WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify optimal sites

  1. SitesIdentify: a protein functional site prediction tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doig Andrew J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of protein structures being deposited in the Protein Data Bank surpasses the capacity to experimentally characterise them and therefore computational methods to analyse these structures have become increasingly important. Identifying the region of the protein most likely to be involved in function is useful in order to gain information about its potential role. There are many available approaches to predict functional site, but many are not made available via a publicly-accessible application. Results Here we present a functional site prediction tool (SitesIdentify, based on combining sequence conservation information with geometry-based cleft identification, that is freely available via a web-server. We have shown that SitesIdentify compares favourably to other functional site prediction tools in a comparison of seven methods on a non-redundant set of 237 enzymes with annotated active sites. Conclusion SitesIdentify is able to produce comparable accuracy in predicting functional sites to its closest available counterpart, but in addition achieves improved accuracy for proteins with few characterised homologues. SitesIdentify is available via a webserver at http://www.manchester.ac.uk/bioinformatics/sitesidentify/

  2. Identifying suitable sites for Florida panther reintroduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2006-01-01

    A major objective of the 1995 Florida Panther (Puma concolor cory) Recovery Plan is the establishment of 2 additional panther populations within the historic range. Our goal was to identify prospective sites for Florida panther reintroduction within the historic range based on quantitative landscape assessments. First, we delineated 86 panther home ranges using telemetry data collected from 1981 to 2001 in south Florida to develop a Mahalanobis distance (D2) habitat model, using 4 anthropogenic variables and 3 landscape variables mapped at a 500-m resolution. From that analysis, we identified 9 potential reintroduction sites of sufficient size to support a panther population. We then developed a similar D2 model at a higher spatial resolution to quantify the area of favorable panther habitat at each site. To address potential for the population to expand, we calculated the amount of favorable habitat adjacent to each prospective reintroduction site within a range of dispersal distances of female panthers. We then added those totals to the contiguous patches to estimate the total amount of effective panther habitat at each site. Finally, we developed an expert-assisted model to rank and incorporate potentially important habitat variables that were not appropriate for our empirical analysis (e.g., area of public lands, livestock density). Anthropogenic factors heavily influenced both the landscape and the expert-assisted models. Of the 9 areas we identified, the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Ozark National Forest, and Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge regions had the highest combination of effective habitat area and expert opinion scores. Sensitivity analyses indicated that variability among key model parameters did not affect the high ranking of those sites. Those sites should be considered as starting points for the field evaluation of potential reintroduction sites.

  3. A tool for identifying potential Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shy seed production in orchards of Eucalyptus nitens is a major barrier to the deployment of genetic gain in South African plantations. A machine learning method was used to identify optimal sites for the establishment of E. nitens seed orchards within the plantation forestry landscape of the summer rainfall region of South ...

  4. Optimal Procedure for siting of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziuddin, Khairiah Binti; Park, Seo Yeon; Roh, Myung Sub

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses on a simulation approach for sensitivity analysis of the weights of multi-criteria decision models. The simulation procedures can also be used to aid the actual decision process, particularly when the task is to select a subset of superior alternatives. This study is to identify the criteria or parameters which are sensitive to the weighting factor that can affect the results in the decision making process to determine the optimal site for nuclear power plant (NPP) site. To perform this study, we adhere to IAEA NS-R-3 and DS 433. The siting process for nuclear installation consists of site survey and site selection stages. The siting process generally consists of an investigation of a large region to select one or more candidate sites by surveying the sites. After comparing the ROI, two candidate sites are compared for final determination, which are Wolsong and Kori site. Some assumptions are taken into consideration due to limitations and constraints throughout performing this study. Sensitivity analysis of multi criteria decision models is performed in this study to determine the optimal site in the site selection stage. Logical Decisions software will be employed as a tool to perform this analysis. Logical Decisions software helps to formulate the preferences and then rank the alternatives. It provides clarification of the rankings and hence aids the decision makers on evaluating the alternatives, and finally draw a conclusion on the selection of the optimal site

  5. Optimal Procedure for siting of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziuddin, Khairiah Binti; Park, Seo Yeon; Roh, Myung Sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This study discusses on a simulation approach for sensitivity analysis of the weights of multi-criteria decision models. The simulation procedures can also be used to aid the actual decision process, particularly when the task is to select a subset of superior alternatives. This study is to identify the criteria or parameters which are sensitive to the weighting factor that can affect the results in the decision making process to determine the optimal site for nuclear power plant (NPP) site. To perform this study, we adhere to IAEA NS-R-3 and DS 433. The siting process for nuclear installation consists of site survey and site selection stages. The siting process generally consists of an investigation of a large region to select one or more candidate sites by surveying the sites. After comparing the ROI, two candidate sites are compared for final determination, which are Wolsong and Kori site. Some assumptions are taken into consideration due to limitations and constraints throughout performing this study. Sensitivity analysis of multi criteria decision models is performed in this study to determine the optimal site in the site selection stage. Logical Decisions software will be employed as a tool to perform this analysis. Logical Decisions software helps to formulate the preferences and then rank the alternatives. It provides clarification of the rankings and hence aids the decision makers on evaluating the alternatives, and finally draw a conclusion on the selection of the optimal site.

  6. Identifying optimal models to represent biochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Apri

    Full Text Available Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an "optimal" reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model.

  7. Site-optimization of wind turbine generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.J. de; Thillerup, J. [Nordtank Energy Group, Richmond, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Danish Company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2500 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 450 MW. The opening up of new and widely divergent markets has demanded an extremely flexible approach towards wind turbine construction. The Nordtank product range has expanded considerable in recent years, with the main objective to develop wind energy conversion machines that can run profitable in any given case. This paper will describe site optimization of Nordtank wind turbines. Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/750 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Through this flexible design, the 500/750 turbine line can adjust the rotor diameter, tower height and many other components to optimally fit the turbine to each specific project. This design philosophy will be illustrated with some case histories of recently completed projects.

  8. Evolutionary optimization technique for site layout planning

    KAUST Repository

    El Ansary, Ayman M.

    2014-02-01

    Solving the site layout planning problem is a challenging task. It requires an iterative approach to satisfy design requirements (e.g. energy efficiency, skyview, daylight, roads network, visual privacy, and clear access to favorite views). These design requirements vary from one project to another based on location and client preferences. In the Gulf region, the most important socio-cultural factor is the visual privacy in indoor space. Hence, most of the residential houses in this region are surrounded by high fences to provide privacy, which has a direct impact on other requirements (e.g. daylight and direction to a favorite view). This paper introduces a novel technique to optimally locate and orient residential buildings to satisfy a set of design requirements. The developed technique is based on genetic algorithm which explores the search space for possible solutions. This study considers two dimensional site planning problems. However, it can be extended to solve three dimensional cases. A case study is presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this technique in solving the site layout planning of simple residential dwellings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization under uncertainty of site-specific turbine configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quick, J.; Dykes, K.; Graf, P.

    2016-01-01

    is used in an optimization under uncertainty to examine how different risk appetites affect the optimal selection of a turbine configuration for sites of different wind resource profiles. If there is unusually high uncertainty in the site wind resource, the optimal turbine configuration diverges from...

  10. Energy-economical optimization of industrial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, A.; Saliba, S.; Franke, R.

    2015-01-01

    The holistic optimization of an industrial estate networks all electrical components of a location and combines energy trading, energy management and production processes. This allows to minimize the energy consumption from the supply network and to relieve the power grid and to maximize the profitability of the industrial self-generation. By analyzing the potential is detected and the cost of optimization solution is estimated. The generation-side optimization is supported through demand-side optimization (demand response). Through a real-time optimization the of Use of fuels is managed, controlled and optimized. [de

  11. Site suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste management system is a tedious task that is facing both developing and developed countries. Site Suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste disposal can make waste management cheap and can be used for sustainable development. However, if the disposal site(s) is/are not sited and handle ...

  12. Optimization under Uncertainty of Site-Specific Turbine Configurations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian; Dykes, Katherine; Graf, Peter; Zahle, Frederik

    2016-11-01

    Uncertainty affects many aspects of wind energy plant performance and cost. In this study, we explore opportunities for site-specific turbine configuration optimization that accounts for uncertainty in the wind resource. As a demonstration, a simple empirical model for wind plant cost of energy is used in an optimization under uncertainty to examine how different risk appetites affect the optimal selection of a turbine configuration for sites of different wind resource profiles. If there is unusually high uncertainty in the site wind resource, the optimal turbine configuration diverges from the deterministic case and a generally more conservative design is obtained with increasing risk aversion on the part of the designer.

  13. Optimization Under Uncertainty of Site-Specific Turbine Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.; Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Zahle, F.

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty affects many aspects of wind energy plant performance and cost. In this study, we explore opportunities for site-specific turbine configuration optimization that accounts for uncertainty in the wind resource. As a demonstration, a simple empirical model for wind plant cost of energy is used in an optimization under uncertainty to examine how different risk appetites affect the optimal selection of a turbine configuration for sites of different wind resource profiles. If there is unusually high uncertainty in the site wind resource, the optimal turbine configuration diverges from the deterministic case and a generally more conservative design is obtained with increasing risk aversion on the part of the designer.

  14. Site-specific design optimization of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, P.; Bak, C.; Schepers, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    This article reports results from a European project, where site characteristics were incorporated into the design process of wind turbines, to enable site-specific design. Two wind turbines of different concept were investigated at six different sites comprising normal flat terrain, offshore...... and complex terrain wind farms. Design tools based on numerical optimization and aeroelastic calculations were combined with a cost model to allow optimization for minimum cost of energy. Different scenarios were optimized ranging from modifications of selected individual components to the complete design...... of a new wind turbine. Both annual energy yield and design-determining loads depended on site characteristics, and this represented a potential for site-specific design. The maximum variation in annual energy yield was 37% and the maximum variation in blade root fatigue loads was 62%. Optimized site...

  15. Evolutionary optimization technique for site layout planning

    KAUST Repository

    El Ansary, Ayman M.; Shalaby, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    of design requirements. The developed technique is based on genetic algorithm which explores the search space for possible solutions. This study considers two dimensional site planning problems. However, it can be extended to solve three dimensional cases. A

  16. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  17. Optimal siting and sizing of wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinay-Iyicil, H.; Kuipers, F.A.; Guven, A. Nezih

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel technique to determine the optimal placement of wind farms, thereby taking into account wind characteristics and electrical grid constraints. We model the long-term variability of wind speed using a Weibull distribution according to wind direction intervals, and

  18. Optimizing Restriction Site Placement for Synthetic Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Pablo; Memelli, Heraldo; Ward, Charles; Kim, Joondong; Mitchell, Joseph S. B.; Skiena, Steven

    Restriction enzymes are the workhorses of molecular biology. We introduce a new problem that arises in the course of our project to design virus variants to serve as potential vaccines: we wish to modify virus-length genomes to introduce large numbers of unique restriction enzyme recognition sites while preserving wild-type function by substitution of synonymous codons. We show that the resulting problem is NP-Complete, give an exponential-time algorithm, and propose effective heuristics, which we show give excellent results for five sample viral genomes. Our resulting modified genomes have several times more unique restriction sites and reduce the maximum gap between adjacent sites by three to nine-fold.

  19. AIC identifies optimal representation of longitudinal dietary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, John; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Marshall, Teresa; Warren, John; Levy, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) is a well-known tool for variable selection in multivariable modeling as well as a tool to help identify the optimal representation of explanatory variables. However, it has been discussed infrequently in the dental literature. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of AIC in determining the optimal representation of dietary variables in a longitudinal dental study. The Iowa Fluoride Study enrolled children at birth and dental examinations were conducted at ages 5, 9, 13, and 17. Decayed or filled surfaces (DFS) trend clusters were created based on age 13 DFS counts and age 13-17 DFS increments. Dietary intake data (water, milk, 100 percent-juice, and sugar sweetened beverages) were collected semiannually using a food frequency questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to predict DFS cluster membership (n=344). Multiple approaches could be used to represent the dietary data including averaging across all collected surveys or over different shorter time periods to capture age-specific trends or using the individual time points of dietary data. AIC helped identify the optimal representation. Averaging data for all four dietary variables for the whole period from age 9.0 to 17.0 provided a better representation in the multivariable full model (AIC=745.0) compared to other methods assessed in full models (AICs=750.6 for age 9 and 9-13 increment dietary measurements and AIC=762.3 for age 9, 13, and 17 individual measurements). The results illustrate that AIC can help researchers identify the optimal way to summarize information for inclusion in a statistical model. The method presented here can be used by researchers performing statistical modeling in dental research. This method provides an alternative approach for assessing the propriety of variable representation to significance-based procedures, which could potentially lead to improved research in the dental community. © 2017 American

  20. Identifying potential kidney donors using social networking web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alexander; Anderson, Emily E; Turner, Hang T; Shoham, David; Hou, Susan H; Grams, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites like Facebook may be a powerful tool for increasing rates of live kidney donation. They allow for wide dissemination of information and discussion and could lessen anxiety associated with a face-to-face request for donation. However, sparse data exist on the use of social media for this purpose. We searched Facebook, the most popular social networking site, for publicly available English-language pages seeking kidney donors for a specific individual, abstracting information on the potential recipient, characteristics of the page itself, and whether potential donors were tested. In the 91 pages meeting inclusion criteria, the mean age of potential recipients was 37 (range: 2-69); 88% were US residents. Other posted information included the individual's photograph (76%), blood type (64%), cause of kidney disease (43%), and location (71%). Thirty-two percent of pages reported having potential donors tested, and 10% reported receiving a live-donor kidney transplant. Those reporting donor testing shared more potential recipient characteristics, provided more information about transplantation, and had higher page traffic. Facebook is already being used to identify potential kidney donors. Future studies should focus on how to safely, ethically, and effectively use social networking sites to inform potential donors and potentially expand live kidney donation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Catalytic site identification—a web server to identify catalytic site structural matches throughout PDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Daniel A.; Nilmeier, Jerome P.; Lightstone, Felice C.

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic site identification web server provides the innovative capability to find structural matches to a user-specified catalytic site among all Protein Data Bank proteins rapidly (in less than a minute). The server also can examine a user-specified protein structure or model to identify structural matches to a library of catalytic sites. Finally, the server provides a database of pre-calculated matches between all Protein Data Bank proteins and the library of catalytic sites. The database has been used to derive a set of hypothesized novel enzymatic function annotations. In all cases, matches and putative binding sites (protein structure and surfaces) can be visualized interactively online. The website can be accessed at http://catsid.llnl.gov. PMID:23680785

  2. Identifying high dose activities in industrial site radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, B.

    2000-01-01

    Although the radiation doses received by industrial radiographers in the UK have progressively fallen over the last few years, with most now receiving less than 1 mSv/y, a few still receive, relative to the rest, much higher doses. As a percentage of all radiographers the number stays surprisingly constant from year to year. This paper describes a survey to identify the work causing these doses and suggest possible solutions. The UK Central Index of Dose Information was interrogated to identify the industrial radiography companies having staff (not necessarily the same person) with doses of greater than 5mSv/y in the last three years for which information was available. This was 15 in total. The people on the staff receiving these doses were identified and a questionnaire sent to the companies concerned requesting information about their work. A general questionnaire about the operation of the company was also included. With the agreement of the company these questionnaires were followed up by a visit to the company to interviews a number of the management and the radiographers if available. Both groups were generally very open about their problems and every discussion had a positive outcome. Several areas of work/reasons for the doses have been identified. These are: pipeline radiography, ultra sound radiographers working on nuclear reactors, complex plant work often with several teams in the area, inability to retreat from the wind out equipment due to height or access problems, site pressure to not follow the best practices and a lack of appreciation when a dose was being received or, alternatively, carelessness. Some o these problem areas are very difficult to resolve. However ways in which the Health and Safety can help influence the doses have been identified together with practical suggestions radiographers could adopt. These will be reported. (author)

  3. Identifying Key Factors Relevant for Base Camp Siting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    centers. 3.2.6.3 Religious and historical sites Respecting sacred sites helps build rapport with the host nation. 3.2.6.4 Local infrastructure...churches, mosques, national libraries, hospitals, cemeteries, historical ruins, religious sites, cultural areas, and other protected sites...controlled and protected wells. • Electricity: town engineer • Academic: government and religious leaders • Trash: private business (local

  4. Hon-yaku: a biology-driven Bayesian methodology for identifying translation initiation sites in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Hoon Michiel JL

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational prediction methods are currently used to identify genes in prokaryote genomes. However, identification of the correct translation initiation sites remains a difficult task. Accurate translation initiation sites (TISs are important not only for the annotation of unknown proteins but also for the prediction of operons, promoters, and small non-coding RNA genes, as this typically makes use of the intergenic distance. A further problem is that most existing methods are optimized for Escherichia coli data sets; applying these methods to newly sequenced bacterial genomes may not result in an equivalent level of accuracy. Results Based on a biological representation of the translation process, we applied Bayesian statistics to create a score function for predicting translation initiation sites. In contrast to existing programs, our combination of methods uses supervised learning to optimally use the set of known translation initiation sites. We combined the Ribosome Binding Site (RBS sequence, the distance between the translation initiation site and the RBS sequence, the base composition of the start codon, the nucleotide composition (A-rich sequences following start codons, and the expected distribution of the protein length in a Bayesian scoring function. To further increase the prediction accuracy, we also took into account the operon orientation. The outcome of the procedure achieved a prediction accuracy of 93.2% in 858 E. coli genes from the EcoGene data set and 92.7% accuracy in a data set of 1243 Bacillus subtilis 'non-y' genes. We confirmed the performance in the GC-rich Gamma-Proteobacteria Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243. Conclusion Hon-yaku, being based on a careful choice of elements important in translation, improved the prediction accuracy in B. subtilis data sets and other bacteria except for E. coli. We believe that most remaining

  5. Geospatial Optimization of Siting Large-Scale Solar Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quinby, Ted [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Caulfield, Emmet [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Gerritsen, Margot [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Diffendorfer, Jay [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Haines, Seth [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Recent policy and economic conditions have encouraged a renewed interest in developing large-scale solar projects in the U.S. Southwest. However, siting large-scale solar projects is complex. In addition to the quality of the solar resource, solar developers must take into consideration many environmental, social, and economic factors when evaluating a potential site. This report describes a proof-of-concept, Web-based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tool that evaluates multiple user-defined criteria in an optimization algorithm to inform discussions and decisions regarding the locations of utility-scale solar projects. Existing siting recommendations for large-scale solar projects from governmental and non-governmental organizations are not consistent with each other, are often not transparent in methods, and do not take into consideration the differing priorities of stakeholders. The siting assistance GIS tool we have developed improves upon the existing siting guidelines by being user-driven, transparent, interactive, capable of incorporating multiple criteria, and flexible. This work provides the foundation for a dynamic siting assistance tool that can greatly facilitate siting decisions among multiple stakeholders.

  6. Site specific optimization of wind turbines energy cost: Iterative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei Mirghaed, Mohammad; Roshandel, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization model of wind turbine parameters plus rectangular farm layout is developed. • Results show that levelized cost for single turbine fluctuates between 46.6 and 54.5 $/MW h. • Modeling results for two specific farms reported optimal sizing and farm layout. • Results show that levelized cost of the wind farms fluctuates between 45.8 and 67.2 $/MW h. - Abstract: The present study was aimed at developing a model to optimize the sizing parameters and farm layout of wind turbines according to the wind resource and economic aspects. The proposed model, including aerodynamic, economic and optimization sub-models, is used to achieve minimum levelized cost of electricity. The blade element momentum theory is utilized for aerodynamic modeling of pitch-regulated horizontal axis wind turbines. Also, a comprehensive cost model including capital costs of all turbine components is considered. An iterative approach is used to develop the optimization model. The modeling results are presented for three potential regions in Iran: Khaf, Ahar and Manjil. The optimum configurations and sizing for a single turbine with minimum levelized cost of electricity are presented. The optimal cost of energy for one turbine is calculated about 46.7, 54.5 and 46.6 dollars per MW h in the studied sites, respectively. In addition, optimal size of turbines, annual electricity production, capital cost, and wind farm layout for two different rectangular and square shaped farms in the proposed areas have been recognized. According to the results, optimal system configuration corresponds to minimum levelized cost of electricity about 45.8 to 67.2 dollars per MW h in the studied wind farms

  7. A case study of optimization in the decision process: Siting groundwater monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, H.; Huff, D.; Douthitt, J.; Sale, M.

    1993-12-01

    Optimization is one of the tools available to assist decision makers in balancing multiple objectives and concerns. In a case study of the siting decision for groundwater monitoring wells, we look at the influence of the optimization models on the decisions made by the responsible groundwater specialist. This paper presents a multi-objective integer programming model for determining the location of monitoring wells associated with a groundwater pump-and-treat remediation. After presenting the initial optimization results, we analyze the actual decision and revise the model to incorporate elements of the problem that were later identified as important in the decision-making process. The results of a revised model are compared to the actual siting plans, the recommendations from the initial optimization runs, and the initial monitoring network proposed by the decision maker

  8. Methods and systems for identifying ligand-protein binding sites

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2016-05-06

    The invention provides a novel integrated structure and system-based approach for drug target prediction that enables the large-scale discovery of new targets for existing drugs Novel computer-readable storage media and computer systems are also provided. Methods and systems of the invention use novel sequence order-independent structure alignment, hierarchical clustering, and probabilistic sequence similarity techniques to construct a probabilistic pocket ensemble (PPE) that captures even promiscuous structural features of different binding sites for a drug on known targets. The drug\\'s PPE is combined with an approximation of the drug delivery profile to facilitate large-scale prediction of novel drug- protein interactions with several applications to biological research and drug development.

  9. Identifying suitable piercement salt domes for nuclear waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehle, R.; e.

    1980-08-01

    Piercement salt domes of the northern interior salt basins of the Gulf of Mexico are being considered as permanent storage sites for both nuclear and chemically toxic wastes. The suitable domes are stable and inactive, having reached their final evolutionary configuration at least 30 million years ago. They are buried to depths far below the level to which erosion will penetrate during the prescribed storage period and are not subject to possible future reactivation. The salt cores of these domes are themselves impermeable, permitting neither the entry nor exit of ground water or other unwanted materials. In part, a stable dome may be recognized by its present geometric configuration, but conclusive proof depends on establishing its evolutionary state. The evolutionary state of a dome is obtained by reconstructing the growth history of the dome as revealed by the configuration of sedimentary strata in a large area (commonly 3,000 square miles or more) surrounding the dome. A high quality, multifold CDP reflection seismic profile across a candidate dome will provide much of the necessary information when integrated with available subsurface control. Additional seismic profiles may be required to confirm an apparent configuration of the surrounding strata and an interpreted evolutionary history. High frequency seismic data collected in the near vicinity of a dome are also needed as a supplement to the CDP data to permit accurate depiction of the configuration of shallow strata. Such data must be tied to shallow drill hole control to confirm the geologic age at which dome growth ceased. If it is determined that a dome reached a terminal configuration many millions of years ago, such a dome is incapable of reactivation and thus constitutes a stable storage site for nuclear wastes

  10. Optimal routing of coordinated aircraft to Identify moving surface contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    either model for any asset’s route. Its inclusion may eliminate arcs that could be part of an optimal route for an asset. As such, it should be...Arma Aérea.” Revista general de Marina 8: 319–332. http://www.armada.mde.es/archivo/rgm/ 2016/08/2016_08.pdf. Marine Traffic. n.d. “Density maps

  11. Genetic algorithm optimization for dynamic construction site layout planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmakis Panagiotis M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic construction site layout planning (DCSLP problem refers to the efficient placement and relocation of temporary construction facilities within a dynamically changing construction site environment considering the characteristics of facilities and work interrelationships, the shape and topography of the construction site, and the time-varying project needs. A multi-objective dynamic optimization model is developed for this problem that considers construction and relocation costs of facilities, transportation costs of resources moving from one facility to another or to workplaces, as well as safety and environmental considerations resulting from facilities’ operations and interconnections. The latter considerations are taken into account in the form of preferences or constraints regarding the proximity or remoteness of particular facilities to other facilities or work areas. The analysis of multiple project phases and the dynamic facility relocation from phase to phase highly increases the problem size, which, even in its static form, falls within the NP (for Nondeterministic Polynomial time- hard class of combinatorial optimization problems. For this reason, a genetic algorithm has been implemented for the solution due to its capability to robustly search within a large solution space. Several case studies and operational scenarios have been implemented through the Palisade’s Evolver software for model testing and evaluation. The results indi­cate satisfactory model response to time-varying input data in terms of solution quality and computation time. The model can provide decision support to site managers, allowing them to examine alternative scenarios and fine-tune optimal solutions according to their experience by introducing desirable preferences or constraints in the decision process.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of multicomponent distillation columns: identifying optimal feed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.O. Maia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the optimisation of feed conditions as well as the calculation of minimum reflux ratio of distillation columns is presented. The reversible profile approach used for saturated liquid feeds is extended to consider other feed conditions. For flashed feed, the liquid fraction of the feed stream is used to compute the column pinch conditions and the minimum reflux ratio. The modifications required for subcooled liquid and superheated vapor feed are discussed, and a procedure to estimate the minimum reflux for those conditions is proposed. The methodology presented allows the identification of the optimal feed condition, without having to resort to a full stage-by-stage procedure.

  13. Mass spectrometry identifies multiple organophosphorylated sites on tubulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, Hasmik; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Peeples, Eric S.; Duysen, Ellen G.; Grigoryan, Marine; Thompson, Charles M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    Acute toxicity of organophosphorus poisons (OP) is explained by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in nerve synapses. Low-dose effects are hypothesized to result from modification of other proteins, whose identity is not yet established. The goal of the present work was to obtain information that would make it possible to identify tubulin as a target of OP exposure. Tubulin was selected for study because live mice injected with a nontoxic dose of a biotinylated organophosphorus agent appeared to have OP-labeled tubulin in brain as determined by binding to avidin beads and mass spectrometry. The experiments with live mice were not conclusive because binding to avidin beads could be nonspecific. To be convincing, it is necessary to find and characterize the OP-labeled tubulin peptide. The search for OP-labeled tubulin peptides was begun by identifying residues capable of making a covalent bond with OP. Pure bovine tubulin (0.012 mM) was treated with 0.01-0.5 mM chlorpyrifos oxon for 24 h at 37 o C in pH 8.3 buffer. The identity of labeled amino acids and percent labeling was determined by mass spectrometry. Chlorpyrifos oxon bound covalently to tyrosines 83, 103, 108, 161, 224, 262, 272, 357, and 399 in bovine alpha tubulin, and to tyrosines 50, 51, 59, 106, 159, 281, 310, and 340 in bovine beta tubulin. The most reactive were tyrosine 83 in alpha and tyrosine 281 in beta tubulin. In the presence of 1 mM GTP, percent labeling increased 2-fold. Based on the crystal structure of the tubulin heterodimer (PDB 1jff) tyrosines 83 and 281 are well exposed to solvent. In conclusion seventeen tyrosines in tubulin have the potential to covalently bind chlorpyrifos oxon. These results will be useful when searching for OP-labeled tubulin in live animals.

  14. Target and identify: triazene linker helps identify azidation sites of labelled proteins via click and cleave strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Jonas; Schindl, Alexandra; Danda, Natasha; Williams, Chris P; Kramer, Karl; Kuster, Bernhard; Witte, Martin D; Médard, Guillaume

    2017-10-31

    A method for identifying probe modification of proteins via tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Azide bearing molecules are immobilized on functionalised sepharose beads via copper catalysed Huisgen-type click chemistry and selectively released under acidic conditions by chemical cleavage of the triazene linkage. We applied this method to identify the modification site of targeted-diazotransfer on BirA.

  15. Anaerobic digester systems (ADS) for multiple dairy farms: A GIS analysis for optimal site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Ethan; Wang, Qingbin; Li, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    While anaerobic digester systems (ADS) have been increasingly adopted by large dairy farms to generate marketable energy products, like electricity, from animal manure, there is a growing need for assessing the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple farms that are not large enough to capitalize their own ADS. Using geographical information system (GIS) software, this study first identifies potential sites in a dairy region in Vermont, based on geographical conditions, current land use types, and energy distribution infrastructure criteria, and then selects the optimal sites for a given number of ADS, based on the number of dairy farms to be served, the primary energy input to output (PEIO) ratio of ADS, and the existing transportation network. This study suggests that GIS software is a valid technical tool for identifying the potential and optimal sites for ADS. The empirical findings provide useful information for assessing the returns of alternative numbers of ADS in this region, and the research procedures can be modified easily to incorporate any changes in the criteria for this region and can be applied in other regions with different conditions and criteria. - Highlights: • This study examines the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple dairy farms. • GIS is used to identify candidate sites and optimal locations for ADS in a dairy region. • Model includes environmental, social, infrastructure, and energy return criteria. • Empirical analysis provides scenario results on 1–15 ADS in the study region. • Method could be applied to other regions with different conditions and criteria

  16. Challenges in Optimizing a Prostate Carcinoma Binding Peptide, Identified through the Phage Display Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Debus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of peptides identified through the phage display technology to clinical applications is difficult. Major drawbacks are the metabolic degradation and label instability. The aim of our work is the optimization of DUP-1, a peptide which was identified by phage display to specifically target human prostate carcinoma. To investigate the influence of chelate conjugation, DOTA was coupled to DUP-1 and labeling was performed with 111In. To improve serum stability cyclization of DUP-1 and targeted D-amino acid substitution were carried out. Alanine scanning was performed for identification of the binding site and based on the results peptide fragments were chemically synthesized. The properties of modified ligands were investigated in in vitro binding and competition assays. In vivo biodistribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying human prostate tumors subcutaneously. DOTA conjugation resulted in different cellular binding kinetics, rapid in vivo renal clearance and increased tumor-to-organ ratios. Cyclization and D-amino acid substitution increased the metabolic stability but led to binding affinity decrease. Fragment investigation indicated that the sequence NRAQDY might be significant for target-binding. Our results demonstrate challenges in optimizing peptides, identified through phage display libraries, and show that careful investigation of modified derivatives is necessary in order to improve their characteristics.

  17. Central site monitoring: results from a test of accuracy in identifying trials and sites failing Food and Drug Administration inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Anne S; Manukyan, Zorayr; Purohit-Sheth, Tejashri; Gensler, Gary; Okwesili, Paul; Meeker-O'Connell, Ann; Ball, Leslie; Marler, John R

    2014-04-01

    Site monitoring and source document verification account for 15%-30% of clinical trial costs. An alternative is to streamline site monitoring to focus on correcting trial-specific risks identified by central data monitoring. This risk-based approach could preserve or even improve the quality of clinical trial data and human subject protection compared to site monitoring focused primarily on source document verification. To determine whether a central review by statisticians using data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by clinical trial sponsors can identify problem sites and trials that failed FDA site inspections. An independent Analysis Center (AC) analyzed data from four anonymous new drug applications (NDAs) where FDA had performed site inspections overseen by FDA's Office of Scientific Investigations (OSI). FDA team members in the OSI chose the four NDAs from among all NDAs with data in Study Data Tabulation Model (SDTM) format. Two of the NDAs had data that OSI had deemed unreliable in support of the application after FDA site inspections identified serious data integrity problems. The other two NDAs had clinical data that OSI deemed reliable after site inspections. At the outset, the AC knew only that the experimental design specified two NDAs with significant problems. FDA gave the AC no information about which NDAs had problems, how many sites were inspected, or how many were found to have problems until after the AC analysis was complete. The AC evaluated randomization balance, enrollment patterns, study visit scheduling, variability of reported data, and last digit reference. The AC classified sites as 'High Concern', 'Moderate Concern', 'Mild Concern', or 'No Concern'. The AC correctly identified the two NDAs with data deemed unreliable by OSI. In addition, central data analysis correctly identified 5 of 6 (83%) sites for which FDA recommended rejection of data and 13 of 15 sites (87%) for which any regulatory deviations were

  18. Safe Exploration for Identifying Linear Systems via Robust Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Tyler; Zinkevich, Martin; Boutilier, Craig; Roy, Binz; Schuurmans, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Safely exploring an unknown dynamical system is critical to the deployment of reinforcement learning (RL) in physical systems where failures may have catastrophic consequences. In scenarios where one knows little about the dynamics, diverse transition data covering relevant regions of state-action space is needed to apply either model-based or model-free RL. Motivated by the cooling of Google's data centers, we study how one can safely identify the parameters of a system model with a desired ...

  19. Preclinical Evaluations To Identify Optimal Linezolid Regimens for Tuberculosis Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drusano, George L.; Adams, Jonathan R.; Rodriquez, Jaime L.; Jambunathan, Kalyani; Baluya, Dodge L.; Brown, David L.; Kwara, Awewura; Mirsalis, Jon C.; Hafner, Richard; Louie, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Linezolid toxicity in patients correlates with the dose and duration of therapy. These toxicities are attributable to the inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Clinically relevant linezolid regimens were simulated in the in vitro hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) system to identify the linezolid therapies that minimize toxicity, maximize antibacterial activity, and prevent drug resistance. Linezolid inhibited mitochondrial proteins in an exposure-dependent manner, with toxicity being driven by trough concentrations. Once-daily linezolid killed M. tuberculosis in an exposure-dependent manner. Further, 300 mg linezolid given every 12 hours generated more bacterial kill but more toxicity than 600 mg linezolid given once daily. None of the regimens prevented linezolid resistance. These findings show that with linezolid monotherapy, a clear tradeoff exists between antibacterial activity and toxicity. By identifying the pharmacokinetic parameters linked with toxicity and antibacterial activity, these data can provide guidance for clinical trials evaluating linezolid in multidrug antituberculosis regimens. PMID:26530386

  20. Challenges in identifying sites climatically matched to the native ranges of animal invaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Reed, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Species distribution models are often used to characterize a species' native range climate, so as to identify sites elsewhere in the world that may be climatically similar and therefore at risk of invasion by the species. This endeavor provoked intense public controversy over recent attempts to model areas at risk of invasion by the Indian Python (Python molurus). We evaluated a number of MaxEnt models on this species to assess MaxEnt's utility for vertebrate climate matching. Methodology/Principal Findings: Overall, we found MaxEnt models to be very sensitive to modeling choices and selection of input localities and background regions. As used, MaxEnt invoked minimal protections against data dredging, multi-collinearity of explanatory axes, and overfitting. As used, MaxEnt endeavored to identify a single ideal climate, whereas different climatic considerations may determine range boundaries in different parts of the native range. MaxEnt was extremely sensitive to both the choice of background locations for the python, and to selection of presence points: inclusion of just four erroneous localities was responsible for Pyron et al.'s conclusion that no additional portions of the U.S. mainland were at risk of python invasion. When used with default settings, MaxEnt overfit the realized climate space, identifying models with about 60 parameters, about five times the number of parameters justifiable when optimized on the basis of Akaike's Information Criterion. Conclusions/Significance: When used with default settings, MaxEnt may not be an appropriate vehicle for identifying all sites at risk of colonization. Model instability and dearth of protections against overfitting, multi-collinearity, and data dredging may combine with a failure to distinguish fundamental from realized climate envelopes to produce models of limited utility. A priori identification of biologically realistic model structure, combined with computational protections against these

  1. Challenges in identifying sites climatically matched to the native ranges of animal invaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H Rodda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Species distribution models are often used to characterize a species' native range climate, so as to identify sites elsewhere in the world that may be climatically similar and therefore at risk of invasion by the species. This endeavor provoked intense public controversy over recent attempts to model areas at risk of invasion by the Indian Python (Python molurus. We evaluated a number of MaxEnt models on this species to assess MaxEnt's utility for vertebrate climate matching. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, we found MaxEnt models to be very sensitive to modeling choices and selection of input localities and background regions. As used, MaxEnt invoked minimal protections against data dredging, multi-collinearity of explanatory axes, and overfitting. As used, MaxEnt endeavored to identify a single ideal climate, whereas different climatic considerations may determine range boundaries in different parts of the native range. MaxEnt was extremely sensitive to both the choice of background locations for the python, and to selection of presence points: inclusion of just four erroneous localities was responsible for Pyron et al.'s conclusion that no additional portions of the U.S. mainland were at risk of python invasion. When used with default settings, MaxEnt overfit the realized climate space, identifying models with about 60 parameters, about five times the number of parameters justifiable when optimized on the basis of Akaike's Information Criterion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When used with default settings, MaxEnt may not be an appropriate vehicle for identifying all sites at risk of colonization. Model instability and dearth of protections against overfitting, multi-collinearity, and data dredging may combine with a failure to distinguish fundamental from realized climate envelopes to produce models of limited utility. A priori identification of biologically realistic model structure, combined with computational protections

  2. Challenges in identifying sites climatically matched to the native ranges of animal invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Reed, Robert N

    2011-02-09

    Species distribution models are often used to characterize a species' native range climate, so as to identify sites elsewhere in the world that may be climatically similar and therefore at risk of invasion by the species. This endeavor provoked intense public controversy over recent attempts to model areas at risk of invasion by the Indian Python (Python molurus). We evaluated a number of MaxEnt models on this species to assess MaxEnt's utility for vertebrate climate matching. Overall, we found MaxEnt models to be very sensitive to modeling choices and selection of input localities and background regions. As used, MaxEnt invoked minimal protections against data dredging, multi-collinearity of explanatory axes, and overfitting. As used, MaxEnt endeavored to identify a single ideal climate, whereas different climatic considerations may determine range boundaries in different parts of the native range. MaxEnt was extremely sensitive to both the choice of background locations for the python, and to selection of presence points: inclusion of just four erroneous localities was responsible for Pyron et al.'s conclusion that no additional portions of the U.S. mainland were at risk of python invasion. When used with default settings, MaxEnt overfit the realized climate space, identifying models with about 60 parameters, about five times the number of parameters justifiable when optimized on the basis of Akaike's Information Criterion. When used with default settings, MaxEnt may not be an appropriate vehicle for identifying all sites at risk of colonization. Model instability and dearth of protections against overfitting, multi-collinearity, and data dredging may combine with a failure to distinguish fundamental from realized climate envelopes to produce models of limited utility. A priori identification of biologically realistic model structure, combined with computational protections against these statistical problems, may produce more robust models of invasion risk.

  3. OPTIMIZING MAINTENANCE PROCESSES ON CUSTOMER SITE IN A DECENTRALIZED ORGANIZATION BASED ON MULTI-SITE TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moutinho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This lecture focuses on the complexity to manage and optimize maintenance processes, operations and service tasks to equipments and systems installed at customer sites. Different locations, access and working environment may compromise any standardization of setup's and operations. Multi-site teams based on geographic strategic locations, adds complexity to trainning, communication, supervising and monitoring processes. Logistics and information systems assume relevant rolls to consolidate global performance. Beside efficiency, effectiveness productivity and flexibility, field teams need skills on autonomy responsibility and proactivity. This lecture also explores the needed adaptation of most part of available literature, normally based on production sites, as also of Lean- Kaizen principles to the fact that services can not be stocked, quality is normally more difficult to measure and customer is normally present when and where service is produced.

  4. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  5. Benchmark data for identifying N6-methyladenosine sites in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains the benchmark dataset for training and testing iRNA-Methyl, a web-server predictor for identifying N6-methyladenosine sites in RNA (Chen et al., 2015 [15]. It can also be used to develop other predictors for identifying N6-methyladenosine sites in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

  6. Evidentiary requirements to identify potentially acceptable sites (PAS) in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comella, P.A.; Smith, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains information on the evidentiary requirements to identify potentially acceptable sites in crystalline rock for waste disposal. Topics addressed include: chronology, key regulatory assumptions, statutory framework for identifying potentially acceptable sites, application of 10 disqualifiers, consideration of favorable and potentially adverse conditions, a composite favorability analysis, and a proposed outline for PAS identification decision document

  7. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  8. Regulatory O-GlcNAcylation sites on FoxO1 are yet to be identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardini, Yann [INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR8104, Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); Perez-Cervera, Yobana [Structural and Functional Glycobiology Unit, Lille 1 University, CNRS (UMR 8576), IFR 117, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de Oaxaca, Oaxaca (Mexico); Camoin, Luc [INSERM, U1068, CRCM, Marseille Protéomique IBiSA, Marseille, F-13009 (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes Team, Cell Polarity, Cell Signaling and Cancer, Marseille, F-13009 (France); Aix-Marseille Université, F-13284, Marseille (France); CNRS, UMR7258, CRCM, Marseille, F-13009 (France); Pagesy, Patrick [INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR8104, Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); Lefebvre, Tony [Structural and Functional Glycobiology Unit, Lille 1 University, CNRS (UMR 8576), IFR 117, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Issad, Tarik, E-mail: tarik.issad@inserm.fr [INSERM, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR8104, Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France)

    2015-06-26

    O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates cytosolic and nuclear proteins. We and others previously demonstrated that FoxO1 is O-GlcNAcylated in different cell types, resulting in an increase in its transcriptional activity. Four O-GlcNAcylation sites were identified in human FOXO1 but directed mutagenesis of each site individually had modest (T317) or no effect (S550, T648, S654) on its O-GlcNAcylation status and transcriptional activity. Moreover, the consequences of mutating all four sites had not been investigated. In the present work, we mutated these sites in the mouse Foxo1 and found that mutation of all four sites did not decrease Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation status and transcriptional activity, and would even tend to increase them. In an attempt to identify other O-GlcNAcylation sites, we immunoprecipitated wild-type O-GlcNAcylated Foxo1 and analysed the tryptic digest peptides by mass spectrometry using High-energy Collisional Dissociation. We identified T646 as a new O-GlcNAcylation site on Foxo1. However, site directed mutagenesis of this site individually or together with all four previously identified residues did not impair Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation and transcriptional activity. These results suggest that residues important for the control of Foxo1 activity by O-GlcNAcylation still remain to be identified. - Highlights: • We mutate four previously identified O-GlcNAcylation sites on Foxo1. • Unexpectedly, these mutations do not reduce Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation. • These mutation do not reduce Foxo1 transcriptional activity. • We identify a new O-GlcNAcylation site on Foxo1 by mass spectrometry. • Mutation of this site increases Foxo1 transcriptional activity.

