WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify relevant studies

  1. Identifying Relevant Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, He; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Tell, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Context: Systematic literature review (SLR) has become an important research methodology in software engineering since the introduction of evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) in 2004. One critical step in applying this methodology is to design and execute appropriate and effective search....... Objective: The main objective of the research reported in this paper is to improve the search step of undertaking SLRs in software engineering (SE) by devising and evaluating systematic and practical approaches to identifying relevant studies in SE. Method: We have systematically selected and analytically...

  2. A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Marlies; Hooijmans, Carlijn R; van Veggel, Nieky; ter Riet, Gerben; Leeflang, Mariska; Hooft, Lotty; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Tillema, Alice; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel

    2012-01-01

    Before starting a new animal experiment, thorough analysis of previously performed experiments is essential from a scientific as well as from an ethical point of view. The method that is most suitable to carry out such a thorough analysis of the literature is a systematic review (SR). An essential first step in an SR is to search and find all potentially relevant studies. It is important to include all available evidence in an SR to minimize bias and reduce hampered interpretation of experimental outcomes. Despite the recent development of search filters to find animal studies in PubMed and EMBASE, searching for all available animal studies remains a challenge. Available guidelines from the clinical field cannot be copied directly to the situation within animal research, and although there are plenty of books and courses on searching the literature, there is no compact guide available to search and find relevant animal studies. Therefore, in order to facilitate a structured, thorough and transparent search for animal studies (in both preclinical and fundamental science), an easy-to-use, step-by-step guide was prepared and optimized using feedback from scientists in the field of animal experimentation. The step-by-step guide will assist scientists in performing a comprehensive literature search and, consequently, improve the scientific quality of the resulting review and prevent unnecessary animal use in the future. PMID:22037056

  3. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun

    2018-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART). With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study. PMID:29377896

  4. Identifying and exploiting trait-relevant tissues with multiple functional annotations in genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjie Hao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have identified many disease associated loci, the majority of which have unknown biological functions. Understanding the mechanism underlying trait associations requires identifying trait-relevant tissues and investigating associations in a trait-specific fashion. Here, we extend the widely used linear mixed model to incorporate multiple SNP functional annotations from omics studies with GWAS summary statistics to facilitate the identification of trait-relevant tissues, with which to further construct powerful association tests. Specifically, we rely on a generalized estimating equation based algorithm for parameter inference, a mixture modeling framework for trait-tissue relevance classification, and a weighted sequence kernel association test constructed based on the identified trait-relevant tissues for powerful association analysis. We refer to our analytic procedure as the Scalable Multiple Annotation integration for trait-Relevant Tissue identification and usage (SMART. With extensive simulations, we show how our method can make use of multiple complementary annotations to improve the accuracy for identifying trait-relevant tissues. In addition, our procedure allows us to make use of the inferred trait-relevant tissues, for the first time, to construct more powerful SNP set tests. We apply our method for an in-depth analysis of 43 traits from 28 GWASs using tissue-specific annotations in 105 tissues derived from ENCODE and Roadmap. Our results reveal new trait-tissue relevance, pinpoint important annotations that are informative of trait-tissue relationship, and illustrate how we can use the inferred trait-relevant tissues to construct more powerful association tests in the Wellcome trust case control consortium study.

  5. A qualitative study examining methods of accessing and identifying research relevant to clinical practice among rehabilitation clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Drasti; Koehmstedt, Christine; Jones, Rebecca; Coffey, Nathan T; Cai, Xinsheng; Garfinkel, Steven; Shaewitz, Dahlia M; Weinstein, Ali A

    2017-01-01

    Research examining the utilization of evidence-based practice (EBP) specifically among rehabilitation clinicians is limited. The objective of this study was to examine how various rehabilitative clinicians including physical therapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation counselors, and physiatrists are gaining access to literature and whether they are able to implement the available research into practice. A total of 21 total clinicians were interviewed via telephone. Using NVivo, a qualitative analysis of the responses was performed. There were similarities found with respect to the information-seeking behaviors and translation of research across the different clinician types. Lack of time was reported to be a barrier for both access to literature and implementation of research across all clinician types. The majority of clinicians who reported having difficulty with utilizing the published literature indicated that the literature was not applicable to their practice, the research was not specific enough to be put into practice, or the research found was too outdated to be relevant. In addition, having a supportive work environment aided in the search and utilization of research through providing resources central to assisting clinicians in gaining access to health information. Our study identified several barriers that affect EBP for rehabilitation clinicians. The findings suggest the need for researchers to ensure that their work is applicable and specific to clinical practice for implementation to occur.

  6. A qualitative study examining methods of accessing and identifying research relevant to clinical practice among rehabilitation clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel D

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drasti Patel,1 Christine Koehmstedt,1 Rebecca Jones,1 Nathan T Coffey,1 Xinsheng Cai,2 Steven Garfinkel,2 Dahlia M Shaewitz,2 Ali A Weinstein1 1Center for Study of Chronic Illness and Disability, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, 2American Institutes for Research, Washington, DC, USA Purpose: Research examining the utilization of evidence-based practice (EBP specifically among rehabilitation clinicians is limited. The objective of this study was to examine how various rehabilitative clinicians including physical therapists, occupational therapists, rehabilitation counselors, and physiatrists are gaining access to literature and whether they are able to implement the available research into practice.Methods: A total of 21 total clinicians were interviewed via telephone. Using NVivo, a qualitative analysis of the responses was performed.Results: There were similarities found with respect to the information-seeking behaviors and translation of research across the different clinician types. Lack of time was reported to be a barrier for both access to literature and implementation of research across all clinician types. The majority of clinicians who reported having difficulty with utilizing the published literature indicated that the literature was not applicable to their practice, the research was not specific enough to be put into practice, or the research found was too outdated to be relevant. In addition, having a supportive work environment aided in the search and utilization of research through providing resources central to assisting clinicians in gaining access to health information.Conclusion: Our study identified several barriers that affect EBP for rehabilitation clinicians. The findings suggest the need for researchers to ensure that their work is applicable and specific to clinical practice for implementation to occur. Keywords: health information, information behavior, knowledge utilization

  7. Eysenbach, Tuische and Diepgen’s Evaluation of Web Searching for Identifying Unpublished Studies for Systematic Reviews: An Innovative Study Which is Still Relevant Today.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Briscoe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Eysenbach, G., Tuische, J. & Diepgen, T.L. (2001. Evaluation of the usefulness of Internet searches to identify unpublished clinical trials for systematic reviews. Medical Informatics and the Internet in Medicine, 26(3, 203-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14639230110075459 Objective – To consider whether web searching is a useful method for identifying unpublished studies for inclusion in systematic reviews. Design – Retrospective web searches using the AltaVista search engine were conducted to identify unpublished studies – specifically, clinical trials – for systematic reviews which did not use a web search engine. Setting – The Department of Clinical Social Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Germany. Subjects – n/a Methods – Pilot testing of 11 web search engines was carried out to determine which could handle complex search queries. Pre-specified search requirements included the ability to handle Boolean and proximity operators, and truncation searching. A total of seven Cochrane systematic reviews were randomly selected from the Cochrane Library Issue 2, 1998, and their bibliographic database search strategies were adapted for the web search engine, AltaVista. Each adaptation combined search terms for the intervention, problem, and study type in the systematic review. Hints to planned, ongoing, or unpublished studies retrieved by the search engine, which were not cited in the systematic reviews, were followed up by visiting websites and contacting authors for further details when required. The authors of the systematic reviews were then contacted and asked to comment on the potential relevance of the identified studies. Main Results – Hints to 14 unpublished and potentially relevant studies, corresponding to 4 of the 7 randomly selected Cochrane systematic reviews, were identified. Out of the 14 studies, 2 were considered irrelevant to the corresponding systematic review by the systematic review authors. The

  8. Identifying stakeholder-relevant climate change impacts: a case study in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, K.; Graves, D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Hatten, James R.; Mastin, Mark C.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Montag, J.; Nieman, Timothy; Voss, Frank D.; Maule, Alec G.

    2014-01-01

    Designing climate-related research so that study results will be useful to natural resource managers is a unique challenge. While decision makers increasingly recognize the need to consider climate change in their resource management plans, and climate scientists recognize the importance of providing locally-relevant climate data and projections, there often remains a gap between management needs and the information that is available or is being collected. We used decision analysis concepts to bring decision-maker and stakeholder perspectives into the applied research planning process. In 2009 we initiated a series of studies on the impacts of climate change in the Yakima River Basin (YRB) with a four-day stakeholder workshop, bringing together managers, stakeholders, and scientists to develop an integrated conceptual model of climate change and climate change impacts in the YRB. The conceptual model development highlighted areas of uncertainty that limit the understanding of the potential impacts of climate change and decision alternatives by those who will be most directly affected by those changes, and pointed to areas where additional study and engagement of stakeholders would be beneficial. The workshop and resulting conceptual model highlighted the importance of numerous different outcomes to stakeholders in the basin, including social and economic outcomes that go beyond the physical and biological outcomes typically reported in climate impacts studies. Subsequent studies addressed several of those areas of uncertainty, including changes in water temperatures, habitat quality, and bioenergetics of salmonid populations.

  9. Simple and efficient machine learning frameworks for identifying protein-protein interaction relevant articles and experimental methods used to study the interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-03

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is an important biomedical phenomenon. Automatically detecting PPI-relevant articles and identifying methods that are used to study PPI are important text mining tasks. In this study, we have explored domain independent features to develop two open source machine learning frameworks. One performs binary classification to determine whether the given article is PPI relevant or not, named "Simple Classifier", and the other one maps the PPI relevant articles with corresponding interaction method nodes in a standardized PSI-MI (Proteomics Standards Initiative-Molecular Interactions) ontology, named "OntoNorm". We evaluated our system in the context of BioCreative challenge competition using the standardized data set. Our systems are amongst the top systems reported by the organizers, attaining 60.8% F1-score for identifying relevant documents, and 52.3% F1-score for mapping articles to interaction method ontology. Our results show that domain-independent machine learning frameworks can perform competitively well at the tasks of detecting PPI relevant articles and identifying the methods that were used to study the interaction in such articles. Simple Classifier is available at http://sourceforge.net/p/simpleclassify/home/ and OntoNorm at http://sourceforge.net/p/ontonorm/home/.

  10. Topic A. Have all the relevant issues been identified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work is an answer to the question : have all the relevant issues been identified? The author tries to answer more particularly to the following three points : 1) can risk or responsibility for action be imposed on future generations. 2) Are current safety norms suitable for the future? 3) what controls are appropriate for inter generational cost/benefit evaluations. (O.L.)

  11. Identifying public health competencies relevant to family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Bart J; Moloughney, Brent W; Iglar, Karl T

    2011-10-01

    Public health situations faced by family physicians and other primary care practitioners, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and more recently H1N1, have resulted in an increased interest to identify the public health competencies relevant to family medicine. At present there is no agreed-on set of public health competencies delineating the knowledge and skills that family physicians should possess to effectively face diverse public health challenges. Using a multi-staged, iterative process that included a detailed literature review, the authors developed a set of public health competencies relevant to primary care, identifying competencies relevant across four levels, from "post-MD" to "enhanced." Feedback from family medicine and public health educator-practitioners regarding the set of proposed "essential" competencies indicated the need for a more limited, feasible set of "priority" areas to be highlighted during residency training. This focused set of public health competencies has begun to guide relevant components of the University of Toronto's Family Medicine Residency Program curriculum, including academic half-days; clinical experiences, especially identifying "teachable moments" during patient encounters; resident academic projects; and elective public health agency placements. These competencies will also be used to guide the development of a family medicine-public health primer and faculty development sessions to support family medicine faculty facilitating residents to achieve these competencies. Once more fully implemented, an evaluation will be initiated to determine the degree to which these public health competencies are being achieved by family medicine graduates, especially whether they attained the knowledge, skills, and confidence necessary to effectively face diverse public health situations-from common to emergent. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain : a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, Anna; Geertzen, Jan H.; de Boer, Wout E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW) process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES) in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low

  13. Clinically Relevant Subsets Identified by Gene Expression Patterns Support a Revised Ontogenic Model of Wilms Tumor: A Children's Oncology Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Gadd

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumors (WT have provided broad insights into the interface between development and tumorigenesis. Further understanding is confounded by their genetic, histologic, and clinical heterogeneity, the basis of which remains largely unknown. We evaluated 224 WT for global gene expression patterns; WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutation; and 11p15 copy number and methylation patterns. Five subsets were identified showing distinct differences in their pathologic and clinical features: these findings were validated in 100 additional WT. The gene expression pattern of each subset was compared with published gene expression profiles during normal renal development. A novel subset of epithelial WT in infants lacked WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutations and nephrogenic rests and displayed a gene expression pattern of the postinduction nephron, and none recurred. Three subsets were characterized by a low expression of WT1 and intralobar nephrogenic rests. These differed in their frequency of WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, in their age, in their relapse rate, and in their expression similarities with the intermediate mesoderm versus the metanephric mesenchyme. The largest subset was characterized by biallelic methylation of the imprint control region 1, a gene expression profile of the metanephric mesenchyme, and both interlunar and perilobar nephrogenic rests. These data provide a biologic explanation for the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity seen within WT and enable the future development of subset-specific therapeutic strategies. Further, these data support a revision of the current model of WT ontogeny, which allows for an interplay between the type of initiating event and the developmental stage in which it occurs.

  14. Identifying relevant feature-action associations for grasping unmodelled objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    content. The method is provided with a large and structured set of visual features, motivated by the visual hierarchy in primates and finds relevant feature action associations automatically. We apply our method in a simulated environment on three different object sets for the case of grasp affordance...... learning. For box objects, we achieve a 0.90 success probability, 0.80 for round objects and up to 0.75 for open objects, when presented with novel objects. In this work, we in particular demonstrate the effect of choosing appropriate feature representations. We demonstrate a significant performance...

  15. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low back pain (CLBP. Methods Using focus groups consisting of Labor Experts (LE's working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute, arguments and underlying grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES were investigated. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Two focus groups yielded 19 factors, of which 12 are categorized in the ICF model under activities (e.g. functional capacity and in the personal (e.g. age, tenure and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship. The remaining 7 factors are categorized under intervention, job accommodation and measures. Conclusions This focus group study shows that 19 factors may be relevant to RTW-ES in sick-listed employees with CLBP. Providing these results to professionals assessing RTW-ES might contribute to a more transparent and systematic approach. Considering the importance of the quality of the RTW process, optimizing the RTW-ES assessment is essential.

  16. Automated systems to identify relevant documents in product risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Product risk management involves critical assessment of the risks and benefits of health products circulating in the market. One of the important sources of safety information is the primary literature, especially for newer products which regulatory authorities have relatively little experience with. Although the primary literature provides vast and diverse information, only a small proportion of which is useful for product risk assessment work. Hence, the aim of this study is to explore the possibility of using text mining to automate the identification of useful articles, which will reduce the time taken for literature search and hence improving work efficiency. In this study, term-frequency inverse document-frequency values were computed for predictors extracted from the titles and abstracts of articles related to three tumour necrosis factors-alpha blockers. A general automated system was developed using only general predictors and was tested for its generalizability using articles related to four other drug classes. Several specific automated systems were developed using both general and specific predictors and training sets of different sizes in order to determine the minimum number of articles required for developing such systems. Results The general automated system had an area under the curve value of 0.731 and was able to rank 34.6% and 46.2% of the total number of 'useful' articles among the first 10% and 20% of the articles presented to the evaluators when tested on the generalizability set. However, its use may be limited by the subjective definition of useful articles. For the specific automated system, it was found that only 20 articles were required to develop a specific automated system with a prediction performance (AUC 0.748) that was better than that of general automated system. Conclusions Specific automated systems can be developed rapidly and avoid problems caused by subjective definition of useful articles. Thus the efficiency of

  17. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  18. Using mixed methods to identify and answer clinically relevant research questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneerson, Catherine L; Gale, Nicola K

    2015-06-01

    The need for mixed methods research in answering health care questions is becoming increasingly recognized because of the complexity of factors that affect health outcomes. In this article, we argue for the value of using a qualitatively driven mixed method approach for identifying and answering clinically relevant research questions. This argument is illustrated by findings from a study on the self-management practices of cancer survivors and the exploration of one particular clinically relevant finding about higher uptake of self-management in cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy treatment compared with those who have not. A cross-sectional study generated findings that formed the basis for the qualitative study, by informing the purposive sampling strategy and generating new qualitative research questions. Using a quantitative research component to supplement a qualitative study can enhance the generalizability and clinical relevance of the findings and produce detailed, contextualized, and rich answers to research questions that would be unachievable through quantitative or qualitative methods alone. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Identifying the relevant dependencies of the neural network response on characteristics of the input space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    This talk presents an approach to identify those characteristics of the neural network inputs that are most relevant for the response and therefore provides essential information to determine the systematic uncertainties.

  20. Identifying the relevant features of the National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) for spatial analysis by using the Delphi Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, N. Z. A.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Talib, K.; Ng, E. G.

    2018-02-01

    This paper explains the process carried out in identifying the relevant features of the National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) for spatial analysis. The research was initially a part of a larger research exercise to identify the significance of NDCDB from the legal, technical, role and land-based analysis perspectives. The research methodology of applying the Delphi technique is substantially discussed in this paper. A heterogeneous panel of 14 experts was created to determine the importance of NDCDB from the technical relevance standpoint. Three statements describing the relevant features of NDCDB for spatial analysis were established after three rounds of consensus building. It highlighted the NDCDB’s characteristics such as its spatial accuracy, functions, and criteria as a facilitating tool for spatial analysis. By recognising the relevant features of NDCDB for spatial analysis in this study, practical application of NDCDB for various analysis and purpose can be widely implemented.

  1. Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudén, Christina; Adams, Julie; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Brock, Theo Cm; Poulsen, Veronique; Schlekat, Christian E; Wheeler, James R; Henry, Tala R

    2017-07-01

    Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of "expert judgment" by risk assessors. In the present paper, we review published guidance for relevance evaluation and, on the basis of the practical experience within the group of authors, we identify additional aspects and further develop already proposed aspects that should be considered when conducting a relevance assessment for ecotoxicological studies. From a regulatory point of view, the overarching key aspect of relevance concerns the ability to directly or indirectly use the study in ERA with the purpose of addressing specific protection goals and ultimately regulatory decision making. Because ERA schemes are based on the appropriate linking of exposure and effect estimates, important features of ecotoxicological studies relate to exposure relevance and biological relevance. Exposure relevance addresses the representativeness of the test substance, environmental exposure media, and exposure regime. Biological relevance deals with the environmental significance of the test organism and the endpoints selected, the ecological realism of the test conditions simulated in the study, as well as a mechanistic link of treatment-related effects for endpoints to the protection goal identified in the ERA. In addition, uncertainties associated with relevance should be considered in the assessment. A systematic and transparent assessment of relevance is needed for regulatory decision making. The relevance

  2. Using language models to identify relevant new information in inpatient clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Lee, Janet T; Melton, Genevieve B

    2014-01-01

    Redundant information in clinical notes within electronic health record (EHR) systems is ubiquitous and may negatively impact the use of these notes by clinicians, and, potentially, the efficiency of patient care delivery. Automated methods to identify redundant versus relevant new information may provide a valuable tool for clinicians to better synthesize patient information and navigate to clinically important details. In this study, we investigated the use of language models for identification of new information in inpatient notes, and evaluated our methods using expert-derived reference standards. The best method achieved precision of 0.743, recall of 0.832 and F1-measure of 0.784. The average proportion of redundant information was similar between inpatient and outpatient progress notes (76.6% (SD=17.3%) and 76.7% (SD=14.0%), respectively). Advanced practice providers tended to have higher rates of redundancy in their notes compared to physicians. Future investigation includes the addition of semantic components and visualization of new information.

  3. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT): A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Goenawan, Ivan H; Wiencko, Heather L; Bernal-Llinares, Manuel; Bryan, Kenneth; Lynn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly connected nodes (hubs) in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed) than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest. CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store ( http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat).

  4. Identifying the Relevant Local Population for Environmental Impact Assessments of Mobile Marine Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine B. H. Chabanne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact assessments must be addressed at a scale that reflects the biological organization for the species affected. It can be challenging to identify the relevant local wildlife population for impact assessment for those species that are continuously distributed and highly mobile. Here, we document the existence of local communities of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus inhabiting coastal and estuarine waters of Perth, Western Australia, where major coastal developments have been undertaken or are proposed. Using sighting histories from a 4-year photo-identification study, we investigated fine-scale, social community structure of dolphins based on measures of social affinity, and network (Half-Weight Index—HWI, preferred dyadic association tests, and Lagged Association Rates—LAR, home ranges, residency patterns (Lagged Identification Rates—LIR, and genetic relatedness. Analyses revealed four socially and spatially distinct, mixed-sex communities. The four communities had distinctive social patterns varying in strength, site fidelity, and residency patterns. Overlap in home ranges and relatedness explained little to none of the association patterns between individuals, suggesting complex local social structures. The study demonstrated that environmental impact assessments for mobile, continuously distributed species must evaluate impacts in light of local population structure, especially where proposed developments may affect core habitats of resident communities or sub-populations. Here, the risk of local extinction is particularly significant for an estuarine community because of its small size, limited connectivity with adjacent communities, and use of areas subject to intensive human use. In the absence of information about fine-scale population structure, impact assessments may fail to consider the appropriate biological context.

  5. Seeing the Chemistry around Me--Helping Students Identify the Relevance of Chemistry to Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tracy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The study attempted to determine whether the use of a series of reading and response assignments decreased students' perceptions of chemistry difficulty and enhanced students' perceptions of the relevance of chemistry in their everyday lives. Informed consent volunteer students enrolled in General Chemistry II at a community college in the…

  6. Measuring Teacher Dispositions: Identifying Workplace Personality Traits Most Relevant to Teaching Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuankun; Pagnani, Alexander; Thomas, Matt; Abellan-Pagnani, Luisa; Brown, Terrell; Buchanan, Dawna Lisa

    2017-01-01

    What personality traits represent dispositions most relevant to teaching professionals? Could an instrument reflecting work personality traits for a wide variety of professions provide a valid assessment of dispositions for teacher candidates? This study analyzed the internal structure of a state mandated dispositions assessment that was adapted…

  7. Top studies relevant to primary care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Danielle; Kolber, Michael R; Korownyk, Christina; Lindblad, Adrienne J; Ramji, Jamil; Ton, Joey; Allan, G Michael

    2018-04-01

    To summarize 10 high-quality studies from 2017 that have strong relevance to primary care practice. Study selection involved routine literature surveillance by a group of primary care health professionals. This included screening abstracts of important journals and Evidence Alerts, as well as searching the American College of Physicians Journal Club. Topics of the 2017 articles include whether treating subclinical hypothyroidism improves outcomes or symptoms; whether evolocumab reduces cardiovascular disease as well as low-density lipoprotein levels; whether lifestyle interventions reduce medication use in patients with diabetes; whether vitamin D prevents cardiovascular disease, cancer, or upper respiratory tract infections; whether canagliflozin reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; how corticosteroid injections affect knee osteoarthritis; whether drained abscesses benefit from antibiotic treatment; whether patients with diabetes benefit from bariatric surgery; whether exenatide reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; and whether tympanostomy tubes affect outcomes in recurrent acute otitis media or chronic otitis media. We provide brief summaries, context where needed, and final recommendations for 10 studies with potential effects on primary care. We also briefly review 5 "runner-up" studies. Research from 2017 produced several high-quality studies in diabetes management. These have demonstrated benefit for alternative therapies and offered evidence not previously available. This year's selection of studies also provided information on a variety of conditions and therapies that are, or might become, more common in primary care settings. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  8. Use of Okadaic Acid to Identify Relevant Phosphoepitopes in Pathology: A Focus on Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Avila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphorylation is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of physiological processes and is the result of a balance between protein kinase and phosphatase activities. Biologically active marine derived compounds have been shown to represent an interesting source of novel compounds that could modify that balance. Among them, the marine toxin and tumor promoter, okadaic acid (OA, has been shown as an inhibitor of two of the main cytosolic, broad-specificity protein phosphatases, PP1 and PP2A, thus providing an excellent cell-permeable probe for examining the role of protein phosphorylation, and PP1 and PP2A in particular, in any physiological or pathological process. In the present work, we review the use of okadaic acid to identify specific phosphoepitopes mainly in proteins relevant for neurodegeneration. We will specifically highlight those cases of highly dynamic phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events and the ability of OA to block the high turnover phosphorylation, thus allowing the detection of modified residues that could be otherwise difficult to identify. Finally, its effect on tau hyperhosphorylation and its relevance in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia will be discussed.

  9. 76 FR 34075 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Relevant Information From Public or Private Entities With an Interest in Biovigilance; Extension AGENCY... and obtain relevant information regarding the possible development of a public-private partnership... Identify and Obtain Relevant Information from Public or Private Entities with an Interest in Biovigilance...

  10. Messina: a novel analysis tool to identify biologically relevant molecules in disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pinese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphologically similar cancers display heterogeneous patterns of molecular aberrations and follow substantially different clinical courses. This diversity has become the basis for the definition of molecular phenotypes, with significant implications for therapy. Microarray or proteomic expression profiling is conventionally employed to identify disease-associated genes, however, traditional approaches for the analysis of profiling experiments may miss molecular aberrations which define biologically relevant subtypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present Messina, a method that can identify those genes that only sometimes show aberrant expression in cancer. We demonstrate with simulated data that Messina is highly sensitive and specific when used to identify genes which are aberrantly expressed in only a proportion of cancers, and compare Messina to contemporary analysis techniques. We illustrate Messina by using it to detect the aberrant expression of a gene that may play an important role in pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Messina allows the detection of genes with profiles typical of markers of molecular subtype, and complements existing methods to assist the identification of such markers. Messina is applicable to any global expression profiling data, and to allow its easy application has been packaged into a freely-available stand-alone software package.

  11. Identifying noncoding risk variants using disease-relevant gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Long; Uzun, Yasin; Gao, Peng; He, Bing; Ma, Xiaoke; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Shizhong; Tan, Kai

    2018-02-16

    Identifying noncoding risk variants remains a challenging task. Because noncoding variants exert their effects in the context of a gene regulatory network (GRN), we hypothesize that explicit use of disease-relevant GRNs can significantly improve the inference accuracy of noncoding risk variants. We describe Annotation of Regulatory Variants using Integrated Networks (ARVIN), a general computational framework for predicting causal noncoding variants. It employs a set of novel regulatory network-based features, combined with sequence-based features to infer noncoding risk variants. Using known causal variants in gene promoters and enhancers in a number of diseases, we show ARVIN outperforms state-of-the-art methods that use sequence-based features alone. Additional experimental validation using reporter assay further demonstrates the accuracy of ARVIN. Application of ARVIN to seven autoimmune diseases provides a holistic view of the gene subnetwork perturbed by the combinatorial action of the entire set of risk noncoding mutations.

  12. Using News Media Databases (LexisNexis) To Identify Relevant Topics For Introductory Earth Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervato, C.; Jach, J. Y.; Ridky, R.

    2003-12-01

    Introductory Earth science courses are undergoing pedagogical changes in universities across the country and are focusing more than ever on the non-science majors. Increasing enrollment of non-science majors in these introductory Earth science courses demands a new look at what is being taught and how the content can be objectively chosen. Assessing the content and effectiveness of these courses requires a quantitative investigation of introductory Earth science topics and their relevance to current issues and concerns. Relevance of Earth science topics can be linked to improved students' attitude toward science and a deeper understanding of concepts. We have used the Internet based national news search-engine LexisNexis Academic Universe (http://www.lexisnexis.org/) to select the occurrence of Earth science terms over the last 12 months, five and ten years both regionally and nationally. This database of term occurrences is being used to examine how Earth sciences have evolved in the news through the last 10 years and is also compared with textbook contents and course syllabi from randomly selected introductory earth science courses across the nation. These data constitute the quantitative foundation for this study and are being used to evaluate the relevance of introductory earth science course content. The relevance of introductory course content and current real-world issues to student attitudes is a crucial factor when considering changes in course curricula and pedagogy. We have examined students' conception of the nature of science and attitudes towards science and learning science using a Likert-scale assessment instrument in the fall 2002 Geology 100 classes at Iowa State University. A pre-test and post-test were administered to see if the students' attitudes changed during the semester using as reference a control group comprised of geoscience undergraduate and graduate students, and faculty. The results of the attitude survey have been analyzed in terms

  13. Cellular signaling identifiability analysis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Ryan T; Pia Saccomani, Maria; Vicini, Paolo

    2010-05-21

    Two primary purposes for mathematical modeling in cell biology are (1) simulation for making predictions of experimental outcomes and (2) parameter estimation for drawing inferences from experimental data about unobserved aspects of biological systems. While the former purpose has become common in the biological sciences, the latter is less common, particularly when studying cellular and subcellular phenomena such as signaling-the focus of the current study. Data are difficult to obtain at this level. Therefore, even models of only modest complexity can contain parameters for which the available data are insufficient for estimation. In the present study, we use a set of published cellular signaling models to address issues related to global parameter identifiability. That is, we address the following question: assuming known time courses for some model variables, which parameters is it theoretically impossible to estimate, even with continuous, noise-free data? Following an introduction to this problem and its relevance, we perform a full identifiability analysis on a set of cellular signaling models using DAISY (Differential Algebra for the Identifiability of SYstems). We use our analysis to bring to light important issues related to parameter identifiability in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. We contend that this is, as of yet, an under-appreciated issue in biological modeling and, more particularly, cell biology. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgeon Reported Outcome Measure for Spine Trauma an International Expert Survey Identifying Parameters Relevant for The Outcome of Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit Jan; Lehr, A. M.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S.; Schnake, Klaus J.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Oner, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: International web-based survey OBJECTIVE.: To identify clinical and radiological parameters that spine surgeons consider most relevant when evaluating clinical and functional outcomes of subaxial cervical spine trauma patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: While an outcome instrument

  15. Effect of Mental State on the Rate of Identifying the Relevancy of Documents Retrieved in a Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Farhoudi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the link between various users’ mental state while searching information systems with the outcome of the resulting documents retrieved. Various factors such as user knowledge, search skills, motivation and aims influence the decisions and evaluation of users regarding documents retrieved. MMPI instrument was used to identify users’ mental states. The sample was drawn from female senior students of librarianship, using systematic random sampling. The findings indicated that anxiety and depression have significant inverse relationship to the rate of relevancy identification of the documents retrieved by the users.

  16. Review: To be or not to be an identifiable model. Is this a relevant question in animal science modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Tamayo, R; Puillet, L; Daniel, J B; Sauvant, D; Martin, O; Taghipoor, M; Blavy, P

    2018-04-01

    What is a good (useful) mathematical model in animal science? For models constructed for prediction purposes, the question of model adequacy (usefulness) has been traditionally tackled by statistical analysis applied to observed experimental data relative to model-predicted variables. However, little attention has been paid to analytic tools that exploit the mathematical properties of the model equations. For example, in the context of model calibration, before attempting a numerical estimation of the model parameters, we might want to know if we have any chance of success in estimating a unique best value of the model parameters from available measurements. This question of uniqueness is referred to as structural identifiability; a mathematical property that is defined on the sole basis of the model structure within a hypothetical ideal experiment determined by a setting of model inputs (stimuli) and observable variables (measurements). Structural identifiability analysis applied to dynamic models described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a common practice in control engineering and system identification. This analysis demands mathematical technicalities that are beyond the academic background of animal science, which might explain the lack of pervasiveness of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling. To fill this gap, in this paper we address the analysis of structural identifiability from a practitioner perspective by capitalizing on the use of dedicated software tools. Our objectives are (i) to provide a comprehensive explanation of the structural identifiability notion for the community of animal science modelling, (ii) to assess the relevance of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling and (iii) to motivate the community to use identifiability analysis in the modelling practice (when the identifiability question is relevant). We focus our study on ODE models. By using illustrative examples that include published

  17. Identifying clinically relevant drug resistance genes in drug-induced resistant cancer cell lines and post-chemotherapy tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mengsha; Zheng, Weicheng; Lu, Xingrong; Ao, Lu; Li, Xiangyu; Guan, Qingzhou; Cai, Hao; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Guo, You; Chi, Pan; Guo, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    Until recently, few molecular signatures of drug resistance identified in drug-induced resistant cancer cell models can be translated into clinical practice. Here, we defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pre-chemotherapy colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples of non-responders and responders for 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-based therapy as clinically relevant drug resistance genes (CRG5-FU/L-OHP). Taking CRG5-FU/L-OHP as reference, we evaluated the clinical relevance of several types of genes derived from HCT116 CRC cells with resistance to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin, respectively. The results revealed that DEGs between parental and resistant cells, when both were treated with the corresponding drug for a certain time, were significantly consistent with the CRG5-FU/L-OHP as well as the DEGs between the post-chemotherapy CRC specimens of responders and non-responders. This study suggests a novel strategy to extract clinically relevant drug resistance genes from both drug-induced resistant cell models and post-chemotherapy cancer tissue specimens.

  18. Review of relevant studies of isolated systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Lundsager, P.

    2001-01-01

    The report presents the results of a review of studies relating to integration of wind energy in isolated power supply systems, based on a systematic literature survey. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology consisting of a set of guidelinesfor wind energy projects in isolated energy...... systems and a set of tools and models that are operational on an engineering level. The review is based on a literature search in the ETDE Energy Database with a main search covering the period 7/88 to 6/97 andsupplemented by partial update periods. A few newer references have been included in the review...... have been organised according to the following keywords: methods & guides, economics, concept ofapplication, system solutions, case studies, financial programmes, dedicated software tools. None of the found references presents methods or tools that contradict the philosophy of Risø's methodology...

  19. Identifying relevant group of miRNAs in cancer using fuzzy mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jayanta Kumar; Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as a major biomarker of cancer. All miRNAs in human body are not equally important for cancer identification. We propose a methodology, called FMIMS, which automatically selects the most relevant miRNAs for a particular type of cancer. In FMIMS, miRNAs are initially grouped by using a SVM-based algorithm; then the group with highest relevance is determined and the miRNAs in that group are finally ranked for selection according to their redundancy. Fuzzy mutual information is used in computing the relevance of a group and the redundancy of miRNAs within it. Superiority of the most relevant group to all others, in deciding normal or cancer, is demonstrated on breast, renal, colorectal, lung, melanoma and prostate data. The merit of FMIMS as compared to several existing methods is established. While 12 out of 15 selected miRNAs by FMIMS corroborate with those of biological investigations, three of them viz., "hsa-miR-519," "hsa-miR-431" and "hsa-miR-320c" are possible novel predictions for renal cancer, lung cancer and melanoma, respectively. The selected miRNAs are found to be involved in disease-specific pathways by targeting various genes. The method is also able to detect the responsible miRNAs even at the primary stage of cancer. The related code is available at http://www.jayanta.droppages.com/FMIMS.html .

  20. An ERP Study on Self-Relevant Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Makoto; Nomura, Michio; Ohira, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    We performed an event-related potential study to investigate the self-relevance effect in object recognition. Three stimulus categories were prepared: SELF (participant's own objects), FAMILIAR (disposable and public objects, defined as objects with less-self-relevant familiarity), and UNFAMILIAR (others' objects). The participants' task was to…

  1. Regression Trees Identify Relevant Interactions: Can This Improve the Predictive Performance of Risk Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Florian; Wasem, Jürgen; Schillo, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Risk equalization formulas have been refined since their introduction about two decades ago. Because of the complexity and the abundance of possible interactions between the variables used, hardly any interactions are considered. A regression tree is used to systematically search for interactions, a methodologically new approach in risk equalization. Analyses are based on a data set of nearly 2.9 million individuals from a major German social health insurer. A two-step approach is applied: In the first step a regression tree is built on the basis of the learning data set. Terminal nodes characterized by more than one morbidity-group-split represent interaction effects of different morbidity groups. In the second step the 'traditional' weighted least squares regression equation is expanded by adding interaction terms for all interactions detected by the tree, and regression coefficients are recalculated. The resulting risk adjustment formula shows an improvement in the adjusted R 2 from 25.43% to 25.81% on the evaluation data set. Predictive ratios are calculated for subgroups affected by the interactions. The R 2 improvement detected is only marginal. According to the sample level performance measures used, not involving a considerable number of morbidity interactions forms no relevant loss in accuracy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Morphological and molecular methods to identify butternut (Juglans cinerea) and butternut hybrids: relevance to butternut conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Davis, Amy; Huang, Zhonglian; McKenna, James; Ostry, Michael; Woeste, Keith

    2008-07-01

    Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) is a native, cold-tolerant, hard-mast species formerly valued for its nuts and wood, which is now endangered. The most immediate threat to butternut restoration is the spread of butternut canker disease, caused by the exotic fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum Nair, Kostichka & Kuntz. Other threats include the hybridization of butternut with the exotic Japanese walnut (Juglans ailantifolia Carr.) and poor regeneration. The hybrids, known as buartnuts, are vegetatively vigorous, highly fecund, more resistant than butternut to butternut canker disease and difficult to identify. We review the vegetative and reproductive morphological traits that distinguish butternut from hybrids and identify those that can be used by field biologists to separate the taxa. No single trait was sufficient to separate butternut from hybrids, but pith color, lenticel size, shape and abundance, and the presence or absence of a notch in the upper margin of leaf scars, can be used in combination with other traits to identify butternuts and exclude most hybrids. In at least one butternut population, reduced symptoms of butternut canker disease were significantly associated with a dark barked phenotype. We also describe two randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers that differentiate butternuts from hybrids based on DNA polymorphism. Together, these results should assist in the identification and testing of non-hybrid butternut for breeding and reintroduction of the species to its former habitats.

  3. Using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT) in Cytoscape to Identify Contextually Relevant Network Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muetze, Tanja; Lynn, David J

    2017-09-13

    Highly connected nodes in biological networks are called network hubs. Hubs are topologically important to the structure of the network and have been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we provide a step-by-step protocol for using the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT), an application within Cytoscape 3, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene or protein expression data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes than expected by chance. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Clinical relevance of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for detecting caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Thais; Piovesan, Chaiana; Braga, Mariana M

    2015-01-01

    Although visual inspection is the most commonly used method for caries detection, and consequently the most investigated, studies have not been concerned about the clinical relevance of this procedure. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review in order to perform a critical evaluation considering...... the clinical relevance and methodological quality of studies on the accuracy of visual inspection for assessing caries lesions. Two independent reviewers searched several databases through July 2013 to identify papers/articles published in English. Other sources were checked to identify unpublished literature...... to clinical relevance and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated. 96 of the 5,578 articles initially identified met the inclusion criteria. In general, most studies failed in considering some clinically relevant aspects: only 1 included study validated activity status of lesions, no study...

  5. Development of Multiplexed Marker Sets to Identify the Most Relevant Poplar Species for Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilke Schroeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the genus Populus, about 30 species are classified into six sections, of which some are cross-compatible. Besides naturally occurring hybrids, huge breeding programs have led to a high number of artificially produced hybrids, for which the determination of genetically involved species by morphological characteristics is often difficult. This necessitates the use of molecular markers for the identification of both maternal as well as paternal species, and in the case of complex hybrids, the genealogy. For this reason, we developed new chloroplast and nuclear markers for the differentiation of up to 19 poplar species, with one to 32 individuals per species regularly used in breeding programs based on already known barcoding, other chloroplast regions, and nuclear genes of interest. We developed methods to identify species by either species-specific nucleotide variations or, when no initial information for the species was given, by using a set of markers either in a procedure of exclusion or in a multiplexed marker set. The developed markers can all be used with low-cost equipment, and some can additionally be applied using a genetic analyzer. We combined these markers in multiplexes for a very fast and easy-to-use application for the identification of poplar species and their hybrids.

  6. Comparative Genomics and Disorder Prediction Identify Biologically Relevant SH3 Protein Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein interaction networks are an important part of the post-genomic effort to integrate a part-list view of the cell into system-level understanding. Using a set of 11 yeast genomes we show that combining comparative genomics and secondary structure information greatly increases consensus-based prediction of SH3 targets. Benchmarking of our method against positive and negative standards gave 83% accuracy with 26% coverage. The concept of an optimal divergence time for effective comparative genomics studies was analyzed, demonstrating that genomes of species that diverged very recently from Saccharomyces cerevisiae(S. mikatae, S. bayanus, and S. paradoxus, or a long time ago (Neurospora crassa and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, contain less information for accurate prediction of SH3 targets than species within the optimal divergence time proposed. We also show here that intrinsically disordered SH3 domain targets are more probable sites of interaction than equivalent sites within ordered regions. Our findings highlight several novel S. cerevisiae SH3 protein interactions, the value of selection of optimal divergence times in comparative genomics studies, and the importance of intrinsic disorder for protein interactions. Based on our results we propose novel roles for the S. cerevisiae proteins Abp1p in endocytosis and Hse1p in endosome protein sorting.

  7. Comparative genomics and disorder prediction identify biologically relevant SH3 protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Beltrao

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein interaction networks are an important part of the post-genomic effort to integrate a part-list view of the cell into system-level understanding. Using a set of 11 yeast genomes we show that combining comparative genomics and secondary structure information greatly increases consensus-based prediction of SH3 targets. Benchmarking of our method against positive and negative standards gave 83% accuracy with 26% coverage. The concept of an optimal divergence time for effective comparative genomics studies was analyzed, demonstrating that genomes of species that diverged very recently from Saccharomyces cerevisiae(S. mikatae, S. bayanus, and S. paradoxus, or a long time ago (Neurospora crassa and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, contain less information for accurate prediction of SH3 targets than species within the optimal divergence time proposed. We also show here that intrinsically disordered SH3 domain targets are more probable sites of interaction than equivalent sites within ordered regions. Our findings highlight several novel S. cerevisiae SH3 protein interactions, the value of selection of optimal divergence times in comparative genomics studies, and the importance of intrinsic disorder for protein interactions. Based on our results we propose novel roles for the S. cerevisiae proteins Abp1p in endocytosis and Hse1p in endosome protein sorting.

  8. Consistent robustness analysis (CRA) identifies biologically relevant properties of regulatory network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saithong, Treenut; Painter, Kevin J; Millar, Andrew J

    2010-12-16

    A number of studies have previously demonstrated that "goodness of fit" is insufficient in reliably classifying the credibility of a biological model. Robustness and/or sensitivity analysis is commonly employed as a secondary method for evaluating the suitability of a particular model. The results of such analyses invariably depend on the particular parameter set tested, yet many parameter values for biological models are uncertain. Here, we propose a novel robustness analysis that aims to determine the "common robustness" of the model with multiple, biologically plausible parameter sets, rather than the local robustness for a particular parameter set. Our method is applied to two published models of the Arabidopsis circadian clock (the one-loop [1] and two-loop [2] models). The results reinforce current findings suggesting the greater reliability of the two-loop model and pinpoint the crucial role of TOC1 in the circadian network. Consistent Robustness Analysis can indicate both the relative plausibility of different models and also the critical components and processes controlling each model.

  9. Radiation transformation studies: are they relevant to radiation protection problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, C.B.; Mothersill, C.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the difficulties of studying radio-carcinogenesis in humans, several in vitro systems are utilised. These cell transformation systems are reviewed, with particular emphasis on their relevance to human radiological protection problems. Most available systems use rodent fibroblasts. These are discussed in detail. Attention is drawn to certain artefacts which can cause problems with interpretation of such data. The relevance of these systems is questionable because of species differences, particularly concerning life span and because most human tumours are derived from epithelial cells. New epithelial culture systems and three-dimensional tissue culture methods becoming available are discussed in the light of their potential for addressing radiation protection problems. (author)

  10. Scientific Issues Relevant to Setting Regulatory Criteria to Identify Endocrine-Disrupting Substances in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Demeneix, Barbara; Ivell, Richard; Panzica, Giancarlo; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as exogenous compounds or mixtures that alter function(s) of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations. European regulations on pesticides, biocides, cosmetics, and industrial chemicals require the European Commission to establish scientific criteria to define EDs. We address the scientific relevance of four options for the identification of EDs proposed by the European Commission. Option 1, which does not define EDs and leads to using interim criteria unrelated to the WHO definition of EDs, is not relevant. Options 2 and 3 rely on the WHO definition of EDs, which is widely accepted by the scientific community, with option 3 introducing additional categories based on the strength of evidence (suspected EDs and endocrine-active substances). Option 4 adds potency to the WHO definition, as a decision criterion. We argue that potency is dependent on the adverse effect considered and is scientifically ambiguous, and note that potency is not used as a criterion to define other particularly hazardous substances such as carcinogens and reproductive toxicants. The use of potency requires a context that goes beyond hazard identification and corresponds to risk characterization, in which potency (or, more relevantly, the dose-response function) is combined with exposure levels. There is scientific agreement regarding the adequacy of the WHO definition of EDs. The potency concept is not relevant to the identification of particularly serious hazards such as EDs. As is common practice for carcinogens, mutagens, and reproductive toxicants, a multi-level classification of ED based on the WHO definition, and not considering potency, would be relevant (corresponding to option 3 proposed by the European Commission). Slama R, Bourguignon JP, Demeneix B, Ivell R, Panzica G, Kortenkamp A, Zoeller RT. 2016. Scientific issues relevant

  11. Application of FEPs analysis to identify research priorities relevant to the safety case for an Australian radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, T.E.; McGlinn, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has established a project to undertake research relevant to the safety case for the proposed Australian radioactive waste facility. This facility will comprise a store for intermediate level radioactive waste, and either a store or a near-surface repository for low-level waste. In order to identify the research priorities for this project, a structured analysis of the features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to the performance of the facility was undertaken. This analysis was based on the list of 137 FEPs developed by the IAEA project on 'Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities' (ISAM). A number of key research issues were identified, and some factors which differ in significance for the store, compared to the repository concept, were highlighted. For example, FEPs related to long-term groundwater transport of radionuclides are considered to be of less significance for a store than a repository. On the other hand, structural damage from severe weather, accident or human interference is more likely for a store. The FEPs analysis has enabled the scientific research skills required for the inter-disciplinary project team to be specified. The outcomes of the research will eventually be utilised in developing the design, and assessing the performance, of the future facility. It is anticipated that a more detailed application of the FEPs methodology will be undertaken to develop the safety case for the proposed radioactive waste management facility. (authors)

  12. Study of the reactor relevance of the NET design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, P.; Worraker, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the reactor relevance of NET, i.e. whether the technologies and design principles proposed for NET can be directly extrapolated to a demonstration power reactor (DEMO). The main areas of study were those near to the plasma, namely the divertor, first wall and tritium breeding blanket. Other aspects which were investigated were tritium permeation and recovery, reactor maintenance, afterheat and effects of disruptions. The principal results of the study are briefly presented; the details of the work are given in fourteen appendices. These appendices were selected for INIS and indexed separately. The overall conclusion of the study is that the NET design is only partly relevant to the design requirements of a DEMO reactor. (U.K.)

  13. Imaging-Based Screen Identifies Laminin 411 as a Physiologically Relevant Niche Factor with Importance for i-Hep Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Use of hepatocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (i-Heps is limited by their functional differences in comparison with primary cells. Extracellular niche factors likely play a critical role in bridging this gap. Using image-based characterization (high content analysis; HCA of freshly isolated hepatocytes from 17 human donors, we devised and validated an algorithm (Hepatocyte Likeness Index; HLI for comparing the hepatic properties of cells against a physiological gold standard. The HLI was then applied in a targeted screen of extracellular niche factors to identify substrates driving i-Heps closer to the standard. Laminin 411, the top hit, was validated in two additional induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines, primary tissue, and an in vitro model of α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Cumulatively, these data provide a reference method to control and screen for i-Hep differentiation, identify Laminin 411 as a key niche protein, and underscore the importance of combining substrates, soluble factors, and HCA when developing iPSC applications. : Rashid and colleagues demonstrate the utility of a high-throughput imaging platform for identification of physiologically relevant extracellular niche factors to advance i-Heps closer to their primary tissue counterparts. The extracellular matrix (ECM protein screen identified Laminin 411 as an important niche factor facilitating i-Hep-based disease modeling in vitro. Keywords: iPS hepatocytes, extracellular niche, image-based screening, disease modeling, laminin

  14. The SADI Personal Health Lens: A Web Browser-Based System for Identifying Personally Relevant Drug Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, Ben; McCarthy, E Luke; Cruz-Toledo, José; Klein, Artjom; Baker, Christopher J O; Dumontier, Michel; Wilkinson, Mark D

    2013-04-05

    The Web provides widespread access to vast quantities of health-related information that can improve quality-of-life through better understanding of personal symptoms, medical conditions, and available treatments. Unfortunately, identifying a credible and personally relevant subset of information can be a time-consuming and challenging task for users without a medical background. The objective of the Personal Health Lens system is to aid users when reading health-related webpages by providing warnings about personally relevant drug interactions. More broadly, we wish to present a prototype for a novel, generalizable approach to facilitating interactions between a patient, their practitioner(s), and the Web. We utilized a distributed, Semantic Web-based architecture for recognizing personally dangerous drugs consisting of: (1) a private, local triple store of personal health information, (2) Semantic Web services, following the Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) design pattern, for text mining and identifying substance interactions, (3) a bookmarklet to trigger analysis of a webpage and annotate it with personalized warnings, and (4) a semantic query that acts as an abstract template of the analytical workflow to be enacted by the system. A prototype implementation of the system is provided in the form of a Java standalone executable JAR file. The JAR file bundles all components of the system: the personal health database, locally-running versions of the SADI services, and a javascript bookmarklet that triggers analysis of a webpage. In addition, the demonstration includes a hypothetical personal health profile, allowing the system to be used immediately without configuration. Usage instructions are provided. The main strength of the Personal Health Lens system is its ability to organize medical information and to present it to the user in a personalized and contextually relevant manner. While this prototype was limited to a single knowledge domain

  15. The SADI Personal Health Lens: A Web Browser-Based System for Identifying Personally Relevant Drug Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, Ben; McCarthy, E Luke; Cruz-Toledo, José; Klein, Artjom; Baker, Christopher J O; Dumontier, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background The Web provides widespread access to vast quantities of health-related information that can improve quality-of-life through better understanding of personal symptoms, medical conditions, and available treatments. Unfortunately, identifying a credible and personally relevant subset of information can be a time-consuming and challenging task for users without a medical background. Objective The objective of the Personal Health Lens system is to aid users when reading health-related webpages by providing warnings about personally relevant drug interactions. More broadly, we wish to present a prototype for a novel, generalizable approach to facilitating interactions between a patient, their practitioner(s), and the Web. Methods We utilized a distributed, Semantic Web-based architecture for recognizing personally dangerous drugs consisting of: (1) a private, local triple store of personal health information, (2) Semantic Web services, following the Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) design pattern, for text mining and identifying substance interactions, (3) a bookmarklet to trigger analysis of a webpage and annotate it with personalized warnings, and (4) a semantic query that acts as an abstract template of the analytical workflow to be enacted by the system. Results A prototype implementation of the system is provided in the form of a Java standalone executable JAR file. The JAR file bundles all components of the system: the personal health database, locally-running versions of the SADI services, and a javascript bookmarklet that triggers analysis of a webpage. In addition, the demonstration includes a hypothetical personal health profile, allowing the system to be used immediately without configuration. Usage instructions are provided. Conclusions The main strength of the Personal Health Lens system is its ability to organize medical information and to present it to the user in a personalized and contextually relevant manner. While this

  16. Hierarchthis: An Interactive Interface for Identifying Mission-Relevant Components of the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litomisky, Krystof

    2012-01-01

    Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System, or AMMOS, is a collection of multimission tools and services, whose development and maintenance are funded by NASA. I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. HierarchThis automatically creates diagrams of the AMMOS database, and then allows users to show/hide specific details through a graphical interface. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components, along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission-specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

  17. Gene expression profiling to identify potentially relevant disease outcomes and support human health risk assessment for carbon black nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Julie A; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Moffat, Ivy; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L

    2013-01-07

    New approaches are urgently needed to evaluate potential hazards posed by exposure to nanomaterials. Gene expression profiling provides information on potential modes of action and human relevance, and tools have recently become available for pathway-based quantitative risk assessment. The objective of this study was to use toxicogenomics in the context of human health risk assessment. We explore the utility of toxicogenomics in risk assessment, using published gene expression data from C57BL/6 mice exposed to 18, 54 and 162 μg Printex 90 carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP). Analysis of CBNP-perturbed pathways, networks and transcription factors revealed concomitant changes in predicted phenotypes (e.g., pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity), that correlated with dose and time. Benchmark doses (BMDs) for apical endpoints were comparable to minimum BMDs for relevant pathway-specific expression changes. Comparison to inflammatory lung disease models (i.e., allergic airway inflammation, bacterial infection and tissue injury and fibrosis) and human disease profiles revealed that induced gene expression changes in Printex 90 exposed mice were similar to those typical for pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Very similar fibrotic pathways were perturbed in CBNP-exposed mice and human fibrosis disease models. Our synthesis demonstrates how toxicogenomic profiles may be used in human health risk assessment of nanoparticles and constitutes an important step forward in the ultimate recognition of toxicogenomic endpoints in human health risk. As our knowledge of molecular pathways, dose-response characteristics and relevance to human disease continues to grow, we anticipate that toxicogenomics will become increasingly useful in assessing chemical toxicities and in human health risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A retrospective study of relevant diagnostic procedures in vulvodynia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Damsted; Kristensen, Ellids; Lundvall, Lene

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify objective clinical signs of vulvodynia and determine specific diagnostic tests for vulvodynia in women referred to a vulvar outpatient clinic for vulval complaints. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was performed of the medical records of 201 consecutive Danish patients s...

  19. Study Identifies New Lymphoma Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI researchers have identified new therapeutic targets for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Drugs that hit these targets are under clinical development and the researchers hope to begin testing them in clinical trials of patients with DLBCL.

  20. Yeast screens identify the RNA polymerase II CTD and SPT5 as relevant targets of BRCA1 interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig B Bennett

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 has been implicated in numerous DNA repair pathways that maintain genome integrity, however the function responsible for its tumor suppressor activity in breast cancer remains obscure. To identify the most highly conserved of the many BRCA1 functions, we screened the evolutionarily distant eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae for mutants that suppressed the G1 checkpoint arrest and lethality induced following heterologous BRCA1 expression. A genome-wide screen in the diploid deletion collection combined with a screen of ionizing radiation sensitive gene deletions identified mutants that permit growth in the presence of BRCA1. These genes delineate a metabolic mRNA pathway that temporally links transcription elongation (SPT4, SPT5, CTK1, DEF1 to nucleopore-mediated mRNA export (ASM4, MLP1, MLP2, NUP2, NUP53, NUP120, NUP133, NUP170, NUP188, POM34 and cytoplasmic mRNA decay at P-bodies (CCR4, DHH1. Strikingly, BRCA1 interacted with the phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAPII carboxy terminal domain (P-CTD, phosphorylated in the pattern specified by the CTDK-I kinase, to induce DEF1-dependent cleavage and accumulation of a RNAPII fragment containing the P-CTD. Significantly, breast cancer associated BRCT domain defects in BRCA1 that suppressed P-CTD cleavage and lethality in yeast also suppressed the physical interaction of BRCA1 with human SPT5 in breast epithelial cells, thus confirming SPT5 as a relevant target of BRCA1 interaction. Furthermore, enhanced P-CTD cleavage was observed in both yeast and human breast cells following UV-irradiation indicating a conserved eukaryotic damage response. Moreover, P-CTD cleavage in breast epithelial cells was BRCA1-dependent since damage-induced P-CTD cleavage was only observed in the mutant BRCA1 cell line HCC1937 following ectopic expression of wild type BRCA1. Finally, BRCA1, SPT5 and hyperphosphorylated RPB1 form a complex that was rapidly degraded following MMS treatment in wild type but not BRCA1

  1. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence. Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  2. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefore the position and relevance of socio-legal research is not related to the benefits that provided for the development of national law or jurisprudence.   Beberapa fakultas hukum di Indonesia menolak penelitian sosio-legal dengan argumentasi epistemologis yang menempatkan ilmu hukum sebagai sui generis. Penolakan tersebut didasarkan argumentasi bahwa ilmu hukum adalah ilmu yang bersifat normatif. Kenyataannya studi sosio-legal dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum di luar Indonesia telah lama eksis dan berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Selain itu, studi sosiolegal juga berperan dalam pembaharuan hukum. Hal ini disebabkan adanya aspek-aspek nondoktrinal yang berperan dalam pembentukan hukum dan implementasi hukum di masyarakat. Oleh karena itu kedudukan dan relevansi penelitian sosio-legal pada ada tidaknya manfaat yang diberikan bagi perkembangan hukum nasional ataupun ilmu hukum.

  3. Relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within organizations: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos,Bernardo; Joia,Luiz Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge and management of such knowledge have been studied for some time now in the field of Management. However, in the 1990s, with the growth in the economy based on intangible assets, companies needed more than an unstructured approach to corporate knowledge management to succeed in this new competitive environment. Therefore, this article aims to identify, in an exploratory way, the relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within a major Brazilian oil company trough a case study. T...

