina H. Grootendorst-van Mil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical management of patients with treatment-resistant psychotic disorders is still challenging despite years of extensive research. If first-line antipsychotic treatment proves ineffective, clozapine is considered golden standard. Herein, we report on a patient with schizoaffective disorder that initially showed no response to treatment with clozapine and ECT and therefore reached a therapeutic dead end. After an unintentional exposure to supratherapeutic clozapine levels, related to a pneumonia, a significant and persistent reduction of psychotic symptoms occurred. The report suggests a careful reevaluation of the clozapine dose in cases of treatment-resistant psychotic disorders with failed trials of clozapine. Further increase of dose may prove efficacious, although side effects should be closely monitored. Research to determine the upper threshold of clozapine for antipsychotic efficacy is warranted.

  1. Demand Response Technology Readiness Levels for Energy Management in Blocks of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Crosbie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels deliver most of the flexibility in contemporary electricity systems. The pressing need to reduce CO2 emissions requires new methods to provide this flexibility. Demand response (DR offers consumers a significant role in the delivery of flexibility by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during periods of stress or constraint. Blocks of buildings offer more flexibility in the timing and use of energy than single buildings, however, and a lack of relevant scalable ICT tools hampers DR in blocks of buildings. To ameliorate this problem, a current innovation project called “Demand Response in Blocks of Buildings” (DR-BoB: www.dr-bob.eu has integrated existing technologies into a scalable cloud-based solution for DR in blocks of buildings. The degree to which the DR-BoB energy management solution can increase the ability of any given site to participate in DR is dependent upon its current energy systems, i.e., the energy metering, the telemetry and control technologies in building management systems, and the existence/capacity of local power generation and storage plants. To encourage the owners and managers of blocks of buildings to participate in DR, a method of assessing and validating the technological readiness to participate in DR energy management solutions at any given site is required. This paper describes the DR-BoB energy management solution and outlines what we have called the demand response technology readiness levels (DRTRLs for the implementation of such a solution in blocks of buildings.

  2. Rheological and Mechanical Response Modifications for a Self-Leveling Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandermarakis Z.G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases cement based materials demand a higher flowability and workability and this conventionally can’t be done without loss of its strength, due to the fact that the common practice to increase the workability is the addition of water. But, nowadays using a third generation superplasticizer (SP we can achieve the desire flowability without loss of its strength. The action of superplastisizers is to spread efficiently the cement grains and so to wetting better the cement grains giving a more homogeneous mixture with higher strength. Nine different mixtures were prepared adding a small percentage of SP (1%. The conditions to get a self levelling mortar, have to do not only with rheological but also with mechanical demands. The bending and compression test gave the achieving mechanical strength whereas their rheological response came through slump flow and v-funnel flow tests. With the help of a small amount of stabilizer we obtain a robust mixture that deserves the desire response at the field too.

  3. Rheological and Mechanical Response Modifications for a Self-Leveling Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiadramis, N. J.; Sotiropoulou, A. B.; Pandermarakis, Z. G.

    2010-06-01

    In many cases cement based materials demand a higher flowability and workability and this conventionally can’t be done without loss of its strength, due to the fact that the common practice to increase the workability is the addition of water. But, nowadays using a third generation superplasticizer (SP) we can achieve the desire flowability without loss of its strength. The action of superplastisizers is to spread efficiently the cement grains and so to wetting better the cement grains giving a more homogeneous mixture with higher strength. Nine different mixtures were prepared adding a small percentage of SP (1%). The conditions to get a self levelling mortar, have to do not only with rheological but also with mechanical demands. The bending and compression test gave the achieving mechanical strength whereas their rheological response came through slump flow and v-funnel flow tests. With the help of a small amount of stabilizer we obtain a robust mixture that deserves the desire response at the field too.

  4. Mechanical response of knee muscles in high level bodyboarders during performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Rodríguez-Matoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: bodyboarding is a kind of surfing that has been growing very rapidly over the last decade and has now developed into one of the fastest growing water sports in the world. OBJECTIVES: evaluate the effects of fatigue on rectus femoris RF, vastus lateralis VL and vastus medialis VM and biceps femoris BF and semitendinosus ST during a high-level bodyboard competition using tensiomyography TMG. METHODS: subjects were 11 highly experienced years of practice: 15, SD=4.65 male bodyboarders age: 28.17, SD=2.89, body weight: 74.83, SD=6.13kg; height: 179.25, SD=3.93cm; BMI: 23.29, SD=1.81 participating in the final of the 2010 Spanish championship. RESULTS: the fatigue is especially evident due to a decrease in the values of relaxation time Tr and sustain time Ts caused by the specific characteristics of waves, how the waves evolve and the type of manoeuvre executed in competition due to the wave characteristics. The maximum radial displacement Dm value increased slightly in all muscles analysed and normalised response speed Vrn was stable, with a tendency to improve as athletes adapted to the type of physical effort and the environmental conditions of the competition. CONCLUSIONS: the study shows that the fatigue in the extensor and flexor muscles of the knee occurs in response to the demands of competition.