  9. Regulatory O-GlcNAcylation sites on FoxO1 are yet to be identified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardini, Yann; Perez-Cervera, Yobana; Camoin, Luc; Pagesy, Patrick; Lefebvre, Tony; Issad, Tarik

    2015-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates cytosolic and nuclear proteins. We and others previously demonstrated that FoxO1 is O-GlcNAcylated in different cell types, resulting in an increase in its transcriptional activity. Four O-GlcNAcylation sites were identified in human FOXO1 but directed mutagenesis of each site individually had modest (T317) or no effect (S550, T648, S654) on its O-GlcNAcylation status and transcriptional activity. Moreover, the consequences of mutating all four sites had not been investigated. In the present work, we mutated these sites in the mouse Foxo1 and found that mutation of all four sites did not decrease Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation status and transcriptional activity, and would even tend to increase them. In an attempt to identify other O-GlcNAcylation sites, we immunoprecipitated wild-type O-GlcNAcylated Foxo1 and analysed the tryptic digest peptides by mass spectrometry using High-energy Collisional Dissociation. We identified T646 as a new O-GlcNAcylation site on Foxo1. However, site directed mutagenesis of this site individually or together with all four previously identified residues did not impair Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation and transcriptional activity. These results suggest that residues important for the control of Foxo1 activity by O-GlcNAcylation still remain to be identified. - Highlights: • We mutate four previously identified O-GlcNAcylation sites on Foxo1. • Unexpectedly, these mutations do not reduce Foxo1 O-GlcNAcylation. • These mutation do not reduce Foxo1 transcriptional activity. • We identify a new O-GlcNAcylation site on Foxo1 by mass spectrometry. • Mutation of this site increases Foxo1 transcriptional activity

  10. Web-based Tool Identifies and Quantifies Potential Cost Savings Measures at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renevitz, Marisa J.; Peschong, Jon C.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Simpson, Brett C.

    2014-01-01

    The Technical Improvement system is an approachable web-based tool that is available to Hanford DOE staff, site contractors, and general support service contractors as part of the baseline optimization effort underway at the Hanford Site. Finding and implementing technical improvements are a large part of DOE's cost savings efforts. The Technical Improvement dashboard is a key tool for brainstorming and monitoring the progress of submitted baseline optimization and potential cost/schedule efficiencies. The dashboard is accessible to users over the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) and provides a highly visual and straightforward status to management on the ideas provided, alleviating the need for resource intensive weekly and monthly reviews

  11. Optimization Review: Carson River Mercury Superfund Site, Carson City, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Carson River Mercury Site (CRMS) (Figure 1) is located in northwest Nevada and was designated a Superfund site in 1990 because of elevated mercury concentrations observed in surface water, sediments and biota inhabiting the site.

  12. Statistical identifiability and convergence evaluation for nonlinear pharmacokinetic models with particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongho; Li, Lang

    2014-02-01

    The statistical identifiability of nonlinear pharmacokinetic (PK) models with the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetic equation is considered using a global optimization approach, which is particle swarm optimization (PSO). If a model is statistically non-identifiable, the conventional derivative-based estimation approach is often terminated earlier without converging, due to the singularity. To circumvent this difficulty, we develop a derivative-free global optimization algorithm by combining PSO with a derivative-free local optimization algorithm to improve the rate of convergence of PSO. We further propose an efficient approach to not only checking the convergence of estimation but also detecting the identifiability of nonlinear PK models. PK simulation studies demonstrate that the convergence and identifiability of the PK model can be detected efficiently through the proposed approach. The proposed approach is then applied to clinical PK data along with a two-compartmental model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Under What Assumptions Do Site-by-Treatment Instruments Identify Average Causal Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing availability of data from multi-site randomized trials provides a potential opportunity to use instrumental variables methods to study the effects of multiple hypothesized mediators of the effect of a treatment. We derive nine assumptions needed to identify the effects of multiple mediators when using site-by-treatment interactions…

  14. COSMID: A Web-based Tool for Identifying and Validating CRISPR/Cas Off-target Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Cradick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise genome editing using engineered nucleases can significantly facilitate biological studies and disease treatment. In particular, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR with CRISPR-associated (Cas proteins are a potentially powerful tool for modifying a genome by targeted cleavage of DNA sequences complementary to designed guide strand RNAs. Although CRISPR/Cas systems can have on-target cleavage rates close to the transfection rates, they may also have relatively high off-target cleavage at similar genomic sites that contain one or more base pair mismatches, and insertions or deletions relative to the guide strand. We have developed a bioinformatics-based tool, COSMID (CRISPR Off-target Sites with Mismatches, Insertions, and Deletions that searches genomes for potential off-target sites (http://crispr.bme.gatech.edu. Based on the user-supplied guide strand and input parameters, COSMID identifies potential off-target sites with the specified number of mismatched bases and insertions or deletions when compared with the guide strand. For each site, amplification primers optimal for the chosen application are also given as output. This ranked-list of potential off-target sites assists the choice and evaluation of intended target sites, thus helping the design of CRISPR/Cas systems with minimal off-target effects, as well as the identification and quantification of CRISPR/Cas induced off-target cleavage in cells.

  15. Deep mutational scanning identifies sites in influenza nucleoprotein that affect viral inhibition by MxA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orr Ashenberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The innate-immune restriction factor MxA inhibits influenza replication by targeting the viral nucleoprotein (NP. Human influenza virus is more resistant than avian influenza virus to inhibition by human MxA, and prior work has compared human and avian viral strains to identify amino-acid differences in NP that affect sensitivity to MxA. However, this strategy is limited to identifying sites in NP where mutations that affect MxA sensitivity have fixed during the small number of documented zoonotic transmissions of influenza to humans. Here we use an unbiased deep mutational scanning approach to quantify how all single amino-acid mutations to NP affect MxA sensitivity in the context of replication-competent virus. We both identify new sites in NP where mutations affect MxA resistance and re-identify mutations known to have increased MxA resistance during historical adaptations of influenza to humans. Most of the sites where mutations have the greatest effect are almost completely conserved across all influenza A viruses, and the amino acids at these sites confer relatively high resistance to MxA. These sites cluster in regions of NP that appear to be important for its recognition by MxA. Overall, our work systematically identifies the sites in influenza nucleoprotein where mutations affect sensitivity to MxA. We also demonstrate a powerful new strategy for identifying regions of viral proteins that affect inhibition by host factors.

  16. Identifying strategic sites for Green-Infrastructures (GI) to manage stormwater in a miscellaneous use urban African watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selker, J. S.; Kahsai, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Green Infrastructure (GI) or Low impact development (LID), is a land use planning and design approach with the objective of mitigating land development impacts to the environment, and is ever more looked to as a way to lessen runoff and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies. Broad-scale approaches for siting GI/LID have been developed for agricultural watersheds, but are rare for urban watersheds, largely due to greater land use complexity. And it is even more challenging when it comes to Urban Africa due to the combination of poor data quality, rapid and unplanned development, and civic institutions unable to reliably carry out regular maintenance. We present a spacio-temporal simulation-based approach to identify an optimal prioritization of sites for GI/LID based on DEM, land use and land cover. Optimization used is a multi-objective optimization tool along with an urban storm water management model (SWMM) to identify the most cost-effective combination of LID/GI. This was applied to an urban watershed in NW Kampala, Lubigi Catchment (notorious for being heavily flooded every year), with a miscellaneous use watershed in Uganda, as a case-study to demonstrate the approach.

  17. Identifying optimal remotely-sensed variables for ecosystem monitoring in Colorado Plateau drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, Travis; Villarreal, Miguel; Waller, Eric K.; Nauman, Travis; Miller, Mark E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Water-limited ecosystems often recover slowly following anthropogenic or natural disturbance. Multitemporal remote sensing can be used to monitor ecosystem recovery after disturbance; however, dryland vegetation cover can be challenging to accurately measure due to sparse cover and spectral confusion between soils and non-photosynthetic vegetation. With the goal of optimizing a monitoring approach for identifying both abrupt and gradual vegetation changes, we evaluated the ability of Landsat-derived spectral variables to characterize surface variability of vegetation cover and bare ground across a range of vegetation community types. Using three year composites of Landsat data, we modeled relationships between spectral information and field data collected at monitoring sites near Canyonlands National Park, UT. We also developed multiple regression models to assess improvement over single variables. We found that for all vegetation types, percent cover bare ground could be accurately modeled with single indices that included a combination of red and shortwave infrared bands, while near infrared-based vegetation indices like NDVI worked best for quantifying tree cover and total live vegetation cover in woodlands. We applied four models to characterize the spatial distribution of putative grassland ecological states across our study area, illustrating how this approach can be implemented to guide dryland ecosystem management.

  18. Optimization method for identifying the source term in an inverse wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Deiveegan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the inverse problem of identifying a space-wise dependent source term of wave equation from the measurement on the boundary. On the basis of the optimal control framework, the inverse problem is transformed into an optimization problem. The existence and necessary condition of the minimizer for the cost functional are obtained. The projected gradient method and two-parameter model function method are applied to the minimization problem and numerical results are illustrated.

  19. Optimal input shaping for Fisher identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Michael J.

    This dissertation examines the fundamental challenge of optimally shaping input trajectories to maximize parameter identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models. Identifiability is a property from information theory that determines the solvability of parameter estimation for mathematical models using input-output measurements. This dissertation creates a framework that exploits the Fisher information metric to quantify the level of battery parameter identifiability, optimizes this metric through input shaping, and facilitates faster and more accurate estimation. The popularity of lithium-ion batteries is growing significantly in the energy storage domain, especially for stationary and transportation applications. While these cells have excellent power and energy densities, they are plagued with safety and lifespan concerns. These concerns are often resolved in the industry through conservative current and voltage operating limits, which reduce the overall performance and still lack robustness in detecting catastrophic failure modes. New advances in automotive battery management systems mitigate these challenges through the incorporation of model-based control to increase performance, safety, and lifespan. To achieve these goals, model-based control requires accurate parameterization of the battery model. While many groups in the literature study a variety of methods to perform battery parameter estimation, a fundamental issue of poor parameter identifiability remains apparent for lithium-ion battery models. This fundamental challenge of battery identifiability is studied extensively in the literature, and some groups are even approaching the problem of improving the ability to estimate the model parameters. The first approach is to add additional sensors to the battery to gain more information that is used for estimation. The other main approach is to shape the input trajectories to increase the amount of information that can be gained from input

  20. GASS-WEB: a web server for identifying enzyme active sites based on genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, João P A; Pappa, Gisele L; Pires, Douglas E V; Izidoro, Sandro C

    2017-07-03

    Enzyme active sites are important and conserved functional regions of proteins whose identification can be an invaluable step toward protein function prediction. Most of the existing methods for this task are based on active site similarity and present limitations including performing only exact matches on template residues, template size restraints, despite not being capable of finding inter-domain active sites. To fill this gap, we proposed GASS-WEB, a user-friendly web server that uses GASS (Genetic Active Site Search), a method based on an evolutionary algorithm to search for similar active sites in proteins. GASS-WEB can be used under two different scenarios: (i) given a protein of interest, to match a set of specific active site templates; or (ii) given an active site template, looking for it in a database of protein structures. The method has shown to be very effective on a range of experiments and was able to correctly identify >90% of the catalogued active sites from the Catalytic Site Atlas. It also managed to achieve a Matthew correlation coefficient of 0.63 using the Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP 10) dataset. In our analysis, GASS was ranking fourth among 18 methods. GASS-WEB is freely available at http://gass.unifei.edu.br/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Application of particle swarm optimization to identify gamma spectrum with neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dongsheng; Di Yuming; Zhou Chunlin

    2007-01-01

    In applying neural network to identification of gamma spectra back propagation (BP) algorithm is usually trapped to a local optimum and has a low speed of convergence, whereas particle swarm optimization (PSO) is advantageous in terms of globe optimal searching. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for neural network training, i.e. combined BP and PSO optimization, or PSO-BP algorithm. Practical example shows that the new algorithm can overcome shortcomings of BP algorithm and the neural network trained by it has a high ability of generalization with identification result of 100% correctness. It can be used effectively and reliably to identify gamma spectra. (authors)

  2. Toward identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Wendell P; Sedlak, David L; Barlaz, Morton A; Henry, Heather F; Muir, Derek C G; Swackhamer, Deborah L; Weber, Eric J; Arnold, Robert G; Ferguson, P Lee; Field, Jennifer A; Furlong, Edward T; Giesy, John P; Halden, Rolf U; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Howard, Philip H; Luthy, Richard G; Meyer, Anita K; Sáez, A Eduardo; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Vulpe, Chris D; Wiesner, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled "Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation" held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants. Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants. Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific attributes: They are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, occur in large quantities, and have localized accumulation with a likelihood of exposure. Although still under development and incompletely applied, methods to quantify these attributes can assist in winnowing down the list of candidates from the universe of potential CECs. Unfortunately, significant research gaps exist in detection and quantification, environmental fate and transport, health and risk assessment, and site exploration and remediation for CECs. Addressing these gaps is prerequisite to a preventive approach to generating and managing hazardous waste sites. A need exists for a carefully considered and orchestrated expansion of programmatic and research efforts to identify, evaluate, and manage CECs of hazardous waste site relevance, including developing an evolving list of priority CECs, intensifying the identification and monitoring of likely sites of present or future accumulation of CECs, and implementing efforts that focus on a holistic approach to prevention.

  3. The application of particle swarm optimization to identify gamma spectrum with neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dongsheng; Di Yuming; Zhou Chunlin

    2006-01-01

    Aiming at the shortcomings that BP algorithm is usually trapped to a local optimum and it has a low speed of convergence in the application of neural network to identify gamma spectrum, according to the advantage of the globe optimal searching of particle swarm optimization, this paper put forward a new algorithm for neural network training by combining BP algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization-mixed PSO-BP algorithm. In the application to identify gamma spectrum, the new algorithm overcomes the shortcoming that BP algorithm is usually trapped to a local optimum and the neural network trained by it has a high ability of generalization with identification result of one hundred percent correct. Practical example shows that the mixed PSO-BP algorithm can effectively and reliably be used to identify gamma spectrum. (authors)

  4. Identifying diabetes knowledge network nodes as sites for a diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesler, Wilbert M; Arcury, Thomas A; Skelly, Anne H; Nash, Sally; Soward, April; Dougherty, Molly

    2006-12-01

    This paper reports on the methods used and results of a study that identified specific places within a community that have the potential to be sites for a diabetes prevention program. These sites, termed diabetes knowledge network nodes (DKNNs), are based on the concept of socio-spatial knowledge networks (SSKNs), the web of social relationships within which people obtain knowledge about type 2 diabetes. The target population for the study was working poor African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans of both sexes in a small rural southern town who had not been diagnosed with diabetes. Information was collected from a sample of 121 respondents on the places they visited in carrying out their daily activities. Data on number of visits to specific sites, degree of familiarity with these sites, and ratings of sites as places to receive diabetes information were used to develop three categories of DKNNs for six subgroups based on ethnicity and sex. Primary potential sites of importance to one or more subgroups included churches, grocery stores, drugstores, the local library, a beauty salon, laundromats, a community service agency, and a branch of the County Health Department. Secondary potential sites included gas stations, restaurants, banks, and post offices. Latent potential sites included three medical facilities. Most of the DKNNs were located either in the downtown area or in one of two shopping areas along the most used highway that passed through the town. The procedures used in this study can be generalized to other communities and prevention programs for other chronic diseases.

  5. Location Distribution Optimization of Photographing Sites for Indoor Panorama Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Xin, Z.; Liu, J.

    2017-09-01

    Generally, panoramas image modeling is costly and time-consuming because of photographing continuously to capture enough photos along the routes, especially in complicated indoor environment. Thus, difficulty follows for a wider applications of panoramic image modeling for business. It is indispensable to make a feasible arrangement of panorama sites locations because the locations influence the clarity, coverage and the amount of panoramic images under the condition of certain device. This paper is aim to propose a standard procedure to generate the specific location and total amount of panorama sites in indoor panoramas modeling. Firstly, establish the functional relationship between one panorama site and its objectives. Then, apply the relationship to panorama sites network. We propose the Distance Clarity function (FC and Fe) manifesting the mathematical relationship between panoramas and objectives distance or obstacle distance. The Distance Buffer function (FB) is modified from traditional buffer method to generate the coverage of panorama site. Secondly, transverse every point in possible area to locate possible panorama site, calculate the clarity and coverage synthetically. Finally select as little points as possible to satiate clarity requirement preferentially and then the coverage requirement. In the experiments, detailed parameters of camera lens are given. Still, more experiments parameters need trying out given that relationship between clarity and distance is device dependent. In short, through the function FC, Fe and FB, locations of panorama sites can be generated automatically and accurately.

  6. SABER: a computational method for identifying active sites for new reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Geoffrey R; Houk, K N

    2012-05-01

    A software suite, SABER (Selection of Active/Binding sites for Enzyme Redesign), has been developed for the analysis of atomic geometries in protein structures, using a geometric hashing algorithm (Barker and Thornton, Bioinformatics 2003;19:1644-1649). SABER is used to explore the Protein Data Bank (PDB) to locate proteins with a specific 3D arrangement of catalytic groups to identify active sites that might be redesigned to catalyze new reactions. As a proof-of-principle test, SABER was used to identify enzymes that have the same catalytic group arrangement present in o-succinyl benzoate synthase (OSBS). Among the highest-scoring scaffolds identified by the SABER search for enzymes with the same catalytic group arrangement as OSBS were L-Ala D/L-Glu epimerase (AEE) and muconate lactonizing enzyme II (MLE), both of which have been redesigned to become effective OSBS catalysts, demonstrated by experiments. Next, we used SABER to search for naturally existing active sites in the PDB with catalytic groups similar to those present in the designed Kemp elimination enzyme KE07. From over 2000 geometric matches to the KE07 active site, SABER identified 23 matches that corresponded to residues from known active sites. The best of these matches, with a 0.28 Å catalytic atom RMSD to KE07, was then redesigned to be compatible with the Kemp elimination using RosettaDesign. We also used SABER to search for potential Kemp eliminases using a theozyme predicted to provide a greater rate acceleration than the active site of KE07, and used Rosetta to create a design based on the proteins identified. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  7. Evaluation of potential regulatory elements identified as DNase I hypersensitive sites in the CFTR gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phylactides, M.; Rowntree, R.; Nuthall, H.

    2002-01-01

    hypersensitive sites (DHS) within the locus. We previously identified at least 12 clusters of DHS across the CFTR gene and here further evaluate DHS in introns 2,3,10,16,17a, 18, 20 and 21 to assess their functional importance in regulation of CFTR gene expression. Transient transfections of enhancer/reporter...

  8. Assessing the Value of Information for Identifying Optimal Floodplain Management Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Bates, M.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain management is a complex portfolio problem that can be analyzed from an integrated perspective incorporating traditionally structural and nonstructural options. One method to identify effective strategies for preparing, responding to, and recovering from floods is to optimize for a portfolio of temporary (emergency) and permanent floodplain management options. A risk-based optimization approach to this problem assigns probabilities to specific flood events and calculates the associated expected damages. This approach is currently limited by: (1) the assumption of perfect flood forecast information, i.e. implementing temporary management activities according to the actual flood event may differ from optimizing based on forecasted information and (2) the inability to assess system resilience across a range of possible future events (risk-centric approach). Resilience is defined here as the ability of a system to absorb and recover from a severe disturbance or extreme event. In our analysis, resilience is a system property that requires integration of physical, social, and information domains. This work employs a 3-stage linear program to identify the optimal mix of floodplain management options using conditional probabilities to represent perfect and imperfect flood stages (forecast vs. actual events). We assess the value of information in terms of minimizing damage costs for two theoretical cases - urban and rural systems. We use portfolio analysis to explore how the set of optimal management options differs depending on whether the goal is for the system to be risk-adverse to a specified event or resilient over a range of events.

  9. Site utility system optimization with operation adjustment under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li; Gai, Limei; Smith, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties are classified into time-based and probability-based uncertain factors. • Multi-period operation and recourses deal with uncertainty implementation. • Operation scheduling are specified at the design stage to deal with uncertainties. • Steam mains superheating affects steam distribution and power generation in the system. - Abstract: Utility systems must satisfy process energy and power demands under varying conditions. The system performance is decided by the system configuration and individual equipment operating load for boilers, gas turbines, steam turbines, condensers, and let down valves. Steam mains conditions in terms of steam pressures and steam superheating also play important roles on steam distribution in the system and power generation by steam expansion in steam turbines, and should be included in the system optimization. Uncertainties such as process steam power demand changes and electricity price fluctuations should be included in the system optimization to eliminate as much as possible the production loss caused by steam power deficits due to uncertainties. In this paper, uncertain factors are classified into time-based and probability-based uncertain factors, and operation scheduling containing multi-period equipment load sharing, redundant equipment start up, and electricity import to compensate for power deficits, have been presented to deal with the happens of uncertainties, and are formulated as a multi-period item and a recourse item in the optimization model. There are two case studies in this paper. One case illustrates the system design to determine system configuration, equipment selection, and system operation scheduling at the design stage to deal with uncertainties. The other case provides operational optimization scenarios for an existing system, especially when the steam superheating varies. The proposed method can provide practical guidance to system energy efficiency improvement.

  10. Issues and recent advances in optimal experimental design for site investigation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, W.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview over issues and recent advances in model-based experimental design for site exploration. The addressed issues and advances are (1) how to provide an adequate envelope to prior uncertainty, (2) how to define the information needs in a task-oriented manner, (3) how to measure the expected impact of a data set that it not yet available but only planned to be collected, and (4) how to perform best the optimization of the data collection plan. Among other shortcomings of the state-of-the-art, it is identified that there is a lack of demonstrator studies where exploration schemes based on expert judgment are compared to exploration schemes obtained by optimal experimental design. Such studies will be necessary do address the often voiced concern that experimental design is an academic exercise with little improvement potential over the well- trained gut feeling of field experts. When addressing this concern, a specific focus has to be given to uncertainty in model structure, parameterizations and parameter values, and to related surprises that data often bring about in field studies, but never in synthetic-data based studies. The background of this concern is that, initially, conceptual uncertainty may be so large that surprises are the rule rather than the exception. In such situations, field experts have a large body of experience in handling the surprises, and expert judgment may be good enough compared to meticulous optimization based on a model that is about to be falsified by the incoming data. In order to meet surprises accordingly and adapt to them, there needs to be a sufficient representation of conceptual uncertainty within the models used. Also, it is useless to optimize an entire design under this initial range of uncertainty. Thus, the goal setting of the optimization should include the objective to reduce conceptual uncertainty. A possible way out is to upgrade experimental design theory towards real-time interaction

  11. Identifying protein phosphorylation sites with kinase substrate specificity on human viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Arvin Bretaña

    Full Text Available Viruses infect humans and progress inside the body leading to various diseases and complications. The phosphorylation of viral proteins catalyzed by host kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in enhancing replication and inhibition of normal host-cell functions. Due to its biological importance, there is a desire to identify the protein phosphorylation sites on human viruses. However, the use of mass spectrometry-based experiments is proven to be expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, previous studies which have identified phosphorylation sites in human viruses do not include the investigation of the responsible kinases. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method to identify protein phosphorylation sites with its kinase substrate specificity on human viruses. The experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from virPTM--a database containing 301 experimentally verified phosphorylation data on 104 human kinase-phosphorylated virus proteins. In an attempt to investigate kinase substrate specificities in viral protein phosphorylation sites, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. The experimental human phosphorylation sites are collected from Phospho.ELM, grouped according to its kinase annotation, and compared with the virus MDD clusters. This investigation identifies human kinases such as CK2, PKB, CDK, and MAPK as potential kinases for catalyzing virus protein substrates as confirmed by published literature. Profile hidden Markov model is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. A five-fold cross validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 84.93% for Serine, and 78.05% for Threonine. Furthermore, an independent testing data collected from UniProtKB and Phospho.ELM is used to make a comparison of predictive performance on three popular kinase

  12. Identifying protein phosphorylation sites with kinase substrate specificity on human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretaña, Neil Arvin; Lu, Cheng-Tsung; Chiang, Chiu-Yun; Su, Min-Gang; Huang, Kai-Yao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Weng, Shun-Long

    2012-01-01

    Viruses infect humans and progress inside the body leading to various diseases and complications. The phosphorylation of viral proteins catalyzed by host kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in enhancing replication and inhibition of normal host-cell functions. Due to its biological importance, there is a desire to identify the protein phosphorylation sites on human viruses. However, the use of mass spectrometry-based experiments is proven to be expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, previous studies which have identified phosphorylation sites in human viruses do not include the investigation of the responsible kinases. Thus, we are motivated to propose a new method to identify protein phosphorylation sites with its kinase substrate specificity on human viruses. The experimentally verified phosphorylation data were extracted from virPTM--a database containing 301 experimentally verified phosphorylation data on 104 human kinase-phosphorylated virus proteins. In an attempt to investigate kinase substrate specificities in viral protein phosphorylation sites, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD) is employed to cluster a large set of phosphorylation data into subgroups containing significantly conserved motifs. The experimental human phosphorylation sites are collected from Phospho.ELM, grouped according to its kinase annotation, and compared with the virus MDD clusters. This investigation identifies human kinases such as CK2, PKB, CDK, and MAPK as potential kinases for catalyzing virus protein substrates as confirmed by published literature. Profile hidden Markov model is then applied to learn a predictive model for each subgroup. A five-fold cross validation evaluation on the MDD-clustered HMMs yields an average accuracy of 84.93% for Serine, and 78.05% for Threonine. Furthermore, an independent testing data collected from UniProtKB and Phospho.ELM is used to make a comparison of predictive performance on three popular kinase-specific phosphorylation site

  13. Optimization of wind farm micro-siting for complex terrain using greedy algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.X.; Chen, K.; He, Z.Y.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    An optimization approach based on greedy algorithm for optimization of wind farm micro-siting is presented. The key of optimizing wind farm micro-siting is the fast and accurate evaluation of the wake flow interactions of wind turbines. The virtual particle model is employed for wake flow simulation of wind turbines, which makes the present method applicable for non-uniform flow fields on complex terrains. In previous bionic optimization method, within each step of the optimization process, only the power output of the turbine that is being located or relocated is considered. To aim at the overall power output of the wind farm comprehensively, a dependent region technique is introduced to improve the estimation of power output during the optimization procedure. With the technique, the wake flow influences can be reduced more efficiently during the optimization procedure. During the optimization process, the turbine that is being added will avoid being affected other turbines, and avoid affecting other turbine in the meantime. The results from the numerical calculations demonstrate that the present method is effective for wind farm micro-siting on complex terrain, and it produces better solutions in less time than the previous bionic method. - Highlights: • Greedy algorithm is applied to wind farm micro-siting problem. • The present method is effective for optimization on complex terrains. • Dependent region is suggested to improve the evaluation of wake influences. • The present method has better performance than the bionic method

  14. A New Approach to Site Demand-Based Level Inventory Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Note: If probability distributions are estimated based on mean and variance , use ˆ qix  and 2ˆ( )qi to generate these. q in , number of...TO SITE DEMAND-BASED LEVEL INVENTORY OPTIMIZATION by Tacettin Ersoz June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Javier Salmeron Second Reader: Emily...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A NEW APPROACH TO SITE DEMAND-BASED LEVEL INVENTORY OPTIMIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6

  15. Identifying potential surface water sampling sites for emerging chemical pollutants in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, F; Dabrowski, JM; Forbes, PBC

    2017-01-01

    Emerging chemical pollutants (ECPs) are defined as new chemicals which do not have a regulatory status, but which may have an adverse effect on human health and the environment. The occurrence and concentrations of ECPs in South African water bodies are largely unknown, so monitoring is required in order to determine the potential threat that these ECPs may pose. Relevant surface water sampling sites in the Gauteng Province of South Africa were identified utilising a geographic information sy...

  16. Pareto Optimization Identifies Diverse Set of Phosphorylation Signatures Predicting Response to Treatment with Dasatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammer, Martin; Dybowski, J Nikolaj; Hoffmann, Daniel; Schaab, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate biomarkers that can predict the effectiveness of targeted therapy in individual patients are highly desired. Previous biomarker discovery studies have largely focused on the identification of single biomarker signatures, aimed at maximizing prediction accuracy. Here, we present a different approach that identifies multiple biomarkers by simultaneously optimizing their predictive power, number of features, and proximity to the drug target in a protein-protein interaction network. To this end, we incorporated NSGA-II, a fast and elitist multi-objective optimization algorithm that is based on the principle of Pareto optimality, into the biomarker discovery workflow. The method was applied to quantitative phosphoproteome data of 19 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines from a previous biomarker study. The algorithm successfully identified a total of 77 candidate biomarker signatures predicting response to treatment with dasatinib. Through filtering and similarity clustering, this set was trimmed to four final biomarker signatures, which then were validated on an independent set of breast cancer cell lines. All four candidates reached the same good prediction accuracy (83%) as the originally published biomarker. Although the newly discovered signatures were diverse in their composition and in their size, the central protein of the originally published signature - integrin β4 (ITGB4) - was also present in all four Pareto signatures, confirming its pivotal role in predicting dasatinib response in NSCLC cell lines. In summary, the method presented here allows for a robust and simultaneous identification of multiple multivariate biomarkers that are optimized for prediction performance, size, and relevance.

  17. A model-based approach to identify binding sites in CLIP-Seq data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available Cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-Seq has made it possible to identify the targeting sites of RNA-binding proteins in various cell culture systems and tissue types on a genome-wide scale. Here we present a novel model-based approach (MiClip to identify high-confidence protein-RNA binding sites from CLIP-seq datasets. This approach assigns a probability score for each potential binding site to help prioritize subsequent validation experiments. The MiClip algorithm has been tested in both HITS-CLIP and PAR-CLIP datasets. In the HITS-CLIP dataset, the signal/noise ratios of miRNA seed motif enrichment produced by the MiClip approach are between 17% and 301% higher than those by the ad hoc method for the top 10 most enriched miRNAs. In the PAR-CLIP dataset, the MiClip approach can identify ∼50% more validated binding targets than the original ad hoc method and two recently published methods. To facilitate the application of the algorithm, we have released an R package, MiClip (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/MiClip/index.html, and a public web-based graphical user interface software (http://galaxy.qbrc.org/tool_runner?tool_id=mi_clip for customized analysis.

  18. Economic considerations in the optimal size and number of reserve sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The debate among ecologists on the optimal number of reserve sites under a fixed maximum total reserve area-the single large or several small (SLOSS) problem-has so far neglected the economic aspects of the problem. This paper argues that economic considerations can affect the optimal number and

  19. Identifying the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Phil. (Sport Management) This study is strengthened by several studies that have indicated that the dualist nature of student-athletes is problematic, as well as the management thereof. The study aimed to identify the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development in athletics (throwers) at University of Johannesburg Sport, and offers recommendations for managing student-athletes. The methods utilized for this study included: i) self-desig...

  20. Discrete particle swarm optimization for identifying community structures in signed social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Gong, Maoguo; Shen, Bo; Ma, Lijia; Jiao, Licheng

    2014-10-01

    Modern science of networks has facilitated us with enormous convenience to the understanding of complex systems. Community structure is believed to be one of the notable features of complex networks representing real complicated systems. Very often, uncovering community structures in networks can be regarded as an optimization problem, thus, many evolutionary algorithms based approaches have been put forward. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is an artificial intelligent algorithm originated from social behavior such as birds flocking and fish schooling. PSO has been proved to be an effective optimization technique. However, PSO was originally designed for continuous optimization which confounds its applications to discrete contexts. In this paper, a novel discrete PSO algorithm is suggested for identifying community structures in signed networks. In the suggested method, particles' status has been redesigned in discrete form so as to make PSO proper for discrete scenarios, and particles' updating rules have been reformulated by making use of the topology of the signed network. Extensive experiments compared with three state-of-the-art approaches on both synthetic and real-world signed networks demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and promising. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Common integration sites of published datasets identified using a graph-based framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Vasciaveo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With next-generation sequencing, the genomic data available for the characterization of integration sites (IS has dramatically increased. At present, in a single experiment, several thousand viral integration genome targets can be investigated to define genomic hot spots. In a previous article, we renovated a formal CIS analysis based on a rigid fixed window demarcation into a more stretchy definition grounded on graphs. Here, we present a selection of supporting data related to the graph-based framework (GBF from our previous article, in which a collection of common integration sites (CIS was identified on six published datasets. In this work, we will focus on two datasets, ISRTCGD and ISHIV, which have been previously discussed. Moreover, we show in more detail the workflow design that originates the datasets.

  2. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brander, Simone

    2010-09-01

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  3. SNOSite: exploiting maximal dependence decomposition to identify cysteine S-nitrosylation with substrate site specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzong-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available S-nitrosylation, the covalent attachment of a nitric oxide to (NO the sulfur atom of cysteine, is a selective and reversible protein post-translational modification (PTM that regulates protein activity, localization, and stability. Despite its implication in the regulation of protein functions and cell signaling, the substrate specificity of cysteine S-nitrosylation remains unknown. Based on a total of 586 experimentally identified S-nitrosylation sites from SNAP/L-cysteine-stimulated mouse endothelial cells, this work presents an informatics investigation on S-nitrosylation sites including structural factors such as the flanking amino acids composition, the accessible surface area (ASA and physicochemical properties, i.e. positive charge and side chain interaction parameter. Due to the difficulty to obtain the conserved motifs by conventional motif analysis, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD has been applied to obtain statistically significant conserved motifs. Support vector machine (SVM is applied to generate predictive model for each MDD-clustered motif. According to five-fold cross-validation, the MDD-clustered SVMs could achieve an accuracy of 0.902, and provides a promising performance in an independent test set. The effectiveness of the model was demonstrated on the correct identification of previously reported S-nitrosylation sites of Bos taurus dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1 and human hemoglobin subunit beta (HBB. Finally, the MDD-clustered model was adopted to construct an effective web-based tool, named SNOSite (http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/SNOSite/, for identifying S-nitrosylation sites on the uncharacterized protein sequences.

  4. GSHSite: exploiting an iteratively statistical method to identify s-glutathionylation sites with substrate specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available S-glutathionylation, the covalent attachment of a glutathione (GSH to the sulfur atom of cysteine, is a selective and reversible protein post-translational modification (PTM that regulates protein activity, localization, and stability. Despite its implication in the regulation of protein functions and cell signaling, the substrate specificity of cysteine S-glutathionylation remains unknown. Based on a total of 1783 experimentally identified S-glutathionylation sites from mouse macrophages, this work presents an informatics investigation on S-glutathionylation sites including structural factors such as the flanking amino acids composition and the accessible surface area (ASA. TwoSampleLogo presents that positively charged amino acids flanking the S-glutathionylated cysteine may influence the formation of S-glutathionylation in closed three-dimensional environment. A statistical method is further applied to iteratively detect the conserved substrate motifs with statistical significance. Support vector machine (SVM is then applied to generate predictive model considering the substrate motifs. According to five-fold cross-validation, the SVMs trained with substrate motifs could achieve an enhanced sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, and provides a promising performance in an independent test set. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by the correct identification of previously reported S-glutathionylation sites of mouse thioredoxin (TXN and human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b (PTP1B. Finally, the constructed models are adopted to implement an effective web-based tool, named GSHSite (http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/GSHSite/, for identifying uncharacterized GSH substrate sites on the protein sequences.

  5. Computerized analysis of the 12-lead electrocardiogram to identify epicardial ventricular tachycardia exit sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Miki; Jung, Dae Yon; Joseph, Kim K; Hero, Alfred O; Morady, Fred; Bogun, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria for epicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT) origins have been described. In patients with structural heart disease, the ability to predict an epicardial origin based on QRS morphology is limited and has been investigated only for limited regions in the heart. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a computerized algorithm is able to accurately differentiate epicardial vs endocardial origins of ventricular arrhythmias. Endocardial and epicardial pace-mapping were performed in 43 patients at 3277 sites. The 12-lead ECGs were digitized and analyzed using a mixture of gaussian model (MoG) to assess whether the algorithm was able to identify an epicardial vs endocardial origin of the paced rhythm. The MoG computerized algorithm was compared to algorithms published in prior reports. The computerized algorithm correctly differentiated epicardial vs endocardial pacing sites for 80% of the sites compared to an accuracy of 42% to 66% of other described criteria. The accuracy was higher in patients without structural heart disease than in those with structural heart disease (94% vs 80%, P = .0004) and for right bundle branch block (82%) compared to left bundle branch block morphologies (79%, P = .001). Validation studies showed the accuracy for VT exit sites to be 84%. A computerized algorithm was able to accurately differentiate the majority of epicardial vs endocardial pace-mapping sites. The algorithm is not region specific and performed best in patients without structural heart disease and with VTs having a right bundle branch block morphology. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal Site Characterization and Selection Criteria for Oyster Restoration using Multicolinear Factorial Water Quality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of nutrient loadings have enriched the Chesapeake Bay estuaries and coastal waters via point and nonpoint sources and the atmosphere. Restoring oyster beds is considered a Best Management Practice (BMP) to improve the water quality as well as provide physical aquatic habitat and a healthier estuarine system. Efforts include declaring sanctuaries for brood-stocks, supplementing hard substrate on the bottom and aiding natural populations with the addition of hatchery-reared and disease-resistant stocks. An economic assessment suggests that restoring the ecological functions will improve water quality, stabilize shorelines, and establish a habitat for breeding grounds that outweighs the value of harvestable oyster production. Parametric factorial models were developed to investigate multicolinearities among in situ water quality and oyster restoration activities to evaluate posterior success rates upon multiple substrates, and physical, chemical, hydrological and biological site characteristics to systematically identify significant factors. Findings were then further utilized to identify the optimal sites for successful oyster restoration augmentable with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and BMPs. Factorial models evaluate the relationship among the dependent variable, oyster biomass, and treatments of temperature, salinity, total suspended solids, E. coli/Enterococci counts, depth, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, nitrogen and phosphorus, and blocks consist of alternative substrates (oyster shells versus riprap, granite, cement, cinder blocks, limestone marl or combinations). Factorial model results were then compared to identify which combination of variables produces the highest posterior biomass of oysters. Developed Factorial model can facilitate maximizing the likelihood of successful oyster reef restoration in an effort to establish a healthier ecosystem and to improve overall estuarine water quality in the Chesapeake Bay estuaries.

  7. Optimal siting of capacitors in radial distribution network using Whale Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Prakash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In present days, continuous effort is being made in bringing down the line losses of the electrical distribution networks. Therefore proper allocation of capacitors is of utmost importance because, it will help in reducing the line losses and maintaining the bus voltage. This in turn results in improving the stability and reliability of the system. In this paper Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA is used to find optimal sizing and placement of capacitors for a typical radial distribution system. Multi objectives such as operating cost reduction and power loss minimization with inequality constraints on voltage limits are considered and the proposed algorithm is validated by applying it on standard radial systems: IEEE-34 bus and IEEE-85 bus radial distribution test systems. The results obtained are compared with those of existing algorithms. The results show that the proposed algorithm is more effective in bringing down the operating costs and in maintaining better voltage profile. Keywords: Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA, Optimal allocation and sizing of capacitors, Power loss reduction and voltage stability improvement, Radial distribution system, Operating cost minimization

  8. A computational technique to identify the optimal stiffness matrix for a discrete nuclear fuel assembly model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Kyoung-Joo; Kim, Kyoung-Hong; Suh, Jung-Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An identification method of the optimal stiffness matrix for a fuel assembly structure is discussed. ► The least squares optimization method is introduced, and a closed form solution of the problem is derived. ► The method can be expanded to the system with the limited number of modes. ► Identification error due to the perturbed mode shape matrix is analyzed. ► Verification examples show that the proposed procedure leads to a reliable solution. -- Abstract: A reactor core structural model which is used to evaluate the structural integrity of the core contains nuclear fuel assembly models. Since the reactor core consists of many nuclear fuel assemblies, the use of a refined fuel assembly model leads to a considerable amount of computing time for performing nonlinear analyses such as the prediction of seismic induced vibration behaviors. The computational time could be reduced by replacing the detailed fuel assembly model with a simplified model that has fewer degrees of freedom, but the dynamic characteristics of the detailed model must be maintained in the simplified model. Such a model based on an optimal design method is proposed in this paper. That is, when a mass matrix and a mode shape matrix are given, the optimal stiffness matrix of a discrete fuel assembly model can be estimated by applying the least squares minimization method. The verification of the method is completed by comparing test results and simulation results. This paper shows that the simplified model's dynamic behaviors are quite similar to experimental results and that the suggested method is suitable for identifying reliable mathematical model for fuel assemblies

  9. The role of dose limitation and optimization in intervention. Approaches to the remediation of contaminated sites in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.; Helming, M.; Kuehnel, G.; Landfermann, H.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The clean-up of contaminated sites requires appropriate and efficient methodologies for the decision-making about priorities and extent of remedial measures, aiming at the two, usually conflicting, goals to protect people and the environment and to save money and other resources. Finding the cost-effective balance between these two primary objectives often is complicated by several factors. Sensible decision-making in this situation requires the use of appropriate methodologies and tools which assist in identifying and implementing the optimal solution. The paper discusses an approach developed in Germany to achieve environmentally sound and cost-effective solutions. A basic requirement within the German approach is the limitation of individual doses in order to limit inequity between people exposed. An Action Level of 1 mSv per annum is used in this sense for the identification of sites that require farther investigation and potentially remediation. On the basis of this individual dose related criterion secondary reference levels for directly measurable quantities such as activity concentrations have been derived, facilitating the practical application of the Action Level Concept. Decisions on remedial action, in particular for complex sites, are based on justification and optimization analyses. These take into consideration a variety of different contaminants and risks to humans and the environment arising on various exposure pathways. The optimization analyses, carried-out to identify optimal remediation options, address radiological risks as well as short and long term costs within a cost-benefit analysis framework. Other relevant factors of influence, e.g. chemical risks or ecological damage, are incorporated as well. Comprehensive methodologies utilizing probabilistic methods have been developed to assess site conditions and possible remediation options on this basis. The approaches developed are applied within the German uranium mine rehabilitation program

  10. The role of dose limitation and optimization in intervention. Approaches to the remediation of contaminated sites in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, W. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Helming, M.; Kuehnel, G.; Landfermann, H.-H. [Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Bonn (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    The clean-up of contaminated sites requires appropriate and efficient methodologies for the decision-making about priorities and extent of remedial measures, aiming at the two, usually conflicting, goals to protect people and the environment and to save money and other resources. Finding the cost-effective balance between these two primary objectives often is complicated by several factors. Sensible decision-making in this situation requires the use of appropriate methodologies and tools which assist in identifying and implementing the optimal solution. The paper discusses an approach developed in Germany to achieve environmentally sound and cost-effective solutions. A basic requirement within the German approach is the limitation of individual doses in order to limit inequity between people exposed. An Action Level of 1 mSv per annum is used in this sense for the identification of sites that require farther investigation and potentially remediation. On the basis of this individual dose related criterion secondary reference levels for directly measurable quantities such as activity concentrations have been derived, facilitating the practical application of the Action Level Concept. Decisions on remedial action, in particular for complex sites, are based on justification and optimization analyses. These take into consideration a variety of different contaminants and risks to humans and the environment arising on various exposure pathways. The optimization analyses, carried-out to identify optimal remediation options, address radiological risks as well as short and long term costs within a cost-benefit analysis framework. Other relevant factors of influence, e.g. chemical risks or ecological damage, are incorporated as well. Comprehensive methodologies utilizing probabilistic methods have been developed to assess site conditions and possible remediation options on this basis. The approaches developed are applied within the German uranium mine rehabilitation program

  11. An improved lattice hydrodynamic model considering the influence of optimal flux for forward looking sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunong; Ge, Hongxia; Cheng, Rongjun

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a lattice hydrodynamic model is derived considering the delayed-feedback control influence of optimal flux for forward looking sites on a single-lane road which includes more comprehensive information. The control method is used to analyze the stability of the model. The critical condition for the linear steady traffic flow is deduced and the numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the advantage of the proposed model with and without the effect of optimal flux for forward looking sites. Moreover it indicates that the characteristic of the model can lead to a lower energy consumption in traffic system. The results are consistent with the theoretical analysis correspondingly.