  4. The clinical relevance and newsworthiness of NIHR HTA-funded research: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D; Young, A; Iserman, E; Maeso, R; Turner, S; Haynes, R B; Milne, R

    2014-05-07

    To assess the clinical relevance and newsworthiness of the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme funded reports. Retrospective cohort study. The cohort included 311 NIHR HTA Programme funded reports publishing in HTA in the period 1 January 2007-31 December 2012. The McMaster Online Rating of Evidence (MORE) system independently identified the clinical relevance and newsworthiness of NIHR HTA publications and non-NIHR HTA publications. The MORE system involves over 4000 physicians rating publications on a scale of relevance (the extent to which articles are relevant to practice) and a scale of newsworthiness (the extent to which articles contain news or something clinicians are unlikely to know). The proportion of reports published in HTA meeting MORE inclusion criteria and mean average relevance and newsworthiness ratings were calculated and compared with publications from the same studies publishing outside HTA and non-NIHR HTA funded publications. 286/311 (92.0%) of NIHR HTA reports were assessed by MORE, of which 192 (67.1%) passed MORE criteria. The average clinical relevance rating for NIHR HTA reports was 5.48, statistically higher than the 5.32 rating for non-NIHR HTA publications (mean difference=0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.29, p=0.01). Average newsworthiness ratings were similar between NIHR HTA reports and non-NIHR HTA publications (4.75 and 4.70, respectively; mean difference=0.05, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.07, p=0.402). NIHR HTA-funded original research reports were statistically higher for newsworthiness than reviews (5.05 compared with 4.64) (mean difference=0.41, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.64, p=0.001). Funding research of clinical relevance is important in maximising the value of research investment. The NIHR HTA Programme is successful in funding projects that generate outputs of clinical relevance.

  5. Virtual Whipple: preoperative surgical planning with volume-rendered MDCT images to identify arterial variants relevant to the Whipple procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Darren D; Zamboni, Giulia; Sosna, Jacob; Callery, Mark P; Vollmer, Charles M V; Raptopoulos, Vassilios D; Kruskal, Jonathan B

    2007-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to combine a thorough understanding of the technical aspects of the Whipple procedure with advanced rendering techniques by introducing a virtual Whipple procedure and to evaluate the utility of this new rendering technique in prediction of the arterial variants that cross the anticipated surgical resection plane. The virtual Whipple is a novel technique that follows the complex surgical steps in a Whipple procedure. Three-dimensional reconstructed angiographic images are used to identify arterial variants for the surgeon as part of the preoperative radiologic assessment of pancreatic and ampullary tumors.

  6. Systematic reviews: guidance relevant for studies of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D; Harrison, Jennifer K; Wilkinson, Tim; Dodds, Richard M; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-09-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are increasingly common. This article aims to provide guidance for people conducting systematic reviews relevant to the healthcare of older people. An awareness of these issues will also help people reading systematic reviews to determine whether the results will influence their clinical practice. It is essential that systematic reviews are performed by a team which includes the required technical and clinical expertise. Those performing reviews for the first time should ensure they have appropriate training and support. They must be planned and performed in a transparent and methodologically robust way: guidelines are available. The protocol should be written-and if possible published-before starting the review. Geriatricians will be interested in a table of baseline characteristics, which will help to determine if the studied samples or populations are similar to their patients. Reviews of studies of older people should consider how they will manage issues such as different age cut-offs; non-specific presentations; multiple predictors and outcomes; potential biases and confounders. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may provide evidence to improve older people's care, or determine where new evidence is required. Newer methodologies, such as meta-analyses of individual level data, network meta-analyses and umbrella reviews, and realist synthesis, may improve the reliability and clinical utility of systematic reviews. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  7. Albumin Homodimers in Patients with Cirrhosis: Clinical and Prognostic Relevance of a Novel Identified Structural Alteration of the Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Maurizio; Domenicali, Marco; Naldi, Marina; Laggetta, Maristella; Giannone, Ferdinando A; Biselli, Maurizio; Patrono, Daniela; Bertucci, Carlo; Bernardi, Mauro; Caraceni, Paolo

    2016-10-26

    Decompensated cirrhosis is associated to extensive post-transcriptional changes of human albumin (HA). This study aims to characterize the occurrence of HA homodimerization in a large cohort of patients with decompensated cirrhosis and to evaluate its association with clinical features and prognosis. HA monomeric and dimeric isoforms were identified in peripheral blood by using a HPLC-ESI-MS technique in 123 cirrhotic patients hospitalized for acute decompensation and 50 age- and sex-comparable healthy controls. Clinical and biochemical parameters were recorded and patients followed up to one year. Among the monomeric isoforms identified, the N- and C-terminal truncated and the native HA underwent homodimerization. All three homodimers were significantly more abundant in patients with cirrhosis, acute-on-chronic liver failure and correlate with the prognostic scores. The homodimeric N-terminal truncated isoform was independently associated to disease complications and was able to stratify 1-year survival. As a result of all these changes, the monomeric native HA was significantly decreased in patients with cirrhosis, being also associated with a poorer prognosis. In conclusion homodimerization is a novel described structural alteration of the HA molecule in decompensated cirrhosis and contributes to the progressive reduction of the monomeric native HA, the only isoform provided of structural and functional integrity.

  8. Identifying models of delivery, care domains and quality indicators relevant to palliative day services: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Seán R; Dempster, Martin; McCorry, Noleen K

    2017-05-16

    With an ageing population and increasing numbers of people with life-limiting illness, there is a growing demand for palliative day services. There is a need to measure and demonstrate the quality of these services, but there is currently little agreement on which aspects of care should be used to do this. The aim of the scoping review will be to map the extent, range and nature of the evidence around models of delivery, care domains and existing quality indicators used to evaluate palliative day services. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) will be searched for evidence using consensus development methods; randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials; mixed methods; and prospective, longitudinal or retrospective case-control studies to develop or test quality indicators for evaluating palliative care within non-residential settings, including day hospices and community or primary care settings. At least two researchers will independently conduct all searches, study selection and data abstraction procedures. Meta-analyses and statistical methods of synthesis are not planned as part of the review. Results will be reported using numerical counts, including number of indicators in each care domain and by using qualitative approach to describe important indicator characteristics. A conceptual model will also be developed to summarise the impact of different aspects of quality in a palliative day service context. Methodological quality relating to indicator development will be assessed using the Appraisal of Indicators through Research and Evaluation (AIRE) tool. Overall strength of evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Final decisions on quality assessment will be made via consensus between review authors. Identifying, developing and implementing evidence-based quality indicators is critical to the evaluation and

  9. Clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions among outpatients: A nationwide database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazbar, Janja; Locatelli, Igor; Horvat, Nejc; Kos, Mitja

    2018-06-01

    Adverse drug events due to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) represent a considerable public health burden, also in Slovenia. A better understanding of the most frequently occurring potential DDIs may enable safer pharmacotherapy and minimize drug-related problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of potential DDIs among outpatients in Slovenia. An analysis of potential DDIs was performed using health claims data on prescription drugs from a nationwide database. The Lexi-Interact Module was used as the reference source of interactions. The influence of patient-specific predictors on the risk of potential clinically relevant DDIs was evaluated using logistic regression model. The study population included 1,179,803 outpatients who received 15,811,979 prescriptions. The total number of potential DDI cases identified was 3,974,994, of which 15.6% were potentially clinically relevant. Altogether, 9.3% (N = 191,213) of the total population in Slovenia is exposed to clinically relevant potential DDIs, and the proportion is higher among women and the elderly. After adjustment for cofactors, higher number of medications and older age are associated with higher odds of clinically relevant potential DDIs. The burden of DDIs is highest with drug combinations that increase risk of bleeding, enhance CNS depression or anticholinergic effects or cause cardiovascular complications. The current study revealed that 1 in 10 individuals in the total Slovenian population is exposed to clinically relevant potential DDIs yearly. Taking into account the literature based conservative estimate that approximately 1% of potential DDIs result in negative health outcomes, roughly 1800 individuals in Slovenia experience an adverse health outcome each year as a result of clinically relevant potential interactions alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Constructing disease-specific gene networks using pair-wise relevance metric: Application to colon cancer identifies interleukin 8, desmin and enolase 1 as the central elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases. Results The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8 (p ≈ 0, desmin (DES (p = 2.71 × 10-6 and enolase 1 (ENO1 (p = 4.19 × 10-5], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9 (p = 1.50 × 10-4 and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30 (p = 1.50 × 10-4] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and

  11. Constructing disease-specific gene networks using pair-wise relevance metric: application to colon cancer identifies interleukin 8, desmin and enolase 1 as the central elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Li, Xia; Rao, Shaoqi; Wang, Lihong; Du, Lei; Li, Chuanxing; Wu, Chao; Wang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yadong; Yang, Baofeng

    2008-08-10

    With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases. The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8) (p approximately 0), desmin (DES) (p = 2.71 x 10(-6)) and enolase 1 (ENO1) (p = 4.19 x 10(-5))], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4)) and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4))] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and the sub-network that

  12. 76 FR 22900 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... outcomes in blood transfusions, and tissue and organ transplantations; Reporting and analyzing adverse events, including medical ``near misses'' and patient adverse reactions; Identifying emerging infectious... improve blood and blood component, tissue, cell, and organ safety for donors and recipients. Standards and...

  13. Studies Relevent to Catalytic Activation Co & other small Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Peter C

    2005-02-22

    Detailed annual and triannual reports describing the progress accomplished during the tenure of this grant were filed with the Program Manager for Catalysis at the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. To avoid unnecessary duplication, the present report will provide a brief overview of the research areas that were sponsored by this grant and list the resulting publications and theses based on this DOE supported research. The scientific personnel participating in (and trained by) this grant's research are also listed. Research carried out under this DOE grant was largely concerned with the mechanisms of the homogeneous catalytic and photocatalytic activation of small molecules such as carbon monoxide, dihydrogen and various hydrocarbons. Much of the more recent effort has focused on the dynamics and mechanisms of reactions relevant to substrate carbonylations by homogeneous organometallic catalysts. A wide range of modern investigative techniques were employed, including quantitative fast reaction methodologies such as time-resolved optical (TRO) and time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy and stopped flow kinetics. Although somewhat diverse, this research falls within the scope of the long-term objective of applying quantitative techniques to elucidate the dynamics and understand the principles of mechanisms relevant to the selective and efficient catalytic conversions of fundamental feedstocks to higher value materials.

  14. Multidimensional scaling analysis identifies pathological and prognostically relevant profiles of circulating T-cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissiek, Anne; Schulze, Christian; Bacher, Ulrike; Schieferdecker, Aneta; Thiele, Benjamin; Jacholkowski, Anita; Flammiger, Anna; Horn, Christiane; Haag, Friedrich; Tiegs, Gisa; Zirlik, Katja; Trepel, Martin; Tolosa, Eva; Binder, Mascha

    2014-11-15

    Antitumor immunity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is hampered by highly dysfunctional T-cells. Although certain T-cell subsets have been reported to be of prognostic significance in this disease, their interplay is complex and it remains incompletely understood which of these subsets significantly drive CLL progression. Here, we determined immunological profiles of 24 circulating T-cell subsets from 79 untreated individuals by multiparametric flow cytometry. This screening cohort included healthy donors, patients with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL), Rai 0 CLL and advanced CLL. We applied multidimensional scaling analysis as rigorous and unbiased statistical tool to globally assess the composition of the circulating T-cell environment and to generate T-cell scores reflecting its integrity. These scores allowed clear distinction between advanced CLL and healthy controls, whereas both MBL and Rai 0 CLL showed intermediate scores mirroring the biological continuum of CLL and its precursor stages. T-cell stimulation and suppression assays as well as longitudinal T-cell profiling showed an increasingly suppressive regulatory function initiating at the MBL stage. Effector function was impaired only after transition to CLL and partially recovered after chemoimmunotherapy. In an independent validation cohort of 52 untreated CLL cases, aberrant T-cell profiles were significantly associated with shorter time to treatment independently of other prognostic parameters. Random forest modeling predicted regulatory T-cell, gamma/delta and NKT-cells, as well as exhaustion of the CD8+ subset as potential drivers of progression. Our data illustrate a pathological T-cell environment in MBL that evolves toward a more and more suppressive and prognostically relevant profile across the disease stages. © 2014 UICC.

  15. Identifying novel genes and biological processes relevant to the development of cancer therapy-induced mucositis: An informative gene network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Melkonian, Stephanie C; Wang, Jian; Yu, Robert K; Shelburne, Samuel A; Lu, Charles; Gunn, Gary Brandon; Chambers, Mark S; Hanna, Ehab Y; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Shete, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Mucositis is a complex, dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy or radiotherapy that leads to painful mouth ulcers, difficulty eating or swallowing, gastrointestinal distress, and reduced quality of life for patients with cancer. Mucositis is most common for those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and for those being treated for malignancies of the head and neck. Treatment and management of mucositis remain challenging. It is expected that multiple genes are involved in the formation, severity, and persistence of mucositis. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), a novel network-based approach that integrates complex intracellular and intercellular interactions involved in diseases, to systematically explore the molecular complexity of mucositis. As a first step, we searched the literature to identify genes that harbor or are close to the genetic variants significantly associated with mucositis. Our literature review identified 27 candidate genes, of which ERCC1, XRCC1, and MTHFR were the most frequently studied for mucositis. On the basis of this 27-gene list, we used IPA to generate gene networks for mucositis. The most biologically significant novel molecules identified through IPA analyses included TP53, CTNNB1, MYC, RB1, P38 MAPK, and EP300. Additionally, uracil degradation II (reductive) and thymine degradation pathways (p = 1.06-08) were most significant. Finally, utilizing 66 SNPs within the 8 most connected IPA-derived candidate molecules, we conducted a genetic association study for oral mucositis in the head and neck cancer patients who were treated using chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy (186 head and neck cancer patients with oral mucositis vs. 699 head and neck cancer patients without oral mucositis). The top ranked gene identified through this association analysis was RB1 (rs2227311, p-value = 0.034, odds ratio = 0.67). In conclusion, gene network analysis identified novel molecules and biological

  16. Identifying novel genes and biological processes relevant to the development of cancer therapy-induced mucositis: An informative gene network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cielito C Reyes-Gibby

    Full Text Available Mucositis is a complex, dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy or radiotherapy that leads to painful mouth ulcers, difficulty eating or swallowing, gastrointestinal distress, and reduced quality of life for patients with cancer. Mucositis is most common for those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and for those being treated for malignancies of the head and neck. Treatment and management of mucositis remain challenging. It is expected that multiple genes are involved in the formation, severity, and persistence of mucositis. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, a novel network-based approach that integrates complex intracellular and intercellular interactions involved in diseases, to systematically explore the molecular complexity of mucositis. As a first step, we searched the literature to identify genes that harbor or are close to the genetic variants significantly associated with mucositis. Our literature review identified 27 candidate genes, of which ERCC1, XRCC1, and MTHFR were the most frequently studied for mucositis. On the basis of this 27-gene list, we used IPA to generate gene networks for mucositis. The most biologically significant novel molecules identified through IPA analyses included TP53, CTNNB1, MYC, RB1, P38 MAPK, and EP300. Additionally, uracil degradation II (reductive and thymine degradation pathways (p = 1.06-08 were most significant. Finally, utilizing 66 SNPs within the 8 most connected IPA-derived candidate molecules, we conducted a genetic association study for oral mucositis in the head and neck cancer patients who were treated using chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy (186 head and neck cancer patients with oral mucositis vs. 699 head and neck cancer patients without oral mucositis. The top ranked gene identified through this association analysis was RB1 (rs2227311, p-value = 0.034, odds ratio = 0.67. In conclusion, gene network analysis identified novel molecules and

  17. Excavating the surface-associated and secretory proteome of Mycobacterium leprae for identifying vaccines and diagnostic markers relevant immunodominant epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Aarti; Thakur, Shweta; Bhardwaj, Nupur; Kumar, Devender; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    For centuries, Mycobacterium leprae, etiological agent of leprosy, has been afflicting mankind regardless of extensive use of live-attenuated vaccines and antibiotics. Surface-associated and secretory proteins (SASPs) are attractive targets against bacteria. We have integrated biological knowledge with computational approaches and present a proteome-wide identification of SASPs. We also performed computational assignment of immunodominant epitopes as coordinates of prospective antigenic candidates in most important class of SASPs, the outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Exploiting the known protein sequence and structural characteristics shared by the SASPs from bacteria, 17 lipoproteins, 11 secretory and 19 novel OMPs (including 4 essential proteins) were identified in M. leprae As OMPs represent the most exposed antigens on the cell surface, their immunoinformatics analysis showed that the identified 19 OMPs harbor T-cell MHC class I epitopes and class II epitopes against HLA-DR alleles (54), while 15 OMPs present potential T-cell class II epitopes against HLA-DQ alleles (6) and 7 OMPs possess T-cell class II epitopes against HLA-DP alleles (5) of humans. Additionally, 11 M. leprae OMPs were found to have B-cell epitopes and these may be considered as prime candidates for the development of new immunotherapeutics against M. leprae. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Spectroscopic Studies of Molecular Systems relevant in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    In the Astrobiology context, the study of the physico-chemical interactions involving "building blocks of life" in plausible prebiotic and space-like conditions is fundamental to shed light on the processes that led to emergence of life on Earth as well as to molecular chemical evolution in space. In this PhD Thesis, such issues have been addressed both experimentally and computationally by employing vibrational spectroscopy, which has shown to be an effective tool to investigate the variety of intermolecular interactions that play a key role in self-assembling mechanisms of nucleic acid components and their binding to mineral surfaces. In particular, in order to dissect the contributions of the different interactions to the overall spectroscopic signals and shed light on the intricate experimental data, feasible computational protocols have been developed for the characterization of the spectroscopic properties of such complex systems. This study has been carried out through a multi-step strategy, starting the investigation from the spectroscopic properties of the isolated nucleobases, then studying the perturbation induced by the interaction with another molecule (molecular dimers), towards condensed phases like the molecular solid, up to the case of nucleic acid components adsorbed on minerals. A proper modeling of these weakly bound molecular systems has required, firstly, a validation of dispersion-corrected Density Functional Theory methods for simulating anharmonic vibrational properties. The isolated nucleobases and some of their dimers have been used as benchmark set for identifying a general, reliable and effective computational procedure based on fully anharmonic quantum mechanical computations of the vibrational wavenumbers and infrared intensities within the generalized second order vibrational perturbation theory (GVPT2) approach, combined with the cost-effective dispersion-corrected density functional B3LYP-D3, in conjunction with basis sets of

  19. Self-relevant beauty evaluation: Evidence from an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanchang; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Yuan; Fan, Cuiying; Zhou, Zongkui

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the electrophysiological correlates of beauty evaluation when participants performed the self-reference task. About 13 (7 men, 6 women) undergraduates participated in the experiment using event-related potentials. Results showed that the response to self-relevant information was faster compared to other-relevant information and no significant differences for self-relevant relative to mother-relevant information were observed. Both physical and interior beauty words for self-relevant information showed an enhanced late positive component as compared to other-relevant information. Physical beauty for self-relevant information yielded a larger late positive component in contrast to mother-relevant information but not for interior beauty. This study indicates that beauty is specific to the person who judges it though an individual and one's mother may hold similar views of interior beauty.

  20. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  1. Identifying Patient-Specific Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 Genetic Variation and Potential Autoreactive Targets Relevant to Multiple Sclerosis Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tschochner

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection represents a major environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS, with evidence of selective expansion of Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA1-specific CD4+ T cells that cross-recognize MS-associated myelin antigens in MS patients. HLA-DRB1*15-restricted antigen presentation also appears to determine susceptibility given its role as a dominant risk allele. In this study, we have utilised standard and next-generation sequencing techniques to investigate EBNA-1 sequence variation and its relationship to HLA-DR15 binding affinity, as well as examining potential cross-reactive immune targets within the central nervous system proteome.Sanger sequencing was performed on DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 73 Western Australian MS cases, without requirement for primary culture, with additional FLX 454 Roche sequencing in 23 samples to identify low-frequency variants. Patient-derived viral sequences were used to predict HLA-DRB1*1501 epitopes (NetMHCII, NetMHCIIpan and candidates were evaluated for cross recognition with human brain proteins.EBNA-1 sequence variation was limited, with no evidence of multiple viral strains and only low levels of variation identified by FLX technology (8.3% nucleotide positions at a 1% cut-off. In silico epitope mapping revealed two known HLA-DRB1*1501-restricted epitopes ('AEG': aa 481-496 and 'MVF': aa 562-577, and two putative epitopes between positions 502-543. We identified potential cross-reactive targets involving a number of major myelin antigens including experimentally confirmed HLA-DRB1*15-restricted epitopes as well as novel candidate antigens within myelin and paranodal assembly proteins that may be relevant to MS pathogenesis.This study demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining autologous EBNA-1 sequences directly from buffy coat samples, and confirms divergence of these sequences from standard laboratory strains. This approach has identified a number of

  2. Integrated Genomic Analysis Identifies Clinically Relevant Subtypes of Glioblastoma Characterized by Abnormalities in PDGFRA, IDH1, EGFR, and NF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaak, Roel GW; Hoadley, Katherine A; Purdom, Elizabeth; Wang, Victoria; Qi, Yuan; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Miller, C Ryan; Ding, Li; Golub, Todd; Mesirov, Jill P; Alexe, Gabriele; Lawrence, Michael; O' Kelly, Michael; Tamayo, Pablo; Weir, Barbara A; Gabriel, Stacey; Winckler, Wendy; Gupta, Supriya; Jakkula, Lakshmi; Feiler, Heidi S; Hodgson, J Graeme; James, C David; Sarkaria, Jann N; Brennan, Cameron; Kahn, Ari; Spellman, Paul T; Wilson, Richard K; Speed, Terence P; Gray, Joe W; Meyerson, Matthew; Getz, Gad; Perou, Charles M; Hayes, D Neil; Network, The Cancer Genome Atlas Research

    2009-09-03

    The Cancer Genome Atlas Network recently cataloged recurrent genomic abnormalities in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We describe a robust gene expression-based molecular classification of GBM into Proneural, Neural, Classical, and Mesenchymal subtypes and integrate multidimensional genomic data to establish patterns of somatic mutations and DNA copy number. Aberrations and gene expression of EGFR, NF1, and PDGFRA/IDH1 each define the Classical, Mesenchymal, and Proneural subtypes, respectively. Gene signatures of normal brain cell types show a strong relationship between subtypes and different neural lineages. Additionally, response to aggressive therapy differs by subtype, with the greatest benefit in the Classical subtype and no benefit in the Proneural subtype. We provide a framework that unifies transcriptomic and genomic dimensions for GBM molecular stratification with important implications for future studies.

  3. The Relevance of (South African) Renaissance Studies | Wright ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first is that in South Africa the humanities in general, and Renaissance Studies in particular, are stymied by a lack of strategic thinking from those in the academy. The second is that the humanities, and Renaissance Studies, and Shakespeare, are valid and needed in this country, possibly as never before. Shakespeare ...

  4. Identifying Relevant Anti-Science Perceptions to Improve Science-Based Communication: The Negative Perceptions of Science Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Science communicators and scholars have struggled to understand what appears to be increasingly frequent endorsement of a wide range of anti-science beliefs and a corresponding reduction of trust in science. A common explanation for this issue is a lack of science literacy/knowledge among the general public (Funk et al. 2015. However, other possible explanations have been advanced, including conflict with alternative belief systems and other contextual factors, and even cultural factors (Gauchat 2008; Kahan 2015 that are not necessarily due to knowledge deficits. One of the challenges is that there are limited tools available to measure a range of possible underlying negative perceptions of science that could provide a more nuanced framework within which to improve communication around important scientific topics. This project describes two studies detailing the development and validation of the Negative Perceptions of Science Scale (NPSS, a multi-dimensional instrument that taps into several distinct sets of negative science perceptions: Science as Corrupt, Science as Complex, Science as Heretical, and Science as Limited. Evidence for the reliability and validity of the NPSS is described. The sub-dimensions of the NPSS are associated with a range of specific anti-science beliefs across a broad set of topic areas above and beyond that explained by demographics (including education, sex, age, and income, political, and religious ideology. Implications for these findings for improving science communication and science-related message tailoring are discussed.

  5. Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT: A Cytoscape app for identifying contextually relevant hubs in biological networks [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Muetze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly connected nodes (hubs in biological networks are topologically important to the structure of the network and have also been shown to be preferentially associated with a range of phenotypes of interest. The relative importance of a hub node, however, can change depending on the biological context. Here, we report a Cytoscape app, the Contextual Hub Analysis Tool (CHAT, which enables users to easily construct and visualize a network of interactions from a gene or protein list of interest, integrate contextual information, such as gene expression or mass spectrometry data, and identify hub nodes that are more highly connected to contextual nodes (e.g. genes or proteins that are differentially expressed than expected by chance. In a case study, we use CHAT to construct a network of genes that are differentially expressed in Dengue fever, a viral infection. CHAT was used to identify and compare contextual and degree-based hubs in this network. The top 20 degree-based hubs were enriched in pathways related to the cell cycle and cancer, which is likely due to the fact that proteins involved in these processes tend to be highly connected in general. In comparison, the top 20 contextual hubs were enriched in pathways commonly observed in a viral infection including pathways related to the immune response to viral infection. This analysis shows that such contextual hubs are considerably more biologically relevant than degree-based hubs and that analyses which rely on the identification of hubs solely based on their connectivity may be biased towards nodes that are highly connected in general rather than in the specific context of interest.   Availability: CHAT is available for Cytoscape 3.0+ and can be installed via the Cytoscape App Store (http://apps.cytoscape.org/apps/chat.

  6. Association of Postoperative Readmissions With Surgical Quality Using a Delphi Consensus Process to Identify Relevant Diagnosis Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Hillary J; Graham, Laura A; Morris, Melanie S; Rosen, Amy K; Richman, Joshua S; Whittle, Jeffery; Burns, Edith; Wagner, Todd H; Copeland, Laurel A; Wahl, Tyler; Jones, Caroline; Hollis, Robert H; Itani, Kamal M F; Hawn, Mary T

    2018-04-18

    considered to be not associated with surgical quality varied by procedure, ranging from to 21% (613 of 2331) of readmissions after lower-extremity amputations to 47% (745 of 1598) of readmissions after cholecystectomy. One-third of postoperative readmissions are unlikely to reflect problems with surgical quality. Future studies should test whether restricting readmissions to those with specific ICD-9 codes might yield a more useful quality measure.

  7. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Reyes, Jose Alberto S

    2008-06-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes-Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa.

  8. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes—Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa. PMID:19779603

  9. A preliminary study on the relevancy of sustainable building design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study aims to explore the relationship between sustainable building design paradigms and commercial property depreciation, to assist in the understanding of sustainable building design impact towards commercial building value and rental de employs the qualitative method and analyses valuers' current ...

  10. Back to the basics: Identifying and addressing underlying challenges in achieving high quality and relevant health statistics for indigenous populations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smylie, Janet; Firestone, Michelle

    Canada is known internationally for excellence in both the quality and public policy relevance of its health and social statistics. There is a double standard however with respect to the relevance and quality of statistics for Indigenous populations in Canada. Indigenous specific health and social statistics gathering is informed by unique ethical, rights-based, policy and practice imperatives regarding the need for Indigenous participation and leadership in Indigenous data processes throughout the spectrum of indicator development, data collection, management, analysis and use. We demonstrate how current Indigenous data quality challenges including misclassification errors and non-response bias systematically contribute to a significant underestimate of inequities in health determinants, health status, and health care access between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in Canada. The major quality challenge underlying these errors and biases is the lack of Indigenous specific identifiers that are consistent and relevant in major health and social data sources. The recent removal of an Indigenous identity question from the Canadian census has resulted in further deterioration of an already suboptimal system. A revision of core health data sources to include relevant, consistent, and inclusive Indigenous self-identification is urgently required. These changes need to be carried out in partnership with Indigenous peoples and their representative and governing organizations.

  11. Patient safety challenges in a case study hospital--of relevance for transfusion processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aase, Karina; Høyland, Sindre; Olsen, Espen; Wiig, Siri; Nilsen, Stein Tore

    2008-10-01

    The paper reports results from a research project with the objective of studying patient safety, and relates the finding to safety issues within transfusion medicine. The background is an increased focus on undesired events related to diagnosis, medication, and patient treatment in general in the healthcare sector. The study is designed as a case study within a regional Norwegian hospital conducting specialised health care services. The study includes multiple methods such as interviews, document analysis, analysis of error reports, and a questionnaire survey. Results show that the challenges for improved patient safety, based on employees' perceptions, are hospital management support, reporting of accidents/incidents, and collaboration across hospital units. Several of these generic safety challenges are also found to be of relevance for a hospital's transfusion service. Positive patient safety factors are identified as teamwork within hospital units, a non-punitive response to errors, and unit manager's actions promoting safety.

  12. Professor Zalman Makhover. A relevant contributor to early tropopause studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antuna, Juan C. [Camagueey Lidar Station, Camagueey (Cuba); Anel, Juan A. [CESAM, Univ. de Aveiro, Campus Univ. de Santiago, Aveiro (Portugal); EPhysLab, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Univ. de Vigo, Ourense (Spain); Sterin, Alexander [Russian Research Inst. for Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Gimeno, Luis [EPhysLab, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Univ. de Vigo, Ourense (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    We present an assessment of the work of Zalman Meerovich Makhover (1922-99), a leading expert on tropopause studies in the former USSR. Although a much-respected scientist among his peers, his work remains unknown, possibly as a result of much of never having been translated into English. His most important contributions were on the subject of the spatial and temporal structure of the altitude and temperature of the tropopause, as well as its variability over a range of different time scales from annual to daily. We describe the determination of the seasonal features of the tropopause and note his achievements in determining the roles of synoptic conditions and the annual cycle on tropopause characteristics. Recent tropopause research has confirmed much of his earlier work and provided important results for, among other things, stratospheretroposphere exchange processes, climate change indicator studies, and the climatology of aircraft exhaust traces. The legacy of Makhover includes his own research on tropopause phenomena, as well as a synthesis of the numerous studies conducted by former Soviet and other researchers. Here we provide a brief biography, citation data, as well as graphical material taken from his monographs and papers. (orig.)

  13. Surface Propensity of Atmospherically Relevant Amino Acids Studied by XPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Alexandra; Gomes, Anderson Herbert de Abreu; Araújo, Oscar Cardoso; de Brito, Arnaldo Naves; Björneholm, Olle

    2017-04-27

    Amino acids constitute an important fraction of the water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) compounds in aerosols and are involved in many processes in the atmosphere. In this work, we applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study aqueous solutions of four amino acids, glycine, alanine, valine, and methionine, in their zwitterionic forms. We found that amino acids with hydrophilic side chains and smaller size, GLY and ALA, tend to stay in the bulk of the liquid, while the hydrophobic and bigger amino acids, VAL and MET, are found to concentrate more on the surface. We found experimental evidence that the amino acids have preferential orientation relative to the surface, with the hydrophobic side chain being closer to the surface than the hydrophilic carboxylate group. The observed amino acid surface propensity has implications in atmospheric science as the surface interactions play a central role in cloud droplet formation, and they should be considered in climate models.

  14. Studies of autoionizing states relevant to dielectronic recombination. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    Dielectronic recombinaation, the inverse of autoionization, is a process leading to significant power loss in CTR plasmas. Although it is known that dielectronic recombination proceeds via autoionization Rydberg states, few data exist on autoionizing states and how they are affected by conditions found in a CTR plasma. Under this research program we have been using a novel laser excitation technique developed at SRI to study autoionizing states and the perturbing effects of electric fields found in CTR plasmas. We describe experimental investigations of the spectroscopy of autoionizing Rydberg states, the energy analysis of electrons ejected from autoionizing states, autoionizing in electric fields, and the autoionization induced by an electric field. 33 refs., 16 figs

  15. Study of relevant parameters of GEM-based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Croci, Gabriele; Sauli, Fabio; Ragazzi, S

    2007-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier consist of a thin Kapton insulating (50 $\\mu$m) foil copper-clad on both sides and perforated by a high density, regular matrix of holes (around 100 per square millimeter). Typically the distance between holes (pitch) is 140 $\\mu$m and diameters of about 70 $\\mu$m. The mesh is realised by conventional photolitographic methods as used for the fabrication of multi-layer board. Upon application of a potential difference between the GEM electrodes, a high dipole field develops in the holes focusing the field lines between the drift electrode and the readout element. Electron drift along the channel and the charge is amplified by a factor that depends on the field density and the length of the channel. Owing to their excellent position resolution and rate capability GEM-based detector are very suitable to be used in different applications: from the high energy physics to the medical field. The GEM temporal and rate gain stability was studied and it was discovered that the gain variation...

  16. Towards studies of organizational behaviour with greater local relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B. Smith

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Theories of organizational behaviour mostly originated in North America. In testing their applicability elsewhere, attention must be given to differences in local environments and inthe values of local employees. Within Latin America, the prevalence of high collectivism and power distance are particularly important. Employees’ attachment to their organization has been shown to differ within collectivistic cultures. The argument is illustrated by two Latin American studies. Firstly, the ways in which managers handle work events within Mexico, Colombia, Brazil, Chile and Argentina are compared. Secondly, cross-national work problems of employees from these countries are surveyed. The results emphasize the need to take account of variability within the region, and the need to use measures that capture locally important issues. -- Las teorías del comportamiento organizacional se han originado principalmente en Américadel Norte. Al probar su aplicabilidad en otras regiones culturales, debe prestarse atención a las diferencias en los ambientes y en los valores de los empleados locales. Dentro de Latinoamérica, la prevalencia de altos niveles de colectivismo y distancia al poder es particularmenteimportante. En ese sentido, se ha demostrado que el apego de los empleados hacia su organización difiere dentro de las culturas colectivistas. El argumento se ilustra por dosestudios latinoamericanos. En el primero, se compara la forma en que los gerentes manejan los eventos laborales dentro de México, Colombia, Brasil, Chile y Argentina. En el segundo,se examinan los problemas laborales transnacionales de los empleados de estos países. Los resultados enfatizan la necesidad de utilizar medidas que capturen aspectos localmente importantes.

  17. Conditional conservatism and value relevance of financial reporting: A study in view of converging accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Maximiliaan Willem Pierre; Iatridis, George Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between conditional conservatism and value relevance in the EU and US. Specifically, it investigates whether this relationship differs under US GAAP and IFRS compliance. In addition, this study examines the trend in value relevance, conditional conservatism and

  18. IDGenerator: unique identifier generator for epidemiologic or clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Olden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creating study identifiers and assigning them to study participants is an important feature in epidemiologic studies, ensuring the consistency and privacy of the study data. The numbering system for identifiers needs to be random within certain number constraints, to carry extensions coding for organizational information, or to contain multiple layers of numbers per participant to diversify data access. Available software can generate globally-unique identifiers, but identifier-creating tools meeting the special needs of epidemiological studies are lacking. We have thus set out to develop a software program to generate IDs for epidemiological or clinical studies. Results Our software IDGenerator creates unique identifiers that not only carry a random identifier for a study participant, but also support the creation of structured IDs, where organizational information is coded into the ID directly. This may include study center (for multicenter-studies, study track (for studies with diversified study programs, or study visit (baseline, follow-up, regularly repeated visits. Our software can be used to add a check digit to the ID to minimize data entry errors. It facilitates the generation of IDs in batches and the creation of layered IDs (personal data ID, study data ID, temporary ID, external data ID to ensure a high standard of data privacy. The software is supported by a user-friendly graphic interface that enables the generation of IDs in both standard text and barcode 128B format. Conclusion Our software IDGenerator can create identifiers meeting the specific needs for epidemiologic or clinical studies to facilitate study organization and data privacy. IDGenerator is freeware under the GNU General Public License version 3; a Windows port and the source code can be downloaded at the Open Science Framework website: https://osf.io/urs2g/ .

  19. New developments in measurements technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, N.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents new developments in measurement technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste disposal during all phases of development, i.e., site selection, site characterization, construction, operation, and decommission. Emphasis has been placed on geophysics and geotechnics with special attention to those techniques applicable to bedded salt. The techniques are grouped into sections as follows: tectonic environment, state of stress, subsurface structures, fractures, stress changes, deformation, thermal properties, fluid transport properties, and other approaches. Several areas that merit further research and developments are identified. These areas are: in situ thermal measurement techniques, fracture detection and characterization, in situ stress measurements, and creep behavior. The available instrumentations should generally be improved to have better resolution and accuracy, enhanced instrument survivability, and reliability for extended time periods in a hostile environment

  20. New developments in measurements technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories in bedded salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, N. H.; Ramirez, A. L.

    1980-10-01

    Developments in measurement technology are presented which are relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories for nuclear waste disposal during all phases of development, i.e., site selection, site characterization, construction, operation, and decommission. Emphasis was placed on geophysics and geotechnics with special attention to those techniques applicable to bedded salt. The techniques are grouped into sections as follows: tectonic environment, state of stress, subsurface structures, fractures, stress changes, deformation, thermal properties, fluid transport properties, and other approaches. Several areas that merit further research and developments are identified. These areas are: in situ thermal measurement techniques, fracture detection and characterization, in situ stress measurements, and creep behavior. The available instrumentations should generally be improved to have better resolution and accuracy, enhanced instrument survivability, and reliability for extended time periods in a hostile environment.

  1. Brain processing of task-relevant and task-irrelevant emotional words: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Triñanes, Yolanda; Zurrón, Montserrat; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2014-09-01

    Although there is evidence for preferential perceptual processing of written emotional information, the effects of attentional manipulations and the time course of affective processing require further clarification. In this study, we attempted to investigate how the emotional content of words modulates cerebral functioning (event-related potentials, ERPs) and behavior (reaction times, RTs) when the content is task-irrelevant (emotional Stroop Task, EST) or task-relevant (emotional categorization task, ECT), in a sample of healthy middle-aged women. In the EST, the RTs were longer for emotional words than for neutral words, and in the ECT, they were longer for neutral and negative words than for positive words. A principal components analysis of the ERPs identified various temporospatial factors that were differentially modified by emotional content. P2 was the first emotion-sensitive component, with enhanced factor scores for negative nouns across tasks. The N2 and late positive complex had enhanced factor scores for emotional relative to neutral information only in the ECT. The results reinforce the idea that written emotional information has a preferential processing route, both when it is task-irrelevant (producing behavioral interference) and when it is task-relevant (facilitating the categorization). After early automatic processing of the emotional content, late ERPs become more emotionally modulated as the level of attention to the valence increases.

  2. Guidance for Identifying, Selecting and Evaluating Open Literature Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance for Office of Pesticide Program staff will assist in their evaluation of open literature studies of pesticides. It also describes how we identify, select, and ensure that data we use in risk assessments is of sufficient scientific quality.

  3. Genome-wide association studies in bladder cancer: first results and potential relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Vermeulen, Sita H; Wu, Xifeng

    2009-09-01

    The role of genetic susceptibility in the development of urinary bladder cancer is unclear, as it is in many other types of cancer. Since 2007, however, an innovative research approach (i.e. genome-wide association studies or GWASs) has led to the identification of numerous genomic loci that harbor susceptibility factors for one or more cancer sites. All GWASs have been published in high-impact journals and the strengths of the design are acknowledged by all experts, but there is criticism about the relevance of the results. Late 2008, the first GWAS in bladder cancer was published. In this review, the principles of GWASs are explained, as well as their strengths and limitations. The study in bladder cancer among 4000 cases and 38,000 controls identified three new susceptibility loci at 8q24, 3q28, and 5p15 that increase the risk of bladder cancer by 22, 19, and 16%, respectively. The results of two other GWASs in bladder cancer are expected to appear this year. Joint analysis of the three studies will probably identify additional susceptibility loci. The results of bladder cancer GWASs may point the way to yet unknown disease mechanisms. So far, the findings are not sufficiently discriminative for risk predictions to be used in clinical care or public health.

  4. Review of relevant studies of isolated systems[Integration of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.H.; Lundsager, P.

    2000-12-01

    The report presents the results of a review of studies relating to integration of wind energy in isolated power supply systems, based on a systematic literature survey. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology consisting of a set of guidelines for wind energy projects in isolated energy systems and a set of tools and models that are operational on an engineering level. The review is based on a literature search in the ETDE Energy Database with a main search covering the period 7/88 to 6/97 and supplemented by partial update periods. A few newer references have been included in the review, most notably the IEC/PAS 62111 specification. The amount of wind energy literature related to the subject is excessively large, and a complete review in which every relevant abstract is identified and examined is not feasible within the framework of this (or probably any other) study. The review results have been organised according to the following keywords: methods & guides, economics, concept of application, system solutions, case studies, financial programmes, dedicated software tools. None of the found references presents methods or tools that contradict the philosophy of Risoe's methodology as it is described in the report. It is therefore concluded that Risoe's methodology makes a good platform for further development. (au)

  5. A Study of Novice Science Teachers' Conceptualizations of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Elizabeth Horst

    This qualitative study examined new science teachers' conceptualization of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP). The study followed six novice science teachers from their preservice teaching placements into their first jobs as instructors of record, observing in their classrooms and interviewing them about their use of CRP. The study sought to understand (1) how the participating teachers conceptualize CRP in science, and (2) what challenges the teachers faced in trying to implement CRP. Findings suggest that the teachers conceptualized CRP in ways that were consistent with Enyedy, Danish and Fields' (2011) interpretations of relevance: relevance of authentic purpose, relevance of content and/or context, and relevance of practices. The teachers, however, translated those interpretations of relevance into their conceptualizations and classroom practice in a variety of ways. While they encountered difficulties in conceptualizing and practicing CRP, they also made productive moves in their practice and evidenced positive elements in their conceptualizations of CRP. In order to address the challenges these teachers faced in implementing CRP, I suggest an approach to teacher preparation in CRP that builds upon the understandings and productive moves the teachers evidenced in this study.

  6. Guidance on assessing the methodological and reporting quality of toxicologically relevant studies: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Gbeminiyi O; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Wright, Robert A; Lalu, Manoj Mathew; Patlewicz, Grace; Becker, Richard A; DeGeorge, George L; Fergusson, Dean; Hartung, Thomas; Lewis, R Jeffrey; Stephens, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of methodological and reporting quality are critical to adequately judging the credibility of a study's conclusions and to gauging its potential reproducibility. To aid those seeking to assess the methodological or reporting quality of studies relevant to toxicology, we conducted a scoping review of the available guidance with respect to four types of studies: in vivo and in vitro, (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ([Q]SARs), physico-chemical, and human observational studies. Our aims were to identify the available guidance in this diverse literature, briefly summarize each document, and distill the common elements of these documents for each study type. In general, we found considerable guidance for in vivo and human studies, but only one paper addressed in vitro studies exclusively. The guidance for (Q)SAR studies and physico-chemical studies was scant but authoritative. There was substantial overlap across guidance documents in the proposed criteria for both methodological and reporting quality. Some guidance documents address toxicology research directly, whereas others address preclinical research generally or clinical research and therefore may not be fully applicable to the toxicology context without some translation. Another challenge is the degree to which assessments of methodological quality in toxicology should focus on risk of bias - as in clinical medicine and healthcare - or be broadened to include other quality measures, such as confirming the identity of test substances prior to exposure. Our review is intended primarily for those in toxicology and risk assessment seeking an entry point into the extensive and diverse literature on methodological and reporting quality applicable to their work. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Transversal Traits in Science Education Research Relevant for Teaching and Research: A Meta-Interpretative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J. Bernardino; Silva, Antonio Alberto; Cravino, Jose P.; Costa, Nilza; Marques, Luis; Campos, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This study is a meta-interpretative analysis that focuses on research conducted and published by other researchers. Concepts central to this study include global practical relevance, curriculum design, and formative situation. We analyzed 35 studies selected from 374 published studies in the years 2000 and 2001 in three journals referenced in the…

  8. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  9. Selected, annotated bibliography of studies relevant to the isolation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, L.K.; Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Faust, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 705 references represents the first in a series to be published by the Ecological Sciences Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to nuclear waste isolation. Most references discuss deep geologic disposal, with fewer studies of deep seabed disposal; space disposal is also included. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1954 to 1980. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Envirnmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Repository Design and Engineering; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for author(s), keywords, subject category, title, geographic location, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, and publication description

  10. Selected, annotated bibliography of studies relevant to the isolation of nuclear wastes. [705 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyder, L.K.; Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Faust, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 705 references represents the first in a series to be published by the Ecological Sciences Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to nuclear waste isolation. Most references discuss deep geologic disposal, with fewer studies of deep seabed disposal; space disposal is also included. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1954 to 1980. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Envirnmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Repository Design and Engineering; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for author(s), keywords, subject category, title, geographic location, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, and publication description.

  11. Identifying diagnostically-relevant resting state brain functional connectivity in the ventral posterior complex via genetic data mining in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Philip R; Curtis, Kaylah N; Patriquin, Michelle A; Wolf, Varina; Viswanath, Humsini; Shaw, Chad; Sakai, Yasunari; Salas, Ramiro

    2016-05-01

    Exome sequencing and copy number variation analyses continue to provide novel insight to the biological bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The growing speed at which massive genetic data are produced causes serious lags in analysis and interpretation of the data. Thus, there is a need to develop systematic genetic data mining processes that facilitate efficient analysis of large datasets. We report a new genetic data mining system, ProcessGeneLists and integrated a list of ASD-related genes with currently available resources in gene expression and functional connectivity of the human brain. Our data-mining program successfully identified three primary regions of interest (ROIs) in the mouse brain: inferior colliculus, ventral posterior complex of the thalamus (VPC), and parafascicular nucleus (PFn). To understand its pathogenic relevance in ASD, we examined the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the homologous ROIs in human brain with other brain regions that were previously implicated in the neuro-psychiatric features of ASD. Among them, the RSFC of the VPC with the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) was significantly more anticorrelated, whereas the RSFC of the PN with the globus pallidus was significantly increased in children with ASD compared with healthy children. Moreover, greater values of RSFC between VPC and MFG were correlated with severity index and repetitive behaviors in children with ASD. No significant RSFC differences were detected in adults with ASD. Together, these data demonstrate the utility of our data-mining program through identifying the aberrant connectivity of thalamo-cortical circuits in children with ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 553-562. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Identifying, studying and making good use of macromolecular crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calero, Guillermo [University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Cohen, Aina E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Luft, Joseph R. [Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); State University of New York at Buffalo, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); Newman, Janet [CSIRO Collaborative Crystallisation Centre, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Snell, Edward H., E-mail: esnell@hwi.buffalo.edu [Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); State University of New York at Buffalo, 700 Ellicott Street, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States); University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2014-07-25

    As technology advances, the crystal volume that can be used to collect useful X-ray diffraction data decreases. The technologies available to detect and study growing crystals beyond the optical resolution limit and methods to successfully place the crystal into the X-ray beam are discussed. Structural biology has contributed tremendous knowledge to the understanding of life on the molecular scale. The Protein Data Bank, a depository of this structural knowledge, currently contains over 100 000 protein structures, with the majority stemming from X-ray crystallography. As the name might suggest, crystallography requires crystals. As detectors become more sensitive and X-ray sources more intense, the notion of a crystal is gradually changing from one large enough to embellish expensive jewellery to objects that have external dimensions of the order of the wavelength of visible light. Identifying these crystals is a prerequisite to their study. This paper discusses developments in identifying these crystals during crystallization screening and distinguishing them from other potential outcomes. The practical aspects of ensuring that once a crystal is identified it can then be positioned in the X-ray beam for data collection are also addressed.

  13. Identifying, studying and making good use of macromolecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calero, Guillermo; Cohen, Aina E.; Luft, Joseph R.; Newman, Janet; Snell, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    As technology advances, the crystal volume that can be used to collect useful X-ray diffraction data decreases. The technologies available to detect and study growing crystals beyond the optical resolution limit and methods to successfully place the crystal into the X-ray beam are discussed. Structural biology has contributed tremendous knowledge to the understanding of life on the molecular scale. The Protein Data Bank, a depository of this structural knowledge, currently contains over 100 000 protein structures, with the majority stemming from X-ray crystallography. As the name might suggest, crystallography requires crystals. As detectors become more sensitive and X-ray sources more intense, the notion of a crystal is gradually changing from one large enough to embellish expensive jewellery to objects that have external dimensions of the order of the wavelength of visible light. Identifying these crystals is a prerequisite to their study. This paper discusses developments in identifying these crystals during crystallization screening and distinguishing them from other potential outcomes. The practical aspects of ensuring that once a crystal is identified it can then be positioned in the X-ray beam for data collection are also addressed

  14. Deliberate practice theory: perceived relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice: study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2009-10-01

    This study, based on the theory of deliberate practice, examined the practice relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment aspects of the theory. 25 college undergraduates practiced playing a melody on an electronic keyboard for three 20-min. practice sessions. Following each session, the perceived relevance of the practice for improving performance of the melody, the effort needed to learn the melody, and the inherent enjoyment of the practice were each rated on 10-point scales. Findings were consistent with theory and similar to previous studies also involving music practice and other tasks.

  15. GA(2)LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbach, G J; Heinzerling, L M; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance was ...... the clinical relevance of positive skin prick tests and calls for further studies, which may, ultimately, help increase the positive predictive value of allergy testing.......BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance...... was used to determine the clinical relevance of sensitizations against the 18 most frequent inhalant allergens in Europe. The study population consisted of patients referred to one of the 17 allergy centres in 14 European countries (n = 3034, median age = 33 years). The aim of the study was to assess...

  16. Decision-relevant evaluation of climate models: A case study of chill hours in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, K. A.; Jones, A. D.; Kerr, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    The past decade has seen a proliferation of different climate datasets with over 60 climate models currently in use. Comparative evaluation and validation of models can assist practitioners chose the most appropriate models for adaptation planning. However, such assessments are usually conducted for `climate metrics' such as seasonal temperature, while sectoral decisions are often based on `decision-relevant outcome metrics' such as growing degree days or chill hours. Since climate models predict different metrics with varying skill, the goal of this research is to conduct a bottom-up evaluation of model skill for `outcome-based' metrics. Using chill hours (number of hours in winter months where temperature is lesser than 45 deg F) in Fresno, CA as a case, we assess how well different GCMs predict the historical mean and slope of chill hours, and whether and to what extent projections differ based on model selection. We then compare our results with other climate-based evaluations of the region, to identify similarities and differences. For the model skill evaluation, historically observed chill hours were compared with simulations from 27 GCMs (and multiple ensembles). Model skill scores were generated based on a statistical hypothesis test of the comparative assessment. Future projections from RCP 8.5 runs were evaluated, and a simple bias correction was also conducted. Our analysis indicates that model skill in predicting chill hour slope is dependent on its skill in predicting mean chill hours, which results from the non-linear nature of the chill metric. However, there was no clear relationship between the models that performed well for the chill hour metric and those that performed well in other temperature-based evaluations (such winter minimum temperature or diurnal temperature range). Further, contrary to conclusions from other studies, we also found that the multi-model mean or large ensemble mean results may not always be most appropriate for this

  17. A study of ruthenium complexes of some biologically relevant a-N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. A study of ruthenium complexes of some biologically relevant ∙ -N-heterocyclic ... Author Affiliations. P Sengupta1 S Ghosh1. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Calcutta 700 032, India ...

  18. Cerebral activation studies by PET and fMRT, clinical relevance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, T.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral activation studies by PET and fMRT will gain increasing clinical relevance for functional neuroanatomy (reading, speaking), localisation of largely unknown cortical functions (vestibular cortex), imaging of subjective complaints of functional impairments (pain, smell, memory), and documentation of neurological rehabilitation at neuronal level (regeneration, compensation, substitution, learning). (orig.) [de

  19. Identifying Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax from Administrative Databases: A Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Frechette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP is a disorder commonly encountered in healthy young individuals. There is no differentiation between PSP and secondary pneumothorax (SP in the current version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. This complicates the conduct of epidemiological studies on the subject. Objective. To validate the accuracy of an algorithm that identifies cases of PSP from administrative databases. Methods. The charts of 150 patients who consulted the emergency room (ER with a recorded main diagnosis of pneumothorax were reviewed to define the type of pneumothorax that occurred. The corresponding hospital administrative data collected during previous hospitalizations and ER visits were processed through the proposed algorithm. The results were compared over two different age groups. Results. There were 144 cases of pneumothorax correctly coded (96%. The results obtained from the PSP algorithm demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (97% versus 81%, p=0.038 and positive predictive value (87% versus 46%, p<0.001 in patients under 40 years of age than in older patients. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm is adequate to identify cases of PSP from administrative databases in the age group classically associated with the disease. This makes possible its utilization in large population-based studies.

  20. A study on the re-identifiability of Dutch citizens

    OpenAIRE

    Koot, M.R.; van 't Noordende, G.; de Laat, C.; Serjantov, A.; Troncoso, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the re-identifiability of Dutch citizens by various demographics. Our analysis is based on registry office data of 2.7 million Dutch citizens, ~16% of the total population. We provide overall statistics on re-identifiability for a range of quasi-identifiers, and present an in-depth analysis of quasi-identifiers found in two de-identified data sets. We found that 67.0% of the sampled population is unambiguously identifiable by date of birth and four-digit postal code alone,...

  1. Strategies to design clinical studies to identify predictive biomarkers in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Sanmamed, Miguel F; Bosch, Ana; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Schalper, Kurt A; Segura, Victor; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Tabernero, Josep; Sweeney, Christopher J; Choueiri, Toni K; Martín, Miguel; Fusco, Juan Pablo; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria Esperanza; Calvo, Alfonso; Prior, Celia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pio, Ruben; Gonzalez-Billalabeitia, Enrique; Gonzalez Hernandez, Alvaro; Páez, David; Piulats, Jose María; Gurpide, Alfonso; Andueza, Mapi; de Velasco, Guillermo; Pazo, Roberto; Grande, Enrique; Nicolas, Pilar; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Garcia-Donas, Jesus; Castellano, Daniel; Pajares, María J; Suarez, Cristina; Colomer, Ramon; Montuenga, Luis M; Melero, Ignacio

    2017-02-01

    The discovery of reliable biomarkers to predict efficacy and toxicity of anticancer drugs remains one of the key challenges in cancer research. Despite its relevance, no efficient study designs to identify promising candidate biomarkers have been established. This has led to the proliferation of a myriad of exploratory studies using dissimilar strategies, most of which fail to identify any promising targets and are seldom validated. The lack of a proper methodology also determines that many anti-cancer drugs are developed below their potential, due to failure to identify predictive biomarkers. While some drugs will be systematically administered to many patients who will not benefit from them, leading to unnecessary toxicities and costs, others will never reach registration due to our inability to identify the specific patient population in which they are active. Despite these drawbacks, a limited number of outstanding predictive biomarkers have been successfully identified and validated, and have changed the standard practice of oncology. In this manuscript, a multidisciplinary panel reviews how those key biomarkers were identified and, based on those experiences, proposes a methodological framework-the DESIGN guidelines-to standardize the clinical design of biomarker identification studies and to develop future research in this pivotal field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Social network analysis in identifying influential webloggers: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmuni, Noraini; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, second generation of internet-based services such as weblog has become an effective communication tool to publish information on the Web. Weblogs have unique characteristics that deserve users' attention. Some of webloggers have seen weblogs as appropriate medium to initiate and expand business. These webloggers or also known as direct profit-oriented webloggers (DPOWs) communicate and share knowledge with each other through social interaction. However, survivability is the main issue among DPOW. Frequent communication with influential webloggers is one of the way to keep survive as DPOW. This paper aims to understand the network structure and identify influential webloggers within the network. Proper understanding of the network structure can assist us in knowing how the information is exchanged among members and enhance survivability among DPOW. 30 DPOW were involved in this study. Degree centrality and betweenness centrality measurement in Social Network Analysis (SNA) were used to examine the strength relation and identify influential webloggers within the network. Thus, webloggers with the highest value of these measurements are considered as the most influential webloggers in the network.

  3. Identifying the educational needs of menopausal women: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J; Ainscough, Jessica L; Trant, Meredith; Starker, Joan; Cousineau, Tara M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the educational needs of menopausal women and test the feasibility of an online self management program based on social learning theory. The four stages included 1) a needs assessment using a) focus groups with 24 women ages 40 to 55 and b) phone interviews with eight health experts; 2) the use of concept mapping methodology for quantifying qualitative data from stage 1 to identify the core programmatic concepts; 3) development of a demonstration program; and 4) a pilot study with 35 women and 9 health experts to assess knowledge gained and program satisfaction. Results show that women desire more information about normalcy of menopause and symptom management and found the program to meet a need for menopausal education otherwise perceived as unavailable. The women significantly increased their menopausal knowledge after brief exposure (t(34) = 3.64; p = .001). This project provides support for an online health education program for menopausal women and content ideas for inclusion in women's health education curriculum. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychosocial Clusters and their Associations with Well-Being and Health: An Empirical Strategy for Identifying Psychosocial Predictors Most Relevant to Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bowen, Deborah; Weinberg, Janice; Kroenke, Candyce; Luo, Juhua; Messina, Catherine; Shumaker, Sally; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Strategies for identifying the most relevant psychosocial predictors in studies of racial/ethnic minority women’s health are limited because they largely exclude cultural influences and they assume that psychosocial predictors are independent. This paper proposes and tests an empirical solution. METHODS Hierarchical cluster analysis, conducted with data from 140,652 Women’s Health Initiative participants, identified clusters among individual psychosocial predictors. Multivariable analyses tested associations between clusters and health outcomes. RESULTS A Social Cluster and a Stress Cluster were identified. The Social Cluster was positively associated with well-being and inversely associated with chronic disease index, and the Stress Cluster was inversely associated with well-being and positively associated with chronic disease index. As hypothesized, the magnitude of association between clusters and outcomes differed by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS By identifying psychosocial clusters and their associations with health, we have taken an important step toward understanding how individual psychosocial predictors interrelate and how empirically formed Stress and Social clusters relate to health outcomes. This study has also demonstrated important insight about differences in associations between these psychosocial clusters and health among racial/ethnic minorities. These differences could signal the best pathways for intervention modification and tailoring. PMID:27279761

  5. Exploring the Relevance of Search Engines: An Overview of Google as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Beltrán-Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of data on the Internet and the diverse list of strategies used to try to link this information with relevant searches through Linked Data have generated a revolution in data treatment and its representation. Nevertheless, the conventional search engines like Google are kept as strategies with good reception to do search processes. The following article presents a study of the development and evolution of search engines, more specifically, to analyze the relevance of findings based on the number of results displayed in paging systems with Google as a case study. Finally, it is intended to contribute to indexing criteria in search results, based on an approach to Semantic Web as a stage in the evolution of the Web.