  5. Global warming response options in Brazil's forest sector: comparison of project-level costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A project-level assessment of monetary and carbon costs and benefits for five classes of global warming response options in the forest sector is attempted for typical Brazilian conditions. Options considered are: silvicultural plantations (for pulp, charcoal and sawlogs), sustainable timber management and reduction of deforestation. Comparison of pulpwood and sawlog plantations with the vegetation characteristic of deforested areas indicates of modest carbon benefit. Plantations for charcoal can produce a substantial carbon benefit through fossil fuel substitution, but much of this calculated benefit disappears if discount rates greater than zero are applied to carbon. Sustainable timber management, when compared with existing forest, represents a net carbon loss, accumulation of carbon in wood products being insufficient to compensate for biomass reduction over a 100 year time scale. Reduction of deforestation has great potential as a global warming response option, its per-hectare carbon benefits being approximately four times that of silvicultural plantation establishment for pulp and sawlogs over a 100 year period. The costs of reducing deforestation are difficult to assess, however, due to the importance of government policy changes such as removal of land speculation and land tenure establishment as motives for clearing. Although these changes would not cost money and would have tremendous carbon and other benefits, they have not yet occurred. (Author)

  6. The scientific basis for the establishment of threshold levels and dose response relationships of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency hosted a two day Symposium from 2-3 December 1974 at its Headquarters, organized by the 'International Academy for Environmental Safety and the Forum fur Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft und Politik' on the subject 'Scientific Basis for the Establishment of Threshold. Levels and Dose Response Relationships of Carcinogenesis'. Following an introductory paper by the Radiation Biology Section of the Agency on 'Radiation Carcinogenesis - Dose Response Relationship, Threshold and Risk Estimates', a series of papers dealt with this problem in chemical carcinogenesis.It was suggested that more experiments should be done using non-human primates for tests of carcinogens, especially chemicals. Preliminary experiments using monkeys with a potent carcinogen - nitrosoamine - indicate that there could possibly be a dose where no effect can be observed during the 5 year period of study. It was also pointed out that the overall cost/benefit and risk/ benefit relationships should be taken into consideration in determining limits for chemicals which are potentially carcinogenic but are used routinely by the public and industries; these considerations have been weighed in setting exposure limits for radiation

  7. Structural damping values as a function of dynamic response stress and deformation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Damping as it is normally defined is the means by which the response motion of a structural system is reduced as the result of energy losses. However, as used in the context of nuclear plant design, the effects of changes in structural stiffness, geometry, support configuration, and modulus of elasticity are also usually lumped under the general heading of damping in current design methods. For convenience in structural design, damping in usually assumed as viscous in nature and in recognition of its use in modal response spectrum dynamic analysis is normally expressed as a percent of critical. In general, it should be understood that damping as used in design or analysis of nuclear plants is an experimentally determined factor which is used to make the results of linear elasticity analysis of dynamic systems agree reasonably well with observed experimental results. In this paper, damping data existing in the open literature applicable to nuclear power plant structures and equipment is summarized and statistically analyzed. Results of this analysis are used to develop damping trend curves which predict applicable damping values to be used in design at various levels of stress or deformation. (orig.)

  8. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Nancy C.

    1974-01-01

    Suggests more stringent use of task analysis in identifying and teaching reading subskills and the use of reinforcement contingencies which make it worthwhile for the child to tolerate frustration when teaching remedial reading to children with low frustration tolerance levels. (TO)

  9. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  10. HLA-DRB1 Analysis Identified a Genetically Unique Subset within Rheumatoid Arthritis and Distinct Genetic Background of Rheumatoid Factor Levels from Anticyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwa, Ryosuke; Ikari, Katsunori; Ohmura, Koichiro; Nakabo, Shuichiro; Matsuo, Keitaro; Saji, Hiroh; Yurugi, Kimiko; Miura, Yasuo; Maekawa, Taira; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Terao, Chikashi