  12. Optimal number of coarse-grained sites in different components of large biomolecular complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitskiy, Anton V; Saunders, Marissa G; Voth, Gregory A

    2012-07-26

    The computational study of large biomolecular complexes (molecular machines, cytoskeletal filaments, etc.) is a formidable challenge facing computational biophysics and biology. To achieve biologically relevant length and time scales, coarse-grained (CG) models of such complexes usually must be built and employed. One of the important early stages in this approach is to determine an optimal number of CG sites in different constituents of a complex. This work presents a systematic approach to this problem. First, a universal scaling law is derived and numerically corroborated for the intensity of the intrasite (intradomain) thermal fluctuations as a function of the number of CG sites. Second, this result is used for derivation of the criterion for the optimal number of CG sites in different parts of a large multibiomolecule complex. In the zeroth-order approximation, this approach validates the empirical rule of taking one CG site per fixed number of atoms or residues in each biomolecule, previously widely used for smaller systems (e.g., individual biomolecules). The first-order corrections to this rule are derived and numerically checked by the case studies of the Escherichia coli ribosome and Arp2/3 actin filament junction. In different ribosomal proteins, the optimal number of amino acids per CG site is shown to differ by a factor of 3.5, and an even wider spread may exist in other large biomolecular complexes. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is valuable for the optimal construction of CG models of such complexes.

  13. Identifying optimal postmarket surveillance strategies for medical and surgical devices: implications for policy, practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Umoquit, Muriah; Lehoux, Pascale; Ross, Sue; Ducey, Ariel; Urbach, David R

    2013-03-01

    Non-drug technologies offer many benefits, but have been associated with adverse events, prompting calls for improved postmarket surveillance. There is little empirical research to guide the development of such a system. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal postmarket surveillance strategies for medical and surgical devices. Qualitative methods were used for sampling, data collection and analysis. Stakeholders from Canada and the USA representing different roles and perspectives were first interviewed to identify examples and characteristics of different surveillance strategies. These stakeholders and others they recommended were then assembled at a 1-day nominal group meeting to discuss and prioritise the components of a postmarket device surveillance system, and research needed to achieve such a system. Consultations were held with 37 participants, and 47 participants attended the 1-day meeting. They recommended a multicomponent system including reporting by facilities, clinicians and patients, supported with some external surveillance for validation and real-time trials for high-risk devices. Many considerations were identified that constitute desirable characteristics of, and means by which to implement such a system. An overarching network was envisioned to broker linkages, establish a shared minimum dataset, and support communication and decision making. Numerous research questions were identified, which could be pursued in tandem with phased implementation of the system. These findings provide unique guidance for establishing a device safety network that is based on existing initiatives, and could be expanded and evaluated in a prospective, phased fashion as it was developed.

  14. A multi-factor GIS method to identify optimal geographic locations for electric vehicle (EV) charging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqin; Iman, Kory

    2018-05-01

    Fuel-based transportation is one of the major contributors to poor air quality in the United States. Electric Vehicle (EV) is potentially the cleanest transportation technology to our environment. This research developed a spatial suitability model to identify optimal geographic locations for installing EV charging stations for travelling public. The model takes into account a variety of positive and negative factors to identify prime locations for installing EV charging stations in Wasatch Front, Utah, where automobile emission causes severe air pollution due to atmospheric inversion condition near the valley floor. A walkable factor grid was created to store index scores from input factor layers to determine prime locations. 27 input factors including land use, demographics, employment centers etc. were analyzed. Each factor layer was analyzed to produce a summary statistic table to determine the site suitability. Potential locations that exhibit high EV charging usage were identified and scored. A hot spot map was created to demonstrate high, moderate, and low suitability areas for installing EV charging stations. A spatially well distributed EV charging system was then developed, aiming to reduce "range anxiety" from traveling public. This spatial methodology addresses the complex problem of locating and establishing a robust EV charging station infrastructure for decision makers to build a clean transportation infrastructure, and eventually improve environment pollution.

  15. Using questions sent to an Ask-A-Scientist site to identify children's interests in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Sethi, Ricky J.; Bry, Lynn; Yarden, Anat

    2006-11-01

    Interest is a powerful motivator; nonetheless, science educators often lack the necessary information to make use of the power of student-specific interests in the reform process of science curricula. This study suggests a novel methodology, which might be helpful in identifying such interests - using children's self-generated questions as an indication of their scientific interests. In this research, children's interests were measured by analyzing 1555 science-related questions submitted to an international Ask-A-Scientist Internet site. The analysis indicated that the popularity of certain topics varies with age and gender. Significant differences were found between children's spontaneous (intrinsically motivated) and school-related (extrinsically motivated) interests. Surprisingly, girls contributed most of the questions to the sample; however, the number of American girls dropped upon entering senior high school. We also found significant differences between girls' and boys' interests, with girls generally preferring biological topics. The two genders kept to their stereotypic fields of interest, in both their school-related and spontaneous questions. Children's science interests, as inferred from questions to Web sites, could ultimately inform classroom science teaching. This methodology extends the context in which children's interests can be investigated.

  16. Identifying malaria hotspots in Keur Soce health and demographic surveillance site in context of low transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiath, Mansour; Faye, Babacar; Cisse, Badara; Ndiaye, Jean Louis; Gomis, Jules François; Dia, Anta Tal; Gaye, Oumar

    2014-11-24

    Malaria is major public health problem in Senegal. In some parts of the country, it occurs almost permanently with a seasonal increase during the rainy season. There is evidence to suggest that the prevalence of malaria in Senegal has decreased considerably during the past few years. Recent data from the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) indicates that the number of malaria cases decrease from 1,500,000 in 2006 to 174,339 in 2010. With the decline of malaria morbidity in Senegal, the characterization of the new epidemiological profile of this disease is crucial for public health decision makers. SaTScan™ software using the Kulldorf method of retrospective space-time permutation and the Bernoulli purely spatial model was used to identify malaria clusters using confirmed malaria cases in 74 villages. ArcMAp was used to map malaria hotspots. Logistic regression was used to investigate risk factors for malaria hotspots in Keur Soce health and demographic surveillance site. A total of 1,614 individuals in 440 randomly selected households were enrolled. The overall malaria prevalence was 12%. The malaria prevalence during the study period varied from less than 2% to more than 25% from one village to another. The results showed also that rooms located between 50 m to 100 m away from livestock holding place [adjusted O.R = 0.7, P = 0.044, 95% C.I (1.02 - 7.42)], bed net use [adjusted O.R = 1.2, P = 0.024, 95% C.I (1.02 -1.48)], are good predictors for malaria hotspots in the Keur Soce health and demographic surveillance site. The socio economic status of the household also predicted on hotspots patterns. The less poor household are 30% less likely to be classified as malaria hotspots area compared to the poorest household [adjusted O.R = 0.7, P = 0.014, 95% C.I (0.47 - 0.91)]. The study investigated risk factors for malaria hotspots in small communities in the Keur Soce site. The result showed considerable variation of malaria

  17. Identifying the optimal depth for mussel suspended culture in shallow and turbid environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Grant, Jon; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2017-01-01

    on farm productivity, farmers must position the cultured biomass at the appropriate depth to benefit from or mitigate the impact of this resuspended material. A combination of field measurements, a 1-D vertical resuspension model and a bioenergetic model for mussels based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB...... particles for cultured bivalves. The effect of resuspended material on bivalve bioenergetics and growth is a function of the quality and concentration of resuspended particles and background diet in the water column. Given the potential for positive or negative impacts on bivalve growth and consequently......) theory has been carried out for a mussel farm in Skive Fjord, a shallow Danish fjord, with the aim of identifying the optimal depth for culture. Observations at the farm location revealed that horizontal advection is more important than vertical resuspension during periods with predominant Eastern winds...

  18. A smartphone-optimized web site for conveniently viewing otolaryngology journal abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Sharma, Arun; Samy, Ravi N

    2014-12-01

    Access to the medical literature has not kept pace with the mobile revolution. We aimed to (1) gauge interest in a smartphone-optimized Web site for conveniently accessing otolaryngology literature and (2) create an easy-to-access and convenient Web site that displays otolaryngology journal abstracts in a format optimized for smartphones. A survey was sent to physicians of a major US academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery department. Demographics, literature-browsing habits, and barriers to staying updated were assessed. The response rate was 87%. Ninety-one percent of respondents used a smartphone, and 85% wished they could stay more up to date with the otolaryngology literature. Most respondents believed a convenient smartphone-optimized Web site could help them achieve this goal. A Web site was then developed in collaboration with a university creative department as a proof of concept. The site uses a simple RSS aggregator to display journal abstracts formatted for smartphone-sized screens (www.otosurg.com). © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  19. Identifying functional transcription factor binding sites in yeast by considering their positional preference in the promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jou Lai

    Full Text Available Transcription factor binding site (TFBS identification plays an important role in deciphering gene regulatory codes. With comprehensive knowledge of TFBSs, one can understand molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. In the recent decades, various computational approaches have been proposed to predict TFBSs in the genome. The TFBS dataset of a TF generated by each algorithm is a ranked list of predicted TFBSs of that TF, where top ranked TFBSs are statistically significant ones. However, whether these statistically significant TFBSs are functional (i.e. biologically relevant is still unknown. Here we develop a post-processor, called the functional propensity calculator (FPC, to assign a functional propensity to each TFBS in the existing computationally predicted TFBS datasets. It is known that functional TFBSs reveal strong positional preference towards the transcriptional start site (TSS. This motivates us to take TFBS position relative to the TSS as the key idea in building our FPC. Based on our calculated functional propensities, the TFBSs of a TF in the original TFBS dataset could be reordered, where top ranked TFBSs are now the ones with high functional propensities. To validate the biological significance of our results, we perform three published statistical tests to assess the enrichment of Gene Ontology (GO terms, the enrichment of physical protein-protein interactions, and the tendency of being co-expressed. The top ranked TFBSs in our reordered TFBS dataset outperform the top ranked TFBSs in the original TFBS dataset, justifying the effectiveness of our post-processor in extracting functional TFBSs from the original TFBS dataset. More importantly, assigning functional propensities to putative TFBSs enables biologists to easily identify which TFBSs in the promoter of interest are likely to be biologically relevant and are good candidates to do further detailed experimental investigation. The FPC is implemented as a web tool at http://santiago.ee.ncku.edu.tw/FPC/.

  20. A spatial modeling approach to identify potential butternut restoration sites in Mammoth Cave National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L.M.; Van Manen, F.T.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; DePoy, M.

    2006-01-01

    Incorporation of disease resistance is nearly complete for several important North American hardwood species threatened by exotic fungal diseases. The next important step toward species restoration would be to develop reliable tools to delineate ideal restoration sites on a landscape scale. We integrated spatial modeling and remote sensing techniques to delineate potential restoration sites for Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) trees, a hardwood species being decimated by an exotic fungus, in Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP), Kentucky. We first developed a multivariate habitat model to determine optimum Butternut habitats within MCNP. Habitat characteristics of 54 known Butternut locations were used in combination with eight topographic and land use data layers to calculate an index of habitat suitability based on Mahalanobis distance (D2). We used a bootstrapping technique to test the reliability of model predictions. Based on a threshold value for the D2 statistic, 75.9% of the Butternut locations were correctly classified, indicating that the habitat model performed well. Because Butternut seedlings require extensive amounts of sunlight to become established, we used canopy cover data to refine our delineation of favorable areas for Butternut restoration. Areas with the most favorable conditions to establish Butternut seedlings were limited to 291.6 ha. Our study provides a useful reference on the amount and location of favorable Butternut habitat in MCNP and can be used to identify priority areas for future Butternut restoration. Given the availability of relevant habitat layers and accurate location records, our approach can be applied to other tree species and areas. ?? 2006 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  1. vProtein: identifying optimal amino acid complements from plant-based foods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Woolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indispensible amino acids (IAAs are used by the body in different proportions. Most animal-based foods provide these IAAs in roughly the needed proportions, but many plant-based foods provide different proportions of IAAs. To explore how these plant-based foods can be better used in human nutrition, we have created the computational tool vProtein to identify optimal food complements to satisfy human protein needs. METHODS: vProtein uses 1251 plant-based foods listed in the United States Department of Agriculture standard release 22 database to determine the quantity of each food or pair of foods required to satisfy human IAA needs as determined by the 2005 daily recommended intake. The quantity of food in a pair is found using a linear programming approach that minimizes total calories, total excess IAAs, or the total weight of the combination. RESULTS: For single foods, vProtein identifies foods with particularly balanced IAA patterns such as wheat germ, quinoa, and cauliflower. vProtein also identifies foods with particularly unbalanced IAA patterns such as macadamia nuts, degermed corn products, and wakame seaweed. Although less useful alone, some unbalanced foods provide unusually good complements, such as Brazil nuts to legumes. Interestingly, vProtein finds no statistically significant bias toward grain/legume pairings for protein complementation. These analyses suggest that pairings of plant-based foods should be based on the individual foods themselves instead of based on broader food group-food group pairings. Overall, the most efficient pairings include sweet corn/tomatoes, apple/coconut, and sweet corn/cherry. The top pairings also highlight the utility of less common protein sources such as the seaweeds laver and spirulina, pumpkin leaves, and lambsquarters. From a public health perspective, many of the food pairings represent novel, low cost food sources to combat malnutrition. Full analysis results are available online

  2. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  3. Dipeptide frequency/bias analysis identifies conserved sites of nonrandomness shared by cysteine-rich motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, S R; Ameen, A S; Lai, L; King, J M; Munzenmaier, T N

    2001-08-15

    This report describes the application of a simple computational tool, AAPAIR.TAB, for the systematic analysis of the cysteine-rich EGF, Sushi, and Laminin motif/sequence families at the two-amino acid level. Automated dipeptide frequency/bias analysis detects preferences in the distribution of amino acids in established protein families, by determining which "ordered dipeptides" occur most frequently in comprehensive motif-specific sequence data sets. Graphic display of the dipeptide frequency/bias data revealed family-specific preferences for certain dipeptides, but more importantly detected a shared preference for employment of the ordered dipeptides Gly-Tyr (GY) and Gly-Phe (GF) in all three protein families. The dipeptide Asn-Gly (NG) also exhibited high-frequency and bias in the EGF and Sushi motif families, whereas Asn-Thr (NT) was distinguished in the Laminin family. Evaluation of the distribution of dipeptides identified by frequency/bias analysis subsequently revealed the highly restricted localization of the G(F/Y) and N(G/T) sequence elements at two separate sites of extreme conservation in the consensus sequence of all three sequence families. The similar employment of the high-frequency/bias dipeptides in three distinct protein sequence families was further correlated with the concurrence of these shared molecular determinants at similar positions within the distinctive scaffolds of three structurally divergent, but similarly employed, motif modules.

  4. Identifying the optimal depth for mussel suspended culture in shallow and turbid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Grant, Jon; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2018-02-01

    Bivalve aquaculture is commonly carried out in shallow water systems, which are susceptible to resuspension of benthic particulate matter by natural processes such as tidal currents, winds and wave action, as well as human activity. The resuspended material can alter the availability of food particles for cultured bivalves. The effect of resuspended material on bivalve bioenergetics and growth is a function of the quality and concentration of resuspended particles and background diet in the water column. Given the potential for positive or negative impacts on bivalve growth and consequently on farm productivity, farmers must position the cultured biomass at the appropriate depth to benefit from or mitigate the impact of this resuspended material. A combination of field measurements, a 1-D vertical resuspension model and a bioenergetic model for mussels based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory has been carried out for a mussel farm in Skive Fjord, a shallow Danish fjord, with the aim of identifying the optimal depth for culture. Observations at the farm location revealed that horizontal advection is more important than vertical resuspension during periods with predominant Eastern winds. In addition, high background seston in the water column reduces the impact of resuspension on the available food for mussels. The simulation of different scenarios in terms of food availability suggested minimal effects of resuspension on mussel growth. Based on this finding and the fact that phytoplankton concentration, the main food source for mussels, is usually higher in the upper part of the water column, suspended culture in the top 3 m of the water column seems to be the optimal practice to produce mussels in Skive Fjord.

  5. Simulation-optimization framework for multi-site multi-season hybrid stochastic streamflow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, Roshan; Srinivasan, K.; Sudheer, K. P.

    2016-11-01

    A simulation-optimization (S-O) framework is developed for the hybrid stochastic modeling of multi-site multi-season streamflows. The multi-objective optimization model formulated is the driver and the multi-site, multi-season hybrid matched block bootstrap model (MHMABB) is the simulation engine within this framework. The multi-site multi-season simulation model is the extension of the existing single-site multi-season simulation model. A robust and efficient evolutionary search based technique, namely, non-dominated sorting based genetic algorithm (NSGA - II) is employed as the solution technique for the multi-objective optimization within the S-O framework. The objective functions employed are related to the preservation of the multi-site critical deficit run sum and the constraints introduced are concerned with the hybrid model parameter space, and the preservation of certain statistics (such as inter-annual dependence and/or skewness of aggregated annual flows). The efficacy of the proposed S-O framework is brought out through a case example from the Colorado River basin. The proposed multi-site multi-season model AMHMABB (whose parameters are obtained from the proposed S-O framework) preserves the temporal as well as the spatial statistics of the historical flows. Also, the other multi-site deficit run characteristics namely, the number of runs, the maximum run length, the mean run sum and the mean run length are well preserved by the AMHMABB model. Overall, the proposed AMHMABB model is able to show better streamflow modeling performance when compared with the simulation based SMHMABB model, plausibly due to the significant role played by: (i) the objective functions related to the preservation of multi-site critical deficit run sum; (ii) the huge hybrid model parameter space available for the evolutionary search and (iii) the constraint on the preservation of the inter-annual dependence. Split-sample validation results indicate that the AMHMABB model is

  6. Provocative Endoscopy to Identify Bleeding Site in Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Novel Approach in Transarterial Embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Minobu; Fuwa, Sokun; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Kurihara, Yasuyuki

    2016-07-01

    This report describes a novel approach to endoscopically induce bleeding by removing a clot from the bleeding site during angiography for upper gastrointestinal (UGI) hemorrhage. This procedure enabled accurate identification of the bleeding site, allowing for successful targeted embolization despite a negative initial angiogram. Provocative endoscopy may be a feasible and useful option for angiography of obscure bleeding sites in patients with UGI arterial hemorrhage. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The DOC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, Sarah J; Dyson, Lisa; Clark, Laura; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J; Cooper, Brendan G; Kearney, Matt; Laughey, William; Raghunath, Raghu; Steele, Lisa; Rhodes, Rebecca; Adamson, Joy

    2018-06-01

    Early identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in patients receiving appropriate management for their condition at an earlier stage in their disease. The determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) study was a case-finding study to enhance early identification of COPD in primary care, which evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a series of simple lung function tests and symptom-based case-finding questionnaires. Current smokers aged 35 or more were invited to undertake a series of case-finding tools, which comprised lung function tests (specifically, spirometry, microspirometry, peak flow meter, and WheezoMeter) and several case-finding questionnaires. The effectiveness of these tests, individually or in combination, to identify small airways obstruction was evaluated against the gold standard of spirometry, with the quality of spirometry tests assessed by independent overreaders. The study was conducted with general practices in the Yorkshire and Humberside area, in the UK. Six hundred eighty-one individuals met the inclusion criteria, with 444 participants completing their study appointments. A total of 216 (49%) with good-quality spirometry readings were included in the analysis. The most effective case-finding tools were found to be the peak flow meter alone, the peak flow meter plus WheezoMeter, and microspirometry alone. In addition to the main analysis, where the severity of airflow obstruction was based on fixed ratios and percent of predicted values, sensitivity analyses were conducted by using lower limit of normal values. This research informs the choice of test for COPD identification; case-finding by use of the peak flow meter or microspirometer could be used routinely in primary care for suspected COPD patients. Only those testing positive to these tests would move on to full spirometry, thereby reducing unnecessary spirometric testing. © 2018 John Wiley

  8. Using exploratory regression to identify optimal driving factors for cellular automaton modeling of land use change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongjiu; Tong, Xiaohua

    2017-09-22

    Defining transition rules is an important issue in cellular automaton (CA)-based land use modeling because these models incorporate highly correlated driving factors. Multicollinearity among correlated driving factors may produce negative effects that must be eliminated from the modeling. Using exploratory regression under pre-defined criteria, we identified all possible combinations of factors from the candidate factors affecting land use change. Three combinations that incorporate five driving factors meeting pre-defined criteria were assessed. With the selected combinations of factors, three logistic regression-based CA models were built to simulate dynamic land use change in Shanghai, China, from 2000 to 2015. For comparative purposes, a CA model with all candidate factors was also applied to simulate the land use change. Simulations using three CA models with multicollinearity eliminated performed better (with accuracy improvements about 3.6%) than the model incorporating all candidate factors. Our results showed that not all candidate factors are necessary for accurate CA modeling and the simulations were not sensitive to changes in statistically non-significant driving factors. We conclude that exploratory regression is an effective method to search for the optimal combinations of driving factors, leading to better land use change models that are devoid of multicollinearity. We suggest identification of dominant factors and elimination of multicollinearity before building land change models, making it possible to simulate more realistic outcomes.

  9. Identifying the most productive breeding sites for malaria mosquitoes in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, U.; Sombroek, H.; Majambere, S.; Loon, van E.; Takken, W.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ideally larval control activities should be targeted at sites that generate the most adult vectors, thereby reducing operational costs. Despite the plethora of potential mosquito breeding sites found in the floodplains of the Gambia River, about 150 km from its mouth, during the rainy

  10. Identification of the translational start site of codon-optimized mCherry in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Paul; Muwanguzi-Karugaba, Julian; Melief, Eduard; Files, Megan; Parish, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluorescent proteins are used widely as reporter genes in many organisms. We previously codon-optimized mCherry for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and generated expression constructs with high level expression in mycobacteria with multiple uses in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the expression of fluorescent proteins in mycobacteria and the translational start codon for mCherry has not been experimentally determined. Results We determined the translational start site ...

  11. Design Optimization and Site Matching of Direct-Drive Permanent Magnet Wind Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible site matching of the direct-drive wind turbine concepts based on the electromagnetic design optimization of permanent magnet (PM) generator systems. Firstly, the analytical models of a three-phase radial-flux PM generator with a back-to-back power converter...... of the maximum wind energy capture, the rotor diameter and the rated wind speed of a direct-drive wind turbine with the optimum PM generator are determined. The annual energy output (AEO) is also presented using the Weibull density function. Finally, the maximum AEO per cost (AEOPC) of the optimized wind...... are presented. The optimum design models of direct-drive PM wind generation system are developed with an improved genetic algorithm, and a 500-kW direct-drive PM generator for the minimal generator active material cost is compared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design optimization. Forty-five PM...

  12. Optimization and experimental validation of a thermal cycle that maximizes entropy coefficient fisher identifiability for lithium iron phosphate cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Sergio; Rothenberger, Michael; Hake, Alison; Fathy, Hosam

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a framework for optimizing the thermal cycle to estimate a battery cell's entropy coefficient at 20% state of charge (SOC). Our goal is to maximize Fisher identifiability: a measure of the accuracy with which a parameter can be estimated. Existing protocols in the literature for estimating entropy coefficients demand excessive laboratory time. Identifiability optimization makes it possible to achieve comparable accuracy levels in a fraction of the time. This article demonstrates this result for a set of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cells. We conduct a 24-h experiment to obtain benchmark measurements of their entropy coefficients. We optimize a thermal cycle to maximize parameter identifiability for these cells. This optimization proceeds with respect to the coefficients of a Fourier discretization of this thermal cycle. Finally, we compare the estimated parameters using (i) the benchmark test, (ii) the optimized protocol, and (iii) a 15-h test from the literature (by Forgez et al.). The results are encouraging for two reasons. First, they confirm the simulation-based prediction that the optimized experiment can produce accurate parameter estimates in 2 h, compared to 15-24. Second, the optimized experiment also estimates a thermal time constant representing the effects of thermal capacitance and convection heat transfer.

  13. Identifying the preferred subset of enzymatic profiles in nonlinear kinetic metabolic models via multiobjective global optimization and Pareto filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pozo

    Full Text Available Optimization models in metabolic engineering and systems biology focus typically on optimizing a unique criterion, usually the synthesis rate of a metabolite of interest or the rate of growth. Connectivity and non-linear regulatory effects, however, make it necessary to consider multiple objectives in order to identify useful strategies that balance out different metabolic issues. This is a fundamental aspect, as optimization of maximum yield in a given condition may involve unrealistic values in other key processes. Due to the difficulties associated with detailed non-linear models, analysis using stoichiometric descriptions and linear optimization methods have become rather popular in systems biology. However, despite being useful, these approaches fail in capturing the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the underlying metabolic systems and the regulatory signals involved. Targeting more complex biological systems requires the application of global optimization methods to non-linear representations. In this work we address the multi-objective global optimization of metabolic networks that are described by a special class of models based on the power-law formalism: the generalized mass action (GMA representation. Our goal is to develop global optimization methods capable of efficiently dealing with several biological criteria simultaneously. In order to overcome the numerical difficulties of dealing with multiple criteria in the optimization, we propose a heuristic approach based on the epsilon constraint method that reduces the computational burden of generating a set of Pareto optimal alternatives, each achieving a unique combination of objectives values. To facilitate the post-optimal analysis of these solutions and narrow down their number prior to being tested in the laboratory, we explore the use of Pareto filters that identify the preferred subset of enzymatic profiles. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by means of a case study

  14. Identifying the preferred subset of enzymatic profiles in nonlinear kinetic metabolic models via multiobjective global optimization and Pareto filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Carlos; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Sorribas, Albert; Jiménez, Laureano

    2012-01-01

    Optimization models in metabolic engineering and systems biology focus typically on optimizing a unique criterion, usually the synthesis rate of a metabolite of interest or the rate of growth. Connectivity and non-linear regulatory effects, however, make it necessary to consider multiple objectives in order to identify useful strategies that balance out different metabolic issues. This is a fundamental aspect, as optimization of maximum yield in a given condition may involve unrealistic values in other key processes. Due to the difficulties associated with detailed non-linear models, analysis using stoichiometric descriptions and linear optimization methods have become rather popular in systems biology. However, despite being useful, these approaches fail in capturing the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the underlying metabolic systems and the regulatory signals involved. Targeting more complex biological systems requires the application of global optimization methods to non-linear representations. In this work we address the multi-objective global optimization of metabolic networks that are described by a special class of models based on the power-law formalism: the generalized mass action (GMA) representation. Our goal is to develop global optimization methods capable of efficiently dealing with several biological criteria simultaneously. In order to overcome the numerical difficulties of dealing with multiple criteria in the optimization, we propose a heuristic approach based on the epsilon constraint method that reduces the computational burden of generating a set of Pareto optimal alternatives, each achieving a unique combination of objectives values. To facilitate the post-optimal analysis of these solutions and narrow down their number prior to being tested in the laboratory, we explore the use of Pareto filters that identify the preferred subset of enzymatic profiles. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by means of a case study that optimizes the

  15. Application of Geophysical Techniques in Identifying UNE Signatures at Semipalatinsk Test Site (for OSI Purposes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyashov, A.; Shaitorov, V.; Yefremov, M.

    2014-03-01

    This article describes geological and geophysical studies of an underground nuclear explosion area in one of the boreholes at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan. During these studies, the typical elements of mechanical impact of the underground explosion on the host medium—fracturing of rock, spall zones, faults, cracks, etc., were observed. This information supplements to the database of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology and can be applied in fulfilling on-site inspection tasks under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

  16. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumathi, V.R.; Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2008-01-01

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process

  17. Identifying the Tunneling Site in Strong-Field Ionization of H_{2}^{+}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunlong; Barth, Ingo

    2017-12-15

    The tunneling site of the electron in a molecule exposed to a strong laser field determines the initial position of the ionizing electron and, as a result, has a large impact on the subsequent ultrafast electron dynamics on the polyatomic Coulomb potential. Here, the tunneling site of the electron of H_{2}^{+} ionized by a strong circularly polarized (CP) laser pulse is studied by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We show that the electron removed from the down-field site is directly driven away by the CP field and the lateral photoelectron momentum distribution (LPMD) exhibits a Gaussian-like distribution, whereas the corresponding LPMD of the electron removed from the up-field site differs from the Gaussian shape due to the Coulomb focusing and scattering by the down-field core. Our current study presents the direct evidence clarifying a long-standing controversy over the tunneling site in H_{2}^{+} and raises the important role of the tunneling site in strong-field molecular ionization.

  18. Analysis Methodology for Optimal Selection of Ground Station Site in Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, J.; Farjas, M.; Martínez, R.

    2013-12-01

    Optimization of ground station sites is especially important in complex missions that include several small satellites (clusters or constellations) such as the QB50 project, where one ground station would be able to track several spatial vehicles, even simultaneously. In this regard the design of the communication system has to carefully take into account the ground station site and relevant signal phenomena, depending on the frequency band. To propose the optimal location of the ground station, these aspects become even more relevant to establish a trusted communication link due to the ground segment site in urban areas and/or selection of low orbits for the space segment. In addition, updated cartography with high resolution data of the location and its surroundings help to develop recommendations in the design of its location for spatial vehicles tracking and hence to improve effectiveness. The objectives of this analysis methodology are: completion of cartographic information, modelling the obstacles that hinder communication between the ground and space segment and representation in the generated 3D scene of the degree of impairment in the signal/noise of the phenomena that interferes with communication. The integration of new technologies of geographic data capture, such as 3D Laser Scan, determine that increased optimization of the antenna elevation mask, in its AOS and LOS azimuths along the horizon visible, maximizes visibility time with spatial vehicles. Furthermore, from the three-dimensional cloud of points captured, specific information is selected and, using 3D modeling techniques, the 3D scene of the antenna location site and surroundings is generated. The resulting 3D model evidences nearby obstacles related to the cartographic conditions such as mountain formations and buildings, and any additional obstacles that interfere with the operational quality of the antenna (other antennas and electronic devices that emit or receive in the same bandwidth

  19. Optimal Locations for Siting Wind Energy Projects: Technical Challenges, Economics, and Public Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Julian V.

    Increasing the percentage of wind power in the United States electricity generation mix would facilitate the transition towards a more sustainable, low-pollution, and environmentally-conscious electricity grid. However, this effort is not without cost. Wind power generation is time-variable and typically not synchronized with electricity demand (i.e., load). In addition, the highest-output wind resources are often located in remote locations, necessitating transmission investment between generation sites and load. Furthermore, negative public perceptions of wind projects could prevent widespread wind development, especially for projects close to densely-populated communities. The work presented in my dissertation seeks to understand where it's best to locate wind energy projects while considering these various factors. First, in Chapter 2, I examine whether energy storage technologies, such as grid-scale batteries, could help reduce the transmission upgrade costs incurred when siting wind projects in distant locations. For a case study of a hypothetical 200 MW wind project in North Dakota that delivers power to Illinois, I present an optimization model that estimates the optimal size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generation and transmission (/MWh). I find that for this application of storage to be economical, energy storage costs would have to be 100/kWh or lower, which is well below current costs for available technologies. I conclude that there are likely better ways to use energy storage than for accessing distant wind projects. Following from this work, in Chapter 3, I present an optimization model to estimate the economics of accessing high quality wind resources in remote areas to comply with renewable energy policy targets. I include temporal aspects of wind power (variability costs and correlation to market prices) as well as total wind power produced from different farms. I assess the goal of providing

  20. Refinement of a Method for Identifying Probable Archaeological Sites from Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.; Comer, Douglas C.; Priebe, Carey E.; Sussman, Daniel; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate locating archaeological sites before they are compromised or destroyed, we are developing approaches for generating maps of probable archaeological sites, through detecting subtle anomalies in vegetative cover, soil chemistry, and soil moisture by analyzing remotely sensed data from multiple sources. We previously reported some success in this effort with a statistical analysis of slope, radar, and Ikonos data (including tasseled cap and NDVI transforms) with Student's t-test. We report here on new developments in our work, performing an analysis of 8-band multispectral Worldview-2 data. The Worldview-2 analysis begins by computing medians and median absolute deviations for the pixels in various annuli around each site of interest on the 28 band difference ratios. We then use principle components analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis to train a classifier which assigns a posterior probability that a location is an archaeological site. We tested the procedure using leave-one-out cross validation with a second leave-one-out step to choose parameters on a 9,859x23,000 subset of the WorldView-2 data over the western portion of Ft. Irwin, CA, USA. We used 100 known non-sites and trained one classifier for lithic sites (n=33) and one classifier for habitation sites (n=16). We then analyzed convex combinations of scores from the Archaeological Predictive Model (APM) and our scores. We found that that the combined scores had a higher area under the ROC curve than either individual method, indicating that including WorldView-2 data in analysis improved the predictive power of the provided APM.

  1. Switches in Genomic GC Content Drive Shifts of Optimal Codons under Sustained Selection on Synonymous Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Tamarit, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The major codon preference model suggests that codons read by tRNAs in high concentrations are preferentially utilized in highly expressed genes. However, the identity of the optimal codons differs between species although the forces driving such changes are poorly understood. We suggest that these questions can be tackled by placing codon usage studies in a phylogenetic framework and that bacterial genomes with extreme nucleotide composition biases provide informative model systems. Switches in the background substitution biases from GC to AT have occurred in Gardnerella vaginalis (GC = 32%), and from AT to GC in Lactobacillus delbrueckii (GC = 62%) and Lactobacillus fermentum (GC = 63%). We show that despite the large effects on codon usage patterns by these switches, all three species evolve under selection on synonymous sites. In G. vaginalis, the dramatic codon frequency changes coincide with shifts of optimal codons. In contrast, the optimal codons have not shifted in the two Lactobacillus genomes despite an increased fraction of GC-ending codons. We suggest that all three species are in different phases of an on-going shift of optimal codons, and attribute the difference to a stronger background substitution bias and/or longer time since the switch in G. vaginalis. We show that comparative and correlative methods for optimal codon identification yield conflicting results for genomes in flux and discuss possible reasons for the mispredictions. We conclude that switches in the direction of the background substitution biases can drive major shifts in codon preference patterns even under sustained selection on synonymous codon sites. PMID:27540085

  2. Biological data warehousing system for identifying transcriptional regulatory sites from gene expressions of microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Ann-Ping; Sun, Yi-Ming; Liu, Chia-Lin; Huang, Hsien-Da; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Tsai, Meng-Feng; Liu, Baw-Juine

    2006-07-01

    Identification of transcriptional regulatory sites plays an important role in the investigation of gene regulation. For this propose, we designed and implemented a data warehouse to integrate multiple heterogeneous biological data sources with data types such as text-file, XML, image, MySQL database model, and Oracle database model. The utility of the biological data warehouse in predicting transcriptional regulatory sites of coregulated genes was explored using a synexpression group derived from a microarray study. Both of the binding sites of known transcription factors and predicted over-represented (OR) oligonucleotides were demonstrated for the gene group. The potential biological roles of both known nucleotides and one OR nucleotide were demonstrated using bioassays. Therefore, the results from the wet-lab experiments reinforce the power and utility of the data warehouse as an approach to the genome-wide search for important transcription regulatory elements that are the key to many complex biological systems.

  3. Superfund TIO videos. Set A. Identifying PRPS. Removal process: Removal site evaluation. Part 2. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The videotape is divided into three sections. Section 1 details the liability of Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) and describes the four classes of PRPs: current owners and operators, former owners and operators, generators, and transporters (if they selected the site). Section 2 lists the goals of the Potentially Responsible Party (PRP) search and explains how to identify key players during the PRP search. How to plan and conduct the PRP search is also outlined. Section 3 outlines the steps involved in conducting a removal site evaluation. A discussion of when to conduct a removal preliminary assessment, a removal site inspection, and an Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/AC) also is covered

  4. FANCD2 binding identifies conserved fragile sites at large transcribed genes in avian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Constanze; Shah, Shiraz Ali; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2018-01-01

    Common Chromosomal Fragile Sites (CFSs) are specific genomic regions prone to form breaks on metaphase chromosomes in response to replication stress. Moreover, CFSs are mutational hotspots in cancer genomes, showing that the mutational mechanisms that operate at CFSs are highly active in cancer c...

  5. Distributed Energy Resources On-Site Optimization for Commercial Buildings with Electric and Thermal Storage Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Stadler, Michael; Aki, Hirohisa; Firestone, Ryan; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic as well as environmental attractiveness of on-site generation (e.g., PV, fuel cells, reciprocating engines or microturbines operating with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and carbon emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that has the minimization of annual energy costs as its objective function. By implementing this approach in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS), the problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, such as schools and nursing homes, to obtain not only the level of technology investment, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in DER optimization on a building level, with example applications for commercial buildings. Preliminary analysis indicates that storage technologies respond effectively to time-varying electricity prices, i.e., by charging batteries during periods of low electricity prices and discharging them during peak hours. The results also indicate that storage technologies significantly alter the residual load profile, which can contribute to lower carbon emissions depending on the test site, its load profile, and its adopted DER technologies

  6. Constructing Optimal Coarse-Grained Sites of Huge Biomolecules by Fluctuation Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, John Zenghui; Xia, Fei

    2016-04-12

    Coarse-grained (CG) models are valuable tools for the study of functions of large biomolecules on large length and time scales. The definition of CG representations for huge biomolecules is always a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new method called fluctuation maximization coarse-graining (FM-CG) to construct the CG sites of biomolecules. The defined residual in FM-CG converges to a maximal value as the number of CG sites increases, allowing an optimal CG model to be rigorously defined on the basis of the maximum. More importantly, we developed a robust algorithm called stepwise local iterative optimization (SLIO) to accelerate the process of coarse-graining large biomolecules. By means of the efficient SLIO algorithm, the computational cost of coarse-graining large biomolecules is reduced to within the time scale of seconds, which is far lower than that of conventional simulated annealing. The coarse-graining of two huge systems, chaperonin GroEL and lengsin, indicates that our new methods can coarse-grain huge biomolecular systems with up to 10,000 residues within the time scale of minutes. The further parametrization of CG sites derived from FM-CG allows us to construct the corresponding CG models for studies of the functions of huge biomolecular systems.

  7. Ligand-bound Structures and Site-directed Mutagenesis Identify the Acceptor and Secondary Binding Sites of Streptomyces coelicolor Maltosyltransferase GlgE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syson, Karl; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Miah, Farzana; Barclay, J. Elaine; Tang, Minhong; Gorelik, Andrii; Rashid, Abdul M.; Lawson, David M.; Bornemann, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    GlgE is a maltosyltransferase involved in α-glucan biosynthesis in bacteria that has been genetically validated as a target for tuberculosis therapies. Crystals of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme diffract at low resolution so most structural studies have been with the very similar Streptomyces coelicolor GlgE isoform 1. Although the donor binding site for α-maltose 1-phosphate had been previously structurally defined, the acceptor site had not. Using mutagenesis, kinetics, and protein crystallography of the S. coelicolor enzyme, we have now identified the +1 to +6 subsites of the acceptor/product, which overlap with the known cyclodextrin binding site. The sugar residues in the acceptor subsites +1 to +5 are oriented such that they disfavor the binding of malto-oligosaccharides that bear branches at their 6-positions, consistent with the known acceptor chain specificity of GlgE. A secondary binding site remote from the catalytic center was identified that is distinct from one reported for the M. tuberculosis enzyme. This new site is capable of binding a branched α-glucan and is most likely involved in guiding acceptors toward the donor site because its disruption kinetically compromises the ability of GlgE to extend polymeric substrates. However, disruption of this site, which is conserved in the Streptomyces venezuelae GlgE enzyme, did not affect the growth of S. venezuelae or the structure of the polymeric product. The acceptor subsites +1 to +4 in the S. coelicolor enzyme are well conserved in the M. tuberculosis enzyme so their identification could help inform the design of inhibitors with therapeutic potential. PMID:27531751

  8. Computer-based planning of optimal donor sites for autologous osseous grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Zdzislaw; Chlebiej, Michal; Zerfass, Peter; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Sader, Robert; Mikolajczak, Pawel; Keeve, Erwin

    2002-05-01

    Bone graft surgery is often necessary for reconstruction of craniofacial defects after trauma, tumor, infection or congenital malformation. In this operative technique the removed or missing bone segment is filled with a bone graft. The mainstay of the craniofacial reconstruction rests with the replacement of the defected bone by autogeneous bone grafts. To achieve sufficient incorporation of the autograft into the host bone, precise planning and simulation of the surgical intervention is required. The major problem is to determine as accurately as possible the donor site where the graft should be dissected from and to define the shape of the desired transplant. A computer-aided method for semi-automatic selection of optimal donor sites for autografts in craniofacial reconstructive surgery has been developed. The non-automatic step of graft design and constraint setting is followed by a fully automatic procedure to find the best fitting position. In extension to preceding work, a new optimization approach based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method has been implemented and embedded into our computer-based surgical planning system. This new technique enables, once the pre-processing step has been performed, selection of the optimal donor site in time less than one minute. The method has been applied during surgery planning step in more than 20 cases. The postoperative observations have shown that functional results, such as speech and chewing ability as well as restoration of bony continuity were clearly better compared to conventionally planned operations. Moreover, in most cases the duration of the surgical interventions has been distinctly reduced.

  9. Neuropeptide Y binding sites in rat brain identified with purified neuropeptide Y-I125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.W.; Miller, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a widely distributed neuronally localized peptide with 36 amino acids, 5 of which are tyrosines. The authors wished to investigate the properties of specific receptors for NPY. They therefore labeled the tyrosines with I125 using chloramine T and then purified the peptide using HPLC. A single mono-iodinated species of NPY which yielded > 85% specific binding in rat forebrain synaptosomes was selected as the ligand for all subsequent experiments. A time course of binding showed that equilibrium conditions were reached in 60 minutes at 21 0 C. Scatchard plots revealed a single class of binding sites with a Kd and a Bmax of 3 x 10-10 M and 28 pmol/mg, respectively. Competition binding with unlabeled NPY showed 50% displacement of bound ligand at 1 x 10-10 M NPY. Competition binding with rat pancreatic polypeptide (RPP), a homologous peptide possessing little NPY-like activity, showed 50% displacement of bound ligand at 2 x 10 -7 M RPP. No binding was observed on F-11 or PC12 neuronal cell lines, or on HSWP fibroblast cells. They conclude that NPY-I125 purified to homogeneity with HPLC is a highly selective ligand for NPY receptor sites. They are currently investigating such sites in brain, gut, and other tissues

  10. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  11. Using Geoscience and Geostatistics to Optimize Groundwater Monitoring Networks at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckfield, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    A team of scientists, engineers, and statisticians was assembled to review the operation efficiency of groundwater monitoring networks at US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). Subsequent to a feasibility study, this team selected and conducted an analysis of the A/M area groundwater monitoring well network. The purpose was to optimize the number of groundwater wells requisite for monitoring the plumes of the principal constituent of concern, viz., trichloroethylene (TCE). The project gathered technical expertise from the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), the Environmental Restoration Division (ERD), and the Environmental Protection Department (EPD) of SRS

  12. Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy identifies flexible sites in proline and alanine peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous thermo dynamic Raman spectroscopy (TDRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur just prior to phase transitions. Herein we apply TDRS...