  6. Parents of Youth Who Identify as Transgender: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Danielle; Sikorski, Jonathon; Savage, Todd A.; Woitaszewski, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the experiences, perceptions, support systems, and coping strategies on which parents of youth who identify as transgender rely. Based on data gathered via interviews with parents of youth who identify as transgender and analyzed using the consensual qualitative research method, parental challenges and concerns about their…

  7. The effect of ISM absorption on stellar activity measurements and its relevance for exoplanet studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Marcelja, S. E.; Staab, D.; Cubillos, P. E.; France, K.; Haswell, C. A.; Ingrassia, S.; Jenkins, J. S.; Koskinen, T.; Lanza, A. F.; Redfield, S.; Youngblood, A.; Pelzmann, G.

    2017-05-01

    Past ultraviolet and optical observations of stars hosting close-in Jupiter-mass planets have shown that some of these stars present an anomalously low chromospheric activity, significantly below the basal level. For the hot Jupiter planet host WASP-13, observations have shown that the apparent lack of activity is possibly caused by absorption from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM). Inspired by this result, we study the effect of ISM absorption on activity measurements (S and log R 'HK indices) for main-sequence late-type stars. To this end, we employ synthetic stellar photospheric spectra combined with varying amounts of chromospheric emission and ISM absorption. We present the effect of ISM absorption on activity measurements by varying several instrumental (spectral resolution), stellar (projected rotational velocity, effective temperature, and chromospheric emission flux), and ISM parameters (relative velocity between stellar and ISM Ca II lines, broadening b-parameter, and Ca II column density). We find that for relative velocities between the stellar and ISM lines smaller than 30-40 km s-1 and for ISM Ca II column densities log NCaII ⪆ 12, the ISM absorption has a significant influence on activity measurements. Direct measurements and three dimensional maps of the Galactic ISM absorption indicate that an ISM Ca II column density of log NCaII = 12 is typically reached by a distance of about 100 pc along most sight lines. In particular, for a Sun-like star lying at a distance greater than 100 pc, we expect a depression (bias) in the log R'HK value larger than 0.05-0.1 dex, about the same size as the typical measurement and calibration uncertainties on this parameter. This work shows that the bias introduced by ISM absorption must always be considered when measuring activity for stars lying beyond 100 pc. We also consider the effect of multiple ISM absorption components. We discuss the relevance of this result for exoplanet studies and revise the

  8. Nitrogen-15 studies on identifying fertilizer excess in environmental systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, H.D.; Aly, A.I.M.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of identifying fertilizer excesses in surface and ground waters on the basis of variations in the isotope ratio of nitrogen has been studied. The isotope ratio of the commonly used ammonium and nitrate fertilizers is similar to that of atmospheric nitrogen. These ratios are shifted when fertilizers are added to the soil. In the soil, fertilizer ammonium is oxidized and the nitrate formed is reduced in the heavy isotope. The fractionation factors are calculated. This artificially added nitrate becomes mixed with natural nitrate which, in general, is enriched in the heavy isotope. Only 50% (or even less) of the nitrate formed may stem from the added fertilizer. The mixing ratios are time-dependent, and different for various types and conditions of soil. In spite of this complexity, information on this isotopic process should be obtainable, if the isotope ratios of artificial and natural nitrate, respectively, are substantially different. Surface waters, in general, show no significant correlation between nitrate content and isotope ratio due to additions of sewage waters. Some data on ground waters from agricultural areas, however, where the nitrate content apparently resulted from fertilizers, gave a negative correlation of lower isotope ratios with higher nitrate contents. An inverse correlation was found in the isotope ratios of nitrate in untouched surface waters, and they even reflect the composition of the total soil nitrogen. (author)

  9. TCGA study identifies genomic features of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have identified novel genomic and molecular characteristics of cervical cancer that will aid in subclassification of the disease and may help target therapies that are most appropriate for each patient.

  10. New developments in measurement technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories in domed salt and basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Mao, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report briefly describes recent geophysical and geotechnical instrumentation developments relevant to the studies of deep geologic repositories. Special emphasis has been placed on techniques that appear to minimize measurement problems associated with repositories constructed in basalt or domed salt. Included in the listing are existing measurement capabilities and deficiencies that have been identified by a few authors and instrumentation workshops that have assessed the capabilities of existing instrumentation with respect to repository applications. These deficiencies have been compared with the reported advantages and limitations of the new developments described. Based on these comparisons, areas that merit further research and development have been identified. The report is based on a thorough literature review and on discussions with several instrumentation specialists involved in instrumentation development

  11. The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study: objectives and methods of a study investigating causality, course, and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Jager, Gerry; Vervaeke, Hylke K. E.; Schilt, Thelma; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and methods of The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study focussing on the causality, course, and clinical relevance of ecstasy neurotoxicity. Previous studies suggest that ecstasy (3,4 methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC) is toxic toward brain serotonin

  12. A Study of Scientometric Methods to Identify Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Udoeyop, Akaninyene W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This work examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, worldwide patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain we investigated.

  13. Identifying nurses' rewards: a qualitative categorization study in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Bois Cindy

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rewards are important in attracting, motivating and retaining the most qualified employees, and nurses are no exception to this rule. This makes the establishment of an efficient reward system for nurses a true challenge for every hospital manager. A reward does not necessarily have a financial connotation: non-financial rewards may matter too, or may even be more important. Therefore, the present study examines nurses' reward perceptions, in order to identify potential reward options. Methods To answer the research question "What do nurses consider a reward and how can these rewards be categorized?", 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with nurses were conducted and analysed using discourse and content analyses. In addition, the respondents received a list of 34 rewards (derived from the literature and were asked to indicate the extent to which they perceived each of them to be rewarding. Results Discourse analysis revealed three major reward categories: financial, non-financial and psychological, each containing different subcategories. In general, nurses more often mentioned financial rewards spontaneously in the interview, compared to non-financial and psychological rewards. The questionnaire results did not, however, indicate a significant difference in the rewarding potential of these three categories. Both the qualitative and quantitative data revealed that a number of psychological and non-financial rewards were important for nurses in addition to their monthly pay and other remunerations. In particular, appreciation for their work by others, compliments from others, presents from others and contact with patients were highly valued. Moreover, some demographical variables influenced the reward perceptions. Younger and less experienced nurses considered promotion possibilities as more rewarding than the older and more senior ones. The latter valued job security and working for a hospital with a good reputation higher

  14. A systematic literature search to identify performance measure outcomes used in clinical studies of racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, C E; Newton, J R

    2018-05-01

    Racing performance is often used as a measurable outcome variable in research studies investigating clinical diagnoses or interventions. However, the use of many different performance measures largely precludes conduct of meaningful comparative studies and, to date, those being used have not been collated. To systematically review the veterinary scientific literature for the use of racing performance as a measurable outcome variable in clinical studies of racehorses, collate and identify those most popular, and identify their advantages and disadvantages. Systematic literature search. The search criteria "((racing AND performance) AND (horses OR equidae))" were adapted for both MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts databases. Data were collected in standardised recording forms for binary, categorical and quantitative measures, and the use of performance indices. In total, 217 studies that described racing performance were identified, contributing 117 different performance measures. No one performance measure was used in all studies, despite 90.3% using more than one variable. Data regarding race starts and earnings were used most commonly, with 88.0% and 54.4% of studies including at least one measure of starts and earnings, respectively. Seventeen variables were used 10 times or more, with the top five comprising: 'return to racing', 'number of starts', 'days to first start', 'earnings per period of time' and 'earnings per start'. The search strategies may not have identified all relevant papers, introducing bias to the review. Performance indices have been developed to improve assessment of interventions; however, they are not widely adopted in the scientific literature. Use of the two most commonly identified measures, whether the horse returned to racing and number of starts over a defined period of time, would best facilitate future systematic reviews and meta-analyses in advance of the development of a gold-standard measure of race performance outcome. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Intratumor partitioning and texture analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI identifies relevant tumor subregions to predict pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Gong, Guanghua; Cui, Yi; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-11-01

    To predict pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on quantitative, multiregion analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). In this Institutional Review Board-approved study, 35 patients diagnosed with stage II/III breast cancer were retrospectively investigated using 3T DCE-MR images acquired before and after the first cycle of NAC. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the DCE-MRI data with high temporal resolution. We then partitioned the whole tumor into multiple subregions using k-means clustering based on the PCA-defined eigenmaps. Within each tumor subregion, we extracted four quantitative Haralick texture features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The change in texture features in each tumor subregion between pre- and during-NAC was used to predict pathological complete response after NAC. Three tumor subregions were identified through clustering, each with distinct enhancement characteristics. In univariate analysis, all imaging predictors except one extracted from the tumor subregion associated with fast washout were statistically significant (P < 0.05) after correcting for multiple testing, with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) or AUCs between 0.75 and 0.80. In multivariate analysis, the proposed imaging predictors achieved an AUC of 0.79 (P = 0.002) in leave-one-out cross-validation. This improved upon conventional imaging predictors such as tumor volume (AUC = 0.53) and texture features based on whole-tumor analysis (AUC = 0.65). The heterogeneity of the tumor subregion associated with fast washout on DCE-MRI predicted pathological response to NAC in breast cancer. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1107-1115. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. A Review of Concepts from Policy Studies Relevant for the Analysis of EFA in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Marie

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to give an introduction to the central concepts and the literature of Policy Studies in education. The first part of the paper addresses the questions of what policy is. How is it made and why is it relevant? It looks in particular at the role of the state and the Policy cycle framework which is an analytical tool that helps to analyse how policy is made and later implemented. The second part then focuses on the central concepts. The two main paradigms of education policy stud...

  17. Wind‐gust parametrizations at heights relevant for wind energy: a study based on mast observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Vihma, T.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Wind gusts are traditionally observed and reported at the reference height of 10 m and most gust parametrization methods have been developed only for this height. In many practical applications, e.g. in wind energy, the relevant heights are, however, up to a few hundred metres. In this study, mean...... speed, which is parametrized on the basis of the surface friction velocity, the Obukhov length and height and the boundary‐layer height. The new gust parametrization method outperformed the two older methods: the effects of surface roughness, stability and the height above the surface were well...

  18. Positron mobility measurements and their relevance to defect and impurity studies in semiconductors and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beling, C.D.; Simpson, R.I.; Stewart, M.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Fung, S.; Wai, J.C.H.; Sun, T.N.

    1987-01-01

    Positron mobility measurements and their relevance to the study of defects and impurities in semiconductors and insulators are discussed. Since the short lifetime of the positron in condensed matter renders conventional mobility techniques unsuitable, positron mobility measurements rely on the observation of annihilation photons and of vacuum emission. Measurements utilising Doppler shift, angular correlation, profile shift and diffusion to surfaces are surveyed. New methods which observe the electric field drift of positrons by lifetime spectroscopy or vacuum emission are discussed. Lifetime measurements in Fe doped InP give a positron mobility, μ + = (15 ± 5) cm 2 V -1 s -1 at 77 K. (author)

  19. Study on the relevance of some of the description methods for plateau-honed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousfi, M; Mezghani, S; Demirci, I; El Mansori, M

    2014-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in recent years into the determination of a complete parametric description of plateau-honed surfaces with the intention of making a link between the process conditions, the surface topography and the required functional performances. Different advanced techniques (plateau/valleys decomposition using the normalized Abbott–Firestone curve or morphological operators, multiscale decomposition using continuous wavelets transform, etc) were proposed and applied in different studies. This paper re-examines the current state of developments and addresses a discussion on the relevance of the different proposed parameters and characterization methods for plateau-honed surfaces by considering the control loop manufacturing-characterization-function. The relevance of appropriate characterization is demonstrated through two experimental studies. They consider the effect of the most plateau honing process variables (the abrasive grit size and abrasive indentation velocity in finish-honing and the plateau-honing stage duration and pressure) on cylinder liner surface textures and hydrodynamic friction of the ring-pack system. (paper)

  20. Cellular recovery kinetic studies relevant to combined-modality research and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dethlefsen, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The relevance of cellular recovery kinetics to combined-modality therapy is evaluated within the framework of an idealized experimental flow chart and published adriamycin data. Within this context, limitations for both experimental design and data interpretations are discussed. The effects of adriamycin have been documented extensively at the molecular and cellular level and its interactions with x-irradiation have been studied, both in vitro and in vivo. The limited in vivo results suggest that the end results of a given protocol correlate with cellular recovery kinetics; however, definitive experiments simply have not been done. For example, no one has used single-dose drug and irradiation data to predict the outcome and then confirm or refute the prediction even in a relatively simple 2-dose drug + 2-dose drug + 2-dose x-ray protocol. Thus, at this time, the extent of the correlations between cellular recovery kinetics and clinical response for either normal or malignant tissues is not known and the possible relevance of such studies cannot be discounted

  1. A curated database of cyanobacterial strains relevant for modern taxonomy and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vitor; Morais, João; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2017-04-25

    The dataset herein described lays the groundwork for an online database of relevant cyanobacterial strains, named CyanoType (http://lege.ciimar.up.pt/cyanotype). It is a database that includes categorized cyanobacterial strains useful for taxonomic, phylogenetic or genomic purposes, with associated information obtained by means of a literature-based curation. The dataset lists 371 strains and represents the first version of the database (CyanoType v.1). Information for each strain includes strain synonymy and/or co-identity, strain categorization, habitat, accession numbers for molecular data, taxonomy and nomenclature notes according to three different classification schemes, hierarchical automatic classification, phylogenetic placement according to a selection of relevant studies (including this), and important bibliographic references. The database will be updated periodically, namely by adding new strains meeting the criteria for inclusion and by revising and adding up-to-date metadata for strains already listed. A global 16S rDNA-based phylogeny is provided in order to assist users when choosing the appropriate strains for their studies.

  2. Identifying and Integrating Relevant Educational/Instructional Technology (E/IT) for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students with Disabilities in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monica R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to address the significant void in the literature related to technology integration for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with disabilities living in urban communities. Given that the vast majority of CLD students attend school within urban districts, the focus of this article is to (a) identify and…

  3. Lab-on-a-brane: A novel physiologically relevant planar arterial model to study transendothelial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Karim Ismail

    The tremendous quality of life impact notwithstanding, cardiovascular diseases and Cancer add up to over US$ 700bn each year in financial costs alone. Aging and population growth are expected to further expand the problem space while drug research and development remain expensive. However, preclinical costs can be substantially mitigated by substituting animal models with in vitro devices that accurately model human cardiovascular transport. Here we present a novel physiologically relevant lab-on-a-brane that simulates in vivo pressure, flow, strain, and shear waveforms associated with normal and pathological conditions in large and small blood vessels for studying molecular transport across the endothelial monolayer. The device builds upon previously demonstrated integrated microfluidic loop design by: (a) introducing nanoscale pores in the substrate membrane to enable transmembrane molecular transport, (b) transforming the substrate membrane into a nanofibrous matrix for 3D smooth muscle cell (SMC) tissue culture, (c) integrating electrospinning fabrication methods, (d) engineering an invertible sandwich cell culture device architecture, and (e) devising a healthy co-culture mechanism for human arterial endothelial cell (HAEC) monolayer and multiple layers of human smooth muscle cells (HSMC) to accurately mimic arterial anatomy. Structural and mechanical characterization was conducted using confocal microscopy, SEM, stress/strain analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. Transport was characterized using FITC-Dextran hydraulic permeability protocol. Structure and transport characterization successfully demonstrate device viability as a physiologically relevant arterial mimic for testing transendothelial transport. Thus, our lab-on-a-brane provides a highly effective and efficient, yet considerably inexpensive, physiologically relevant alternative for pharmacokinetic evaluation; possibly reducing animals used in pre-clinical testing, clinical trials cost from false

  4. The utricular otoliths, lapilli, of teleosts: their morphology and relevance for species identification and systematics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Assis

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the general morphology of the utricular otoliths, lapilli, of teleost fishes, proposes a terminology for their parts, identifies their two major morphological types, provides some examples of their use in species identification, and discusses their usefulness in studies of fish phylogeny and systematics.

  5. The neural correlates of implicit self-relevant processing in low self-esteem: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Guan, Lili; Dedovic, Katarina; Qi, Mingming; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-08-30

    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that implicit and explicit processing of self-relevant (schematic) material elicit activity in many of the same brain regions. Electrophysiological studies on the neural processing of explicit self-relevant cues have generally supported the view that P300 is an index of attention to self-relevant stimuli; however, there has been no study to date investigating the temporal course of implicit self-relevant processing. The current study seeks to investigate the time course involved in implicit self-processing by comparing processing of self-relevant with non-self-relevant words while subjects are making a judgment about color of the words in an implicit attention task. Sixteen low self-esteem participants were examined using event-related potentials technology (ERP). We hypothesized that this implicit attention task would involve P2 component rather than the P300 component. Indeed, P2 component has been associated with perceptual analysis and attentional allocation and may be more likely to occur in unconscious conditions such as this task. Results showed that latency of P2 component, which indexes the time required for perceptual analysis, was more prolonged in processing self-relevant words compared to processing non-self-relevant words. Our results suggested that the judgment of the color of the word interfered with automatic processing of self-relevant information and resulted in less efficient processing of self-relevant word. Together with previous ERP studies examining processing of explicit self-relevant cues, these findings suggest that the explicit and the implicit processing of self-relevant information would not elicit the same ERP components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative genetics: synergizing human and NOD mouse studies for identifying genetic causation of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, John P; Chen, Yi-Guang; Mathews, Clayton E

    2012-01-01

    Although once widely anticipated to unlock how human type 1 diabetes (T1D) develops, extensive study of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse has failed to yield effective treatments for patients with the disease. This has led many to question the usefulness of this animal model. While criticism about the differences between NOD and human T1D is legitimate, in many cases disease in both species results from perturbations modulated by the same genes or different genes that function within the same biological pathways. Like in humans, unusual polymorphisms within an MHC class II molecule contributes the most T1D risk in NOD mice. This insight supports the validity of this model and suggests the NOD has been improperly utilized to study how to cure or prevent disease in patients. Indeed, clinical trials are far from administering T1D therapeutics to humans at the same concentration ranges and pathological states that inhibit disease in NOD mice. Until these obstacles are overcome it is premature to label the NOD mouse a poor surrogate to test agents that cure or prevent T1D. An additional criticism of the NOD mouse is the past difficulty in identifying genes underlying T1D using conventional mapping studies. However, most of the few diabetogenic alleles identified to date appear relevant to the human disorder. This suggests that rather than abandoning genetic studies in NOD mice, future efforts should focus on improving the efficiency with which diabetes susceptibility genes are detected. The current review highlights why the NOD mouse remains a relevant and valuable tool to understand the genes and their interactions that promote autoimmune diabetes and therapeutics that inhibit this disease. It also describes a new range of technologies that will likely transform how the NOD mouse is used to uncover the genetic causes of T1D for years to come.

  7. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  8. Using music to study the evolution of cognitive mechanisms relevant to language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2017-02-01

    This article argues that music can be used in cross-species research to study the evolution of cognitive mechanisms relevant to spoken language. This is because music and language share certain cognitive processing mechanisms and because music offers specific advantages for cross-species research. Music has relatively simple building blocks (tones without semantic properties), yet these building blocks are combined into rich hierarchical structures that engage complex cognitive processing. I illustrate this point with regard to the processing of musical harmonic structure. Because the processing of musical harmonic structure has been shown to interact with linguistic syntactic processing in humans, it is of interest to know if other species can acquire implicit knowledge of harmonic structure through extended exposure to music during development (vs. through explicit training). I suggest that domestic dogs would be a good species to study in addressing this question.

  9. A 5 year prospective study of patient-relevant outcomes after total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, A-K; Toksvig-Larsen, S; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    men, mean age 71 (51-86) assigned for TKR at the Department of Orthopaedics at Lund University Hospital were included in the study. The self-administered questionnaires Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and SF-36 were mailed preoperatively and 6 months, 12 months and at 5 years......OBJECTIVE: To prospectively describe self-reported outcomes up to 5 years after total knee replacement (TKR) in Osteoarthritis (OA) and to study which patient-relevant factors may predict outcomes for pain and physical function (PF). METHODS: 102 consecutive patients with knee OA, 63 women and 39...... postoperatively. RESULTS: Response rate at 5 years was 86%. At 6 months significant improvement was seen in all KOOS and SF-36 scores (P

  10. Study Gaps Relevant to Use of Complementary Medicine in Patients With Leukemia: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Context A review of the literature of recent decades has shown that few studies have been conducted on the effects of various types of complementary medicine on patients with leukemia. Therefore, the present study aimed to find research gaps in the use of different types of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia to be applied in future studies. Evidence Acquisition The present study was a review-type design based on a review of the literature on different types of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia, up to 2015. The search was conducted through electronic databases and search engines. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 studies which had been conducted on the use of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia were selected for the identification of gaps. Results The overall results showed that few studies have been conducted on the use of exercise, massage therapy, music therapy, acupressure, and healing touch in patients with leukemia, and these subjects are potential research areas for many different studies. However, no studies have been carried out on the effects of acupuncture, relaxation, and yoga on these patients. Conclusions The results of this review showed that the number of studies on the use of complementary medicine in leukemia patients is very limited (especially in Iran, and it can be the subject of numerous studies in the future.

  11. Identifying patient- and family-centered outcomes relevant to inpatient versus at-home management of neutropenia in children with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Julia E; Getz, Kelly D; Madding, Rachel; Fisher, Brian; Raetz, Elizabeth; Hijiya, Nobuko; Gramatges, Maria M; Henry, Meret; Mian, Amir; Arnold, Staci D; Aftandilian, Catherine; Collier, Anderson B; Aplenc, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Efficacy of therapeutic strategies relative to patient- and family-centered outcomes in pediatric oncology must be assessed. We sought to identify outcomes important to children with acute myeloid leukemia and their families related to inpatient versus at-home management of neutropenia. We conducted qualitative interviews with 32 children ≥8 years old and 54 parents. Analysis revealed the impact of neutropenia management strategy on siblings, parent anxiety, and child sleep quality as being outcomes of concern across respondents. These themes were used to inform the design of a questionnaire that is currently being used in a prospective, multiinstitutional comparative effectiveness trial. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The relevance of context in understanding health literacy skills: Findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Verna B; Sixsmith, Jane; Barry, Margaret M

    2017-10-01

    Conceptualizing health literacy as a relational concept, which involves how individuals interact with complex health and social systems, requires a greater understanding of the context of people's health experiences. To describe individuals' experiences of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health information; explore the barriers and facilitators to using these skills; and to describe the experience of information exchange in health consultations. A longitudinal qualitative methodology with thematic analysis of interviews was used. Health literacy levels were assessed using the HLS-EU-47-Item Questionnaire. Findings are presented from the first round of data collection. Twenty-six participants purposefully selected from a CVD risk reduction programme at three separate time points. Four key themes identified: using health literacy capacities for managing health; psychological and structural factors that impact on these capacities; and the relationship quality with the health-care provider (HCP). Although limited health literacy was prevalent across the sample (65%), all individuals were very proactive in attempting to utilize health literacy skills. Findings emphasize the importance of contextual factors such as the quality of communication with the health-care provider, perceptions of control, attitudes to family medical history, navigating structural barriers and being supported in managing treatment and medication side-effects. Findings are relevant for health-care providers in order to enhance the patient-provider relationship and to ensure optimum health outcomes for all individuals regardless of health literacy levels. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okbay, Aysu; P. Beauchamp, Jonathan; Alan Fontana, Mark

    2016-01-01

    -nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural......Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends...... development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals...

  14. Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripke, S.; Sanders, A. R.; Kendler, K. S.; Levinson, D. F.; Sklar, P.; Holmans, P. A.; Lin, D. Y.; Duan, J.; Ophoff, R. A.; Andreassen, O. A.; Scolnick, E.; Cichon, S.; St Clair, D.; Corvin, A.; Gurling, H.; Werge, T.; Rujescu, D.; Blackwood, D. H.; Pato, C. N.; Malhotra, A. K.; Purcell, S.; Dudbridge, F.; Neale, B. M.; Rossin, L.; Visscher, P. M.; Posthuma, D.; Ruderfer, D. M.; Fanous, A.; Stefansson, H.; Steinberg, S.; Mowry, B. J.; Golimbet, V.; de Hert, M.; Jonsson, E. G.; Bitter, I.; Pietilainen, O. P.; Collier, D. A.; Tosato, S.; Agartz, I.; Albus, M.; Alexander, M.; Amdur, R. L.; Amin, F.; Bass, N.; Bergen, S. E.; Black, D. W.; Borglum, A. D.; Brown, M. A.; Bruggeman, R.; Buccola, N. G.; Byerley, W. F.; Cahn, W.; Cantor, R. M.; Carr, V. J.; Catts, S. V.; Choudhury, K.; Cloninger, C. R.; Cormican, P.; Craddock, N.; Danoy, P. A.; Datta, S.; de Haan, L.; Demontis, D.; Dikeos, D.; Djurovic, S.; Donnely, P.; Donohoe, G.; Duong, L.; Dwyer, S.; Fink-Jensen, A.; Freedman, R.; Freimer, N. B.; Friedl, M.; Georgieva, L.; Giegling, I.; Gill, M.; Glenthoj, B.; Godard, S.; Hamshere, M.; Hansen, M.; Hartmann, A. M.; Henskens, F. A.; Hougaard, D. M.; Hultman, C. M.; Ingason, A.; Jablensky, A. V.; Jakobsen, K. D.; Jay, M.; Jurgens, G.; Kahn, R. S.; Keller, M. C.; Kenis, G.; Kenny, E.; Kim, Y.; Kirov, G. K.; Konnerth, H.; Konte, B.; Krabbendam, L.; Krasucki, R.; Lasseter, V. K.; Laurent, C.; Lawrence, J.; Lencz, T.; Lerer, F. B.; Liang, K. Y.; Lichtenstein, P.; Lieberman, J. A.; Linszen, D. H.; Lonnqvist, J.; Loughland, C. M.; Maclean, A. W.; Maher, B. S.; Maier, W.; Mallet, J.; Malloy, P.; Mattheisen, M.; Mattingsdal, M.; McGhee, K. A.; McGrath, J. J.; McIntosh, A.; McLean, D. E.; McQuillin, A.; Melle, I.; Michie, P. T.; Milanova, V.; Morris, D. W.; Mors, O.; Mortensen, P. B.; Moskvina, V.; Muglia, P.; Myin-Germeys, I.; Nertney, D. A.; Nestadt, G.; Nielsen, J.; Nikolov, I.; Nordentoft, M.; Norton, N.; Nothen, M. M.; O'Dushlaine, C. T.; Olincy, A.; Olsen, L.; O'Neill, F. A.; Orntoft, T. F.; Owen, M. J.; Pantelis, C.; Papadimitriou, G.; Pato, M. T.; Peltonen, L.; Petursson, H.; Pickard, B.; Pimm, J.; Pulver, A. E.; Puri, V.; Quested, D.; Quinn, E. M.; Rasmussen, H. B.; Rethelyi, J. M.; Ribble, R.; Rietschel, M.; Riley, B. P.; Ruggeri, M.; Schall, U.; Schulze, T. G.; Schwab, S. G.; Scott, R. J.; Shi, J.; Sigurdsson, E.; Silvermann, J. M.; Spencer, C. C.; Stefansson, K.; Strange, A.; Strengman, E.; Stroup, T. S.; Suvisaari, J.; Terenius, L.; Thirumalai, S.; Thygesen, J. H.; Timm, S.; Toncheva, D.; van den Oord, E.; van Os, J.; van Winkel, R.; Veldink, J.; Walsh, D.; Wang, A. G.; Wiersma, D.; Wildenauer, D. B.; Williams, H. J.; Williams, N. M.; Wormley, B.; Zammit, S.; Sullivan, P. F.; O'Donovan, M. C.; Daly, M. J.; Gejman, P. V.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the role of common genetic variation in schizophrenia in a genome-wide association study of substantial size: a stage 1 discovery sample of 21,856 individuals of European ancestry and a stage 2 replication sample of 29,839 independent subjects. The combined stage 1 and 2 analysis yielded

  15. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lori; Hofer, Amy R.; Hanick, Silvia Lin; Brunetti, Korey

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts--core ideas and processes in a discipline that students need to grasp in order to progress in their learning, but that are often unspoken or unrecognized by expert practitioners--for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions:…

  16. Laboratory Studies of Ethane Ice Relevant to Outer Solar System Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marla H.; Hudson, Reggie; Raines, Lily

    2009-01-01

    Oort Cloud comets, as well as TNOs Makemake (2045 FYg), Quaoar, and Pluto, are known to contain ethane. However, even though this molecule is found on several outer Solar System objects relatively little information is available about its amorphous and crystalline phases. In new experiments, we have prepared ethane ices at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System, and have heated and ion-irradiated these ices to study phase changes and ethane's radiation chemistry using mid-IR spectroscopy (2.2 - 16.6 microns). Included in our work is the meta-stable phase that exists at 35 - 55 K. These results, including newly obtained optical constants, are relevant to ground-based observational campaigns, the New Horizons mission, and supporting laboratory work. An improved understanding of solid-phase ethane may contribute to future searches for this and other hydrocarbons in the outer Solar System.

  17. Organisationally relevant variables and Keyes's Mental Health Continuum Scale: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo J.W. Strümpfer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In an exploratory study on a sample of convenience (n = 165, 11 self-report variables with presumed organisational  relevance were  related,  as  predictors,  to  the  three  subscores  and  summed  score of  the Keyes  (2005a, 2005b; 2007 Mental Health Continuum  scale  (long  form. Keyes's  scale was administered five to seven days after the first set of scales. The predictor scores were reduced to three factorial scores, labelled positive orientation, negative orientation and positive striving. When classified thus, the predictor variables showed significant and meaningful relationships with some or all of the Keyes subscores and the total score, although few reached medium effect sizes.

  18. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Townsend

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions. First, is the threshold concept approach useful for information literacy instruction? The panel unanimously agreed that the threshold concept approach holds potential for information literacy instruction. Second, what are the threshold concepts for information literacy instruction? The panel proposed and discussed over fifty potential threshold concepts, finally settling on six information literacy threshold concepts.

  19. Identifying Threshold Concepts for Information Literacy: A Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lori Townsend; Amy R. Hofer; Silvia Lin Hanick; Korey Brunetti

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Delphi method to engage expert practitioners on the topic of threshold concepts for information literacy. A panel of experts considered two questions. First, is the threshold concept approach useful for information literacy instruction? The panel unanimously agreed that the threshold concept approach holds potential for information literacy instruction. Second, what are the threshold concepts for information literacy instruction? The panel proposed and discussed over fift...

  20. Study on determination method of identifying irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Liping; Yu Xuejun; Yu Menghong; Fu Junjie; Zhang Shimin; Bao Jinsong

    2003-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the activities of aleipsis, peroxidase, perhydrol catalase and the peroxide values in chicken oil and effects of different storage time on self-oxidation of fat and lipa in irradiated chicken were studied. The results showed that the activities of aleipsis and perhydrol catalase in irradiated chicken decreased with increasing doses, and the peroxide activity and peroxide value of lipa increased with increase of doses. No significant effect of storage time on peroxide value was observed in the irradiated chicken

  1. A review of the reporting of web searching to identify studies for Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The literature searches that are used to identify studies for inclusion in a systematic review should be comprehensively reported. This ensures that the literature searches are transparent and reproducible, which is important for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a systematic review and re-running the literature searches when conducting an update review. Web searching using search engines and the websites of topically relevant organisations is sometimes used as a supplementary literature search method. Previous research has shown that the reporting of web searching in systematic reviews often lacks important details and is thus not transparent or reproducible. Useful details to report about web searching include the name of the search engine or website, the URL, the date searched, the search strategy, and the number of results. This study reviews the reporting of web searching to identify studies for Cochrane systematic reviews published in the 6-month period August 2016 to January 2017 (n = 423). Of these reviews, 61 reviews reported using web searching using a search engine or website as a literature search method. In the majority of reviews, the reporting of web searching was found to lack essential detail for ensuring transparency and reproducibility, such as the search terms. Recommendations are made on how to improve the reporting of web searching in Cochrane systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Power of Phase I Studies to Detect Clinical Relevant QTc Prolongation: A Resampling Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Ferber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration-effect (CE models applied to early clinical QT data from healthy subjects are described in the latest E14 Q&A document as promising analysis to characterise QTc prolongation. The challenges faced if one attempts to replace a TQT study by thorough ECG assessments in Phase I based on CE models are the assurance to obtain sufficient power and the establishment of a substitute for the positive control to show assay sensitivity providing protection against false negatives. To demonstrate that CE models in small studies can reliably predict the absence of an effect on QTc, we investigated the role of some key design features in the power of the analysis. Specifically, the form of the CE model, inclusion of subjects on placebo, and sparse sampling on the performance and power of this analysis were investigated. In this study, the simulations conducted by subsampling subjects from 3 different TQT studies showed that CE model with a treatment effect can be used to exclude small QTc effects. The number of placebo subjects was also shown to increase the power to detect an inactive drug preventing false positives while an effect can be underestimated if time points around tmax are missed.

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ripke, Stephan

    2011-10-01

    We examined the role of common genetic variation in schizophrenia in a genome-wide association study of substantial size: a stage 1 discovery sample of 21,856 individuals of European ancestry and a stage 2 replication sample of 29,839 independent subjects. The combined stage 1 and 2 analysis yielded genome-wide significant associations with schizophrenia for seven loci, five of which are new (1p21.3, 2q32.3, 8p23.2, 8q21.3 and 10q24.32-q24.33) and two of which have been previously implicated (6p21.32-p22.1 and 18q21.2). The strongest new finding (P = 1.6 × 10(-11)) was with rs1625579 within an intron of a putative primary transcript for MIR137 (microRNA 137), a known regulator of neuronal development. Four other schizophrenia loci achieving genome-wide significance contain predicted targets of MIR137, suggesting MIR137-mediated dysregulation as a previously unknown etiologic mechanism in schizophrenia. In a joint analysis with a bipolar disorder sample (16,374 affected individuals and 14,044 controls), three loci reached genome-wide significance: CACNA1C (rs4765905, P = 7.0 × 10(-9)), ANK3 (rs10994359, P = 2.5 × 10(-8)) and the ITIH3-ITIH4 region (rs2239547, P = 7.8 × 10(-9)).

  4. The relevance of polymeric synthetic membranes in topical formulation assessment and drug diffusion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shiow-Fern; Rouse, Jennifer J; Sanderson, Francis D; Eccleston, Gillian M

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic membranes are composed of thin sheets of polymeric macromolecules that can control the passage of components through them. Generally, synthetic membranes used in drug diffusion studies have one of two functions: skin simulation or quality control. Synthetic membranes for skin simulation, such as the silicone-based membranes polydimethylsiloxane and Carbosil, are generally hydrophobic and rate limiting, imitating the stratum corneum. In contrast, synthetic membranes for quality control, such as cellulose esters and polysulfone, are required to act as a support rather than a barrier. These synthetic membranes also often contain pores; hence, they are called porous membranes. The significance of Franz diffusion studies and synthetic membranes in quality control studies involves an understanding of the fundamentals of synthetic membranes. This article provides a general overview of synthetic membranes, including a brief background of the history and the common applications of synthetic membranes. This review then explores the types of synthetic membranes, the transport mechanisms across them, and their relevance in choosing a synthetic membrane in Franz diffusion cell studies for formulation assessment purposes.

  5. CATALISE: A Multinational and Multidisciplinary Delphi Consensus Study. Identifying Language Impairments in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V M; Snowling, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul A; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2016-01-01

    Delayed or impaired language development is a common developmental concern, yet there is little agreement about the criteria used to identify and classify language impairments in children. Children's language difficulties are at the interface between education, medicine and the allied professions, who may all adopt different approaches to conceptualising them. Our goal in this study was to use an online Delphi technique to see whether it was possible to achieve consensus among professionals on appropriate criteria for identifying children who might benefit from specialist services. We recruited a panel of 59 experts representing ten disciplines (including education, psychology, speech-language therapy/pathology, paediatrics and child psychiatry) from English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, United Kingdom and USA). The starting point for round 1 was a set of 46 statements based on articles and commentaries in a special issue of a journal focusing on this topic. Panel members rated each statement for both relevance and validity on a seven-point scale, and added free text comments. These responses were synthesised by the first two authors, who then removed, combined or modified items with a view to improving consensus. The resulting set of statements was returned to the panel for a second evaluation (round 2). Consensus (percentage reporting 'agree' or 'strongly agree') was at least 80 percent for 24 of 27 round 2 statements, though many respondents qualified their response with written comments. These were again synthesised by the first two authors. The resulting consensus statement is reported here, with additional summary of relevant evidence, and a concluding commentary on residual disagreements and gaps in the evidence base.

  6. CATALISE: A Multinational and Multidisciplinary Delphi Consensus Study. Identifying Language Impairments in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V M Bishop

    Full Text Available Delayed or impaired language development is a common developmental concern, yet there is little agreement about the criteria used to identify and classify language impairments in children. Children's language difficulties are at the interface between education, medicine and the allied professions, who may all adopt different approaches to conceptualising them. Our goal in this study was to use an online Delphi technique to see whether it was possible to achieve consensus among professionals on appropriate criteria for identifying children who might benefit from specialist services. We recruited a panel of 59 experts representing ten disciplines (including education, psychology, speech-language therapy/pathology, paediatrics and child psychiatry from English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, United Kingdom and USA. The starting point for round 1 was a set of 46 statements based on articles and commentaries in a special issue of a journal focusing on this topic. Panel members rated each statement for both relevance and validity on a seven-point scale, and added free text comments. These responses were synthesised by the first two authors, who then removed, combined or modified items with a view to improving consensus. The resulting set of statements was returned to the panel for a second evaluation (round 2. Consensus (percentage reporting 'agree' or 'strongly agree' was at least 80 percent for 24 of 27 round 2 statements, though many respondents qualified their response with written comments. These were again synthesised by the first two authors. The resulting consensus statement is reported here, with additional summary of relevant evidence, and a concluding commentary on residual disagreements and gaps in the evidence base.

  7. SMART-1 highlights and relevant studies on early bombardment and geological processes on rocky planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foing, B H; Koschny, D; Frew, D; Almeida, M; Zender, J; Heather, D; Peters, S; Racca, G D; Marini, A; Stagnaro, L; Josset, J L; Beauvivre, S; Grande, M; Kellett, B; Huovelin, J; Nathues, A; Mall, U; Ehrenfreund, P; McCannon, P

    2008-01-01

    We present results from SMART-1 science and technology payload, in the context of the Nobel symposium on 'Physics of Planetary Systems'. SMART-1 is Europe' first lunar mission (Foing et al 2000 LPSC XXXI Abstract 1677 (CDROM); Foing et al 2001 Earth, Moon Planets 85-86 523-31; Marini et al 2002 Adv. Space Res. 30 1895-900; Racca et al 2001 Earth Moon Planets 85-86 379-95, Racca et al 2002 Planet Space Sci. 50 1323-37) demonstrating technologies for future science and exploration missions, and providing advances in our understanding of lunar origin and evolution, and general planetary questions. The mission also contributes a step in developing an international program of lunar exploration. The spacecraft, launched on 27 September 2003 as an Ariane 5 Auxiliary passenger to geostationary transfer orbit (GTO), performed a 14-month long cruise using a tiny thrust of electric propulsion alone, reached lunar capture in November 2004, and lunar science orbit in March 2005. SMART-1 carried 7 hardware experiments (Foing et al 2003 Adv. Space Res. 31 2323, Foing et al 2005 LPI/LPSC XXXVI 2404 (CDROM)) performing 10 investigations, including 3 remote-sensing instruments, used during the cruise, the mission' nominal six-months and one-year extension in lunar science orbit. Three remote sensing instruments, D-CIXS, SIR and AMIE, have returned data that are relevant to a broad range of lunar studies. The mission provided regional and global x-ray measurements of the Moon, global high-spectral resolution NIR spectrometry, high spatial resolution colour imaging of selected regions. The South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) and other impact basins have been prime targets for studies using the SMART-1 suite of instruments. Combined, these should aid a large number of science studies, from bulk crustal composition and theories of lunar origin/evolution, the global and local crustal composition, to the search for cold traps at the lunar poles and the mapping of potential lunar resources. We

  8. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying sustainability issues using participatory SWOT analysis - A case study of egg production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production

  10. Impact of Culturally Relevant Contextualized Activities on Elementary and Middle School Students' Perceptions of Science: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espada, Wilson; Llerandi-Román, Pablo; Fortis-Santiago, Yaihara; Guerrero-Medina, Giovanna; Ortiz-Vega, Nicole; Feliú-Mójer, Mónica; Colón-Ramos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have argued that textbooks should be customized to local cultures and experiences, they rarely are. Ciencia Puerto Rico, a non-profit group interested in promoting science literacy and education among Latino(a)s/Hispanics, identified a need to provide schools with culturally relevant materials. The result was the publication…

  11. Is there a prognostic relevance of electrophysiological studies in bundle branch block patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogossian, Harilaos; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Göbbert, Kornelius; Hasan, Fuad; Nguyen, Quy Suu; Ninios, Ilias; Mijic, Dejan; Bandorski, Dirk; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Seyfarth, Melchior; Lemke, Bernd; Eckardt, Lars; Zarse, Markus

    2017-08-01

    The present European guidelines suggest a diagnostic electrophysiological (EP) study to determine indication for cardiac pacing in patients with bundle branch block and unexplained syncope. We evaluated the prognostic relevance of an EP study for mortality and the development of permanent complete atrioventricular (AV) block in patients with symptomatic bifascicular block and first-degree AV block. The HV interval is a poor prognostic marker to predict the development of permanent AV block in patients with symptomatic bifascicular block (BFB) and AV block I°. Thirty consecutive patients (mean age, 74.8 ± 8.6 years; 25 males) with symptomatic BFB and first-degree AV block underwent an EP study before device implantation, according to current guidelines. For 53 ± 31 months, patients underwent yearly follow-up screening for syncope or higher-degree AV block. Thirty patients presented with prolonged HV interval during the EP study (mean, 82.2 ± 20.1 ms; range, 57-142 ms), classified into 3 groups: group 1, 70 to ≤100 ms (mean, 80 ± 8 ms; range, 70-97 ms; n = 18), and group 3, >100 ms (mean, 119 ± 14 ms; range, 107-142 ms; n = 5). According to the guidelines, patients in groups 2 and 3 received a pacemaker. The length of the HV interval was not associated with the later development of third-degree AV block or with increased mortality. Our present study suggests that an indication for pacemaker implantation based solely on a diagnostic EP study with prolongation of the HV interval is not justified. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Ruprechtov natural analogue site (Cz) study: mobile natural organic matter identification, characterisation and link to PA relevant processes - 16341

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlova, Vaclava; Cervinka, Radek; Noseck, Ulrich; Brasser, Thomas; Havel, Josef

    2009-01-01

    The Ruprechtov Natural Analogue (CZ) Programme has been focused on studying real system processes, relevant to performance assessment (PA) of sediment formations that can form the overburden of geological repository host rocks. The site has been extensively studied due to its geological constitution (granite - kaolin - clay - U mineralisation - organic matter). The presented study used Ruprechtov unique but well-described geological conditions in order to identify and characterise mobile organic matter (MOM) that can be easily released into groundwater and can influence PA relevant specie migration due to complexation/sorption reaction. The modem analytical method MALDI-TOF MS was used for characterisation. It was found that only a small fraction of sedimentary natural organic matter (NOM) from the site was easily releasable (max. 5%) as MOM, resulting in low organic substance concentration in natural groundwater. MOM amount released was decreasing with increasing NOM content. MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a useful tool to characterize organic substances, either natural ones or artificially released from natural organic matter samples. A noticeable fingerprint for all the MOM compounds analysed was found at MALDITOF MS spectra. This showed that MOM from the Ruprechtov site was in all cases composed of molecules with low molecular weight (under 1000 Da). As determined by the consequent geochemical analyses, despite groundwater reducing conditions MOM compounds would be mainly interacting with U(VI) in the groundwater, being present as more abundant U specie. Good correspondence of results enabled to consider the extracted humic acid HA 12/3 as a mobile organic matter fraction representative. (authors)

  13. Protocol: a systematic review of studies developing and/or evaluating search strategies to identify prognosis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corp, Nadia; Jordan, Joanne L; Hayden, Jill A; Irvin, Emma; Parker, Robin; Smith, Andrea; van der Windt, Danielle A

    2017-04-20

    Prognosis research is on the rise, its importance recognised because chronic health conditions and diseases are increasingly common and costly. Prognosis systematic reviews are needed to collate and synthesise these research findings, especially to help inform effective clinical decision-making and healthcare policy. A detailed, comprehensive search strategy is central to any systematic review. However, within prognosis research, this is challenging due to poor reporting and inconsistent use of available indexing terms in electronic databases. Whilst many published search filters exist for finding clinical trials, this is not the case for prognosis studies. This systematic review aims to identify and compare existing methodological filters developed and evaluated to identify prognosis studies of any of the three main types: overall prognosis, prognostic factors, and prognostic [risk prediction] models. Primary studies reporting the development and/or evaluation of methodological search filters to retrieve any type of prognosis study will be included in this systematic review. Multiple electronic bibliographic databases will be searched, grey literature will be sought from relevant organisations and websites, experts will be contacted, and citation tracking of key papers and reference list checking of all included papers will be undertaken. Titles will be screened by one person, and abstracts and full articles will be reviewed for inclusion independently by two reviewers. Data extraction and quality assessment will also be undertaken independently by two reviewers with disagreements resolved by discussion or by a third reviewer if necessary. Filters' characteristics and performance metrics reported in the included studies will be extracted and tabulated. To enable comparisons, filters will be grouped according to database, platform, type of prognosis study, and type of filter for which it was intended. This systematic review will identify all existing validated

  14. A Case Study: Are Traditional Face-To-Face Lectures Still Relevant When Teaching Engineering Courses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LillAnne Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this rapidly changing age, with virtually all information available on the Internet including courses, students may not find any reason to physically attend the lectures. In spite of the many benefits the online lectures and materials bring to teaching, this drift from the traditional (norm face-to-face lectures is also creating further barriers, such as difficulty in communicating and building personal relationships, between students and instructor. In this paper we carry out a study that presents and analyzes factors that motivate students to attend a (1 face-to-face instruction in-class versus an (2 online class. This study is based on an anonymous and voluntary survey that was conducted in the School of Engineering at University of Victoria, BC, Canada. This paper presents and shares the detailed results and analysis of this survey that also includes some interesting and useful comments from the students. Based on the results, analysis and comments the paper suggests methodologies of how to improve face-to-face in-class instructions to make them more relevant to the current global information age.

  15. More Realistic Face Model Surface Improves Relevance of Pediatric In-Vitro Aerosol Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirav, Israel; Halamish, Asaf; Gorenberg, Miguel; Omar, Hamza; Newhouse, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Various hard face models are commonly used to evaluate the efficiency of aerosol face masks. Softer more realistic "face" surface materials, like skin, deform upon mask application and should provide more relevant in-vitro tests. Studies that simultaneously take into consideration many of the factors characteristic of the in vivo face are lacking. These include airways, various application forces, comparison of various devices, comparison with a hard-surface model and use of a more representative model face based on large numbers of actual faces. To compare mask to "face" seal and aerosol delivery of two pediatric masks using a soft vs. a hard, appropriately representative, pediatric face model under various applied forces. Two identical face models and upper airways replicas were constructed, the only difference being the suppleness and compressibility of the surface layer of the "face." Integrity of the seal and aerosol delivery of two different masks [AeroChamber (AC) and SootherMask (SM)] were compared using a breath simulator, filter collection and realistic applied forces. The soft "face" significantly increased the delivery efficiency and the sealing characteristics of both masks. Aerosol delivery with the soft "face" was significantly greater for the SM compared to the AC (pmasks was observed with the hard "face." The material and pliability of the model "face" surface has a significant influence on both the seal and delivery efficiency of face masks. This finding should be taken into account during in-vitro aerosol studies.

  16. Perspectives of Employees with Intellectual Disabilities on Themes Relevant to Their Job Satisfaction. An Explorative Study using Photovoice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, A.; Janssen, C.G.C.; Kef, S.; Meininger, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study explored the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on themes relevant to their job satisfaction in integrated and sheltered employment. Method: The photovoice method was used. Nine participants with moderate to mild intellectual disabilities, working in

  17. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  18. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders: A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hofmeijer-Sevink, M.; Batelaan, N.M.; van Megen, H.J.G.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Cath, D.C.; van Hout, M.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P.; Fontana, Mark A.; Lee, James J.; Pers, Tune H.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo-Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S. Fleur W.; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; de Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H.; Concas, Maria Pina; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P.; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J.; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A.; Lindgren, Karl-Oskar; Liu, Tian; Mangino, Massimo; Marten, Jonathan; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B.; van der Most, Peter J.; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Payton, Antony; Pervjakova, Natalia; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rueedi, Rico; Salvi, Erika; Schmidt, Börge; Schraut, Katharina E.; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert V.; Poot, Raymond A.; Pourcain, Beate; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Verweij, Niek; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Biino, Ginevra; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boyle, Patricia A.; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Davies, Gail; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deloukas, Panos; Demuth, Ilja; Ding, Jun; Eibich, Peter; Eisele, Lewin; Eklund, Niina; Evans68, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Forstner, Andreas J.; Gandin, Ilaria; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Homuth, Georg; Horan, Michael A.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Jager, Philip L.; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika A.; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M.; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kroh, Martin; Kutalik, Zoltan; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lebreton, Maël P.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.M.; Loukola, Anu; Madden, Pamela A.; Mägi, Reedik; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Marioni, Riccardo E.; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meddens, Gerardus A.; McMahon, George; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Milaneschi, Yusplitri; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Myhre, Ronny; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Ollier, William E.R.; Palotie, Aarno; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Porteous, David J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Ring, Susan M.; Robino, Antonietta; Rostapshova, Olga; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J.; Smith, Blair H.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Strauch, Konstantin; Terracciano, Antonio; Tobin, Martin D.; Ulivi, Sheila; Vaccargiu, Simona; Quaye, Lydia; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Venturini, Cristina; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M.; Vozzi, Diego; Waage, Johannes; Ware, Erin B.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Attia, John R.; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bultmann, Ute; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Franke, Barbara; Franke, Lude; Gasparini, Paolo; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Gratten, Jacob; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Hinds, David A.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G.; Jacobsson, Bo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lehrer, Steven F.; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Pendleton, Neil; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Perola, Markus; Pirastu, Nicola; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Power, Christine; Province, Michael A.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tiemeier, Henning; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter; Weir, David R.; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Laibson, David I.; Medland, Sarah E.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Yang, Jian; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M.; Esko, Tõnu; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Cesarini, David; Benjamin, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Educational attainment (EA) is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are also estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. We report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for EA that extends our earlier discovery sample1,2 of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We now identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioral phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because EA is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:27225129

  20. Identifying the barriers to conducting outcomes research in integrative health care clinic settings - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay-Reece Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrative health care (IHC is an interdisciplinary blending of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM with the purpose of enhancing patients' health. In 2006, we designed a study to assess outcomes that are relevant to people using such care. However, we faced major challenges in conducting this study and hypothesized that this might be due to the lack of a research climate in these clinics. To investigate these challenges, we initiated a further study in 2008, to explore the reasons why IHC clinics are not conducting outcomes research and to identify strategies for conducting successful in-house outcomes research programs. The results of the latter study are reported here. Methods A total of 25 qualitative interviews were conducted with key participants from 19 IHC clinics across Canada. Basic content analysis was used to identify key themes from the transcribed interviews. Results Barriers identified by participants fell into four categories: organizational culture, organizational resources, organizational environment and logistical challenges. Cultural challenges relate to the philosophy of IHC, organizational leadership and practitioner attitudes and beliefs. Participants also identified significant issues relating to their organization's lack of resources such as funding, compensation, infrastructure and partnerships/linkages. Environmental challenges such as the nature of a clinic's patient population and logistical issues such as the actual implementation of a research program and the applicability of research data also posed challenges to the conduct of research. Embedded research leadership, integration of personal and professional values about research, alignment of research activities and clinical workflow processes are some of the factors identified by participants that support IHC clinics' ability to conduct outcomes research. Conclusions Assessing and enhancing the broader

  1. Conditional net survival: Relevant prognostic information for colorectal cancer survivors. A French population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillard, Antoine; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Rollot, Fabien; Faivre, Jean; Jooste, Valérie; Lepage, Côme

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, survival estimates have been reported as survival from the time of diagnosis. A patient's probability of survival changes according to time elapsed since the diagnosis and this is known as conditional survival. The aim was to estimate 5-year net conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer in a well-defined French population at yearly intervals up to 5 years. Our study included 18,300 colorectal cancers diagnosed between 1976 and 2008 and registered in the population-based digestive cancer registry of Burgundy (France). We calculated conditional 5-year net survival, using the Pohar Perme estimator, for every additional year survived after diagnosis from 1 to 5 years. The initial 5-year net survival estimates varied between 89% for stage I and 9% for advanced stage cancer. The corresponding 5-year net survival for patients alive after 5 years was 95% and 75%. Stage II and III patients who survived 5 years had a similar probability of surviving 5 more years, respectively 87% and 84%. For survivors after the first year following diagnosis, five-year conditional net survival was similar regardless of age class and period of diagnosis. For colorectal cancer survivors, conditional net survival provides relevant and complementary prognostic information for patients and clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Software Development Initiatives to Identify and Mitigate Security Threats - Two Systematic Mapping Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Software Security and development experts have addressed the problem of building secure software systems. There are several processes and initiatives to achieve secure software systems. However, most of these lack empirical evidence of its application and impact in building secure software systems. Two systematic mapping studies (SM have been conducted to cover the existent initiatives for identification and mitigation of security threats. The SMs created were executed in two steps, first in 2015 July, and complemented through a backward snowballing in 2016 July. Integrated results of these two SM studies show a total of 30 relevant sources were identified; 17 different initiatives covering threats identification and 14 covering the mitigation of threats were found. All the initiatives were associated to at least one activity of the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC; while 6 showed signs of being applied in industrial settings, only 3 initiatives presented experimental evidence of its results through controlled experiments, some of the other selected studies presented case studies or proposals.

  3. A preliminary assessment of geologic framework and sediment thickness studies relevant to prospective US submission on extended continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Hammar-Klose, Erika; Dadisman, Shawn; Edgar, N. Terrence; Barth, Ginger A.