    2018-04-01

    HLA-DRB1 is the most important locus associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). However, fluctuations of rheumatoid factor (RF) over the disease course have made it difficult to define fine subgroups according to consistent RF positivity for the analyses of genetic background and the levels of RF. A total of 2873 patients with RA and 2008 healthy controls were recruited. We genotyped HLA-DRB1 alleles for the participants and collected consecutive data of RF in the case subjects. In addition to RF+ and RF- subsets, we classified the RF+ subjects into group 1 (constant RF+) and group 2 (seroconversion). We compared HLA-DRB1 alleles between the RA subsets and controls and performed linear regression analysis to identify HLA-DRB1 alleles associated with maximal RF levels. Omnibus tests were conducted to assess important amino acid positions. RF positivity was 88%, and 1372 and 970 RF+ subjects were classified into groups 1 and 2, respectively. RF+ and RF- showed similar genetic associations to ACPA+ and ACPA- RA, respectively. We found that shared epitope (SE) was more enriched in group 2 than 1, p = 2.0 × 10 -5 , and that amino acid position 11 showed a significant association between 1 and 2, p = 2.7 × 10 -5 . These associations were independent of ACPA positivity. SE showed a tendency to be negatively correlated with RF titer (p = 0.012). HLA-DRB1*09:01, which reduces ACPA titer, was not associated with RF levels (p = 0.70). The seroconversion group was shown to have distinct genetic characteristics. The genetic architecture of RF levels is different from that of ACPA.

  11. Machine Learning Methods Improve Prognostication, Identify Clinically Distinct Phenotypes, and Detect Heterogeneity in Response to Therapy in a Large Cohort of Heart Failure Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tariq; Lund, Lars H; Rao, Pooja; Ghosh, Rohit; Warier, Prashant; Vaccaro, Benjamin; Dahlström, Ulf; O'Connor, Christopher M; Felker, G Michael; Desai, Nihar R

    2018-04-12

    Whereas heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome, conventional approaches to its management have treated it as a singular disease, leading to inadequate patient care and inefficient clinical trials. We hypothesized that applying advanced analytics to a large cohort of HF patients would improve prognostication of outcomes, identify distinct patient phenotypes, and detect heterogeneity in treatment response. The Swedish Heart Failure Registry is a nationwide registry collecting detailed demographic, clinical, laboratory, and medication data and linked to databases with outcome information. We applied random forest modeling to identify predictors of 1-year survival. Cluster analysis was performed and validated using serial bootstrapping. Association between clusters and survival was assessed with Cox proportional hazards modeling and interaction testing was performed to assess for heterogeneity in response to HF pharmacotherapy across propensity-matched clusters. Our study included 44 886 HF patients enrolled in the Swedish Heart Failure Registry between 2000 and 2012. Random forest modeling demonstrated excellent calibration and discrimination for survival (C-statistic=0.83) whereas left ventricular ejection fraction did not (C-statistic=0.52): there were no meaningful differences per strata of left ventricular ejection fraction (1-year survival: 80%, 81%, 83%, and 84%). Cluster analysis using the 8 highest predictive variables identified 4 clinically relevant subgroups of HF with marked differences in 1-year survival. There were significant interactions between propensity-matched clusters (across age, sex, and left ventricular ejection fraction and the following medications: diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and nitrates, P <0.001, all). Machine learning algorithms accurately predicted outcomes in a large data set of HF patients. Cluster analysis identified 4 distinct phenotypes that differed significantly in outcomes and in

  12. Workload differences across command levels and emergency response organizations during a major joint training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytz, Erik G; Rybing, Jonas; Jonson, Carl-Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an initial test using a validated workload measurement method, the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), as an indicator of joint emergency exercise effectiveness. Prior research on emergency exercises indicates that exercises must be challenging, ie, result in high workload, to be effective. However, this is often problematic with some participants being underloaded and some overloaded. The NASA TLX was used to test for differences in workload between commanders and subordinates and among three different emergency response organizations during a joint emergency exercise. Questionnaire-based evaluation with professional emergency responders. The study was performed in conjunction with a large-scale interorganizational joint emergency exercise in Sweden. A total of 20 participants from the rescue services, 12 from the emergency medical services, and 12 from the police participated in the study (N=44). Ten participants had a command-level role during the exercise and the remaining 34 were subordinates. The main outcome measures were the workload subscales of the NASA TLX: mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, performance, effort, and frustration. The results showed that the organizations experienced different levels of workload, that the commanders experienced a higher workload than the subordinates, and that two out of three organizations fell below the twenty-fifth percentile of average workload scores compiled from 237 prior studies. The results support the notion that the NASA TLX could be a useful complementary tool to evaluate exercise designs and outcomes. This should be further explored and verified in additional studies.

  13. Soybean growth responses to enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B radiation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.; Sullivan, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv. Essex) was grown in an unshaded greenhouse under three levels of biologically effective ultraviolet-B (UV-BBE) radiation (effective daily dose: 0, 11.5 and 13.6 kJ m -2 ) for 91 days. Plants were harvested at regular intervals beginning 10 days after germination until reproductive maturity. Mathematical growth analysis revealed that the effects of UV-B radiation varied with plant growth stage. The transition peri