  13. That Was Then, This Is Now: Replacing the Mobile-Optimized Site with Responsive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie M. Bridges

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As mobile technologies continue to evolve, libraries seek sustainable ways to keep up with these changes and to best serve our users.  Previous library mobile usability research has examined tasks users predict they might be likely to perform, but little is known about what users actually do on a mobile-optimized library site.  This research used a combination of survey methodology and web analytics to examine what tasks users actually carry out on a library mobile site.  The results indicate that users perform an array of passive and active tasks and do not want content choices to be limited on mobile devices.  Responsive design is described as a long-term solution for addressing both designers and users’ needs.

  14. An optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Elin; Berntsson, Thore; Stroemberg, Ann-Brith; Patriksson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainties in future energy prices and policies strongly affect decisions on investments in process integration measures in industry. In this paper, we present a five-step methodology for the identification of robust investment alternatives incorporating explicitly such uncertainties in the optimization model. Methods for optimization under uncertainty (or, stochastic programming) are thus combined with a deep understanding of process integration and process technology in order to achieve a framework for decision-making concerning the investment planning of process integration measures under uncertainty. The proposed methodology enables the optimization of investments in energy efficiency with respect to their net present value or an environmental objective. In particular, as a result of the optimization approach, complex investment alternatives, allowing for combinations of energy efficiency measures, can be analyzed. Uncertainties as well as time-dependent parameters, such as energy prices and policies, are modelled using a scenario-based approach, enabling the identification of robust investment solutions. The methodology is primarily an aid for decision-makers in industry, but it will also provide insight for policy-makers into how uncertainties regarding future price levels and policy instruments affect the decisions on investments in energy efficiency measures. (author)

  15. An optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Elin; Berntsson, Thore [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Stroemberg, Ann-Brith [Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Chalmers Science Park, SE-412 88 Gothenburg (Sweden); Patriksson, Michael [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Uncertainties in future energy prices and policies strongly affect decisions on investments in process integration measures in industry. In this paper, we present a five-step methodology for the identification of robust investment alternatives incorporating explicitly such uncertainties in the optimization model. Methods for optimization under uncertainty (or, stochastic programming) are thus combined with a deep understanding of process integration and process technology in order to achieve a framework for decision-making concerning the investment planning of process integration measures under uncertainty. The proposed methodology enables the optimization of investments in energy efficiency with respect to their net present value or an environmental objective. In particular, as a result of the optimization approach, complex investment alternatives, allowing for combinations of energy efficiency measures, can be analyzed. Uncertainties as well as time-dependent parameters, such as energy prices and policies, are modelled using a scenario-based approach, enabling the identification of robust investment solutions. The methodology is primarily an aid for decision-makers in industry, but it will also provide insight for policy-makers into how uncertainties regarding future price levels and policy instruments affect the decisions on investments in energy efficiency measures. (author)

  16. A preliminary guidebook for identifying stratigraphic contacts at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawloski, G.A.; McKague, H.L.; Wagoner, J.L.; McKinnis, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    Lithologic variation, regional depositional trends, and the lack of written guidelines have resulted in inconsistencies in the recognition of stratigraphic contacts in drill holes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Stratigraphic identification, based on mineralogy of discrete samples, can be augmented by geophysical logs and downhole movies to more accurately and consistently locate contacts between units. Criteria are established for locating the base of the Pahute Mesa ash-flow tuff, the top of the Ammonia Tanks ash-flow tuff, the top of the Ammonia Tanks bedded tuff, and the top and the base of the Rainier Mesa Tuff

  17. Parameter optimization, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis of an ecosystem model at a forest flux tower site in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Huang, Zhihong; Yan, Wende

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem models are useful tools for understanding ecological processes and for sustainable management of resources. In biogeochemical field, numerical models have been widely used for investigating carbon dynamics under global changes from site to regional and global scales. However, it is still challenging to optimize parameters and estimate parameterization uncertainty for complex process-based models such as the Erosion Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM), a modified version of CENTURY, that consider carbon, water, and nutrient cycles of ecosystems. This study was designed to conduct the parameter identifiability, optimization, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis of EDCM using our developed EDCM-Auto, which incorporated a comprehensive R package—Flexible Modeling Framework (FME) and the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) algorithm. Using a forest flux tower site as a case study, we implemented a comprehensive modeling analysis involving nine parameters and four target variables (carbon and water fluxes) with their corresponding measurements based on the eddy covariance technique. The local sensitivity analysis shows that the plant production-related parameters (e.g., PPDF1 and PRDX) are most sensitive to the model cost function. Both SCE and FME are comparable and performed well in deriving the optimal parameter set with satisfactory simulations of target variables. Global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis indicate that the parameter uncertainty and the resulting output uncertainty can be quantified, and that the magnitude of parameter-uncertainty effects depends on variables and seasons. This study also demonstrates that using the cutting-edge R functions such as FME can be feasible and attractive for conducting comprehensive parameter analysis for ecosystem modeling.

  18. A Study Identifying Causes of Construction Waste Production and Applying Safety Management on Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Najafpoor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In a recent century, the amount of construction waste has increased significantly. Although the building industry has a considerable role in the development of a society, it is regarded as an environmentally destructive. Source reduction is the highest goal in the waste management hierarchy and is in priority. It also has economic benefits by reducing costs associated with transportation, disposal or recycling of wastes. The present study is aimed to identify activities generating the wastes in design, transportation and storage and procurement of building materials. Materials and Methods: This was questionnaire survey. A total of 94 professionals in the construction industry were attended in this study. To determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, content validity method and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.79 were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviation were determined in this research. Results: The results showed that handling and storage have been chosen as the most causative factor of waste production in construction activity. Improper material storage was identified major factor in producing waste in handling and storage phase. Usage of low-quality material in design stage and material price changes in procurement were recognized as major causes of waste production in these stages. Conclusion: All studied phases in this research were identified as causative factors in producing of waste. Identifying causes of construction waste production will help us decide better how to control this sort of wastes.

  19. Identifying the optimal supply temperature in district heating networks - A modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Soma; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    of this study is to develop a model for thermo-hydraulic calculation of low temperature DH system. The modelling is performed with emphasis on transient heat transfer in pipe networks. The pseudo-dynamic approach is adopted to model the District Heating Network [DHN] behaviour which estimates the temperature...... dynamically while the flow and pressure are calculated on the basis of steady state conditions. The implicit finite element method is applied to simulate the transient temperature behaviour in the network. Pipe network heat losses, pressure drop in the network and return temperature to the plant...... are calculated in the developed model. The model will serve eventually as a basis to find out the optimal supply temperature in an existing DHN in later work. The modelling results are used as decision support for existing DHN; proposing possible modifications to operate at optimal supply temperature....

  20. Identifying optimal agricultural countermeasure strategies for a hypothetical contamination scenario using the strategy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Alvarez-Farizo, B.; Oughton, D.; Kis, Z.; Eged, K.; Thorring, H.; Hunt, J.; Wright, S.; Barnett, C.L.; Gil, J.M.; Howard, B.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A spatially implemented model designed to assist the identification of optimal countermeasure strategies for radioactively contaminated regions is described. Collective and individual ingestion doses for people within the affected area are estimated together with collective exported ingestion dose. A range of countermeasures are incorporated within the model, and environmental restrictions have been included as appropriate. The model evaluates the effectiveness of a given combination of countermeasures through a cost function which balances the benefit obtained through the reduction in dose with the cost of implementation. The optimal countermeasure strategy is the combination of individual countermeasures (and when and where they are implemented) which gives the lowest value of the cost function. The model outputs should not be considered as definitive solutions, rather as interactive inputs to the decision making process. As a demonstration the model has been applied to a hypothetical scenario in Cumbria (UK). This scenario considered a published nuclear power plant accident scenario with a total deposition of 1.7 x 10 14 , 1.2 x 10 13 , 2.8 x 10 10 and 5.3 x 10 9 Bq for Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-239/240 and Am-241, respectively. The model predicts that if no remediation measures were implemented the resulting collective dose would be approximately 36 000 person-Sv (predominantly from 137 Cs) over a 10-year period post-deposition. The optimal countermeasure strategy is predicted to avert approximately 33 000 person-Sv at a cost of approximately pound 160 million. The optimal strategy comprises a mixture of ploughing, AFCF (ammonium-ferric hexacyano-ferrate) administration, potassium fertiliser application, clean feeding of livestock and food restrictions. The model recommends specific areas within the contaminated area and time periods where these measures should be implemented

  1. Glass optimization for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Hrma, P.R.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    The radioactive defense wastes stored in 177 underground single-shell tanks (SST) and double-shell tanks (DST) at the Hanford Site will be separated into low-level and high-level fractions. One technology activity underway at PNNL is the development of glass formulations for the immobilization of the low-level tank wastes. A glass formulation strategy has been developed that describes development approaches to optimize glass compositions prior to the projected LLW vitrification facility start-up in 2005. Implementation of this strategy requires testing of glass formulations spanning a number of waste loadings, compositions, and additives over the range of expected waste compositions. The resulting glasses will then be characterized and compared to processing and performance specifications yet to be developed. This report documents the glass formulation work conducted at PNL in fiscal years 1994 and 1995 including glass formulation optimization, minor component impacts evaluation, Phase 1 and Phase 2 melter vendor glass development, liquidus temperature and crystallization kinetics determination. This report also summarizes relevant work at PNNL on high-iron glasses for Hanford tank wastes conducted through the Mixed Waste Integrated Program and work at Savannah River Technology Center to optimize glass formulations using a Plackett-Burnam experimental design

  2. Long term developments in irradiated natural uranium processing costs. Optimal size and siting of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, L.

    1964-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to help solve the problem of the selection of optimal sizes and sites for spent nuclear fuel processing plants associated with power capacity programmes already installed. Firstly, the structure of capital and running costs of irradiated natural uranium processing plants is studied, as well as the influence of plant sizes on these costs and structures. Shipping costs from the production site to the plant must also be added to processing costs. An attempt to reach a minimum cost for the production of a country or a group of countries must therefore take into account both the size and the location of the plants. The foreseeable shipping costs and their structure (freight, insurance, container cost and depreciation), for spent natural uranium are indicated. Secondly, for various annual spent fuel reprocessing programmes, the optimal sizes and locations of the plants are determined. The sensitivity of the results to the basic assumptions relative to processing costs, shipping costs, the starting up year of the plant programme and the length of period considered, is also tested. - this rather complex problem, of a combinative nature, is solved through dynamic programming methods. - It is shown that these methods can also be applied to the problem of selecting the optimal sizes and locations of processing plants for MTR type fuel elements, related to research reactor programmes, as well as to future plutonium element processing plants related to breeder reactors. Thirdly, the case where yearly extraction of the plutonium contained in the irradiated natural uranium is not compulsory is examined; some stockpiling of the fuel is then allowed some years, entailing delayed processing. The load factor of such plants is thus greatly improved with respect to that of plants where the annual plutonium demand is strictly satisfied. By including spent natural uranium stockpiling costs an optimal rhythm of introduction and optimal sizes for spent fuel

  3. Computational Characterization of Small Molecules Binding to the Human XPF Active Site and Virtual Screening to Identify Potential New DNA Repair Inhibitors Targeting the ERCC1-XPF Endonuclease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gentile

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The DNA excision repair protein ERCC-1-DNA repair endonuclease XPF (ERCC1-XPF is a heterodimeric endonuclease essential for the nucleotide excision repair (NER DNA repair pathway. Although its activity is required to maintain genome integrity in healthy cells, ERCC1-XPF can counteract the effect of DNA-damaging therapies such as platinum-based chemotherapy in cancer cells. Therefore, a promising approach to enhance the effect of these therapies is to combine their use with small molecules, which can inhibit the repair mechanisms in cancer cells. Currently, there are no structures available for the catalytic site of the human ERCC1-XPF, which performs the metal-mediated cleavage of a DNA damaged strand at 5′. We adopted a homology modeling strategy to build a structural model of the human XPF nuclease domain which contained the active site and to extract dominant conformations of the domain using molecular dynamics simulations followed by clustering of the trajectory. We investigated the binding modes of known small molecule inhibitors targeting the active site to build a pharmacophore model. We then performed a virtual screening of the ZINC Is Not Commercial 15 (ZINC15 database to identify new ERCC1-XPF endonuclease inhibitors. Our work provides structural insights regarding the binding mode of small molecules targeting the ERCC1-XPF active site that can be used to rationally optimize such compounds. We also propose a set of new potential DNA repair inhibitors to be considered for combination cancer therapy strategies.

  4. Improving probabilistic prediction of daily streamflow by identifying Pareto optimal approaches for modeling heteroscedastic residual errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, David; Thyer, Mark; Kavetski, Dmitri; Lerat, Julien; Kuczera, George

    2017-03-01

    Reliable and precise probabilistic prediction of daily catchment-scale streamflow requires statistical characterization of residual errors of hydrological models. This study focuses on approaches for representing error heteroscedasticity with respect to simulated streamflow, i.e., the pattern of larger errors in higher streamflow predictions. We evaluate eight common residual error schemes, including standard and weighted least squares, the Box-Cox transformation (with fixed and calibrated power parameter λ) and the log-sinh transformation. Case studies include 17 perennial and 6 ephemeral catchments in Australia and the United States, and two lumped hydrological models. Performance is quantified using predictive reliability, precision, and volumetric bias metrics. We find the choice of heteroscedastic error modeling approach significantly impacts on predictive performance, though no single scheme simultaneously optimizes all performance metrics. The set of Pareto optimal schemes, reflecting performance trade-offs, comprises Box-Cox schemes with λ of 0.2 and 0.5, and the log scheme (λ = 0, perennial catchments only). These schemes significantly outperform even the average-performing remaining schemes (e.g., across ephemeral catchments, median precision tightens from 105% to 40% of observed streamflow, and median biases decrease from 25% to 4%). Theoretical interpretations of empirical results highlight the importance of capturing the skew/kurtosis of raw residuals and reproducing zero flows. Paradoxically, calibration of λ is often counterproductive: in perennial catchments, it tends to overfit low flows at the expense of abysmal precision in high flows. The log-sinh transformation is dominated by the simpler Pareto optimal schemes listed above. Recommendations for researchers and practitioners seeking robust residual error schemes for practical work are provided.

  5. Genetic Algorithms for Models Optimization for Recognition of Translation Initiation Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Mora, Arturo Magana

    2011-06-01

    This work uses genetic algorithms (GA) to reduce the complexity of the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and decision trees (DTs) for the accurate recognition of translation initiation sites (TISs) in Arabidopsis Thaliana. The Arabidopsis data was extracted directly from genomic DNA sequences. Methods derived in this work resulted in both reduced complexity of the predictors, as well as in improvement in prediction accuracy (generalization). Optimization through use of GA is generally a computationally intensive task. One of the approaches to overcome this problem is to use parallelization of code that implements GA, thus allowing computation on multiprocessing infrastructure. However, further improvement in performance GA implementation could be achieved through modification done to GA basic operations such as selection, crossover and mutation. In this work we explored two such improvements, namely evolutive mutation and GA-Simplex crossover operation. In this thesis we studied the benefit of these modifications on the problem of TISs recognition. Compared to the non-modified GA approach, we reduced the number of weights in the resulting model\\'s neural network component by 51% and the number of nodes in the model\\'s DTs component by 97% whilst improving the model\\'s accuracy at the same time. Separately, we developed another methodology for reducing the complexity of prediction models by optimizing the composition of training data subsets in bootstrap aggregation (bagging) methodology. This optimization is achieved by applying a new GA-based bagging methodology in order to optimize the composition of each of the training data subsets. This approach has shown in our test cases to considerably enhance the accuracy of the TIS prediction model compared to the original bagging methodology. Although these methods are applied to the problem of accurate prediction of TISs we believe that these methodologies have a potential for wider scope of application.

  6. Robust multi-site MR data processing: iterative optimization of bias correction, tissue classification, and registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Kim, Eun; Johnson, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    A robust multi-modal tool, for automated registration, bias correction, and tissue classification, has been implemented for large-scale heterogeneous multi-site longitudinal MR data analysis. This work focused on improving the an iterative optimization framework between bias-correction, registration, and tissue classification inspired from previous work. The primary contributions are robustness improvements from incorporation of following four elements: (1) utilize multi-modal and repeated scans, (2) incorporate high-deformable registration, (3) use extended set of tissue definitions, and (4) use of multi-modal aware intensity-context priors. The benefits of these enhancements were investigated by a series of experiments with both simulated brain data set (BrainWeb) and by applying to highly-heterogeneous data from a 32 site imaging study with quality assessments through the expert visual inspection. The implementation of this tool is tailored for, but not limited to, large-scale data processing with great data variation with a flexible interface. In this paper, we describe enhancements to a joint registration, bias correction, and the tissue classification, that improve the generalizability and robustness for processing multi-modal longitudinal MR scans collected at multi-sites. The tool was evaluated by using both simulated and simulated and human subject MRI images. With these enhancements, the results showed improved robustness for large-scale heterogeneous MRI processing.

  7. The Spleen as an Optimal Site for Islet Transplantation and a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoaki Sakata

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review demonstrates the unique potential of the spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy used to treat severe diabetes mellitus; however, its clinical outcome is currently unsatisfactory. Selection of the most appropriate transplantation site is a major factor affecting the clinical success of this therapy. The spleen has long been studied as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity, and it has recently also been shown to contribute to the regeneration of transplanted islets. However, the efficacy of transplantation in the spleen is lower than that of intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established to allow the spleen to be used for clinical transplantation. The spleen is also of interest as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. Splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to the repair of damaged tissue, and their infusion may thus be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.

  8. The Spleen as an Optimal Site for Islet Transplantation and a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Naoaki; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Kodama, Shohta

    2018-05-07

    This review demonstrates the unique potential of the spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and as a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy used to treat severe diabetes mellitus; however, its clinical outcome is currently unsatisfactory. Selection of the most appropriate transplantation site is a major factor affecting the clinical success of this therapy. The spleen has long been studied as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity, and it has recently also been shown to contribute to the regeneration of transplanted islets. However, the efficacy of transplantation in the spleen is lower than that of intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established to allow the spleen to be used for clinical transplantation. The spleen is also of interest as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. Splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to the repair of damaged tissue, and their infusion may thus be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.

  9. Identifying opportune landing sites in degraded visual environments with terrain and cultural databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Marc; Fisher, Robert; Little, J. Kristin

    2014-06-01

    Boeing has developed a degraded visual environment navigational aid that is flying on the Boeing AH-6 light attack helicopter. The navigational aid is a two dimensional software digital map underlay generated by the Boeing™ Geospatial Embedded Mapping Software (GEMS) and fully integrated with the operational flight program. The page format on the aircraft's multi function displays (MFD) is termed the Approach page. The existing work utilizes Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and OpenGL ES 2.0 graphics capabilities to compute the pertinent graphics underlay entirely on the graphics processor unit (GPU) within the AH-6 mission computer. The next release will incorporate cultural databases containing Digital Vertical Obstructions (DVO) to warn the crew of towers, buildings, and power lines when choosing an opportune landing site. Future IRAD will include Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) point cloud generating sensors to provide 2D and 3D synthetic vision on the final approach to the landing zone. Collision detection with respect to terrain, cultural, and point cloud datasets may be used to further augment the crew warning system. The techniques for creating the digital map underlay leverage the GPU almost entirely, making this solution viable on most embedded mission computing systems with an OpenGL ES 2.0 capable GPU. This paper focuses on the AH-6 crew interface process for determining a landing zone and flying the aircraft to it.

  10. A bioinformatics approach for identifying transgene insertion sites using whole genome sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doori; Park, Su-Hyun; Ban, Yong Wook; Kim, Youn Shic; Park, Kyoung-Cheul; Kim, Nam-Soo; Kim, Ju-Kon; Choi, Ik-Young

    2017-08-15

    Genetically modified crops (GM crops) have been developed to improve the agricultural traits of modern crop cultivars. Safety assessments of GM crops are of paramount importance in research at developmental stages and before releasing transgenic plants into the marketplace. Sequencing technology is developing rapidly, with higher output and labor efficiencies, and will eventually replace existing methods for the molecular characterization of genetically modified organisms. To detect the transgenic insertion locations in the three GM rice gnomes, Illumina sequencing reads are mapped and classified to the rice genome and plasmid sequence. The both mapped reads are classified to characterize the junction site between plant and transgene sequence by sequence alignment. Herein, we present a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular characterization method, using transgenic rice plants SNU-Bt9-5, SNU-Bt9-30, and SNU-Bt9-109. Specifically, using bioinformatics tools, we detected the precise insertion locations and copy numbers of transfer DNA, genetic rearrangements, and the absence of backbone sequences, which were equivalent to results obtained from Southern blot analyses. NGS methods have been suggested as an effective means of characterizing and detecting transgenic insertion locations in genomes. Our results demonstrate the use of a combination of NGS technology and bioinformatics approaches that offers cost- and time-effective methods for assessing the safety of transgenic plants.

  11. Mesoscale Biotransformations of Uranium: Identifying Sites and Strategies where Reductive Immobilization is Practical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu K. Tokunaga; Jiamin Wan; Terry C. Hazen; Mary K. Firestone; Eoin Brodie; Yongman Kim; Rebecca Daly

    2006-01-01

    Bioreduction of U in contaminated sediments is an attractive strategy because of its low cost, and because of short-term studies supporting its feasibility. However, any in-situ immobilization approach for U will require assurance of either permanent fixation, or of very low release rates into the biosphere. Our previous long-term (2 years) laboratory experiments have shown that organic carbon (OC) based U(VI) bioreduction to UO2 can be transient even under sustained reducing (methanogenic) conditions. The biogeochemical processes underlying this finding urgently need to be understood. The current research is designed to identify mechanisms responsible for anaerobic U oxidation, and identify conditions that will support long-term stability of bioreduced U. We are investigating: (1) effects of OC concentration and supply rate on remobilization of bioreduced U, (2) the roles of Fe- and Mn-oxides as potential U oxidants in sediments, and (3) the role of microorganisms in U reoxidation, and (4) influences of pH on U(IV)/U(VI) redox equilibrium

  12. Design of future municipal wastewater treatment plants: A mathematical approach to manage complexity and identify optimal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    The increasing number of alternative wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies and stricter effluent requirements imposed by regulations make the early stage decision making for WWTP layout design, which is currently based on expert decisions and previous experiences, much harder. This paper...... therefore proposes a new approach based on mathematical programming to manage the complexity of the problem and generate/identify novel and optimal WWTP layouts for municipal/domestic wastewater treatment. Towards this end, after developing a database consisting of primary, secondary and tertiary WWT...... solved to obtain the optimal WWT network and the optimal wastewater and sludge flow through the network. The tool is evaluated on a case study, which was chosen as the Benchmark Simulation Model no.1 (BSM1) and many retrofitting options for obtaining a cost-effective treatment were investigated...

  13. FIGIFIGO as a tool to characterize and identify planetary analogue sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.; Peltoniemi, J.; Hakala, T.; Muinonen, K.

    2014-07-01

    We present an overview of the Finnish Geodetic Institute's field goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO) and highlight its usability to study extraterrestrial analogues on the Earth. The design concept of this custom-made instrument has been proved to have a number of advantages, such as a well-adopted user-friendly interface, a high level of automation, and excellent suitability for field measurements within a wide range of weather conditions. It is perfect for collection of reference data on a given target in natural undisturbed (and well-recorded for further data interpretation) conditions. The instrument communicates via a controlled computer with an implemented simple and user-friendly interface. This allows users to easily set up optional parameters at the beginning of the measurement series. Thus a number of details may be modified, such as the initial position of the sensor, the range and speed of further automated zenith turns, and length of the turnable arm holding the selected optics (including an option for a computer-turned linear polarizer) above the target. The assembly and operation of the instrument are fast and efficient in both laboratory and field conditions. It is battery powered and easily portable, including possible transportation by plane, car, boat, or sledge. The system includes a sky camera to detect the goniometer orientation and a pyranometer to monitor the actual illumination conditions. A fine-tune mirror is used for spatial correction of the optics footprint. Recent calibration of the system has significantly increased the measurement robustness and data reliability, and has provided the operators with information on how to operate the instrument in the most efficient and accurate way. Measurement campaigns are organized frequently and significant amount of reference data has been already collected. The identification of new planetary analogue sites and characterization of known ones using FIGIFIGO could offer new possibilities and provide

  14. Identifying sites of replication initiation in yeast chromosomes: looking for origins in all the right places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brabant, A J; Hunt, S Y; Fangman, W L; Brewer, B J

    1998-06-01

    DNA fragments that contain an active origin of replication generate bubble-shaped replication intermediates with diverging forks. We describe two methods that use two-dimensional (2-D) agarose gel electrophoresis along with DNA sequence information to identify replication origins in natural and artificial Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes. The first method uses 2-D gels of overlapping DNA fragments to locate an active chromosomal replication origin within a region known to confer autonomous replication on a plasmid. A variant form of 2-D gels can be used to determine the direction of fork movement, and the second method uses this technique to find restriction fragments that are replicated by diverging forks, indicating that a bidirectional replication origin is located between the two fragments. Either of these two methods can be applied to the analysis of any genomic region for which there is DNA sequence information or an adequate restriction map.

  15. Identifying the optimal resistive load for complex training in male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam; Jensen, Randall L

    2007-01-01

    Alternating a resistance exercise with a plyometric exercise is referred to as "complex training". In this study, we examined the effect of various resistive loads on the biomechanics of performance of a fast stretch-shortening cycle activity to determine if an optimal resistive load exists for complex training. Twelve elite rugby players performed three drop jumps before and after three back squat resistive loads of 65%, 80%, and 93% of a single repetition maximum (1-RM) load. All drop jumps were performed on a specially constructed sledge and force platform apparatus. Flight time, ground contact time, peak ground reaction force, reactive strength index, and leg stiffness were the dependent variables. Repeated-measures analysis of variance found that all resistive loads reduced (P benefit performance. However, it is unknown if these acute changes will produce any long-term adaptations to muscle function.

  16. Improving probabilistic prediction of daily streamflow by identifying Pareto optimal approaches for modelling heteroscedastic residual errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, McInerney; Mark, Thyer; Dmitri, Kavetski; George, Kuczera

    2017-04-01

    This study provides guidance to hydrological researchers which enables them to provide probabilistic predictions of daily streamflow with the best reliability and precision for different catchment types (e.g. high/low degree of ephemerality). Reliable and precise probabilistic prediction of daily catchment-scale streamflow requires statistical characterization of residual errors of hydrological models. It is commonly known that hydrological model residual errors are heteroscedastic, i.e. there is a pattern of larger errors in higher streamflow predictions. Although multiple approaches exist for representing this heteroscedasticity, few studies have undertaken a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of these approaches. This study fills this research gap by evaluating 8 common residual error schemes, including standard and weighted least squares, the Box-Cox transformation (with fixed and calibrated power parameter, lambda) and the log-sinh transformation. Case studies include 17 perennial and 6 ephemeral catchments in Australia and USA, and two lumped hydrological models. We find the choice of heteroscedastic error modelling approach significantly impacts on predictive performance, though no single scheme simultaneously optimizes all performance metrics. The set of Pareto optimal schemes, reflecting performance trade-offs, comprises Box-Cox schemes with lambda of 0.2 and 0.5, and the log scheme (lambda=0, perennial catchments only). These schemes significantly outperform even the average-performing remaining schemes (e.g., across ephemeral catchments, median precision tightens from 105% to 40% of observed streamflow, and median biases decrease from 25% to 4%). Theoretical interpretations of empirical results highlight the importance of capturing the skew/kurtosis of raw residuals and reproducing zero flows. Recommendations for researchers and practitioners seeking robust residual error schemes for practical work are provided.

  17. Different Combinations of Perceived Autonomy Support and Control: Identifying the Most Optimal Motivating Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerens, L.; Vansteenkiste, M.; De Meester, A.; Delrue, J.; Tallir, I.; Vande Broek, G.; Goris, W.; Aelterman, N.

    2018-01-01

    Background: According to Self-Determination Theory, teachers and sport coaches can differ in the motivating style they rely upon to motivate young people. When endorsing an autonomy-supportive motivating style, instructors try to identify, vitalize, and nurture youngsters' inner motivational resources. In contrast, instructors with a dominant…

  18. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  19. Optimizing Visits to the Site of Death for Bereaved Families After Disasters and Terrorist Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pål; Dyregrov, Atle; Weisæth, Lars; Straume, Marianne; Dyregrov, Kari; Heir, Trond; Bugge, Renate Grønvold

    2017-09-13

    In recent years it has been common after disasters and terrorist events to offer bereaved families the opportunity to visit the place where their loved ones died. Many report that such visits are beneficial in processing their loss. Various factors, both cognitive (eg, counteracting disbelief) and existential or emotional (eg, achieving a sense of closeness to the deceased), are associated with the experienced benefit. Nonetheless, exacerbations of trauma and grief reactions (eg, re-enactment fantasies) are common, with some of the bereaved also reporting adverse reactions after the visit. Subsequently, proper preparations are a prerequisite before such visits take place. This article describes how to optimize collective visits to the site of death after disasters or terrorist events for bereaved families. Important questions-for example, concerning those who should be responsible for organizing a visit and those who should be invited, the timing of the visit, what can be done at the site, the need for support personnel, and other practical issues-are discussed and general guidelines are recommended. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 5).

  20. Identifying yield-optimizing environments for two cowpea breeding lines by manipulating photoperiod and harvest scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, T. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Photoperiod and harvest scenario of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) canopies were manipulated to optimize productivity for use in future controlled ecological life-support systems. Productivity was measured by edible yield rate (EYR:g m-2 day-1), shoot harvest index (SHI: g edible biomass [g total shoot dry weight]), and yield-efficiency rate (YER:g edible biomass m-2 day-1 per[g nonedible shoot dry weight]). Breeding lines 'IT84S-2246' (S-2246) and "IT82D-889' (D-889) were grown in a greenhouse under 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods. S-2246 was short-day and D-889 was day-neutral for flowering. Under each photoperiod, cowpeas were harvested either for leaves only, seeds only, or leaves plus seeds (mixed harvest). Photoperiod did not affect EYR of either breeding line for any harvest scenario tested. Averaged over both breeding lines, seed harvest gave the highest EYR at 6.7 g m-2 day-1. The highest SHI (65%) and YER (94 mg m-2 day-1 g-1) were achieved for leaf-only harvest of D-889 under an 8-h photoperiod. For leaf-only harvest of S-2246, both SHI and YER increased with increasing photoperiod, but declined for seed-only and mixed harvests. However, photoperiod had no effect on SHI or YER for D-889 for any harvest scenario. A second experiment utilized the short-day cowpea breeding line 'IT89KD-288' (D-288) and the day-neutral breeding line 'IT87D-941-1' (D-941) to compare yield parameters using photoperiod extension under differing lamp types. This experiment confirmed the photoperiod responses of D-889 and S-2246 to a mixed-harvest scenario and indicated that daylength extension with higher irradiance from high pressure sodium lamps further suppressed EYR, SHI, and YER of the short-day breeding line D-288.

  1. Siting and sizing of distributed generators based on improved simulated annealing particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongsheng

    2017-12-18

    Distributed power grids generally contain multiple diverse types of distributed generators (DGs). Traditional particle swarm optimization (PSO) and simulated annealing PSO (SA-PSO) algorithms have some deficiencies in site selection and capacity determination of DGs, such as slow convergence speed and easily falling into local trap. In this paper, an improved SA-PSO (ISA-PSO) algorithm is proposed by introducing crossover and mutation operators of genetic algorithm (GA) into SA-PSO, so that the capabilities of the algorithm are well embodied in global searching and local exploration. In addition, diverse types of DGs are made equivalent to four types of nodes in flow calculation by the backward or forward sweep method, and reactive power sharing principles and allocation theory are applied to determine initial reactive power value and execute subsequent correction, thus providing the algorithm a better start to speed up the convergence. Finally, a mathematical model of the minimum economic cost is established for the siting and sizing of DGs under the location and capacity uncertainties of each single DG. Its objective function considers investment and operation cost of DGs, grid loss cost, annual purchase electricity cost, and environmental pollution cost, and the constraints include power flow, bus voltage, conductor current, and DG capacity. Through applications in an IEEE33-node distributed system, it is found that the proposed method can achieve desirable economic efficiency and safer voltage level relative to traditional PSO and SA-PSO algorithms, and is a more effective planning method for the siting and sizing of DGs in distributed power grids.

  2. Use of GIS to identify optimal settings for cancer prevention and control in African American communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Kassandra I.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Bryan, Rebecca P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Rarely have Geographic Information Systems (GIS) been used to inform community-based outreach and intervention planning. This study sought to identify community settings most likely to reach individuals from geographically localized areas. Method An observational study conducted in an urban city in Missouri during 2003–2007 placed computerized breast cancer education kiosks in seven types of community settings: beauty salons, churches, health fairs, neighborhood health centers, Laundromats, public libraries and social service agencies. We used GIS to measure distance between kiosk users’ (n=7,297) home ZIP codes and the location where they used the kiosk. Mean distances were compared across settings. Results Mean distance between individuals’ home ZIP codes and the location where they used the kiosk varied significantly (pLaundromats (2.3 miles) and public libraries (2.8 miles) and greatest among kiosk users at health fairs (7.6 miles). Conclusion Some community settings are more likely than others to reach highly localized populations. A better understanding of how and where to reach specific populations can complement the progress already being made in identifying populations at increased disease risk. PMID:19422844

  3. Optimizing Travel Time to Outpatient Interventional Radiology Procedures in a Multi-Site Hospital System Using a Google Maps Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jacob E; Morel-Ovalle, Louis; Boas, Franz E; Ziv, Etay; Yarmohammadi, Hooman; Deipolyi, Amy; Mohabir, Heeralall R; Erinjeri, Joseph P

    2018-02-20

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a custom Google Maps application can optimize site selection when scheduling outpatient interventional radiology (IR) procedures within a multi-site hospital system. The Google Maps for Business Application Programming Interface (API) was used to develop an internal web application that uses real-time traffic data to determine estimated travel time (ETT; minutes) and estimated travel distance (ETD; miles) from a patient's home to each a nearby IR facility in our hospital system. Hypothetical patient home addresses based on the 33 cities comprising our institution's catchment area were used to determine the optimal IR site for hypothetical patients traveling from each city based on real-time traffic conditions. For 10/33 (30%) cities, there was discordance between the optimal IR site based on ETT and the optimal IR site based on ETD at non-rush hour time or rush hour time. By choosing to travel to an IR site based on ETT rather than ETD, patients from discordant cities were predicted to save an average of 7.29 min during non-rush hour (p = 0.03), and 28.80 min during rush hour (p travel time when more than one location providing IR procedures is available within the same hospital system.

  4. Identifying optimal vaccination strategies for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccine in the African meningitis belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tartof

    Full Text Available The optimal long-term vaccination strategies to provide population-level protection against serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis (MenA are unknown. We developed an age-structured mathematical model of MenA transmission, colonization, and disease in the African meningitis belt, and used this model to explore the impact of various vaccination strategies.The model stratifies the simulated population into groups based on age, infection status, and MenA antibody levels. We defined the model parameters (such as birth and death rates, age-specific incidence rates, and age-specific duration of protection using published data and maximum likelihood estimation. We assessed the validity of the model by comparing simulated incidence of invasive MenA and prevalence of MenA carriage to observed incidence and carriage data.The model fit well to observed age- and season-specific prevalence of carriage (mean pseudo-R2 0.84 and incidence of invasive disease (mean R2 0.89. The model is able to reproduce the observed dynamics of MenA epidemics in the African meningitis belt, including seasonal increases in incidence, with large epidemics occurring every eight to twelve years. Following a mass vaccination campaign of all persons 1-29 years of age, the most effective modeled vaccination strategy is to conduct mass vaccination campaigns every 5 years for children 1-5 years of age. Less frequent campaigns covering broader age groups would also be effective, although somewhat less so. Introducing conjugate MenA vaccine into the EPI vaccination schedule at 9 months of age results in higher predicted incidence than periodic mass campaigns.We have developed the first mathematical model of MenA in Africa to incorporate age structures and progressively waning protection over time. Our model accurately reproduces key features of MenA epidemiology in the African meningitis belt. This model can help policy makers consider vaccine program effectiveness when determining the

  5. Quantitative assessment of in-solution digestion efficiency identifies optimal protocols for unbiased protein analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leon, Ileana R; Schwämmle, Veit; Jensen, Ole N

    2013-01-01

    a combination of qualitative and quantitative LC-MS/MS methods and statistical data analysis. In contrast to previous studies we employed both standard qualitative as well as data-independent quantitative workflows to systematically assess trypsin digestion efficiency and bias using mitochondrial protein...... conditions (buffer, RapiGest, deoxycholate, urea), and two methods for removal of detergents prior to analysis of peptides (acid precipitation or phase separation with ethyl acetate). Our data-independent quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow quantified over 3700 distinct peptides with 96% completeness between all...... protocols and replicates, with an average 40% protein sequence coverage and an average of 11 peptides identified per protein. Systematic quantitative and statistical analysis of physicochemical parameters demonstrated that deoxycholate-assisted in-solution digestion combined with phase transfer allows...

  6. Small molecule inhibitors of the LEDGF site of human immunodeficiency virus integrase identified by fragment screening and structure based design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S Peat

    Full Text Available A fragment-based screen against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV integrase led to a number of compounds that bound to the lens epithelium derived growth factor (LEDGF binding site of the integrase catalytic core domain. We determined the crystallographic structures of complexes of the HIV integrase catalytic core domain for 10 of these compounds and quantitated the binding by surface plasmon resonance. We demonstrate that the compounds inhibit the interaction of LEDGF with HIV integrase in a proximity AlphaScreen assay, an assay for the LEDGF enhancement of HIV integrase strand transfer and in a cell based assay. The compounds identified represent a potential framework for the development of a new series of HIV integrase inhibitors that do not bind to the catalytic site of the enzyme.

  7. On-site customization of silicone stents: towards optimal palliation of complex airway conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, David P; Dutau, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    Stents may be indicated as treatment of benign and malignant conditions of the central airways. Occasionally, aberrant and/or distorted airways secondary to therapy or surgery may preclude the use of commercially manufactured stents. The customization of stents is well described for nonpulmonary diseases, but to date there are only limited data in the literature on prosthesis customization for airway disease. To review all the different techniques and indications of on-site silicone stent customizations and their related complications. A retrospective study was undertaken to identify all patients who underwent treatment with a silicone stent which was customized on site by the physician. The study included subjects treated during an 8-year period. Forty-nine on-site customizations were performed in 43 patients (34 males, mean age 63 +/- 5.2 years). Stent customization was performed in 5.4% of the cases. Stent customization was performed for malignant and benign disease in 35 (81.3%) and 8 (18.7%) cases, respectively. In all cases, the stent deployed successfully and performed well while in situ. Stent manipulation did not increase complications. Customization of airway stents by the physician can lead to successful stenting of difficult airway lesions with a good short-term safety profile. Standard commercially available stents may have resulted in suboptimal management of complex airway pathologies. A prospective study is warranted to further investigate the safety profile and complications associated with stent customization. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Identifying optimal areas for REDD intervention: East Kalimantan, Indonesia as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Nancy L; Petrova, Silvia; Brown, Sandra; Stolle, Fred

    2008-01-01

    International discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) as a greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement strategy are ongoing under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In the light of these discussions, it behooves countries to be able to determine the relative likelihood of deforestation over a landscape and perform a first order estimation of the potential reduction in GHGs associated with various protection scenarios. This would allow countries to plan their interventions accordingly to maximize carbon benefits, alongside other environmental and socioeconomic benefits, because forest protection programs might be chosen in places where the perceived threat of deforestation is high whereas in reality the threat is low. In this case study, we illustrate a method for creating deforestation threat maps and estimating potential reductions in GHGs from eighteen protected areas in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, that would occur if protection of these areas was well enforced. Results from our analysis indicate that a further 230 720 ha of East Kalimantan's forest area would be lost and approximately 305 million t CO 2 would be emitted from existing protected areas between 2003 and 2013 if the historical rate of deforestation continued unabated. In other words, the emission of 305 million t CO 2 into the atmosphere would be avoided during this period if protection of the existing areas was well enforced. At a price of $4 per ton of CO 2 (approximate price on the Chicago Climate Exchange in August 2008), this represents an estimated gross income stream of about $120 million per year. We also identified additional areas with high carbon stocks under high deforestation threat that would be important to protect if the carbon benefits of avoided deforestation activities are to be maximized in this region

  9. GIS and Multi Criteria Decision Method Based Approach of Identifying Appropriate Landfill Sites for the City Of Chittagong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Ashraf

    2015-02-01

    were identified initially. Out of these sites four were found to be most appropriate and suitable for use as landfill. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12174International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 1-15  

  10. Optimization of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Closure Cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, Greg; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' requires that performance assessments demonstrate that releases of radionuclides to the environment are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Quantitative cost benefit analysis of radiation protection options is one component of the ALARA process. This report summarizes a quantitative cost benefit analysis of closure cover thickness for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. The optimum cover thickness that maintains doses ALARA is shown to be the thickness with the minimum total closure cost. Total closure cost is the sum of cover construction cost and the health detriment cost. Cover construction cost is estimated based on detailed cost estimates for closure of the 92-acre Low-Level Waste Management Unit (LLWMU). The health detriment cost is calculated as the product of collective dose and a constant monetary value of health detriment in units of dollars per unit collective dose. Collective dose is the sum of all individual doses in an exposed population and has units of person-sievert (Sv). Five discrete cover thickness options ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (m) (8.2 to 15 feet (ft)) are evaluated. The optimization was subject to the constraints that (1) options must meet all applicable regulatory requirements and that (2) individual doses be a small fraction of background radiation dose. Total closure cost is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cover thickness for the 92-ac LLWMU, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The cover construction cost is orders of magnitude greater than the health detriment cost. Two-thousand Latin hypercube sampling realizations of the relationship between total closure cost and cover thickness are generated. In every realization, the optimum cover thickness is 2.5 m (8.2 ft) for the 92-ac Low-Level Waste Management Unit, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area

  11. Optimization of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Closure Cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Greg; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” requires that performance assessments demonstrate that releases of radionuclides to the environment are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Quantitative cost benefit analysis of radiation protection options is one component of the ALARA process. This report summarizes a quantitative cost benefit analysis of closure cover thickness for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. The optimum cover thickness that maintains doses ALARA is shown to be the thickness with the minimum total closure cost. Total closure cost is the sum of cover construction cost and the health detriment cost. Cover construction cost is estimated based on detailed cost estimates for closure of the 92-acre Low-Level Waste Management Unit (LLWMU). The health detriment cost is calculated as the product of collective dose and a constant monetary value of health detriment in units of dollars per unit collective dose. Collective dose is the sum of all individual doses in an exposed population and has units of person-sievert (Sv). Five discrete cover thickness options ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (m) (8.2 to 15 feet [ft]) are evaluated. The optimization was subject to the constraints that (1) options must meet all applicable regulatory requirements and that (2) individual doses be a small fraction of background radiation dose. Total closure cost is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cover thickness for the 92-ac LLWMU, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The cover construction cost is orders of magnitude greater than the health detriment cost. Two-thousand Latin hypercube sampling realizations of the relationship between total closure cost and cover thickness are generated. In every realization, the optimum cover thickness is 2.5 m (8.2 ft) for the 92-ac Low-Level Waste Management Unit, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire

  12. Using the Textpresso Site-Specific Recombinases Web server to identify Cre expressing mouse strains and floxed alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Brian G; Urbanski, William M

    2014-01-01

    Effective tools for searching the biomedical literature are essential for identifying reagents or mouse strains as well as for effective experimental design and informed interpretation of experimental results. We have built the Textpresso Site Specific Recombinases (Textpresso SSR) Web server to enable researchers who use mice to perform in-depth searches of a rapidly growing and complex part of the mouse literature. Our Textpresso Web server provides an interface for searching the full text of most of the peer-reviewed publications that report the characterization or use of mouse strains that express Cre or Flp recombinase. The database also contains most of the publications that describe the characterization or analysis of strains carrying conditional alleles or transgenes that can be inactivated or activated by site-specific recombinases such as Cre or Flp. Textpresso SSR complements the existing online databases that catalog Cre and Flp expression patterns by providing a unique online interface for the in-depth text mining of the site specific recombinase literature.