    2004-01-01

    Under the provisions of Articles 76 and 77 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), coastal States have sovereign rights over the continental shelf territory beyond 200-nautical mile (nm) from the baseline from which the territorial sea is measured if certain conditions are met regarding the geologic and physiographic character of the legal continental shelf as defined in those articles. These claims to an extended continental shelf must be supported by relevant bathymetric, geophysical and geological data according to guidelines established by the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS, 1999). In anticipation of the United States becoming party to UNCLOS, Congress in 2001 directed the Joint Hydrographic Center/Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping at the University of New Hampshire to conduct a study to evaluate data relevant to establishing the outer limit of the juridical continental shelf beyond 200 nm and to recommend what additional data might be needed to substantiate such an outer limit (Mayer and others, 2002). The resulting report produced an impressive and sophisticated GIS database of data sources. Because of the short time allowed to complete the report, all seismic reflection data were classified together; the authors therefore recommended that USGS perform additional analysis on seismic and related data holdings. The results of this additional analysis are the substance of this report, including the status of geologic framework, sediment isopach research, and resource potential in the eight regions1 identified by Mayer and others (2002) where analysis of seismic data might be crucial for establishing an outer limit . Seismic reflection and refraction data are essential in determining sediment thickness, one of the criteria used in establishing the outer limits of the juridical continental shelf. Accordingly, the initial task has been to inventory public-domain seismic data sources, primarily those regionally

  4. The relevance and role of homestays in medical education: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bonnie Olivia; Moshabela, Mosa; Owen, Jenni; Gaede, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The community-based medical education curriculum is growing in popularity as a strategy to bring universal health coverage to underserved communities by providing medical students with hands-on training in primary health care. Accommodation and immersion of medical students within the community will become increasingly important to the success of community-based curricula. In the context of tourism, homestays, where local families host guests, have shown to provide an immersive accommodation experience. By exploring homestays in the educational context, this scoping study investigates their role in providing an immersive pedagogical experience for medical students. A scoping review was performed using the online databases ScienceDirect and the Duke University Library Database, which searches Academic Search Complete, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Web of Science, Proquest, PubMed and WorldCat. Using the inclusion term 'homestays' and excluding the term 'tourism', 181 results were returned. AClose assessment using inclusion criteria narrowed this to 14 relevant articles. There is very little published research specific to the experience of medical students in community homestays, indicating a gap in the literature. However, the existing educational outcomes suggest homestays may have the potential to serve a significant role in medical education, especially as a component of decentralised or community-based programmes. The literature reveals that educational homestays influence language learning, cultural immersion, and the development of professional skills for health science careers. These outcomes relate to the level of engagement between students and hosts, including the catalytic role of community liaisons. Homestays offer a unique depth of experience that has the potential to enrich the education of participating students, and require further research, particularly in the context of distributed and decentralised training platforms for medical and health sciences

  5. TASK RELEVANCE IN THE DESIGN OF ONLINE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TEACHERS OF ELLs: A Q Methodology Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. COLLINS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Online professional development (oPD for teachers should focus on designing web-based learning opportunities that help practicing educators solve the tough problems of practice when working in their schools. Technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge can be integrated in the design of online professional development modules to enhance task relevance for maximum learning and transformation. The purpose of this study was to learn which tasks in an online professional development module were ranked by in-service educators as relevant to their work with English language learners (ELLs. Using Q methodology, the researcher asked participants to rank the relevancy of 36 online tasks from an online professional development module designed and developed at an American university. Participants used a -5 to 5 forced distribution to rank online activities from “Least relevant to my work with ELLs” to “Most relevant to my work with ELLs” followed by a semi-structured interview to explain their decisions. After data analysis, two factors emerged, indicating that participants’ perceptions on task relevance differed by professional roles and educational settings. The participants also favored didactic online tasks over interactive tasks. The findings from the oPD participants’ responses have the potential to serve as the basis for future online professional development design and for planning other relevant activities to be applied to the e-learning environment.

  6. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); McKinley, I.G. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  7. Polypharmacy as a Risk Factor for Clinically Relevant Sarcopenia: Results From the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Maximilian; Spira, Dominik; Demuth, Ilja; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Norman, Kristina

    2017-12-12

    Sarcopenia affects more than 10% of older adults. Next to age-associated physiologic changes, diseases like diabetes or inflammatory, neurological, malignant and endocrine disorders may contribute to the development of sarcopenia. Likewise, polypharmacy, i.e., multiple drug use, is common among older adults. Although the two conditions frequently co-occur, the association of polypharmacy with sarcopenia has not yet been examined. We investigated the association of polypharmacy and sarcopenia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older adults (60-84 years). Thousand five hundred and two participants from the Berlin Aging Study II were included. Polypharmacy was defined as concurrent use of 5 or more drugs (prescription and nonprescription). Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and appendicular lean mass (ALM) was calculated as sum of the four limbs' lean mass. Sarcopenia was defined as low ALM-to-body mass index (BMI)-ratio using validated sex-specific cutoffs. Mean age was 68.7 ± 3.7 years, 50.7% were female. The median (interquartile range) number of drugs was 2 (1-4); 21.1% of subjects reported regular use of ≥5 drugs. Subjects with polypharmacy were more often sarcopenic according to the applied ALM/BMI-cutoffs (16.3% vs 6.9%, p sarcopenia (odds ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.75). Polypharmacy is associated with clinically relevant sarcopenia, as assessed by a low ALM/BMI. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.W.; Reijonen, H.M.; McKinley, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  9. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  10. Bioinformatics tools for the analysis of NMR metabolomics studies focused on the identification of clinically relevant biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchades-Carrasco, Leonor; Palomino-Schätzlein, Martina; Pérez-Rambla, Clara; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Metabolomics, a systems biology approach focused on the global study of the metabolome, offers a tremendous potential in the analysis of clinical samples. Among other applications, metabolomics enables mapping of biochemical alterations involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, and offers the opportunity to noninvasively identify diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers that could translate into early therapeutic interventions. Particularly, metabolomics by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has the ability to simultaneously detect and structurally characterize an abundance of metabolic components, even when their identities are unknown. Analysis of the data generated using this experimental approach requires the application of statistical and bioinformatics tools for the correct interpretation of the results. This review focuses on the different steps involved in the metabolomics characterization of biofluids for clinical applications, ranging from the design of the study to the biological interpretation of the results. Particular emphasis is devoted to the specific procedures required for the processing and interpretation of NMR data with a focus on the identification of clinically relevant biomarkers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F.; Dong, Xinzhe; Rubin, Daniel L.; Napel, Sandy; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). Conclusion: We propose a robust intratumor

  12. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F; Dong, Xinzhe; Rubin, Daniel L; Napel, Sandy; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W; Li, Ruijiang

    2016-08-01

    To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. In this institutional review board-approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). We propose a robust intratumor partitioning method to identify clinically relevant, high

  13. Robust Intratumor Partitioning to Identify High-Risk Subregions in Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jia; Gensheimer, Michael F.; Dong, Xinzhe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Rubin, Daniel L. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Medicine (Biomedical Informatics Research), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Napel, Sandy [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Li, Ruijiang, E-mail: rli2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: To develop an intratumor partitioning framework for identifying high-risk subregions from {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) imaging and to test whether tumor burden associated with the high-risk subregions is prognostic of outcomes in lung cancer. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board–approved retrospective study, we analyzed the pretreatment FDG-PET and CT scans of 44 lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy. A novel, intratumor partitioning method was developed, based on a 2-stage clustering process: first at the patient level, each tumor was over-segmented into many superpixels by k-means clustering of integrated PET and CT images; next, tumor subregions were identified by merging previously defined superpixels via population-level hierarchical clustering. The volume associated with each of the subregions was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis regarding its prognostic capability in predicting overall survival (OS) and out-of-field progression (OFP). Results: Three spatially distinct subregions were identified within each tumor that were highly robust to uncertainty in PET/CT co-registration. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor was predictive of OS and OFP on the entire cohort, with a concordance index or CI of 0.66-0.67. When restricting the analysis to patients with stage III disease (n=32), the same subregion achieved an even higher CI of 0.75 (hazard ratio 3.93, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OS, and a CI of 0.76 (hazard ratio 4.84, log-rank P=.002) for predicting OFP. In comparison, conventional imaging markers, including tumor volume, maximum standardized uptake value, and metabolic tumor volume using threshold of 50% standardized uptake value maximum, were not predictive of OS or OFP, with CI mostly below 0.60 (log-rank P>.05). Conclusion: We propose a robust

  14. Relevance of the studies of the OKLO natural nuclear reactors to the storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, R.; Roth, E.

    1978-01-01

    The geological environment of the OKLO natural nuclear reactors is described along with the operating caracteristics of the reactors. Data relevant to the stability of most of the fission products and to the transuranium elements in the reaction zones are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  15. On Feature Relevance in Image-Based Prediction Models: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konukoglu, E.; Ganz, Melanie; Van Leemput, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Determining disease-related variations of the anatomy and function is an important step in better understanding diseases and developing early diagnostic systems. In particular, image-based multivariate prediction models and the “relevant features” they produce are attracting attention from the co...

  16. Theoretical studies of oxides relevant to the combustion of fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jason Michael

    Anthropogenic pollution has greatly increased since the industrial revolution and continues to increase as more of the world becomes dependent upon fossil fuels for important applications like transportation and power production. In a general case, whenever a fossil fuel is consumed, a primary product of a complete combustion reaction is carbon dioxide. In a more specific case, the collection, processing and combustion of coal for power production are one of the primary ways by which trace elements, such as arsenic and selenium, are released into the environment. All of these pollutants are known to have harmful effects, whether on the environment, human health or power production itself. Because of this there has been an increasing interest in studies related to combating these pollutants. Concerning CO2 emissions, recently there has been a significant amount of work related to CO2 capture. A promising method involves the encapsulation of CO2 into isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOFs). The effectiveness of IMROFs greatly depends on the choice of both metal and organic parts. Molecular simulations have been used in the past to aid in the design and characterization of new MOFs, in particular by generating an adsorption isotherm. However, these traditional simulation methods have several drawbacks. The method used in this thesis, namely expanded Wang-Landau, not only overcomes these drawbacks but provides access to all the thermodynamic properties relevant to the adsorption process through a solution thermodynamics approach. This is greatly beneficial, since an excellent way to characterize the performance of various MOFs is by comparing their desorption free energy, i.e., the energy it takes to regenerate a saturated MOF to prepare it for the next adsorption cycle. Expanded WL was used in the study of CO 2 adsorption into IRMOF-1, 8 and 10 at eight temperatures, spanning both the subcritical and supercritical regimes and the following were obtained

  17. Stable isotope distribution in precipitation in Romania and its relevance for palaeoclimatic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Aurel; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Bădăluţă, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    A surge of recent studies in Romania have targeted various aspects of palaeoclimate (based on stable isotopes in ice, speleothems, tree rings), mineral water origin, wine and other juices provenance. However, while much needed, these studies lack a stable isotope in precipitation background, with only two LMWL's being published so far. In this paper we discuss the links between the stable isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18O and δ2H), climate (air temperature, precipitation amount and large scale circulation) and their relevance for the palaeocllimatic interpretation of stable isotope values in cave ice, cryogenic calcite and tree rings from different sites in Romania. Most of the precipitation in Romania is delivered by the Westerlies, bringing moisture from the North Atlantic; however, their influence is greatly reduced in the eastern half of the country where local evaporative sources play an important role in the precipitation balance. The SW is dominated by water masses from the Mediterranean Sea, while the SE corner clearly draws most of the moisture from the Black Sea and strongly depleted North Atlantic vapor masses. In 2012, Romania experienced the worst draught in 60 years, possibly due to a northward shift of the jest stream associated to blocking conditions in summer, which led to a more northern penetration of the Mediterranean-derived air masses, as well increased precipitation of re-evaporated waters. We have further analyzed cave drip water (δ18O and δ2H), cryogenic cave calcite (δ18O and δ13C) and tree rings (δ18O and δ13C) from selected sites across NW Romania, where the water isotopes in precipitation showed the best (and easiest to understand, given the climatic conditions in 2012) correlation with climatic parameters. Our results that 1) δ18O and δ2H in cave ice are a good proxy for late summer through early winter air temperature; 2) δ13C in cryogenic cave calcite are possible indicators of soil humidity and 3) δ18O in pine

  18. Social Studies Pedagogy for Latino/a Newcomer Youth: Toward a Theory of Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Ashley Taylor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…

  19. Relevance of community structures and neighbourhood characteristics for participation of older adults: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Ralf; Maier, Werner; Ludyga, Alicja; Mielck, Andreas; Grill, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Community and neighbourhood structures contribute not only to the health and well-being, but also to the participation of older adults. The degree of participation depends on both the living environment and the individual's personal characteristics, preferences and perception. However, there is still limited empirical evidence on how community and neighbourhood structures are linked to participation and health in the aged population. A qualitative exploratory approach was chosen with a series of problem-centred, semi-structured focus group discussions. Study participants were selected from within the city of Augsburg, Southern Germany, and from two municipalities in surrounding rural districts. The interviews took place in 2013. Structuring content analysis was used to identify key concepts. We conducted 11 focus group discussions with a total of 78 different study participants. The study participants (33 men and 45 women) had a mean age of 74 years (range 65-92 years). Only two study participants lived in an assisted living facility. Of all study participants, 77% lived in urban and 23% in rural areas. We extracted four metacodes ('Usual activities', 'Requirements for participation', 'Barriers to participation' and 'Facilitators for participation') and 15 subcodes. Health and poorly designed infrastructure were mentioned as important barriers to participation, and friendship and neighbourhood cohesion as important facilitators. This qualitative study revealed that poor design and accessibility of municipal infrastructure are major barriers to participation in old age in Germany. Community and neighbourhood structures can be part of the problem but also part of the solution when accessibility and social networks are taken into account.

  20. Electro-Analytical Study of Material Interfaces Relevant for Chemical Mechanical Planarization and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Michael C.

    galvanic corrosions in chemically controlled low-pressure CMP. The CMP specific functions of the slurry components are characterized in the tribo-electro-analytical approach by using voltammetry, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the presence as well as in the absence of surface abrasion, both with and without the inclusion of colloidal silica (SiO2) abrasives. The results are used to understand the reaction mechanisms responsible for supporting material removal and corrosion suppression. The project carried out in the area of Li ion batteries (LIBs) uses electro-analytical techniques to probe electrolyte characteristics as well as electrode material performance. The investigation concentrates on optimizing a tactically chosen set of electrolyte compositions for low-to-moderate temperature applications of lithium titanium oxide (LTO), a relatively new anode material for such batteries. For this application, mixtures of non-aqueous carbonate based solvents are studied in combination with lithium perchlorate. The temperature dependent conductivities of the electrolytes are rigorously measured and analyzed using EIS. The experimental considerations and the working principle of this EIS based approach are carefully examined and standardized in the course of this study. These experiments also investigate the effects of temperature variations (below room temperature) on the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation characteristics of LTO in the given electrolytes. This dissertation is organized as follows: Each experimental system and its relevance for practical applications are briefly introduced in each chapter. The experimental approach and the motivation for carrying out the investigation are also noted in that context. The experimental details specific to the particular study are described. This is followed by the results and their discussion, and subsequently, by the specific conclusions drawn from the given

  1. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  2. A curated database of cyanobacterial strains relevant for modern taxonomy and phylogenetic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Vitor; Morais, Jo?o; Vasconcelos, Vitor M.

    2017-01-01

    The dataset herein described lays the groundwork for an online database of relevant cyanobacterial strains, named CyanoType (http://lege.ciimar.up.pt/cyanotype). It is a database that includes categorized cyanobacterial strains useful for taxonomic, phylogenetic or genomic purposes, with associated information obtained by means of a literature-based curation. The dataset lists 371 strains and represents the first version of the database (CyanoType v.1). Information for each strain includes st...

  3. Measures and time points relevant for post-surgical follow-up in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tägil Magnus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatic diseases commonly affect joints and other structures in the hand. Surgery is a traditional way to treat hand problems in inflammatory rheumatic diseases with the purposes of pain relief, restore function and prevent progression. There are numerous measures to choose from, and a combination of outcome measures is recommended. This study evaluated if instruments commonly used in rheumatologic clinical practice are suitable to measure outcome of hand surgery and to identify time points relevant for follow-up. Methods Thirty-one patients (median age 56 years, median disease duration 15 years with inflammatory rheumatic disease and need for post-surgical occupational therapy intervention formed this pilot study group. Hand function was assessed regarding grip strength (Grippit, pain (VAS, range of motion (ROM (Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI and grip ability (Grip Ability Test (GAT. Activities of daily life (ADL were assessed by means of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome (DASH and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. The instruments were evaluated by responsiveness and feasibility; follow-up points were 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results All instruments showed significant change at one or more follow-up points. Satisfaction with activities (COPM showed the best responsiveness (SMR>0.8, while ROM measured with SOFI had low responsiveness at most follow-up time points. The responsiveness of the instruments was stable between 6 and 12 month follow-up which imply that 6 month is an appropriate time for evaluating short-term effect of hand surgery in rheumatic diseases. Conclusion We suggest a core set of instruments measuring pain, grip strength, grip ability, perceived symptoms and self-defined daily activities. This study has shown that VAS pain, the Grippit instrument, GAT, DASH symptom scale and COPM are suitable outcome instruments for hand surgery, while SOFI may be a more insensitive

  4. The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study: objectives and methods of a study investigating causality, course, and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Win, Maartje M L; Jager, Gerry; Vervaeke, Hylke K E; Schilt, Thelma; Reneman, Liesbeth; Booij, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Den Heeten, Gerard J; Ramsey, Nick F; Korf, Dirk J; Van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the objectives and methods of The Netherlands XTC Toxicity (NeXT) study focussing on the causality, course, and clinical relevance of ecstasy neurotoxicity. Previous studies suggest that ecstasy (3,4 methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC) is toxic toward brain serotonin axons, but most of these studies have serious methodological limitations. The current study is a combination of different approaches with three substudies: (1) a crosssectional substudy among heavy ecstasy users and controls with variation in drug use, which will provide information about potential neurotoxic consequences of ecstasy in relation to other drugs; (2) a prospective cohort substudy in ecstasy-naive subjects with high risk for future ecstasy use, which will provide information on the causality and short-term course of ecstasy use and potential neurotoxicity, and (3) a retrospective cohort substudy in lifetime ecstasy users and matched controls of an existing epidemiological sample that will provide information on long-term course and outcome of ecstasy use in the general population. Neurotoxicity is studied using (a) different imaging techniques (beta-CIT SPECT, 1H-MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion weighted imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging), and (b) neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments of memory, depression, and personality. The combined results will lead to conclusions that can be used in prevention messages, clinical decision making, and the development of an (inter)national ecstasy policy.

  5. [Ecological studies on mollusk populations of medical and veterinary relevance existing in La Coca farm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Sarmiento, Lin; Vázquez Perera, Antonio A; Quesada Martínez, Maritza; Sánchez Noda, Jorge; Hevia Jiménez, Yosvania; Fuentes Leyva, Joaquín; Ramos Pérez, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    ecological studies were carried out on mollusk populations of medical and veterinary importance with emphasis on Fasciola hepatica intermediary hosts species. to determine the relative abundance of populations and the possible use of some species as biological control agents against F. hepatica intermediary hosts. a total of 13 freshwater bodies were sampled during March and November, 2008 using Capture by effort unit method to capture the mollusks thirteen mollusk species (12 gastropods and 1 bivalve) were found after sampling. The relative abundance of species varied in different types of habitat. The intermediary host species of fascioliasis were dominant in two sites. Fossaria cubensis was dominant in Canal de la Entrada despite the presence of Melanoides tuberculata. The specie Pseudosuccinea columella was more abundant in Los Mangos. In La Presa del Matadero y Las Palmas despite the presence of these species, the prevailing ones were Physa acuta and some planorbids. the sites where intermediary hosts of Fasciola hepatica predominated were identified through data on the distribution and relative abundance. In some sites Melanoides tuberculata was present and acted as a biological control agent but it did not in others. Therefore, an evaluation on using a different thiarid would be useful to control these species.

  6. The Relevance of Cultural and Media Studies to Theatre and Television in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hobart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A critical approach to Balinese society presents a starkly different picturefrom the representations that Balinese usually tell themselves, whichare largely myths to disguise a painful reality. Bali no longer belongsto Balinese but to international capital, a process of alienation by whichBalinese energetically commoditize their culture while claiming theopposite. Even the frames of reference for discussing what is happeningare inadequate because they predate the rise of contemporary consumercapitalism and the mass media. That is why critical media and culturalstudies, disciplines designed precisely to address such phenomena, arepotentially so relevant for Indonesian intellectuals.

  7. Atomic spectroscopy on fusion relevant ions and studies of light impurities in the JET tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunklev, M.

    1999-03-01

    The spectrum and energy levels of C IV and the 3l-4l system of the Mg-like ions in the iron group elements have been investigated. This has led to several hundred identified transitions, many of them previously unknown. Using the Charge Exchange Diagnostic system at JET, ion temperatures, rotation velocities and densities have been derived from visible spectroscopic measurements on fully ionised light impurities, such as He, C, N and Ne. The existence of plume contribution from beam produced hydrogen-like ions has been proven beyond any doubt to affect the deduction of the active charge exchange signal of He II. In the case of C VI the plume signal was estimated to be at least a factor of five lower than the active charge exchange signal. Line integrated passive charge exchange emission between neutral background atoms and fully stripped impurity ions has been investigated and modelled. When the synthetic spectrum is fitted into the experimentally detected spectra the neutral background density can be deduced. The importance of including background atoms (H, D and T) as charge exchange donors, not only in state 2s, but also in state 1s, has shown to be crucial in high temperature shots. Transport of light impurities has been studied with gas puff injections into steady state H-mode plasmas. The results suggest that light impurities are transported as described by the neo-classical Pfirsch-Schlueter regime at the edge, whilst in the centre, sawtoothing, preferably to Banana transport, is mixing the plasma and increases the measured values on the diffusion. For the peaking of impurities in a steady state plasma an anomalous treatment was more in agreement with the experimental data. Certain confinement information, previously predicted theoretically as a part of the peaking equation, has been experimentally verified

  8. Perspectives of Employees with Intellectual Disabilities on Themes Relevant to Their Job Satisfaction. An Explorative Study Using Photovoice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Alma; Janssen, Cees G. C.; Kef, Sabina; Meininger, Herman P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study explored the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on themes relevant to their job satisfaction in integrated and sheltered employment. Method: The photovoice method was used. Nine participants with moderate to mild intellectual disabilities, working in integrated and sheltered employment, took pictures of…

  9. Electron attachment to oxygen, ozone and other compounds of atmospheric relevance as studied with ultra-high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.D.; Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Cicman, P.; Senn, G.; Skalny, J.; Stampfli, P.; Illenberger, E.; Chu, Y.; Stamatovic, A.

    1996-01-01

    The processes of electron attachment to oxygen, ozone, ozone/oxygen cluster and oxygen cluster as well as other compounds of atmospheric relevance (CF 2 Cl 2 , CHCl 3 and CCl 3 Br) were studied with ultra-high energy resolution crossed beam technique

  10. The Effects of Topic Familiarity, Author Expertise, and Content Relevance on Norwegian Students' Document Selection: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Stenseth, Tonje; Bråten, Ivar; Strømsø, Helge I.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study investigated the extent to which author expertise and content relevance were salient to secondary Norwegian students (N = 153) when they selected documents that pertained to more familiar and less familiar topics. Quantitative results indicated that author expertise was more salient for the less familiar topic (nuclear…

  11. A genome-wide association study identifies protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Melzer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that human genetic variation influences gene expression. Genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA levels are associated with genetic variation in or close to the gene coding for those mRNA transcripts - cis effects, and elsewhere in the genome - trans effects. The role of genetic variation in determining protein levels has not been systematically assessed. Using a genome-wide association approach we show that common genetic variation influences levels of clinically relevant proteins in human serum and plasma. We evaluated the role of 496,032 polymorphisms on levels of 42 proteins measured in 1200 fasting individuals from the population based InCHIANTI study. Proteins included insulin, several interleukins, adipokines, chemokines, and liver function markers that are implicated in many common diseases including metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious conditions. We identified eight Cis effects, including variants in or near the IL6R (p = 1.8x10(-57, CCL4L1 (p = 3.9x10(-21, IL18 (p = 6.8x10(-13, LPA (p = 4.4x10(-10, GGT1 (p = 1.5x10(-7, SHBG (p = 3.1x10(-7, CRP (p = 6.4x10(-6 and IL1RN (p = 7.3x10(-6 genes, all associated with their respective protein products with effect sizes ranging from 0.19 to 0.69 standard deviations per allele. Mechanisms implicated include altered rates of cleavage of bound to unbound soluble receptor (IL6R, altered secretion rates of different sized proteins (LPA, variation in gene copy number (CCL4L1 and altered transcription (GGT1. We identified one novel trans effect that was an association between ABO blood group and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha levels (p = 6.8x10(-40, but this finding was not present when TNF-alpha was measured using a different assay , or in a second study, suggesting an assay-specific association. Our results show that protein levels share some of the features of the genetics of gene expression. These include the presence of strong genetic effects in cis

  12. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Wang

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ∼140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ∼140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ∼140 MV

  13. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-09-18

    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ~140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ~140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ~140 MV/m. To

  14. Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality Traits and their Relevance to Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This article provides a brief review of recent cross-cultural research on personality traits at both individual and culture levels, highlighting the relevance of recent findings for psychiatry. Method In most cultures around the world, personality traits can be clearly summarized by the five broad dimensions of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), which makes it feasible to compare cultures on personality and psychopathology. Results Maturational patterns and sex differences in personality traits generally show cultural invariance, which generates the hypothesis that age of onset, clinical evolution, and sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders might follow similar universal patterns. The average personality profiles from 51 cultures show meaningful geographical distributions and associations with culture-level variables, but are clearly unrelated to national character stereotypes. Conclusions Aggregate personality scores can potentially be related to epidemiological data on psychiatric disorders, and dimensional personality models have implications for psychiatric diagnosis and treatment around the world. PMID:17128620

  15. Study about the relevance and the disclosure of biological assets of listed companies in BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Holtz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective this article is to verify that the information content of biological assets disclosed in the financial statements are relevant and, the secondary objective perform content analysis of the notes verifying the compliance of information supplied by entities with CPC 29. The study sample was composed of publicly traded stock companies listed on the BM & FBOVESPA with data for the year 2010 and 2011. The empirical tests were conducted applying relevance models, using observations of 347 active companies characterizing a study model pooled ordinary least squares – POLS, including companies that have reported biological assets into account specific .The companies that had values of biological assets posted have had analyzed explanatory notes referring to this account. The results provide empirical evidence that the information content of biological assets disclosed by companies is not relevant to the sample. In relation the content analysis of the notes was checked a partial compliance of the standard, there is a disparity in the information disclosure practices by the companies analyzed, as well as an omission of items required by the standard. Can be inferred that loss of the relevance has occurred, in part, by the poor quality of the notes, which may make it difficult for outside users in interpreting the information disclosed.

  16. Edge Plasma Physics Issues for the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) in Reactor Relevant Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaluno, G.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Apicella, M.L.; Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Cucchiaro, A.; Ramogida, G.; Zagorski, R.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of First wall materials and compatibility with ITER /DEMO relevant plasmas is among the RD missions for possible new European plasma fusion devices that the FAST project will address. FAST can operate with ITER relevant values of P/R (up to 22 MW/m, against the ITER 24 MW/m, inclusive of the α particles power), thanks to its compactness; thus it can investigate the physics of large heat loads on divertor plates. The FAST divertor will be made of bulk W tiles, for basic operations, but also fully toroidal divertor targets made of liquid lithium (L-Li) are foreseen. To have reliable predictions of the thermal loads on the divertor plates and of the core plasma purity a number of numerical self-consistent simulations have been made for the H-mode and steady-state scenario by using the code COREDIV. This code, already validated in the past on experimental data (namely JET, FTU, Textor), is able to describe self-consistently the core and edge plasma in a tokamak device by imposing the continuity of energy and particle fluxes and of particle densities and temperatures at the separatrix. In the present work the results of such calculations will be illustrated, including heat loads on the divertor. The overall picture shows that, marginally in the intermediate and, necessarily in the high density H-mode scenarios ( e >=2 and 5·10 20 m -3 respectively), impurity seeding should be foreseen with W as target material: however, only a small amount of Ar (0.03% atomic concentration), not affecting the core purity, is sufficient to maintain the divertor peak loads below 18 MW/m 2 , that represents the safety limit for the W mono block technology, presently accepted for the ITER divertor tiles. Li always needs additional impurities for decreasing divertor heat loads, the Z eff value being ≤ than 1.8. At low plasma densities (but ≥ 1.3·10 20 m -3 ), typical of steady state regimes, W by alone is effective in dissipating the input power by radiative losses, without

  17. Identifiability of large-scale non-linear dynamic network models applied to the ADM1-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmegeers, Philippe; Lauwers, Joost; Telen, Dries; Logist, Filip; Impe, Jan Van

    2017-06-01

    In this work, both the structural and practical identifiability of the Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1 (ADM1) is investigated, which serves as a relevant case study of large non-linear dynamic network models. The structural identifiability is investigated using the probabilistic algorithm, adapted to deal with the specifics of the case study (i.e., a large-scale non-linear dynamic system of differential and algebraic equations). The practical identifiability is analyzed using a Monte Carlo parameter estimation procedure for a 'non-informative' and 'informative' experiment, which are heuristically designed. The model structure of ADM1 has been modified by replacing parameters by parameter combinations, to provide a generally locally structurally identifiable version of ADM1. This means that in an idealized theoretical situation, the parameters can be estimated accurately. Furthermore, the generally positive structural identifiability results can be explained from the large number of interconnections between the states in the network structure. This interconnectivity, however, is also observed in the parameter estimates, making uncorrelated parameter estimations in practice difficult. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Genome-wide association study of offspring birth weight in 86 577 women identifies five novel loci and highlights maternal genetic effects that are independent of fetal genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, R.N. (Robin N.); N.M. Warrington (Nicole); A. Cavadino (Alana); A.W.R. Tyrrell; M. Nodzenski (Michael); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); F. Geller (Frank); R. Myhre (Ronny); R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); Paternoster, L. (Lavinia); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); V. Huikari (Ville); S. Metrustry (Sarah); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); J.N. Painter (Jodie N.); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); C. Allard (Catherine); S.J. Barton (Sheila J.); Espinosa, A. (Ana); J.A. Marsh (Julie); C. Potter (Catherine); Zhang, G. (Ge); W.Q. Ang (Wei); D. Berry (Diane); L. Bouchard (Luigi); S. Das (Shikta); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); J. Heikkinen (Jani); Helgeland, Ø. (Øyvind); B. Hocher (Berthold); A. Hofman (Albert); H.M. Inskip (Hazel); S.E. Jones (Samuel E.); M. Kogevinas (Manolis); P.A. Lind (Penelope); L. Marullo (Letizia); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); Murray, A. (Anna); Murray, J.C. (Jeffrey C.); Njølstad, P.R. (Pa l R.); C. Nohr (Christian); C. Reichetzeder (Christoph); S.M. Ring (Susan); K.S. Ruth (Katherine S.); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto); D.M. Scholtens (Denise M.); Sebert, S. (Sylvain); V. Sengpiel (Verena); Tuke, M.A. (Marcus A.); Vaudel, M. (Marc); M.N. Weedon (Michael); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); Wood, A.R. (Andrew R.); Yaghootkar, H. (Hanieh); Muglia, L.J. (Louis J.); M. Bartels (Meike); C.L. Relton (Caroline); C.E. Pennell (Craig); L. Chatzi (Leda); Estivill, X. (Xavier); Holloway, J.W. (John W.); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); Montgomery, G.W. (Grant W.); J. Murabito (Joanne); T.D. Spector (Timothy); Power, C. (Christine); Järvelin, M.-R. (Marjo-Ritta); Bisgaard, H. (Hans); Grant, S.F.A. (Struan F.A.); Sørensen, T.I.A. (Thorkild I.A.); Jaddoe, V.W. (Vincent W.); B. Jacobsson (Bo); Melbye, M. (Mads); McCarthy, M.I. (Mark I.); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); Hayes, M.G. (M. Geoffrey); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J.F. Felix (Janine); Hyppönen, E. (Elina); Lowe, W.L. (William L.); Evans, D.M. (David M.); Lawlor, D.A. (Debbie A.); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); R.M. Freathy (Rachel)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies of birth weight have focused on fetal genetics, whereas relatively little is known about the role of maternal genetic variation. We aimed to identify maternal genetic variants associated with birth weight that could highlight potentially relevant maternal

  19. Comparative analysis of three drug-drug interaction screening systems against probable clinically relevant drug-drug interactions: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhič, Neža; Mrhar, Ales; Brvar, Miran

    2017-07-01

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) screening systems report potential DDIs. This study aimed to find the prevalence of probable DDI-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and compare the clinical usefulness of different DDI screening systems to prevent or warn against these ADRs. A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients urgently admitted to medical departments. Potential DDIs were checked using Complete Drug Interaction®, Lexicomp® Online™, and Drug Interaction Checker®. The study team identified the patients with probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs on admission, the causality of which was assessed using the Drug Interaction Probability Scale (DIPS). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of screening systems to prevent or warn against probable DDI-related ADRs were evaluated. Overall, 50 probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs were found in 37 out of 795 included patients taking at least two drugs, most common of them were bleeding, hyperkalemia, digitalis toxicity, and hypotension. Complete Drug Interaction showed the best sensitivity (0.76) for actual DDI-related ADRs, followed by Lexicomp Online (0.50), and Drug Interaction Checker (0.40). Complete Drug Interaction and Drug Interaction Checker had positive predictive values of 0.07; Lexicomp Online had 0.04. We found no difference in specificity and negative predictive values among these systems. DDI screening systems differ significantly in their ability to detect probable clinically relevant DDI-related ADRs in terms of sensitivity and positive predictive value.

  20. Environmental restoration disposal facility applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements study report. Revision 00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeck, F.V.; Vedder, B.L.; Rugg, J.E.

    1995-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) will be a landfill authorized under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and will comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) substantive requirements. The facility will also comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), including portions of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), and to-be-considered (TBC) elements such as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. In considering the requirements of CERCLA, a detailed analysis of various alternatives for ERDF was completed using the nine CERCLA criteria, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), and public comments. The ERDF record of decision (ROD) selected an alternative that includes a RCRA-compliant double-lined trench for the disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes resulting from the remediation of operable units (OU) within the National Priorities List (NPL) sites in the 100, 200, and 300 Areas. Only wastes resulting from the remediation of Hanford NPL sites will be allowed in the ERDF. Of the various siting and design alternatives proposed for ERDF, the selected alternative provides the best combination of features by balancing the nine CERCLA criteria, ARAR compliance, environmentally protective site, and various stakeholder and public recommendations. The ERDF trench design, compliant with RCRA Subtitle C minimum technical requirements (MTR), will be double lined and equipped with a leachate collection system. This design provides a more reliable system to protect groundwater than other proposed alternatives. The ERDF is located on the Hanford Site Central Plateau, southeast of the 200 West Area

  1. Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Jennifer E., E-mail: Jennifer2.May@uwe.ac.uk; Morse, H. Ruth, E-mail: Ruth.Morse@uwe.ac.uk; Xu, Jinsheng, E-mail: Jinsheng.Xu@uwe.ac.uk; Donaldson, Craig, E-mail: Craig.Donaldson@uwe.ac.uk

    2012-09-15

    There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ► An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ► HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ► The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic

  2. Development of a novel, physiologically relevant cytotoxicity model: Application to the study of chemotherapeutic damage to mesenchymal stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Jennifer E.; Morse, H. Ruth; Xu, Jinsheng; Donaldson, Craig

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing need for development of physiologically relevant in-vitro models for testing toxicity, however determining toxic effects of agents which undergo extensive hepatic metabolism can be particularly challenging. If a source of such metabolic enzymes is inadequate within a model system, toxicity from prodrugs may be grossly underestimated. Conversely, the vast majority of agents are detoxified by the liver, consequently toxicity from such agents may be overestimated. In this study we describe the development of a novel in-vitro model, which could be adapted for any toxicology setting. The model utilises HepG2 liver spheroids as a source of metabolic enzymes, which have been shown to more closely resemble human liver than traditional monolayer cultures. A co-culture model has been developed enabling the effect of any metabolised agent on another cell type to be assessed. This has been optimised to enable the study of damaging effects of chemotherapy on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), the supportive stem cells of the bone marrow. Several optimisation steps were undertaken, including determining optimal culture conditions, confirmation of hepatic P450 enzyme activity and ensuring physiologically relevant doses of chemotherapeutic agents were appropriate for use within the model. The developed model was subsequently validated using several chemotherapeutic agents, both prodrugs and active drugs, with resulting MSC damage closely resembling effects seen in patients following chemotherapy. Minimal modifications would enable this novel co-culture model to be utilised as a general toxicity model, contributing to the drive to reduce animal safety testing and enabling physiologically relevant in-vitro study. -- Highlights: ► An in vitro model was developed for study of drugs requiring hepatic metabolism ► HepG2 spheroids were utilised as a physiologically relevant source of liver enzymes ► The model was optimised to enable study of chemotherapeutic

  3. Validation of search filters for identifying pediatric studies in PubMed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, Edith; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2013-01-01

    To identify and validate PubMed search filters for retrieving studies including children and to develop a new pediatric search filter for PubMed. We developed 2 different datasets of studies to evaluate the performance of the identified pediatric search filters, expressed in terms of sensitivity,

  4. Genetic association study identifies HSPB7 as a risk gene for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Stark

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a structural heart disease with strong genetic background. Monogenic forms of DCM are observed in families with mutations located mostly in genes encoding structural and sarcomeric proteins. However, strong evidence suggests that genetic factors also affect the susceptibility to idiopathic DCM. To identify risk alleles for non-familial forms of DCM, we carried out a case-control association study, genotyping 664 DCM cases and 1,874 population-based healthy controls from Germany using a 50K human cardiovascular disease bead chip covering more than 2,000 genes pre-selected for cardiovascular relevance. After quality control, 30,920 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were tested for association with the disease by logistic regression adjusted for gender, and results were genomic-control corrected. The analysis revealed a significant association between a SNP in HSPB7 gene (rs1739843, minor allele frequency 39% and idiopathic DCM (p = 1.06 × 10⁻⁶, OR  = 0.67 [95% CI 0.57-0.79] for the minor allele T. Three more SNPs showed p < 2.21 × 10⁻⁵. De novo genotyping of these four SNPs was done in three independent case-control studies of idiopathic DCM. Association between SNP rs1739843 and DCM was significant in all replication samples: Germany (n =564, n = 981 controls, p = 2.07 × 10⁻³, OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.67-0.92], France 1 (n = 433 cases, n = 395 controls, p =3.73 × 10⁻³, OR  = 0.74 [95% CI 0.60-0.91], and France 2 (n = 249 cases, n = 380 controls, p = 2.26 × 10⁻⁴, OR  = 0.63 [95% CI 0.50-0.81]. The combined analysis of all four studies including a total of n = 1,910 cases and n = 3,630 controls showed highly significant evidence for association between rs1739843 and idiopathic DCM (p = 5.28 × 10⁻¹³, OR= 0.72 [95% CI 0.65-0.78]. None of the other three SNPs showed significant results in the replication stage.This finding of the HSPB7 gene from a genetic search for idiopathic DCM using

  5. Relevance between the degree of industrial competition and fair value information: Study on the listed companies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin Zhuang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value. In order to effectively inspect the mutual influence between the degree of industry competition and the value relevance of fair value, and reduce the impact of multi-collinearity, we built a regression model on the hypothesis, which supposes that if other conditions are the same, the fair value information has greater value relevance if the degree of the industry competition is greater. To test the hypothesis, we use the comparison of the DFVPSit coefficient absolute value to judge the value relevance of fair value information, and the greater the absolute value is, the higher relevance between the changes in fair value per share profits and losses with the stock prices. Findings: The higher the degree of competition in the industry is, the more fair value information relevance is. Also, there are evidences representing that fair value information often presents negative correlation with the stock price. Originality/value: The main contribution of the article is to show that not only need we make the formulation and implementation of the high quality of fair value accounting standards to suit for both the national conditions and international practice, but also need we further to improve the company's external governance mechanism to promote fair value’s information correlation.

  6. Perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics and preferred information sources among Dutch adults: results of a quantitative consumer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.

  7. Identification of aspects of functioning, disability and health relevant to patients experiencing vertigo: a qualitative study using the international classification of functioning, disability and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Aims of this study were to identify aspects of functioning and health relevant to patients with vertigo expressed by ICF categories and to explore the potential of the ICF to describe the patient perspective in vertigo. Methods We conducted a series of qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews using a descriptive approach. Data was analyzed using the meaning condensation procedure and then linked to categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Results From May to July 2010 12 interviews were carried out until saturation was reached. Four hundred and seventy-one single concepts were extracted which were linked to 142 different ICF categories. 40 of those belonged to the component body functions, 62 to the component activity and participation, and 40 to the component environmental factors. Besides the most prominent aspect “dizziness” most participants reported problems within “Emotional functions (b152), problems related to mobility and carrying out the daily routine. Almost all participants reported “Immediate family (e310)” as a relevant modifying environmental factor. Conclusions From the patients’ perspective, vertigo has impact on multifaceted aspects of functioning and disability, mainly body functions and activities and participation. Modifying contextual factors have to be taken into account to cover the complex interaction between the health condition of vertigo on the individuals’ daily life. The results of this study will contribute to developing standards for the measurement of functioning, disability and health relevant for patients suffering from vertigo. PMID:22738067

  8. Ethnobotanical relevance in tribal life: A study on Warli tribe of Thane district, Maharashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.

    An ethnobotanical study of Warli tribe belonging to the Thane district of Maharashtra, India was conducted. Plants of social, religious, medicinal as well as domestic uses were studied. Totally 59 species of plants are documented. Of these, 23...

  9. Relevant factors for the impact of social media marketing strategies: Empirical study of the internet travel agency sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lebherz, Philipp Robert

    2011-01-01

    Projecte final de carrera fet en col.laboració amb Karlsruher Institut für Technologie English: Final proyect with the topic "relevant factors for the impact of social media marketing strategies - an empirical study of the internet travel agency sector" at Faculty of Informatics and the chair of management. Supervised by Ferran Sabaté and Antonio Cañabate. Student Philipp Lebherz.

  10. A South African study of consumers' perceptions of food labels and its relevance to their purchasing behaviour / R. Klein

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Riana

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION: This study had been motivated by the lack of existing data on South African consumers' perceptions of food labels and its relevance to purchasing behaviour. In order to gather this information it is important to understand consumers and their purchasing behaviour so that these could be translated into food label characteristics to implement consumer-oriented label development (Sijtsema et al., 2002:565). Consumers' purchasing behaviour is influenc...

  11. Persons with rheumatoid arthritis challenge the relevance of the health assessment questionnaire: a qualitative study of patient perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbevi, David; Essén, Anna; Forsberg, Helena Hvitfeldt

    2017-05-12

    The Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ) is widely used to measure functional ability in persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The instrument was developed with limited involvement from persons with RA, and their perception of the instrument has not been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with RA experience the use of the HAQ in care. The study used secondary data analysis. Persons with RA participated in semi-structured interviews in previous research projects. Thirty-nine interviews were included based on data fit, and thematic analysis applied. The participants questioned the relevance of the HAQ but nevertheless experienced that the instrument had a profound effect on their understanding of health and how care is delivered. The analysis resulted in three themes: Problems with individual items, meaning of the summative score, and effects on care and health perceptions. To make the HAQ relevant to persons with RA, it needs to be revised or to include an option to select items most meaningful to the respondent. To ensure relevance, the HAQ update should preferably be co-created by researchers, clinicians and persons with RA.

  12. Nanoparticle dispersion in environmentally relevant culture media: a TiO2 case study and considerations for a general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, Allison M.; Ji, Zhaoxia; Holden, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle exposure in toxicity studies requires that nanoparticles are bioavailable by remaining highly dispersed in culture media. However, reported dispersion approaches are variable, mostly study-specific, and not transferable owing to their empirical basis. Furthermore, many published approaches employ proteinaceous dispersants in rich laboratory media, both of which represent end members in environmental scenarios. Here, a systematic approach was developed to disperse initially agglomerated TiO 2 nanoparticles (Aeroxide® TiO 2 P25, Evonik, NJ; primary particle size range 6.4–73.8 nm) in oligotrophic culture medium for environmentally relevant bacterial toxicity studies. Based on understanding particle–particle interactions in aqueous media and maintaining environmental relevance, the approach involves (1) quantifying the relationship between pH and zeta potential to determine the point of zero charge of select nanoparticles in water; (2) nominating, then testing and selecting, environmentally relevant stabilizing agents; and (3) dispersing via “condition and capture” whereby stock dry powder nanoparticles are sonicated in pre-conditioned (with base, or acid, plus stabilizing agent) water, then diluted into culture media. The “condition and capture” principle is transferable to other nanoparticle and media chemistries: simultaneously, mechanically and electrostatically, nanoparticles can be dispersed with surrounding stabilizers that coat and sterically hinder reagglomeration in the culture medium.

  13. Earnings persistence and value relevance with the adoption of IFRS: a study of companies in GLENIF countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Brunozi Júnior

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The apparent expansion of IFRS internationally promoted literature interests in analyzing their impact on the earnings quality. In these associations, research indicated setbacks in empirical findings with these dilemmas more pronounced in studies of companies from developing countries. Therefore, in this study, we investigated, from the economic and institutional perspectives, if the IFRS affected the persistence and the value relevance of financial results of companies in GLENIF countries. To test these predictions, the survey included 563 companies from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru from 2003 to 2014. With the application of models of Easton and Harris (1991; Ohlson (1995, Sloan (1996; Burgstahler and Dichev (1997 and Pincus, Venkatachalam and Rajgopal (2007 employed the regression panel data. The results showed a partial acceptance of the hypothesis. The accounting data were more relevant after the implementation of IFRS, while only Argentina, Colombia and Mexico showed the most persistent financial results. In comments on the preliminary adoption of IFRS, the financial results of companies in the countries were more persistent in adopting for a longer period these standards, as opposed to the value relevance, there were no significant differences after IFRS. In summary, this study found that the IFRS alone are not institutional factors to fully improve the quality of accounting results in developing countries.

  14. Development of German energy consumption: A deterministic study of energy-relevant customer groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, M.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed study of the characteristic features of group-specific energy consumption was conducted (identification of the factors determining energy consumption of the productive sector, private households and private mobility demand). The question of who shall determine energy consumption in the future is analysed. This question is answered in a demand-specific study of consumption patterns and -effects. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Linguistically-Relevant Diachronic Study of Cultural Values in Early British Advertising Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetova, Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on linguistic data retrieved from early advertisements published in British newspapers between 1788 and 1900, the study seeks to map out a set of values and account for linguistic means used to codify them in the diachronic perspective. For the purposes of the study, the corpus of advertisements from random issues of British newspapers…

  16. The Vital Role of Pathology in Improving Reproducibility and Translational Relevance of Aging Studies in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuting, P M; Snyder, J M; Ikeno, Y; Schofield, P N; Ward, J M; Sundberg, J P

    2016-03-01

    Pathology is a discipline of medicine that adds great benefit to aging studies of rodents by integrating in vivo, biochemical, and molecular data. It is not possible to diagnose systemic illness, comorbidities, and proximate causes of death in aging studies without the morphologic context provided by histopathology. To date, many rodent aging studies do not utilize end points supported by systematic necropsy and histopathology, which leaves studies incomplete, contradictory, and difficult to interpret. As in traditional toxicity studies, if the effect of a drug, dietary treatment, or altered gene expression on aging is to be studied, systematic pathology analysis must be included to determine the causes of age-related illness, moribundity, and death. In this Commentary, the authors discuss the factors that should be considered in the design of aging studies in mice, with the inclusion of robust pathology practices modified after those developed by toxicologic and discovery research pathologists. Investigators in the field of aging must consider the use of histopathology in their rodent aging studies in this era of integrative and preclinical geriatric science (geroscience). © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Genome wide association study identifies KCNMA1 contributing to human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Hong; Arner, Peter; Hoffstedt, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) analyses have identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with obesity. However, the reported genetic variation in obesity explains only a minor fraction of the total genetic variation expected to be present in the population....... Thus many genetic variants controlling obesity remain to be identified. The aim of this study was to use GWA followed by multiple stepwise validations to identify additional genes associated with obesity....

  18. A study on the relevance and influence of the existing regulation and risk informed/performance based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, B. J.; Koh, Y. J.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Kang, T. W. [Cheju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    The goal of this study is to estimate the Relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. Also the recent trends of the individual technologies regarding the RI-PBR and RIA are summarized.

  19. Quality of life domains important and relevant to family caregivers of advanced cancer patients in an Asian population: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geok Ling; Ow, Mandy Yen Ling; Akhileswaran, Ramaswamy; Pang, Grace Su Yin; Fan, Gilbert Kam Tong; Goh, Brandon Huat Heng; Wong, Cai Fong; Cheung, Yin Bun; Wee, Hwee Lin

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to identify domains of quality of life (QoL) that are culturally relevant to Chinese caregivers of advanced cancer patients in Singapore and to evaluate content adequacy of currently available instruments for use in the target population. English- and Chinese-speaking caregivers of advanced cancer patients receiving care under a tertiary cancer center and/or a community hospice home care/day care provider were recruited for in-depth interviews. The interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The identified domains, themes and sub-themes were compared to concepts addressed by items from five existing cancer-specific caregiver QoL instruments. Eighteen female and eight male caregivers aged 28-74 years participated in the study. Twenty-nine QoL themes and 59 sub-themes were identified in six domains, namely physical health, mental health, social health, spiritual health, financial health and daily life. Collectively, but not individually, the content of the five existing instruments adequately cover the physical health domain, social health domain and some themes on mental health domain for the study population. Content gaps were identified in the domains of mental health, spiritual health, daily life and financial health. The present study found culturally and contextually specific themes and sub-themes about positive emotional health, spiritual health and financial health.

  20. Study design and rationale for biomedical shirt-based electrocardiography monitoring in relevant clinical situations: ECG-shirt study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Paweł; Lodziński, Piotr; Tymińska, Agata; Ozierański, Krzysztof; Januszkiewicz, Łukasz; Główczyńska, Renata; Wesołowska, Katarzyna; Peller, Michał; Pietrzak, Radosław; Książczyk, Tomasz; Borodzicz, Sonia; Kołtowski, Łukasz; Borkowski, Mariusz; Werner, Bożena; Opolski, Grzegorz; Grabowski, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Today, the main challenge for researchers is to develop new technologies which may help to improve the diagnoses of cardiovascular disease (CVD), thereby reducing healthcare costs and improving the quality of life for patients. This study aims to show the utility of biomedical shirt-based electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring of patients with CVD in different clinical situations using the Nuubo® ECG (nECG) system. An investigator-initiated, multicenter, prospective observational study was carried out in a cardiology (adult and pediatric) and cardiac rehabilitation wards. ECG monitoring was used with the biomedical shirt in the following four independent groups of patients: 1) 30 patients after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), 2) 30 cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) recipients, 3) 120 patients during cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, and 4) 40 pediatric patients with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) before electrophysiology study. Approval for all study groups was obtained from the institutional review board. The biomedical shirt captures the electrocardiographic signal via textile electrodes integrated into a garment. The software allows the visualization and analysis of data such as ECG, heart rate, arrhythmia detecting algorithm and relative position of the body is captured by an electronic device. The major advantages of the nECG system are continuous ECG monitoring during daily activities, high quality of ECG recordings, as well as assurance of a proper adherence due to adequate comfort while wearing the shirt. There are only a few studies that have examined wearable systems, especially in pediatric populations. This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: Identifier NCT03068169. (Cardiol J 2018; 25, 1: 52-59).

  1. An Examination of the Disparity between Self-Identified versus Legally Identified Rape Victimization: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsil, Dorothy F.; McNamara, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Researchers compared rape victimization based on self-identification to the current federal legal definition in a pilot study of college students. Methods: The sample was comprised of 1,648 (69.8% female; 30.2% male) college students who completed the Sexual Experiences Survey-Short Form Victimization (SES-SFV) online. Results: Based on…

  2. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant

  3. Clinical relevance and scope of accidental extracoronary findings in coronary computed tomography angiography: A cardiac versus thoracic FOV study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglan, Iman; Jodocy, Daniel; Hiehs, Stefan; Soegner, Peter; Frank, Renate; Haberfellner, Berhard; Klauser, Andrea; Jaschke, Werner; Feuchtner, Gudrun M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the spectrum and clinical relevance of extracoronary findings in coronary CT angiography (CCTA), and to compare a small (cardiac) field of view (FOV) to a large (thoracic) FOV setting. Material and methods: 1084 consecutive patients (mean 57 years) with low-to-intermediate risk of coronary artery disease were enrolled. 542 CCTA scans were interpreted with small FOV (160-190 mm 2 ) encompassing the cardiac region. In another 542 CCTA (patients matched for age and gender), read-out of an additional full FOV (>320 mm 2 ) covering the thorax was performed. Clinical relevance of extracoronary findings was considered as either 'significant' or 'non-significant'. 'Significant' findings were subclassified as either score 1: findings necessitating immediate therapeutic actions, or score 2: findings with undoubted clinical or prognostic relevance, requiring clinical awareness, follow-up or further investigations (non-urgent). 'Non-significant' findings were assigned to either score 3: findings not requiring follow-up or further tests, or as score 4: irrelevant incidental findings. Results: Significantly more patients with extracoronary findings were identified by using a full FOV with 43.2% (234/542) compared to a small FOV with 33.6% (182/542) (p = 0.001). Similarly, a higher total number of extracoronary findings (n = 394) was found on full FOV compared to small FOV (n = 250) (p 2 aortic valve orifice area. Conclusions: The interpretation of extracoronary findings on CCTA scans is mandatory given high prevalence of clinically significant findings by using a full 'thoracic' FOV.

  4. Endogenous gas formation--an in vitro study with relevance to gas microemboli during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Lena; Engström, Karl Gunnar

    2012-09-01

    Gas embolism is an identified problem during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Our aim was to analyze the potential influence from gas solubility based on simple physical laws, here called endogenous gas embolism. Gas solubility decreases at higher temperature and gas bubbles are presumably formed at CPB warming. An experimental model to measure gas release was designed. Medium (water or blood retrieved from mediastinal drains, 14.6 mL) was incubated and equilibrated with gas (air, 100% oxygen, or 5% carbon dioxide in air) at low temperature (10 degrees C or 23 degrees C). At warming to 37 degrees C, gas release was digitally measured. Also, the effect of fluid motion was evaluated. At warming, the medium became oversaturated with dissolved gas. When fluid motion was applied, gas was released to form bubbles. This was exemplified by a gas release of .45% (.31/.54, medians and quartile range, volume percent, p = .007) and 1.26% (1.14/ 1.33, p = .003) when blood was warmed from 23 degrees C or 10 degrees C to 37 degrees C, respectively (carbon dioxide 5% in air). Consistent findings were seen for water and with the other types of gas exposure. The theory of endogenous gas embolization was confirmed with gas being released at warming. The endogenous gas formation demonstrated a dynamic pattern with oversaturation and with rapid gas released at fluid motion. The gas release at warming was substantial, in particular when the results were extrapolated to full-scale CPB conditions. The interference from endogenous gas formation should be considered in parallel to external sources of gas microemboli. cardiopulmonary bypass, gas embolization, microemboli, gas solubility, temperature.

  5. Maintaining the clinical relevance of animal models in translational studies of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagit; Matar, Michael A; Zohar, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is conditional on directly experiencing or witnessing a significantly threatening event and the presence of a certain minimal number of symptoms from each of four symptom clusters (re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognition and mood, and hyperarousal) at least one month after the event (DSM 5) (American Psychiatric Association 2013). Only a proportion of the population exposed develops symptoms fulfilling the criteria. The individual heterogeneity in responses of stress-exposed animals suggested that adapting clearly defined and reliably reproducible "diagnostic", i.e. behavioral, criteria for animal responses would augment the clinical validity of the analysis of study data. We designed cut-off (inclusion/exclusion) behavioral criteria (CBC) which classify study subjects as being severely, minimally or partially affected by the stress paradigm, to be applied retrospectively in the analysis of behavioral data. Behavioral response classification enables the researcher to correlate (retrospectively) specific anatomic, bio-molecular and physiological parameters with the degree and pattern of the individual behavioral response, and also introduces "prevalence rates" as a valid study-parameter. The cumulative results of our studies indicate that, by classifying the data from individual subjects according to their response patterns, the animal study can more readily be translated into clinical "follow-up" studies and back again. This article will discuss the concept of the model and its background, and present a selection of studies employing and examining the model, alongside the underlying translational rationale of each. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A clinical decision support system algorithm for intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy: validity, clinical relevance and usefulness in a three-step evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhloufi, H; Hulscher, M; van der Hoeven, C P; Prins, J M; van der Sijs, H; Melles, D C; Verbon, A

    2018-04-26

    To evaluate a clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on consensus-based intravenous to oral switch criteria, which identifies intravenous to oral switch candidates. A three-step evaluation study of a stand-alone CDSS with electronic health record interoperability was performed at the Erasmus University Medical Centre in the Netherlands. During the first step, we performed a technical validation. During the second step, we determined the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value in a retrospective cohort of all hospitalized adult patients starting at least one therapeutic antibacterial drug between 1 and 16 May 2013. ICU, paediatric and psychiatric wards were excluded. During the last step the clinical relevance and usefulness was prospectively assessed by reports to infectious disease specialists. An alert was considered clinically relevant if antibiotics could be discontinued or switched to oral therapy at the time of the alert. During the first step, one technical error was found. The second step yielded a positive predictive value of 76.6% and a negative predictive value of 99.1%. The third step showed that alerts were clinically relevant in 53.5% of patients. For 43.4% it had already been decided to discontinue or switch the intravenous antibiotics by the treating physician. In 10.1%, the alert resulted in advice to change antibiotic policy and was considered useful. This prospective cohort study shows that the alerts were clinically relevant in >50% (n = 449) and useful in 10% (n = 85). The CDSS needs to be evaluated in hospitals with varying activity of infectious disease consultancy services as this probably influences usefulness.