  13. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation of the undamaged brain to identify lesion sites that predict language outcome after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorca-Puls, Diego L; Gajardo-Vidal, Andrea; Seghier, Mohamed L; Leff, Alexander P; Sethi, Varun; Prejawa, Susan; Hope, Thomas M H; Devlin, Joseph T; Price, Cathy J

    2017-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation focused on either the left anterior supramarginal gyrus or opercular part of the left inferior frontal gyrus has been reported to transiently impair the ability to perform phonological more than semantic tasks. Here we tested whether phonological processing abilities were also impaired following lesions to these regions in right-handed, English speaking adults, who were investigated at least 1 year after a left-hemisphere stroke. When our regions of interest were limited to 0.5 cm3 of grey matter centred around sites that had been identified with transcranial magnetic stimulation-based functional localization, phonological impairments were observed in 74% (40/54) of patients with damage to the regions and 21% (21/100) of patients sparing these regions. This classification accuracy was better than that observed when using regions of interest centred on activation sites in previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of phonological processing, or transcranial magnetic stimulation sites that did not use functional localization. New regions of interest were generated by redefining the borders of each of the transcranial magnetic stimulation sites to include areas that were consistently damaged in the patients with phonological impairments. This increased the incidence of phonological impairments in the presence of damage to 85% (46/54) and also reduced the incidence of phonological impairments in the absence of damage to 15% (15/100). The difference in phonological processing abilities between those with and without damage to these 'transcranial magnetic stimulation-guided' regions remained highly significant even after controlling for the effect of lesion size. The classification accuracy of the transcranial magnetic stimulation-guided regions was validated in a second sample of 108 patients and found to be better than that for (i) functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided regions; (ii) a region identified from an

  14. A Prospective Comparison of 18F-FDG PET/CT and CT as Diagnostic Tools to Identify the Primary Tumor Site in Patients with Extracervical Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Anne Kirstine H; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne K

    2012-01-01

    that the same set of criteria were used for classification of patients, that is, either as CUP patients or patients with a suggested primary tumor site. The independently obtained suggestions of primary tumor sites using PET/CT and CT were correlated with the SR to reach a consensus regarding true-positive (TP......), true-negative, false-negative, and false-positive results.Results. SR identified a primary tumor site in 66 CUP patients (48.9%). PET/CT identified 38 TP primary tumor sites and CT identified 43 TP primary tumor sites. No statistically significant differences were observed between (18)F-FDG PET...

  15. Genome-wide screens for in vivo Tinman binding sites identify cardiac enhancers with diverse functional architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jin

    Full Text Available The NK homeodomain factor Tinman is a crucial regulator of early mesoderm patterning and, together with the GATA factor Pannier and the Dorsocross T-box factors, serves as one of the key cardiogenic factors during specification and differentiation of heart cells. Although the basic framework of regulatory interactions driving heart development has been worked out, only about a dozen genes involved in heart development have been designated as direct Tinman target genes to date, and detailed information about the functional architectures of their cardiac enhancers is lacking. We have used immunoprecipitation of chromatin (ChIP from embryos at two different stages of early cardiogenesis to obtain a global overview of the sequences bound by Tinman in vivo and their linked genes. Our data from the analysis of ~50 sequences with high Tinman occupancy show that the majority of such sequences act as enhancers in various mesodermal tissues in which Tinman is active. All of the dorsal mesodermal and cardiac enhancers, but not some of the others, require tinman function. The cardiac enhancers feature diverse arrangements of binding motifs for Tinman, Pannier, and Dorsocross. By employing these cardiac and non-cardiac enhancers in machine learning approaches, we identify a novel motif, termed CEE, as a classifier for cardiac enhancers. In vivo assays for the requirement of the binding motifs of Tinman, Pannier, and Dorsocross, as well as the CEE motifs in a set of cardiac enhancers, show that the Tinman sites are essential in all but one of the tested enhancers; although on occasion they can be functionally redundant with Dorsocross sites. The enhancers differ widely with respect to their requirement for Pannier, Dorsocross, and CEE sites, which we ascribe to their different position in the regulatory circuitry, their distinct temporal and spatial activities during cardiogenesis, and functional redundancies among different factor binding sites.

  16. Selection of Inhibitor-Resistant Viral Potassium Channels Identifies a Selectivity Filter Site that Affects Barium and Amantadine Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Arrigoni, Cristina; Domigan, Courtney; Ferrara, Giuseppina; Pantoja, Carlos; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna; Minor, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the interactions between ion channels and blockers remains an important goal that has implications for delineating the basic mechanisms of ion channel function and for the discovery and development of ion channel directed drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used genetic selection methods to probe the interaction of two ion channel blockers, barium and amantadine, with the miniature viral potassium channel Kcv. Selection for Kcv mutants that were resistant to either blocker identified a mutant bearing multiple changes that was resistant to both. Implementation of a PCR shuffling and backcrossing procedure uncovered that the blocker resistance could be attributed to a single change, T63S, at a position that is likely to form the binding site for the inner ion in the selectivity filter (site 4). A combination of electrophysiological and biochemical assays revealed a distinct difference in the ability of the mutant channel to interact with the blockers. Studies of the analogous mutation in the mammalian inward rectifier Kir2.1 show that the T→S mutation affects barium block as well as the stability of the conductive state. Comparison of the effects of similar barium resistant mutations in Kcv and Kir2.1 shows that neighboring amino acids in the Kcv selectivity filter affect blocker binding. Conclusions/Significance The data support the idea that permeant ions have an integral role in stabilizing potassium channel structure, suggest that both barium and amantadine act at a similar site, and demonstrate how genetic selections can be used to map blocker binding sites and reveal mechanistic features. PMID:19834614

  17. Optimal anthropometric measures and thresholds to identify undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in three major Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Lim, Wei-Yen; Mok-Kwee Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-10-01

    To identify optimal anthropometric measures and cutoffs to identify undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDM) in three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indians). Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 14,815 ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian participants of the Singapore National Health Surveys, which included anthropometric measures and an oral glucose tolerance test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) for the identification of UDM. BMI performed significantly worse (AUCMEN  = 0.70; AUCWOMEN  = 0.75) than abdominal measures, whereas WHTR (AUCMEN  = 0.76; AUCWOMEN  = 0.79) was among the best performing measures in both sexes and all ethnic groups. Anthropometric measures performed better in Chinese than in Asian-Indian participants for the identification of UDM. A WHTR cutoff of 0.52 appeared optimal with a sensitivity of 76% in men and 73% in women and a specificity of 63% in men and 70% in women. Although ethnic differences were observed in the performance of anthropometric measures for the identification of UDM, abdominal adiposity measures generally performed better than BMI, and WHTR performed best in all Asian ethnic groups. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. A GIS-based approach for identifying potential runoff harvesting sites in the Thukela River basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winnaar, G.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Horan, M.

    Water scarce countries such as South Africa are subject to various hydrological constraints which can often be attributed to poor rainfall partitioning, particularly within resource poor farming communities that are reliant on rainfed agriculture. Recent initiatives to address this have shifted focus to explore more efficient alternatives to water supply and the recognition of numerous opportunities to implement runoff harvesting as a means to supplement water availability. However, increasing the implementation of runoff harvesting, without encountering unintended impacts on downstream hydrological and ecological systems, requires better understanding of the hydrologic and environmental impacts at catchment scale. In this paper the representation of spatial variations in landscape characteristics such as soil, land use, rainfall and slope information is shown to be an important step in identifying potential runoff harvesting sites, after which modelling the hydrological response in catchments where extensive runoff harvesting is being considered can be performed and likely impacts assessed. Geographic information systems (GIS) was utilised as an integrating tool to store, analyse and manage spatial information and when linked to hydrological response models, provided a rational means to facilitate decision making by providing catchment level identification, planning and assessment of runoff harvesting sites as illustrated by a case study at the Potshini catchment, a small sub-catchment in the Thukela River basin, South Africa. Through the linked GIS, potential runoff harvesting sites are identified relative to areas that concentrate runoff and where the stored water will be appropriately distributed. Based on GIS analysis it was found that 17% percent of the Potshini catchment area has a high potential for generating surface runoff, whereas an analysis of all factors which influence the location of such systems, shows that 18% is highly suitable for runoff

  19. An evaluation of applicability of seismic refraction method in identifying shallow archaeological features A case study at archaeological site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangardi, Morteza; Hafezi Moghaddas, Naser; Keivan Hosseini, Sayyed; Garazhian, Omran

    2015-04-01

    We applied the seismic refraction method at archaeological site, Tepe Damghani located in Sabzevar, NE of Iran, in order to determine the structures of archaeological interests. This pre-historical site has special conditions with respect to geographical location and geomorphological setting, so it is an urban archaeological site, and in recent years it has been used as an agricultural field. In spring and summer of 2012, the third season of archaeological excavation was carried out. Test trenches of excavations in this site revealed that cultural layers were often disturbed adversely due to human activities such as farming and road construction in recent years. Conditions of archaeological cultural layers in southern and eastern parts of Tepe are slightly better, for instance, in test trench 3×3 m²1S03, third test trench excavated in the southern part of Tepe, an adobe in situ architectural structure was discovered that likely belongs to cultural features of a complex with 5 graves. After conclusion of the third season of archaeological excavation, all of the test trenches were filled with the same soil of excavated test trenches. Seismic refraction method was applied with12 channels of P geophones in three lines with a geophone interval of 0.5 meter and a 1.5 meter distance between profiles on test trench 1S03. The goal of this operation was evaluation of applicability of seismic method in identification of archaeological features, especially adobe wall structures. Processing of seismic data was done with the seismic software, SiesImager. Results were presented in the form of seismic section for every profile, so that identification of adobe wall structures was achieved hardly. This could be due to that adobe wall had been built with the same materials of the natural surrounding earth. Thus, there is a low contrast and it has an inappropriate effect on seismic processing and identifying of archaeological features. Hence the result could be that application of

  20. Identifying the Optimal Offshore Areas for Wave Energy Converter Deployments in Taiwanese Waters Based on 12-Year Model Hindcasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Ju Shih

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year sea-state hindcast for Taiwanese waters, covering the period from 2005 to 2016, was conducted using a fully coupled tide-surge-wave model. The hindcasts of significant wave height and peak period were employed to estimate the wave power resources in the waters surrounding Taiwan. Numerical simulations based on unstructured grids were converted to structured grids with a resolution of 25 × 25 km. The spatial distribution maps of offshore annual mean wave power were created for each year and for the 12-year period. Waters with higher wave power density were observed off the northern, northeastern, southeastern (south of Green Island and southeast of Lanyu and southern coasts of Taiwan. Five energetic sea areas with spatial average annual total wave energy density of 60–90 MWh/m were selected for further analysis. The 25 × 25 km square grids were then downscaled to resolutions of 5 × 5 km, and five 5 × 5 km optimal areas were identified for wave energy converter deployments. The spatial average annual total wave energy yields at the five optimal areas (S1–(S5 were estimated to be 64.3, 84.1, 84.5, 111.0 and 99.3 MWh/m, respectively. The prevailing wave directions for these five areas lie between east and northeast.

  1. Benefits of using an optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty-A pulp mill example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Elin; Berntsson, Thore; Stroemberg, Ann-Brith

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the optimization of process integration investments in a pulp mill considering uncertainties in future electricity and biofuel prices and CO 2 emissions charges. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [Svensson, E., Berntsson, T., Stroemberg, A.-B., Patriksson, M., 2008b. An optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty. Energy Policy, in press, (doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.10.023)] where a scenario-based approach is proposed for the modelling of uncertainties. The results show that the proposed methodology provides a way to handle the time dependence and the uncertainties of the parameters. For the analyzed case, a robust solution is found which turns out to be a combination of two opposing investment strategies. The difference between short-term and strategic views for the investment decision is analyzed and it is found that uncertainties are increasingly important to account for as a more strategic view is employed. Furthermore, the results imply that the obvious effect of policy instruments aimed at decreasing CO 2 emissions is, in applications like this, an increased profitability for all energy efficiency investments, and not as much a shift between different alternatives

  2. Benefits of using an optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty-A pulp mill example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Elin [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: elin.svensson@chalmers.se; Berntsson, Thore [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Stroemberg, Ann-Brith [Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Chalmers Science Park, SE-412 88 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents a case study on the optimization of process integration investments in a pulp mill considering uncertainties in future electricity and biofuel prices and CO{sub 2} emissions charges. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [Svensson, E., Berntsson, T., Stroemberg, A.-B., Patriksson, M., 2008b. An optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty. Energy Policy, in press, (doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.10.023)] where a scenario-based approach is proposed for the modelling of uncertainties. The results show that the proposed methodology provides a way to handle the time dependence and the uncertainties of the parameters. For the analyzed case, a robust solution is found which turns out to be a combination of two opposing investment strategies. The difference between short-term and strategic views for the investment decision is analyzed and it is found that uncertainties are increasingly important to account for as a more strategic view is employed. Furthermore, the results imply that the obvious effect of policy instruments aimed at decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions is, in applications like this, an increased profitability for all energy efficiency investments, and not as much a shift between different alternatives.

  3. Benefits of using an optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty. A pulp mill example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Elin; Berntsson, Thore [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Stroemberg, Ann-Brith [Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Chalmers Science Park, SE-412 88 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents a case study on the optimization of process integration investments in a pulp mill considering uncertainties in future electricity and biofuel prices and CO{sub 2} emissions charges. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [Svensson, E., Berntsson, T., Stroemberg, A.-B., Patriksson, M., 2008b. An optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty. Energy Policy, in press, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2008.10.023] where a scenario-based approach is proposed for the modelling of uncertainties. The results show that the proposed methodology provides a way to handle the time dependence and the uncertainties of the parameters. For the analyzed case, a robust solution is found which turns out to be a combination of two opposing investment strategies. The difference between short-term and strategic views for the investment decision is analyzed and it is found that uncertainties are increasingly important to account for as a more strategic view is employed. Furthermore, the results imply that the obvious effect of policy instruments aimed at decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions is, in applications like this, an increased profitability for all energy efficiency investments, and not as much a shift between different alternatives. (author)

  4. Identifying the optimal HVOF spray parameters to attain minimum porosity and maximum hardness in iron based amorphous metallic coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vignesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Flow based Erosion – corrosion problems are very common in fluid handling equipments such as propellers, impellers, pumps in warships, submarine. Though there are many coating materials available to combat erosion–corrosion damage in the above components, iron based amorphous coatings are considered to be more effective to combat erosion–corrosion problems. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF spray process is considered to be a better process to coat the iron based amorphous powders. In this investigation, iron based amorphous metallic coating was developed on 316 stainless steel substrate using HVOF spray technique. Empirical relationships were developed to predict the porosity and micro hardness of iron based amorphous coating incorporating HVOF spray parameters such as oxygen flow rate, fuel flow rate, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spray distance. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to identify the optimal HVOF spray parameters to attain coating with minimum porosity and maximum hardness.

  5. Reaction kinetics of hydrazine neutralization in steam generator wet lay-up solution: Identifying optimal degradation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildermans, Kim; Lecocq, Raphael; Girasa, Emmanuel

    2012-09-01

    During a nuclear power plant outage, hydrazine is used as an oxygen scavenger in the steam generator lay-up solution. However, due to the carcinogenic effects of hydrazine, more stringent discharge limits are or will be imposed in the environmental permits. Hydrazine discharge could even be prohibited. Consequently, hydrazine alternatives or hydrazine degradation before discharge is needed. This paper presents the laboratory tests performed to characterize the reaction kinetics of hydrazine neutralization using bleach or hydrogen peroxide, catalyzed with either copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) or potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ). The tests are performed on two standard steam generator lay-up solutions based on different pH control agents: ammonia or ethanolamine. Different neutralization conditions are tested by varying temperature, oxidant addition, and catalyst concentration, among others, in order to identify the optimal parameters for hydrazine neutralization in a steam generator wet lay-up solution. (authors)

  6. Optimization Review: French Gulch/Wellington-Oro Mine Site Water Treatment Plant, Breckenridge, Summit County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The French Gulch/Wellington-Oro Mine Site is located near the town of Breckenridge in Summit County, Colorado. Environmental contamination of surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment at the site resulted from mining activities dating to the 1880s.

  7. TSSer: an automated method to identify transcription start sites in prokaryotic genomes from differential RNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjani, Hadi; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2014-04-01

    Accurate identification of transcription start sites (TSSs) is an essential step in the analysis of transcription regulatory networks. In higher eukaryotes, the capped analysis of gene expression technology enabled comprehensive annotation of TSSs in genomes such as those of mice and humans. In bacteria, an equivalent approach, termed differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq), has recently been proposed, but the application of this approach to a large number of genomes is hindered by the paucity of computational analysis methods. With few exceptions, when the method has been used, annotation of TSSs has been largely done manually. In this work, we present a computational method called 'TSSer' that enables the automatic inference of TSSs from dRNA-seq data. The method rests on a probabilistic framework for identifying both genomic positions that are preferentially enriched in the dRNA-seq data as well as preferentially captured relative to neighboring genomic regions. Evaluating our approach for TSS calling on several publicly available datasets, we find that TSSer achieves high consistency with the curated lists of annotated TSSs, but identifies many additional TSSs. Therefore, TSSer can accelerate genome-wide identification of TSSs in bacterial genomes and can aid in further characterization of bacterial transcription regulatory networks. TSSer is freely available under GPL license at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch/TSSer/index.php

  8. Identifying factors for optimal development of health-related websites: a delphi study among experts and potential future users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Francine; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein

    2012-02-14

    The Internet has become a popular medium for offering tailored and targeted health promotion programs to the general public. However, suboptimal levels of program use in the target population limit the public health impact of these programs. Optimizing program development is considered as one of the main processes to increase usage rates. To distinguish factors potentially related to optimal development of health-related websites by involving both experts and potential users. By considering and incorporating the opinions of experts and potential users in the development process, involvement in the program is expected to increase, consequently resulting in increased appreciation, lower levels of attrition, and higher levels of sustained use. We conducted a systematic three-round Delphi study through the Internet. Both national and international experts (from the fields of health promotion, health psychology, e-communication, and technical Web design) and potential users were invited via email to participate. During this study an extensive list of factors potentially related to optimal development of health-related websites was identified, by focusing on factors related to layout, general and risk information provision, questionnaire use, additional services, and ease of use. Furthermore, we assessed the extent to which experts and potential users agreed on the importance of these factors. Differences as well as similarities among experts and potentials users were deduced. In total, 20 of 62 contacted experts participated in the first round (32% response rate); 60 of 200 contacted experts (30% response rate) and 210 potential users (95% response rate) completed the second-round questionnaire, and 32 of 60 contacted experts completed the third round (53% response rate). Results revealed important factors consented upon by experts and potential users (eg, ease of use, clear structure, and detailed health information provision), as well as differences regarding

  9. Optimization Evaluation: Lee Chemical Superfund Site, City Of Liberty, Clay County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lee Chemical Superfund Site (site) is located along Missouri Highway 210 in Liberty, Missouri, approximately 15 miles east of Kansas City, Missouri. Currently, the site is a vacant lot of approximately2.5 acres in a flat alluvial plain.

  10. Optimal siting of solid waste-to-value-added facilities through a GIS-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Mohib-Ul-Haque; Vaezi, Mahdi; Kumar, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Siting a solid waste conversion facility requires an assessment of solid waste availability as well as ensuring compliance with environmental, social, and economic factors. The main idea behind this study was to develop a methodology to locate suitable locations for waste conversion facilities considering waste availability as well as environmental and social constraints. A geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis was used to identify the most suitable areas and to screen out unsuitable lands. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used for a multi-criteria evaluation of relative preferences of different environmental and social factors. A case study was conducted for Alberta, a western province in Canada, by performing a province-wide waste availability assessment. The total available waste considered in this study was 4,077,514tonnes/year for 19 census divisions collected from 79 landfills. Finally, a location-allocation analysis was performed to determine suitable locations for 10 waste conversion facilities across the province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SVM-based prediction of propeptide cleavage sites in spider toxins identifies toxin innovation in an Australian tarantula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S W Wong

    Full Text Available Spider neurotoxins are commonly used as pharmacological tools and are a popular source of novel compounds with therapeutic and agrochemical potential. Since venom peptides are inherently toxic, the host spider must employ strategies to avoid adverse effects prior to venom use. It is partly for this reason that most spider toxins encode a protective proregion that upon enzymatic cleavage is excised from the mature peptide. In order to identify the mature toxin sequence directly from toxin transcripts, without resorting to protein sequencing, the propeptide cleavage site in the toxin precursor must be predicted bioinformatically. We evaluated different machine learning strategies (support vector machines, hidden Markov model and decision tree and developed an algorithm (SpiderP for prediction of propeptide cleavage sites in spider toxins. Our strategy uses a support vector machine (SVM framework that combines both local and global sequence information. Our method is superior or comparable to current tools for prediction of propeptide sequences in spider toxins. Evaluation of the SVM method on an independent test set of known toxin sequences yielded 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Furthermore, we sequenced five novel peptides (not used to train the final predictor from the venom of the Australian tarantula Selenotypus plumipes to test the accuracy of the predictor and found 80% sensitivity and 99.6% 8-mer specificity. Finally, we used the predictor together with homology information to predict and characterize seven groups of novel toxins from the deeply sequenced venom gland transcriptome of S. plumipes, which revealed structural complexity and innovations in the evolution of the toxins. The precursor prediction tool (SpiderP is freely available on ArachnoServer (http://www.arachnoserver.org/spiderP.html, a web portal to a comprehensive relational database of spider toxins. All training data, test data, and scripts used are available from

  12. Identifying and Further Understanding the Role of Bacteria and Archaea in a Basic Mine Drainage Remediation Site in Tanoma, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, G.; Mount, G.

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage pollutes over 3000 miles of streams and ground water in Pennsylvania alone, and in response many solutions have been developed to counteract the effects of acidic mine drainage. It is estimated by USGS that restoring these watersheds would cost 5 billion-15 billion in total. As economic conditions place limits on expenditures, cost effective means of remediation will be of critical importance. One such method is passive bioremediation, and in the case of metal contamination, self-sustaining oxygenation. Our location of interest is the Tanoma Acid Mine Drainage engineered wetland near Tanoma, Pennsylvania. It is estimated that up to 5,000 gallons per minute is currently being discharged into the site. While most local remediation sites are acidic (pH bioremediation in more neutral pH setting (pH of 5.5-7.5). In this study, we look to further understand biologic, chemical, and hydrologic controls that contribute to the efficiency of the wetland. Our research will focus on the spatial and temporal distribution of biomass through the wetland system as well as changes in water and soil chemistry. Local biofilm (Leptothrix discophora ) are an important part of the remediation process, using iron from the water as an energy source. The bacteria reduce the iron content of the water, precipitating it onto the pond bed as Terraced Iron Formations (TIF). Terraces iron formations (TIF's) are correlated with localized biofilm-archaea densities where archaea thrive in iron rich sediments. By determining bacteria densities in the wetland through gram stain analysis, we can further understand their role in terraced iron formation creation, find localized TIF's that occur, and correlate methane production due to archaea in that location. Mapping TIF locations and identifying bacteria densities will help determine the bioremediation effects on the overall efficiency of iron reduction throughout the Tanoma AMD passive remediation system.

  13. Modelling and optimization of a local smart grid for an agro-industrial site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid is defined where different elements are interconnected between them and with the public utility grid. The development of smart grids is considered a strategic goal at both national and international levels and has been funded by many research programs. Within the BEE (Building Energy Ecosystems project, funded by the Piedmont Region under the European POR FESR 2007-13 scheme, the creation of an electricity smart grid at a local level in a small agroindustry was done. This industry is one of the so-called prosumer, that is both a producer and a consumer of energy. The energy production is done by means of solar photovoltaic and biomass. In this local smart grid, the elements were subdivided in two main groups: loads (process machineries in the case study and generators (PV and biomass in the case study. The loads may be further subdivided into permanent loads, mandatory loads and shiftable loads. The objective of the smart grid is the minimization of the exchanges between the local grid and the public utility grid. Even though no financial savings occur, this is important for the community grid. The problem is therefore to find the conditions that let the net exported energy going to zero at each time step, so arriving close to a self-sufficient system by modifying the shiftable loads. In a first phase of the study, the consumers were studied and, according to some characteristics of the machineries employed and the production requirements, grouped into production lines that can or not be switched off for intervals of time in order to compensate the smart grid fluctuations. The smart grid balancing may be done on an instantaneous basis, or in a predictive way considering the future weather forecasts and the future production requirements. The demo site was equipped with measurement instrumentation, data acquisition tools and a user interface that may be used to visualize all the quantities that are measured but also to perform the

  14. A Multicriteria GIS-Based Assessment to Optimize Biomass Facility Sites with Parallel Environment—A Case Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Jeong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing a biomass facility site is a critical concern that is currently receiving an increased attention because of geographically spread biomass feedstock. This research presents a multicriteria GIS assessment with Weighted Linear Combination (WLC (most suitable areas and a sensitivity analysis (implementation strategies applied to various disciplines using suitable criteria to optimize a biomass facility location in the context of renewable energies respecting the environment. The analyses of results with twelve criteria show the most suitable areas (9.25% and constraints in a case study in Extremadura (Spain, where forest and agriculture are typical for land uses. Thus, the sensitivity analysis demonstrates the insight of the most influential criteria for supporting energy planning decisions. Therefore, this assessment could be used in studies to verify suitable biomass plants sites with corresponding geographical and spatial circumstances and available spatial data necessary in various governmental and industrial sectors.

  15. Optimal pacing for right ventricular and biventricular devices: minimizing, maximizing, and right ventricular/left ventricular site considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    The results from numerous clinical studies provide guidance for optimizing outcomes related to RV or biventricular pacing in the pacemaker and ICD populations. (1) Programming algorithms to minimize RV pacing is imperative in patients with dual-chamber pacemakers who have intrinsic AV conduction or intermittent AV conduction block. (2) Dual-chamber ICDs should be avoided in candidates without an indication for bradycardia pacing. (3) Alternate RV septal pacing sites may be considered at the time of pacemaker implantation. (4) Biventricular pacing may be beneficial in some patients with mild LV dysfunction. (5) LV lead placement at the site of latest LV activation is desirable. (6) Programming CRT systems to achieve biventricular/LV pacing >98.5% is important. (7) Protocols for AV and VV optimization in patients with CRT are not recommended after device implantation but may be considered for CRT nonresponders. (8) Novel algorithms to maximize the benefit of CRT are in evolution further.

  16. Isthmus sites identified by Ripple Mapping are usually anatomically stable: A novel method to guide atrial substrate ablation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Vishal; Qureshi, Norman; Lim, Phang Boon; Koa-Wing, Michael; Jamil-Copley, Shahnaz; Ng, Fu Siong; Whinnett, Zachary; Davies, D Wyn; Peters, Nicholas S; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Linton, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Postablation reentrant ATs depend upon conducting isthmuses bordered by scar. Bipolar voltage maps highlight scar as sites of low voltage, but the voltage amplitude of an electrogram depends upon the myocardial activation sequence. Furthermore, a voltage threshold that defines atrial scar is unknown. We used Ripple Mapping (RM) to test whether these isthmuses were anatomically fixed between different activation vectors and atrial rates. We studied post-AF ablation ATs where >1 rhythm was mapped. Multipolar catheters were used with CARTO Confidense for high-density mapping. RM visualized the pattern of activation, and the voltage threshold below which no activation was seen. Isthmuses were characterized at this threshold between maps for each patient. Ten patients were studied (Map 1 was AT1; Map 2: sinus 1/10, LA paced 2/10, AT2 with reverse CS activation 3/10; AT2 CL difference 50 ± 30 ms). Point density was similar between maps (Map 1: 2,589 ± 1,330; Map 2: 2,214 ± 1,384; P  =  0.31). RM activation threshold was 0.16 ± 0.08 mV. Thirty-one isthmuses were identified in Map 1 (median 3 per map; width 27 ± 15 mm; 7 anterior; 6 roof; 8 mitral; 9 septal; 1 posterior). Importantly, 7 of 31 (23%) isthmuses were unexpectedly identified within regions without prior ablation. AT1 was treated following ablation of 11/31 (35%) isthmuses. Of the remaining 20 isthmuses, 14 of 16 isthmuses (88%) were consistent between the two maps (four were inadequately mapped). Wavefront collision caused variation in low voltage distribution in 2 of 16 (12%). The distribution of isthmuses and nonconducting tissue within the ablated left atrium, as defined by RM, appear concordant between rhythms. This could guide a substrate ablative approach. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Novel colchicine-site binders with a cyclohexanedione scaffold identified through a ligand-based virtual screening approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, María-Dolores; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; Noppen, Sam; Sáez-Calvo, Gonzalo; Díaz, J Fernando; Camarasa, María-José; Liekens, Sandra; Priego, Eva-María

    2014-05-22

    Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs) constitute an innovative anticancer therapy that targets the tumor endothelium, leading to tumor necrosis. Our approach for the identification of new VDAs has relied on a ligand 3-D shape similarity virtual screening (VS) approach using the ROCS program as the VS tool and as query colchicine and TN-16, which both bind the α,β-tubulin dimer. One of the hits identified, using TN-16 as query, has been explored by the synthesis of its structural analogues, leading to 2-(1-((2-methoxyphenyl)amino)ethylidene)-5-phenylcyclohexane-1,3-dione (compound 16c) with an IC50 = 0.09 ± 0.01 μM in HMEC-1 and BAEC, being 100-fold more potent than the initial hit. Compound 16c caused cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and interacted with the colchicine-binding site in tubulin, as confirmed by a competition assay with N,N'-ethylenebis(iodoacetamide) and by fluorescence spectroscopy. Moreover, 16c destroyed an established endothelial tubular network at 1 μM and inhibited the migration and invasion of human breast carcinoma cells at 0.4 μM. In conclusion, our approach has led to a new chemotype of promising antiproliferative compounds with antimitotic and potential VDA properties.

  18. Can osseous landmarks in the distal medial humerus be used to identify the attachment sites of ligaments and tendons: paleopathologic-anatomic imaging study in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Florian M. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Uniklinik Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland); Zoner, Cristiane S.; Cardoso, Fabiano; Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Randall, Tori D. [San Diego Museum of Man, Physical Anthropology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    To describe osseous landmarks that allow identification of the attachments of the ligaments and tendons in the distal medial aspect of the humerus. Reliable osseous landmarks in the distal medial aspect of the humerus were identified in 34 well-preserved specimens from a paleopathologic collection. These osseous landmarks were then sought in magnetic resonance (MR) images of ten cadaveric elbow specimens so that the ease of their visualization and optimal imaging plane could be assessed. To assign these osseous landmarks to specific attachments of the tendons and ligaments in the distal medial humerus, we cut the specimens in slices and photographed and examined them. Subsequently, the prevalence of these osseous landmarks as well as the attachment sites of the tendons and ligaments in this location was determined. We determined ten reliable osseous landmarks in the distal medial aspect of the humerus, their prevalence and ease of identification, and their relationship to the attachments of the tendons and ligaments at the medial distal humerus. It is possible to use osseous landmarks at the distal medial humerus to facilitate identification of the different attachments of tendons and ligaments when MR images of the elbow are assessed. (orig.)

  19. Energy-economical optimization of industrial sites; Energiewirtschaftliche Optimierung von Industriestandorten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, A.; Saliba, S.; Franke, R. [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The holistic optimization of an industrial estate networks all electrical components of a location and combines energy trading, energy management and production processes. This allows to minimize the energy consumption from the supply network and to relieve the power grid and to maximize the profitability of the industrial self-generation. By analyzing the potential is detected and the cost of optimization solution is estimated. The generation-side optimization is supported through demand-side optimization (demand response). Through a real-time optimization the of Use of fuels is managed, controlled and optimized. [German] Die ganzheitliche Optimierung einer industriellen Liegenschaft vernetzt alle elektrischen Komponenten eines Standorts und verbindet Energiehandel, Energiemanagement und Produktionsprozesse. Dadurch kann der Energiebezug aus dem Versorgungsnetz minimiert und das Stromnetz entlastet werden, sowie die Profitabilitaet der industriellen Eigenerzeugung maximiert werden. Durch eine Analyse wird das Potential ermittelt und die Kosten der Optimierungsloesung abgeschaetzt. Die erzeugungsseitige Optimierung wird durch die nachfrageseitige Optimierung (Demand Response) gestuetzt. Durch eine Echtzeitoptimierung wird der Einsatz der Energietraeger verwaltet, gesteuert und optimiert.

  20. Optimal site selection for sitting a solar park using multi-criteria decision analysis and geographical information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andreas; Skarlatos, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    Among the renewable power sources, solar power is rapidly becoming popular because it is inexhaustible, clean, and dependable. It has also become more efficient since the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells has increased. Following these trends, solar power will become more affordable in years to come and considerable investments are to be expected. Despite the size of solar plants, the sitting procedure is a crucial factor for their efficiency and financial viability. Many aspects influence such a decision: legal, environmental, technical, and financial to name a few. This paper describes a general integrated framework to evaluate land suitability for the optimal placement of photovoltaic solar power plants, which is based on a combination of a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing techniques, and multi-criteria decision-making methods. An application of the proposed framework for the Limassol district in Cyprus is further illustrated. The combination of a GIS and multi-criteria methods produces an excellent analysis tool that creates an extensive database of spatial and non-spatial data, which will be used to simplify problems as well as solve and promote the use of multiple criteria. A set of environmental, economic, social, and technical constrains, based on recent Cypriot legislation, European's Union policies, and expert advice, identifies the potential sites for solar park installation. The pairwise comparison method in the context of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to estimate the criteria weights in order to establish their relative importance in site evaluation. In addition, four different methods to combine information layers and check their sensitivity were used. The first considered all the criteria as being equally important and assigned them equal weight, whereas the others grouped the criteria and graded them according to their objective perceived importance. The overall suitability of the study

  1. Epicardial left ventricular lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy: optimal pace site selection with pressure-volume loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, A L A J; Phelps, B; Dijkman, B; van der Nagel, T; van der Veen, F H; Geskes, G G; Maessen, J G

    2004-06-01

    Patients in heart failure with left bundle branch block benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy. Usually the left ventricular pacing lead is placed by coronary sinus catheterization; however, this procedure is not always successful, and patients may be referred for surgical epicardial lead placement. The objective of this study was to develop a method to guide epicardial lead placement in cardiac resynchronization therapy. Eleven patients in heart failure who were eligible for cardiac resynchronization therapy were referred for surgery because of failed coronary sinus left ventricular lead implantation. Minithoracotomy or thoracoscopy was performed, and a temporary epicardial electrode was used for biventricular pacing at various sites on the left ventricle. Pressure-volume loops with the conductance catheter were used to select the best site for each individual patient. Relative to the baseline situation, biventricular pacing with an optimal left ventricular lead position significantly increased stroke volume (+39%, P =.01), maximal left ventricular pressure derivative (+20%, P =.02), ejection fraction (+30%, P =.007), and stroke work (+66%, P =.006) and reduced end-systolic volume (-6%, P =.04). In contrast, biventricular pacing at a suboptimal site did not significantly change left ventricular function and even worsened it in some cases. To optimize cardiac resynchronization therapy with epicardial leads, mapping to determine the best pace site is a prerequisite. Pressure-volume loops offer real-time guidance for targeting epicardial lead placement during minimal invasive surgery.

  2. A real-time web-based optimal Biomass Site Assessment Tool (BioSAT): Module 1. An economic assessment of mill residues for the southern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy M. Young; James H. Perdue; Andy Hartsell; Robert C. Abt; Donald Hodges; Timothy G. Rials

    2009-01-01

    Optimal locations for biomass facilities that use mill residues are identified for 13 southern U.S. states. The Biomass Site Assessment Tool (BioSAT) model is used to identify the top 20 locations for 13 southern U.S. states. The trucking cost model of BioSAT is used with Timber Mart South 2009 price data to estimate the total cost, average cost, and marginal costs for...

  3. Using maximum entropy modeling for optimal selection of sampling sites for monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Kumar, Sunil; Barnett, David T.; Evangelista, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental monitoring programs must efficiently describe state shifts. We propose using maximum entropy modeling to select dissimilar sampling sites to capture environmental variability at low cost, and demonstrate a specific application: sample site selection for the Central Plains domain (453,490 km2) of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). We relied on four environmental factors: mean annual temperature and precipitation, elevation, and vegetation type. A “sample site” was defined as a 20 km × 20 km area (equal to NEON’s airborne observation platform [AOP] footprint), within which each 1 km2 cell was evaluated for each environmental factor. After each model run, the most environmentally dissimilar site was selected from all potential sample sites. The iterative selection of eight sites captured approximately 80% of the environmental envelope of the domain, an improvement over stratified random sampling and simple random designs for sample site selection. This approach can be widely used for cost-efficient selection of survey and monitoring sites.

  4. Wind data for wind driven plant. [site selection for optimal performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodhart, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Simple, averaged wind velocity data provide information on energy availability, facilitate generator site selection and enable appropriate operating ranges to be established for windpowered plants. They also provide a basis for the prediction of extreme wind speeds.

  5. Demonstration of Software Application Biogas Optimizer at the Haendeloe Biogas Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristofer (Bioprocess Control Sweden AB, Lund (SE))

    2008-04-15

    There is a growing interest in the utilisation of process optimisation technologies within the biogas industry. This trend is being driven by new and growing market opportunities as well as an interest to improve the overall profitability of commercial biogas processes. Biogas Optimizer, developed by Bioprocess Control Sweden AB based in Lund, Sweden, represents one such process optimisation technology, utilising a supervisory and control approach to improve both biogas production efficiency and process stability. A demonstration project was conducted over a nine month period during 2007 at the Haendeloe biogas plant in Norrkoeping, Sweden, owned and operated by Svensk Biogas AB, to provide an indication of the potential of Biogas Optimizer to improve the competitiveness of biogas producers. The demonstration project attempted to satisfy 3 goals, namely; 1) to obtain baseline production information regarding the average Organic Loading Rate (OLR) and average Biogas Production Rate (BPR), 2) to demonstrate that the technology behind Biogas Optimizer works under full-scale production conditions, and 3) to verify that significant/notable production efficiency improvements can be achieved utilising Biogas Optimizer when compared to baseline production information, and that biogas production can be optimised for maximising the utilisation of reactor capacity while still leaving a comfortable safety margin so as to avoid reactor overloading. The collection of baseline production information during three months resulted in an average OLR of 4.0 Kg VS/m3/day and average BPR of 2.6 Nm3/m3/day being selected as baseline data from which to compare the performance of Biogas Optimizer. The full-scale demonstration of Biogas Optimizer was conducted over a 40 day period. During these 40 days, OLR recommendations from Biogas Optimizer, and the resulting manual adjustment of the OLR by the plant operator, resulted in an increase in the average OLR from 4.0 to 4.7 Kg/m3/day and

  6. A quantitative flow visualization technique for on-site sport aerodynamics optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sciacchitano, A.; Caridi, G.; Scarano, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamics plays a crucial role in many speed sports, where races are often won by fractions of a second. A thorough understanding of the flow field around an athlete is of paramount importance to optimize the athletes’ posture, garment roughness and equipment shape to achieve the minimum

  7. Time series analytics using sliding window metaheuristic optimization-based machine learning system for identifying building energy consumption patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Ngo, Ngoc-Tri

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study develops a novel time-series sliding window forecast system. • The system integrates metaheuristics, machine learning and time-series models. • Site experiment of smart grid infrastructure is installed to retrieve real-time data. • The proposed system accurately predicts energy consumption in residential buildings. • The forecasting system can help users minimize their electricity usage. - Abstract: Smart grids are a promising solution to the rapidly growing power demand because they can considerably increase building energy efficiency. This study developed a novel time-series sliding window metaheuristic optimization-based machine learning system for predicting real-time building energy consumption data collected by a smart grid. The proposed system integrates a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and metaheuristic firefly algorithm-based least squares support vector regression (MetaFA-LSSVR) model. Specifically, the proposed system fits the SARIMA model to linear data components in the first stage, and the MetaFA-LSSVR model captures nonlinear data components in the second stage. Real-time data retrieved from an experimental smart grid installed in a building were used to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of the proposed system. A k-week sliding window approach is proposed for employing historical data as input for the novel time-series forecasting system. The prediction system yielded high and reliable accuracy rates in 1-day-ahead predictions of building energy consumption, with a total error rate of 1.181% and mean absolute error of 0.026 kW h. Notably, the system demonstrates an improved accuracy rate in the range of 36.8–113.2% relative to those of the linear forecasting model (i.e., SARIMA) and nonlinear forecasting models (i.e., LSSVR and MetaFA-LSSVR). Therefore, end users can further apply the forecasted information to enhance efficiency of energy usage in their buildings, especially

  8. Using 50 years of soil radiocarbon data to identify optimal approaches for estimating soil carbon residence times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W. T.; Canessa, S.

    2013-01-01

    In 1959, Athol Rafter began a substantial programme of systematically monitoring the flow of 14C produced by atmospheric thermonuclear tests through organic matter in New Zealand soils under stable land use. A database of ∼500 soil radiocarbon measurements spanning 50 years has now been compiled, and is used here to identify optimal approaches for soil C-cycle studies. Our results confirm the potential of 14C to determine residence times, by estimating the amount of ‘bomb 14C’ incorporated. High-resolution time series confirm this approach is appropriate, and emphasise that residence times can be calculated routinely with two or more time points as little as 10 years apart. This approach is generally robust to the key assumptions that can create large errors when single time-point 14C measurements are modelled. The three most critical assumptions relate to: (1) the distribution of turnover times, and particularly the proportion of old C (‘passive fraction’), (2) the lag time between photosynthesis and C entering the modelled pool, (3) changes in the rates of C input. When carrying out approaches using robust assumptions on time-series samples, multiple soil layers can be aggregated using a mixing equation. Where good archived samples are available, AMS measurements can develop useful understanding for calibrating models of the soil C cycle at regional to continental scales with sample numbers on the order of hundreds rather than thousands. Sample preparation laboratories and AMS facilities can play an important role in coordinating the efficient delivery of robust calculated residence times for soil carbon.

  9. Using 50 years of soil radiocarbon data to identify optimal approaches for estimating soil carbon residence times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baisden, W.T.; Canessa, S.

    2013-01-01

    In 1959, Athol Rafter began a substantial programme of systematically monitoring the flow of 14 C produced by atmospheric thermonuclear tests through organic matter in New Zealand soils under stable land use. A database of ∼500 soil radiocarbon measurements spanning 50 years has now been compiled, and is used here to identify optimal approaches for soil C-cycle studies. Our results confirm the potential of 14 C to determine residence times, by estimating the amount of ‘bomb 14 C’ incorporated. High-resolution time series confirm this approach is appropriate, and emphasise that residence times can be calculated routinely with two or more time points as little as 10 years apart. This approach is generally robust to the key assumptions that can create large errors when single time-point 14 C measurements are modelled. The three most critical assumptions relate to: (1) the distribution of turnover times, and particularly the proportion of old C (‘passive fraction’), (2) the lag time between photosynthesis and C entering the modelled pool, (3) changes in the rates of C input. When carrying out approaches using robust assumptions on time-series samples, multiple soil layers can be aggregated using a mixing equation. Where good archived samples are available, AMS measurements can develop useful understanding for calibrating models of the soil C cycle at regional to continental scales with sample numbers on the order of hundreds rather than thousands. Sample preparation laboratories and AMS facilities can play an important role in coordinating the efficient delivery of robust calculated residence times for soil carbon.

  10. Using 50 years of soil radiocarbon data to identify optimal approaches for estimating soil carbon residence times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisden, W.T., E-mail: t.baisden@gns.cri.nz [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, P.O. Box 31312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Canessa, S. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, P.O. Box 31312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    2013-01-15

    In 1959, Athol Rafter began a substantial programme of systematically monitoring the flow of {sup 14}C produced by atmospheric thermonuclear tests through organic matter in New Zealand soils under stable land use. A database of {approx}500 soil radiocarbon measurements spanning 50 years has now been compiled, and is used here to identify optimal approaches for soil C-cycle studies. Our results confirm the potential of {sup 14}C to determine residence times, by estimating the amount of 'bomb {sup 14}C' incorporated. High-resolution time series confirm this approach is appropriate, and emphasise that residence times can be calculated routinely with two or more time points as little as 10 years apart. This approach is generally robust to the key assumptions that can create large errors when single time-point {sup 14}C measurements are modelled. The three most critical assumptions relate to: (1) the distribution of turnover times, and particularly the proportion of old C ('passive fraction'), (2) the lag time between photosynthesis and C entering the modelled pool, (3) changes in the rates of C input. When carrying out approaches using robust assumptions on time-series samples, multiple soil layers can be aggregated using a mixing equation. Where good archived samples are available, AMS measurements can develop useful understanding for calibrating models of the soil C cycle at regional to continental scales with sample numbers on the order of hundreds rather than thousands. Sample preparation laboratories and AMS facilities can play an important role in coordinating the efficient delivery of robust calculated residence times for soil carbon.

  11. A hybrid approach identifies metabolic signatures of high-producers for chinese hamster ovary clone selection and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Oliver; Müller, Dirk; Didzus, Katharina; Paul, Wolfgang; Lipsmeier, Florian; Kirchner, Florian; Niklas, Jens; Mauch, Klaus; Beaucamp, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In-depth characterization of high-producer cell lines and bioprocesses is vital to ensure robust and consistent production of recombinant therapeutic proteins in high quantity and quality for clinical applications. This requires applying appropriate methods during bioprocess development to enable meaningful characterization of CHO clones and processes. Here, we present a novel hybrid approach for supporting comprehensive characterization of metabolic clone performance. The approach combines metabolite profiling with multivariate data analysis and fluxomics to enable a data-driven mechanistic analysis of key metabolic traits associated with desired cell phenotypes. We applied the methodology to quantify and compare metabolic performance in a set of 10 recombinant CHO-K1 producer clones and a host cell line. The comprehensive characterization enabled us to derive an extended set of clone performance criteria that not only captured growth and product formation, but also incorporated information on intracellular clone physiology and on metabolic changes during the process. These criteria served to establish a quantitative clone ranking and allowed us to identify metabolic differences between high-producing CHO-K1 clones yielding comparably high product titers. Through multivariate data analysis of the combined metabolite and flux data we uncovered common metabolic traits characteristic of high-producer clones in the screening setup. This included high intracellular rates of glutamine synthesis, low cysteine uptake, reduced excretion of aspartate and glutamate, and low intracellular degradation rates of branched-chain amino acids and of histidine. Finally, the above approach was integrated into a workflow that enables standardized high-content selection of CHO producer clones in a high-throughput fashion. In conclusion, the combination of quantitative metabolite profiling, multivariate data analysis, and mechanistic network model simulations can identify metabolic

  12. Management decision of optimal recharge water in groundwater artificial recharge conditions- A case study in an artificial recharge test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H. Y.; Shi, X. F.; Zhu, W.; Wang, C. Q.; Ma, H. W.; Zhang, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    The city conducted groundwater artificial recharge test which was taken a typical site as an example, and the purpose is to prevent and control land subsidence, increase the amount of groundwater resources. To protect groundwater environmental quality and safety, the city chose tap water as recharge water, however, the high cost makes it not conducive to the optimal allocation of water resources and not suitable to popularize widely. To solve this, the city selects two major surface water of River A and B as the proposed recharge water, to explore its feasibility. According to a comprehensive analysis of the cost of recharge, the distance of the water transport, the quality of recharge water and others. Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method is used to prefer tap water and water of River A and B. Evaluation results show that water of River B is the optimal recharge water, if used; recharge cost will be from 0.4724/m3 to 0.3696/m3. Using Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method to confirm water of River B as optimal water is scientific and reasonable. The optimal water management decisions can provide technical support for the city to carry out overall groundwater artificial recharge engineering in deep aquifer.

  13. Optimizing detection of noble gas emission at a former UNE site: sample strategy, collection, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, R.; Olsen, K.; Hayes, J. C.; Emer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear tests may be first detected by seismic or air samplers operated by the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization). After initial detection of a suspicious event, member nations may call for an On-Site Inspection (OSI) that in part, will sample for localized releases of radioactive noble gases and particles. Although much of the commercially available equipment and methods used for surface and subsurface environmental sampling of gases can be used for an OSI scenario, on-site sampling conditions, required sampling volumes and establishment of background concentrations of noble gases require development of specialized methodologies. To facilitate development of sampling equipment and methodologies that address OSI sampling volume and detection objectives, and to collect information required for model development, a field test site was created at a former underground nuclear explosion site located in welded volcanic tuff. A mixture of SF-6, Xe127 and Ar37 was metered into 4400 m3 of air as it was injected into the top region of the UNE cavity. These tracers were expected to move towards the surface primarily in response to barometric pumping or through delayed cavity pressurization (accelerated transport to minimize source decay time). Sampling approaches compared during the field exercise included sampling at the soil surface, inside surface fractures, and at soil vapor extraction points at depths down to 2 m. Effectiveness of various sampling approaches and the results of tracer gas measurements will be presented.

  14. A program optimization system for the cleanup of DOE hazardous waste sites an application to FY 1990 funding decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, M.W.; Jenni, K.E.; Cotton, T.A.; Lehr, J.C.; Longo, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a formal system used by the Department of Energy (DOE) as an aid for allocating funds for cleaning up hazardous waste sites. The system, called the Program Optimization System (POS), is based on multiattribute utility analysis and was developed for DOE's Hazardous Waste and Remedial Actions Division (HWRAD). HWRAD has responsibility for recommending environmental restoration (ER) activities to the Assistant Secretary of Energy. Recently, the POS was used to analyze and recommend funding levels for FY 1990 cleanup activities at DOE defense program facilities

  15. A framework for model-based optimization of bioprocesses under uncertainty: Identifying critical parameters and operating variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the development and application of a systematic model-based framework for bioprocess optimization, evaluated on a cellulosic ethanol production case study. The implementation of the framework involves the use of dynamic simulations, sophisticated uncertainty analysis (Monte...

  16. Economical and technical optimization of site investigations - a multivariate approach based on Stripa F1 and F2 borehole information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunnesson, H.; Lundholm, I.

    1992-01-01

    In this report multivariate analysis is presented and used as a tool to optimize site investigations. The technique is tested on earlier accumulated data from bore hole F1 and F2 in the Stripa mine, in an attempt to predict the hydraulic conductivity of the rock. Different investigation methods can be selected only on behalf of their correlation to the hydraulic conductivity and accurate predictions can be made with as high resolution as the core mapping data and the data from the geophysical logging allows. In the second part of the report the integration of this technique in the pre-investigation is discussed. The most important steps is to form a site analysis group, responsible for data collection, analysis and investigation, utilize all at the time available data to improve the investigation. This will also lead to a less rigid and more flexible pre-investigation that will improve the quality and reduce time consumption. (12 refs.)(au)

  17. Simulations of hydrogen sorption in rht-MOF-1: identifying the binding sites through explicit polarization and quantum rotation calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations of hydrogen sorption were performed in rht-MOF-1, a metal-organic framework (MOF) that consists of isophthalate groups joined by copper paddlewheel clusters and Cu3O trimers through tetrazolate moeities. This is a charged rht-MOF that contains extra-framework nitrate counterions within the material. For the simulations performed herein, excellent agreement with experiment was achieved for the simulated hydrogen sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, values only when using a polarizable potential. Thermodynamic agreement is demonstrated via comparing to experimental isotherms and binding sites are revealed by combining simulation and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data. Simulations involving explicit many-body polarization interactions assisted in the determination of the binding sites in rht-MOF-1 through the distribution of the induced dipoles that led to strong adsorbate interactions. Four distinct hydrogen sorption sites were determined from the polarization distribution: the nitrate ions located in the corners of the truncated tetrahedral cages, the Cu2+ ions of the paddlewheels that project into the truncated tetrahedral and truncated octahedral cages (Cu1 ions), the Cu2+ ions of the Cu3O trimers (Cu3 ions), and the sides of the paddlewheels in the cuboctahedral cage. The simulations revealed that the initial sorption sites for hydrogen in rht-MOF-1 are the nitrate ions; this site corresponds to the high initial Qst value for hydrogen (9.5 kJ mol-1) in the MOF. The radial distribution functions, g(r), about the Cu2+ ions at various loadings revealed that the Cu1 ions are the preferred open-metal sorption sites for hydrogen at low loading, while the Cu3 ions become occupied at higher loadings. The validation of the aforementioned sorption sites in rht-MOF-1 was confirmed by calculating the two-dimensional quantum rotational levels about each site and comparing the levels to the

  18. RED: A Java-MySQL Software for Identifying and Visualizing RNA Editing Sites Using Rule-Based and Statistical Filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Sun

    Full Text Available RNA editing is one of the post- or co-transcriptional processes that can lead to amino acid substitutions in protein sequences, alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and changes in gene expression levels. Although several methods have been suggested to identify RNA editing sites, there remains challenges to be addressed in distinguishing true RNA editing sites from its counterparts on genome and technical artifacts. In addition, there lacks a software framework to identify and visualize potential RNA editing sites. Here, we presented a software - 'RED' (RNA Editing sites Detector - for the identification of RNA editing sites by integrating multiple rule-based and statistical filters. The potential RNA editing sites can be visualized at the genome and the site levels by graphical user interface (GUI. To improve performance, we used MySQL database management system (DBMS for high-throughput data storage and query. We demonstrated the validity and utility of RED by identifying the presence and absence of C→U RNA-editing sites experimentally validated, in comparison with REDItools, a command line tool to perform high-throughput investigation of RNA editing. In an analysis of a sample data-set with 28 experimentally validated C→U RNA editing sites, RED had sensitivity and specificity of 0.64 and 0.5. In comparison, REDItools had a better sensitivity (0.75 but similar specificity (0.5. RED is an easy-to-use, platform-independent Java-based software, and can be applied to RNA-seq data without or with DNA sequencing data. The package is freely available under the GPLv3 license at http://github.com/REDetector/RED or https://sourceforge.net/projects/redetector.

  19. RED: A Java-MySQL Software for Identifying and Visualizing RNA Editing Sites Using Rule-Based and Statistical Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongmei; Li, Xing; Wu, Di; Pan, Qi; Ji, Yuefeng; Ren, Hong; Ding, Keyue

    2016-01-01

    RNA editing is one of the post- or co-transcriptional processes that can lead to amino acid substitutions in protein sequences, alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and changes in gene expression levels. Although several methods have been suggested to identify RNA editing sites, there remains challenges to be addressed in distinguishing true RNA editing sites from its counterparts on genome and technical artifacts. In addition, there lacks a software framework to identify and visualize potential RNA editing sites. Here, we presented a software - 'RED' (RNA Editing sites Detector) - for the identification of RNA editing sites by integrating multiple rule-based and statistical filters. The potential RNA editing sites can be visualized at the genome and the site levels by graphical user interface (GUI). To improve performance, we used MySQL database management system (DBMS) for high-throughput data storage and query. We demonstrated the validity and utility of RED by identifying the presence and absence of C→U RNA-editing sites experimentally validated, in comparison with REDItools, a command line tool to perform high-throughput investigation of RNA editing. In an analysis of a sample data-set with 28 experimentally validated C→U RNA editing sites, RED had sensitivity and specificity of 0.64 and 0.5. In comparison, REDItools had a better sensitivity (0.75) but similar specificity (0.5). RED is an easy-to-use, platform-independent Java-based software, and can be applied to RNA-seq data without or with DNA sequencing data. The package is freely available under the GPLv3 license at http://github.com/REDetector/RED or https://sourceforge.net/projects/redetector.

  20. Study for the selection of optimal site in northeastern, Mexico for wind power generation using genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Ruvalcaba, A.; Oliver, L.

    2016-12-01

    The electricity generation from renewable resources has acquired a leading role. Mexico particularrly it has great interest in renewable natural resources for power generation, especially wind energy. Therefore, the country is rapidly entering in the development of wind power generators sites. The development of a wind places as an energy project, does not have a standardized methodology. Techniques vary according to the developer to select the best place to install a wind turbine system. Generally to install the system the developers consider three key factors: 1) the characteristics of the wind, 2) the potential distribution of electricity and 3) transport access to the site. This paper presents a study with a different methodology which is carried out in two stages: the first at regional scale uses "space" and "natural" criteria in order to select a region based on its cartographic features such as politics and physiographic division, location of conservation natural areas, water bodies, urban criteria; and natural criteria such as the amount and direction of the wind, the type and land use, vegetation, topography and biodiversity of the site. The result of the application of these criteria, gives a first optimal selection area. The second part of the methodology includes criteria and variables on detail scale. The analysis of all data information collected will provide new parameters (decision variables) for the site. The overall analysis of the information, based in these criteria, indicates that the best location that the best location of the field would be the southern Coahuila and the central part of Nuevo Leon. The wind power site will contribute to the economy grow of important cities including Monterrey. Finally, computational model of genetic algorithm will be used as a tool to determine the best site selection depending on the parameters considered.

  1. Use of technical and economic analysis for optimizing technology selection and remedial design for contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardisty, P.E.; Brown, A.

    1996-01-01

    The decision to remediate a contaminated site can be seen from the macroeconomic and microeconomic viewpoints. Macroeconomics can be used to plan and account for the overall cost of pollution as part of a firm's production, and thus make overall decisions on the real cost of pollution and the level of clean-up which may be called for. Valuation of damaged resources, option values and intrinsic worth is an important part of this process. Once the decision to remediate has been taken, the question becomes how best to remediate. Microeconomic analysis deals with providing efficient allocative decisions for reaching specified goals. it is safe to say that cost is one of the single most important factors in site clean-up decision making. A basic rule of remediation is often taken to be the maximization of contaminant mass removed per dollar spent. However, remediation may also be governed by other objectives and constraints. In some situations, minimization of time, rather than cost, could be the constraint. Or perhaps the objective could be to achieve a set level of clean-up for the lowest possible cost, even if a large program would result in unit-cost reductions. Evaluation of the economics of a clean-up project is directly linked to the objectives of the site owner, and the constraints within which the remediation is to be performed. Economic analysis of remedial options for containment of a 350,000 L hydrocarbon spill migrating through fractured rock into a river in Alberta, Canada, clear direction to the site owner

  2. Optimization of Time Controlled 6-mercaptopurine Delivery for Site- Specific Targeting to Colon Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hude, Rahul U; Jagdale, Swati C

    2016-01-01

    6-MP has short elimination time (Mercaptopurine (6-MP) for treatment of colon diseases. Compression coating technique was used. 32 full factorial design was designed for optimization of the outer coat for the core tablet. For outer coat amount of Eudragit RS 100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K100) were employed as independent variables each at three levels while responses evaluated were swelling index and bursting time. Direct compression method was used for tablets formulation. 80% w/w of microcrystalline cellulose and 20% w/w of croscarmellose sodium were found to be optimum concentration for the core tablet. The outer coat of optimized batch (ED) contains 21.05% w/w Eudragit RS 100 and 78.95% w/w HPMC K100 of total polymer weight. In-vitro dissolution study indicated that combination of polymer retards the drug release in gastric region and releases ≥95% of drug in colonic region after ≥7 h. Whereas in case of in-vivo placebo x-ray imaging study had shown that the tablet reaches colonic part after 5±0.5 h providing the proof of arrival in the colon. Stability study indicated that the optimized formulation were physically and chemically stable. Present research work concluded that compression coating by Eudragit RS 100 and HPMC K100 to 6-MP core provides potential colon targeted system with advantages of reduced gastric exposure and enhanced bioavailability. Formulation can be considered as potential and promising candidate for the treatment of colon diseases.

  3. OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF LANDFILL DISPOSAL SITE: A FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Singh, A. K. Vidyarthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The arbitrary disposal through land-fill sites and also the unscientific management of solid wastes generated by domestic, commercial and industrial activities leading to serious problems of health, sanitation and environmental degradation in India demand an immediate proper solid waste disposal planning otherwise it may cause a serious problem, especially in small and medium-sized cities/towns if proper steps are not initiated now. The present paper aims to develop decision support systems to allocate the best landfill disposal site among the given alternative sites for Vidya Vihar, Pilani, Rajasthan, India. The technique is applied to determine the overall strategy for planning of solid waste disposal and management, while taking into account its environmental impact, as well as economical, technical and sustainable development issues. The model effectively reflects dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the solid waste management system and provides decision-makers with a decision tool to make a better decision while choosing a municipal solid waste management strategy.

  4. Optimal organization of structural analysis and site inspection for the seismic requalification of Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contri, P.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis described in this report deals with a numerical procedure aimed for the assessment of a methodology for the optimal organization of data collection, in the context of seismic requalification of structures and components of existing nuclear power plants. The presented procedure has quite a general application and an example was chosen for the Paks NPP where seismic requalification is in progress. The assessment was carried out in reference to the following main tasks: structure and soil data analysis; numerical model generation; deterministic dynamic analysis description; reliability analysis framework discussion; transfer function calculation via response surface approach; and the sensitivity evaluation

  5. Towards identifying the active sites on RuO2(110) in catalyzing oxygen evolution  

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Reshma R.; Kolb, Manuel J.; Halck, Niels Bendtsen

    2017-01-01

    While the surface atomic structure of RuO2 has been well studied in ultra high vacuum, much less is known about the interaction between water and RuO2 in aqueous solution. In this work, in situ surface X-ray scattering measurements combined with density functional theory (DFT) were used to determ......While the surface atomic structure of RuO2 has been well studied in ultra high vacuum, much less is known about the interaction between water and RuO2 in aqueous solution. In this work, in situ surface X-ray scattering measurements combined with density functional theory (DFT) were used...... on the coordinatively unsaturated Ru sites (CUS) and hydrogen adsorbed to the bridging oxygen sites. At potentials relevant to the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), an –OO species on the Ru CUS sites was detected, which was stabilized by a neighboring –OH group on the Ru CUS or bridge site. Combining potential...

  6. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal

    2013-01-01

    , isoform, and transcription start site (TSS), and promoter level showed that several of the genes differed at all four levels. Interestingly, these genes were mainly annotated to the "electron transport chain" and neuronal differentiation, emphasizing that "tissue important" genes are regulated at several...

  7. Applying the 5 WHYs to Identify Root Causes to Non-completions in On-Site Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren Munch

    2014-01-01

    from mistakes. A central part of the control framework Last Planner System is to identify not completed activities to identify root causes and to learn. One tool to investigate root causes is the 5 WHYs approach. The 5 WHYs approach has been applied in a case study research to analysis the root cause...

  8. The role of optimality in characterizing CO2 seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortis, Andrea; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-09-15

    Storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in deep geological formations for greenhouse gas mitigation is gaining momentum and moving from its conceptual and testing stages towards widespread application. In this work we explore various optimization strategies for characterizing surface leakage (seepage) using near-surface measurement approaches such as accumulation chambers and eddy covariance towers. Seepage characterization objectives and limitations need to be defined carefully from the outset especially in light of large natural background variations that can mask seepage. The cost and sensitivity of seepage detection are related to four critical length scales pertaining to the size of the: (1) region that needs to be monitored; (2) footprint of the measurement approach, and (3) main seepage zone; and (4) region in which concentrations or fluxes are influenced by seepage. Seepage characterization objectives may include one or all of the tasks of detecting, locating, and quantifying seepage. Each of these tasks has its own optimal strategy. Detecting and locating seepage in a region in which there is no expected or preferred location for seepage nor existing evidence for seepage requires monitoring on a fixed grid, e.g., using eddy covariance towers. The fixed-grid approaches needed to detect seepage are expected to require large numbers of eddy covariance towers for large-scale geologic CO{sub 2} storage. Once seepage has been detected and roughly located, seepage zones and features can be optimally pinpointed through a dynamic search strategy, e.g., employing accumulation chambers and/or soil-gas sampling. Quantification of seepage rates can be done through measurements on a localized fixed grid once the seepage is pinpointed. Background measurements are essential for seepage detection in natural ecosystems. Artificial neural networks are considered as regression models useful for distinguishing natural system behavior from anomalous behavior

  9. High FDG uptake areas on pre-radiotherapy PET/CT identify preferential sites of local relapse after chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calais, Jeremie; Lemarignier, Charles; Vera, Pierre [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Dubray, Bernard [University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Rouen (France); Nkhali, Lamyaa; Thureau, Sebastien; Modzelewski, Romain; Gardin, Isabelle [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Rouen (France); Di Fiore, Frederic [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Henri Becquerel Cancer Center, IRON, Rouen (France); Michel, Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France)

    2015-05-01

    The high failure rates in the radiotherapy (RT) target volume suggest that patients with locally advanced oesophageal cancer (LAOC) would benefit from increased total RT doses. High 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake (hotspot) on pre-RT FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has been reported to identify intra-tumour sites at increased risk of relapse after RT in non-small cell lung cancer and in rectal cancer. Our aim was to confirm these observations in patients with LAOC and to determine the optimal maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) threshold to delineate smaller RT target volumes that would facilitate RT dose escalation without impaired tolerance. The study included 98 consecutive patients with LAOC treated by chemoradiotherapy (CRT). All patients underwent FDG PET/CT at initial staging and during systematic follow-up in a single institution. FDG PET/CT acquisitions were coregistered on the initial CT scan. Various subvolumes within the initial tumour (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 % SUV{sub max} thresholds) and in the subsequent local recurrence (LR, 40 and 90 % SUV{sub max} thresholds) were pasted on the initial CT scan and compared[Dice, Jaccard, overlap fraction (OF), common volume/baseline volume, common volume/recurrent volume]. Thirty-five patients had LR. The initial metabolic tumour volume was significantly higher in LR tumours than in the locally controlled tumours (mean 25.4 vs 14.2 cc; p = 0.002). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT with a 30-60 % SUV{sub max} threshold were in good agreement with the recurrent volume at 40 % SUV{sub max} (OF = 0.60-0.80). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT with a 30-60 % SUV{sub max} threshold were in good to excellent agreement with the core volume (90 % SUV{sub max}) of the relapse (common volume/recurrent volume and OF indices 0.61-0.89). High FDG uptake on pretreatment PET/CT identifies tumour subvolumes that are at greater risk of recurrence after CRT in

  10. Etude de Dimensionnement optimal d’une station solaire autonome en site isolé.

    OpenAIRE

    Salaheddine, MANSOUR

    2014-01-01

    La situation géographique de l’Algérie favorise le développement de l’utilisation de l’énergie solaire, ce travail de mémoire a consisté à dimensionner Une station solaire parune méthode de dimensionnement optimal du générateur photovoltaïque ce qui a donc consisté à déterminer le nombre de panneaux et la capacité optimale en prenant en considération le critère économique. vu l’importance de l’intensité du rayonnement reçu ainsi que la durée de l’ensoleilleme...

  11. Digital mammography--DQE versus optimized image quality in clinical environment: an on site study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Nadia; Fracchetti, Alessandro; Springeth, Margareth; Moroder, Ehrenfried

    2010-04-01

    The intrinsic quality of the detection system of 7 different digital mammography units (5 direct radiography DR; 2 computed radiography CR), expressed by DQE, has been compared with their image quality/dose performances in clinical use. DQE measurements followed IEC 62220-1-2 using a tungsten test object for MTF determination. For image quality assessment two different methods have been applied: 1) measurement of contrast to noise ratio (CNR) according to the European guidelines and 2) contrast-detail (CD) evaluation. The latter was carried out with the phantom CDMAM ver. 3.4 and the commercial software CDMAM Analyser ver. 1.1 (both Artinis) for automated image analysis. The overall image quality index IQFinv proposed by the software has been validated. Correspondence between the two methods has been shown figuring out a linear correlation between CNR and IQFinv. All systems were optimized with respect to image quality and average glandular dose (AGD) within the constraints of automatic exposure control (AEC). For each equipment, a good image quality level was defined by means of CD analysis, and the corresponding CNR value considered as target value. The goal was to achieve for different PMMA-phantom thicknesses constant image quality, that means the CNR target value, at minimum dose. All DR systems exhibited higher DQE and significantly better image quality compared to CR systems. Generally switching, where available, to a target/filter combination with an x-ray spectrum of higher mean energy permitted dose savings at equal image quality. However, several systems did not allow to modify the AEC in order to apply optimal radiographic technique in clinical use. The best ratio image quality/dose was achieved by a unit with a-Se detector and W anode only recently available on the market.

  12. Using GIS data and satellite derived irradiance to optimize siting of PV installations in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Annelen; Nguyen, Viet-Anh; Bartlett, Stuart; Sossan, Fabrizio; Lehning, Michael

    2016-04-01

    For a successful distribution strategy of PV installations, it does not suffice to choose the locations with highest annual total irradiance. Attention needs to be given to spatial correlation patterns of insolation to avoid large system-wide variations, which can cause extended deficits in supply or might even damage the electrical network. One alternative goal instead is to seek configurations that provide the smoothest energy production, with the most reliable and predictable supply. Our work investigates several scenarios, each pursuing a different strategy for a future renewable Switzerland without nuclear power. Based on an estimate for necessary installed capacity for solar power [Bartlett, 2015] we first use heuristics to pre-select realistic placements for PV installations. Then we apply optimization methods to find a subset of locations that provides the best possible combined electricity production. For the first part of the selection process, we use a DEM to exclude high elevation zones which would be difficult to access and which are prone to natural hazards. Then we use land surface cover information to find all zones with potential roof area, deemed suitable for installation of solar panels. The optimization employs Principal Component Analysis of satellite derived irradiance data (Surface Incoming Shortwave Radiation (SIS), based on Meteosat Second Generation sensors) to incorporate a spatial aspect into the selection process that does not simply maximize annual total production but rather provides the most robust supply, by combining regions with anti-correlated cloud cover patterns. Depending on the initial assumptions and constraints, the resulting distribution schemes for PV installations vary with respect to required surface area, annual total and lowest short-term production, and illustrate how important it is to clearly define priorities and policies for a future renewable Switzerland.

  13. Ultrasound-guided thoracenthesis: the V-point as a site for optimal drainage positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanforlin, A; Gavelli, G; Oboldi, D; Galletti, S

    2013-01-01

    In the latest years the use of lung ultrasound is increasing in the evaluation of pleural effusions, because it makes follow-up easier and drainage more efficient by providing guidance on the most appropriate sampling site. However, no standardized approach for ultrasound-guided thoracenthesis is actually available. To evaluate our usual ultrasonographic landmark as a possible standard site to perform thoracenthesis by assessing its value in terms of safety and efficiency (success at first attempt, drainage as complete as possible). Hospitalized patients with non organized pleural effusion underwent thoracenthesis after ultrasound evaluation. The point showing on ultrasound the maximum thickness of the effusion ("V-point") was chosen for drainage. 45 ultrasound guided thoracenthesis were performed in 12 months. In 22 cases there were no complications; 16 cases of cough, 2 cases of mild dyspnea without desaturation, 4 cases of mild pain; 2 cases of complications requiring medical intervention occurred. No case of pneumothorax related to the procedure was detected. In all cases drainage was successful on the first attempt. The collected values of maximum thickness at V-point (min 3.4 cm - max 15.3 cm) and drained fluid volume (min 70 ml - max 2000 ml) showed a significative correlation (p measure of the maximum thickness at V-point provides high efficiency to ultrasound guided thoracentesis and allows to estimate the amount of fluid in the pleural cavity. It is also an easy parameter that makes the proposed method quick to learn and apply.  

  14. Model outputs for each hotspot site to identify the likely environmental, economic and social effects of proposed remediation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleskens, Luuk; Irvine, Brian; Kirkby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Portuguese sites) a fire severity index under current conditions and under different technologies. The DESMICE model is informed by WB3 WOCAT database records, economic WB4 experimental results, additionally requested data on spatial variability of costs and benefits, and secondary data. It applies spatially...... multiple stakeholders in very different contexts into the modelling process, in order to enhance both the realism and relevance of outputs for policy and practice; b) site-selection modelling is being applied to land degradation mitigation to enable landscape-scale assessments of the most economically....... Biophysical models (e.g. PESERA) should be able to separate immediate and gradual aspects. Ongoing degradation in the without case is not yet implicitly considered. Analysis of robustness to climatic variability and prices is also essential. Finally, factors such as attitude towards conservation and risk...

  15. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal; Thomsen, Bo; Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Jakob; Bendixen, Christian; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Transcriptome sequencing yielded 223 mill porcine RNA-seq reads, and 59,000 transcribed locations. •Establishment of unique transcription profiles for ten porcine tissues including four brain tissues. •Comparison of transcription profiles at gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level. •Highlights a high level of regulation of neuro-related genes at both gene, isoform, and TSS level. •Our results emphasize the pig as a valuable animal model with respect to human biological issues. -- Abstract: The transcriptome is the absolute set of transcripts in a tissue or cell at the time of sampling. In this study RNA-Seq is employed to enable the differential analysis of the transcriptome profile for ten porcine tissues in order to evaluate differences between the tissues at the gene and isoform expression level, together with an analysis of variation in transcription start sites, promoter usage, and splicing. Totally, 223 million RNA fragments were sequenced leading to the identification of 59,930 transcribed gene locations and 290,936 transcript variants using Cufflinks with similarity to approximately 13,899 annotated human genes. Pairwise analysis of tissues for differential expression at the gene level showed that the smallest differences were between tissues originating from the porcine brain. Interestingly, the relative level of differential expression at the isoform level did generally not vary between tissue contrasts. Furthermore, analysis of differential promoter usage between tissues, revealed a proportionally higher variation between cerebellum (CBE) versus frontal cortex and cerebellum versus hypothalamus (HYP) than in the remaining comparisons. In addition, the comparison of differential transcription start sites showed that the number of these sites is generally increased in comparisons including hypothalamus in contrast to other pairwise assessments. A comprehensive analysis of one of the tissue contrasts, i

  16. Plasticity of the Binding Site of Renin: Optimized Selection of Protein Structures for Ensemble Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Claas; Meyer, Bernd

    2018-05-02

    Protein flexibility poses a major challenge to docking of potential ligands in that the binding site can adopt different shapes. Docking algorithms usually keep the protein rigid and only allow the ligand to be treated as flexible. However, a wrong assessment of the shape of the binding pocket can prevent a ligand from adapting a correct pose. Ensemble docking is a simple yet promising method to solve this problem: Ligands are docked into multiple structures, and the results are subsequently merged. Selection of protein structures is a significant factor for this approach. In this work we perform a comprehensive and comparative study evaluating the impact of structure selection on ensemble docking. We perform ensemble docking with several crystal structures and with structures derived from molecular dynamics simulations of renin, an attractive target for antihypertensive drugs. Here, 500 ns of MD simulations revealed binding site shapes not found in any available crystal structure. We evaluate the importance of structure selection for ensemble docking by comparing binding pose prediction, ability to rank actives above nonactives (screening utility), and scoring accuracy. As a result, for ensemble definition k-means clustering appears to be better suited than hierarchical clustering with average linkage. The best performing ensemble consists of four crystal structures and is able to reproduce the native ligand poses better than any individual crystal structure. Moreover this ensemble outperforms 88% of all individual crystal structures in terms of screening utility as well as scoring accuracy. Similarly, ensembles of MD-derived structures perform on average better than 75% of any individual crystal structure in terms of scoring accuracy at all inspected ensembles sizes.

  17. Novel method to identify the optimal antimicrobial peptide in a combination matrix, using anoplin as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Jens; Ritz, Christian; Fliedner, Frederikke Petrine

    2014-01-01

    retention time data, we construct analysis of variance models that describe the relationship between these properties and structural characteristics of the analogs. We show that the mathematical models derived from the training set data can be used to predict the properties of other analogs in the chemical......Microbial resistance is an increasing health concern and a true danger to human wellbeing. A worldwide search for new compounds is ongoing and antimicrobial peptides are promising lead candidates for tomorrow's antibiotics. The decapeptide anoplin, GLLKRIKTLL-NH2, is an especially interesting...... candidate because of its small size as well as its antimicrobial and nonhemolytic properties. Optimization of the properties of an antimicrobial peptide such as anoplin requires multidimensional searching in a complex chemical space. Typically such optimization is performed by labor-intensive and costly...

  18. Analysis of Perioperative Chemotherapy in Resected Pancreatic Cancer: Identifying the Number and Sequence of Chemotherapy Cycles Needed to Optimize Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboym, Irene; Zenati, Mazen S; Hamad, Ahmad; Steve, Jennifer; Lee, Kenneth K; Bahary, Nathan; Hogg, Melissa E; Zeh, Herbert J; Zureikat, Amer H

    2017-09-01

    Receipt of 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) is standard of care in pancreatic cancer (PC). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is increasingly utilized; however, optimal number of cycles needed alone or in combination with AC remains unknown. We sought to determine the optimal number and sequence of perioperative chemotherapy cycles in PC. Single institutional review of all resected PCs from 2008 to 2015. The impact of cumulative number of chemotherapy cycles received (0, 1-5, and ≥6 cycles) and their sequence (NAC, AC, or NAC + AC) on overall survival was evaluated Cox-proportional hazard modeling, using 6 cycles of AC as reference. A total of 522 patients were analyzed. Based on sample size distribution, four combinations were evaluated: 0 cycles = 12.1%, 1-5 cycles of combined NAC + AC = 29%, 6 cycles of AC = 25%, and ≥6 cycles of combined NAC + AC = 34%, with corresponding survival. 13.1, 18.5, 37, and 36.8 months. On MVA (P cycles AC, receipt of 0 cycles [HR 3.57, confidence interval (CI) 2.47-5.18] or 1-5 cycles in any combination (HR 2.37, CI 1.73-3.23) was associated with increased hazard of death, whereas receipt of ≥6 cycles in any sequence was associated with optimal and comparable survival (HR 1.07, CI 0.78-1.47). Receipt of 6 or more perioperative cycles of chemotherapy either as combined neoadjuvant and adjuvant or adjuvant alone may be associated with optimal and comparable survival in resected PC.

  19. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting ^8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of ^8-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among ^8-sphingolipid desaturases and ^6-fatty acid desaturase from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb5 (cytochrome b5) HPGG motif and...

  20. Partial digestion with restriction enzymes of ultraviolet-irradiated human genomic DNA: a method for identifying restriction site polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, C.; Romeo, G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for partial digestion of total human DNA with restriction enzymes has been developed on the basis of a principle already utilized by P.A. Whittaker and E. Southern for the analysis of phage lambda recombinants. Total human DNA irradiated with uv light of 254 nm is partially digested by restriction enzymes that recognize sequences containing adjacent thymidines because of TT dimer formation. The products resulting from partial digestion of specific genomic regions are detected in Southern blots by genomic-unique DNA probes with high reproducibility. This procedure is rapid and simple to perform because the same conditions of uv irradiation are used for different enzymes and probes. It is shown that restriction site polymorphisms occurring in the genomic regions analyzed are recognized by the allelic partial digest patterns they determine

  1. Optimal sizes and siting of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Tailles et localisations optimales des usines de retraitement des combustibles nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Deledicq, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Siege (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The expansion of a nuclear economy entails the development of fuel process and reprocessing plant programmes. The model proposed makes it possible to select the size, the site and the start-up schedule of the plants in such a way as to minimize the total freight and reprocessing costs. As an illustration, we have approached the problem of burnt natural uranium processing plants related to natural uranium-graphite as nuclear power stations. The sites and annual output of the reactors, the possible plant sites and cost functions (freight and reprocessing) are supposed to be known. The method consists in first approaching the process plant problem as a Dynamic Programming problem, increasing programme slices (total reactor output) being explored sequentially. When the quantities of burnt natural uranium to be reprocessed are fixed, the minimization of the transport cost is then also carried out as a dynamic programming problem. The neighbourhood of the optimum process cost is explored in order to find the minimum summation of a suboptimal processing cost and corresponding optimal transport cost. As the reprocessing problem can be represented on a sequential graph, in order to compute the sub-optima, we developed and used a 'reflexion algorithm'. The method can be interpreted as a general mechanism for determining the optimum when to a sequential dynamic problem (for example an equipment programme) is added a complementary problem (transport, for instance). It also makes it possible to estimate the economic losses which result from the choice of a non optimal policy for other than economic reasons. (author) [French] L'expansion de l'economie nucleaire se traduit par un developpement des programmes d'usines d'elaboration et de retraitement des combustibles. Le modele propose permet de choisir la taille, la localisation et la cadence de mise en service des usines de maniere a minimiser le total des frais de transport et de retraitement. A titre d'exemple nous avons

  2. Spatio-temporal modelling of electrical supply systems to optimize the site planning process for the "power to mobility" technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Florian; Zink, Roland

    2016-04-01

    The transformation of the energy sector towards decentralized renewable energies (RE) requires also storage systems to ensure security of supply. The new "Power to Mobility" (PtM) technology is one potential solution to use electrical overproduction to produce methane for i.e. gas vehicles. Motivated by these fact, the paper presents a methodology for a GIS-based temporal modelling of the power grid, to optimize the site planning process for the new PtM-technology. The modelling approach is based on a combination of the software QuantumGIS for the geographical and topological energy supply structure and OpenDSS for the net modelling. For a case study (work in progress) of the city of Straubing (Lower Bavaria) the parameters of the model are quantified. The presentation will discuss the methodology as well as the first results with a view to the application on a regional scale.

  3. TargetM6A: Identifying N6-Methyladenosine Sites From RNA Sequences via Position-Specific Nucleotide Propensities and a Support Vector Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Qing; Liu, Zi; Shen, Hong-Bin; Yu, Dong-Jun

    2016-10-01

    As one of the most ubiquitous post-transcriptional modifications of RNA, N 6 -methyladenosine ( [Formula: see text]) plays an essential role in many vital biological processes. The identification of [Formula: see text] sites in RNAs is significantly important for both basic biomedical research and practical drug development. In this study, we designed a computational-based method, called TargetM6A, to rapidly and accurately target [Formula: see text] sites solely from the primary RNA sequences. Two new features, i.e., position-specific nucleotide/dinucleotide propensities (PSNP/PSDP), are introduced and combined with the traditional nucleotide composition (NC) feature to formulate RNA sequences. The extracted features are further optimized to obtain a much more compact and discriminative feature subset by applying an incremental feature selection (IFS) procedure. Based on the optimized feature subset, we trained TargetM6A on the training dataset with a support vector machine (SVM) as the prediction engine. We compared the proposed TargetM6A method with existing methods for predicting [Formula: see text] sites by performing stringent jackknife tests and independent validation tests on benchmark datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed TargetM6A method outperformed the existing methods for predicting [Formula: see text] sites and remarkably improved the prediction performances, with MCC = 0.526 and AUC = 0.818. We also provided a user-friendly web server for TargetM6A, which is publicly accessible for academic use at http://csbio.njust.edu.cn/bioinf/TargetM6A.

  4. Diet of pumas (Puma concolor) in Sonora, Mexico, as determined by GPS kill sites and molecular identified scat, with comments on jaguar (Panthera onca) diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassaigne, Ivonne; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie; Ochoa, Alexander; Vargas, Karla; Childs, Jack L.; Sanderson, Jim; List, Rurik; Torres-Gomez, Armando

    2016-01-01

    We documented puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) prey consumption in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, by investigating global positioning system cluster sites (n = 220), and conducting molecular analyses of scat (n = 116) collected between 2011 and 2013. We used camera trap data (n = 8,976 camera days) to estimate relative abundances of pumas and jaguars. Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was the most frequent prey for puma found at kill sites (67%) and identified from scat (74%), although based on relative numbers of prey consumed, deer represented 45% and lagomorphs 20% of the proportion of all individuals eaten. A variety of small prey (weighing Sonora.