  7. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Five Susceptibility Loci for Follicular Lymphoma outside the HLA Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibola, Christine F.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Vijai, Joseph; Conde, Lucia; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Foo, Jia-Nee; Bracci, Paige M.; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Slager, Susan L.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Wang, Sophia S.; Linet, Martha S.; Salles, Gilles; Lan, Qing; Severi, Gianluca; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Lightfoot, Tracy; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Ghesquieres, Herve; Link, Brian K.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Alex; Tinker, Lesley F.; Teras, Lauren R.; Kricker, Anne; Becker, Nikolaus; Purdue, Mark P.; Spinelli, John J.; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G.; Vineis, Paolo; Monnereau, Alain; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Gabbas, Attilio; Chung, Charles C.; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Liang, Liming; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Liu, Jianjun; Adami, Hans-Olov; Glimelius, Bengt; Ye, Yuanqing; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S.; Dogan, Ahmet; Thompson, Carrie A.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Novak, Anne J.; Liebow, Mark; Witzig, Thomas E.; Weiner, George J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Hartge, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cozen, Wendy; Zhi, Degui; Akers, Nicholas K.; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T.; Lacher, Mortimer; Villano, Danylo J.; Maria, Ann; Roman, Eve; Kane, Eleanor; Jackson, Rebecca D.; North, Kari E.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Jenny; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; McKay, James; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Chamosa, Saioa; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kelly, Rachel S.; Ohlsson, Bodil; Travis, Ruth C.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Clave, Jacqueline; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Virtamo, Jarmo; Mazza, Patrizio; Cocco, Pierluigi; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Chiu, Brian C. H.; Fraumeni, Joseph R.; Nieters, Alexandra; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; Cerhan, James R.; Smedby, Karin E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European

  8. [The Philosophical Relevance of the Study of Schizophrenia. Methodological and Conceptual Issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Silva, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The study of mental illness involves profound methodological and philosophical debates. This article explores the disciplinary complementarity, particularly, between philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology in the context of the understanding of schizophrenia. After clarifying the possible role of these disciplines, it is explored the way in which a certain symptom of schizophrenia (thought insertion) challenges the current phenomenological approach to the relationship between consciousness and self-awareness. Finally, it is concluded that philosophy of mind, phenomenology, and empirical studies in psychiatry and psychopathology should, necessarily, regulate their progress jointly in order to reach plausible conclusions about what we call 'schizophrenia'. Crown Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 4. Boston Arts Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  10. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Relevance Strategic Designs: 6. Perspectives Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  11. Stability of the elbow joint: relevant anatomy and clinical implications of in vitro biomechanical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Schep, N. W. L.; Eygendaal, D.; Kleinrensink, G.-J.; Tuinebreijer, W. E.; den Hartog, D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to describe the clinical anatomy of the elbow joint based on information from in vitro biomechanical studies. The clinical consequences of this literature review are described and recommendations are given for the treatment of elbow joint dislocation.The PubMed

  12. Stability of the Elbow Joint: Relevant Anatomy and Clinical Implications of In Vitro Biomechanical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Haan (Jeroen); D. Eygendaal (Denise); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); D. den Hartog (Dennis)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: The aim of this literature review is to describe the clinical anatomy of the elbow joint based on information from in vitro biomechanical studies. The clinical consequences of this literature review are described and recommendations are given for the treatment of elbow joint

  13. The diagnostic relevance of an integrated approach to gated cardiac studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Evolution of Nuclear Medicine hardware and software has opened the way towards maximizing the amount of information of gated cardiac studies. The clinical use of cardiac functional images started with stroke volume image, paradoxis images and regional ejection fraction images, followed later by slope images, variation images and others. Especially the introduction of phase analysis has opened a variety of new perspectives. (WU)

  14. On the relevance of the ac magnetic susceptibility on the study of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoder, A.F.; Couach, M.; Barbara, B.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the ac susceptibility method allows to study in details the bulk superconductivity of as well homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, such as high-T c superconductors. Shielding and Meissner effects at T c can be distinguished by a careful analysis of x' and x'' components of the susceptibility

  15. Integrating couple relationship education in antenatal education - A study of perceived relevance among expectant Danish parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Due, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about which elements antenatal education should encompass to meet the needs of parents today. Psycho-social aspects relating to couple- and parenthood have generally not been covered in Danish antenatal education, although studies suggest that parents need this information. The aim...

  16. Identifying and recruiting smokers for preoperative smoking cessation--a systematic review of methods reported in published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fujian; Brown, Tracey J; Blyth, Annie; Maskrey, Vivienne; McNamara, Iain; Donell, Simon

    2015-11-11

    Smoking cessation before surgery reduces postoperative complications, and the benefit is positively associated with the duration of being abstinent before a surgical procedure. A key issue in providing preoperative smoking cessation support is to identify people who smoke as early as possible before elective surgery. This review aims to summarise methods used to identify and recruit smokers awaiting elective surgery. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, and references of relevant reviews (up to May 2014) to identify prospective studies that evaluated preoperative smoking cessation programmes. One reviewer extracted and a second reviewer checked data from the included studies. Data extracted from included studies were presented in tables and narratively described. We included 32 relevant studies, including 18 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 14 non-randomised studies (NRS). Smokers were recruited at preoperative clinics (n = 18), from surgery waiting lists (n = 6), or by general practitioners (n = 1), and the recruitment methods were not explicitly described in seven studies. Time points of preoperative recruitment of smokers was unclear in four studies, less than 4 weeks before surgery in 17 studies, and at least 4 weeks before surgery in only 11 studies. The recruitment rate tended to be lower in RCTs (median 58.2 %, range 9.1 to 90.9 %) than that in NRS (median 99.1 %, range 12.3 to 100 %) and lower in preoperative clinic-based RCTs (median 54.4 %, range 9.1 to 82.4 %) than that in waiting list-based RCTs (median 70.1 %, range 36.8 to 85.0 %). Smokers were recruited at least 4 weeks before surgery in four of the six waiting list-based studies and in only three of the 18 preoperative clinic-based studies. Published studies often inadequately described the methods for recruiting smokers into preoperative smoking cessation programmes. Although smoking cessation at any time is beneficial, many programmes recruited smokers at times

  17. An experimental and theoretical study of reaction steps relevant to the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svelle, Stian

    2004-07-01

    The primary objective of the present work is to obtain new insight into the reaction mechanism of the zeolite catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction. It was decided to use both experimental and computational techniques to reach this goal. An investigation of the n-butene + methanol system was therefore initiated. Over time, it became apparent that it was possible to determine the rate for the methylation of n-butene by methanol. The ethene and propene systems were therefore reexamined in order to collect kinetic information also for those cases. With the development of user-friendly quantum chemistry programs such as the Gaussian suite of programs, the possibility of applying quantum chemical methods to many types of problems has become readily available even for non-experts. When performing mechanistic studies, there is quite often a considerable synergy effect when combining experimental and computational approaches. The methylation reactions mentioned above turned out to be an issue well suited for quantum chemical investigations. The incentive for examining the halomethane reactivity was the clear analogy to the MTH reaction system. Alkene dimerization was also a reaction readily examined with quantum chemistry. As discussed in the introduction of this thesis, polymethylbenzenes, or their cationic counterparts, are suspected to be key intermediates in the MTH reaction. It was therefore decided to investigate the intrinsic reactivity of these species in the gas-phase by employing sophisticated mass spectrometric (MS) techniques in collaboration with the MS group at the Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo The data thus obtained will also be compared with results from an ongoing computational study on gas phase polymethylbenzenium reactivity. 6 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) A Theoretical Investigation of the Methylation of Alkenes with Methanol over Acidic Zeolites. 2) A Theoretical Investigation of the

  18. An experimental and theoretical study of reaction steps relevant to the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svelle, Stian

    2004-07-01

    The primary objective of the present work is to obtain new insight into the reaction mechanism of the zeolite catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction. It was decided to use both experimental and computational techniques to reach this goal. An investigation of the n-butene + methanol system was therefore initiated. Over time, it became apparent that it was possible to determine the rate for the methylation of n-butene by methanol. The ethene and propene systems were therefore reexamined in order to collect kinetic information also for those cases. With the development of user-friendly quantum chemistry programs such as the Gaussian suite of programs, the possibility of applying quantum chemical methods to many types of problems has become readily available even for non-experts. When performing mechanistic studies, there is quite often a considerable synergy effect when combining experimental and computational approaches. The methylation reactions mentioned above turned out to be an issue well suited for quantum chemical investigations. The incentive for examining the halomethane reactivity was the clear analogy to the MTH reaction system. Alkene dimerization was also a reaction readily examined with quantum chemistry. As discussed in the introduction of this thesis, polymethylbenzenes, or their cationic counterparts, are suspected to be key intermediates in the MTH reaction. It was therefore decided to investigate the intrinsic reactivity of these species in the gas-phase by employing sophisticated mass spectrometric (MS) techniques in collaboration with the MS group at the Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo The data thus obtained will also be compared with results from an ongoing computational study on gas phase polymethylbenzenium reactivity. 6 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) A Theoretical Investigation of the Methylation of Alkenes with Methanol over Acidic Zeolites. 2) A Theoretical Investigation of the

  19. Effects of clinically relevant doses of methyphenidate on spatial memory, behavioral sensitization and open field habituation: a time related study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen; Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-03-15

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD) is a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite acceptable therapeutic efficacy, there is limited data regarding the long-term consequences of MPD exposure over extended periods. The present study concerns effects of clinically relevant doses of MPD, administered orally to rats for an extended period, on spatial memory, behavioral sensitization and habituation to an open field. Water maze test was used to monitor memory acquisition (2 h after training), retention (day next to training), extinction (1 week after training) and reconsolidation (weekly for 4 weeks). Administration of MPD at doses of 0.25-1.0 mg/kg improved memory acquisition, retention, reconsolidation and impaired memory extinction. Treatment with 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg MPD for 6 weeks produced a sustained increase in motor activity but higher dose (1.0 mg/kg) elicited behavioral sensitization. High as well as low doses MPD impaired open field habituation. We conclude that clinically relevant doses of MPD enhance memory even if used for extended period. It is suggested that higher (1.0 mg/kg) clinically relevant doses of MPD, if used for extended period, may exacerbate hyperactivity and impulsivity associated with the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies concerning thermodynamics and kinetics of the absorption of halogenated hydrocarbons relevant to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisweiler, W.; Eidam, K.; Winterbauer, H.

    1993-07-01

    In the context of the research project the scrubbing of air contaminated by peculiar volatile organic compounds was investigated using the absorption technique by means of high boiling organics as washing liquids. Eight chlorinated hydrocarbons well known from technical processes were chosen to be representative for the volatile organic compounds. Eleven absorption media were selected on the basis of their physical properties. For the determination of the solubility data of the absorption media due to chlorinated hydrocarbons, nitrogen as well as a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen were used as carrier gas. The influence of the dipole moment of the absorption media on the amount of solubility - expressed as enrichment factor - was studied, too. Concerning the technical application, the thermostability and the stability against diluted inorganic acids were studied as well. (orig.). 56 figs., 8 tabs., 63 refs [de

  1. Influencing Tomorrow: A Study of Emerging Influence Techniques and Their Relevance to United States Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    offers insights into an international network that has preserved a holistic identity, while simultaneously franchising globally . The Islamic State...preserved a holistic identity, while simultaneously franchising globally . The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant is the second study and an...identity, while simultaneously franchising globally . The ISIL is an outstanding example of a regional non-state actor who rapidly claimed market share

  2. Diving physiology of seabirds and marine mammals: Relevance, challenges and some solutions for field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Russel D; Enstipp, Manfred R

    2016-12-01

    To fully understand how diving seabirds and marine mammals balance the potentially conflicting demands of holding their breath while living their lives underwater (and maintaining physiological homeostasis during exercise, feeding, growth, and reproduction), physiological studies must be conducted with animals in their natural environments. The purpose of this article is to review the importance of making physiological measurements on diving animals in field settings, while acknowledging the challenges and highlighting some solutions. The most extreme divers are great candidates for study, especially in a comparative and mechanistic context. However, physiological data are also required of a wide range of species for problems relating to other disciplines, in particular ecology and conservation biology. Physiological data help with understanding and predicting the outcomes of environmental change, and the direct impacts of anthropogenic activities. Methodological approaches that have facilitated the development of field-based diving physiology include the isolated diving hole protocol and the translocation paradigm, and while there are many techniques for remote observation, animal-borne biotelemetry, or "biologging", has been critical. We discuss issues related to the attachment of instruments, the retrieval of data and sensing of physiological variables, while also considering negative impacts of tagging. This is illustrated with examples from a variety of species, and an in-depth look at one of the best studied and most extreme divers, the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). With a variety of approaches and high demand for data on the physiology of diving seabirds and marine mammals, the future of field studies is bright. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Scale-up considerations relevant to experimental studies of nuclear waste-package behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Peters, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    Results from a study that investigated whether testing large-scale nuclear waste-package assemblages was technically warranted are reported. It was recognized that the majority of the investigations for predicting waste-package performance to date have relied primarily on laboratory-scale experimentation. However, methods for the successful extrapolation of the results from such experiments, both geometrically and over time, to actual repository conditions have not been well defined. Because a well-developed scaling technology exists in the chemical-engineering discipline, it was presupposed that much of this technology could be applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance. A review of existing literature documented numerous examples where a consideration of scaling technology was important. It was concluded that much of the existing scale-up technology is applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance for both size and time extrapolations and that conducting scale-up studies may be technically merited. However, the applicability for investigating the complex chemical interactions needs further development. It was recognized that the complexity of the system, and the long time periods involved, renders a completely theoretical approach to performance prediction almost hopeless. However, a theoretical and experimental study was defined for investigating heat and fluid flow. It was concluded that conducting scale-up modeling and experimentation for waste-package performance predictions is possible using existing technology. A sequential series of scaling studies, both theoretical and experimental, will be required to formulate size and time extrapolations of waste-package performance

  4. Theoretical and experimental studies relevant to interpretation of auroral emissions. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keffer, C.E.

    1992-06-01

    The results obtained in the second year of a three year collaborative effort with MSFC are summarized. A succession of experimental studies was completed to determine the effects of the natural and induced space vehicle environment on the measurement of auroral images from space-based platforms. In addition, a global model which incorporates both auroral and dayglow emission sources is being developed to allow interpretation of measured auroral emissions. A description of work completed on these two tasks is presented

  5. Relevance of deterministic chaos theory to studies in functioning of dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glagolev, S. N.; Bukhonova, S. M.; Chikina, E. D.

    2018-03-01

    The paper considers chaotic behavior of dynamical systems typical for social and economic processes. Approaches to analysis and evaluation of system development processes are studies from the point of view of controllability and determinateness. Explanations are given for necessity to apply non-standard mathematical tools to explain states of dynamical social and economic systems on the basis of fractal theory. Features of fractal structures, such as non-regularity, self-similarity, dimensionality and fractionality are considered.

  6. A qualitative study to identify barriers to deployment and student training in the use of automated external defibrillators in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinckernagel, Line; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    such as delayed access have been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to the implementation of defibrillator training of students and deployment of defibrillators in schools. Methods: A qualitative study based on semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups with a total of 25......Background: Student training in use of automated external defibrillators and deployment of such defibrillators in schools is recommended to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Low implementation rates have been observed, and even at schools with a defibrillator, challenges...... to their perception of student training but not for their considerations on the relevance of their placement at schools. Conclusions: It is crucial for implementation of automated external defibrillators in schools to inform staff about how they work and are operated and that students are an appropriate target group...

  7. Setup of a Biomedical Facility to Study Physiologically Relevant Flow-Structure Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Faraz; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    The design and implementation of a closed loop biomedical facility to study arterial flows is presented. The facility has a test section of 25 inches, and is capable of generating both steady and pulsatile flows via a centrifugal and a dual piston pump respectively. The Reynolds and Womersley numbers occurring in major blood vessels can be matched. The working fluid is a solution of NaI that allows refractive index matching with both rigid glass and compliant polymer models to facilitate tomographic PIV and holographic PIV. The combination of these two techniques allows us to study both large scale flow features as well as flows very close to the wall. The polymer models can be made with different modulus of elasticity and can be pre-stressed using a 5-axis stage. Radially asymmetric patches can also be pre-fabricated and incorporated in the tube during the manufacturing process to simulate plaque formation in arteries. These tubes are doped with tracer particles allowing for the measurement of wall deformation. Preliminary flow data over rigid and compliant walls is presented. One of the aims of this study is to characterize the changes in flow as the compliancy of blood vessels change due to age or disease, and explore the fluid interactions with an evolving surface boundary.

  8. Introspective Inquiry: Self-Study and Its Relevance in Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Croy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As teachers inevitably model their teaching on their ownexperiences, those who educate teachers must remainconscious of their own actions in the classroom, lestunwelcome behaviors or ineffective methods resurfacein their students’ future teaching. Therefore, self-studyof one’s professional practice is an invaluable tool forevaluating efficacy in the classroom. This study evaluatedthe teaching practices of Professor Melanie Shoffner(English education in ENGL 49200, an undergraduatemethods course. The study examined the specificmethods, strategies, and interactions Shoffner uses in herteaching in order to consider how her instruction does—or does not—support the development of her students.Data for the study consisted of my observational notesfrom multiple classes and my review of literature on selfstudyand relational teaching. During each observation, Iused an observational framework of my own design thatrecorded students’ participation and determined the levelof their engagement in classroom discussion, in additionto noting specific interactions between student andinstructor. By analyzing repetitions and common themesfrom my observations, spanning an entire semester, Iconcluded that student engagement in the classroom wasdependent on a variety of classroom activities, such asdiscussion, group work, and lectures. In addition, I foundthat students’ willingness to participate hinged on theprofessor’s use of positive reinforcement, communicatedthrough facial and verbal interaction. These findingssuggest that professors must be conscious of theirchoices in the classroom: seemingly insignificant acts ofinstruction and interaction can greatly influence students’development as future teachers.

  9. [The relevance of core muscles in ice hockey players: a feasibility study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, S; Blasimann, A; Nyffenegger, D; Zimmerli, N; Radlinger, L

    2013-12-01

    Good core strength is seen as a condition for high performance in sports. In general, especially maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and strength endurance (SE) measurements of the core muscles are used. In addition, a few studies can be found that examine the core muscles in terms of MVC, rate of force development (RFD) and SE. Primary aims of this feasibility study were to investigate the feasibility regarding recruiting process, compliance and safety of the testing conditions and raise the force capabilities MVC, RFD and SE of the core muscles in amateur ice hockey players. Secondarily, tendencies of correlations between muscle activity and either shot speed and sprint time shall be examined. In this feasibility study the recruitment process has been approved by 29 ice hockey players, their adherence to the study measurements of trunk muscles, and safety of the measurements was evaluated. To determine the MVC, RFD and SE for the ventral, lateral and dorsal core muscles a dynamic force measurement was performed. To determine the correlation between core muscles and shot speed and 40-m sprint, respectively, the rank correlation coefficient (rho) from Spearman was used. The recruited number of eight field players and one goal-keeper was not very high. The compliance with 100 % was excellent. The players reported no adverse symptoms or injuries after the measurements. The results show median values for the ventral core muscles for MVC with 46.5 kg for RFD with 2.23 m/s2 and 96 s for the SE. For lateral core muscle median values of the lateral core muscles for MVC with 71.10 kg, RFD with 2.59 m/s2 and for SE over 66 s were determined. The dorsal core muscles shows values for MVC 69.7 kg, for RFD 3.39 m/s2 and for SE of 75 s. High correlations between MVC of the ventral core muscles (rho = -0.721, p = 0.021), and between the SE of the ventral core muscles (rho = 0.787, p = 0.012), and the shot velocity rate were determined. Another

  10. Clinical relevance and scope of accidental extracoronary findings in coronary computed tomography angiography: A cardiac versus thoracic FOV study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglan, Iman; Jodocy, Daniel; Hiehs, Stefan; Soegner, Peter; Frank, Renate; Haberfellner, Berhard; Klauser, Andrea; Jaschke, Werner [Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Feuchtner, Gudrun M. [Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: Gudrun.Feuchtner@i-med.ac.at

    2010-04-15

    Objective: To assess the spectrum and clinical relevance of extracoronary findings in coronary CT angiography (CCTA), and to compare a small (cardiac) field of view (FOV) to a large (thoracic) FOV setting. Material and methods: 1084 consecutive patients (mean 57 years) with low-to-intermediate risk of coronary artery disease were enrolled. 542 CCTA scans were interpreted with small FOV (160-190 mm{sup 2}) encompassing the cardiac region. In another 542 CCTA (patients matched for age and gender), read-out of an additional full FOV (>320 mm{sup 2}) covering the thorax was performed. Clinical relevance of extracoronary findings was considered as either 'significant' or 'non-significant'. 'Significant' findings were subclassified as either score 1: findings necessitating immediate therapeutic actions, or score 2: findings with undoubted clinical or prognostic relevance, requiring clinical awareness, follow-up or further investigations (non-urgent). 'Non-significant' findings were assigned to either score 3: findings not requiring follow-up or further tests, or as score 4: irrelevant incidental findings. Results: Significantly more patients with extracoronary findings were identified by using a full FOV with 43.2% (234/542) compared to a small FOV with 33.6% (182/542) (p = 0.001). Similarly, a higher total number of extracoronary findings (n = 394) was found on full FOV compared to small FOV (n = 250) (p < 0.001). The detection rate of clinically significant findings was higher by using full FOV compared to small FOV (25.6% versus 15.4%) (p < 0.001), out of those 2.2% versus 1.8% of findings required immediate actions (score 1), and 23.4% versus 13.6% (p = 0.0001), respectively were of clinical relevance (non-urgent, score 2). The rate of malign findings was 0.2%, and of acute pulmonary embolism 0.1%. More lung pathologies were observed by using full FOV compared to small FOV (22% versus 7%) (p < 0.0001), and the detection rate of

  11. Thermal hydraulic studies for passive heat transport systems relevant to advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Sharma, M.; Borgohain, A.; Srivastava, A.K.; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Maheshwari, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear is the only non-green house gas generating power source that can replace fossil fuels and can be commercially deployed in large scale. However, the enormous developmental efforts and safety upgrades during the past six decades have somewhat eroded the economic competitiveness of water-cooled reactors which form the mainstay of the current nuclear power programme. Further, the introduction of the supercritical Rankine cycle and the gas turbine based advanced fuel cycles have enhanced the efficiency of fossil fired power plants (FPP) thereby reducing its greenhouse gas emissions. The ongoing development of ultra-supercritical and advanced ultra-supercritical turbines aims to further reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and economic competitiveness of FPPs. In the backdrop of these developments, the nuclear industry also initiated development of advanced nuclear power plants (NPP) with improved efficiency, sustainability and enhanced safety as the main goals. A review of the advanced reactor concepts being investigated currently reveals that excepting the SCWR, all other concepts use coolants other than water. The coolants used are lead, lead bismuth eutectic, liquid sodium, molten salts, helium and supercritical water. Besides, some of these are employing passive systems to transport heat from the core under normal operating conditions. In view of this, a study is in progress at BARC to examine the performance of simple passive systems using SC CO 2 , SCW, LBE and molten salts as the coolant. This paper deals with some of the recent results of these studies. The study focuses on the steady state, transient and stability behaviour of the passive systems with these coolants. (author)

  12. Studies of radionuclide availability and migration at the Nevada Test Site relevant to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewhey, J.D.; Weed, H.C.; Coles, D.G.; Ramspott, L.D.; MacLean, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    The sorption distribution coefficient, K/sub d/, of a nuclide is defined as the concentration of a nuclide on a solid phase divided by its concentration in the liquid phase subsequent to equilibrium being attained. In the case of batch K/sub d/ measurements done in the laboratory, it is difficult to ascertain the extent of equilibration, and experiments may not reflect true K/sub d/ values. Kurt Wolfsberg of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has referred to laboratory K/sub d/ measurements as distribution ratios or R/sub d/'s. An R/sub d/ is obtained in the same manner as a K/sub d/ but does not imply equilibrium. The term R/sub d/ is used in this study. The results from the batch R/sub d/ studies are listed in tabular form. The standard deviation of the counting data for each R/sub d/ is given. The R/sub d/ values can be arranged according to the following inequalities: Pu > Cs, except for biotite; Cs > Sr, except for limestone; and Sr > Tc. The exceptions are considered significant for Pu vs Cs on biotite, but not for Cs vs Sr on limestone. The low R/sub d/ values for Tc indicate that within the limits of measurement it is not sorbed under the experimental conditions in this study. One possible cause for the negative values is preferential sorption of the sample on the walls of the sample container, so that the sample container sorbs less Tc than the blank container does

  13. Brain-relevant antibodies in first-episode psychosis: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughran, Fiona; Lally, John; Beck, Katherine; McCormack, Ruaidhri; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Coutinho, Ester; Jacobson, Leslie; Lang, Bethan; Sainz-Fuertes, Ricardo; Papanastasiou, Evangelos; Di Forti, Marta; Nicholson, Tim; Vincent, Angela; Murray, Robin M

    2018-06-01

    There has been much recent excitement about the possibility that some cases of psychosis may be wholly due to brain-reactive antibodies, with antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex reported in a few patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). Participants were recruited from psychiatric services in South London, UK, from 2009 to 2011 as part of the Genetics and Psychosis study. We conducted a case-control study to examine NMDAR and VGKC-complex antibody levels and rates of antibody positivity in 96 patients presenting with FEP and 98 controls matched for age and sex. Leucine-rich glioma inactiviated-1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein (CASPR) antibodies were also measured. Notably, patients with suspicion of organic disease were excluded. VGKC-complex antibodies were found in both cases (n = 3) and controls (n = 2). NMDAR antibody positivity was seen in one case and one control. Either LGI1-Abs or CASPR2-Abs were found in three cases and three controls. Neuronal antibody staining, consistent with the above results or indicating potential novel antigens, was overall positive in four patients but also in six controls. Overall, antibody positivity was at low levels only and not higher in cases than in controls. This case-control study of the prevalence of antibodies in FEP does not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that FEP is associated with an immune-mediated process in a subgroup of patients. Nevertheless, as other bio-clinical factors may influence the effect of such antibodies in a given individual, and patients with organic neurological disease may be misdiagnosed as FEP, the field requires more research to put these findings in context.

  14. TO STUDY THE ADOLESCENT ATTITUDE AND RELEVANCE TO FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Family life education is a comprehensive program to educate the growing children, regarding the various aspects of living in a society and interacting with other individuals at different levels and in different ways along with imparting age appropriate knowledge of biological and sexual development. Lack of awareness, ignorance, or inappropriate knowledge among youth made us take up this study. Sexual knowledge is sought from peers and magazines, menstrual hygiene, masturbation issues are never dealt by health authorities, educators or parents. Risk taking behavior, substance abuse, violence are very common in teens these problems are to highlighted. And interactive sessions are needed to enhance the learning experience.

  15. The relevance of political prestudies for implementation studies of cognitive services in community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Søndergaard, Birthe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of cognitive services implementation in the pharmacy sector traditionally focus on individual and/or organizational factors to explain why some pharmacies are successful and others are not. The social and political context of the origins of these services is rarely part...... of the analysis. Researchers and practitioners in the field of pharmacy practice research are increasingly being encouraged to take into account the specific political and societal climate which often plays a defining role in the success or failure of cognitive services implementation in community pharmacies...

  16. Identifying experimental methods to determine the effect of pain on attention: a review of pain, caffeine, alcohol and nicotine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David J; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    To review published studies of the effects that pain and common psychopharmacological substances have on the attentional performance of healthy adults. To identify which attentional tasks have the greatest potential to investigate the effect of pain on attention and provide recommendations for future research. A search was conducted for reports of experimental studies of attention in the context of pain. This was supplemented with studies on attention and caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Studies were included if they used a healthy adult sample, used experimental or quasi-experimental methods, were relevant to the study of attention or interruption of pain and/or examined the acute effects of a substance on attention. Thirty-two papers, with 49 different experimental studies were identified (12 pain, 21 nicotine, 7 caffeine, 9 alcohol). Fourteen different tasks were reviewed across six domains of attention. The most promising measures of attention were the continuous performance task, flanker task, endogenous pre-cuing task, n-back task, inhibition task and dual task. There are reliable tasks that could be used to determine the effects of pain on attention. Future research is required that develops the utility of these tasks to improve our understanding of the effects pain and analgesia have on attentional performance. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Studies in nuclear structure relevant to Astrophysics: theoretical and experimental efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Sarkar, Maitreyee

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations in the region around doubly magic neutron rich 132 Sn nucleus have recently revealed many intriguing issues concerning some newer aspects of nuclear structure in such exotic environments. These nuclei lie on or close to the path of the astrophysical r-process flow. A glimpse of the implication of these studies on the r-process nucleosynthesis will be discussed. Presently, the Nuclear Physics group in Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics is working for installation of a high-current, low energy Accelerator as the primary component of the Facility for Research in low Energy Nuclear Astrophysics (FRENA), a national facility, at Kolkata. Planning for future experiments has been undertaken for successful utilization of this facility. Implantation technique has been found to be one of the most effective methods to produce isotopically pure targets. We have prepared a few isotopically pure targets using this technique. Being the slowest process of the CNO cycle, study of the 14 N(p, γ) 15 O(Q = 7297 keV) capture reaction is of high astrophysical interest. From an experiment utilizing one of the newly prepared 14 N implanted targets, a preliminary estimate of the lifetime of 6792 keV state in 15 O has been obtained, using Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). The sensitivity of the results with respect to the uncertainties in various input quantities has been tested. This endeavour will be helpful to design a better experiment to extract more precise lifetime for this important state

  18. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Nakagama

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropylamine (BOP into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5’ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention.

  19. Studies of autoionizing states relevant to dielectronic recombination. Progress report, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, T.F.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this research program supported by grant DE-FG05-85-ER13394 is to study the properties of autoionizing states to understand in detail dielectronic recombination of ions and electrons. During the period of the present grant, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1994, we have put substantial effort into the study of autoionizing states in Mg. The first topic we have investigated is the angular distribution of electrons ejected from the autoionizing Mg 3pns and 3pnd states. Both of these sets of measurements provide more stringent tests of the K matrix calculations than do measurements of total cross sections. The second topic is the effect of static and microwave electric fields on autoionizing states. Our previous measurements in Ba have shown the profound influence of electric fields on autoionization rates and we have made extensive new measurements in both Ba and Mg. Electric fields are of real importance for dielectronic recombination, since they are present as macroscopic fields in beam experiments and as microfields in plasmas. Finally, we have begun time resolved measurements. We have set up a picosecond laser system, and we have just finished the first experiment with it. Specifically we have used picosecond excitation from a bound Mg 3pnd Rydberg wave packet to the autoionizing 3pnd states to show explicitly the correlation between the spatial location of the Rydberg electron and the frequency of the exciting light

  20. Northern Rivers Basins ecological and human health studies : summary, relevance and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    Residents in northern Alberta expressed concerns that the original Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) only examined the impacts of contaminants on ecological health and did not include impacts on human health. In response to these concerns, Alberta Health established the Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This document links the ecological information collected by the original NRBS program with the information provided by the health program. Issues regarding health impacts from pulp mills and oil sand mining were also discussed. The findings of the health program were summarized and recommendations were made for future studies. The contaminants of potential concern (COPC) arising from the original NRBS were described in terms of their sources and any known connections between exposure and human health. The COPCs included arsenic, dioxins, chlorinated furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) mercury, chlorinated phenolics, toxaphene, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulphur dioxide, acid sulphates and particulate matter. Examples of Canadian regulatory criteria for these contaminants were also presented. 41 refs., 1 tab

  1. $^{206}$ Po sources for production and release studies relevant for high power spallation targets

    CERN Multimedia

    The knowledge of the evaporation behaviour of Po is of essential importance for several scientific and technological applications, like accelerator driven systems (ADS) or the LIEBE project at CERN-ISOLDE. Fundamental investigations on the experimental conditions for the formation of volatile Po species as well as on the chemical composition of the volatile compounds are necessary for a safe operation of such facilities. $^{206}$Po, a mainly $\\gamma$- ray-emitting Po isotope with a half-life of 8.8 d, is best suited for model studies, due to the lower radiation hazard compared to the longer-lived $\\alpha$-emitting isotopes $^{208-210}$Po as well as the easy-to-measure $\\gamma$-ray emission. We propose the production of $^{206}$Po samples in several matrices via the implantation of its precursor $^{210}$Fr into selected metal foils at CERN-ISOLDE. Using these samples, experiments will be carried out at PSI studying the volatilization of Po from different matrices under varying chemical conditions.

  2. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Mami; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention

  3. The relevance of clinical and radiographic features of jaw lesions: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Piragine ARAUJO

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out in a Brazilian population and the aim was to describe the prevalence and the clinic-radiographical features of jaw lesions. In addition, a comparison between the main diagnosis hypothesis and final diagnosis was accessed. A prospective study which evaluated all patients with jaw lesions diagnosed in an Oral Diagnosis Center, between August 2013 and October 2014. A total of 450 patients were observed for the first time, and 130 had some type of jaw lesion. The mean age of the patients was 35.2 years ± 17.86. Among these, 71 were women (54.62% and 87 were Caucasian (66.92%. The mandible was affected more frequently (71.43% than the maxilla (28.57%. Swelling and pain were the most frequent clinical signs and symptoms and were observed in 60 (42.85% and 38 (27.14% cases, respectively. The panoramic x-ray was the main radiographic exam utilized (88.57%. Radiolucent lesions accounted for 89 cases (63.57% and the unilocular form was present in 114 cases (81.43%. A total of 93 cases had histopathological analyses and the periapical cyst was the most frequent lesion. In the other 47 lesions, the diagnosis was conducted by clinical and radiographic management. Bone lesions were frequent, being noted on first visit in approximately 30% of patients; in 1/3 of the cases, the diagnoses were completed with a combination of clinical and radiographic exams.

  4. Experimental Animal Models of Pancreatic Carcinogenesis for Prevention Studies and Their Relevance to Human Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Mami, E-mail: mtakahas@ncc.go.jp; Hori, Mika; Mutoh, Michihiro [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Keiji [Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada 52-1, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Nakagama, Hitoshi [Division of Cancer Development System, Carcinogenesis Research Group, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1, Tsukiji 5-chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2011-02-09

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to cure, so its prevention is very important. For this purpose, animal model studies are necessary to develop effective methods. Injection of N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) into Syrian golden hamsters is known to induce pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, the histology of which is similar to human tumors. Moreover, K-ras activation by point mutations and p16 inactivation by aberrant methylation of 5′ CpG islands or by homozygous deletions have been frequently observed in common in both the hamster and humans. Thus, this chemical carcinogenesis model has an advantage of histopathological and genetic similarity to human pancreatic cancer, and it is useful to study promotive and suppressive factors. Syrian golden hamsters are in a hyperlipidemic state even under normal dietary conditions, and a ligand of peroxizome proliferator-activated receptor gamma was found to improve the hyperlipidemia and suppress pancreatic carcinogenesis. Chronic inflammation is a known important risk factor, and selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 also have protective effects against pancreatic cancer development. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic agents can thus be considered candidate chemopreventive agents deserving more attention.

  5. Relevance of the Studying Quality of Life Indicator in Children with Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ya. Tkachenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview focuses on global issues and conceptual approaches to understanding the quality of life. Despite the fairly large number of questionnaires for children, the data in this article demonstrate that the definition of quality of life should be more widely used in pediatric studies. Recently, this criterion is most frequently used to analyze the quality of medical care for patients with chronic diseases. Assessment of quality of life in children with allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, urticaria, is especially important. This is primarily due to the high prevalence of allergic pathology, as well as its significant influence on the daily lives of patients, which certainly involves important social and economic spheres of activity. Improving quality of life is strongly correlated with the appropriate treatment, which is clearly demonstrated by the patients with bronchial asthma, especially in the pediatric population.

  6. Fundamental Studies of Charge Migration and Delocalization Relevant to Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Therien

    2012-06-01

    This program aimed to understand the molecular-level principles by which complex chemical systems carry out photochemical charge separation, transport, and storage, and how these insights could impact the design of practical solar energy conversion and storage devices. Towards these goals, this program focused on: (1) carrying out fundamental mechanistic and transient dynamical studies of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactions; (2) characterizing and interrogating via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods novel conjugated materials that feature large charge delocalization lengths; and (3) exploring excitation delocalization and migration, as well as polaron transport properties of meso-scale assemblies that are capable of segregating light-harvesting antennae, nanoscale wire-like conduction elements, and distinct oxidizing and reducing environments.

  7. Clinical relevance of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as an analytical method in microdose clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Naoe; Tozuka, Zenzaburo; Kusama, Makiko; Maeda, Kazuya; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the potency of LC-MS/MS by means of sensitivity and the applicability for cassette dosing in microdose clinical trials. Thirty one top-selling 31 drugs were spiked to human plasma, extracted, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The lower limits of quantification for each drug varied from 0.08 to 50 pg/mL, and were lower than one eighth of the assumed maximum plasma concentration at microdose in all drugs except for losartan, indicating the high performance in acquisition of full pharmacokinetic profiles at microdose. We also succeeded in simultaneous analysis of multiple compounds, assuming a situation of cassette dosing in which multiple drug candidates would be administrated simultaneously. Together with the features of LC-MS/MS, such as immediate verification, the utilization of non-radiolabeled drugs and no special facilities, we suppose that LC-MS/MS analysis would be widely applicable in conducting microdose clinical studies.

  8. Theoretical study of charge exchange, ionization and electron loss processes, relevant to controlled thermonuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janev, R.

    1981-03-01

    The following processes have been studied: a) Single and double charge exchange in low, medium and high energy collisions of atoms with multiply charged ions; b) Excitation and ionization processes in low, medium and high energy collisions between multiply charged ions and atoms; c) Ion-ion recombination and ion-pair formation collision processes between hydrogen and alkali atoms (ions); d) Resonant and Auger processes in slow collisions of atomic particles with solid surfaces (including surfaces covered by a sub-monoatomic layer). Processes a) and b) are important for the ''impurity problem'' of magnetically confined tokamak plasmas, whereas processes c) and d) for the production and transport of intense neutral beams for plasma heating

  9. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight – a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T.; Köhler, M.; Philippi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented. PMID:27065486

  10. Relevance of I-BMIPP delayed scintigraphic imaging for patients with angina pectoris - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kohei; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Ishibashi, Yuki; Musha, Haruki; Banach, Maciej

    2011-06-01

    The study was designed to clarify the role of (123)I-β-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid ((123)I-BMIPP) in the evaluation of myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with stable angina pectoris (AP) before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). TEN CONTROLS (MEAN AGE: 70.4 ±10.5 years) and 12 patients with AP (mean age: 67.4 ±11.6 years) and single vessel coronary artery disease participated in the radionuclide cardiac study. Scintigraphic images were acquired at 30 min and at 4 h after (123)I-BMIPP injection to determine early and delayed BMIPP uptake, respectively. The heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio and the washout rate (WR) were calculated from the planar images. All patients underwent scintigraphy one day before PCI and again 1 month after successful PCI. NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN THE EARLY OR DELAYED H/M RATIOS WERE OBSERVED BETWEEN THE PATIENTS AND THE CONTROLS BEFORE PCI (EARLY: 2.70 ±0.36 vs. 2.73 ±0.57; delayed: 2.26 ±0.33 vs. 2.40 ±0.43; p > 0.2 for both). The early and delayed H/M ratios remained unchanged with the comparison with before PCI (early: 2.72 ±0.27, delayed: 2.23 ±0.22; p > 0.2 for both). The global WR before PCI was significantly higher in the patients than in the control group (36.7 ±9.3%, vs. 28.1 ±8.2%, p = 0.02). However, the WR after PCI did not significantly differ between the patients and the controls (34.3 ±7.8% vs. 28.1 ±8.2%, p = 0.1). These data may suggest that the WR of (123)I-BMIPP determined from the planar images enhances the presence of myocardial ischaemia.

  11. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight - a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T; Köhler, M; Philippi, M

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented.

  12. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Genetic Risk Factors for Stroke in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Cara L; Keene, Keith L; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Meschia, James F; Chen, Wei-Min; Nalls, Mike; Bis, Joshua C; Kittner, Steven J; Rich, Stephen S; Tajuddin, Salman; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K; Langefeld, Carl D; Gottesman, Rebecca; Mosley, Thomas H; Shahar, Eyal; Woo, Daniel; Yaffe, Kristine; Liu, Yongmei; Sale, Michèle M; Dichgans, Martin; Malik, Rainer; Longstreth, W T; Mitchell, Braxton D; Psaty, Bruce M; Kooperberg, Charles; Reiner, Alexander; Worrall, Bradford B; Fornage, Myriam

    2015-08-01

    The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of stroke have focused on European-ancestry populations; however, none has been conducted in African Americans, despite the disproportionately high burden of stroke in this population. The Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke (COMPASS) was established to identify stroke susceptibility loci in minority populations. Using METAL, we conducted meta-analyses of GWAS in 14 746 African Americans (1365 ischemic and 1592 total stroke cases) from COMPASS, and tested genetic variants with Pstroke genetic studies in European-ancestry populations. We also evaluated stroke loci previously identified in European-ancestry populations. The 15q21.3 locus linked with lipid levels and hypertension was associated with total stroke (rs4471613; P=3.9×10(-8)) in African Americans. Nominal associations (Pstroke were observed for 18 variants in or near genes implicated in cell cycle/mRNA presplicing (PTPRG, CDC5L), platelet function (HPS4), blood-brain barrier permeability (CLDN17), immune response (ELTD1, WDFY4, and IL1F10-IL1RN), and histone modification (HDAC9). Two of these loci achieved nominal significance in METASTROKE: 5q35.2 (P=0.03), and 1p31.1 (P=0.018). Four of 7 previously reported ischemic stroke loci (PITX2, HDAC9, CDKN2A/CDKN2B, and ZFHX3) were nominally associated (Pstroke in COMPASS. We identified a novel genetic variant associated with total stroke in African Americans and found that ischemic stroke loci identified in European-ancestry populations may also be relevant for African Americans. Our findings support investigation of diverse populations to identify and characterize genetic risk factors, and the importance of shared genetic risk across populations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Studies of biominerals relevant to the search for life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Armando; D'Elia, Marcella; Licchelli, Domenico; Orofino, Vincenzo; Fonti, Sergio

    2006-12-01

    The evidence of the water erosion on Mars is particularly interesting since present climatic conditions are such that liquid water cannot exist at the surface. But, if water was present on the planet in the past, there may have been life, too. Since the discovery of carbonates on Mars also may have very important implications on the possibility that life developed there, we are studying minerals that can have biotic or abiotic origin: calcite (CaCO(3)) and aragonite, a metastable state of calcite.We have analysed biomineral aragonite, in the form of recent sea shells, as well as crystals of mineral aragonite. Infrared spectroscopy in the 2-25 mum wavelength range reveals that, after thermal processing, the biotic samples have a different spectral behaviour from the abiotic ones. As a result, it is possible to distinguish abiotic mineral aragonite from aragonite of recent biological origin.Obviously, if life existed in the past on the Red Planet, we could expect to find "ancient" biotic carbonates, which should therefore be investigated, in order to search for a way of discriminating them from abiotic minerals. For this reason, at the beginning we have considered samples of crushed fossil shells of aragonite composition. Afterwards, in order to take into account that fossilization processes almost always produce a transformation of metastable form (aragonite) into more stable form (calcite), we also studied samples of mineral calcite and different types of fossils completely transformed into calcite. All these biotic fossil samples show the same spectral behaviour as the fresh biotic material after thermal annealing at 485 degrees C. Instead, the calcite behaves like abiotic aragonite.Furthermore, it is known that seashells and other biominerals are formed through an intimate association of inorganic materials with organic macromolecules. The macromolecules control the nucleation, structure, morphology, crystal orientation and spatial confinement of the inorganic

  14. Anthropometric study of the caucasian nose in the city of Curitiba: relevance of population evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Annelyse Cristine; Carvalho, Bettina; Dolci, José Eduardo Lutaif; Becker, Renata; Berger, Cezar; Mocellin, Marcos

    2017-07-03

    Norms and patterns of nasal esthetics are essential for an adequate preoperative evaluation and surgical programming. The esthetic nasal patterns used are a blend of artistic beauty ideals and tracings in models and celebrities. Because they do not consider population measures, they vary according to the period, and allow a discrepancy between the surgeon's preference and the patient's real desire for rhinoplasty. Not all populations wish to obtain an esthetic result according to these values, but prefer a natural result, that is, one with some of the nasal characteristics of the population to which they belong to. The Brazilian population lacks population studies to evaluate its nose measurements. (1) To evaluate the anthropometric measures of Caucasian noses of people living in the city of Curitiba (state of Paraná), and to compare them to the ideal esthetic pattern of the literature; (2) To compare them between genders. This is a prospective cohort study involving 100 Caucasian volunteers at a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Through the frontal and lateral view photos, intercanthal distance, alar distance, nasal dorsum length, nasofrontal angle, nasolabial angle, and nasal tip projection (Goode's method) were obtained. A statistical analysis was performed to compare the measures obtained between genders and with the ideal patterns. Comparing the results obtained with those predicted by the esthetic ideals, the sample presented: similar nasolabial angle (p=0.07), alar width greater than intercanthal distance (p<0.001), higher nasal tip projection (p<0.001), larger width-length ratio (p<0.001), and more obtuse nasofrontal angle (p<0.001). The nasofrontal angle (p=0.0008) and the tip projection (p=0.032) were statistically different between the genders. Men had a smaller nasofrontal angle, and a larger Goode's ratio. Except for the nasolabial angle, the measures obtained in the population sample differed from the published esthetic ideals. Comparing the

  15. [Study of "The Sūitra of the tranquilization of hemorrhoids" and other relevant material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yukio; Yamashita, Tsutomu; Akahane, Ritsu; Muroya, Yasutaka

    2011-09-01

    The present paper focuses primarily on a philological and historical study of the Arśapraśamanisūtra ("The Sütra of the tranquilization of hemorrhoids"). This Sūtra is one of the Buddhist scriptures that are characterized by the magico-religious treatment of various diseases, especially by means of "healing spells" (skt. dhāranī or mantra), as shown by the preliminary survey in our previous paper "The Tradition of healing with magical spells as seen in Buddhist texts", Journal of the Japan Society of Medical History 55/1 (2009), 77-96. The original text of the Arśapraśamanisūtra, most probably written in Sanskrit, is lost whereas its Chinese and Tibetan translations have survived. After an introductory summary, we provide critically edited texts of the Tibetan and Chinese translations accompanied by their Japanese translations with critical notes and annotations. In particular, the Tibetan translation presented here has been critically edited for the first time on the basis of collation of the five editions of the Tibetan Buddhist Canon. In our next paper we will analyze the descriptions of hemorrhoids as found in the Sūtra in comparison with those illustrated in classical Ayurveda literature. And we will also offer further observations about the methods and principles for the treatment and healing of hemorrhoid that are attested in Buddhist scriptures.

  16. A review of some geocolloid transport studies in the Farfield relevant to radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, G.; Ivanovich, M.

    1990-01-01

    The major pathway for the spread of radionuclides within the geosphere surrounding a radioactive waste repository is the groundwater. Since ground waters contain colloidal particles which can sorb radionuclides and may be mobile, it is important to assess whether the presence of colloids will significantly change the radionuclide burden carried by the groundwater. Groundwater colloids from a variety of aquifers have been characterized in terms of their physical, chemical, and actinide compositions. The partition of natural series actinides has been measured using isotope dilution alpha spectrometry, between the particulate, colloid and solution phases. When the colloids are inorganic in character the fraction of total actinide activities on the colloid phase is less than one per cent for uranium and <10% for thorium. In the case of organic colloids/complexes, however, 80-90% of the uranium or thorium load is carried by the colloid phase. In addition, measurements of daughter/parent isotopic activity ratio demonstrate that the uranium associated with the colloid phase is not in chemical equilibrium with that in the groundwater. The transport of colloids is being studied using labelled synthetic colloids in a shallow glacial sand aquifer in which a set of ordered boreholes over a scale of several meters has been established by the British Geological Survey. The stability and transport behavior of these colloids has been established in laboratory column experiments before their use in a field tracer experiment. The implications of this work for modeling radionuclide transport in the geosphere is discussed. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T; Eriksson, H; Holm, E; Strömgren, M; Ekberg, J; Spreco, A; Dahlström, Ö

    2016-07-01

    Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

  18. A study of regulatory policies and relevant issues concerning electronic cigarette use in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tzuu Hwa; Cheng, Li Min; Hawkins, Matthew A

    2018-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have increased the amount of tobacco products available to smokers. In particular, electronic cigarettes, sometimes call e-cigarettes, have received substantial attention as their sales have rapidly increased. Electronic cigarettes were invented in China and now have become prevalent worldwide. Electronic cigarettes can be considered fashionable and come in numerous flavors; accordingly, many young adults and students have begun to use e-cigarettes. However, like traditional tobacco products, e-cigarettes have negative influences on human health. After e-cigarettes were introduced into Taiwan, they have not been effectively managed and regulated because of insufficient supporting measures. Related legislation in developed countries can serve as a reference for Taiwan. For this study, the development of e-cigarettes is described and a theoretical analysis was performed from the administration and legal perspectives. In addition to clarifying related problems and offering measures to prevent students from using e-cigarettes, we propose suggestions to help governments improve their strategies to protect students' health. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Rheology and FTIR studies of model waxy crude oils with relevance to gelled pipeline restart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, J.J.; Guimeraes, K.; Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Venkatesan, R.; Montesi, A. [Chevron Energy Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Gels composed of wax crystals may sometimes form when crude oils are transported in pipelines when ambient temperatures are low. The gels may stop the pipe flow, making it difficult or even impossible to restart the flow without breaking the pipe. Rheology and FTIR techniques were used to study the problem and to characterize transparent model waxy crude oils in pipeline flow experiments. These model oils were formulated without any highly volatile components to enhance the reproducibility of the rheology tests. Results were presented for the time- and temperature-dependent rheology of the model waxy crude oils as obtained in linear oscillatory shear and in creep-recovery experiments. The model oils were shown to exhibit many of the rheological features reported for real crude oils, such as 3 distinct apparent yield stresses, notably static yield stress, dynamic yield stress, and elastic-limit yield stress. It was concluded that of the 3, the static yield stress value, particularly its time dependence, can best be used to predict the restart behaviour observed for the same gel in model pipelines.

  20. Genome-wide association study to identify potential genetic modifiers in a canine model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia; Cai, James J; Davis, Brian W; Kornegay, Joe N

    2016-08-22

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) causes progressive muscle degeneration, cardiomyopathy and respiratory failure in approximately 1/5,000 boys. Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) resembles DMD both clinically and pathologically. Like DMD, GRMD exhibits remarkable phenotypic variation among affected dogs, suggesting the influence of modifiers. Understanding the role(s) of genetic modifiers of GRMD may identify genes and pathways that also modify phenotypes in DMD and reveal novel therapies. Therefore, our objective in this study was to identify genetic modifiers that affect discrete GRMD phenotypes. We performed a linear mixed-model (LMM) analysis using 16 variably-affected dogs from our GRMD colony (8 dystrophic, 8 non-dystrophic). All of these dogs were either full or half-siblings, and phenotyped for 19 objective, quantitative biomarkers at ages 6 and 12 months. Each biomarker was individually assessed. Gene expression profiles of 59 possible candidate genes were generated for two muscle types: the cranial tibialis and medial head of the gastrocnemius. SNPs significantly associated with GRMD biomarkers were identified on multiple chromosomes (including the X chromosome). Gene expression levels for candidate genes located near these SNPs correlated with biomarker values, suggesting possible roles as GRMD modifiers. The results of this study enhance our understanding of GRMD pathology and represent a first step toward the characterization of GRMD modifiers that may be relevant to DMD pathology. Such modifiers are likely to be useful for DMD treatment development based on their relationships to GRMD phenotypes.

  1. How relevant is the deposition of mercury onto snowpacks? – Part 2: A modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Durnford

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An unknown fraction of mercury that is deposited onto snowpacks is revolatilized to the atmosphere. Determining the revolatilized fraction is important since mercury that enters the snowpack meltwater may be converted to highly toxic bioaccumulating methylmercury. In this study, we present a new dynamic physically-based snowpack/meltwater model for mercury that is suitable for large-scale atmospheric models for mercury. It represents the primary physical and chemical processes that determine the fate of mercury deposited onto snowpacks. The snowpack/meltwater model was implemented in Environment Canada's atmospheric mercury model GRAHM. For the first time, observed snowpack-related mercury concentrations are used to evaluate and constrain an atmospheric mercury model. We find that simulated concentrations of mercury in both snowpacks and the atmosphere's surface layer agree closely with observations. The simulated concentration of mercury in both in the top 30 cm and the top 150 cm of the snowpack, averaged over 2005–2009, is predominantly below 6 ng L−1 over land south of 66.5° N but exceeds 18 ng L−1 over sea ice in extensive areas of the Arctic Ocean and Hudson Bay. The average simulated concentration of mercury in snowpack meltwater runoff tends to be higher on the Russian/European side (>20 ng L−1 of the Arctic Ocean than on the Canadian side (<10 ng L−1. The correlation coefficient between observed and simulated monthly mean atmospheric surface-level gaseous elemental mercury (GEM concentrations increased significantly with the inclusion of the new snowpack/meltwater model at two of the three stations (midlatitude, subarctic studied and remained constant at the third (arctic. Oceanic emissions are postulated to produce the observed summertime maximum in concentrations of surface-level atmospheric GEM at Alert in the Canadian Arctic and to generate the summertime volatility observed in

  2. Geochemistry of the Dakota Formation of northwestern New Mexico: relevance to radioactive waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Dakota Formation of the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico consists predominantly of well-cemented sandstones and arenaceous mudstones. Clay mineral-rich rocks, derived from volcanic ash, are mapped as bentonites. The likely physical conditions during burial were temperatures between 35 to 60 0 C and a pressure of about 0.5 kbar. X-ray studies reveal a mixture of montmorillonite, kaolinite, illite, and mixed layer clay minerals. The typical cation exchange capacities range from 20 to 40 meq/100 g for most samples. Radiometric age determinations of clay minerals by the K-Ar method yield 90 to 94 millions of years before present (MYBP) and Rb-Sr ages yield 93 + or - 8 MYBP. These dates agree with paleontological ages and indicate closed-system conditions for potassium, argon, rubidium, and strontium in these rocks. Closed-system conditions for cesium are inferred based on its greater retentivity than rubidium and potassium in clay-rich rocks. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) of the Dakota samples indicates normal lanthanide abundances and distribution in the bentonitic rocks; local lanthanide enrichment is noted where local uranium accumulations are noted. The uranium has been derived from several sources and fixed in the Dakota Formation at various times from roughly 60 to near 0.25 MYBP. The chalcophile elements copper, antimony, and lead are often fixed with uranium in organic-rich rocks and apparently have not migrated since fixation, even under oxidizing conditions. No mobilization for the lanthanides and barium is noted either. Collectively, the radiometric ages and NAA data indicate the bentonite and bentonite-sand mix to be suitable for overpack in radioactive waste repositories

  3. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  4. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach

  5. Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

  6. Circulating and brain BDNF levels in stroke rats. Relevance to clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Béjot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels are measured in the brain in animal models of stroke, neurotrophin levels in stroke patients are measured in plasma or serum samples. The present study was designed to investigate the meaning of circulating BDNF levels in stroke patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Unilateral ischemic stroke was induced in rats by the injection of various numbers of microspheres into the carotid circulation in order to mimic the different degrees of stroke severity observed in stroke patients. Blood was serially collected from the jugular vein before and after (4 h, 24 h and 8 d embolization and the whole brains were collected at 4, 24 h and 8 d post-embolization. Rats were then selected from their degree of embolization, so that the distribution of stroke severity in the rats at the different time points was large but similar. Using ELISA tests, BDNF levels were measured in plasma, serum and brain of selected rats. Whereas plasma and serum BDNF levels were not changed by stroke, stroke induced an increase in brain BDNF levels at 4 h and 24 h post-embolization, which was not correlated with stroke severity. Individual plasma BDNF levels did not correlate with brain levels at any time point after stroke but a positive correlation (r = 0.67 was observed between individual plasma BDNF levels and stroke severity at 4 h post-embolization. CONCLUSION: Circulating BDNF levels do not mirror brain BDNF levels after stroke, and severe stroke is associated with high plasma BDNF in the very acute stage.