  5. An optimization of the ALICE XRootD storage cluster at the Tier-2 site in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamova, D; Horky, J

    2012-01-01

    ALICE, as well as the other experiments at the CERN LHC, has been building a distributed data management infrastructure since 2002. Experience gained during years of operations with different types of storage managers deployed over this infrastructure has shown, that the most adequate storage solution for ALICE is the native XRootD manager developed within a CERN - SLAC collaboration. The XRootD storage clusters exhibit higher stability and availability in comparison with other storage solutions and demonstrate a number of other advantages, like support of high speed WAN data access or no need for maintaining complex databases. Two of the operational characteristics of XRootD data servers are a relatively high number of open sockets and a high Unix load. In this article, we would like to describe our experience with the tuning/optimization of machines hosting the XRootD servers, which are part of the ALICE storage cluster at the Tier-2 WLCG site in Prague, Czech Republic. The optimization procedure, in addition to boosting the read/write performance of the servers, also resulted in a reduction of the Unix load.

  6. A Sustainability-Oriented Multiobjective Optimization Model for Siting and Sizing Distributed Generation Plants in Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sustainability-oriented multiobjective optimization model for siting and sizing DG plants in distribution systems. Life cycle exergy (LCE is used as a unified indicator of the entire system’s environmental sustainability, and it is optimized as an objective function in the model. Other two objective functions include economic cost and expected power loss. Chance constraints are used to control the operation risks caused by the uncertain power loads and renewable energies. A semilinearized simulation method is proposed and combined with the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS method to improve the efficiency of probabilistic load flow (PLF analysis which is repeatedly performed to verify the chance constraints. A numerical study based on the modified IEEE 33-node system is performed to verify the proposed method. Numerical results show that the proposed semilinearized simulation method reduces about 93.3% of the calculation time of PLF analysis and guarantees satisfying accuracy. The results also indicate that benefits for environmental sustainability of using DG plants can be effectively reflected by the proposed model which helps the planner to make rational decision towards sustainable development of the distribution system.

  7. Selecting an optimal number of binding site waters to improve virtual screening enrichments against the adenosine A2A receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2014-06-23

    A major challenge in structure-based virtual screening (VS) involves the treatment of explicit water molecules during docking in order to improve the enrichment of active compounds over decoys. Here we have investigated this in the context of the adenosine A2A receptor, where water molecules have previously been shown to be important for achieving high enrichment rates with docking, and where the positions of some binding site waters are known from a high-resolution crystal structure. The effect of these waters (both their presence and orientations) on VS enrichment was assessed using a carefully curated set of 299 high affinity A2A antagonists and 17,337 decoys. We show that including certain crystal waters greatly improves VS enrichment and that optimization of water hydrogen positions is needed in order to achieve the best results. We also show that waters derived from a molecular dynamics simulation - without any knowledge of crystallographic waters - can improve enrichments to a similar degree as the crystallographic waters, which makes this strategy applicable to structures without experimental knowledge of water positions. Finally, we used decision trees to select an ensemble of structures with different water molecule positions and orientations that outperforms any single structure with water molecules. The approach presented here is validated against independent test sets of A2A receptor antagonists and decoys from the literature. In general, this water optimization strategy could be applied to any target with waters-mediated protein-ligand interactions.

  8. Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

    2014-11-01

    Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

  9. ReacKnock: identifying reaction deletion strategies for microbial strain optimization based on genome-scale metabolic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixiang Xu

    Full Text Available Gene knockout has been used as a common strategy to improve microbial strains for producing chemicals. Several algorithms are available to predict the target reactions to be deleted. Most of them apply mixed integer bi-level linear programming (MIBLP based on metabolic networks, and use duality theory to transform bi-level optimization problem of large-scale MIBLP to single-level programming. However, the validity of the transformation was not proved. Solution of MIBLP depends on the structure of inner problem. If the inner problem is continuous, Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT method can be used to reformulate the MIBLP to a single-level one. We adopt KKT technique in our algorithm ReacKnock to attack the intractable problem of the solution of MIBLP, demonstrated with the genome-scale metabolic network model of E. coli for producing various chemicals such as succinate, ethanol, threonine and etc. Compared to the previous methods, our algorithm is fast, stable and reliable to find the optimal solutions for all the chemical products tested, and able to provide all the alternative deletion strategies which lead to the same industrial objective.

  10. A strategy for interaction site prediction between phospho-binding modules and their partners identified from proteomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucher, Willy; Becker, Emmanuelle; Ma, Emilie; Miron, Simona; Martel, Arnaud; Ochsenbein, Françoise; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Guerois, Raphaël

    2010-12-01

    Small and large scale proteomic technologies are providing a wealth of potential interactions between proteins bearing phospho-recognition modules and their substrates. Resulting interaction maps reveal such a dense network of interactions that the functional dissection and understanding of these networks often require to break specific interactions while keeping the rest intact. Here, we developed a computational strategy, called STRIP, to predict the precise interaction site involved in an interaction with a phospho-recognition module. The method was validated by a two-hybrid screen carried out using the ForkHead Associated (FHA)1 domain of Rad53, a key protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA checkpoint, as a bait. In this screen we detected 11 partners, including Cdc7 and Cdc45, essential components of the DNA replication machinery. FHA domains are phospho-threonine binding modules and the threonines involved in both interactions could be predicted using the STRIP strategy. The threonines T484 and T189 in Cdc7 and Cdc45, respectively, were mutated and loss of binding could be monitored experimentally with the full-length proteins. The method was further tested for the analysis of 63 known Rad53 binding partners and provided several key insights regarding the threonines likely involved in these interactions. The STRIP method relies on a combination of conservation, phosphorylation likelihood, and binding specificity criteria and can be accessed via a web interface at http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/strip/.

  11. A Strategy for Interaction Site Prediction between Phospho-binding Modules and their Partners Identified from Proteomic Data*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucher, Willy; Becker, Emmanuelle; Ma, Emilie; Miron, Simona; Martel, Arnaud; Ochsenbein, Françoise; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Guerois, Raphaël

    2010-01-01

    Small and large scale proteomic technologies are providing a wealth of potential interactions between proteins bearing phospho-recognition modules and their substrates. Resulting interaction maps reveal such a dense network of interactions that the functional dissection and understanding of these networks often require to break specific interactions while keeping the rest intact. Here, we developed a computational strategy, called STRIP, to predict the precise interaction site involved in an interaction with a phospho-recognition module. The method was validated by a two-hybrid screen carried out using the ForkHead Associated (FHA)1 domain of Rad53, a key protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA checkpoint, as a bait. In this screen we detected 11 partners, including Cdc7 and Cdc45, essential components of the DNA replication machinery. FHA domains are phospho-threonine binding modules and the threonines involved in both interactions could be predicted using the STRIP strategy. The threonines T484 and T189 in Cdc7 and Cdc45, respectively, were mutated and loss of binding could be monitored experimentally with the full-length proteins. The method was further tested for the analysis of 63 known Rad53 binding partners and provided several key insights regarding the threonines likely involved in these interactions. The STRIP method relies on a combination of conservation, phosphorylation likelihood, and binding specificity criteria and can be accessed via a web interface at http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/strip/. PMID:20733106

  12. Surgical site infection prevention: a survey to identify the gap between evidence and practice in University of Toronto teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskicioglu, Cagla; Gagliardi, Anna R; Fenech, Darlene S; Forbes, Shawn S; McKenzie, Marg; McLeod, Robin S; Nathens, Avery B

    2012-08-01

    A gap exists between the best evidence and practice with regards to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention. Awareness of evidence is the first step in knowledge translation. A web-based survey was distributed to 59 general surgeons and 68 residents at University of Toronto teaching hospitals. Five domains pertaining to SSI prevention with questions addressing knowledge of prevention strategies, efficacy of antibiotics, strategies for changing practice and barriers to implementation of SSI prevention strategies were investigated. Seventy-six individuals (60%) responded. More than 90% of respondents stated there was evidence for antibiotic prophylaxis and perioperative normothermia and reported use of these strategies. There was a discrepancy in the perceived evidence for and the self-reported use of perioperative hyperoxia, omission of hair removal and bowel preparation. Eighty-three percent of respondents felt that consulting published guidelines is important in making decisions regarding antibiotics. There was also a discrepancy between what respondents felt were important strategies to ensure timely administration of antibiotics and what strategies were in place. Checklists, standardized orders, protocols and formal surveillance programs were rated most highly by 75%-90% of respondents, but less than 50% stated that these strategies were in place at their institutions. Broad-reaching initiatives that increase surgeon and trainee awareness and implementation of multifaceted hospital strategies that engage residents and attending surgeons are needed to change practice.

  13. Enhancement of the REMix energy system model. Global renewable energy potentials, optimized power plant siting and scenario validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetter, Daniel

    2014-04-10

    As electricity generation based on volatile renewable resources is subject to fluctuations, data with high temporal and spatial resolution on their availability is indispensable for integrating large shares of renewable capacities into energy infrastructures. The scope of the present doctoral thesis is to enhance the existing energy modelling environment REMix in terms of (i.) extending the geographic coverage of the potential assessment tool REMix-EnDaT from a European to a global scale, (ii.) adding a new plant siting optimization module REMix-PlaSMo, capable of assessing siting effects of renewable power plants on the portfolio output and (iii.) adding a new alternating current power transmission model between 30 European countries and CSP electricity imports from power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East via high voltage direct current links into the module REMix-OptiMo. With respect to the global potential assessment tool, a thorough investigation is carried out creating an hourly global inventory of the theoretical potentials of the major renewable resources solar irradiance, wind speed and river discharge at a spatial resolution of 0.45°x0.45°. A detailed global land use analysis determines eligible sites for the installation of renewable power plants. Detailed power plant models for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power allow for the assessment of power output, cost per kWh and respective full load hours taking into account the theoretical potentials, technological as well as economic data. The so-obtined tool REMix-EnDaT can be used as follows: First, as an assessment tool for arbitrary geographic locations, countries or world regions, deriving either site-specific or aggregated installable capacities, cost as well as full load hour potentials. Second, as a tool providing input data such as installable capacities and hourly renewable electricity generation for further assessments using the modules REMix-PlasMo and OptiMo. The plant siting tool

  14. Self-optimization of the active site of molybdenum disulfide by an irreversible phase transition during photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Longlu; Duan, Xidong; Liu, Chengbin; Zhang, Shuqu; Zeng, Yunxiong [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha (China); Liu, Xia; Pei, Yong [Key Laboratory of Environmentally Friendly Chemistry and Applications of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University (China); Luo, Jinming; Crittenden, John [Brook Byers Institute for Sustainable Systems and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Duan, Xiangfeng [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-06-19

    The metallic 1T-MoS{sub 2} has attracted considerable attention as an effective catalyst for hydrogen evolution reactions (HERs). However, the fundamental mechanism about the catalytic activity of 1T-MoS{sub 2} and the associated phase evolution remain elusive and controversial. Herein, we prepared the most stable 1T-MoS{sub 2} by hydrothermal exfoliation of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets vertically rooted into rigid one-dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. The 1T-MoS{sub 2} can keep highly stable over one year, presenting an ideal model system for investigating the HER catalytic activities as a function of the phase evolution. Both experimental studies and theoretical calculations suggest that 1T phase can be irreversibly transformed into a more active 1T' phase as true active sites in photocatalytic HERs, resulting in a ''catalytic site self-optimization''. Hydrogen atom adsorption is the major driving force for this phase transition. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Enhancement of the REMix energy system model. Global renewable energy potentials, optimized power plant siting and scenario validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetter, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    As electricity generation based on volatile renewable resources is subject to fluctuations, data with high temporal and spatial resolution on their availability is indispensable for integrating large shares of renewable capacities into energy infrastructures. The scope of the present doctoral thesis is to enhance the existing energy modelling environment REMix in terms of (i.) extending the geographic coverage of the potential assessment tool REMix-EnDaT from a European to a global scale, (ii.) adding a new plant siting optimization module REMix-PlaSMo, capable of assessing siting effects of renewable power plants on the portfolio output and (iii.) adding a new alternating current power transmission model between 30 European countries and CSP electricity imports from power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East via high voltage direct current links into the module REMix-OptiMo. With respect to the global potential assessment tool, a thorough investigation is carried out creating an hourly global inventory of the theoretical potentials of the major renewable resources solar irradiance, wind speed and river discharge at a spatial resolution of 0.45°x0.45°. A detailed global land use analysis determines eligible sites for the installation of renewable power plants. Detailed power plant models for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power allow for the assessment of power output, cost per kWh and respective full load hours taking into account the theoretical potentials, technological as well as economic data. The so-obtined tool REMix-EnDaT can be used as follows: First, as an assessment tool for arbitrary geographic locations, countries or world regions, deriving either site-specific or aggregated installable capacities, cost as well as full load hour potentials. Second, as a tool providing input data such as installable capacities and hourly renewable electricity generation for further assessments using the modules REMix-PlasMo and OptiMo. The plant siting tool

  16. Optimal Siting of Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles Based on Fuzzy Delphi and Hybrid Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approaches from an Extended Sustainability Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal siting of electric vehicle charging stations (EVCSs is crucial to the sustainable development of electric vehicle systems. Considering the defects of previous heuristic optimization models in tackling subjective factors, this paper employs a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM framework to address the issue of EVCS siting. The initial criteria for optimal EVCS siting are selected from extended sustainability theory, and the vital sub-criteria are further determined by using a fuzzy Delphi method (FDM, which consists of four pillars: economy, society, environment and technology perspectives. To tolerate vagueness and ambiguity of subjective factors and human judgment, a fuzzy Grey relation analysis (GRA-VIKOR method is employed to determine the optimal EVCS site, which also improves the conventional aggregating function of fuzzy Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacijia I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR. Moreover, to integrate the subjective opinions as well as objective information, experts’ ratings and Shannon entropy method are employed to determine combination weights. Then, the applicability of proposed framework is demonstrated by an empirical study of five EVCS site alternatives in Tianjin. The results show that A3 is selected as the optimal site for EVCS, and sub-criteria affiliated with environment obtain much more attentions than that of other sub-criteria. Moreover, sensitivity analysis indicates the selection results remains stable no matter how sub-criteria weights are changed, which verifies the robustness and effectiveness of proposed model and evaluation results. This study provides a comprehensive and effective method for optimal siting of EVCS and also innovates the weights determination and distance calculation for conventional fuzzy VIKOR.

  17. Application of multiple tracers (SF6 and chloride) to identify the transport by characteristics of contaminant at two separate contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. K.; Lee, S. S.; Kim, H. H.; Koh, E. H.; Kim, M. O.; Lee, K.; Kim, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple tracers were applied for source and pathway detection at two different sites. CO2 gas injected in the subsurface for a shallow-depth CO2 injection and leak test can be regarded as a potential contaminant source. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the migration pattern of CO2 gas. Also, at a DNAPL contaminated site, it is important to figure out the characteristics of plume evolution from the source zone. In this study, multiple tracers (SF6 and chloride) were used to evaluate the applicability of volatile and non-volatile tracers and to identify the characteristics of contaminant transport at each CO2 injection and leak test site and DNAPL contaminated site. Firstly, at the CO2 test site, multiple tracers were used to perform the single well push-drift-pull tracer test at total 3 specific depth zones. As results of tests, volatile and non-volatile tracers showed different mass recovery percentage. Most of chloride mass was recovered but less than half of SF6 mass was recovered due to volatile property. This means that only gaseous SF6 leak out to unsaturated zone. However, breakthrough curves of both tracers indicated similar peak time, effective porosity, and regional groundwater velocity. Also, at both contaminated sites, natural gradient tracer tests were performed with multiple tracers. With the results of natural gradient tracer test, it was possible to confirm the applicability of multiple tracers and to understand the contaminant transport in highly heterogeneous aquifer systems through the long-term monitoring of tracers. Acknowledgement: financial support was provided by the R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage)" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003) and Korea Ministry of Environment as "The GAIA project (2014000540010)".

  18. CCS Site Optimization by Applying a Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm to Semi-Analytical Leakage Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, B. M.; Gonzalez-Nicolas, A.; Bau, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been proposed as a method of reducing global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although CCS has the potential to greatly retard greenhouse gas loading to the atmosphere while cleaner, more sustainable energy solutions are developed, there is a possibility that sequestered CO2 may leak and intrude into and adversely affect groundwater resources. It has been reported [1] that, while CO2 intrusion typically does not directly threaten underground drinking water resources, it may cause secondary effects, such as the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in aquifer minerals and changes in pH values. These risks must be fully understood and minimized before CCS project implementation. Combined management of project resources and leakage risk is crucial for the implementation of CCS. In this work, we present a method of: (a) minimizing the total CCS cost, the summation of major project costs with the cost associated with CO2 leakage; and (b) maximizing the mass of injected CO2, for a given proposed sequestration site. Optimization decision variables include the number of CO2 injection wells, injection rates, and injection well locations. The capital and operational costs of injection wells are directly related to injection well depth, location, injection flow rate, and injection duration. The cost of leakage is directly related to the mass of CO2 leaked through weak areas, such as abandoned oil wells, in the cap rock layers overlying the injected formation. Additional constraints on fluid overpressure caused by CO2 injection are imposed to maintain predefined effective stress levels that prevent cap rock fracturing. Here, both mass leakage and fluid overpressure are estimated using two semi-analytical models based upon work by [2,3]. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm coupled with these semi-analytical leakage flow models is used to determine Pareto-optimal trade-off sets giving minimum total cost vs. maximum mass

  19. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated aquatic ecosystems: the project MOIRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U.; Brittain, J.; Monte, L.

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems

  20. An outline of a model-based expert system to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated acquatic ecosystems: The project ``moira``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstrom, U. [Studsvik Eco and AB, Nykoping (Sweden); Brittain, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway). LFI Zoological Museum; Gallego Diaz, E. [Madrid Universidad Politecnica (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear; Hakanson, L. [KEMA Nuclear, Arnhem (Niger); Monte, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-10-01

    The present report describes the fundamental principles of the research programme MOIRA (a model based computerized system for management support to Identify optimal remedial strategies for Restoring radionuclide contaminated Aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas) financed by the EC (European Community) (Contract N F14P-CT96-0036). The interventions to restore radionuclides contaminated aquatic systems may result in detrimental ecological, social and economical effects. Decision makers must carefully evaluate these impacts. The main aim of the MOIRA project is the development of an expert system based on validated models predicting the evolution of the radioactive contamination of fresh water systems following countermeasure applications and their relevant ecological, social and economical impacts. The expert system will help decision makers, that are not necessarily gifted with experience in environmental modeling, to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring contaminated fresh water systems.

  1. A New Approach to Identify Optimal Properties of Shunting Elements for Maximum Damping of Structural Vibration Using Piezoelectric Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhong; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    The use of shunted piezoelectric patches in reducing vibration and sound radiation of structures has several advantages over passive viscoelastic elements, e.g., lower weight with increased controllability. The performance of the piezoelectric patches depends on the shunting electronics that are designed to dissipate vibration energy through a resistive element. In past efforts most of the proposed tuning methods were based on modal properties of the structure. In these cases, the tuning applies only to one mode of interest and maximum tuning is limited to invariant points when based on den Hartog's invariant points concept. In this study, a design method based on the wave propagation approach is proposed. Optimal tuning is investigated depending on the dynamic and geometric properties that include effects from boundary conditions and position of the shunted piezoelectric patch relative to the structure. Active filters are proposed as shunting electronics to implement the tuning criteria. The developed tuning methods resulted in superior capabilities in minimizing structural vibration and noise radiation compared to other tuning methods. The tuned circuits are relatively insensitive to changes in modal properties and boundary conditions, and can applied to frequency ranges in which multiple modes have effects.

  2. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...... energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system...

  3. SCS-CN and GIS-based approach for identifying potential water harvesting sites in the Kali Watershed, Mahi River Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, D.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Kusuma, K. N.

    2009-08-01

    The Kali sub-watershed is situated in the semi-arid region of Gujarat, India and forms a part of the Mahi River Watershed. This watershed receives an average annual rainfall of 900mm mainly between July and September. Due to high runoff potential, evapo-transpiration and poor infiltration, drought like situation prevails in this area from December to June almost every year. In this paper, augmentation of water resource is proposed by construction of runoff harvesting structures like check dam, percolation pond, farm pond, well and subsurface dyke. The site suitability for different water harvesting structures is determined by considering spatially varying parameters like runoff potential, slope, fracture pattern and micro-watershed area. GIS is utilised as a tool to store, analyse and integrate spatial and attribute information pertaining to runoff, slope, drainage and fracture. The runoff derived by SCS-CN method is a function of runoff potential which can be expressed in terms of runoff coefficient (ratio between the runoff and rainfall) which can be classified into three classes, viz., high (>40%), moderate (20-40%) and low (<20%). In addition to IMSD, FAO specifications for water harvesting/recharging structures, parameters such as effective storage, rock mass permeability are herein considered to augment effective storage. Using the overlay and decision tree concepts in GIS, potential water harvesting sites are identified. The derived sites are field investigated for suitability and implementation. In all, the accuracy of the site selection at implementation level varies from 80-100%.

  4. A triad of lys12, lys41, arg78 spatial domain, a novel identified heparin binding site on tat protein, facilitates tat-driven cell adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ai

    Full Text Available Tat protein, released by HIV-infected cells, has a battery of important biological effects leading to distinct AIDS-associated pathologies. Cell surface heparan sulfate protoglycans (HSPGs have been accepted as endogenous Tat receptors, and the Tat basic domain has been identified as the heparin binding site. However, findings that deletion or substitution of the basic domain inhibits but does not completely eliminate Tat-heparin interactions suggest that the basic domain is not the sole Tat heparin binding site. In the current study, an approach integrating computational modeling, mutagenesis, biophysical and cell-based assays was used to elucidate a novel, high affinity heparin-binding site: a Lys12, Lys41, Arg78 (KKR spatial domain. This domain was also found to facilitate Tat-driven β1 integrin activation, producing subsequent SLK cell adhesion in an HSPG-dependent manner, but was not involved in Tat internalization. The identification of this new heparin binding site may foster further insight into the nature of Tat-heparin interactions and subsequent biological functions, facilitating the rational design of new therapeutics against Tat-mediated pathological events.

  5. Establishment of the Pediatric Obesity Weight Evaluation Registry: A National Research Collaborative for Identifying the Optimal Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Shelley; Armstrong, Sarah; King, Eileen; Trapp, Christine; Grow, Mollie; Tucker, Jared; Joseph, Madeline; Liu, Lenna; Weedn, Ashley; Sweeney, Brooke; Fox, Claudia; Fathima, Samreen; Williams, Ronald; Kim, Roy; Stratbucker, William

    2017-02-01

    Prospective patient registries have been successfully utilized in several disease states with a goal of improving treatment approaches through multi-institutional collaboration. The prevalence of youth with severe obesity is at a historic high in the United States, yet evidence to guide effective weight management is limited. The Pediatric Obesity Weight Evaluation Registry (POWER) was established in 2013 to identify and promote effective intervention strategies for pediatric obesity. Sites in POWER provide multicomponent pediatric weight management (PWM) care for youth with obesity and collect a defined set of demographic and clinical parameters, which they regularly submit to the POWER Data Coordinating Center. A program profile survey was completed by sites to describe characteristics of the respective PWM programs. From January 2014 through December 2015, 26 US sites were enrolled in POWER and had submitted data on 3643 youth with obesity. Ninety-five percent were 6-18 years of age, 54% female, 32% nonwhite, 32% Hispanic, and 59% publicly insured. Over two-thirds had severe obesity. All sites included a medical provider and used weight status in their referral criteria. Other program characteristics varied widely between sites. POWER is an established national registry representing a diverse sample of youth with obesity participating in multicomponent PWM programs across the United States. Using high-quality data collection and a collaborative research infrastructure, POWER aims to contribute to the development of evidence-based guidelines for multicomponent PWM programs.

  6. Optimization and development of a high-performance liquid chromatography-based one-site immunometric assay with chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, Matthew R.; Clarke, William; Zimlich, Alden; Hage, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Various practical and theoretical considerations were examined in the creation and optimization of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based one-site immunometric assay. This method used an HPLC analyte analog column and post-column chemiluminescence detection. The specific analyte chosen as the model for this study was L-thyroxine (also known as T 4 ). In this technique, a sample containing thyroxine was first combined with an excess of anti-T 4 antibody Fab fragments that had earlier been conjugated with chemiluminescent acridinium ester labels. After incubation, the mixture was injected onto a column that contained immobilized T 4 . The amount of thyroxine in the original sample was then determined by measuring the labeled Fab fragments that appeared in the non-retained fraction, or the decrease in excess Fab fragments that were bound to and later eluted from the column. Items considered in creating this assay included the preparation of acridinium ester-labeled Fab fragments, the detection of these fragments with a post-column reactor, and the creation of a suitable immobilized analog column for capturing excess labeled Fab fragments. The final method could measure T 4 in standards at clinically-relevant concentrations and provided a response within 1.5 min of sample injection, following a 20-45 min incubation with the labeled Fab fragments. Possible applications of this method include its use in clinical chemistry and the screening of proteomic or combinatorial libraries

  7. Assessing Optimal Flight Parameters for Generating Accurate Multispectral Orthomosaicks by UAV to Support Site-Specific Crop Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco-Javier Mesas-Carrascosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the technical specifications and configuration of a multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to acquire remote images using a six-band multispectral sensor. Several flight missions were programmed as follows: three flight altitudes (60, 80 and 100 m, two flight modes (stop and cruising modes and two ground control point (GCP settings were considered to analyze the influence of these parameters on the spatial resolution and spectral discrimination of multispectral orthomosaicked images obtained using Pix4Dmapper. Moreover, it is also necessary to consider the area to be covered or the flight duration according to any flight mission programmed. The effect of the combination of all these parameters on the spatial resolution and spectral discrimination of the orthomosaicks is presented. Spectral discrimination has been evaluated for a specific agronomical purpose: to use the UAV remote images for the detection of bare soil and vegetation (crop and weeds for in-season site-specific weed management. These results show that a balance between spatial resolution and spectral discrimination is needed to optimize the mission planning and image processing to achieve   every agronomic objective. In this way, users do not have to sacrifice flying at low altitudes to cover the whole area of interest completely.

  8. A saxitoxin-binding aptamer with higher affinity and inhibitory activity optimized by rational site-directed mutagenesis and truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Hu, B; Gao, S X; Liu, D J; Sun, M J; Jiao, B H; Wang, L H

    2015-07-01

    Saxitoxin (STX), a member of the family of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, poses toxicological and ecotoxicological risks. To develop an analytical recognition element for STX, a DNA aptamer (APT(STX1)) was previously discovered via an iterative process known as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) by Handy et al. Our study focused on generating an improved aptamer based on APT(STX1) through rational site-directed mutation and truncation. In this study, we generated the aptamer, M-30f, with a 30-fold higher affinity for STX compared with APT(STX1). The Kd value for M-30f was 133 nM, which was calculated by Bio-Layer Interferometry. After optimization, we detected and compared the interaction of STX with aptamers (APT(STX1) or M-30f) through several techniques (ELISA, cell bioassay, and mouse bioassay). Both aptamers' STX-binding ability was demonstrated in all three methods. Moreover, M-30f performs better than its parent sequence with higher suppressive activity against STX. As a molecular recognition element, M-30f has good prospects for practical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Initial direct comparison of 99mTc-TOC and 99mTc-TATE in identifying sites of disease in patients with proven GEP NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Jaroslaw B; Mikolajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz; Buscombe, John R; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Bator, Andrzej; Maecke, Helmut R; Walecki, Jerzy

    2008-07-01

    The imaging of neuroendocrine tumors has become one of the most significant areas in nuclear oncology. In an attempt to provide high-quality imaging and possible sensitivity at a reduced cost, time, and radiation dose, several (99m)Tc agents have been proposed. The aim of this initial study was to compare the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 2 new 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-derivatized Tyr(3)-octreotide analogs, (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TOC) and (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3),Thr(8)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TATE), in patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing tumors. Each of 12 patients with proven gastrointestinal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors received a mean activity of 520 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC and (99m)Tc-TATE. Scintigraphy with both tracers was performed 3-4 h after their injection using standard whole-body and SPECT imaging. The images were reviewed subjectively by 2 readers, who reported tumor uptake lesion by lesion. Both radiotracers demonstrated concordance between the results in 7 patients (58%). In total, 110 sites of disease were identified with (99m)Tc-TOC, compared with 115 with (99m)Tc-TATE. There was 1 case in which (99m)Tc-TOC identified sites of disease not seen on (99m)Tc-TATE imaging but 4 cases in which some sites of disease were seen with (99m)Tc-TATE and not (99m)Tc-TOC. In this initial study, both tracers seem to show similar sites of tumor, with (99m)Tc-TATE having a slight edge in the total number of lesions seen, especially in lymph node metastases.

  10. Exome Sequencing Identified a Splice Site Mutation in FHL1 that Causes Uruguay Syndrome, an X-Linked Disorder With Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Premature Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Schoser, Benedikt; Rao, Aliz R; Quadrelli, Roberto; Vaglio, Alicia; Rupp, Verena; Beichler, Christine; Nelson, Stanley F; Schapacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Windpassinger, Christian; Wilcox, William R

    2016-04-01

    Previously, we reported a rare X-linked disorder, Uruguay syndrome in a single family. The main features are pugilistic facies, skeletal deformities, and muscular hypertrophy despite a lack of exercise and cardiac ventricular hypertrophy leading to premature death. An ≈19 Mb critical region on X chromosome was identified through identity-by-descent analysis of 3 affected males. Exome sequencing was conducted on one affected male to identify the disease-causing gene and variant. A splice site variant (c.502-2A>G) in the FHL1 gene was highly suspicious among other candidate genes and variants. FHL1A is the predominant isoform of FHL1 in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Sequencing cDNA showed the splice site variant led to skipping of exons 6 of the FHL1A isoform, equivalent to the FHL1C isoform. Targeted analysis showed that this splice site variant cosegregated with disease in the family. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis of muscle from the proband showed a significant decrease in protein expression of FHL1A. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of different isoforms of FHL1 demonstrated that the FHL1C is markedly increased. Mutations in the FHL1 gene have been reported in disorders with skeletal and cardiac myopathy but none has the skeletal or facial phenotype seen in patients with Uruguay syndrome. Our data suggest that a novel FHL1 splice site variant results in the absence of FHL1A and the abundance of FHL1C, which may contribute to the complex and severe phenotype. Mutation screening of the FHL1 gene should be considered for patients with uncharacterized myopathies and cardiomyopathies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Identifying optimal reference genes for the normalization of microRNA expression in cucumber under viral stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoqiong; Hao, Jianjun; Meng, Yan; Luo, Laixin; Li, Jianqiang

    2018-01-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is an economically important pathogen and causes significant reduction of both yield and quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Currently, there were no satisfied strategies for controlling the disease. A better understanding of microRNA (miRNA) expression related to the regulation of plant-virus interactions and virus resistance would be of great assistance when developing control strategies for CGMMV. However, accurate expression analysis is highly dependent on robust and reliable reference gene used as an internal control for normalization of miRNA expression. Most commonly used reference genes involved in CGMMV-infected cucumber are not universally expressed depending on tissue types and stages of plant development. It is therefore crucial to identify suitable reference genes in investigating the role of miRNA expression. In this study, seven reference genes, including Actin, Tubulin, EF-1α, 18S rRNA, Ubiquitin, GAPDH and Cyclophilin, were evaluated for the most accurate results in analyses using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Gene expression was assayed on cucumber leaves, stems and roots that were collected at different days post inoculation with CGMMV. The expression data were analyzed using algorithms including delta-Ct, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper as well as the comparative tool RefFinder. The reference genes were subsequently validated using miR159. The results showed that EF-1α and GAPDH were the most reliable reference genes for normalizing miRNA expression in leaf, root and stem samples, while Ubiquitin and EF-1α were the most suitable combination overall. PMID:29543906

  12. Soft computing model for optimized siRNA design by identifying off target possibilities using artificial neural network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Reena; John, Philips George; Peter S, David

    2015-05-15

    The ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to do posttranscriptional gene regulation by knocking down targeted genes is an important research topic in functional genomics, biomedical research and in cancer therapeutics. Many tools had been developed to design exogenous siRNA with high experimental inhibition. Even though considerable amount of work has been done in designing exogenous siRNA, design of effective siRNA sequences is still a challenging work because the target mRNAs must be selected such that their corresponding siRNAs are likely to be efficient against that target and unlikely to accidentally silence other transcripts due to sequence similarity. In some cases, siRNAs may tolerate mismatches with the target mRNA, but knockdown of genes other than the intended target could make serious consequences. Hence to design siRNAs, two important concepts must be considered: the ability in knocking down target genes and the off target possibility on any nontarget genes. So before doing gene silencing by siRNAs, it is essential to analyze their off target effects in addition to their inhibition efficacy against a particular target. Only a few methods have been developed by considering both efficacy and off target possibility of siRNA against a gene. In this paper we present a new design of neural network model with whole stacking energy (ΔG) that enables to identify the efficacy and off target effect of siRNAs against target genes. The tool lists all siRNAs against a particular target with their inhibition efficacy and number of matches or sequence similarity with other genes in the database. We could achieve an excellent performance of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (R=0. 74) and Area Under Curve (AUC=0.906) when the threshold of whole stacking energy is ≥-34.6 kcal/mol. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is one of the best score while considering the "combined efficacy and off target possibility" of siRNA for silencing a gene. The proposed model

  13. Rhodium(II) Proximity-Labeling Identifies a Novel Target Site on STAT3 for Inhibitors with Potent Anti-Leukemia Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minus, Matthew B; Liu, Wei; Vohidov, Farrukh; Kasembeli, Moses M; Long, Xin; Krueger, Michael J; Stevens, Alexandra; Kolosov, Mikhail I; Tweardy, David J; Sison, Edward Allan R; Redell, Michele S; Ball, Zachary T

    2015-10-26

    Nearly 40 % of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) suffer relapse arising from chemoresistance, often involving upregulation of the oncoprotein STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). Herein, rhodium(II)-catalyzed, proximity-driven modification identifies the STAT3 coiled-coil domain (CCD) as a novel ligand-binding site, and we describe a new naphthalene sulfonamide inhibitor that targets the CCD, blocks STAT3 function, and halts its disease-promoting effects in vitro, in tumor growth models, and in a leukemia mouse model, validating this new therapeutic target for resistant AML. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Risk management of energy system for identifying optimal power mix with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, S.; Li, Y.P.; Liu, J.; Huang, Charley Z.

    2017-01-01

    An interval-stochastic risk management (ISRM) method is launched to control the variability of the recourse cost as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The ISRM method can examine various policy scenarios that are associated with economic penalties under uncertainties presented as probability distributions and interval values. An ISRM model is then formulated to identify the optimal power mix for the Beijing's energy system. Tradeoffs between risk and cost are evaluated, indicating any change in targeted cost and risk level would yield different expected costs. Results reveal that the inherent uncertainty of system components and risk attitude of decision makers have significant effects on the city's energy-supply and electricity-generation schemes as well as system cost and probabilistic penalty. Results also disclose that import electricity as a recourse action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced. The import electricity would increase with a reduced risk level; under every risk level, more electricity would be imported with an increased demand. The findings can facilitate the local authority in identifying desired strategies for the city's energy planning and management in association with financial-cost minimization and environmental-impact mitigation. - Highlights: • Interval-stochastic risk management method is launched to identify optimal power mix. • It is advantageous in capturing the notion of risk in stochastic programming. • Results reveal that risk attitudes can affect optimal power mix and financial cost. • Developing renewable energies would enhance the sustainability of energy management. • Import electricity as an action to compensate the local shortage would be enforced.

  15. Analytic hierarchy process-based approach for selecting a Pareto-optimal solution of a multi-objective, multi-site supply-chain planning problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Omar; Felfel, Houssem; Masmoudi, Faouzi

    2017-07-01

    The current manufacturing environment has changed from traditional single-plant to multi-site supply chain where multiple plants are serving customer demands. In this article, a tactical multi-objective, multi-period, multi-product, multi-site supply-chain planning problem is proposed. A corresponding optimization model aiming to simultaneously minimize the total cost, maximize product quality and maximize the customer satisfaction demand level is developed. The proposed solution approach yields to a front of Pareto-optimal solutions that represents the trade-offs among the different objectives. Subsequently, the analytic hierarchy process method is applied to select the best Pareto-optimal solution according to the preferences of the decision maker. The robustness of the solutions and the proposed approach are discussed based on a sensitivity analysis and an application to a real case from the textile and apparel industry.

  16. Optimal organization of structural analysis and site inspection for the seismic requalification of the nuclear power plant of Paks, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fregonese, R.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis described in this report deals with a numerical procedure aimed at the assessment of a methodology for the optimal organization of data collection, in a contest of seismic requalification of structures and components of existing nuclear power stations (NPPs). The activity has been carried out in the frame of IAEA benchmark study for the seismic analysis of existing Nuclear Power Plants. This study starts from the assumption that seismic qualification of existing NPPs usually has to be carried out even in lack of sufficient data on structural behaviour and site conditions. In this framework, the organization of the analysis possibly requires a special approach, based on reliability analysis, able to give the distributions of dependent structural variables. This result can in fact be used in iterative updating of the analysis, leading at last at a required uncertainty target level for the structural evaluation. Therefore, the global uncertainty can be reduced by the reduction of the uncertainties of the variables that affect most the structural behaviour: the proposed procedure is able to drive this process in an optimal way. The analysis manager can therefore organize additional experimental inspections (for example in geotechnics, geophysics, structural behaviour)and data collections with the confidence of a minimum effort required for the prescribed target in terms of seismic safety. The procedure presented in this report has quite a general application following the general description is provided; therefore the example test has been chosen for the Paks NPP in Hungary, where a seismic requalification is in progress. To this aim, in the following specific reference will be made to the variables of interest for the on going job, namely: the probability distribution of some structural parameters, such as acceleration or shear force in critical points, giving a global overview on the reliability of structural calculations; the sensitivity coefficient

  17. Multi-site risk-based project planning, optimization, sequencing and budgeting process and tool for the integrated facility disposition project - 59394

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Jerel; Castillo, Carlos; Huntsman, Julie; Lucek, Heather; Marks, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Faced with the DOE Complex Transformation, NNSA was tasked with developing an integrated plan for the decommissioning of over 400 facilities and 300 environmental remediation units, as well as the many reconfiguration and modernization projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Y-12 Complex. Manual scheduling of remediation activities is time-consuming, labor intensive, and inherently introduces bias and unaccounted for aspects of the scheduler or organization in the process. Clearly a tool was needed to develop an objective, unbiased baseline optimized project sequence and schedule with a sound technical foundation for the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP). In generating an integrated disposition schedule, each project (including facilities, environmental sites, and remedial action units) was identified, characterized, then ranked relative to other projects. Risk matrices allowed for core project data to be extrapolated into probable contamination levels, relative risks to the public, and other technical and risk parameters to be used in the development of an overall ranking. These matrices ultimately generated a complete data set that were used in the Ranking and Sequencing Model (RSM), commonly referred to as the SUPER model, for its numerous abilities to support D and D planning, prioritization, and sequencing

  18. Optimal central obesity measurement site for assessing cardiometabolic and type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán R Millar

    Full Text Available Despite recommendations that central obesity assessment should be employed as a marker of cardiometabolic health, no consensus exists regarding measurement protocol. This study examined a range of anthropometric variables and their relationships with cardiometabolic features and type 2 diabetes in order to ascertain whether measurement site influences discriminatory accuracy. In particular, we compared waist circumference (WC measured at two sites: (1 immediately below the lowest rib (WC rib and (2 between the lowest rib and iliac crest (WC midway, which has been recommended by the World Health Organisation and International Diabetes Federation.This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,002 men and women aged 46-73 years. Metabolic profiles and WC, hip circumference, pelvic width and body mass index (BMI were determined. Correlation, logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate obesity measurement relationships with metabolic risk phenotypes and type 2 diabetes.WC rib measures displayed the strongest associations with non-optimal lipid and lipoprotein levels, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose, a clustering of metabolic risk features and type 2 diabetes, in both genders. Rib-derived indices improved discrimination of type 2 diabetes by 3-7% compared to BMI and 2-6% compared to WC midway (in men and 5-7% compared to BMI and 4-6% compared to WC midway (in women. A prediction model including BMI and central obesity displayed a significantly higher area under the curve for WC rib (0.78, P=0.003, Rib/height ratio (0.80, P<0.001, Rib/pelvis ratio (0.79, P<0.001, but not for WC midway (0.75, P=0.127, when compared to one with BMI alone (0.74.WC rib is easier to assess and our data suggest that it is a better method for determining obesity-related cardiometabolic risk than WC midway. The clinical utility of rib-derived indices, or

  19. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1 the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2 the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3 the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion.

  20. Identifying and prioritizing indicators and effective solutions to optimization the use of wood in construction classical furniture by using AHP (Case study of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghofrani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to identify and prioritize the indicators and provide effective solutions to optimize the use of wood in construction classical furniture using the analytic hierarchy process (case study in Qom. For this purpose, studies and results of other researchers and interviews with experts, the factors affecting the optimization of wood consumption were divided into 4 main categories and 23 sub-indicators. The importance of the sub after getting feedback furniture producers were determined by AHP. The results show that the original surface design and human resources are of great importance. In addition, among 23 sub-effective optimization of the use of wood in construction classical furniture, ergonomics, style, skill training and inlaid in classical furniture industry in order to weight the value of 0/247, 0/181, 0/124 and 0/087 are of paramount importance and the method of use of force specialist solutions were a priority.