  7. Shock tube studies of methyl butanoate pyrolysis with relevance to biodiesel

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2012-11-01

    Methyl butanoate pyrolysis and decomposition pathways were studied in detail by measuring concentration time-histories of CO, CO 2, CH 3, and C 2H 4 using shock tube/laser absorption methods. Experiments were conducted behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1200-1800K and pressures near 1.5atm using mixtures of 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% methyl butanoate in Argon. A novel laser diagnostic was developed to measure CO in the ν 1 fundamental vibrational band near 4.56μm using a new generation of quantum-cascade lasers. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was used to measure CO 2 near 2752nm. Methyl radical was measured using UV laser absorption near 216nm, and ethylene was monitored using IR gas laser absorption near 10.53μm. An accurate methyl butanoate model is critical in the development of mechanisms for larger methyl esters, and the measured time-histories provide kinetic targets and strong constraints for the refinement of the methyl butanoate reaction mechanism. Measured CO mole fractions reach plateau values that are the same as the initial fuel mole fraction at temperatures higher than 1500K over the maximum measurement time of 2ms or less. Two recent kinetic mechanisms are compared with the measured data and the possible reasons for this 1:1 ratio between MB and CO are discussed. Based on these discussions, it is expected that similar CO/fuel and CO 2/fuel ratios for biodiesel molecules, particularly saturated components of biodiesel, should occur. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  8. Experimental and modelling studies of iodine oxide formation and aerosol behaviour relevant to nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, S.; Auvinen, A.; Ammar, Y.; Bosland, L.; Clément, B.; Funke, F.; Glowa, G.; Kärkelä, T.; Powers, D.A.; Tietze, S.; Weber, G.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiolytic reactions can influence iodine volatility following a nuclear accident. • Kinetic models have been developed based on atmospheric chemistry studies. • Properties of iodine oxide aerosols produced by radiation have been measured. • Decomposition of iodine oxides by the action of heat or radiation has been observed. - Abstract: Plant assessments have shown that iodine contributes significantly to the source term for a range of accident scenarios. Iodine has a complex chemistry that determines its chemical form and, consequently, its volatility in the containment. If volatile iodine species are formed by reactions in the containment, they will be subject to radiolytic reactions in the atmosphere, resulting in the conversion of the gaseous species into involatile iodine oxides, which may deposit on surfaces or re-dissolve in water pools. The concentration of airborne iodine in the containment will, therefore, be determined by the balance between the reactions contributing to the formation and destruction of volatile species, as well as by the physico-chemical properties of the iodine oxide aerosols which will influence their longevity in the atmosphere. This paper summarises the work that has been done in the framework of the EC SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) to develop a greater understanding of the reactions of gaseous iodine species in irradiated air/steam atmospheres, and the nature and behaviour of the reaction products. This work has mainly been focussed on investigating the nature and behaviour of iodine oxide aerosols, but earlier work by members of the SARNET group on gaseous reaction rates is also discussed to place the more recent work into context

  9. Elucidating novel dysfunctional pathways in Alzheimer's disease by integrating loci identified in genetic and epigenetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Smith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder. A large number of genome-wide association studies have been performed, which have been supplemented more recently by the first epigenome-wide association studies, leading to the identification of a number of novel loci altered in disease. Twin studies have shown monozygotic twin discordance for Alzheimer's disease (Gatz et al., 2006, leading to the conclusion that a combination of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms is likely to be involved in disease etiology (Lunnon & Mill, 2013. This review focuses on identifying overlapping pathways between published genome-wide association studies and epigenome-wide association studies, highlighting dysfunctional synaptic, lipid metabolism, plasma membrane/cytoskeleton, mitochondrial, and immune cell activation pathways. Identifying common pathways altered in genetic and epigenetic studies will aid our understanding of disease mechanisms and identify potential novel targets for pharmacological intervention.

  10. [Pilot study to investigate sleep disorders in the blind and persons with relevant visual impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, C; Grünewald, D; Young, P; Heidbreder, A

    2018-05-22

    Sleep disorders are associated with serious health problems in blind and visually impaired persons. Loss of light perception may result in a shift of sleep-wake pattern, which may lead to significant impairments in daily life--the so-called non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. To date, epidemiologic data on non-24 only exist for the USA. This pilot study was conducted to provide first epidemiologic data for the prevalence of non-24 and other sleep disorders among blind and visually impaired persons in Germany. Recruited were 111 blind and visually impaired subjects (36 subjects without light perception; male [m] = 56, 27-85 years, average [Mx] = 59.53, standard deviation [SD] = 14.69) and 111 sighted controls (m = 41, 27-88 years, Mx = 58.32, SD = 14.21), who answered a set of validated questionnaires referring to general health status (SF-36), sleep characteristics (PSQI), and daytime sleepiness (ESS). In addition, a questionnaire to predict non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder, which is not yet validated in German, was provided. The prevalence of 72.2% for the non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder in blind people is in accordance with results from the USA. In contrast, our results indicated non-24 in only 21.3% of the subjects with residual light perception. Furthermore, other sleep disorders like problems falling asleep (100% vs. 79.9%), maintaining sleep (90% vs. 88.1%), sleep-disordered breathing (19.4% vs. 32%), or sleep-related movement disorders (28.1% vs. 32.9%) were also common in the group of blind or visually impaired persons. The non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder is a frequent problem among people with no light perception, associated with problems falling asleep, maintaining sleep, and daytime sleepiness. The perception of light as an external cue for our circadian rhythm plays a key role. However, sleep disruption is not fully explained by non-24, making a detailed sleep history essential.

  11. Assessment of potential advantages of relevant ions for particle therapy: A model based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grün, Rebecca, E-mail: r.gruen@gsi.de [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390 (Germany); Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032 (Germany); Friedrich, Thomas; Krämer, Michael; Scholz, Michael [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Zink, Klemens [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences Gießen, Gießen 35390, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany); Durante, Marco [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt 64291, Germany and Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt 64289 (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita [Medical Faculty of Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg 35032, Germany and Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Marburg 35043 (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Different ion types offer different physical and biological advantages for therapeutic applications. The purpose of this work is to assess the advantages of the most commonly used ions in particle therapy, i.e., carbon ({sup 12}C), helium ({sup 4}He), and protons ({sup 1}H) for different treatment scenarios. Methods: A treatment planning analysis based on idealized target geometries was performed using the treatment planning software TRiP98. For the prediction of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that is required for biological optimization in treatment planning the local effect model (LEM IV) was used. To compare the three ion types, the peak-to-entrance ratio (PER) was determined for the physical dose (PER{sub PHY} {sub S}), the RBE (PER{sub RBE}), and the RBE-weighted dose (PER{sub BIO}) resulting for different dose-levels, field configurations, and tissue types. Further, the dose contribution to artificial organs at risk (OAR) was assessed and a comparison of the dose distribution for the different ion types was performed for a patient with chordoma of the skull base. Results: The study showed that the advantages of the ions depend on the physical and biological properties and the interplay of both. In the case of protons, the consideration of a variable RBE instead of the clinically applied generic RBE of 1.1 indicates an advantage in terms of an increased PER{sub RBE} for the analyzed configurations. Due to the fact that protons show a somewhat better PER{sub PHY} {sub S} compared to helium and carbon ions whereas helium shows a higher PER{sub RBE} compared to protons, both protons and helium ions show a similar RBE-weighted dose distribution. Carbon ions show the largest variation of the PER{sub RBE} with tissue type and a benefit for radioresistant tumor types due to their higher LET. Furthermore, in the case of a two-field irradiation, an additional gain in terms of PER{sub BIO} is observed when using an orthogonal field configuration

  12. Accelerator-Based Studies of Heavy Ion Interactions Relevant to Space Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Heilbronn, L.; Zeitlin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL AGS) and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan. Until fairly recently most of these experiments were done to investigate fundamental problems in nuclear physics, but with the increasing interest in heavy charged particles on the part of the space flight, radiobiology and radiotherapy communities, an increasing number of experiments are being directed at these areas. Some of these measurements are discussed in references therein. Over the past several years, our group has taken cross section and fluence data at the AGS and HIMAC for several incident beams with nuclear charge, Z, between 6 and 26 at energies between 290 and 1050 MeV/nucleon. Iron (Z = 26) has been studied most extensively, since it is the heaviest ion present in significant numbers in the GCR. Targets have included tissue-equivalent and proposed shielding materials, as well as a variety of elemental targets for cross section measurements. Most of the data were taken along the beam axis, but measurements have been made off-axis, as well. Here we present selected data and briefly discuss some implications for spacecraft and planetary habitat design.

  13. Tacit knowledge of public health nurses in identifying community health problems and need for new services: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka-Maeda, Kyoko; Murashima, Sachiyo; Asahara, Kiyomi

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tacit knowledge of public health nurses in identifying community health problems and developing relevant new projects. Previous research only roughly showed those skills for creating new community health services, such as lobbying. Nine Japanese public health nurses who had created new projects in their municipalities were selected by theoretical sampling and interviewed in 2002-2003. Yin's Case Study Method, especially the multiple-case study design, was used. All 9 public health nurses used similar approaches in identifying community health problems and the need for creating new services, even though their experiences differed and the kinds of projects varied. They identified the difficulties of clients, recognized clients who had the same problems, elucidated the limitations of existing services, and forecasted outcomes from the neglect of the clients' problems. Then they succeeded in creating a new project by examining individual health problems in the context of their community's characteristics, societal factors, and using existing policies to support their clients. This is the first study to explore the skills of public health nurses and their intention to use such skills in creating new projects as well as the exact process. They could identify community health problems that will be the basis for developing new services to provide care for individual clients. This is different from the traditional community assessment approach that requires the collection of a huge amount of information to clarify community health problems. The tacit knowledge of public health nurses will help to create needs-oriented new services more smoothly.

  14. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, S.I.; Skibola, C.F.; Joseph, V.; Camp, N.J.; Nieters, A.; Wang, Z.; Cozen, W.; Monnereau, A.; Wang, S.S.; Kelly, R.S.; Lan, Q.; Teras, L.R.; Chatterjee, N.; Chung, C.C.; Yeager, M.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have previously identified 13 loci associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL). To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted the largest meta-analysis for CLL thus far, including four GWAS with a total of 3,100 individuals with CLL (cases) and 7,667 controls. In the meta-analysis, we identified ten independent associated SNPs in nine new loci at 10q23.31 (ACTA2 or FAS (ACTA2/FAS), P = 1.22 × 10...

  15. Validation of search filters for identifying pediatric studies in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Edith; Leeflang, Mariska M G; van Dalen, Elvira C; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2013-03-01

    To identify and validate PubMed search filters for retrieving studies including children and to develop a new pediatric search filter for PubMed. We developed 2 different datasets of studies to evaluate the performance of the identified pediatric search filters, expressed in terms of sensitivity, precision, specificity, accuracy, and number needed to read (NNR). An optimal search filter will have a high sensitivity and high precision with a low NNR. In addition to the PubMed Limits: All Child: 0-18 years filter (in May 2012 renamed to PubMed Filter Child: 0-18 years), 6 search filters for identifying studies including children were identified: 3 developed by Kastner et al, 1 developed by BestBets, one by the Child Health Field, and 1 by the Cochrane Childhood Cancer Group. Three search filters (Cochrane Childhood Cancer Group, Child Health Field, and BestBets) had the highest sensitivity (99.3%, 99.5%, and 99.3%, respectively) but a lower precision (64.5%, 68.4%, and 66.6% respectively) compared with the other search filters. Two Kastner search filters had a high precision (93.0% and 93.7%, respectively) but a low sensitivity (58.5% and 44.8%, respectively). They failed to identify many pediatric studies in our datasets. The search terms responsible for false-positive results in the reference dataset were determined. With these data, we developed a new search filter for identifying studies with children in PubMed with an optimal sensitivity (99.5%) and precision (69.0%). Search filters to identify studies including children either have a low sensitivity or a low precision with a high NNR. A new pediatric search filter with a high sensitivity and a low NNR has been developed. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying the Local Impacts of National ATE Centers on Their Host Institutions: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Charles; Fynewever, Herb; Petcovic, Heather; Bierema, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the local impacts of national advanced technological education (ATE) centers on their host institutions. A sample of three mature, national ATE centers are chosen, with each center serving as a case for a mixed-methods, collective case study research design. Results, drawn from interviews and surveys,…

  17. A Quantitative Study Identifying Political Strategies Used by Principals of Dual Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the external and internal political strategies used by principals that allow them to successfully navigate the political environment surrounding dual language programs. Methodology. This quantitative study used descriptive research to collect, analyze, and report data that identified…

  18. An ontological approach to identifying cases of chronic kidney disease from routine primary care data: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Nicholas I; Liyanage, Harshana; Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; Gallagher, Hugh; Byford, Rachel; Williams, John; Kumar, Shankar; de Lusignan, Simon

    2018-04-10

    Accurately identifying cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) from primary care data facilitates the management of patients, and is vital for surveillance and research purposes. Ontologies provide a systematic and transparent basis for clinical case definition and can be used to identify clinical codes relevant to all aspects of CKD care and its diagnosis. We used routinely collected primary care data from the Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre. A domain ontology was created and presented in Ontology Web Language (OWL). The identification and staging of CKD was then carried out using two parallel approaches: (1) clinical coding consistent with a diagnosis of CKD; (2) laboratory-confirmed CKD, based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or the presence of proteinuria. The study cohort comprised of 1.2 million individuals aged 18 years and over. 78,153 (6.4%) of the population had CKD on the basis of an eGFR of < 60 mL/min/1.73m 2 , and a further 7366 (0.6%) individuals were identified as having CKD due to proteinuria. 19,504 (1.6%) individuals without laboratory-confirmed CKD had a clinical code consistent with the diagnosis. In addition, a subset of codes allowed for 1348 (0.1%) individuals receiving renal replacement therapy to be identified. Finding cases of CKD from primary care data using an ontological approach may have greater sensitivity than less comprehensive methods, particularly for identifying those receiving renal replacement therapy or with CKD stages 1 or 2. However, the possibility of inaccurate coding may limit the specificity of this method.

  19. Genome-wide association study with 1000 genomes imputation identifies signals for nine sex hormone-related phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Katherine S; Campbell, Purdey J; Chew, Shelby; Lim, Ee Mun; Hadlow, Narelle; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A; Brown, Suzanne J; Feenstra, Bjarke; Joseph, John; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Zheng, Hou Feng; Richards, J Brent; Murray, Anna; Spector, Tim D; Wilson, Scott G; Perry, John R B

    2016-02-01

    Genetic factors contribute strongly to sex hormone levels, yet knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified only a small number of loci associated with sex hormone levels, with several reproductive hormones yet to be assessed. The aim of the study was to identify novel genetic variants contributing to the regulation of sex hormones. We performed GWAS using genotypes imputed from the 1000 Genomes reference panel. The study used genotype and phenotype data from a UK twin register. We included 2913 individuals (up to 294 males) from the Twins UK study, excluding individuals receiving hormone treatment. Phenotypes were standardised for age, sex, BMI, stage of menstrual cycle and menopausal status. We tested 7,879,351 autosomal SNPs for association with levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestradiol, free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, progesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Eight independent genetic variants reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), with minor allele frequencies of 1.3-23.9%. Novel signals included variants for progesterone (P=7.68 × 10(-12)), oestradiol (P=1.63 × 10(-8)) and FAI (P=1.50 × 10(-8)). A genetic variant near the FSHB gene was identified which influenced both FSH (P=1.74 × 10(-8)) and LH (P=3.94 × 10(-9)) levels. A separate locus on chromosome 7 was associated with both DHEAS (P=1.82 × 10(-14)) and progesterone (P=6.09 × 10(-14)). This study highlights loci that are relevant to reproductive function and suggests overlap in the genetic basis of hormone regulation.

  20. Males Perform Better in Identifying Voices During Menstruation Than Females: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate gender differences in the ability to identify females' voice during menstruation. In Study 1, 55 male participants (M age = 19.6 years, SD = 1.0) were asked to listen to vocal samples from women during both ovulation and menstruation and to identify which recordings featured menstruating women. The results showed that the accuracy of men's responses (M = 56.73%, SD = 0.21) was significantly higher than 50%. In Study 2, 118 female students (M age = 19.4 years, SD = 1.6) completed the same task. The results indicated that the accuracy of women's performance was nearly 50%. These preliminary findings suggest that men are better able to identify women's voices during menstruation than women. Future work could consider several significant variables for the purpose of validating the results. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Relevant factors for the voting decision in the 2002 presidential election: An analysis of the ESEB (Brazilian Electoral Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Carreirão

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates some of the most relevant factors for the voting de- cision in the 2002 presidential election by testing some of the main hypotheses about electoral behaviour in the country by means of logistic regression analyses based on data from the ESEB (Brazilian Electoral Study, a post-electoral survey conducted on a national sample of voters. In the models, taken as a whole, politi- cal opinions did not have much weight in the voting decision. Furthermore, they are unable to “explain” a very large share of voters’ positioning on a left-right scale or on a scale of voters’ “party sentiments”. All these “political” variables taken as a whole, in turn, “explain” only part of the evaluations that voters make of the government’s performance. The analysis shows that Brazilian voters’ voting deci- sion seems rather varied, since some variables were shown to be relevant to “ex- plain” the vote for a candidate, but not for the others. The variables shown to be more frequent (for all four candidates analysed and with more considerable weight were: voters’ religion, their “party sentiments”, their positioning on a left-right scale, the evaluations made of the then current government (in actual fact impor- tant only for the vote for Serra, the government’s candidate and the candidates’ attributes (especially “reliability” and “preparedness/competence”.

  2. A metabolomic study of fipronil for the anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish larvae at environmentally relevant levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cui; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Quan; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Meirong

    2016-01-01

    Field residue of fipronil can interfere with the physiological characters of the domesticated fish; thus, lethal dose test and the general biomarker cannot delineate the low-level situation. Manipulating by video track, we observed an anxiety-like behavior including high speed and abnormal photoperiod accommodation after exposure to fipronil at environmental typical dose in zebrafish larvae. Examining the unbiased metabolomic profiles, we found perturbation in several metabolic pathways, including the increased contents of fatty acids and glycerol and the decreased levels of the glycine, serine, and branched amino acid. We presumed that observed enhanced fatty acid utility was in response to increase energy demands caused by anxiety like behavior. Additionally, the body burden of neurotransmitter such as glycine and L-glutamate may concurrently stimulate the swimming behavior. The insight of this study showed that integral perturbation such as metabolism helps us to further understand the risk to aquatic fish at the environmentally relevant levels. - Highlights: • Fipronil increased the swimming speed at 10 μg/L to zebrafish larvae. • Accommodation to light–dark photoperiod switch was disturbed by fipronil. • Metabolomics indicated an increase energy availability for anxiety-like behavior. • Anxiety-like behavior induced by fipronil may attribute to neurotransmitter changes. - Zebrafish larvae exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of fipronil display anxiety like behavior that may attribute to observed changes in energy utilization and neurotransmitter disturbances.

  3. 機構典藏相關政策之探討 A Study on Relevant Policies for Institutional Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chun Lo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究旨在探討制定機構典藏政策的相關議題,藉由文獻探討瞭解國際之研究與發展現況,並透過內容分析法分析國外54所大學所制定之機構典藏政策內容,據以製作問卷,於訪談國內12所大學圖書館同時進行調查,期能瞭解國內大學對典藏政策制定之相關意見,並根據調查與研究結果,對國內未來發展機構典藏及制定政策提出結論與建議。This research aims to investigate the relevant policies for Institutional Repositories (IRs. According to literature review, the international research and development are also investigated. In addition, by utilizing content analysis method, 54 foreign universities are studied for their policies of IRs. Simultaneous questionnaire survey and interview are conducted with 12 university libraries in Taiwan, to better understand the recent development of IRs, and to get some feedback on the policy issues. Finally, according to these results, conclusion and suggestion are made for the future development and relevant policies for IRs.

  4. Clinical Relevance of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated from Sputum in a Gold Mining Workforce in South Africa: An Observational, Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L. van Halsema

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The clinical relevance of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM, detected by liquid more than solid culture in sputum specimens from a South African mining workforce, is uncertain. We aimed to describe the current spectrum and relevance of NTM in this population. Methods. An observational study including individuals with sputum NTM isolates, recruited at workforce tuberculosis screening and routine clinics. Symptom questionnaires were administered at the time of sputum collection and clinical records and chest radiographs reviewed retrospectively. Results. Of 232 individuals included (228 (98% male, median age 44 years, M. gordonae (60 individuals, M. kansasii (50, and M. avium complex (MAC: 38 were the commonest species. Of 38 MAC isolates, only 2 (5.3% were from smear-positive sputum specimens and 30/38 grew in liquid but not solid culture. MAC was especially prevalent among symptomatic, HIV-positive individuals. HIV prevalence was high: 57/74 (77% among those tested. No differences were found in probability of death or medical separation by NTM species. Conclusions. M. gordonae, M. kansasii, and MAC were the commonest NTM among miners with suspected tuberculosis, with most MAC from smear-negative specimens in liquid culture only. HIV testing and identification of key pathogenic NTM in this setting are essential to ensure optimal treatment.

  5. A systematic review of methodology applied during preclinical anesthetic neurotoxicity studies: important issues and lessons relevant to the design of future clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disma, Nicola; Mondardini, Maria C; Terrando, Niccolò; Absalom, Anthony R; Bilotta, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical evidence suggests that anesthetic agents harm the developing brain thereby causing long-term neurocognitive impairments. It is not clear if these findings apply to humans, and retrospective epidemiological studies thus far have failed to show definitive evidence that anesthetic agents are harmful to the developing human brain. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the preclinical studies published over the past decade, with a focus on methodological issues, to facilitate the comparison between different preclinical studies and inform better design of future trials. The literature search identified 941 articles related to the topic of neurotoxicity. As the primary aim of this systematic review was to compare methodologies applied in animal studies to inform future trials, we excluded a priori all articles focused on putative mechanism of neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective agents. Forty-seven preclinical studies were finally included in this review. Methods used in these studies were highly heterogeneous-animals were exposed to anesthetic agents at different developmental stages, in various doses and in various combinations with other drugs, and overall showed diverse toxicity profiles. Physiological monitoring and maintenance of physiological homeostasis was variable and the use of cognitive tests was generally limited to assessment of specific brain areas, with restricted translational relevance to humans. Comparison between studies is thus complicated by this heterogeneous methodology and the relevance of the combined body of literature to humans remains uncertain. Future preclinical studies should use better standardized methodologies to facilitate transferability of findings from preclinical into clinical science. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Normative study of theme identifiability: Instructions with and without explanation of the false memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad; Cadavid, Sara

    2016-12-01

    False-memory illusions have been widely studied using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM). In this paradigm, words semantically related to a single nonpresented critical word are studied. In a later memory test, critical words are often falsely recalled and recognized. The present normative study was conducted to measure the theme identifiability of 60 associative word lists in Spanish that include six words (e.g., stove, coat, blanket, scarf, chill, and bonnet) that are simultaneously associated with three critical words (e.g., HEAT, COLD, and WINTER; Beato & Díez, Psicothema, 26, 457-463, 2011). Different levels of backward associative strength were used in the construction of the DRM lists. In addition, we used two types of instructions to obtain theme identifiability. In the without-explanation condition, traditional instructions were used, requesting participants to write the theme list. In the with-explanation condition, the false-memory effect and how the lists were built were explained, and an example of a DRM list and critical words was shown. Participants then had to discover the critical words. The results showed that all lists produced theme identifiability. Moreover, some lists had a higher theme identifiability rate (e.g., 61 % for the critical words LOVE, BOYFRIEND, COUPLE) than others (e.g., 24 % for CITY, PLACE, VILLAGE). After comparing the theme identifiabilities in the different conditions, the results indicated higher theme identifiability when the false-memory effect was explained than without such an explanation. Overall, these new normative data provide a useful tool for those experiments that, for example, aim to analyze the wide differences observed in false memory with DRM lists and the role of theme identifiability.

  7. Identifying Dieters Who Will Develop an Eating Disorder: A Prospective, Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen A.; Davies, Beverley A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to identify the characteristics of the dieters most at risk of subsequently developing an eating disorder and to evaluate the feasibility of using a brief questionnaire to identify such dieters in advance. Method A general population cohort of 2,992 young women who were dieting was identified. On four occasions over the subsequent 2 years, this cohort was sent a questionnaire concerning eating habits and attitudes. Participants whose responses suggested that they had developed an eating disorder were interviewed to establish their true case status. The baseline questionnaires of those who did and did not subsequently develop an eating disorder were compared to identify features that predicted future case status. Results One hundred four of the dieters developed an eating disorder of clinical severity during the 2 years of follow-up. Their baseline questionnaire scores differed in many respects from those who had not developed an eating disorder. Items associated with developing an eating disorder were selected by using three different statistical methods. A simple case-predicting instrument based on one of five items scoring above an optimal cut point had a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 72% (overall efficiency of 72%). Conclusions Dieters who will develop an eating disorder within the next 2 years have distinctive features. It is feasible to identify them in advance with reasonable efficiency with a brief questionnaire. This questionnaire could be incorporated into routine health assessments, thereby identifying those at high risk. PMID:16330587

  8. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  9. Validation of de-identified record linkage to ascertain hospital admissions in a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English Dallas R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cohort studies can provide valuable evidence of cause and effect relationships but are subject to loss of participants over time, limiting the validity of findings. Computerised record linkage offers a passive and ongoing method of obtaining health outcomes from existing routinely collected data sources. However, the quality of record linkage is reliant upon the availability and accuracy of common identifying variables. We sought to develop and validate a method for linking a cohort study to a state-wide hospital admissions dataset with limited availability of unique identifying variables. Methods A sample of 2000 participants from a cohort study (n = 41 514 was linked to a state-wide hospitalisations dataset in Victoria, Australia using the national health insurance (Medicare number and demographic data as identifying variables. Availability of the health insurance number was limited in both datasets; therefore linkage was undertaken both with and without use of this number and agreement tested between both algorithms. Sensitivity was calculated for a sub-sample of 101 participants with a hospital admission confirmed by medical record review. Results Of the 2000 study participants, 85% were found to have a record in the hospitalisations dataset when the national health insurance number and sex were used as linkage variables and 92% when demographic details only were used. When agreement between the two methods was tested the disagreement fraction was 9%, mainly due to "false positive" links when demographic details only were used. A final algorithm that used multiple combinations of identifying variables resulted in a match proportion of 87%. Sensitivity of this final linkage was 95%. Conclusions High quality record linkage of cohort data with a hospitalisations dataset that has limited identifiers can be achieved using combinations of a national health insurance number and demographic data as identifying variables.

  10. Seven prostate cancer susceptibility loci identified by a multi-stage genome-wide association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Giles, Graham G

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is the most frequently diagnosed male cancer in developed countries. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study for PrCa and previously reported the results of the first two stages, which identified 16 PrCa susceptibility loci. We report here the results of st...

  11. Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demenais, Florence; Margaritte-Jeannin, Patricia; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2018-01-01

    We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known...

  12. Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demenais, Florence; Margaritte-Jeannin, Patricia; Barnes, Kathleen C; Cookson, William O C; Altmüller, Janine; Ang, Wei; Barr, R Graham; Beaty, Terri H; Becker, Allan B; Beilby, John; Bisgaard, Hans; Bjornsdottir, Unnur Steina; Bleecker, Eugene; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Brightling, Christopher E; Brossard, Myriam; Brusselle, Guy G; Burchard, Esteban; Burkart, Kristin M; Bush, Andrew; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Chung, Kian Fan; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Curtin, John A; Custovic, Adnan; Daley, Denise; de Jongste, Johan C; Del-Rio-Navarro, Blanca E; Donohue, Kathleen M; Duijts, Liesbeth; Eng, Celeste; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Fedorova, Yuliya; Feenstra, Bjarke; Ferreira, Manuel A; Freidin, Maxim B; Gajdos, Zofia; Gauderman, Jim; Gehring, Ulrike; Geller, Frank; Genuneit, Jon; Gharib, Sina A; Gilliland, Frank; Granell, Raquel; Graves, Penelope E; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Haahtela, Tari; Heckbert, Susan R; Heederik, Dick; Heinrich, Joachim; Heliövaara, Markku; Henderson, John; Himes, Blanca E; Hirose, Hiroshi; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holt, Patrick; Hottenga, Jouke; Hudson, Thomas J; Hui, Jennie; Imboden, Medea; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; James, Alan; Janson, Christer; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jarvis, Deborah; Jones, Graham; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kabesch, Michael; Kähönen, Mika; Kantor, David B; Karunas, Alexandra S; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Koppelman, Gerard H; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Kreiner, Eskil; Kubo, Michiaki; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Ashish; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Lahousse, Lies; Laitinen, Tarja; Laprise, Catherine; Lathrop, Mark; Lau, Susanne; Lee, Young-Ae; Lehtimäki, Terho; Letort, Sébastien; Levin, Albert M; Li, Guo; Liang, Liming; Loehr, Laura R; London, Stephanie J; Loth, Daan W; Manichaikul, Ani; Marenholz, Ingo; Martinez, Fernando J; Matheson, Melanie C; Mathias, Rasika A; Matsumoto, Kenji; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Melén, Erik; Meyers, Deborah; Michel, Sven; Mohamdi, Hamida; Musk, Arthur W; Myers, Rachel A; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A E; Noguchi, Emiko; O'Connor, George T; Ogorodova, Ludmila M; Palmer, Cameron D; Palotie, Aarno; Park, Julie E; Pennell, Craig E; Pershagen, Göran; Polonikov, Alexey; Postma, Dirkje S; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Puzyrev, Valery P; Raby, Benjamin A; Raitakari, Olli T; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rich, Stephen S; Robertson, Colin F; Romieu, Isabelle; Salam, Muhammad T; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlünssen, Vivi; Scott, Robert; Selivanova, Polina A; Sigsgaard, Torben; Simpson, Angela; Siroux, Valérie; Smith, Lewis J; Solodilova, Maria; Standl, Marie; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Stricker, Bruno H; Takahashi, Atsushi; Thompson, Philip J; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torgerson, Dara G; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Vaysse, Amaury; Vedantam, Sailaja; von Berg, Andrea; von Mutius, Erika; Vonk, Judith M; Waage, Johannes; Wareham, Nick J; Weiss, Scott T; White, Wendy B; Wickman, Magnus; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, L Keoki; Wouters, Inge M; Yang, James J; Zhao, Jing Hua; Moffatt, Miriam F; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L

    We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma

  13. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerhan, James R.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Vijai, Joseph; Ghesquières, Hervé; McKay, James; Wang, Sophia S.; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; Conde, Lucia; De Bakker, Paul I W; Nieters, Alexandra; Cox, David; Burdett, Laurie; Monnereau, Alain; Flowers, Christopher R.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Lan, Qing; Severi, Gianluca; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kane, Eleanor; Teras, Lauren R.; Purdue, Mark P.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Spinelli, John J.; Giles, Graham G.; Albanes, Demetrius; Kelly, Rachel S.; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Hutchinson, Amy; Zhi, Degui; Habermann, Thomas M.; Link, Brian K.; Novak, Anne J.; Dogan, Ahmet; Asmann, Yan W.; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Witzig, Thomas E.; Weiner, George J.; Veron, Amelie S.; Zelenika, Diana; Tilly, Hervé; Haioun, Corinne; Molina, Thierry Jo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Glimelius, Bengt; Adami, Hans Olov; Bracci, Paige M.; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M.; Severson, Richard K.; Tinker, Lesley F.; North, Kari E.; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Lightfoot, Tracy; Crouch, Simon; Smith, Alex; Roman, Eve; Diver, W. Ryan; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J.; Villano, Danylo J.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Holford, Theodore R.; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Southey, Melissa C.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Boeing, Heiner; Tjonneland, Anne; Angelucci, Emanuele; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Rais, Marco; Birmann, Brenda M.; Laden, Francine; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Ye, Yuanqing; Chiu, Brian C H; Sampson, Joshua; Liang, Liming; Park, Ju Hyun; Chung, Charles C.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Slager, Susan L.; Wu, Xifeng; De Sanjose, Silvia; Smedby, Karin E.; Salles, Gilles; Skibola, Christine F.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype and is clinically aggressive. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for DLBCL, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 1 previous scan, totaling 3,857 cases and 7,666 controls of

  14. Identifying Core Mobile Learning Faculty Competencies Based Integrated Approach: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbarbary, Rafik Said

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on the integrated approach as a concept framework to identify, categorize, and rank a key component of mobile learning core competencies for Egyptian faculty members in higher education. The field investigation framework used four rounds Delphi technique to determine the importance rate of each component of core competencies…

  15. Application of multi-locus analytical methods to identify interacting loci in case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Sham, P.; Knight, J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify interacting loci in genetic epidemiological studies the application of multi-locus methods of analysis is warranted. Several more advanced classification methods have been developed in the past years, including multiple logistic regression, sum statistics, logic regression, and the

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies three novel loci for type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hara, Kazuo; Fujita, Hayato; Johnson, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    Although over 60 loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been identified, there still remains a large genetic component to be clarified. To explore unidentified loci for T2D, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 6 209 637 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which were directly g...

  17. Exploration to Identify Professional Dispositions of School Librarians: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Gail; Jones, Jami L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an exploratory study to identify professional dispositions of school librarians. The authors employed the Delphi method, a qualitative research method that emphasizes expert knowledge and consensus within a particular field. The Delphi panel consisted of members of the editorial boards of nationally recognized…

  18. Investigation of 95 variants identified in a genome-wide study for association with mortality after acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkelmann Bernhard R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified new candidate genes for the occurrence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS, but possible effects of such genes on survival following ACS have yet to be investigated. Methods We examined 95 polymorphisms in 69 distinct gene regions identified in a GWAS for premature myocardial infarction for their association with post-ACS mortality among 811 whites recruited from university-affiliated hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri. We then sought replication of a positive genetic association in a large, racially diverse cohort of myocardial infarction patients (N = 2284 using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox regression to adjust for relevant covariates. Finally, we investigated the apparent association further in 6086 additional coronary artery disease patients. Results After Cox adjustment for other ACS risk factors, of 95 SNPs tested in 811 whites only the association with the rs6922269 in MTHFD1L was statistically significant, with a 2.6-fold mortality hazard (P = 0.007. The recessive A/A genotype was of borderline significance in an age- and race-adjusted analysis of the entire combined cohort (N = 3095; P = 0.052, but this finding was not confirmed in independent cohorts (N = 6086. Conclusions We found no support for the hypothesis that the GWAS-identified variants in this study substantially alter the probability of post-ACS survival. Large-scale, collaborative, genome-wide studies may be required in order to detect genetic variants that are robustly associated with survival in patients with coronary artery disease.

  19. Studies of climatic effects relevant to site selection and to assessments of the radiological impact of disposal at selected sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodess, C.M.; Palutikof, J.P.; Davies, T.D.

    1988-07-01

    Projected timescales for the transport of radionuclides from an undisturbed underground nuclear waste repository to the surface are in the range of tens of thousands to millions of years. Over these timescales major natural and anthropogenic changes in climate can be expected. As part of the UK safety assessment programme time-dependent models of the repository environment are being developed and the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) has undertaken a study of relevant climatic change and climatic effects. In order to estimate the probable range succession and duration of major climate states likely to be experienced in the UK over the next 10 6 years the nature and mechanisms of climatic variations in the past are first reviewed. (Author)

  20. Neurocognitive deficits are relevant for the jumping-to-conclusions bias, but not for delusions: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Andreou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with delusions exhibit an increased tendency to arrive at decisions based on very limited evidence (jumping-to-conclusions; JTC, making this reasoning bias relevant for the treatment of delusions. Neurocognitive deficits contribute to JTC, but it is not known whether this has any bearing on the clinical syndrome of delusions. We addressed this question by reanalyzing data from an efficacy study of non-pharmacological interventions as adjunctive treatments in schizophrenia. We investigated the longitudinal associations of cognitive functioning, JTC and delusions in patients with psychotic disorders receiving either a metacognitive intervention addressing reasoning biases (n = 59, or cognitive remediation (n = 58. Both interventions improved JTC; in the cognitive remediation group, tentative evidence suggested that better neurocognitive performance contributed to this improvement. However, JTC gains were associated with delusion improvement only in the metacognitive intervention group, suggesting a content-specific mechanism of action.

  1. The relevance of customer relationship management in the nigerian banking industry (A case study of intercontinental Bank Plc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde B. O.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers relation management (CRM is an emerging customer innovation focused on growing customers profitably by knowing, caring and delivering value to the customers in a bid to enhance customer intimacy, increase quality service levels and enhance business penetration supported by technological capabilities.The objectives of the study is to find out the relevance of CRM in the industry and the extent of the concepts adopted. Also to determine the extent to which the CRM concept assist to build up competitive advantage overtime. In order to ascertain the fact in this research work secondary data were collected and regression model technique were adopted to analyze result both in quantitatively and descriptively format. Also, the finding revealed that more resources should be invested in technology and personnel training in order to get the best out of the customer relationship management (CRM. Recommendation were equally offered for banks aiming towards crafting a niche for themselves in the turbulent industry.

  2. Self-referential and anxiety-relevant information processing in subclinical social anxiety: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna; Kaufmann, Carolin; Redlich, Ronny; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Stevens, Stephan; Hermann, Christiane

    2013-03-01

    The fear of negative evaluation is one of the hallmark features of social anxiety. Behavioral evidence thus far largely supports cognitive models which postulate that information processing biases in the face of socially relevant information are a key factor underlying this widespread phobia. So far only one neuroimaging study has explicitly focused on the fear of negative evaluation in social anxiety where the brain responses of social phobics were compared to healthy participants during the processing of self-referential relative to other-referential criticism, praise or neutral information. Only self-referential criticism led to stronger activations in emotion-relevant regions of the brain, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), in the social phobics. The objective of the current study was to determine whether these findings could be extended to subclinical social anxiety. In doing so, the specificity of this self-referential bias was also examined by including both social and non-social (physical illness-related) threat information as well as a highly health anxious control group in the experimental paradigm. The fMRI findings indicated that the processing of emotional stimuli was accompanied by activations in the amygdala and the ventral mPFC, while self-referential processing was associated with activity in regions such as the mPFC, posterior cingulate and temporal poles. Despite the validation of the paradigm, the results revealed that the previously reported behavioral and brain biases associated with social phobia could not be unequivocally extended to subclinical social anxiety. The divergence between the findings is explored in detail with reference to paradigm differences and conceptual issues.

  3. Using Extreme Phenotype Sampling to Identify the Rare Causal Variants of Quantitative Traits in Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dalin; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Gauderman, William J.; Murcray, Cassandra Elizabeth; Conti, David

    2011-01-01

    Variants identified in recent genome-wide association studies based on the common-disease common-variant hypothesis are far from fully explaining the hereditability of complex traits. Rare variants may, in part, explain some of the missing hereditability. Here, we explored the advantage of the extreme phenotype sampling in rare-variant analysis and refined this design framework for future large-scale association studies on quantitative traits. We first proposed a power calculation approach fo...

  4. IDENTIFYING MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS METRICS (Case study: East Azerbaijan`s industrial units)

    OpenAIRE

    Faridyahyaie, Reza; Faryabi, Mohammad; Bodaghi Khajeh Noubar, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The Paper attempts to identify marketing eff ectiveness metrics in industrial units. The metrics investigated in this study are completely applicable and comprehensive, and consequently they can evaluate marketing eff ectiveness in various industries. The metrics studied include: Market Share, Profitability, Sales Growth, Customer Numbers, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty. The findings indicate that these six metrics are impressive when measuring marketing effectiveness. Data was ge...

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); Lee, James J.; Pers, Tune; Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A.); Turley, Patrick; Chen, G.-B. (Guo-Bo); Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Oskarsson, S. (Sven); Pickrell, J.K. (Joseph K.); Thom, K. (Kevin); Timshel, P. (Pascal); Vlaming, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEducational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 geno...

  6. A Study Identifying Causes of Construction Waste Production and Applying Safety Management on Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Najafpoor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In a recent century, the amount of construction waste has increased significantly. Although the building industry has a considerable role in the development of a society, it is regarded as an environmentally destructive. Source reduction is the highest goal in the waste management hierarchy and is in priority. It also has economic benefits by reducing costs associated with transportation, disposal or recycling of wastes. The present study is aimed to identify activities generating the wastes in design, transportation and storage and procurement of building materials. Materials and Methods: This was questionnaire survey. A total of 94 professionals in the construction industry were attended in this study. To determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, content validity method and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.79 were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviation were determined in this research. Results: The results showed that handling and storage have been chosen as the most causative factor of waste production in construction activity. Improper material storage was identified major factor in producing waste in handling and storage phase. Usage of low-quality material in design stage and material price changes in procurement were recognized as major causes of waste production in these stages. Conclusion: All studied phases in this research were identified as causative factors in producing of waste. Identifying causes of construction waste production will help us decide better how to control this sort of wastes.

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate genes for starch content regulation in maize kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kernel starch content is an important trait in maize (Zea mays L. as it accounts for 65% to 75% of the dry kernel weight and positively correlates with seed yield. A number of starch synthesis-related genes have been identified in maize in recent years. However, many loci underlying variation in starch content among maize inbred lines still remain to be identified. The current study is a genome-wide association study that used a set of 263 maize inbred lines. In this panel, the average kernel starch content was 66.99%, ranging from 60.60% to 71.58% over the three study years. These inbred lines were genotyped with the SNP50 BeadChip maize array, which is comprised of 56,110 evenly spaced, random SNPs. Population structure was controlled by a mixed linear model (MLM as implemented in the software package TASSEL. After the statistical analyses, four SNPs were identified as significantly associated with starch content (P ≤ 0.0001, among which one each are located on chromosomes 1 and 5 and two are on chromosome 2. Furthermore, 77 candidate genes associated with starch synthesis were found within the 100-kb intervals containing these four QTLs, and four highly associated genes were within 20-kb intervals of the associated SNPs. Among the four genes, Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (APS1; Gene ID GRMZM2G163437 is known as an important regulator of kernel starch content. The identified SNPs, QTLs, and candidate genes may not only be readily used for germplasm improvement by marker-assisted selection in breeding, but can also elucidate the genetic basis of starch content. Further studies on these identified candidate genes may help determine the molecular mechanisms regulating kernel starch content in maize and other important cereal crops.

  8. Feasibility of identifying families for genetic studies of birth defects using the National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan Vikki G

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the National Health Interview Survey is a useful source to identify informative families for genetic studies of birth defects. Methods The 1994/1995 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS was used to identify households where individuals with two or more birth defects reside. Four groups of households were identified: 1 single non-familial (one individual with one birth defect; 2 single familial (more than one individual with one birth defect; 3 multiple non-familial (one individual with more than one birth defect, and 4 multiple familial (more than one individual with more than one birth defect. The March 2000 U.S. Census on households was used to estimate the total number of households in which there are individuals with birth defects. Results Of a total of 28,094 households and surveyed about birth defects and impairments, 1,083 single non-familial, 55 multiple non-familial, 54 single familial, and 8 multiple familial households were identified. Based on the 2000 U.S. census, it is estimated that there are 4,472,385 households where at least one person has one birth defect in the United States and in 234,846 of them there are at least two affected individuals. Western states had the highest prevalence rates. Conclusions Population-based methods, such as the NHIS, are modestly useful to identify the number and the regions where candidate families for genetic studies of birth defects reside. Clinic based studies and birth defects surveillance systems that collect family history offer better probability of ascertainment.

  9. A study of identified hadron fragmentation on eP collisions at HERA using the H1 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turney, Jonathan Edward

    2002-07-01

    Deep inelastic scattering events from ep collisions, recorded in 1996 and 1997 by the H1 detector at HERA, are used to study the fragmentation properties of identified hadrons in the Breit frame of reference. A review of the theory relevant to this analysis is also presented, together with a description of the H1 detector. Using dE/dx information and neutral secondary particle invariant mass spectra, it is possible to identify samples of {pi}{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}}, protons and antiprotons, K{sub S}{sup 0}, and {lambda} hadrons in the Breit frame current hemisphere and measure corresponding exclusive fragmentation functions. The evolution of the fragmentation function peak position and width are studied as a function of hadronic mass and four-momentum transfer, Q. Comparison is made to published results from e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments, models of the hadronic final state, and to predictions from MLLA/LPHD theory. The fragmentation properties of identified hadrons in ep data compare well with those in e{sup +}e{sup -} data, giving further evidence for the universality of quark fragmentation. By applying a MLLA/LPHD calculation using parameters derived from fitting H1 data, it is possible to describe the peak evolution in e{sup +}e{sup -} data as a function of energy, hadronic mass, and the parton shower cut-off parameter, Q{sub 0}{sup h}. However, the MLLA/LPHD calculation is unable to describe the data fully, particularly the e{sup +}e{sup -} -derived width evolution. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo models of the hadronic final state are shown to be incompatible with the detailed parameterisation of MLLA/LPHD, but follow the observed trends in ep data well. (author)

  10. A study of identified hadron fragmentation on eP collisions at HERA using the H1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, Jonathan Edward

    2002-01-01

    Deep inelastic scattering events from ep collisions, recorded in 1996 and 1997 by the H1 detector at HERA, are used to study the fragmentation properties of identified hadrons in the Breit frame of reference. A review of the theory relevant to this analysis is also presented, together with a description of the H1 detector. Using dE/dx information and neutral secondary particle invariant mass spectra, it is possible to identify samples of π ± , K ± , protons and antiprotons, K S 0 , and Λ hadrons in the Breit frame current hemisphere and measure corresponding exclusive fragmentation functions. The evolution of the fragmentation function peak position and width are studied as a function of hadronic mass and four-momentum transfer, Q. Comparison is made to published results from e + e - experiments, models of the hadronic final state, and to predictions from MLLA/LPHD theory. The fragmentation properties of identified hadrons in ep data compare well with those in e + e - data, giving further evidence for the universality of quark fragmentation. By applying a MLLA/LPHD calculation using parameters derived from fitting H1 data, it is possible to describe the peak evolution in e + e - data as a function of energy, hadronic mass, and the parton shower cut-off parameter, Q 0 h . However, the MLLA/LPHD calculation is unable to describe the data fully, particularly the e + e - -derived width evolution. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo models of the hadronic final state are shown to be incompatible with the detailed parameterisation of MLLA/LPHD, but follow the observed trends in ep data well. (author)

  11. Culturally Relevant Teaching: Hip-Hop Pedagogy in Urban Schools. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prier, Darius D.

    2012-01-01

    "Culturally Relevant Teaching" centers hip-hop culture as a culturally relevant form of critical pedagogy in urban pre-service teacher education programs. In this important book, Darius D. Prier explores how hip-hop artists construct a sense of democratic education and pedagogy with transformative possibilities in their schools and communities. In…

  12. Molecular docking and NMR binding studies to identify novel inhibitors of human phosphomevalonate kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonsri, Pornthip [Chemical Proteomics Facility at Marquette, Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Department of Chemistry, NANOTEC Center of Nanotechnology, National Nanotechnology Center, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Neumann, Terrence S.; Olson, Andrew L.; Cai, Sheng [Chemical Proteomics Facility at Marquette, Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Miziorko, Henry M. [Division of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Hannongbua, Supa [Department of Chemistry, NANOTEC Center of Nanotechnology, National Nanotechnology Center, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Sem, Daniel S., E-mail: daniel.sem@cuw.edu [Chemical Proteomics Facility at Marquette, Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural and synthetic inhibitors of human phosphomevalonate kinase identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Virtual screening yielded a hit rate of 15%, with inhibitor K{sub d}'s of 10-60 {mu}M. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR studies indicate significant protein conformational changes upon binding. -- Abstract: Phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK) phosphorylates mevalonate-5-phosphate (M5P) in the mevalonate pathway, which is the sole source of isoprenoids and steroids in humans. We have identified new PMK inhibitors with virtual screening, using autodock. Promising hits were verified and their affinity measured using NMR-based {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) chemical shift perturbation and fluorescence titrations. Chemical shift changes were monitored, plotted, and fitted to obtain dissociation constants (K{sub d}). Tight binding compounds with K{sub d}'s ranging from 6-60 {mu}M were identified. These compounds tended to have significant polarity and negative charge, similar to the natural substrates (M5P and ATP). HSQC cross peak changes suggest that binding induces a global conformational change, such as domain closure. Compounds identified in this study serve as chemical genetic probes of human PMK, to explore pharmacology of the mevalonate pathway, as well as starting points for further drug development.

  13. Identifying management competencies for health care executives: review of a series of Delphi studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K

    2000-01-01

    This analysis reviews a selected body of research that identifies the essential areas of management expertise required of future health care executives. To ensure consistency, six studies are analyzed, utilizing the Delphi technique, to query a broad spectrum of experts in different fields and sites of health care management. The analysis identifies a number of management competencies, i.e., managerial capabilities, which current and aspiring health care executives, in various settings and with differing educational backgrounds, should possess to enhance the probability of their success in current and future positions of responsibility. In addition, this review identifies the skills (technical expertise), knowledge (facts and principles) and abilities (physical, mental or legal power) required to support achievement of these competencies. Leadership and resource management, including cost and finance dimensions, are the highest-rated requisite management competencies. The dominant skills, knowledge and abilities (SKAs) are related to interpersonal skills. The lowest-rated SKAs are related to job-specific, technical skills. Recommendations include the review of this research by formal and continuing education programs to determine the content of their courses and areas for future research. Similarly, current health care executives should assess this research to assist in identifying competency gaps. Lastly, this analysis recommends that the Delphi technique, as a valid and replicable methodology, be applied toward the study of non-executive health care managers, e.g., students, clinicians, mid-level managers and integrated systems administrators, to determine their requisite management competencies and SKAs.

  14. Case definitions of knee osteoarthritis in 4,151 unselected subjects: relevance for epidemiological studies : The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxafoss, Erling; Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper K

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aims of the present study were threefold: to examine the distribution of knee joint osteoarthritis in a large, standardized radiological study; to examine the relationships between self reported knee pain and radiological OA; and to examine the natural history of radio-morpholog...

  15. A cross-study gene set enrichment analysis identifies critical pathways in endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunyan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis is an enigmatic disease. Gene expression profiling of endometriosis has been used in several studies, but few studies went further to classify subtypes of endometriosis based on expression patterns and to identify possible pathways involved in endometriosis. Some of the observed pathways are more inconsistent between the studies, and these candidate pathways presumably only represent a fraction of the pathways involved in endometriosis. Methods We applied a standardised microarray preprocessing and gene set enrichment analysis to six independent studies, and demonstrated increased concordance between these gene datasets. Results We find 16 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated pathways common in ovarian endometriosis data sets, 22 up-regulated and one down-regulated pathway common in peritoneal endometriosis data sets. Among them, 12 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated were found consistent between ovarian and peritoneal endometriosis. The main canonical pathways identified are related to immunological and inflammatory disease. Early secretory phase has the most over-represented pathways in the three uterine cycle phases. There are no overlapping significant pathways between the dataset from human endometrial endothelial cells and the datasets from ovarian endometriosis which used whole tissues. Conclusion The study of complex diseases through pathway analysis is able to highlight genes weakly connected to the phenotype which may be difficult to detect by using classical univariate statistics. By standardised microarray preprocessing and GSEA, we have increased the concordance in identifying many biological mechanisms involved in endometriosis. The identified gene pathways will shed light on the understanding of endometriosis and promote the development of novel therapies.

  16. A Systematic Approach to Identify Promising New Items for Small to Medium Enterprises: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukjae Jeong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing importance of identifying new business items for small and medium enterprises (SMEs, most previous studies focus on conglomerates. The paucity of empirical studies has also led to limited real-life applications. Hence, this study proposes a systematic approach to find new business items (NBIs that help the prospective SMEs develop, evaluate, and select viable business items to survive the competitive environment. The proposed approach comprises two stages: (1 the classification of diversification of SMEs; and (2 the searching and screening of business items. In the first stage, SMEs are allocated to five groups, based on their internal technological competency and external market conditions. In the second stage, based on the types of SMEs identified in the first stage, a set of alternative business items is derived by combining the results of portfolio analysis and benchmarking analysis. After deriving new business items, a market and technology-driven matrix analysis is utilized to screen suitable business items, and the Bruce Merrifield-Ohe (BMO method is used to categorize and identify prospective items based on market attractiveness and internal capability. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach, a case study is presented.

  17. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Claire L; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Scott, David; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Prior, Lindsay; Cupples, Margaret E

    2014-05-23

    There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such 'hard-to-reach' population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents' and community leaders' perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an 'exit strategy' were perceived as important factors

  18. A case study of identify importance of land use planning in road safety, Benidorm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casares Blanco, J.; Sanchez Galiano, J.C.; Fernandez Aracil, P.; Ortuño Padilla, A.

    2016-07-01

    This research analyses how urban form, land use and urban density, may influence the incidence of traffic-related crashes injuries and deaths. It begins with a theoretical overview of studies which deal with the study of the relationship between urban patterns and road safety. Next, it details the development of a database of crash incidence and urban form at the district level for the city of Benidorm (Alicante, Spain) in 2010. Subsequently, it is developed a negative binomial approach for intra-city motor vehicle crash analysis. One-year crash data for Benidorm (the fourth largest tourism destination of Spain, after Barcelona, Madrid and San Bartolomé de Tirajana, and exclusively tourist-oriented city) are analyzed using a geographic information system (GIS) to generate relevant inputs for the analysis. In general, the study finds that a strong land use mix results on fewer road accidents, whereas accidents are more common but less severe in areas of high urban density. Finally, pedestrian accidents research showed that rural and low density environment is related to an important road accident numbers unlike tourism-oriented zones, much more safe for them. Based on these findings, the paper discusses the implications for urban design practice. (Author)

  19. Study regarding the relevance of the accounting subjects in the economic vocational training of non-accountant specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Bădicu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility for the skills of specialists in the economic field belongs to universities, which, by modernizing the curriculum, must take into account the requirements of the professional environment (employers, where the role of the economic specialist extends beyond narrow knowledge, flexibility and high capacity to address various problems. From this perspective, in order to enhance the role of the academic environment and to develop the professional skills of the graduating economists, it is necessary to correlate the competencies and the requirements about educational outcomes. With regard to the relevance of the accounting subjects in the professional training of non-accountant economic specialists, given the competing interests of universities, students and employers in the field of education, we proposed a debate with the view to design strategies of accounting education in the higher economic education of the Republic of Moldova. The article represents a study based on the documentation of the university curriculum in undergraduate programs. With the view to test and validate the necessity of studying accounting subjects in the professional training of non-accounting economic specialists, a questionnaire was developed and implemented. The general research idea refers to the need to study accounting in economic education and practice, which could have an impact over the competitiveness of the Economics graduate.

  20. A study on the relevance and influence of the existing regulation and risk informed/performance based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, B. J.; Kang, J. M.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Park, C. H. [Cheju Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    The goal of this study is to estimate the relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. In order to investigate the perceptions, knowledge level, ground for the regulatory change, a survey was performed to Korean nuclear utilities, researchers and regulators on the perception on the RIR. The questionnaire was composed of 50 questions regarding personal details on work experience, level of education and specific field of work ; level of knowledge on the risk informed performance based regulation (RI-PBR); the perception of the current regulation, the effectiveness, level of procedure, flexibility, dependency on the regulator and personal view, and the perception of the RI-PBR such as flexibility of regulation, introduction time and the effect of RI-PBR, safety improvement, public perception, parts of the existing regulatory system that should be changed, etc. 515 answered from all sectors of the nuclear field; utilities, engineering companies, research institutes, and regulatory bodies.

  1. Time-resolved and steady-state studies of biologically and chemically relevant systems using laser, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Charles Ashley [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-20

    In Chapter 2 several experimental and data analysis methods used in this thesis are described. In Chapter 3 steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of the efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs), pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a, in the feces of animals and it was found that their levels far exceed those reported to be inhibitory to efflux pumps. In Chapter 4 the solvation dynamics of 6-Propionyl-2-(N,Ndimethyl) aminonaphthalene (PRODAN) was studied in reverse micelles. The two fluorescent states of PRODAN solvate on different time scales and as such care must be exercised in solvation dynamic studies involving it and its analogs. In Chapter 5 we studied the experimental and theoretical solvation dynamics of coumarin 153 (C153) in wild-type (WT) and modified myoglobins. Based on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence studies, we have concluded that it is important to thoroughly characterize the structure of a protein and probe system before comparing the theoretical and experimental results. In Chapter 6 the photophysical and spectral properties of a derivative of the medically relevant compound curcumin called cyclocurcumin was studied. Based on NMR, fluorescence, and absorption studies, the ground- and excited-states of cyclocurcumin are complicated by the existence of multiple structural isomers. In Chapter 7 the hydrolysis of cellulose by a pure form of cellulase in an ionic liquid, HEMA, and its aqueous mixtures at various temperatures were studied with the goal of increasing the cellulose to glucose conversion for biofuel production. It was found that HEMA imparts an additional stability to cellulase and can allow for faster conversion of cellulose to glucose using a pre-treatment step in comparison to only buffer.

  2. Genome-wide association study identifies a novel canine glaucoma locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saija J Ahonen

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy and one of the leading causes of blindness. Its hereditary forms are classified into primary closed-angle (PCAG, primary open-angle (POAG and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Although many loci have been mapped in human, only a few genes have been identified that are associated with the development of glaucoma and the genetic basis of the disease remains poorly understood. Glaucoma has also been described in many dog breeds, including Dandie Dinmont Terriers (DDT in which it is a late-onset (>7 years disease. We designed clinical and genetic studies to better define the clinical features of glaucoma in the DDT and to identify the genetic cause. Clinical diagnosis was based on ophthalmic examinations of the affected dogs and 18 additionally investigated unaffected DDTs. We collected DNA from over 400 DTTs and a genome wide association study was performed in a cohort of 23 affected and 23 controls, followed by a fine mapping, a replication study and candidate gene sequencing. The clinical study suggested that ocular abnormalities including abnormal iridocorneal angles and pectinate ligament dysplasia are common (50% and 72%, respectively in the breed and the disease resembles human PCAG. The genetic study identified a novel 9.5 Mb locus on canine chromosome 8 including the 1.6 Mb best associated region (p = 1.63 × 10(-10, OR = 32 for homozygosity. Mutation screening in five candidate genes did not reveal any causative variants. This study indicates that although ocular abnormalities are common in DDTs, the genetic risk for glaucoma is conferred by a novel locus on CFA8. The canine locus shares synteny to a region in human chromosome 14q, which harbors several loci associated with POAG and PCG. Our study reveals a new locus for canine glaucoma and ongoing molecular studies will likely help to understand the genetic etiology of the disease.

  3. Cerebral oxygen transport failure?: decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after ischemic stroke predict poor outcome and mortality: STroke: RelevAnt Impact of hemoGlobin, Hematocrit and Transfusion (STRAIGHT)--an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellert, Lars; Martin, Evgenia; Sykora, Marek; Bauer, Harald; Gussmann, Philipp; Diedler, Jennifer; Herweh, Christian; Ringleb, Peter A; Hacke, Werner; Steiner, Thorsten; Bösel, Julian

    2011-10-01

    Although conceivably relevant for penumbra oxygenation, the optimal levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) in patients with acute ischemic stroke are unknown. We identified patients from our prospective local stroke database who received intravenous thrombolysis based on multimodal magnet resonance imaging during the years 1998 to 2009. A favorable outcome at 3 months was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score≤2 and a poor outcome as a modified Rankin Scale score≥3. The dynamics of Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct), and other relevant laboratory parameters as well as cardiovascular risk factors were retrospectively assessed and analyzed between these 2 groups. Of 217 patients, 114 had a favorable and 103 a poor outcome. In a multivariable regression model, anemia until day 5 after admission (odds ratio [OR]=2.61; 95% CI, 1.33 to 5.11; P=0.005), Hb nadir (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.99; P=0.038), and Hct nadir (OR=0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.99; P=0.038) remained independent predictors for poor outcome at 3 months. Mortality after 3 months was independently associated with Hb nadir (OR=0.80; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.98; P=0.028) and Hb decrease (OR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.76; P=0.04) as well as Hct decrease (OR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.23; P=0.027). Poor outcome and mortality after ischemic stroke are strongly associated with low and further decreasing Hb and Hct levels. This decrease of Hb and Hct levels after admission might be more relevant and accessible to treatment than are baseline levels.

  4. Identifying amyloid pathology?related cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease in a multicohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Yuk Yee; Toledo, Jon B.; Nefedov, Alexey; Polikar, Robi; Raghavan, Nandini; Xie, Sharon X.; Farnum, Michael; Schultz, Tim; Baek, Young; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Hu, William T.; Holtzman, David M.; Fagan, Anne M.; Perrin, Richard J.; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The dynamic range of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid ? (A?1?42) measurement does not parallel to cognitive changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cognitively normal (CN) subjects across different studies. Therefore, identifying novel proteins to characterize symptomatic AD samples is important. Methods Proteins were profiled using a multianalyte platform by Rules Based Medicine (MAP-RBM). Due to underlying heterogeneity and unbalanced sample size, we combined subjects (344 AD ...

  5. STUDY OF IDENTIFYING AND PRIORITIZING THE AFFECTING FACTORS ON BANK BRAND CUSTOMER LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Aliyari; Yosef Beygzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Today, customer loyalty is the key to business success. By increased customers’ loyalty, market share and profitability level of enterprises will rise. Market perception along with planning and adopting appropriate strategies for making customers loyal and enhancing their rate of loyalty leads to long-term benefits for the enterprises. Given the importance of the issue, the goal of this study was to identify and prioritize the factors affecting loyalty to a banking brand from perspective of K...

  6. Automated Source Code Analysis to Identify and Remove Software Security Vulnerabilities: Case Studies on Java Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2013-01-01

    The high-level contribution of this paper is to illustrate the development of generic solution strategies to remove software security vulnerabilities that could be identified using automated tools for source code analysis on software programs (developed in Java). We use the Source Code Analyzer and Audit Workbench automated tools, developed by HP Fortify Inc., for our testing purposes. We present case studies involving a file writer program embedded with features for password validation, and ...

  7. A genome-wide association study identifies rs2000999 as a strong genetic determinant of circulating haptoglobin levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Froguel

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin is an acute phase inflammatory marker. Its main function is to bind hemoglobin released from erythrocytes to aid its elimination, and thereby haptoglobin prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species in the blood. Haptoglobin levels have been repeatedly associated with a variety of inflammation-linked infectious and non-infectious diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C, diabetes, carotid atherosclerosis, and acute myocardial infarction. However, a comprehensive genetic assessment of the inter-individual variability of circulating haptoglobin levels has not been conducted so far.We used a genome-wide association study initially conducted in 631 French children followed by a replication in three additional European sample sets and we identified a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2000999 located in the Haptoglobin gene (HP as a strong genetic predictor of circulating Haptoglobin levels (P(overall = 8.1 × 10(-59, explaining 45.4% of its genetic variability (11.8% of Hp global variance. The functional relevance of rs2000999 was further demonstrated by its specific association with HP mRNA levels (β = 0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.007. Finally, SNP rs2000999 was associated with decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 8,789 European children (P(total cholesterol = 0.002 and P(LDL = 0.0008.Given the central position of haptoglobin in many inflammation-related metabolic pathways, the relevance of rs2000999 genotyping when evaluating haptoglobin concentration should be further investigated in order to improve its diagnostic/therapeutic and/or prevention impact.

  8. Pilot study on the use of data mining to identify cochlear implant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisel, Jedidiah J; Schafer, Erin; Lam, Anne; Griffin, Terry

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to determine the clinical utility of data-mining software that screens for cochlear implant (CI) candidacy. The Auditory Implant Initiative developed a software module that screens for CI candidates via integration with a software system (Noah 4) that serves as a depository for hearing test data. To identify candidates, patient audiograms from one practice were exported into the screening module. Candidates were tracked to determine if any eventually underwent implantation. After loading 4836 audiograms from the Noah 4 system, the screening module identified 558 potential CI candidates. After reviewing the data for the potential candidates, 117 were targeted and invited to an educational event. Following the event, a total of six candidates were evaluated, and two were implanted. This objective approach to identifying candidates has the potential to address the gross underutilization of CIs by removing any bias or lack of knowledge regarding the management of severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss with CIs. The screening module was an effective tool for identifying potential CI candidates at one ENT practice. On a larger scale, the screening module has the potential to impact thousands of CI candidates worldwide.

  9. Thinking ahead of the surgeon. An interview study to identify scrub nurses' non-technical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George

    2011-07-01

    Efforts to reduce adverse event rates in healthcare have revealed the importance of identifying the essential non-technical (cognitive and social) skills for safe and effective performance. Previous research on non-technical skills for operating theatre staff has concentrated on doctors rather than nursing professionals. The aim of the study was to identify the critical non-technical skills that are essential for safe and effective performance as an operating theatre scrub nurse. Experienced scrub nurses (n = 25) and consultant surgeons (n = 9) from four Scottish hospitals were interviewed using a semi-structured format. The protocols were designed to identify the main social and cognitive skills required by scrub nurses. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and independently coded to extract behaviours in order to produce a list of the main non-technical skills for safe and effective scrub nurse performance. The non-technical skills of situation awareness, communication, teamwork, task management and coping with stress were identified as key to successful scrub nurse task performance. Component sets of behaviours for each of these categories were also noted. The interviews with subject matter experts from scrub nursing and surgery produced preliminary evidence that situation awareness, communication, teamwork and coping with stress are the principal non-technical skills required for effective performance as a scrub nurse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influenza-associated Encephalitis/Encephalopathy Identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis Study 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Philip N; Dale, Russell C; Blyth, Christopher C; Macartney, Kristine; Crawford, Nigel W; Marshall, Helen; Clark, Julia E; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Webster, Richard I; Cheng, Allen C; Booy, Robert; Jones, Cheryl A

    2017-11-01

    Influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE) is an important cause of acute encephalitis syndrome in children. IAE includes a series of clinicoradiologic syndromes or acute encephalopathy syndromes that have been infrequently reported outside East Asia. We aimed to describe cases of IAE identified by the Australian Childhood Encephalitis study. Children ≤ 14 years of age with suspected encephalitis were prospectively identified in 5 hospitals in Australia. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and outcome at discharge data were reviewed by an expert panel and cases were categorized by using predetermined case definitions. We extracted cases associated with laboratory identification of influenza virus for this analysis; among these cases, specific IAE syndromes were identified where clinical and radiologic features were consistent with descriptions in the published literature. We identified 13 cases of IAE during 3 southern hemisphere influenza seasons at 5 tertiary children's hospitals in Australia; 8 children with specific acute encephalopathy syndromes including: acute necrotizing encephalopathy, acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late diffusion restriction, mild encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion, and hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome. Use of influenza-specific antiviral therapy and prior influenza vaccination were infrequent. In contrast, death or significant neurologic morbidity occurred in 7 of the 13 children (54%). The conditions comprising IAE are heterogeneous with varied clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging changes, and outcomes. Overall, outcome of IAE is poor emphasizing the need for optimized prevention, early recognition, and empiric management.

  11. MANA YANG LEBIH MEMILIKI VALUE-RELEVANT: NET INCOME ATAU CASH FLOWS (Studi Terhadap Siklus Hidup Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniarti Juniarti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to examine the relative value-relevant of net income and cash flow measures in different life cycle stages. Corporate life cycle consists of four stages: start up, growth, mature, and decline stage. Firms in different life cycle stages have different characteristics, and therefore in each life cycle stages the usefulness of accounting measures also different. Net incomes are predicted to be more value relevant in mature stages, while cash flows are expected to be more value relevant in stages characterized by start up, growth, and decline stages. The results prove that in the growth stage, the analysis supports the hypothesis that cash flows are more value relevant than net income. However, in the mature stage, the analysis results reject the hypothesis. This research do not analyze for the start up stage and decline stage, because of the limitation of the sample data. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji manakah yang lebih memiliki value-relevant pengukuran laba atau arus kas pada masing-masing siklus hidup perusahaan. Siklus hidup perusahaan umumnya terbagi dalam tahap start-up, growth, mature dan decline. Karakteristik perusahaan berbeda untuk setiap tahap siklus hidup tersebut, karena itu kegunaan pengukuran akuntansi juga akan berbeda. Laba diperkirakan lebih memiliki value-relevant pada tahap mature, sementara arus kas diekspektasikan lebih memiliki value-relevant ketika perusahaan berada pada tahap start-up, growth dan decline. Penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa pada tahap growth, hasil pengujian yang dilakukan mendukung hipotesis bahwa cash flow lebih memiliki value relevant dibanding laba. Tetapi, untuk tahap mature, hipotesis yang diajukan tidak berhasil dibuktikan. Penelitian ini tidak dapat melakukan pengujian untuk tahap start-up dan decline, dikarenakan data sampel untuk kedua tahap tersebut tidak mencukupi untuk dilakukan pengujian. Kata kunci: siklus hidup organisasi, value-relevant

  12. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Ioana Hiriscau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors.

  13. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-05-11

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors.

  14. Identifying Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Minors Adolescents: Results of a Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriscau, Elisabeta Ioana; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Wasserman, Danuta; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Research with minors, especially for preventive purposes, e.g., suicide prevention, investigating risk or self-destructive behaviors such as deviance, drug abuse, or suicidal behavior, is ethically sensitive. We present a Delphi study exploring the ethical implications of the needs formulated by researchers in an international pre-conference who would benefit from ethics support and guidance in conducting Mental Health Research with minors. The resulting List of Ethical Issues (LEI) was submitted to a 2-rounds Delphi process via the Internet, including 34 multidisciplinary experts. In the first round, the experts reviewed the LEI and completed a questionnaire. Results from this round were analyzed and grouped in nine categories comprising 40 items. In the second round, the experts had to agree/disagree with the needs expressed in the LEI leading to a final list of 25 ethical issues considered relevant for Mental Health Research with minors such as: confidentiality of the sensitive data, competence for consenting alone and risk of harm and stigma related to the methodology used in research. It was shown that studies like SEYLE (Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe) trigger among researchers wishes to obtain specific recommendations helping to comply with standards for good practice in conducting research with minors. PMID:27187425

  15. Fire and Water combined: Understanding the Relevance of Working Life Studies through a Concept of Practical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijo Räsänen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When I presented the basic ideas of this paper at a conference, a Swedish colleague commented: ‘you manage to combine water and fire.’ I understood his kind comment to mean that he used water and fire as metaphors for practice and theory. The comment puzzled me for a while. Water and fire obviously destroy each other, or at least radically transform each other. Then I realized that humans have actually managed to combine water and fire in several ways. One solution is the kettle. It makes possible to use fire in a controlled way for the human purpose of boiling water. Thus, this paper can be taken as an attempt at offering a kettle-like vehicle for bringing together practicetheoretical concepts and vocational practice. My kettle is a concept of practical activity. I am trying to boil up an answer to the following question: in what senses a study of work can be practically relevant to those who are doing the work being studied?

  16. A pilot study to evaluate the clinical relevance of endometriosis-associated nerve fibers in peritoneal endometriotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechsner, Sylvia; Kaiser, Andrea; Kopf, Andreas; Gericke, Christine; Ebert, Andreas; Bartley, Julia

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the clinical relevance of endometriosis-associated nerve fibers in the development of endometriosis-associated symptoms. Prospective nonrandomized study. University hospital endometriosis center. Fifty-one premenopausal patients underwent surgical laparoscopy because of chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, or for ovarian cysts. Endometriosis was diagnosed in 44 patients. The preoperative and postoperative pain scores were determined using a standardized questionnaire with a visual analogue scale from 1-10. Patients with peritoneal endometriosis were divided into two groups depending on their preoperative pain score: group A with a pain score of at least 3 or more and group B with a pain score of 2 or less. Patients without peritoneal endometriosis were classified as group C and patients without endometriosis were classified as group D. Immunohistochemical analysis of neurofilament and protein gene product 9.5 were used for nerve fiber detection. Occurrence of endometriosis-associated nerve fibers was correlated with the severity of pelvic pain and/or dysmenorrhea. Peritoneal endometriosis-associated nerve fibers were found significantly more frequently in group A than in group B (82.6% vs. 33.3%). The present study suggests that the presence of endometriosis-associated nerve fibers in the peritoneum is important for the development of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea.

  17. Systematic reviews identify important methodological flaws in stroke rehabilitation therapy primary studies: review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaguida, Pasqualina; Oremus, Mark; Walker, Kathryn; Wishart, Laurie R; Siegel, Karen Lohmann; Raina, Parminder

    2012-04-01

    A "review of reviews" was undertaken to assess methodological issues in studies evaluating nondrug rehabilitation interventions in stroke patients. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from January 2000 to January 2008 within the stroke rehabilitation setting. Electronic searches were supplemented by reviews of reference lists and citations identified by experts. Eligible studies were systematic reviews; excluded citations were narrative reviews or reviews of reviews. Review characteristics and criteria for assessing methodological quality of primary studies within them were extracted. The search yielded 949 English-language citations. We included a final set of 38 systematic reviews. Cochrane reviews, which have a standardized methodology, were generally of higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews. Most systematic reviews used standardized quality assessment criteria for primary studies, but not all were comprehensive. Reviews showed that primary studies had problems with randomization, allocation concealment, and blinding. Baseline comparability, adverse events, and co-intervention or contamination were not consistently assessed. Blinding of patients and providers was often not feasible and was not evaluated as a source of bias. The eligible systematic reviews identified important methodological flaws in the evaluated primary studies, suggesting the need for improvement of research methods and reporting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study to identify a suitable model of ownership for Iran football pro league clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Amirnejad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the government ownership of the professional football clubs is absolutely illogical view point. Most of sports clubs are conducted by private sector using different models of ownership all over the world. In Iran, government credits benefit was main reason that the professional sport was firstly developed by government firms and organizations. Therefore, the sports team ownership is without the professionalization standards. The present comparative study was to examine the different football club ownership structures of the top leagues and the current condition of Iran football pro league ownership and then present a suitable ownership structure of Iran football clubs to leave behind the government club ownership. Among the initial 120 scientific texts, the thirty two cases including papers, books and reports were found relevant to this study. We studied the ownership prominence and several football club models of ownership focused on stock listing model of ownership, private investor model of ownership, supporter trust model of ownership and Japan partnership model of ownership; theoretical concepts, empirical studies, main findings, strengths and weaknesses were covered in analysis procedure. According to various models of ownership in leagues and the models’ productivity in football clubs, each model of ownership considering national environmental, economic, social conditions has strengths and weaknesses. So, we cannot present a definite model of ownership for Iran football pro league clubs due to different micro-environments of Iran clubs. We need a big planning to provide a supporter-investor mixed model of ownership to Iranian clubs. Considering strengths and weaknesses in the models of ownership as well as the micro and macro environment of Iran football clubs, German model and Japan partnership model are offered as suitable ones to probable new model of ownership in Iran pro league clubs. Consequently, more studies are required

  19. Case definitions of knee osteoarthritis in 4,151 unselected subjects: relevance for epidemiological studies. The Copenhagen osteoarthritis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxafoss, Erling; Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper K.; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the present study were threefold: to examine the distribution of knee joint osteoarthritis in a large, standardized radiological study; to examine the relationships between self reported knee pain and radiological OA; and to examine the natural history of radio-morphological change over age in individuals without radiological features of OA. The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study - COS is a substudy of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a longitudinal regional health survey. From the third inclusion of the CCHS (1992-1994) 4,151 subjects were selected for subsequent standardized radiography of the pelvis, the knees, the hands, the wrists, and the lumbar spine. Images were analyzed and knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) was classified according to the radiographic atlas of Kellgren and Lawrence. Joint space width (JSW) was measured at three sites within both the medial and the lateral compartment. For the entire cohort the prevalence of radiological knee joint OA of all grades was 38.7% for men and 44.2% for women. Age stratification documented increasing knee joint OA both in regard to prevalence and morphological severity. Knee pain was universally correlated to the Kellgren and Lawrence severity of OA. In a subgroup with no features of radiological OA, a significant and linear decline in JSW with increasing age was found. We found a clear relationship between self-reported knee pain and radiological osteoarthritis. Pain was proportionally related to the severity of change. We also demonstrated a significant diminishing of joint space width with increasing age in individuals without apparent radiological degeneration. (orig.)

  20. Case definitions of knee osteoarthritis in 4,151 unselected subjects: relevance for epidemiological studies. The Copenhagen osteoarthritis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxafoss, Erling; Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper K.; Sonne-Holm, Stig [Copenhagen University Hospital of Hvidovre (Denmark). Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2010-09-15

    The aims of the present study were threefold: to examine the distribution of knee joint osteoarthritis in a large, standardized radiological study; to examine the relationships between self reported knee pain and radiological OA; and to examine the natural history of radio-morphological change over age in individuals without radiological features of OA. The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study - COS is a substudy of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a longitudinal regional health survey. From the third inclusion of the CCHS (1992-1994) 4,151 subjects were selected for subsequent standardized radiography of the pelvis, the knees, the hands, the wrists, and the lumbar spine. Images were analyzed and knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) was classified according to the radiographic atlas of Kellgren and Lawrence. Joint space width (JSW) was measured at three sites within both the medial and the lateral compartment. For the entire cohort the prevalence of radiological knee joint OA of all grades was 38.7% for men and 44.2% for women. Age stratification documented increasing knee joint OA both in regard to prevalence and morphological severity. Knee pain was universally correlated to the Kellgren and Lawrence severity of OA. In a subgroup with no features of radiological OA, a significant and linear decline in JSW with increasing age was found. We found a clear relationship between self-reported knee pain and radiological osteoarthritis. Pain was proportionally related to the severity of change. We also demonstrated a significant diminishing of joint space width with increasing age in individuals without apparent radiological degeneration. (orig.)

  1. Three principles to define the success of a diagnostic study could be identified

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vach, Werner; Gerke, Oke; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2012-01-01

    of a diagnostic study on a single binary test and investigation of common statistical approaches in relation to these criteria. RESULTS: Three criteria for defining the overall success of a diagnostic study could be identified: a strong criterion, a liberal criterion, and a weak criterion. The strong criterion...... can be implemented by comparing the lower bounds of the confidence intervals for sensitivity and specificity with prespecified target values, as is typically done in many diagnostic studies. The liberal criterion allows a clinically meaningful compensation between sensitivity and specificity and can...... be implemented in different ways. If the liberal criterion is applied instead of the strong criterion, this can lead to a substantial reduction in the sample size required for a diagnostic study. The weak criterion is not very adequate for defining the success of a diagnostic study. CONCLUSION: When planning...

  2. Effectively identifying regulatory hotspots while capturing expression heterogeneity in gene expression studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping is a tool that can systematically identify genetic variation affecting gene expression. eQTL mapping studies have shown that certain genomic locations, referred to as regulatory hotspots, may affect the expression levels of many genes. Recently, studies have shown that various confounding factors may induce spurious regulatory hotspots. Here, we introduce a novel statistical method that effectively eliminates spurious hotspots while retaining genuine hotspots. Applied to simulated and real datasets, we validate that our method achieves greater sensitivity while retaining low false discovery rates compared to previous methods. PMID:24708878

  3. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies New Loci for Resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans in Canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Raman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a significant disease which affects the sustainable production of canola. This study reports a genome-wide association study based on 18,804 polymorphic SNPs to identify loci associated with qualitative and quantitative resistance to L. maculans. Genomic regions delimited with 503 significant SNP markers, that are associated with resistance evaluated using 12 single spore isolates and pathotypes from four canola stubble were identified. Several significant associations were detected at known disease resistance loci including in the vicinity of recently cloned Rlm2/LepR3 genes, and at new loci on chromosomes A01/C01, A02/C02, A03/C03, A05/C05, A06, A08, and A09. In addition, we validated statistically significant associations on A01, A07 and A10 in four genetic mapping populations, demonstrating that GWAS marker loci are indeed associated with resistance to L. maculans. One of the novel loci identified for the first time, Rlm12, conveys adult plant resistance and mapped within 13.2 kb from Arabidopsis R gene of TIR-NBS class. We showed that resistance loci are located in the vicinity of R genes of A. thaliana and B. napus on the sequenced genome of B. napus cv. Darmor-bzh. Significantly associated SNP markers provide a valuable tool to enrich germplasm for favorable alleles in order to improve the level of resistance to L. maculans in canola.

  4. Biochemometrics to Identify Synergists and Additives from Botanical Medicines: A Case Study with Hydrastis canadensis (Goldenseal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Emily R; Kellogg, Joshua J; Kvalheim, Olav M; Cech, Nadja B

    2018-03-23

    A critical challenge in the study of botanical natural products is the difficulty of identifying multiple compounds that may contribute additively, synergistically, or antagonistically to biological activity. Herein, it is demonstrated how combining untargeted metabolomics with synergy-directed fractionation can be effective toward accomplishing this goal. To demonstrate this approach, an extract of the botanical goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis) was fractionated and tested for its ability to enhance the antimicrobial activity of the alkaloid berberine (4) against the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Bioassay data were combined with untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics data sets (biochemometrics) to produce selectivity ratio (SR) plots, which visually show which extract components are most strongly associated with the biological effect. Using this approach, the new flavonoid 3,3'-dihydroxy-5,7,4'-trimethoxy-6,8- C-dimethylflavone (29) was identified, as were several flavonoids known to be active. When tested in combination with 4, 29 lowered the IC 50 of 4 from 132.2 ± 1.1 μM to 91.5 ± 1.1 μM. In isolation, 29 did not demonstrate antimicrobial activity. The current study highlights the importance of fractionation when utilizing metabolomics for identifying bioactive components from botanical extracts and demonstrates the power of SR plots to help merge and interpret complex biological and chemical data sets.

  5. PAPA: a flexible tool for identifying pleiotropic pathways using genome-wide association study summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan; Wang, Wenyu; Guo, Xiong; Zhang, Feng

    2016-03-15

    : Pleiotropy is common in the genetic architectures of complex diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no analysis tool has been developed for identifying pleiotropic pathways using multiple genome-wide association study (GWAS) summaries by now. Here, we present PAPA, a flexible tool for pleiotropic pathway analysis utilizing GWAS summary results. The performance of PAPA was validated using publicly available GWAS summaries of body mass index and waist-hip ratio of the GIANT datasets. PAPA identified a set of pleiotropic pathways, which have been demonstrated to be involved in the development of obesity. PAPA program, document and illustrative example are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/papav1/files/ : fzhxjtu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Identifying the essential components of cultural competence in a Chinese nursing context: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Duanying; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Klunklin, Areewan; Sripusanapan, Acharaporn; Avant, Patricia Kay

    2017-06-01

    This qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted to identify the essential components of cultural competence from the perspective of Chinese nurses. A purposive sample of 20 nurse experts, including senior clinical nurses, nurse administrators, and educators in transcultural nursing, was recruited. Using thematic analysis, four themes: awareness, attitudes, knowledge, and skills, with two subthemes for each, were identified. Notably, culture in China was understood in a broad way. The participants' responses focused upon demographic attributes, individuality, and efforts to facilitate quality care rather than on the cultural differences of ethnicity and race and developing the capacity to change discrimination or health disparities. A greater understanding of cultural competence in the Chinese nursing context, in which a dominant cultural group exists, is essential to facilitate the provision of culturally competent care to diverse populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies variants in HORMAD2 associated with tonsillectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, Bjarke; Bager, Peter; Liu, Xueping

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammation of the tonsils is a normal response to infection, but some individuals experience recurrent, severe tonsillitis and massive hypertrophy of the tonsils in which case surgical removal of the tonsils may be considered. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants associate...... the molecular mechanisms underlying the genetic association involve general lymphoid hyper-reaction throughout the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue system.......BACKGROUND: Inflammation of the tonsils is a normal response to infection, but some individuals experience recurrent, severe tonsillitis and massive hypertrophy of the tonsils in which case surgical removal of the tonsils may be considered. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants associated...... with tonsillectomy. METHODS: We used tonsillectomy information from Danish health registers and carried out a genome-wide association study comprising 1464 patients and 12 019 controls of Northwestern European ancestry, with replication in an independent sample set of 1575 patients and 1367 controls. RESULTS...

  8. Passive seismic monitoring of natural and induced earthquakes: case studies, future directions and socio-economic relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnhoff, Marco; Dresen, Georg; Ellsworth, William L.; Ito, Hisao; Cloetingh, Sierd; Negendank, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    An important discovery in crustal mechanics has been that the Earth’s crust is commonly stressed close to failure, even in tectonically quiet areas. As a result, small natural or man-made perturbations to the local stress field may trigger earthquakes. To understand these processes, Passive Seismic Monitoring (PSM) with seismometer arrays is a widely used technique that has been successfully applied to study seismicity at different magnitude levels ranging from acoustic emissions generated in the laboratory under controlled conditions, to seismicity induced by hydraulic stimulations in geological reservoirs, and up to great earthquakes occurring along plate boundaries. In all these environments the appropriate deployment of seismic sensors, i.e., directly on the rock sample, at the earth’s surface or in boreholes close to the seismic sources allows for the detection and location of brittle failure processes at sufficiently low magnitude-detection threshold and with adequate spatial resolution for further analysis. One principal aim is to develop an improved understanding of the physical processes occurring at the seismic source and their relationship to the host geologic environment. In this paper we review selected case studies and future directions of PSM efforts across a wide range of scales and environments. These include induced failure within small rock samples, hydrocarbon reservoirs, and natural seismicity at convergent and transform plate boundaries. Each example represents a milestone with regard to bridging the gap between laboratory-scale experiments under controlled boundary conditions and large-scale field studies. The common motivation for all studies is to refine the understanding of how earthquakes nucleate, how they proceed and how they interact in space and time. This is of special relevance at the larger end of the magnitude scale, i.e., for large devastating earthquakes due to their severe socio-economic impact.

  9. Wine consumption in the city of Recife (Brazil): a study of the relevance of the attributes of the drink at the time of purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Diniz, Nayara; Almeida, Simone; Salazar, Viviane; Souza, Anderson Gomes de

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study is a theoretical-empirical research on the identification and analysis of wine attributes' relevance in the purchase decision process to consumers in Recife. The theoretical framework was developed based on the identification of the most-frequently evaluated wine attributes in consumer behaviour studies in several countries. Subsequently, based on the work of Goodman et al. (2007), the relevance degree of each attribute was classified through the Best-Worst Scaling (BWS). ...

  10. Exome-wide Association Study Identifies GREB1L Mutations in Congenital Kidney Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Khan, Kamal; Westland, Rik; Krithivasan, Priya; Fievet, Lorraine; Rasouly, Hila Milo; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; Capone, Valentina P; Fasel, David A; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Kamalakaran, Sitharthan; Bodria, Monica; Otto, Edgar A; Sampson, Matthew G; Gillies, Christopher E; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Vukojevic, Katarina; Pediaditakis, Igor; Makar, Gabriel S; Mitrotti, Adele; Verbitsky, Miguel; Martino, Jeremiah; Liu, Qingxue; Na, Young-Ji; Goj, Vinicio; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Gigante, Maddalena; Gesualdo, Loreto; Janezcko, Magdalena; Zaniew, Marcin; Mendelsohn, Cathy Lee; Shril, Shirlee; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; van Wijk, Joanna A E; Arapovic, Adela; Saraga, Marijan; Allegri, Landino; Izzi, Claudia; Scolari, Francesco; Tasic, Velibor; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Materna-Kiryluk, Anna; Mane, Shrikant; Goldstein, David B; Lifton, Richard P; Katsanis, Nicholas; Davis, Erica E; Gharavi, Ali G

    2017-11-02

    Renal agenesis and hypodysplasia (RHD) are major causes of pediatric chronic kidney disease and are highly genetically heterogeneous. We conducted whole-exome sequencing in 202 case subjects with RHD and identified diagnostic mutations in genes known to be associated with RHD in 7/202 case subjects. In an additional affected individual with RHD and a congenital heart defect, we found a homozygous loss-of-function (LOF) variant in SLIT3, recapitulating phenotypes reported with Slit3 inactivation in the mouse. To identify genes associated with RHD, we performed an exome-wide association study with 195 unresolved case subjects and 6,905 control subjects. The top signal resided in GREB1L, a gene implicated previously in Hoxb1 and Shha signaling in zebrafish. The significance of the association, which was p = 2.0 × 10 -5 for novel LOF, increased to p = 4.1 × 10 -6 for LOF and deleterious missense variants combined, and augmented further after accounting for segregation and de novo inheritance of rare variants (joint p = 2.3 × 10 -7 ). Finally, CRISPR/Cas9 disruption or knockdown of greb1l in zebrafish caused specific pronephric defects, which were rescued by wild-type human GREB1L mRNA, but not mRNA containing alleles identified in case subjects. Together, our study provides insight into the genetic landscape of kidney malformations in humans, presents multiple candidates, and identifies SLIT3 and GREB1L as genes implicated in the pathogenesis of RHD. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 8: identifying quasi-experimental studies to inform systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Julie; Eyers, John; Jones, Andrew M; Shemilt, Ian; Wang, Grace; Johansen, Marit; Fiander, Michelle; Rothstein, Hannah

    2017-09-01

    This article reviews the available evidence and guidance on methods to identify reports of quasi-experimental (QE) studies to inform systematic reviews of health care, public health, international development, education, crime and justice, and social welfare. Research, guidance, and examples of search strategies were identified by searching a range of databases, key guidance documents, selected reviews, conference proceedings, and personal communication. Current practice and research evidence were summarized. Four thousand nine hundred twenty-four records were retrieved by database searches, and additional documents were obtained by other searches. QE studies are challenging to identify efficiently because they have no standardized nomenclature and may be indexed in various ways. Reliable search filters are not available. There is a lack of specific resources devoted to collecting QE studies and little evidence on where best to search. Searches to identify QE studies should search a range of resources and, until indexing improves, use strategies that focus on the topic rather than the study design. Better definitions, better indexing in databases, prospective registers, and reporting guidance are required to improve the retrieval of QE studies and promote systematic reviews of what works based on the evidence from such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The association of 83 plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total-cholesterol in men: applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, A Geert; Thissen, Uwe; Boer, Jolanda M A; Bouwman, Freek G; Feskens, Edith J M; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch monitoring project for cardiovascular disease risk factors, men who died of CHD between initial participation (1987-1991) and end of follow-up (January 1, 2000) (N = 44) and matched controls (N = 44) were selected. Baseline plasma concentrations of proteins were measured by a multiplex immunoassay. With the use of PLS, we identified 15 proteins with prognostic value for CHD mortality and sets of proteins associated with the intermediate end points. Subsequently, sets of proteins and intermediate end points were analyzed together by Principal Components Analysis, indicating that proteins involved in inflammation explained most of the variance, followed by proteins involved in metabolism and proteins associated with total-C. This study is one of the first in which the association of a large number of plasma proteins with CHD mortality and intermediate end points is investigated by applying multivariate statistics, providing insight in the relationships among proteins, intermediate end points and CHD mortality, and a set of proteins with prognostic value.

  13. [Human papillomavirus infection and its correlates with clinically relevant gynecological and obstetric conditions: A cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hernández, Daniel; Beltrán-Lagunes, Luis; Brito-Aranda, Leticia; López-Hernández, Maria de la Luz

    2016-08-05

    To analyze the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the possible epidemiological association with conditions of clinical relevance in women. A cross-sectional study from Mexico City was conducted from January 2012 to December 2014. HPV molecular detection was performed on cervical samples. Data were analyzed with appropriated statistic tests. A total of 1,604 females (median 47, interquartile range 38-54) were analyzed. Global prevalence of infection for any HPV is 9.91% (95% CI 8.6-11.3). An association between infection with 16-HPV and number of abortions (NA) (OR=1.427; 95% CI 1.091-1.866), by univariate regression model (UVRM) was estimated. Moreover, menarche (OR=1.566; 95% CI 1.079-2.272), NA (OR=1.570; 95% CI 1.106-2.227) and number of pregnancies (NP) (OR=0.461; 95% CI 0.260-0.818) have a direct and inverse association with infection by genotype 18 of HPV, respectively. Also, infection with HR-HPV genotypes has an inverse association with NP (OR=0.791; 95% CI 0.707-0.884) by normal labor (OR=0.867; 95% CI 0.767-0.979) and NA (OR=0.715; 95% CI 0.534-0.959) (UVRM), and a direct association with number of sexual partners (OR=1.082; 95% CI 1.015-1.154). Onset of sexual activity has an inverse association with infection by genotype 16- (UVRM: OR=0.814; 95% CI 0.715-0.926; multinomial regression model (MNRM): OR=0.803; 95% CI 0.702-0.918) and HR-HPV (UVRM: OR=0.933; 95% CI 0.889-0.980, and MNRM: OR=0.912; 95% CI 0.867-0.959), all P values were lower than .03. Prevalence of HPV cervical infection is different according to age and it is associated with several medical conditions of clinical relevance in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel data mining method to identify assay-specific signatures in functional genomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidarelli Jack W

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The highly dimensional data produced by functional genomic (FG studies makes it difficult to visualize relationships between gene products and experimental conditions (i.e., assays. Although dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA have been very useful, their application to identify assay-specific signatures has been limited by the lack of appropriate methodologies. This article proposes a new and powerful PCA-based method for the identification of assay-specific gene signatures in FG studies. Results: The proposed method (PM is unique for several reasons. First, it is the only one, to our knowledge, that uses gene contribution, a product of the loading and expression level, to obtain assay signatures. The PM develops and exploits two types of assay-specific contribution plots, which are new to the application of PCA in the FG area. The first type plots the assay-specific gene contribution against the given order of the genes and reveals variations in distribution between assay-specific gene signatures as well as outliers within assay groups indicating the degree of importance of the most dominant genes. The second type plots the contribution of each gene in ascending or descending order against a constantly increasing index. This type of plots reveals assay-specific gene signatures defined by the inflection points in the curve. In addition, sharp regions within the signature define the genes that contribute the most to the signature. We proposed and used the curvature as an appropriate metric to characterize these sharp regions, thus identifying the subset of genes contributing the most to the signature. Finally, the PM uses the full dataset to determine the final gene signature, thus eliminating the chance of gene exclusion by poor screening in earlier steps. The strengths of the PM are demonstrated using a simulation study, and two studies of real DNA microarray data – a study of

  15. Relevance Epistasis Network of Gastritis for Intra-chromosomes in the Korea Associated Resource (KARE Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-hwan Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis is a common but a serious disease with a potential risk of developing carcinoma. Helicobacter pylori infection is reported as the most common cause of gastritis, but other genetic and genomic factors exist, especially single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Association studies between SNPs and gastritis disease are important, but results on epistatic interactions from multiple SNPs are rarely found in previous genome-wide association (GWA studies. In this study, we performed computational GWA case-control studies for gastritis in Korea Associated Resource (KARE data. By transforming the resulting SNP epistasis network into a gene-gene epistasis network, we also identified potential gene-gene interaction factors that affect the susceptibility to gastritis.

  16. [Impact of corrective measures on fluoroquinolones prescriptions for urinary tract infections during a 2-round relevance study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendrin, V; Letranchant, L; Hénard, S; Frentiu, E; Demore, B; Burty, C; May, T; Doco-Lecompte, T

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of corrective measures on fluoroquinolones (FQ) prescriptions for urinary tract infections (UTI) during a 2-round relevance study on a regional scale. FQ prescriptions of voluntary hospitals were checked by an infectious diseases physician and a pharmacist according to regional guidelines. A first round (R1) took place in January 2008, with feedback and proposal for personalized corrective measures in January 2009. A second round (R2) was organized in June 2009. UTI data were extracted and the results of the two rounds were compared. Four hundred and thirty-five and 302 FQ prescriptions for UTI, coming from 28 and 24 different hospitals, were analyzed at R1 and R2, respectively. Thirty-six percent and 55% of these prescriptions were entirely in accordance with regional guidelines, at respectively R1 and R2 (PUTI through better adhesion to the regional guidelines between the two rounds. This is probably due to first turn results feedback, and corrective measures suggestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural network modelling and dynamical system theory: are they relevant to study the governing dynamics of association football players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt-Mazumder, Aviroop; Button, Chris; Robins, Anthony; Bartlett, Roger

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have explored the organization of player movements in team sports using a range of statistical tools. However, the factors that best explain the performance of association football teams remain elusive. Arguably, this is due to the high-dimensional behavioural outputs that illustrate the complex, evolving configurations typical of team games. According to dynamical system analysts, movement patterns in team sports exhibit nonlinear self-organizing features. Nonlinear processing tools (i.e. Artificial Neural Networks; ANNs) are becoming increasingly popular to investigate the coordination of participants in sports competitions. ANNs are well suited to describing high-dimensional data sets with nonlinear attributes, however, limited information concerning the processes required to apply ANNs exists. This review investigates the relative value of various ANN learning approaches used in sports performance analysis of team sports focusing on potential applications for association football. Sixty-two research sources were summarized and reviewed from electronic literature search engines such as SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, Scirus, ScienceDirect and Elsevier. Typical ANN learning algorithms can be adapted to perform pattern recognition and pattern classification. Particularly, dimensionality reduction by a Kohonen feature map (KFM) can compress chaotic high-dimensional datasets into low-dimensional relevant information. Such information would be useful for developing effective training drills that should enhance self-organizing coordination among players. We conclude that ANN-based qualitative analysis is a promising approach to understand the dynamical attributes of association football players.

  18. Exploratory studies of flowing liquid metal divertor options for fusion-relevant magnetic fields in the MTOR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, A.Y.; Abdou, M.A.; Morley, N.; Sketchley, T.; Woolley, R.; Burris, J.; Kaita, R.; Fogarty, P.; Huang, H.; Lao, X.; Narula, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Ulrickson, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental findings on liquid metal (LM) free surface flows crossing complex magnetic fields. The experiments involve jet and film flows using GaInSn and are conducted at the UCLA MTOR facility. The goal of this study is to understand the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) features associated with such a free surface flow in a fusion-relevant magnetic field environment, and determine what LM free surface flow option is most suitable for lithium divertor particle pumping and surface heat removal applications in a near-term experimental plasma device, such as NSTX. Experimental findings indicate that a steady transverse magnetic field, even with gradients typical of NSTX outer divertor conditions, stabilizes a LM jet flow--reducing turbulent disturbances and delaying jet breakup. Important insights into the MHD behavior of liquid metal films under NSTX-like environments are also presented. It is possible to establish an uphill liquid metal film flow on a conducting substrate, although the MHD drag experienced by the flow could be strong and cause the flow to pile-up under simulated NSTX magnetic field conditions. The magnetic field changes the turbulent film flow so that wave structures range from 2D column-type surface disturbances at regions of high magnetic field, to ordinary hydrodynamic turbulence wave structures at regions of low field strength at the outboard. Plans for future work are also presented

  19. Recent experimental results on ICF target implosions by Z-pinch radiation sources and their relevance to ICF ignition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T A; Bailey, J E; Bennett, G; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G; Cuneo, M E; Golovkin, I; Hanson, D L; Leeper, R J; MacFarlane, J J; Mancini, R C; Matzen, M K; Nash, T J; Olson, C L; Porter, J L; Ruiz, C L; Schroen, D G; Slutz, S A; Varnum, W; Vesey, R A

    2003-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions absorbing up to 35 kJ of x-rays from a ∼220 eV dynamic hohlraum on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories have produced thermonuclear D-D neutron yields of (2.6±1.3) x 10 10 . Argon spectra confirm a hot fuel with T e ∼ 1 keV and n e ∼ (1-2) x 10 23 cm -3 . Higher performance implosions will require radiation symmetry control improvements. Capsule implosions in a ∼70 eV double-Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum have been radiographed by 6.7 keV x-rays produced by the Z-beamlet laser (ZBL), demonstrating a drive symmetry of about 3% and control of P 2 radiation asymmetries to ±2%. Hemispherical capsule implosions have also been radiographed in Z in preparation for future experiments in fast ignition physics. Z-pinch-driven inertial fusion energy concepts are being developed. The refurbished Z machine (ZR) will begin providing scaling information on capsule and Z-pinch in 2006. The addition of a short pulse capability to ZBL will enable research into fast ignition physics in the combination of ZR and ZBL-petawatt. ZR could provide a test bed to study NIF-relevant double-shell ignition concepts using dynamic hohlraums and advanced symmetry control techniques in the double-pinch hohlraum backlit by ZBL

  20. DSA-guided embolization in establishing different canine spinal cord ischemia models and relevant diffusion-weighted imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingsong; Sun Lijun; Huan Yi; He Hongde; Zhang Xuexin; Zhao Haitao; Zhang Jing; Zhang Xijing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate DSA-guided embolization in establishing different spinal cord ischemia models of canine and relevant diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) application. Methods: Nine canines were randomly divided into three groups with different matching of lipiodol and diatrizoate meglumine which were injected into bilateral intercostal arteries at 9-11 level guided by DSA monitor. Then observe the changes of motor function and pathologic findings, especially perform routine MRI and DWI by a 1.5 T MR system. Results: Except one case, 8 embolization models were established successfully. Among three groups, slight-group got slight injury and muscle power was about 3-5 grade and range of injury was about two vertebra distance; medium-group presented obvious paraplegia and muscle power was 0-1 grade and range of injury was between 3-4 vertebra distance; severe-group showed greater severity and larger range of injury. All lesions presented high signals at routine MRI and DWI. Conclusion: Using different matching of lipiodol and diatrizoate meglumine can establish different spinal cord ischemia models of canine by DSA- guided embolization and DWI can be performed successfully by 1.5 T MR system, which may be a good method for advanced study of spinal cord ischemia. (authors)

  1. Recent experimental results on ICF target implosions by Z-pinch radiation sources and their relevance to ICF ignition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, James E.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew; Vesey, Roger Alan; Hanson, David Lester; Olson, Craig Lee; Nash, Thomas J.; Matzen, Maurice Keith; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Varnum, William S.; Bennett, Guy R.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Schroen, Diana Grace; Slutz, Stephen A.; MacFarlane, Joseph John; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Golovkin, I.E.; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Mancini, Roberto Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions absorbing up to 35 kJ of x-rays from a ∼220 eV dynamic hohlraum on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories have produced thermonuclear D-D neutron yields of (2.6 ± 1.3) x 10 10 . Argon spectra confirm a hot fuel with Te ∼ 1 keV and n e ∼ (1-2) x 10 23 cm -3 . Higher performance implosions will require radiation symmetry control improvements. Capsule implosions in a ∼70 eV double-Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum have been radiographed by 6.7 keV x-rays produced by the Z-beamlet laser (ZBL), demonstrating a drive symmetry of about 3% and control of P 2 radiation asymmetries to ±2%. Hemispherical capsule implosions have also been radiographed in Z in preparation for future experiments in fast ignition physics. Z-pinch-driven inertial fusion energy concepts are being developed. The refurbished Z machine (ZR) will begin providing scaling information on capsule and Z-pinch in 2006. The addition of a short pulse capability to ZBL will enable research into fast ignition physics in the combination of ZR and ZBL-petawatt. ZR could provide a test bed to study NIF-relevant double-shell ignition concepts using dynamic hohlraums and advanced symmetry control techniques in the double-pinch hohlraum backlit by ZBL.

  2. Enriched pathways for major depressive disorder identified from a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Feng; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2012-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has caused a substantial burden of disease worldwide with moderate heritability. Despite efforts through conducting numerous association studies and now, genome-wide association (GWA) studies, the success of identifying susceptibility loci for MDD has been limited, which is partially attributed to the complex nature of depression pathogenesis. A pathway-based analytic strategy to investigate the joint effects of various genes within specific biological pathways has emerged as a powerful tool for complex traits. The present study aimed to identify enriched pathways for depression using a GWA dataset for MDD. For each gene, we estimated its gene-wise p value using combined and minimum p value, separately. Canonical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and BioCarta were used. We employed four pathway-based analytic approaches (gene set enrichment analysis, hypergeometric test, sum-square statistic, sum-statistic). We adjusted for multiple testing using Benjamini & Hochberg's method to report significant pathways. We found 17 significantly enriched pathways for depression, which presented low-to-intermediate crosstalk. The top four pathways were long-term depression (p⩽1×10-5), calcium signalling (p⩽6×10-5), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (p⩽1.6×10-4) and cell adhesion molecules (p⩽2.2×10-4). In conclusion, our comprehensive pathway analyses identified promising pathways for depression that are related to neurotransmitter and neuronal systems, immune system and inflammatory response, which may be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression. We demonstrated that pathway enrichment analysis is promising to facilitate our understanding of complex traits through a deeper interpretation of GWA data. Application of this comprehensive analytic strategy in upcoming GWA data for depression could validate the findings reported in this study.

  3. An international eDelphi study identifying the research and education priorities in wound management and tissue repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Aim. To incorporate an international and multidisciplinary consensus in the determination of the research and education priorities for wound healing and tissue repair. Background. A compelling reason for the study is the lack of an agreed list of priorities for wound care research and education. Furthermore, there is a growth in the prevalence of chronic wounds, a growth in wound care products and marketing, and an increase in clinician attendance at conferences and education programmes. Design. The study used a survey method. Methods. A four-round eDelphi technique was used to collect responses from an international population of health professionals across 24 countries. Results. Responses were obtained from 360 professionals representing many health care settings. The top education priorities related to the standardisation of all foundation education programmes in wound care, the inclusion of wound care in all professional undergraduate and postgraduate education programmes, selecting dressings and the prevention of pressure ulcers. The top research priorities related to the dressing selection, pressure ulcer prevention and wound infection. Conclusion. Professionals from different backgrounds and countries who are engaged in wound management share a common set of priorities for research and education. Most notably, the priorities identified relate to long-established clinical challenges in wound care and underpin the principles of good patient care practices. The priorities are closely allied to an ageing population and identify many challenges ahead for practitioners engaged in wound management services. Relevance to clinical practice. The provision of wound care is a major investment of health service resources and remains a clinical challenge today. Research is essential to building evidence-based practice and fundamental to development of quality in standards of practice; education is central to achieving competence to deliver effective care. The

  4. Identifying reliable predictors of protein-energy malnutrition in hospitalized frail older adults. A prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, Gianfranco; Bertocchi, Luca; Dal Bo, Eugenia; Di Pasquale, Carmen Luisa; Zanetti, Michela

    2018-03-07

    Decreased food intake is a risk factor for relevant complications (e.g. infections, pressure ulcers), longer hospital stays, higher readmission rates, greater health care costs and increased patient mortality, particularly in frail hospitalized older adults who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Nurses are called to improve this criticality, starting from accurately identify patients for malnutrition at hospital admission and effectively monitoring their food intake. The primary aim was to identify reliable predictive indicators of reduced food intake at hospital admission. The secondary aims were to assess the adequacy of daily energy and protein intake and the impact of nutrient intake on patient outcomes. Prospective observational longitudinal study. Internal Medicine Ward of an Academic Teaching University Hospital. Acute older adults who were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (Nutritional Risk Score-2002 ≥ 3, middle-upper arm circumference energy and protein intake was monitored during the first 5 days of hospital stay by a photographic method and compared to the daily energy and protein requirement calculated by specific equations. Data on anthropometry, inflammation/malnutrition laboratory data and body composition (phase angle calculated using bioelectrical impedance analysis) were collected. Eighty-one subjects (age 81.5 ± 11.5 years) were enrolled. Mean energy intake was 669.0 ± 573.9 kcal/day, and mean protein intake was 30.7 ± 25.8 g/day. Over 60% of patients ingested ≤50% of their calculated energy and protein requirements: these patients were older (p = 0.026), had a lower middle-upper arm circumference (p = 0.022) and total arm area (p = 0.038), a higher C-reactive protein/albumin ratio and Instant Nutritional Assessment score (p protein/albumin ratio, and impaired self-feeding at admission were independently associated with critically reduced energy and protein intake. Middle

  5. Identifying 'unhealthy' food advertising on television: a case study applying the UK Nutrient Profile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Gabrielle; Wilson, Nick; Hermanson, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of the UK Nutrient Profile (NP) model for identifying 'unhealthy' food advertisements using a case study of New Zealand television advertisements. Four weeks of weekday television from 15.30 hours to 18.30 hours was videotaped from a state-owned (free-to-air) television channel popular with children. Food advertisements were identified and their nutritional information collected in accordance with the requirements of the NP model. Nutrient information was obtained from a variety of sources including food labels, company websites and a national nutritional database. From the 60 h sample of weekday afternoon television, there were 1893 advertisements, of which 483 were for food products or retailers. After applying the NP model, 66 % of these were classified as advertising high-fat, high-salt and high-sugar (HFSS) foods; 28 % were classified as advertising non-HFSS foods; and the remaining 2 % were unclassifiable. More than half (53 %) of the HFSS food advertisements were for 'mixed meal' items promoted by major fast-food franchises. The advertising of non-HFSS food was sparse, covering a narrow range of food groups, with no advertisements for fresh fruit or vegetables. Despite the NP model having some design limitations in classifying real-world televised food advertisements, it was easily applied to this sample and could clearly identify HFSS products. Policy makers who do not wish to completely restrict food advertising to children outright should consider using this NP model for regulating food advertising.

  6. Identifying research priorities for patient safety in mental health: an international expert Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kevin; Thibaut, Bethan; Ramtale, Sonny Christian; Adam, Sheila; Darzi, Ara; Archer, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    Objective Physical healthcare has dominated the patient safety field; research in mental healthcare is not as extensive but findings from physical healthcare cannot be applied to mental healthcare because it delivers specialised care that faces unique challenges. Therefore, a clearer focus and recognition of patient safety in mental health as a distinct research area is still needed. The study aim is to identify future research priorities in the field of patient safety in mental health. Design Semistructured interviews were conducted with the experts to ascertain their views on research priorities in patient safety in mental health. A three-round online Delphi study was used to ascertain consensus on 117 research priority statements. Setting and participants Academic and service user experts from the USA, UK, Switzerland, Netherlands, Ireland, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand and Singapore were included. Main outcome measures Agreement in research priorities on a five-point scale. Results Seventy-nine statements achieved consensus (>70%). Three out of the top six research priorities were patient driven; experts agreed that understanding the patient perspective on safety planning, on self-harm and on medication was important. Conclusions This is the first international Delphi study to identify research priorities in safety in the mental field as determined by expert academic and service user perspectives. A reasonable consensus was obtained from international perspectives on future research priorities in patient safety in mental health; however, the patient perspective on their mental healthcare is a priority. The research agenda for patient safety in mental health identified here should be informed by patient safety science more broadly and used to further establish this area as a priority in its own right. The safety of mental health patients must have parity with that of physical health patients to achieve this. PMID:29502096

  7. Systematic enrichment analysis of gene expression profiling studies identifies consensus pathways implicated in colorectal cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lascorz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of gene expression profiling (GEP studies on colorectal carcinogenesis have been performed but no reliable gene signature has been identified so far due to the lack of reproducibility in the reported genes. There is growing evidence that functionally related genes, rather than individual genes, contribute to the etiology of complex traits. We used, as a novel approach, pathway enrichment tools to define functionally related genes that are consistently up- or down-regulated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: We started the analysis with 242 unique annotated genes that had been reported by any of three recent meta-analyses covering GEP studies on genes differentially expressed in carcinoma vs normal mucosa. Most of these genes (218, 91.9% had been reported in at least three GEP studies. These 242 genes were submitted to bioinformatic analysis using a total of nine tools to detect enrichment of Gene Ontology (GO categories or Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. As a final consistency criterion the pathway categories had to be enriched by several tools to be taken into consideration. Results: Our pathway-based enrichment analysis identified the categories of ribosomal protein constituents, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, carbonic anhydrase isozymes, and a general category related to inflammation and cellular response as significantly and consistently overrepresented entities. Conclusions: We triaged the genes covered by the published GEP literature on colorectal carcinogenesis and subjected them to multiple enrichment tools in order to identify the consistently enriched gene categories. These turned out to have known functional relationships to cancer development and thus deserve further investigation.

  8. Identifying areas at risk of low birth weight using spatial epidemiology: A small area surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insaf, Tabassum Z; Talbot, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    To assess the geographic distribution of Low Birth Weight (LBW) in New York State among singleton births using a spatial regression approach in order to identify priority areas for public health actions. LBW was defined as birth weight less than 2500g. Geocoded data from 562,586 birth certificates in New York State (years 2008-2012) were merged with 2010 census data at the tract level. To provide stable estimates and maintain confidentiality, data were aggregated to yield 1268 areas of analysis. LBW prevalence among singleton births was related with area-level behavioral, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using a Poisson mixed effects spatial error regression model. Observed low birth weight showed statistically significant auto-correlation in our study area (Moran's I 0.16 p value 0.0005). After over-dispersion correction and accounting for fixed effects for selected social determinants, spatial autocorrelation was fully accounted for (Moran's I-0.007 p value 0.241). The proportion of LBW was higher in areas with larger Hispanic or Black populations and high smoking prevalence. Smoothed maps with predicted prevalence were developed to identify areas at high risk of LBW. Spatial patterns of residual variation were analyzed to identify unique risk factors. Neighborhood racial composition contributes to disparities in LBW prevalence beyond differences in behavioral and socioeconomic factors. Small-area analyses of LBW can identify areas for targeted interventions and display unique local patterns that should be accounted for in prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Women with physical disability and the mammogram: An observational study to identify barriers and facilitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulos, Ann; Balandin, Susan; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McCarthy, Louella; Dark, Leigha

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To identify barriers and facilitators experienced by women with physical disability having a mammogram. Method: Direct observation of the mammography procedure for women with a range of physical disability at screening facilities of BreastScreen NSW Australia. Results: A volunteer sample of 13 women with varying degrees of physical disability participated in the study. The outcomes suggested that many barriers for women with physical disability can be ameliorated by environmental adaptations and guidelines for both radiographers and women. Some women however cannot be screened successfully, or can be screened only with a level of trauma and/or pain which militates against their continuation within the screening program. This study has identified physical limitations which preclude a successful outcome, those which increase the discomfort/pain of the procedure and aspects of the procedure which can be improved to minimise the experience of discomfort/pain. Conclusion: From the outcomes of the study the development of a decision tool is indicated as a method of providing information for women with physical disability and their doctors as to the likelihood of a successful outcome to participation in mammography screening.

  10. Women with physical disability and the mammogram: An observational study to identify barriers and facilitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulos, Ann, E-mail: ann.poulos@sydney.edu.a [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Balandin, Susan [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Speech Pathology, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Avdeling for helse- og sosialfag, Hogskolen i Molde, Postboks 2110, 6402 Molde (Norway); Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McCarthy, Louella [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Occupational Therapy, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Dark, Leigha [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Speech Pathology, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To identify barriers and facilitators experienced by women with physical disability having a mammogram. Method: Direct observation of the mammography procedure for women with a range of physical disability at screening facilities of BreastScreen NSW Australia. Results: A volunteer sample of 13 women with varying degrees of physical disability participated in the study. The outcomes suggested that many barriers for women with physical disability can be ameliorated by environmental adaptations and guidelines for both radiographers and women. Some women however cannot be screened successfully, or can be screened only with a level of trauma and/or pain which militates against their continuation within the screening program. This study has identified physical limitations which preclude a successful outcome, those which increase the discomfort/pain of the procedure and aspects of the procedure which can be improved to minimise the experience of discomfort/pain. Conclusion: From the outcomes of the study the development of a decision tool is indicated as a method of providing information for women with physical disability and their doctors as to the likelihood of a successful outcome to participation in mammography screening.

  11. Comparing chemical analysis with literature studies to identify micropollutants in a catchment of Copenhagen (DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Birch, Heidi; Eriksson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    on urban surface runoff originating from a well defined catchment of Copenhagen (Denmark) with an inventory of potential pollution sources for the same catchment. The selected catchment covers an area with roads, a shopping centre, a parking lot, office buildings, a gymnasium and some restaurants....... The literature approach is limited to the range of included PSs and to how and which information is compiled, whereas the analytical chemical approach is limited to the selection of analyzed substances, sensitivity and precision. Comparing the two approaches of chemical analysis with literature study to identify...

  12. Identifying service quality strengths and weaknesses using SERVQUAL: a study of dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldenberg, D; Becker, B W; Browne, B A; Browne, W G

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine responses among dental patients to the most recent version of SERVQUAL, and to evaluate that instrument as a tool for measuring satisfaction in a dental practice. Items on the reliability and responsiveness dimensions produced the lowest satisfaction ratings, while improvements in providing services as promised and instilling confidence have the greatest potential for producing higher satisfaction among patients. Finally, using open-ended questions, we identified a number of patient events or experiences which caused either high or low scores on individual SERVQUAL items.

  13. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar, E-mail: bhaskar_sanyal@rediffmail.co [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047{+-}0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g{sub ||}=2.0028 and g{sub perpendicular}=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  14. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047±0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g || =2.0028 and g perpendicular =1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  15. Genome-wide association studies identify four ER negative-specific breast cancer risk loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Couch, Fergus J; Lindstrom, Sara

    2013-01-01

    differences in genetic predisposition. To identify susceptibility loci specific to ER-negative disease, we combined in a meta-analysis 3 genome-wide association studies of 4,193 ER-negative breast cancer cases and 35,194 controls with a series of 40 follow-up studies (6,514 cases and 41,455 controls......), genotyped using a custom Illumina array, iCOGS, developed by the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNPs at four loci, 1q32.1 (MDM4, P = 2.1 × 10(-12) and LGR6, P = 1.4 × 10(-8)), 2p24.1 (P = 4.6 × 10(-8)) and 16q12.2 (FTO, P = 4.0 × 10(-8)), were associated with ER-negative but not ER...

  16. USING GIS TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOOD. CASE STUDY: SOLONEŢ RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. TIPLEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS to Identify Potential Areas Susceptible to Flood. Case Study: Soloneţ River. In this study, we aim to analyze the impact of different peak flows in territory and also a better understanding of the dynamic of a river flow. The methodology used for flood zone delimitation is based on a quantitative analysis model which requires the use of mathematical, physical and statistical operations in order to emphasize the relations between the different variables that were implied (discharges, grain size, terrain morphology, soil saturation, vegetation etc.. The results cannot be expected to be completely accurate but can provide a good representation of the process. Validation of results will inevitably be difficult and should be measured in the field. The information resulting from this study could be useful for raising awareness about both hazards and possible mitigation measure, a key component of disaster risk reduction planning.

  17. Case study to identify the causes of stock-out of a textile retailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Aguiar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems faced by large retailers is related to the lack of supply in display racks, the so called stock-out points. Studies have been made since the sixties, which show that progress related to this subject is limited. Stock-out levels are around 8.3%. Furthermore, literature on the subject is insufficient, as very few studies have been dedicated to investigating the causes of stock-out. The present study aims to collect stock-out data from a large textile retailer for a product category and elaborate a tree of stock-out causes. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this research, through software and interviews, in order to generate and refine our results. From this approach, it was possible to identify that 38% of the causes of stock-outs are within the store, that is, the product is not available in the sales area, but in the back end.

  18. Design and implementation of relational databases relevant to the diverse needs of a tuberculosis case contact study in the Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, D J; Donkor, S; Brookes, R H; Fox, A; Hill, P C

    2004-09-01

    The data requirements of a large multidisciplinary tuberculosis case contact study are complex. We describe an ACCESS-based relational database system that meets our rigorous requirements for data entry and validation, while being user-friendly, flexible, exportable, and easy to install on a network or stand alone system. This includes the development of a double data entry package for epidemiology and laboratory data, semi-automated entry of ELISPOT data directly from the plate reader, and a suite of new programmes for the manipulation and integration of flow cytometry data. The double entered epidemiology and immunology databases are combined into a separate database, providing a near-real-time analysis of immuno-epidemiological data, allowing important trends to be identified early and major decisions about the study to be made and acted on. This dynamic data management model is portable and can easily be applied to other studies.

  19. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  20. Mechanism of uranium(VI) uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under environmentally relevant conditions: Batch, HRTEM, and FTIR studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xia, E-mail: lux2009@lzu.edu.cn; Zhou, Xiao-jiao; Wang, Tie-shan, E-mail: tswang@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Equilibrium reaches very rapid within 15 min. • pH shift towards neutral indicates release of hydroxyl ions. • High ionic strength inhabits biosorption capacity. • Uptake capacity of heat-killed cells is an order of magnitude higher than live one. • Electrostatic interaction, precipitation, and complexation are the main mechanisms. -- Abstract: Biosorption is of significance for the safety evaluation of high-level nuclear wastes repositories and remediation of radioactive contamination places. Quantitive study and structural characterization of uranium uptake by both live and heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae at environmentally relevant uranium concentration and with different ionic strengths were carried out. Kinetic investigation showed the equilibrium reached within 15 min. In equilibrium studies, pH shift towards neutral indicated release of hydroxyl ions. pH was the most important factor, which partly affected electrostatic interaction between uranyl ions and S. cerevisiae surface. The high ionic strength inhibited biosorption capacity, which can be explained by a competitive reaction between sodium ions and uranyl ions. Heat killing process significantly enhanced biosorption capacity, showing an order of magnitude higher than that of live cells. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) showed needle-like uranium-phosphate precipitation formed on the cell walls for both live and heat-killed cells. Besides, dark-field micrographs displayed considerable similar uranium-phosphate precipitation presented outside the heat-killed cells. The phosphate released during heat-killing process. FTIR illustrated function groups hydroxyl, carboxyl, phosphate, and amino groups played important role in complexation with uranium.

  1. On the Physical Relevance of the Study of gamma* gamma -> pi pi at small t and large Q2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansberg, J.P.; /SLAC; Pire, B.; /Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT; Szymanowski, L.; /Warsaw, Inst. Nucl. Studies

    2010-08-26

    We discuss the relevance of a dedicated measurement of exclusive production of a pair of neutral pions in a hard {gamma}*{gamma} scattering at small momentum transfer. In this case, the virtuality of one photon provides us with a hard scale in the process, enabling us to perform a QCD calculation of this reaction rate using the concept of Transition Distribution Amplitudes (TDA). Those are related by sum rules to the pion axial form factor F{sub A}{sup {pi}} and, as a direct consequence, a cross-section measurement of this process at intense beam electron-positron colliders such as CLEO, KEK-B and PEP-II, or Super-B would provide us with a unique measurement of the neutral pion axial form factor F{sub A}{sup {pi}0} at small scale. We believe that our models for the photon to meson transition distribution amplitudes are sufficiently constrained to give reasonable orders of magnitude for the estimated cross sections. Cross sections are large enough for quantitative studies to be performed at high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders. After verifying the scaling and the {phi} independence of the cross section, one should be able to measure these new hadronic matrix elements, and thus open a new gate to the understanding of the hadronic structure. In particular, we argued here that the study of {gamma}*{gamma} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} in the TDA regime could provide with a unique experimental measurement of the {pi}{sup 0} axial form factor.

  2. Prospective observational study on assessing the hemodynamic relevance of patent ductus arteriosus with frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Christoph E; Preusche, Antonio; Wolf, Martin; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2018-02-16

    What constitutes a hemodynamically relevant patent ductus arteriosus (hrPDA) in preterm infants is unclear. Different clinical and echocardiographic parameters are used, but a gold standard definition is lacking. Our objective was to evaluate associations between regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rcStO 2 ), fraction of tissue oxygen extraction (rcFtO 2 E) measured by frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (fd-NIRS) and their correlation to echocardiographic, Doppler-ultrasound, and clinical parameters in preterm infants with and without a hrPDA. In this prospective observational study, 22 infants standard deviation (normalised to a median Hb of 13.8 mg/dl) was 57 ±5% for rcStO 2 and 0.39 ±0.05 for rcFtO 2 E. Comparing no-hrPDA with hrPDA infants, there were no significant differences in mean rcStO 2 (58 ±5% vs. 54 ±5%; p = .102), but in mean rcFtO 2 E (0.38 ±0.05 vs. 0.43 ±0.05; p = .038). Echocardiographic parameter and Doppler indices did not correlate with cerebral oxygenation. Oxygen transport capacity of the blood may confound NIRS data interpretation. Cerebral oxygenation determined by fd-NIRS provided additional information for PDA treatment decisions not offered by routine investigations. Whether indicating PDA therapy based on echocardiography complemented by data on cerebral oxygenation results in better outcomes should be investigated in future studies.

  3. Identifying Barriers and Facilitators at Affect Community Pharmacists' Ability to Engage Children in Medication Counseling: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dayna S.; Schleiden, Loren J.; Carpenter, Delesha M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to describe the barriers and facilitators that influence community pharmacists' ability to provide medication counseling to pediatric patients. METHODS Semistructured interviews (n = 16) were conducted with pharmacy staff at 3 community pharmacies in 2 Eastern states. The interview guide elicited pharmacy staff experiences interacting with children and their perceived barriers and facilitators to providing medication counseling. Transcripts were reviewed for accuracy and a codebook was developed for data analysis. NVivo 10 was used for content analysis and identifying relevant themes. RESULTS Ten pharmacists and 6 pharmacy technicians were interviewed. Most participants were female (69%), aged 30 to 49 years (56%), with ≥5 years of pharmacy practice experience. Eight themes emerged as barriers to pharmacists' engaging children in medication counseling, the most prevalent being the child's absence during medication pickup, the child appearing to be distracted or uninterested, and having an unconducive pharmacy environment. Pharmacy staff noted 7 common facilitators to engaging children, most importantly, availability of demonstrative and interactive devices/technology, pharmacist demeanor and communication approach, and having child-friendly educational materials. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that pharmacy personnel are rarely able to engage children in medication counseling because of the patient's absence during medication pickup; however, having child-friendly materials could facilitate interactions when the child is present. These findings can inform programs and interventions aimed at addressing the barriers pharmacists encounter while educating children about safe and appropriate use of medicines. PMID:29290741

  4. Iterative Outlier Removal: A Method for Identifying Outliers in Laboratory Recalibration Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Grams, Morgan E; Sang, Yingying; Couper, David; Wruck, Lisa M; Li, Danni; Eckfeldt, John H; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2016-07-01

    Extreme values that arise for any reason, including those through nonlaboratory measurement procedure-related processes (inadequate mixing, evaporation, mislabeling), lead to outliers and inflate errors in recalibration studies. We present an approach termed iterative outlier removal (IOR) for identifying such outliers. We previously identified substantial laboratory drift in uric acid measurements in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study over time. Serum uric acid was originally measured in 1990-1992 on a Coulter DACOS instrument using an uricase-based measurement procedure. To recalibrate previous measured concentrations to a newer enzymatic colorimetric measurement procedure, uric acid was remeasured in 200 participants from stored plasma in 2011-2013 on a Beckman Olympus 480 autoanalyzer. To conduct IOR, we excluded data points >3 SDs from the mean difference. We continued this process using the resulting data until no outliers remained. IOR detected more outliers and yielded greater precision in simulation. The original mean difference (SD) in uric acid was 1.25 (0.62) mg/dL. After 4 iterations, 9 outliers were excluded, and the mean difference (SD) was 1.23 (0.45) mg/dL. Conducting only one round of outlier removal (standard approach) would have excluded 4 outliers [mean difference (SD) = 1.22 (0.51) mg/dL]. Applying the recalibration (derived from Deming regression) from each approach to the original measurements, the prevalence of hyperuricemia (>7 mg/dL) was 28.5% before IOR and 8.5% after IOR. IOR is a useful method for removal of extreme outliers irrelevant to recalibrating laboratory measurements, and identifies more extraneous outliers than the standard approach. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  5. Identifying fallacious arguments in a qualitative study of antipsychotic prescribing in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donyai, Parastou

    2017-10-01

    Dementia can result in cognitive, noncognitive and behavioural symptoms which are difficult to manage. Formal guidelines for the care and management of dementia in the UK state that antipsychotics should only be prescribed where fully justified. This is because inappropriate use, particularly problematic in care-home settings, can produce severe side effects including death. The aim of this study was to explore the use of fallacious arguments in professionals' deliberations about antipsychotic prescribing in dementia in care-home settings. Fallacious arguments have the potential to become unremarkable discourses that construct and validate practices which are counter to guidelines. This qualitative study involved interviews with 28 care-home managers and health professionals involved in caring for patients with dementia. Potentially fallacious arguments were identified using qualitative content analysis and a coding framework constructed from existing explanatory models of fallacious reasoning. Fallacious arguments were identified in a range of explanations and reasons that participants gave for in answer to questions about initiating, reducing doses of and stopping antipsychotics in dementia. The dominant fallacy was false dichotomy. Appeal to popularity, tradition, consequence, emotion, or fear, and the slippery slope argument was also identified. Fallacious arguments were often formulated to present convincing cases whereby prescribing antipsychotics or maintaining existing doses (versus not starting medication or reducing the dose, for example) appeared as the only acceptable decision but this is not always the case. The findings could help health professionals to recognise and mitigate the effect of logic-based errors in decisions about the prescribing of antipsychotics in dementia. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. A Delphi study to identify the core components of nurse to nurse handoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Jennifer; Abraham, Joanna; Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Matson, Jeff; Lopez, Karen Dunn

    2018-03-08

    The aim of this study was to identify the core components of nurse-nurse handoffs. Patient handoffs involve a process of passing information, responsibility and control from one caregiver to the next during care transitions. Around the globe, ineffective handoffs have serious consequences resulting in wrong treatments, delays in diagnosis, longer stays, medication errors, patient falls and patient deaths. To date, the core components of nurse-nurse handoff have not been identified. This lack of identification is a significant gap in moving towards a standardized approach for nurse-nurse handoff. Mixed methods design using the Delphi technique. From May 2016 - October 2016, using a series of iterative steps, a panel of handoff experts gave feedback on the nurse-nurse handoff core components and the content in each component to be passed from one nurse to the next during a typical unit-based shift handoff. Consensus was defined as 80% agreement or higher. After three rounds of participant review, 17 handoff experts with backgrounds in clinical nursing practice, academia and handoff research came to consensus on the core components of handoff: patient summary, action plan and nurse-nurse synthesis. This is the first study to identify the core components of nurse-nurse handoff. Subsequent testing of the core components will involve evaluating the handoff approach in a simulated and then actual patient care environment. Our long-term goal is to improve patient safety outcomes by validating an evidence-based handoff framework and handoff curriculum for pre-licensure nursing programmes that strengthen the quality of their handoff communication as they enter clinical practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Genome-wide association study identified CNP12587 region underlying height variation in Chinese females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Human height is a highly heritable trait considered as an important factor for health. There has been limited success in identifying the genetic factors underlying height variation. We aim to identify sequence variants associated with adult height by a genome-wide association study of copy number variants (CNVs in Chinese.Genome-wide CNV association analyses were conducted in 1,625 unrelated Chinese adults and sex specific subgroup for height variation, respectively. Height was measured with a stadiometer. Affymetrix SNP6.0 genotyping platform was used to identify copy number polymorphisms (CNPs. We constructed a genomic map containing 1,009 CNPs in Chinese individuals and performed a genome-wide association study of CNPs with height.We detected 10 significant association signals for height (p<0.05 in the whole population, 9 and 11 association signals for Chinese female and male population, respectively. A copy number polymorphism (CNP12587, chr18:54081842-54086942, p = 2.41 × 10(-4 was found to be significantly associated with height variation in Chinese females even after strict Bonferroni correction (p = 0.048. Confirmatory real time PCR experiments lent further support for CNV validation. Compared to female subjects with two copies of the CNP, carriers of three copies had an average of 8.1% decrease in height. An important candidate gene, ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like (NEDD4L, was detected at this region, which plays important roles in bone metabolism by binding to bone formation regulators.Our findings suggest the important genetic variants underlying height variation in Chinese.

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies variants associated with autoimmune hepatitis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Ynto S; van Gerven, Nicole M F; Zwiers, Antonie; Verwer, Bart J; van Hoek, Bart; van Erpecum, Karel J; Beuers, Ulrich; van Buuren, Henk R; Drenth, Joost P H; den Ouden, Jannie W; Verdonk, Robert C; Koek, Ger H; Brouwer, Johannes T; Guichelaar, Maureen M J; Vrolijk, Jan M; Kraal, Georg; Mulder, Chris J J; van Nieuwkerk, Carin M J; Fischer, Janett; Berg, Thomas; Stickel, Felix; Sarrazin, Christoph; Schramm, Christoph; Lohse, Ansgar W; Weiler-Normann, Christina; Lerch, Markus M; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Homuth, Georg; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Verspaget, Hein W; Kumar, Vinod; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Wijmenga, Cisca; Franke, Lude; Bouma, Gerd

    2014-08-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an uncommon autoimmune liver disease of unknown etiology. We used a genome-wide approach to identify genetic variants that predispose individuals to AIH. We performed a genome-wide association study of 649 adults in The Netherlands with AIH type 1 and 13,436 controls. Initial associations were further analyzed in an independent replication panel comprising 451 patients with AIH type 1 in Germany and 4103 controls. We also performed an association analysis in the discovery cohort using imputed genotypes of the major histocompatibility complex region. We associated AIH with a variant in the major histocompatibility complex region at rs2187668 (P = 1.5 × 10(-78)). Analysis of this variant in the discovery cohort identified HLA-DRB1*0301 (P = 5.3 × 10(-49)) as a primary susceptibility genotype and HLA-DRB1*0401 (P = 2.8 × 10(-18)) as a secondary susceptibility genotype. We also associated AIH with variants of SH2B3 (rs3184504, 12q24; P = 7.7 × 10(-8)) and CARD10 (rs6000782, 22q13.1; P = 3.0 × 10(-6)). In addition, strong inflation of association signal was found with single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with other immune-mediated diseases, including primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, but not with single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with other genetic traits. In a genome-wide association study, we associated AIH type 1 with variants in the major histocompatibility complex region, and identified variants of SH2B3and CARD10 as likely risk factors. These findings support a complex genetic basis for AIH pathogenesis and indicate that part of the genetic susceptibility overlaps with that for other immune-mediated liver diseases. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-wide association study identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Douglas F.; Pooley, Karen A.; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Thompson, Deborah; Ballinger, Dennis G.; Struewing, Jeffery P.; Morrison, Jonathan; Field, Helen; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S.; Bowman, Richard; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Kolonel, Laurence K.; Henderson, Brian E.; Marchand, Loic Le; Brennan, Paul; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Odefrey, Fabrice; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wu, Pei-Ei; Wang, Hui-Chun; Eccles, Diana; Evans, D. Gareth; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Seal, Sheila; Stratton, Michael R.; Rahman, Nazneen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Axelsson, Christen K.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Eerola, Hannaleena; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Hunter, David J.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Cox, David G.; Hall, Per; Wedren, Sara; Liu, Jianjun; Low, Yen-Ling; Bogdanova, Natalia; Schürmann, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Devilee, Peter; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Zhang, Jinghui; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; MacPherson, Gordon; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Couch, Fergus J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Olson, Janet E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; van den Ouweland, Ans; Uitterlinden, André; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Milne, Roger L.; Ribas, Gloria; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Hopper, John L.; McCredie, Margaret; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G.; Schroen, Chris; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana; Day, Nicholas E.; Cox, David R.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Don; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah; Jordan, Clare; Perkins, Barbara; West, Judy; Redman, Karen; Driver, Kristy; Aghmesheh, Morteza; Amor, David; Andrews, Lesley; Antill, Yoland; Armes, Jane; Armitage, Shane; Arnold, Leanne; Balleine, Rosemary; Begley, Glenn; Beilby, John; Bennett, Ian; Bennett, Barbara; Berry, Geoffrey; Blackburn, Anneke; Brennan, Meagan; Brown, Melissa; Buckley, Michael; Burke, Jo; Butow, Phyllis; Byron, Keith; Callen, David; Campbell, Ian; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Clarke, Christine; Colley, Alison; Cotton, Dick; Cui, Jisheng; Culling, Bronwyn; Cummings, Margaret; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Dixon, Joanne; Dobrovic, Alexander; Dudding, Tracy; Edkins, Ted; Eisenbruch, Maurice; Farshid, Gelareh; Fawcett, Susan; Field, Michael; Firgaira, Frank; Fleming, Jean; Forbes, John; Friedlander, Michael; Gaff, Clara; Gardner, Mac; Gattas, Mike; George, Peter; Giles, Graham; Gill, Grantley; Goldblatt, Jack; Greening, Sian; Grist, Scott; Haan, Eric; Harris, Marion; Hart, Stewart; Hayward, Nick; Hopper, John; Humphrey, Evelyn; Jenkins, Mark; Jones, Alison; Kefford, Rick; Kirk, Judy; Kollias, James; Kovalenko, Sergey; Lakhani, Sunil; Leary, Jennifer; Lim, Jacqueline; Lindeman, Geoff; Lipton, Lara; Lobb, Liz; Maclurcan, Mariette; Mann, Graham; Marsh, Deborah; McCredie, Margaret; McKay, Michael; McLachlan, Sue Anne; Meiser, Bettina; Milne, Roger; Mitchell, Gillian; Newman, Beth; O'Loughlin, Imelda; Osborne, Richard; Peters, Lester; Phillips, Kelly; Price, Melanie; Reeve, Jeanne; Reeve, Tony; Richards, Robert; Rinehart, Gina; Robinson, Bridget; Rudzki, Barney; Salisbury, Elizabeth; Sambrook, Joe; Saunders, Christobel; Scott, Clare; Scott, Elizabeth; Scott, Rodney; Seshadri, Ram; Shelling, Andrew; Southey, Melissa; Spurdle, Amanda; Suthers, Graeme; Taylor, Donna; Tennant, Christopher; Thorne, Heather; Townshend, Sharron; Tucker, Kathy; Tyler, Janet; Venter, Deon; Visvader, Jane; Walpole, Ian; Ward, Robin; Waring, Paul; Warner, Bev; Warren, Graham; Watson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rachael; Wilson, Judy; Winship, Ingrid; Young, Mary Ann; Bowtell, David; Green, Adele; deFazio, Anna; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Gertig, Dorota; Webb, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer exhibits familial aggregation, consistent with variation in genetic susceptibility to the disease. Known susceptibility genes account for less than 25% of the familial risk of breast cancer, and the residual genetic variance is likely to be due to variants conferring more moderate risks. To identify further susceptibility alleles, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study in 4,398 breast cancer cases and 4,316 controls, followed by a third stage in which 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for confirmation in 21,860 cases and 22,578 controls from 22 studies. We used 227,876 SNPs that were estimated to correlate with 77% of known common SNPs in Europeans at r2>0.5. SNPs in five novel independent loci exhibited strong and consistent evidence of association with breast cancer (P<10−7). Four of these contain plausible causative genes (FGFR2, TNRC9, MAP3K1 and LSP1). At the second stage, 1,792 SNPs were significant at the P<0.05 level compared with an estimated 1,343 that would be expected by chance, indicating that many additional common susceptibility alleles may be identifiable by this approach. PMID:17529967

  10. Relevant patient perceptions and experiences for evaluating quality of interaction with physiotherapists during outpatient rehabilitation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Baño-Aledo, M Elena; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Escolar-Reina, Pilar; Montilla-Herrador, Joaquina; Collins, Sean M

    2014-03-01

    To identify elements of the physiotherapist-patient interaction considered by patients when they evaluate the quality of care in outpatient rehabilitation settings. A qualitative study with nine focus groups, Two researchers conducted the focus groups, and a topic guide with predetermined questions was used. Each group discussion was audiotaped,, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically according to a modified grounded theory approach. Three postacute ambulatory centers in Barcelona, Madrid and Seville (Spain). Fifty-seven adults undergoing outpatient rehabilitation for musculoskeletal conditions/injuries. Patients based their evaluations of quality of care on their assessment of physiotherapists' willingness to provide information and education, technical expertise and interpersonal manners (eg. respect, emotional support and sensitivity changes in the patient's status). Both positive and negative aspects of the physiotherapist-patient interaction emerged under all these themes, except for friendly and respectful communication. This study identified which elements of the physiotherapist-patient interaction are considered by patients when evaluating the quality of care in rehabilitation outpatient settings. Further research should work to develop self-report questionnaires about patients' experiences of the physiotherapist-patient interaction in rehabilitation services to provide empirical and quantitative evidence. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring Japanese nurses' perceptions of the relevance and use of assertive communication in healthcare: A qualitative study informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mieko; Stone, Teresa E; Maguire, Jane; Levett-Jones, Tracy

    2018-08-01

    The hierarchical nature of healthcare environments presents a key risk factor for effective interprofessional communication. Power differentials evident in traditional healthcare cultures can make it difficult for healthcare professionals to raise concerns and be assertive when they have concerns about patient safety. This issue is of particular concern in Japan where inherent cultural and social norms discourage assertive communication. The aim of this study was to (a) explore nurses' perceptions of the relevance and use of assertive communication in Japanese healthcare environments; and (b) identify the factors that facilitate or impede assertive communication by Japanese nurses. A belief elicitation qualitative study informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour was conducted and reported according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research. Twenty-three practicing Japanese registered nurses were recruited by snowball sampling from October 2016 to January 2017. Individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed in Japanese and then translated into English. Two researchers independently conducted a directed content analysis informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Participants' responses were labelled in order of frequency for behavioural beliefs about the consequences of assertive communication, sources of social pressure, and factors that facilitate or impede assertive communication in Japanese healthcare environments. Although person-centred care and patient advocacy were core values for many of the participants, strict hierarchies, age-based seniority, and concerns about offending a colleague or causing team disharmony impeded their use of assertive communication. Novice nurses were particularly reluctant to speak up because of their perception of having limited knowledge and experience. This study identified Japanese nurses' behavioural, normative, and control beliefs in relation to assertive

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies three novel genetic markers associated with elite endurance performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmetov, Ii; Kulemin, Na; Popov, Dv

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), aerobic performance and elite endurance athlete status in Russians. By using GWAS approach, we examined the association between 1,140,419 SNPs and relative maximal oxygen consumption rate ([Formula: see text]O2......max) in 80 international-level Russian endurance athletes (46 males and 34 females). To validate obtained results, we further performed case-control studies by comparing the frequencies of the most significant SNPs (with P endurance athletes and opposite cohorts (192...... Russian controls, 1367 European controls, and 230 Russian power athletes). Initially, six 'endurance alleles' were identified showing discrete associations with [Formula: see text]O2max both in males and females. Next, case-control studies resulted in remaining three SNPs (NFIA-AS2 rs1572312, TSHR rs...

  13. A study of correlations between identified charged hadrons in hadronic Z0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abe, K.; Abe, T.

    1998-06-01

    The authors present a preliminary study of correlations in rapidity between pairs of identified pions, kaons and protons in hadronic Z 0 decays into light flavors. Short range charge correlations are observed between all combinations of these hadron species, confirming that charge, strangeness and baryon number are conserved locally in the jet fragmentation process. The range of this effect is found to be independent of momentum. A strong long-range correlation is observed for high-momentum charged kaon pairs, and weaker long-range π + -π - , π + -K - and p-K - correlations are observed. The SLC electron beam polarization is used to tag the quark hemisphere in each event, allowing the first study of rapidities signed such that positive rapidity is along the quark rather than antiquark direction. Distributions of signed rapidities and of ordered differences between signed rapidities provide new insights into leading particle production and several new tests of fragmentation models

  14. An exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.

  15. Identifying Students Struggling in Courses by Analyzing Exam Grades, Self-reported Measures and Study Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Bemman, Brian; Knoche, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    . In this paper, we present a set of instrument`s designed to identify at-risk undergraduate students in a Problem-based Learning (PBL) university, using an introductory programming course between two campus locations as a case study. Collectively, these instruments form the basis of a proposed learning ecosystem...... in the prediction model. Results of a multiple linear regression model found several significant assessment predictors related to how often students attempted self-guided course assignments and their self-reported programming experience, among others.......Technical educations often experience poor student performance and consequently high rates of attrition. Providing students with early feedback on their learning progress can assist students in self-study activities or in their decision-making process regarding a change in educational direction...

  16. Methodological Aspects and Relevance of the Study of Vegetable Oil, Fat and Lipoprotein Oxidation Using Pancreatic Lipase and Arylesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Nus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils as major dietary components are involved in the development of chronic diseases. In this paper the physiological relevance and some methodological aspects related to the determination of two enzymes enrolled in metabolism of fat – pancreatic lipase and arylesterase – are discussed. Pancreatic lipase has been extensively used to study the triacylglycerol fatty acid composition and the in vitro digestion of oils and fats. The action of this enzyme may be coupled to analytical methods as GC, HPLC, HPSEC, TLC- -FID, etc. as a useful tool for understanding the composition and digestion of thermal oxidized oils. Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis occurs in the water/oil interface, and it presents a behaviour that seems to be Michaelian, in which the apparent Km and the apparent Vmax of the enzymatic process depend more on the type of oil tested than on the degree of alteration. The kinetic behaviour of pancreatic lipase towards thermally oxidized oils also depends on the presence of natural tensioactive compounds present in the oil and surfactants formed during the frying. Arylesterase is an HDL binding enzyme that inhibits LDL oxidation. Low serum concentration of this enzyme has been related to increased cardiovascular disease risk. In this paper the most widely used methods for the determination of arylesterase activity are commented on. The importance of intrinsic factors (e.g. substrates, cofactors participating in the enzyme reaction is also discussed. Moreover, several suggestions about further researches on the influence of extrinsic factors (e.g. diet, oxidative stress upon the enzyme activity are proposed.

  17. Clinical Relevance of Alternative Endpoints in Colorectal Cancer First-Line Therapy With Bevacizumab: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Anthony; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Ploquin, Anne; Hollebecque, Antoine; Peugniez, Charlotte; El-Hajbi, Farid; Bonnetain, Franck; Hebbar, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    We studied the relationship between intermediate criteria and overall survival (OS) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who received first-line chemotherapy with bevacizumab. We assessed OS, progression-free survival (PFS), duration of disease control (DDC), the sum of the periods in which the disease did not progress, and the time to failure of strategy (TFS), which was defined as the entire period before the introduction of a second-line treatment. Linear correlation and regression models were used, and Prentice criteria were investigated. With a median follow-up of 57.6 months for 216 patients, the median OS was 24.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.3-29.7). The median PFS, DDC, and TFS were 8.9 (95% CI, 8.4-9.7), 11.0 (95% CI, 9.8-12.4), and 11.1 (95% CI, 10.0-13.0) months, respectively. The correlations between OS and DDC (Pearson coefficient, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.73-0.83], determination coefficient, 0.62) and OS and TFS (Pearson coefficient, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.73-0.84], determination coefficient, 0.63) were satisfactory. Linear regression analysis showed a significant association between OS and DDC, and between OS and TFS. Prentice criteria were verified for TFS as well as DDC. DDC and TFS correlated with OS and are relevant as intermediate criteria in the setting of patients with mCRC treated with a first-line bevacizumab-based regimen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Study protocol: identifying and delivering point-of-care information to improve care coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Che, Xinxuan; Weaver, Sallie J; Petersen, Laura A

    2015-10-19

    The need for deliberately coordinated care is noted by many national-level organizations. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) recently transitioned primary care clinics nationwide into Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACTs) to provide more accessible, coordinated, comprehensive, and patient-centered care. To better serve this purpose, PACTs must be able to successfully sequence and route interdependent tasks to appropriate team members while also maintaining collective situational awareness (coordination). Although conceptual frameworks of care coordination exist, few explicitly articulate core behavioral markers of coordination or the related information needs of team members attempting to synchronize complex care processes across time for a shared patient population. Given this gap, we partnered with a group of frontline primary care personnel at ambulatory care sites to identify the specific information needs of PACT members that will enable them to coordinate their efforts to provide effective, coordinated care. The study has three objectives: (1) development of measurable, prioritized point-of-care criteria for effective PACT coordination; (2) identifying the specific information needed at the point of care to optimize coordination; and (3) assessing the effect of adopting the aforementioned coordination standards on PACT clinicians' coordination behaviors. The study consists of three phases. In phase 1, we will employ the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES), a structured approach to performance measure creation from industrial/organizational psychology, to develop coordination measures with a design team of 6-10 primary care personnel; in phase 2, we will conduct focus groups with the phase 1 design team to identify point-of-care information needs. Phase 3 is a two-arm field experiment (n PACT = 28/arm); intervention arm PACTs will receive monthly feedback reports using the measures developed in phase 1 and attend brief monthly

  19. Determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The DOC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Sarah J; Dyson, Lisa; Clark, Laura; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J; Cooper, Brendan G; Kearney, Matt; Laughey, William; Raghunath, Raghu; Steele, Lisa; Rhodes, Rebecca; Adamson, Joy

    2018-06-01

    Early identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in patients receiving appropriate management for their condition at an earlier stage in their disease. The determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) study was a case-finding study to enhance early identification of COPD in primary care, which evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a series of simple lung function tests and symptom-based case-finding questionnaires. Current smokers aged 35 or more were invited to undertake a series of case-finding tools, which comprised lung function tests (specifically, spirometry, microspirometry, peak flow meter, and WheezoMeter) and several case-finding questionnaires. The effectiveness of these tests, individually or in combination, to identify small airways obstruction was evaluated against the gold standard of spirometry, with the quality of spirometry tests assessed by independent overreaders. The study was conducted with general practices in the Yorkshire and Humberside area, in the UK. Six hundred eighty-one individuals met the inclusion criteria, with 444 participants completing their study appointments. A total of 216 (49%) with good-quality spirometry readings were included in the analysis. The most effective case-finding tools were found to be the peak flow meter alone, the peak flow meter plus WheezoMeter, and microspirometry alone. In addition to the main analysis, where the severity of airflow obstruction was based on fixed ratios and percent of predicted values, sensitivity analyses were conducted by using lower limit of normal values. This research informs the choice of test for COPD identification; case-finding by use of the peak flow meter or microspirometer could be used routinely in primary care for suspected COPD patients. Only those testing positive to these tests would move on to full spirometry, thereby reducing unnecessary spirometric testing. © 2018 John Wiley

  20. A qualitative case study to identify possible barriers that limit effective elementary science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Donald Carey

    The purpose of this case study was to identify barriers that limit the effectiveness of elementary teachers in the teaching of science. It is of the utmost urgency that barriers be first identified, so that possible solutions can be explored to bring about the improvement of elementary science education. This urgency has been imposed by the scheduled national testing of students in science by 2007, as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Using qualitative case study methods, the researcher conducted interviews with 8 elementary teachers from two schools within one school district who taught 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade. These interviews were designed to gain insight into barriers these elementary teachers perceived as factors limiting their effectiveness in teaching science and preparing students for high-stakes testing. Barriers in the areas of teacher background, typical teaching day, curriculum, inservices, and legislative influences were explored. This study concluded that the barriers explored do have a substantial negative affect on the teaching and learning of science in the elementary grades. Specifically, the barriers revealed in this study include the limited science background of elementary teachers, inadequate class time devoted to science, non-comprehensive curriculum, ineffective or lack of inservice training, and pressures from legislated mandates. But it is also clear that these barriers are so intertwined that one cannot remove these barriers one at a time. It will take a collective effort from all involved, including legislators, administrators, teachers, parents, and students, to alleviate these barriers and discover effective solutions to improve elementary science education.

  1. Cross-study analysis of gene expression data for intermediate neuroblastoma identifies two biological subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnat, Patrick; Oberthuer, André; Fischer, Matthias; Westermann, Frank; Eils, Roland; Brors, Benedikt

    2007-01-01

    Neuroblastoma patients show heterogeneous clinical courses ranging from life-threatening progression to spontaneous regression. Recently, gene expression profiles of neuroblastoma tumours were associated with clinically different phenotypes. However, such data is still rare for important patient subgroups, such as patients with MYCN non-amplified advanced stage disease. Prediction of the individual course of disease and optimal therapy selection in this cohort is challenging. Additional research effort is needed to describe the patterns of gene expression in this cohort and to identify reliable prognostic markers for this subset of patients. We combined gene expression data from two studies in a meta-analysis in order to investigate differences in gene expression of advanced stage (3 or 4) tumours without MYCN amplification that show contrasting outcomes (alive or dead) at five years after initial diagnosis. In addition, a predictive model for outcome was generated. Gene expression profiles from 66 patients were included from two studies using different microarray platforms. In the combined data set, 72 genes were identified as differentially expressed by meta-analysis at a false discovery rate (FDR) of 8.33%. Meta-analysis detected 34 differentially expressed genes that were not found as significant in either single study. Outcome prediction based on data of both studies resulted in a predictive accuracy of 77%. Moreover, the genes that were differentially expressed in subgroups of advanced stage patients without MYCN amplification accurately separated MYCN amplified tumours from low stage tumours without MYCN amplification. Our findings support the hypothesis that neuroblastoma consists of two biologically distinct subgroups that differ by characteristic gene expression patterns, which are associated with divergent clinical outcome

  2. An exploratory study identifying where local government public health decision makers source their evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Melissa; Dodds, James

    2014-08-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Public Health Bill will replace the antiquated Health Act 1911. One of the proposed clauses of the Bill requires all WA local governments to develop a Public Health Plan. The Bill states that Public Health Plans should be based on evidence from all levels, including national and statewide priorities, community needs, local statistical evidence, and stakeholder data. This exploratory study, which targeted 533 WA local government officers, aimed to identify the sources of evidence used to generate the list of public health risks to be included in local government Public Health Plans. The top four sources identified for informing local policy were: observation of the consequences of the risks in the local community (24.5%), statewide evidence (17.6%), local evidence (17.6%) and coverage in local media (16.2%). This study confirms that both hard and soft data are used to inform policy decisions at the local level. Therefore, the challenge that this study has highlighted is in the definition or constitution of evidence. SO WHAT? Evidence is critical to the process of sound policy development. This study highlights issues associated with what actually constitutes evidence in the policy development process at the local government level. With the exception of those who work in an extremely narrow field, it is difficult for local government officers, whose role includes policymaking, to read the vast amount of information that has been published in their area of expertise. For those who are committed to the notion of evidence-based policymaking, as advocated within the WA Public Health Bill, this presents a considerable challenge.

  3. TU-D-207B-05: Intra-Tumor Partitioning and Texture Analysis of DCE-MRI Identifies Relevant Tumor Subregions to Predict Early Pathological Response of Breast Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J; Gong, G; Cui, Y; Li, R [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To predict early pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on quantitative, multi-region analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods: In this institution review board-approved study, 35 patients diagnosed with stage II/III breast cancer were retrospectively investigated using DCE-MR images acquired before and after the first cycle of NAC. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the DCE-MRI data with a high-temporal resolution. We then partitioned the whole tumor into multiple subregions using k-means clustering based on the PCA-defined eigenmaps. Within each tumor subregion, we extracted four quantitative Haralick texture features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The change in texture features in each tumor subregion between pre- and during-NAC was used to predict pathological complete response after NAC. Results: Three tumor subregions were identified through clustering, each with distinct enhancement characteristics. In univariate analysis, all imaging predictors except one extracted from the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out were statistically significant (p< 0.05) after correcting for multiple testing, with area under the ROC curve or AUCs between 0.75 and 0.80. In multivariate analysis, the proposed imaging predictors achieved an AUC of 0.79 (p = 0.002) in leave-one-out cross validation. This improved upon conventional imaging predictors such as tumor volume (AUC=0.53) and texture features based on whole-tumor analysis (AUC=0.65). Conclusion: The heterogeneity of the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out on DCE-MRI predicted early pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  4. TU-D-207B-05: Intra-Tumor Partitioning and Texture Analysis of DCE-MRI Identifies Relevant Tumor Subregions to Predict Early Pathological Response of Breast Cancer to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J; Gong, G; Cui, Y; Li, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To predict early pathological response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) based on quantitative, multi-region analysis of dynamic contrast enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods: In this institution review board-approved study, 35 patients diagnosed with stage II/III breast cancer were retrospectively investigated using DCE-MR images acquired before and after the first cycle of NAC. First, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the DCE-MRI data with a high-temporal resolution. We then partitioned the whole tumor into multiple subregions using k-means clustering based on the PCA-defined eigenmaps. Within each tumor subregion, we extracted four quantitative Haralick texture features based on the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The change in texture features in each tumor subregion between pre- and during-NAC was used to predict pathological complete response after NAC. Results: Three tumor subregions were identified through clustering, each with distinct enhancement characteristics. In univariate analysis, all imaging predictors except one extracted from the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out were statistically significant (p< 0.05) after correcting for multiple testing, with area under the ROC curve or AUCs between 0.75 and 0.80. In multivariate analysis, the proposed imaging predictors achieved an AUC of 0.79 (p = 0.002) in leave-one-out cross validation. This improved upon conventional imaging predictors such as tumor volume (AUC=0.53) and texture features based on whole-tumor analysis (AUC=0.65). Conclusion: The heterogeneity of the tumor subregion associated with fast wash-out on DCE-MRI predicted early pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  5. To Be or Not to Be Associated: Power study of four statistical modeling approaches to identify parasite associations in cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise eVaumourin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies are reporting simultaneous infections by parasites in many different hosts. The detection of whether these parasites are significantly associated is important in medicine and epidemiology. Numerous approaches to detect associations are available, but only a few provide statistical tests. Furthermore, they generally test for an overall detection of association and do not identify which parasite is associated with which other one. Here, we developed a new approach, the association screening approach, to detect the overall and the detail of multi-parasite associations. We studied the power of this new approach and of three other known ones (i.e. the generalized chi-square, the network and the multinomial GLM approaches to identify parasite associations either due to parasite interactions or to confounding factors. We applied these four approaches to detect associations within two populations of multi-infected hosts: 1 rodents infected with Bartonella sp., Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 2 bovine population infected with Theileria sp. and Babesia sp.. We found that the best power is obtained with the screening model and the generalized chi-square test. The differentiation between associations, which are due to confounding factors and parasite interactions was not possible. The screening approach significantly identified associations between Bartonella doshiae and B. microti, and between T. parva, T. mutans and T. velifera. Thus, the screening approach was relevant to test the overall presence of parasite associations and identify the parasite combinations that are significantly over- or under-represented. Unravelling whether the associations are due to real biological interactions or confounding factors should be further investigated. Nevertheless, in the age of genomics and the advent of new technologies, it is a considerable asset to speed up researches focusing on the mechanisms driving interactions

  6. Patient and carer identified factors which contribute to safety incidents in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea L; Giles, Sally J; Fuller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Julie K; Walker, Christine; Dunbar, James A

    2015-09-01

    Patients can have an important role in reducing harm in primary-care settings. Learning from patient experience and feedback could improve patient safety. Evidence that captures patients' views of the various contributory factors to creating safe primary care is largely absent. The aim of this study was to address this evidence gap. Four focus groups and eight semistructured interviews were conducted with 34 patients and carers from south-east Australia. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of primary care. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and specific factors that contribute to safety incidents were identified in the analysis using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework (YCFF). Other factors emerging from the data were also ascertained and added to the analytical framework. Thirteen factors that contribute to safety incidents in primary care were ascertained. Five unique factors for the primary-care setting were discovered in conjunction with eight factors present in the YCFF from hospital settings. The five unique primary care contributing factors to safety incidents represented a range of levels within the primary-care system from local working conditions to the upstream organisational level and the external policy context. The 13 factors included communication, access, patient factors, external policy context, dignity and respect, primary-secondary interface, continuity of care, task performance, task characteristics, time in the consultation, safety culture, team factors and the physical environment. Patient and carer feedback of this type could help primary-care professionals better understand and identify potential safety concerns and make appropriate service improvements. The comprehensive range of factors identified provides the groundwork for developing tools that systematically capture the multiple contributory factors to patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  7. Clinical relevance of specific cognitive complaints in determining Mild Cognitive Impairment from Cognitively Normal States in a study of Healthy Elderly Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Avila Villanueva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective memory complaints in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ.Material and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI. The Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints. All participants also underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological battery. Combined exploratory factor analysis and item response theory were performed to identify the underlying structure of the EMQ. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses were conducted to study whether single cognitive complaints were able to predict MCI.Results: A suitable five-factor solution was found. Each factor focused on a different cognitive domain. Interestingly, just three of them, namely forgetfulness of immediate information, executive functions and prospective memory proved to be effective in distinguishing between cognitively healthy individuals and MCI. Based on these results we propose a shortened EMQ version comprising 10 items (EMQ-10.Discussion: Not all cognitive complaints have the same clinical relevance. Only subjective complaints on specific cognitive domains are able to discriminate MCI. We encourage clinicians to the EMQ-10 as a useful tool to quantify and monitor the progression of individuals who report cognitive complaints.

  8. Improving the relevance and impact of decision support research: A co-production framework and water management case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Dilling, L.; Basdekas, L.; Kaatz, L.

    2016-12-01

    In light of the unpredictable effects of climate change and population shifts, responsible resource management will require new types of information and strategies going forward. For water utilities, this means that water supply infrastructure systems must be expanded and/or managed for changes in overall supply and increased extremes. Utilities have begun seeking innovative tools and methods to support planning and decision making, but there are limited channels through which they can gain exposure to emerging tools from the research world, and for researchers to uptake important real-world planning and decision context. A transdisciplinary team of engineers, social and climate scientists, and water managers designed this study to develop and apply a co-production framework which explores the potential of an emerging decision support tool to enhance flexibility and adaptability in water utility planning. It also demonstrates how to improve the link between research and practice in the water sector. In this study we apply the co-production framework to the use of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs). MOEAs have shown promise in being able to generate and evaluate new planning alternatives but they have had little testing or application in water utilities. Anchored by two workshops, this study (1) elicited input from water managers from six water suppliers on the Front Range of Colorado, USA, to create a testbed MOEA application, and (2) evaluated the managers' responses to multiobjective optimization results. The testbed consists of a Front Range-relevant hypothetical water supply model, the Borg MOEA, hydrology and demand scenarios, and a set of planning decisions and performance objectives that drive the link between the algorithm and the model. In this presentation we describe researcher-manager interactions at the initial workshop that served to establish relationships and provide in-depth information to researchers about regional water management

  9. Effects of Direct-To-Consumer Advertising on Patient Prescription Requests and Physician Prescribing: A Systematic Review of Psychiatry-Relevant Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J; Midoun, Miriam M

    2016-10-01

    To systematically analyze the effects of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient requests for medication and physician prescribing across psychiatry-relevant studies. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Thomson Reuters' ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were searched (1999-2014) using variations of the terms direct-to-consumer advertising and psychiatric. Reference lists and an online repository of DTCA manuscripts were also scrutinized. English-language studies collecting data at the point of service, focusing on or including psychiatric medication, and assessing the effects of DTCA on patient and/or physician behavior were included. Of 989 articles identified, 69 received full-text review. Four studies across 5 manuscripts met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on participants, study design, methodological quality, and results. Methodological quality of individual studies was assessed using adapted criteria from the Effective Public Health Practice Project. Confidence in conclusions across studies was determined using principles from the well-established GRADE system. Due to lack of replication across strong randomized controlled trials (RCTs), no conclusions merited high confidence. With moderate confidence, we concluded that DTCA requests (1) are granted most of the time (1 RCT, 3 observational), (2) prompt higher prescribing volume (1 RCT, 1 observational), (3) promote greater adherence to minimally acceptable treatment guidelines for patients with depression (1 RCT), and (4) stimulate overprescribing among patients with an adjustment disorder (1 RCT). Findings suggest that DTCA requests are typically accommodated, promote higher prescribing volume, and have competing effects on treatment quality. More methodologically strong studies are needed to increase confidence in conclusions. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Does location congruence matter? : a field study on the effects of location based advertising on perceived adintrusiveness, relevance and value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hühn, A.E.; Khan, J.V.; Ketelaar, P.; van t Riet, J.J.; Batalas, N.; König, R.; Rozendaal, E.; Markopoulos, P.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of location-congruent mobile messages on perceived intrusiveness, value, and relevance through a field experiment using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM). We developed a mobile application for undergraduate students, featuring campus news and information concerning class

  11. Identifying strategies to assist final semester nursing students to develop numeracy skills: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, Lucie M; Stewart, Lyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Morris, Maureen M; Armstrong, Lyn; Sanchez, Paula; Flannery, Liz

    2014-03-01

    It remains a grave concern that many nursing students within tertiary institutions continue to experience difficulties with achieving medication calculation competency. In addition, universities have a moral responsibility to prepare proficient clinicians for graduate practice. This requires risk management strategies to reduce adverse medication errors post registration. To identify strategies and potential predictors that may assist nurse academics to tailor their drug calculation teaching and assessment methods. This project builds on previous experience and explores students' perceptions of newly implemented interventions designed to increase confidence and competence in medication calculation. This mixed method study surveyed students (n=405) enrolled in their final semester of study at a large, metropolitan university in Sydney, Australia. Tailored, contextualised interventions included online practice quizzes, simulated medication calculation scenarios developed for clinical practice classes, contextualised 'pen and paper' tests, visually enhanced didactic remediation and 'hands-on' contextualised workshops. Surveys were administered to students to determine their perceptions of interventions and to identify whether these interventions assisted with calculation competence. Test scores were analysed using SPSS v. 20 for correlations between students' perceptions and actual performance. Qualitative open-ended survey questions were analysed manually and thematically. The study reinforced that nursing students preferred a 'hands-on,' contextualised approach to learning that was 'authentic' and aligned with clinical practice. Our interventions assisted with supporting students' learning and improvement of calculation confidence. Qualitative data provided further insight into students' awareness of their calculation errors and preferred learning styles. Some of the strongest predictors for numeracy skill performance included (1) being an international student, (2

  12. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; van der Lijn, Fedde; Schurmann, Claudia; Zhu, Gu; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Hysi, Pirro G.; Wollstein, Andreas; Lao, Oscar; de Bruijne, Marleen; Ikram, M. Arfan; van der Lugt, Aad; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J.; Homuth, Georg; de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Daboul, Amro; Puls, Ralf; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Bevan, Liisa; Pausova, Zdenka; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Wicking, Carol; Boehringer, Stefan; Spector, Timothy D.; Paus, Tomáš; Martin, Nicholas G.; Biffar, Reiner; Kayser, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes—PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1—in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications. PMID:23028347

  13. A genome-wide association study identifies five loci influencing facial morphology in Europeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes--PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1--in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications.

  14. Identifying the most successful dose (MSD) in dose-finding studies in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Sarah; O'Quigley, John

    2006-01-01

    For a dose finding study in cancer, the most successful dose (MSD), among a group of available doses, is that dose at which the overall success rate is the highest. This rate is the product of the rate of seeing non-toxicities together with the rate of tumor response. A successful dose finding trial in this context is one where we manage to identify the MSD in an efficient manner. In practice we may also need to consider algorithms for identifying the MSD which can incorporate certain restrictions, the most common restriction maintaining the estimated toxicity rate alone below some maximum rate. In this case the MSD may correspond to a different level than that for the unconstrained MSD and, in providing a final recommendation, it is important to underline that it is subject to the given constraint. We work with the approach described in O'Quigley et al. [Biometrics 2001; 57(4):1018-1029]. The focus of that work was dose finding in HIV where both information on toxicity and efficacy were almost immediately available. Recent cancer studies are beginning to fall under this same heading where, as before, toxicity can be quickly evaluated and, in addition, we can rely on biological markers or other measures of tumor response. Mindful of the particular context of cancer, our purpose here is to consider the methodology developed by O'Quigley et al. and its practical implementation. We also carry out a study on the doubly under-parameterized model, developed by O'Quigley et al. but not

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for neuroticism and shows polygenic association with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Marleen H.M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppälä, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbara; Giegling, Ina; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heinonen, Kati; Henders, Anjali K.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Karlsson, Robert; Kemp, John P.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Latvala, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Magri, Chiara; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marten, Jonathan; Maschio, Andrea; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nauck, Matthias; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pettersson, Erik; Polasek, Ozren; Qian, Yong; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Pourcain, Beate St; Sutin, Angelina R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trochet, Holly; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Wouda, Jasper; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Scotland, Generation; Porteous, David; Minelli, Alessandra; Palmer, Abraham A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Metspalu, Andres; Kaprio, Jaakko; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Wilson, James F.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Bierut, Laura J.; Hettema, John M.; Grabe, Hans J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Evans, David M.; Schlessinger, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Terracciano, Antonio; McGue, Matt; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Neuroticism is a personality trait that is briefly defined by emotional instability. It is a robust genetic risk factor for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Hence, neuroticism is an important phenotype for psychiatric genetics. The Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) has created a resource for genome-wide association analyses of personality traits in over 63,000 participants (including MDD cases). Objective To identify genetic variants associated with neuroticism by performing a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results based on 1000Genomes imputation, to evaluate if common genetic variants as assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) explain variation in neuroticism by estimating SNP-based heritability, and to examine whether SNPs that predict neuroticism also predict MDD. Setting 30 cohorts with genome-wide genotype, personality and MDD data from the GPC. Participants The study included 63,661 participants from 29 discovery cohorts and 9,786 participants from a replication cohort. Participants came from Europe, the United States or Australia. Main outcome measure(s) Neuroticism scores harmonized across all cohorts by Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis, and clinically assessed MDD case-control status. Results A genome-wide significant SNP was found in the MAGI1 gene (rs35855737; P=9.26 × 10−9 in the discovery meta-analysis, and P=2.38 × 10−8 in the meta-analysis of all 30 cohorts). Common genetic variants explain 15% of the variance in neuroticism. Polygenic scores based on the meta-analysis of neuroticism in 27 of the discovery cohorts significantly predicted neuroticism in 2 independent cohorts. Importantly, polygenic scores also predicted MDD in these cohorts. Conclusions and relevance This study identifies a novel locus for neuroticism. The variant is located in a known gene that has been associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in previous studies. In addition, the study

  16. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Brita; Riley, Carley; Herrin, Jeph; Spatz, Erica S; Arora, Anita; Kell, Kenneth P; Welsh, John; Rula, Elizabeth Y; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2018-01-01

    Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being. We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents. We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black); social and economic (child poverty, education level [divorced); clinical care (% eligible women obtaining mammography, preventable hospital stays per 100,000, number of federally qualified health centers); and physical environment (% commuting by bicycle and by public transit). Twelve factors across social and economic, clinical care, and physical environmental county-level factors explained the majority of variation in resident well-being.

  17. Identifying county characteristics associated with resident well-being: A population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita Roy

    Full Text Available Well-being is a positively-framed, holistic assessment of health and quality of life that is associated with longevity and better health outcomes. We aimed to identify county attributes that are independently associated with a comprehensive, multi-dimensional assessment of individual well-being.We performed a cross-sectional study examining associations between 77 pre-specified county attributes and a multi-dimensional assessment of individual US residents' well-being, captured by the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index. Our cohort included 338,846 survey participants, randomly sampled from 3,118 US counties or county equivalents.We identified twelve county-level factors that were independently associated with individual well-being scores. Together, these twelve factors explained 91% of the variance in individual well-being scores, and they represent four conceptually distinct categories: demographic (% black; social and economic (child poverty, education level [

  18. Identifying elements of patient-centered care in underserved populations: a qualitative study of patient perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Raja

    Full Text Available Patient-centered care is an important goal in the delivery of healthcare. However, many patients do not engage in preventive medical care. In this pilot study, we conducted twenty in depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews at the University of Illinois at Chicago Health Sciences campus in a four month time frame. Many patients were underserved and underinsured, and we wanted to understand their experiences in the healthcare system. Using content analysis, several themes emerged from the interview data. Participants discussed the need for empathy and rapport with their providers. They identified provider behaviors that fostered a positive clinical relationship, including step-by step explanations of procedures, attention to body language and clinic atmosphere, and appropriate time management. Participants identified cost as the most common barrier to engaging in preventive care and discussed children and social support as motivating factors. A long-term relationship with a provider was an important motivator for preventive care, suggesting that the therapeutic alliance was essential to many patients. Conversely, many participants discussed a sense of dehumanization in the healthcare system, reporting that their life circumstances were overlooked, or that they were judged based on insurance status or ethnicity. We discuss implications for provider training and healthcare delivery, including the importance of patient-centered medical homes.

  19. A systematic review of studies identifying predictors of poor return to work outcomes following workplace injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Tamara D; Lacey, Sarah J

    2015-06-05

    Injuries occurring in the workplace can have serious implications for the health of the individual, the productivity of the employer and the overall economic community. The objective of this paper is to increase the current state of understanding of individual demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with extended absenteeism from the workforce due to a workplace injury. Studies included in this systematic literature review tracked participants' return to work status over a minimum of three months, identified either demographic, psychosocial or general injury predictors of poor return to work outcomes and included a heterogeneous sample of workplace injuries. Identified predictors of poor return to work outcomes included older age, female gender, divorced marital status, two or more dependent family members, lower education levels, employment variables associated with reduced labour market desirability, severity or sensitive injury locations, negative attitudes and outcome perceptions of the participant. There is a need for clear and consistent definition and measurement of return to work outcomes and a holistic theoretical model integrating injury, psychosocial and demographic predictors of return to work. Through greater understanding of the nature of factors affecting return to work, improved outcomes