  1. Identifying the Infection Control Areas Requiring Modifications in Thoracic Surgery Units: Results of a Two-Year Surveillance of Surgical Site Infections in Hospitals in Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Grzegorz; Rogoziński, Paweł; Żaloudik, Elżbieta; Bruliński, Krzysztof; Różańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga

    2017-10-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is considered to be a priority in infection control. The objective of this study is the analysis of results of active targeted surveillance conducted over a two-year period in the Department of Thoracic Surgery at the Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Center in Bystra, in southern Poland. The retrospective analysis was carried out on the basis of results of active monitoring of SSI in the 45-bed Department of Thoracic Surgery at the Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Center in Bystra between April 1, 2014 and April 30, 2016. Surgical site infections were identified based on the definitions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) taking into account the time of symptom onset, specifically, whether the symptoms occurred within 30 d after the surgical procedure. Detection of SSI relied on daily inspection of incisions by a trained nurse, analysis of medical and nursing entries in the computer system, and analysis of all results of microbiologic tests taken in the unit and in the operating room. In the study period, data were collected regarding 1,387 treatment procedures meeting the registration criteria. Forty cases of SSI were detected yielding an incidence rate of 3%. Most cases (55%) were found in the course of hospitalization and 45% were detected after the patient's discharge. The SSIs were classified as follows: superficial, 37.5%; deep infections, 7.5%; and organ/space infection, 55%. Among patients who were diagnosed with SSI, most were male (77.5%). For patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score I-II the incidence rate was 2%; ASA score III or more, 3.7%. The incidence rate varied from 0.3% in clean surgical site to 6.5% in clean-contaminated site. The study validated the usefulness of targeted surveillance in monitoring SSIs in patients hospitalized in thoracic surgery departments. Surgical site infection surveillance identified areas of care requiring modifications, namely

  2. NCC-AUC: an AUC optimization method to identify multi-biomarker panel for cancer prognosis from genomic and clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Meng; Liu, Zhaoqi; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-15

    In prognosis and survival studies, an important goal is to identify multi-biomarker panels with predictive power using molecular characteristics or clinical observations. Such analysis is often challenged by censored, small-sample-size, but high-dimensional genomic profiles or clinical data. Therefore, sophisticated models and algorithms are in pressing need. In this study, we propose a novel Area Under Curve (AUC) optimization method for multi-biomarker panel identification named Nearest Centroid Classifier for AUC optimization (NCC-AUC). Our method is motived by the connection between AUC score for classification accuracy evaluation and Harrell's concordance index in survival analysis. This connection allows us to convert the survival time regression problem to a binary classification problem. Then an optimization model is formulated to directly maximize AUC and meanwhile minimize the number of selected features to construct a predictor in the nearest centroid classifier framework. NCC-AUC shows its great performance by validating both in genomic data of breast cancer and clinical data of stage IB Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). For the genomic data, NCC-AUC outperforms Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Support Vector Machine-based Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) in classification accuracy. It tends to select a multi-biomarker panel with low average redundancy and enriched biological meanings. Also NCC-AUC is more significant in separation of low and high risk cohorts than widely used Cox model (Cox proportional-hazards regression model) and L1-Cox model (L1 penalized in Cox model). These performance gains of NCC-AUC are quite robust across 5 subtypes of breast cancer. Further in an independent clinical data, NCC-AUC outperforms SVM and SVM-RFE in predictive accuracy and is consistently better than Cox model and L1-Cox model in grouping patients into high and low risk categories. In summary, NCC-AUC provides a rigorous optimization framework to

  3. In Silico Analysis of Gene Expression Network Components Underlying Pigmentation Phenotypes in the Python Identified Evolutionarily Conserved Clusters of Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher J. L. Irizarry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Color variation provides the opportunity to investigate the genetic basis of evolution and selection. Reptiles are less studied than mammals. Comparative genomics approaches allow for knowledge gained in one species to be leveraged for use in another species. We describe a comparative vertebrate analysis of conserved regulatory modules in pythons aimed at assessing bioinformatics evidence that transcription factors important in mammalian pigmentation phenotypes may also be important in python pigmentation phenotypes. We identified 23 python orthologs of mammalian genes associated with variation in coat color phenotypes for which we assessed the extent of pairwise protein sequence identity between pythons and mouse, dog, horse, cow, chicken, anole lizard, and garter snake. We next identified a set of melanocyte/pigment associated transcription factors (CREB, FOXD3, LEF-1, MITF, POU3F2, and USF-1 that exhibit relatively conserved sequence similarity within their DNA binding regions across species based on orthologous alignments across multiple species. Finally, we identified 27 evolutionarily conserved clusters of transcription factor binding sites within ~200-nucleotide intervals of the 1500-nucleotide upstream regions of AIM1, DCT, MC1R, MITF, MLANA, OA1, PMEL, RAB27A, and TYR from Python bivittatus. Our results provide insight into pigment phenotypes in pythons.

  4. Mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis identify several autophosphorylated residues required for the activity of PrkC, a Ser/Thr kinase from Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madec, Edwige; Stensballe, Allan; Kjellström, Sven

    2003-01-01

    We have shown recently that PrkC, which is involved in developmental processes in Bacillus subtilis, is a Ser/Thr kinase with features of the receptor kinase family of eukaryotic Hanks kinases. In this study, we expressed and purified from Escherichia coli the cytoplasmic domain of PrkC containing...... the kinase and a short juxtamembrane region. This fragment, which we designate PrkCc, undergoes autophosphorylation in E.coli. PrkCc is further autophosphorylated in vitro, apparently through a trans-kinase, intermolecular reaction. PrkC also displays kinase activity with myelin basic protein. Using high...... mass accuracy electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry, we identified seven phosphorylated threonine and one serine residue in PrkCc. All the corresponding residues were replaced by systematic site-directed mutagenesis and the purified mutant...

  5. Site-Mutation of Hydrophobic Core Residues Synchronically Poise Super Interleukin 2 for Signaling: Identifying Distant Structural Effects through Affordable Computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longcan Mei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A superkine variant of interleukin-2 with six site mutations away from the binding interface developed from the yeast display technique has been previously characterized as undergoing a distal structure alteration which is responsible for its super-potency and provides an elegant case study with which to get insight about how to utilize allosteric effect to achieve desirable protein functions. By examining the dynamic network and the allosteric pathways related to those mutated residues using various computational approaches, we found that nanosecond time scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations can identify the dynamic network as efficient as an ensemble algorithm. The differentiated pathways for the six core residues form a dynamic network that outlines the area of structure alteration. The results offer potentials of using affordable computing power to predict allosteric structure of mutants in knowledge-based mutagenesis.

  6. Structure-guided approach identifies a novel class of HIV-1 ribonuclease H inhibitors: binding mode insights through magnesium complexation and site-directed mutagenesis studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Corona, Angela; Steinmann, Casper

    2018-01-01

    is a long and expensive process that can be speeded up by in silico methods. In the present study, a structure-guided screening is coupled with a similarity-based search on the Specs database to identify a new class of HIV-1 RNase H inhibitors. Out of the 45 compounds selected for experimental testing, 15...... inhibited the RNase H function below 100 μM with three hits exhibiting IC50 values active compound, AA, inhibits HIV-1 RNase H with an IC50 of 5.1 μM and exhibits a Mg-independent mode of inhibition. Site-directed mutagenesis studies provide valuable insight into the binding mode of newly...

  7. Dominant mutations in S. cerevisiae PMS1 identify the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site and an exonuclease 1-independent mismatch repair pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Smith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer or HNPCC is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. Predisposition to cancer in this syndrome results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2/scPMS1. To better understand the function of Mlh1-Pms1 in MMR, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify six pms1 mutations (pms1-G683E, pms1-C817R, pms1-C848S, pms1-H850R, pms1-H703A and pms1-E707A that were weakly dominant in wild-type cells, which surprisingly caused a strong MMR defect when present on low copy plasmids in an exo1Δ mutant. Molecular modeling showed these mutations caused amino acid substitutions in the metal coordination pocket of the Pms1 endonuclease active site and biochemical studies showed that they inactivated the endonuclease activity. This model of Mlh1-Pms1 suggested that the Mlh1-FERC motif contributes to the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this, the mlh1-E767stp mutation caused both MMR and endonuclease defects similar to those caused by the dominant pms1 mutations whereas mutations affecting the predicted metal coordinating residue Mlh1-C769 had no effect. These studies establish that the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease is required for MMR in a previously uncharacterized Exo1-independent MMR pathway.

  8. Dominant mutations in S. cerevisiae PMS1 identify the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site and an exonuclease 1-independent mismatch repair pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine E; Mendillo, Marc L; Bowen, Nikki; Hombauer, Hans; Campbell, Christopher S; Desai, Arshad; Putnam, Christopher D; Kolodner, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer or HNPCC) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. Predisposition to cancer in this syndrome results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR) caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2/scPMS1. To better understand the function of Mlh1-Pms1 in MMR, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify six pms1 mutations (pms1-G683E, pms1-C817R, pms1-C848S, pms1-H850R, pms1-H703A and pms1-E707A) that were weakly dominant in wild-type cells, which surprisingly caused a strong MMR defect when present on low copy plasmids in an exo1Δ mutant. Molecular modeling showed these mutations caused amino acid substitutions in the metal coordination pocket of the Pms1 endonuclease active site and biochemical studies showed that they inactivated the endonuclease activity. This model of Mlh1-Pms1 suggested that the Mlh1-FERC motif contributes to the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this, the mlh1-E767stp mutation caused both MMR and endonuclease defects similar to those caused by the dominant pms1 mutations whereas mutations affecting the predicted metal coordinating residue Mlh1-C769 had no effect. These studies establish that the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease is required for MMR in a previously uncharacterized Exo1-independent MMR pathway.

  9. Radiation Therapy Deficiencies Identified During On-Site Dosimetry Visits by the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston Quality Assurance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kry, Stephen F; Dromgoole, Lainy; Alvarez, Paola; Leif, Jessica; Molineu, Andrea; Taylor, Paige; Followill, David S

    2017-12-01

    To review the dosimetric, mechanical, and programmatic deficiencies most frequently observed during on-site visits of radiation therapy facilities by the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Quality Assurance Center in Houston (IROC Houston). The findings of IROC Houston between 2000 and 2014, including 409 institutions and 1020 linear accelerators (linacs), were compiled. On-site evaluations by IROC Houston include verification of absolute calibration (tolerance of ±3%), relative dosimetric review (tolerances of ±2% between treatment planning system [TPS] calculation and measurement), mechanical evaluation (including multileaf collimator and kilovoltage-megavoltage isocenter evaluation against Task Group [TG]-142 tolerances), and general programmatic review (including institutional quality assurance program vs TG-40 and TG-142). An average of 3.1 deficiencies was identified at each institution visited, a number that has decreased slightly with time. The most common errors are tabulated and include TG-40/TG-142 compliance (82% of institutions were deficient), small field size output factors (59% of institutions had errors ≥3%), and wedge factors (33% of institutions had errors ≥3%). Dosimetric errors of ≥10%, including in beam calibration, were seen at many institutions. There is substantial room for improvement of both dosimetric and programmatic issues in radiation therapy, which should be a high priority for the medical physics community. Particularly relevant was suboptimal beam modeling in the TPS and a corresponding failure to detect these errors by not including TPS data in the linac quality assurance process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimizing CT angiography in patients with Fontan physiology: single-center experience of dual-site power injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, K.L.; Markham, L.W.; Mah, M.L.; Byrum, E.P.; Williams, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify adult patients with single-ventricle congenital heart disease and Fontan procedure palliation who have been misdiagnosed with or incompletely evaluated for pulmonary embolism. Additionally, this study was designed to demonstrate that simultaneous, dual-injection of contrast medium into an upper and lower extremity vein is superior to single-injection protocols for CT angiography (CTA) of the chest in this population. Materials and methods: Patients included in the study were retrospectively selected from the Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) database. Search criteria included history of Fontan palliation and available chest CT examination. Patients were evaluated for (1) type of congenital heart disease and prior operations;(2) indication for initial CT evaluation;(3) route of contrast medium administration for the initial CT examination and resulting diagnosis;(4) whether or not anticoagulation therapy was initiated; and (5) final diagnosis and treatment plan. Results: The query of the ACHD database resulted in 28 individuals or patients with Fontan palliation (superior and inferior venae cavae anastomosed to the pulmonary arteries). Of these, 19 patients with Fontan physiology underwent CTA of the pulmonary circulation, and 17 had suboptimal imaging studies. Unfortunately, seven of these 17 patients (41%) were started on anticoagulation therapy due to a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism that was later excluded. Conclusion: Patients with single-ventricle/Fontan physiology are at risk of thromboembolic disease. Therefore, studies evaluating their complex anatomy must be performed with the optimal imaging protocol to ensure diagnostic accuracy, which is best achieved with dual-injection of an upper and lower extremity central vein. - Highlights: • The adult congenital heart disease population is growing. • Many of these patients have single ventricle/Fontan physiology. • Patients with Fontan physiology are at increased risk for

  11. Quantitative in vivo analyses reveal calcium-dependent phosphorylation sites and identifies a novel component of the Toxoplasma invasion motor complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nebl

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites depend on the invasion of host cells for survival and proliferation. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways appear to be essential for micronemal release and gliding motility, yet the target of activated kinases remains largely unknown. We have characterized calcium-dependent phosphorylation events during Toxoplasma host cell invasion. Stimulation of live tachyzoites with Ca²⁺-mobilizing drugs leads to phosphorylation of numerous parasite proteins, as shown by differential 2-DE display of ³²[P]-labeled protein extracts. Multi-dimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT identified ∼546 phosphorylation sites on over 300 Toxoplasma proteins, including 10 sites on the actomyosin invasion motor. Using a Stable Isotope of Amino Acids in Culture (SILAC-based quantitative LC-MS/MS analyses we monitored changes in the abundance and phosphorylation of the invasion motor complex and defined Ca²⁺-dependent phosphorylation patterns on three of its components--GAP45, MLC1 and MyoA. Furthermore, calcium-dependent phosphorylation of six residues across GAP45, MLC1 and MyoA is correlated with invasion motor activity. By analyzing proteins that appear to associate more strongly with the invasion motor upon calcium stimulation we have also identified a novel 15-kDa Calmodulin-like protein that likely represents the MyoA Essential Light Chain of the Toxoplasma invasion motor. This suggests that invasion motor activity could be regulated not only by phosphorylation but also by the direct binding of calcium ions to this new component.

  12. Multi-species comparative analysis of the equine ACE gene identifies a highly conserved potential transcription factor binding site in intron 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Natasha A; Tammen, Imke; Raadsma, Herman W

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is essential for control of blood pressure. The human ACE gene contains an intronic Alu indel (I/D) polymorphism that has been associated with variation in serum enzyme levels, although the functional mechanism has not been identified. The polymorphism has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, renal disease and elite athleticism. We have characterized the ACE gene in horses of breeds selected for differing physical abilities. The equine gene has a similar structure to that of all known mammalian ACE genes. Nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered in pooled DNA were found to be inherited in nine haplotypes. Three of these SNPs were located in intron 16, homologous to that containing the Alu polymorphism in the human. A highly conserved 18 bp sequence, also within that intron, was identified as being a potential binding site for the transcription factors Oct-1, HFH-1 and HNF-3β, and lies within a larger area of higher than normal homology. This putative regulatory element may contribute to regulation of the documented inter-individual variation in human circulating enzyme levels, for which a functional mechanism is yet to be defined. Two equine SNPs occurred within the conserved area in intron 16, although neither of them disrupted the putative binding site. We propose a possible regulatory mechanism of the ACE gene in mammalian species which was previously unknown. This advance will allow further analysis leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the associations seen between the human Alu polymorphism and enzyme levels, cardiovascular disease states and elite athleticism.

  13. Multi-species comparative analysis of the equine ACE gene identifies a highly conserved potential transcription factor binding site in intron 16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Hamilton

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE is essential for control of blood pressure. The human ACE gene contains an intronic Alu indel (I/D polymorphism that has been associated with variation in serum enzyme levels, although the functional mechanism has not been identified. The polymorphism has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, renal disease and elite athleticism. We have characterized the ACE gene in horses of breeds selected for differing physical abilities. The equine gene has a similar structure to that of all known mammalian ACE genes. Nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs discovered in pooled DNA were found to be inherited in nine haplotypes. Three of these SNPs were located in intron 16, homologous to that containing the Alu polymorphism in the human. A highly conserved 18 bp sequence, also within that intron, was identified as being a potential binding site for the transcription factors Oct-1, HFH-1 and HNF-3β, and lies within a larger area of higher than normal homology. This putative regulatory element may contribute to regulation of the documented inter-individual variation in human circulating enzyme levels, for which a functional mechanism is yet to be defined. Two equine SNPs occurred within the conserved area in intron 16, although neither of them disrupted the putative binding site. We propose a possible regulatory mechanism of the ACE gene in mammalian species which was previously unknown. This advance will allow further analysis leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the associations seen between the human Alu polymorphism and enzyme levels, cardiovascular disease states and elite athleticism.

  14. Monoclonal antibody OKB7, which identifies the 14OKd complement receptor type 2 (CR/sub 2/), also identifies a 72Kd secreted fragment of CR/sub 2/ that contains the C3d-binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myones, B.L.; Ross, G.D.

    1986-03-05

    CR/sub 2/ is a 140-145Kd glycoprotein expressed on B lymphocytes which binds both C3d and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). OKB7, an IgG/sub 2a/ monoclonal antibody to CR/sub 2/, blocks C3d and EBV binding, while HB-5, another monoclonal IgG/sub 2a/ anti-CR/sub 2/, does not. A 72Kd C3d-binding glycoprotein (gp72), isolated from Raji cell media, was previously thought to be CR/sub 2/ because a polyclonal rabbit anti-gp72 inhibited EC3d rosettes. ELISA assay demonstrated that OKB7, but not HB-5, bound to purified gp72 fixed to microtiter wells. Insoluble and soluble gp72 blocked Raji cell uptake of /sup 125/I-labeled OKB7, but not labeled anti-B2 or HB-5. Rabbit anti-gp72 immunoprecipitated bands at 140Kd and 72Kd from /sup 125/I-labelled and solubilized B cell membranes. Culture media from Raji cells grown in the presence /sup 3/H-labeled amino acids was sequentially immunoprecipitated by irrelevant antibody, OKB7, and HB-5. A single 72Kd radiolabeled band was demonstrated only with OKB7, and this was identical to that produced by the immunoprecipitation of /sup 125/I-labeled gp72 with rabbit anti-gp72. Thus, OKB7, which identifies the 140Kd CR/sub 2/ molecule, also identifies a 72Kd shed fragment of CR/sub 2/ isolated from Raji cell media, which contains the C3d-binding site.

  15. Monoclonal antibody OKB7, which identifies the 14OKd complement receptor type 2 (CR2), also identifies a 72Kd secreted fragment of CR2 that contains the C3d-binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myones, B.L.; Ross, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    CR 2 is a 140-145Kd glycoprotein expressed on B lymphocytes which binds both C3d and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). OKB7, an IgG/sub 2a/ monoclonal antibody to CR 2 , blocks C3d and EBV binding, while HB-5, another monoclonal IgG/sub 2a/ anti-CR 2 , does not. A 72Kd C3d-binding glycoprotein (gp72), isolated from Raji cell media, was previously thought to be CR 2 because a polyclonal rabbit anti-gp72 inhibited EC3d rosettes. ELISA assay demonstrated that OKB7, but not HB-5, bound to purified gp72 fixed to microtiter wells. Insoluble and soluble gp72 blocked Raji cell uptake of 125 I-labeled OKB7, but not labeled anti-B2 or HB-5. Rabbit anti-gp72 immunoprecipitated bands at 140Kd and 72Kd from 125 I-labelled and solubilized B cell membranes. Culture media from Raji cells grown in the presence 3 H-labeled amino acids was sequentially immunoprecipitated by irrelevant antibody, OKB7, and HB-5. A single 72Kd radiolabeled band was demonstrated only with OKB7, and this was identical to that produced by the immunoprecipitation of 125 I-labeled gp72 with rabbit anti-gp72. Thus, OKB7, which identifies the 140Kd CR 2 molecule, also identifies a 72Kd shed fragment of CR 2 isolated from Raji cell media, which contains the C3d-binding site

  16. Optimized probes for dose rate measurements at local government sites and in emergency planning zones and their integration into measurement networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuca, Petr; Helebrant, Jan; Cespirova, Irena; Judas, Libor; Skala, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    The results of a security project aimed at the development of a radiation situation monitoring system using optimized probes for dose rate measurements are described. The system is suitable for use at local government sites as well as at other sites. The system includes dose rate measurement probes with the variable configuration functionality (detection part), equipment for data transfer to a central workplace (communication part) and application for collection, storage and administration of the results and their presentation at a website (presentation part). The dosimetric and other operational properties of the probes were tested and the feasibility of their integration into measurement networks using the IMS central application was examined. (orig.)

  17. A 1.4-Billion Pixel Map of the Seafloor: BOEM's Mission to Visualize Dynamic Geology and Identify Natural Seep Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K.; Shedd, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    In May, 2017, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) published a high-resolution seafloor map of the northern Gulf of Mexico region. The new map, derived from 3-D seismic surveys, provides the scientific community with enhanced resolution and reveals previously undiscovered and poorly resolved geologic features of the continental slope, salt minibasin province, abyssal plain, Mississippi Fan, and the Florida Shelf and Escarpment. It becomes an even more powerful scientific tool when paired with BOEM's public database of 35,000 seafloor features, identifying natural hydrocarbon seeps, hard grounds, mud volcanoes, sediment flows, pockmarks, slumps, and many others. BOEM has mapped the Gulf of Mexico seafloor since 1998 in a regulatory mission to identify natural oil and gas seeps and protect the coral and chemosynthetic communities growing at those sites. The nineteen-year mapping effort, still ongoing, resulted in the creation of the 1.4-billion pixel map and the seafloor features database. With these tools and continual collaboration with academia, professional scientific institutions, and the offshore energy industry, BOEM will continue to incorporate new data to update and expand these two resources on a regular basis. They can be downloaded for free from BOEM's website at https://www.boem.gov/Gulf-of-Mexico-Deepwater-Bathymetry/ and https://www.boem.gov/Seismic-Water-Bottom-Anomalies-Map-Gallery/.

  18. Identifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using reactive transport modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, Sergio A; Wainwright, Haruko; Spycher, Nicolas; Faybishenko, Boris; Hubbard, Susan S; Denham, Miles E

    2013-08-01

    Acidic low-level waste radioactive waste solutions were discharged to three unlined seepage basins at the F-Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, from 1955 through 1989. Despite many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic and contaminated with significant levels of U(VI) and other radionuclides. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is a desired closure strategy for the site, based on the premise that regional flow of clean background groundwater will eventually neutralize the groundwater acidity, immobilizing U(VI) through adsorption. An in situ treatment system is currently in place to accelerate this in the downgradient portion of the plume and similar measures could be taken upgradient if necessary. Understanding the long-term pH and U(VI) adsorption behavior at the site is critical to assess feasibility of MNA along with the in-situ remediation treatments. This paper presents a reactive transport (RT) model and uncertainty quantification (UQ) analyses to explore key controls on the U(VI)-plume evolution and long-term mobility at this site. Two-dimensional numerical RT simulations are run including the saturated and unsaturated (vadose) zones, U(VI) and H(+) adsorption (surface complexation) onto sediments, dissolution and precipitation of Al and Fe minerals, and key hydrodynamic processes are considered. UQ techniques are applied using a new open-source tool that is part of the developing ASCEM reactive transport modeling and analysis framework to: (1) identify the complex physical and geochemical processes that control the U(VI) plume migration in the pH range where the plume is highly mobile, (2) evaluate those physical and geochemical parameters that are most controlling, and (3) predict the future plume evolution constrained by historical, chemical and hydrological data. The RT simulation results show a good agreement with the observed historical pH and concentrations of U(VI), nitrates

  19. Cardiac pacing in heart failure patients with left bundle branch block: impact of pacing site for optimizing left ventricular resynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappone, C; Rosanio, S; Oreto, G; Tocchi, M; Gulletta, S; Salvati, A; Dicandia, C; Santinelli, V; Mazzone, P; Veglia, F; Ding, J; Sallusti, L; Spinelli, J; Vicedomini, G

    2000-07-01

    Acute left ventricular pacing has been associated with hemodynamic improvement in patients with congestive heart failure and wide QRS complex. We hypothesized that pacing two left ventricular sites simultaneously would produce faster activation and better systolic function than single-site pacing. We selected 14 heart failure patients (NYHA functional class III or IV) in normal sinus rhythm with left bundle branch block and QRS > 150 ms. An 8F dual micromanometer catheter was placed in the aorta for measuring +dP/dt (mmHg/s), aortic pulse pressure (mmHg), and end-diastolic pressure (mmHg). Pacing leads were positioned via coronary veins at the posterior base and lateral wall. Patients were acutely paced VDD at the posterior base, lateral wall, and both sites (dual-site) with 5 atrioventricular delays (from 8 ms to PR -30 ms). Pacing sequences were executed in randomized order using a custom external computer (FlexStim, Guidant CRM). Dual-site pacing increased peak +dP/dt significantly more than posterior base and lateral wall pacing. Dual-site and posterior base pacing raised aortic pulse pressure significantly more than lateral wall pacing. Dual-site pacing shortened QRS duration by 22 %, whereas posterior base and lateral wall pacing increased it by 2 and 12%, respectively (p = 0.006). In heart failure patients with left bundle branch block, dual-site pacing improves systolic function more than single-site stimulation. Improved ventricular activation synchrony, expressed by paced QRS narrowing, may account for the additional benefit of dual- vs single-site pacing in enhancing contractility. This novel approach deserves consideration for future heart failure pacing studies.

  20. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  1. Antigenic Fingerprinting following Primary RSV Infection in Young Children Identifies Novel Antigenic Sites and Reveals Unlinked Evolution of Human Antibody Repertoires to Fusion and Attachment Glycoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fuentes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is the major cause of pneumonia among infants. Here we elucidated the antibody repertoire following primary RSV infection and traced its evolution through adolescence and adulthood. Whole genome-fragment phage display libraries (GFPDL expressing linear and conformational epitopes in the RSV fusion protein (F and attachment protein (G were used for unbiased epitope profiling of infant sera prior to and following RSV infection. F-GFPDL analyses demonstrated modest changes in the anti-F epitope repertoires post-RSV infection, while G-GFPDL analyses revealed 100-fold increase in number of bound phages. The G-reactive epitopes spanned the N- and C-terminus of the G ectodomain, along with increased reactivity to the central conserved domain (CCD. Panels of F and G antigenic sites were synthesized to evaluate sera from young children (<2 yr, adolescents (14-18 yr and adults (30-45 yr in SPR real-time kinetics assays. A steady increase in RSV-F epitope repertoires from young children to adults was observed using peptides and F proteins. Importantly, several novel epitopes were identified in pre-fusion F and an immunodominant epitope in the F-p27. In all age groups, antibody binding to pre-fusion F was 2-3 folds higher than to post-fusion form. For RSV-G, antibody responses were high following early RSV infection in children, but declined significantly in adults, using either G proteins or peptides. This study identified unlinked evolution of anti-F and anti G responses and supportive evidence for immune pressure driven evolution of RSV-G. These findings could help development of effective countermeasures including vaccines.

  2. Use of a scenario-development procedure to identify potentially disruptive scenarios, Greater Confinement Disposal facility, Area 5, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM

    1994-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility includes four boreholes that contain transuranic (TRLT) waste. Presence of the TRU waste means that this facility must comply with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Waste-Final Rule 40 CFR Part 191. To comply with the Containment Requirements of this rule, all potentially disruptive events and processes, and by implication all potentially disruptive combinations of events and processes (scenarios), must be identified for possible inclusion in performance assessments. Screening of the FEPs identified four events for scenario development: exploratory drilling for natural resources, drilling withdrawal wells, irrigation, and subsidence. Recent environmental-isotope analyses of the vadose zone suggest that radionuclide transport from the boreholes to the water table by infiltration is not a feasible transport mechanism within the time frame of regulatory concern. For this reason, the event of drilling withdrawal wells was merged with exploratory drilling for resources. The descriptions of the remaining three events were modified slightly to aid in estimation of event probabilities and consequence analyses. The three events are: exploratory drilling for resources penetrates a TRU borehole, irrigation occurs at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), and subsidence occurs at the RWMS. Use of a logic diagram with these three events resulted in the construction of eight scenarios, including base-case (undisturbed) conditions. Screening these scenarios at this stage of scenario development was beyond the scope of this task. Based on the implementation assumptions, this scenario-development procedure produced a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios that are reproducible and auditable for use in GCD performance assessments

  3. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Energy Storage System for Power Systems with Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for optimal sitingand sizing of Energy Storage System (ESS) for the operationplanning of power systems with large scale wind power integration.The ESS in this study aims to mitigate the wind powerfluctuations during the interval between two rolling Economic......Dispatches (EDs) in order to maintain generation-load balance.The charging and discharging of ESS is optimized consideringoperation cost of conventional generators, capital cost of ESSand transmission losses. The statistics from simulated systemoperations are then coupled to the planning process to determinethe...

  4. Incorporating C60 as Nucleation Sites Optimizing PbI2 Films To Achieve Perovskite Solar Cells Showing Excellent Efficiency and Stability via Vapor-Assisted Deposition Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Bin; Ding, Xi-Hong; Pan, Xu; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ding, Yong; Dai, Song-Yuan

    2018-01-24

    To achieve high-quality perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the morphology and carrier transportation of perovskite films need to be optimized. Herein, C 60 is employed as nucleation sites in PbI 2 precursor solution to optimize the morphology of perovskite films via vapor-assisted deposition process. Accompanying the homogeneous nucleation of PbI 2 , the incorporation of C 60 as heterogeneous nucleation sites can lower the nucleation free energy of PbI 2 , which facilitates the diffusion and reaction between PbI 2 and organic source. Meanwhile, C 60 could enhance carrier transportation and reduce charge recombination in the perovskite layer due to its high electron mobility and conductivity. In addition, the grain sizes of perovskite get larger with C 60 optimizing, which can reduce the grain boundaries and voids in perovskite and prevent the corrosion because of moisture. As a result, we obtain PSCs with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.33% and excellent stability. The PCEs of unsealed devices drop less than 10% in a dehumidification cabinet after 100 days and remain at 75% of the initial PCE during exposure to ambient air (humidity > 60% RH, temperature > 30 °C) for 30 days.

  5. The use of spectral skin reflectivity and laser doppler vibrometry data to determine the optimal site and wavelength to collect human vital sign signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kenneth A.; Kaur, Balvinder; Hodgkin, Van A.

    2012-06-01

    The carotid artery has been used extensively by researchers to demonstrate that Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) is capable of exploiting vital sign signatures from cooperative human subjects at stando. Research indicates that, the carotid, although good for cooperative and non-traumatic scenarios, is one of the first vital signs to become absent or irregular when a casualty is hemorrhaging and in progress to circulatory (hypovolemic) shock. In an effort to determine the optimal site and wavelength to measure vital signs off human skin, a human subject data collection was executed whereby 14 subjects had their spectral skin reflectivity and vital signs measured at five collection sites (carotid artery, chest, back, right wrist and left wrist). In this paper, we present our findings on using LDV and re ectivity data to determine the optimal collection site and wavelength that should be used to sense pulse signals from quiet and relatively motionless human subjects at stando. In particular, we correlate maximum levels of re ectivity across the ensemble of 14 subjects with vital sign measurements made with an LDV at two ranges, for two scenarios.

  6. Energy infrastructure of the United States and projected siting needs: Scoping ideas, identifying issues and options. Draft report of the Department of Energy Working Group on Energy Facility Siting to the Secretary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    A Department of Energy (DOE) Working Group on Energy Facility Siting, chaired by the Policy Office with membership from the major program and staff offices of the Department, reviewed data regarding energy service needs, infrastructure requirements, and constraints to siting. The Working Group found that the expeditious siting of energy facilities has important economic, energy, and environmental implications for key Administration priorities.

  7. Application of Frequency of Detection Methods in Design and Optimization of the INL Site Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, Arthur S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report presents an evaluation of a hypothetical INL Site monitoring network and the existing INL air monitoring network using frequency of detection methods. The hypothetical network was designed to address the requirement in 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H (2006) that “emissions of radionuclides to ambient air from U.S. DOE facilities shall not exceed those amounts that would cause any member of the public to receive in any year an effective dose equivalent exceeding 10 mrem/year.” To meet the requirement for monitoring only, “radionuclide releases that would result in an effective dose of 10% of the standard shall be readily detectable and distinguishable from background.” Thus, the hypothetical network consists of air samplers placed at residence locations that surround INL and at other locations where onsite livestock grazing takes place. Two exposure scenarios were used in this evaluation: a resident scenario and a shepherd/rancher scenario. The resident was assumed to be continuously present at their residence while the shepherd/rancher was assumed to be present 24-hours at a fixed location on the grazing allotment. Important radionuclides were identified from annual INL radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants reports. Important radionuclides were defined as those that potentially contribute 1% or greater to the annual total dose at the radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Pollutants maximally exposed individual location and include H-3, Am-241, Pu-238, Pu 239, Cs-137, Sr-90, and I-131. For this evaluation, the network performance objective was set at achieving a frequency of detection greater than or equal to 95%. Results indicated that the hypothetical network for the resident scenario met all performance objectives for H-3 and I-131 and most performance objectives for Cs-137 and Sr-90. However, all actinides failed to meet the performance objectives for most sources. The shepherd/rancher scenario showed

  8. Optimal Site Selection of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on a Cloud Model and the PROMETHEE Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The task of site selection for electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS is hugely important from the perspective of harmonious and sustainable development. However, flaws and inadequacies in the currently used multi-criteria decision making methods could result in inaccurate and irrational decision results. First of all, the uncertainty of the information cannot be described integrally in the evaluation of the EVCS site selection. Secondly, rigorous consideration of the mutual influence between the various criteria is lacking, which is mainly evidenced in two aspects: one is ignoring the correlation, and the other is the unconscionable measurements. Last but not least, the ranking method adopted in previous studies is not very appropriate for evaluating the EVCS site selection problem. As a result of the above analysis, a Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE method-based decision system combined with the cloud model is proposed in this paper for EVCS site selection. Firstly, the use of the PROMETHEE method can bolster the confidence and visibility for decision makers. Secondly, the cloud model is recommended to describe the fuzziness and randomness of linguistic terms integrally and accurately. Finally, the Analytical Network Process (ANP method is adopted to measure the correlation of the indicators with a greatly simplified calculation of the parameters and the steps required.

  9. Optimization Review: Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Central Treatment Plant (CTP), Kellogg, Shoshone County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site includes all areas of the Coeur d’Alene Basin where mining-related contamination occurred and encompasses a 21-square mile “Box” along Interstate 90 surrounding the former smelter complex.

  10. Conservative strategy-based ensemble surrogate model for optimal groundwater remediation design at DNAPLs-contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qi; Lu, Wenxi; Lin, Jin; Deng, Wenbing; Cheng, Weiguo

    2017-08-01

    The surrogate-based simulation-optimization techniques are frequently used for optimal groundwater remediation design. When this technique is used, surrogate errors caused by surrogate-modeling uncertainty may lead to generation of infeasible designs. In this paper, a conservative strategy that pushes the optimal design into the feasible region was used to address surrogate-modeling uncertainty. In addition, chance-constrained programming (CCP) was adopted to compare with the conservative strategy in addressing this uncertainty. Three methods, multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP), Kriging (KRG) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to construct surrogate models for a time-consuming multi-phase flow model. To improve the performance of the surrogate model, ensemble surrogates were constructed based on combinations of different stand-alone surrogate models. The results show that: (1) the surrogate-modeling uncertainty was successfully addressed by the conservative strategy, which means that this method is promising for addressing surrogate-modeling uncertainty. (2) The ensemble surrogate model that combines MGGP with KRG showed the most favorable performance, which indicates that this ensemble surrogate can utilize both stand-alone surrogate models to improve the performance of the surrogate model.

  11. The Decline of Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery: A Survey of the Endourological Society to Identify Shortcomings and Guidance for Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Igor; Canvasser, Noah E; Irwin, Brian; Autorino, Riccardo; Liatsikos, Evangelos N; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Rane, Abhay

    2017-10-01

    To analyze the most recent temporal trends in the adoption of urologic laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS), to identify the perceived limitations associated with its decline, and to determine factors that might revive the role of LESS in the field of minimally invasive urologic surgery. A 15 question survey was created and sent to members of the Endourological Society in September 2016. Only members who performed LESS procedures in practice were asked to respond. In total, 106 urologists responded to the survey. Most of the respondents were from the United States (35%) and worked in an academic hospital (84.9%). Standard LESS was the most popular approach (78.1%), while 14.3% used robotics, and 7.6% used both. 2009 marked the most popular year to perform the initial (27.6%) and the majority (20%) of LESS procedures. The most common LESS procedure was a radical/simple nephrectomy (51%) followed by pyeloplasty (17.3%). In the past 12 months, 60% of respondents had performed no LESS procedures. Compared to conventional laparoscopy, respondents only believed cosmesis to be better, however, this enthusiasm waned over time. Worsening shifts in enthusiasm for LESS also occurred with patient desire, marketability, cost, safety, and robotic adaptability. The highest rated factor to help LESS regain popularity was a new robotic platform. The decline of LESS is apparent, with few urologists continuing to perform procedures attributed to multiple factors. The availability of a purpose-built robotic platform and better instrumentation might translate into a renewed future interest of LESS.

  12. Analysis of 30 putative BRCA1 splicing mutations in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families identifies exonic splice site mutations that escape in silico prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wappenschmidt

    Full Text Available Screening for pathogenic mutations in breast and ovarian cancer genes such as BRCA1/2, CHEK2 and RAD51C is common practice for individuals from high-risk families. However, test results may be ambiguous due to the presence of unclassified variants (UCV in the concurrent absence of clearly cancer-predisposing mutations. Especially the presence of intronic or exonic variants within these genes that possibly affect proper pre-mRNA processing poses a challenge as their functional implications are not immediately apparent. Therefore, it appears necessary to characterize potential splicing UCV and to develop appropriate classification tools. We investigated 30 distinct BRCA1 variants, both intronic and exonic, regarding their spliceogenic potential by commonly used in silico prediction algorithms (HSF, MaxEntScan along with in vitro transcript analyses. A total of 25 variants were identified spliceogenic, either causing/enhancing exon skipping or activation of cryptic splice sites, or both. Except from a single intronic variant causing minor effects on BRCA1 pre-mRNA processing in our analyses, 23 out of 24 intronic variants were correctly predicted by MaxEntScan, while HSF was less accurate in this cohort. Among the 6 exonic variants analyzed, 4 severely impair correct pre-mRNA processing, while the remaining two have partial effects. In contrast to the intronic alterations investigated, only half of the spliceogenic exonic variants were correctly predicted by HSF and/or MaxEntScan. These data support the idea that exonic splicing mutations are commonly disease-causing and concurrently prone to escape in silico prediction, hence necessitating experimental in vitro splicing analysis.

  13. Post-genome wide association studies and functional analyses identify association of MPP7 gene variants with site-specific bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Su-Mei; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Gao, Yi; Lau, Kam-Shing; Ma, Alvin; Zhang, Zhen-Lin; Liu, Jian-Min; Xia, Wiebo; He, Jin-Wei; Zhao, Lin; Nie, Min; Fu, Wei-Zhen; Zhang, Min-Jia; Sun, Jing; Kwan, Johnny S H; Tso, Gloria Hoi Wan; Dai, Zhi-Jie; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Bow, Cora H; Leung, Anskar Yu Hung; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Sham, Pak Chung

    2012-04-01

    Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Hong Kong Southern Chinese population with extreme bone mineral density (BMD) scores revealed suggestive association with MPP7, which ranked second after JAG1 as a candidate gene for BMD. To follow-up this suggestive signal, we replicated the top single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4317882 of MPP7 in three additional independent Asian-descent samples (n= 2684). The association of rs4317882 reached the genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis of all available subjects (P(meta)= 4.58 × 10(-8), n= 4204). Site heterogeneity was observed, with a larger effect on spine than hip BMD. Further functional studies in a zebrafish model revealed that vertebral bone mass was lower in an mpp7 knock-down model compared with the wide-type (P= 9.64 × 10(-4), n= 21). In addition, MPP7 was found to have constitutive expression in human bone-derived cells during osteogenesis. Immunostaining of murine MC3T3-E1 cells revealed that the Mpp7 protein is localized in the plasma membrane and intracytoplasmic compartment of osteoblasts. In an assessment of the function of identified variants, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated the binding of transcriptional factor GATA2 to the risk allele 'A' but not the 'G' allele of rs4317882. An mRNA expression study in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells confirmed that the low BMD-related allele 'A' of rs4317882 was associated with lower MPP7 expression (P= 9.07 × 10(-3), n= 135). Our data suggest a genetic and functional association of MPP7 with BMD variation.

  14. Development of a computer code system for selecting off-site protective action in radiological accidents based on the multiobjective optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, Tsutomu; Oyama, Kazuo

    1989-09-01

    This report presents a new method to support selection of off-site protective action in nuclear reactor accidents, and provides a user's manual of a computer code system, PRASMA, developed using the method. The PRASMA code system gives several candidates of protective action zones of evacuation, sheltering and no action based on the multiobjective optimization method, which requires objective functions and decision variables. We have assigned population risks of fatality, injury and cost as the objective functions, and distance from a nuclear power plant characterizing the above three protective action zones as the decision variables. (author)

  15. Optimization of photoactive protein Z for fast and efficient site-specific conjugation of native IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, James Z; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2014-09-17

    Antibody conjugates have been used in a variety of applications from immunoassays to drug conjugates. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that in order to maximize an antibody's antigen binding ability and to produce homogeneous antibody-conjugates, the conjugated molecule should be attached onto IgG site-specifically. We previously developed a facile method for the site-specific modification of full length, native IgGs by engineering a recombinant Protein Z that forms a covalent link to the Fc domain of IgG upon exposure to long wavelength UV light. To further improve the efficiency of Protein Z production and IgG conjugation, we constructed a panel of 13 different Protein Z variants with the UV-active amino acid benzoylphenylalanine (BPA) in different locations. By using this panel of Protein Z to cross-link a range of IgGs from different hosts, including human, mouse, and rat, we discovered two previously unknown Protein Z variants, L17BPA and K35BPA, that are capable of cross-linking many commonly used IgG isotypes with efficiencies ranging from 60% to 95% after only 1 h of UV exposure. When compared to existing site-specific methods, which often require cloning or enzymatic reactions, the Protein Z-based method described here, utilizing the L17BPA, K35BPA, and the previously described Q32BPA variants, represents a vastly more accessible and efficient approach that is compatible with nearly all native IgGs, thus making site-specific conjugation more accessible to the general research community.

  16. Safety and optimization aspects of radioactive waste long-term storage at the ''Vector'' site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarevs'kij, O.V.; Kondrat'jev, S.M.; Aleksjejeva, Z.M.; Ribalka, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes links between the final disposal option and needs for long-term storage of radioactive waste taking into proposals on possible changes in radwaste classification as regards disposal. It considers the conceptual approach to design facilities for long-term storage of long-lived radioactive waste at the Vector site and approaches to apply requirements of regulatory documents, radiation safety principles and criteria for long-term storage of radwaste and safety assessment.

  17. A chromate-contaminated site in southern Switzerland – Part 2: Reactive transport modeling to optimize remediation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, Christoph; Eggenberger, Urs; Mäder, Urs

    2012-01-01

    A 2D horizontal reactive transport model of a chromate-contaminated site near Rivera, Switzerland, was developed using the computer code CrunchFlow to evaluate site remediation strategies. Transport processes were defined according to the results of an existing hydrological model, and the definition of geochemical (reactive) processes is based on the results of a detailed mineralogical and geochemical site characterization leading to a comprehensive conceptual site model. Kinetics of naturally occurring Cr(VI) reduction by Fe(II) and natural solid organic matter is quantified by fitting measured Cr isotope ratios to a modeled 1D section along the best constrained flow line. The simulation of Cr isotope fractionation was also incorporated into the 2D model. Simulation of the measured present day Cr(VI) plume and δ 53 Cr value distribution was used for the 2D model calibration and corresponds to a situation where only monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is occurring. Other 2D model runs simulate alternate excavation scenarios. The simulations show that with an excavation of the top 2–4 m the groundwater Cr(VI) plume can be minimized, and that a deeper excavation depth only diminishes the plume if all the contaminants can be removed. A combination of an excavation of the top 2–4 m and monitoring of the ongoing natural Cr(VI) reduction is suggested as the most ecological and economical remediation strategy, even though a remaining time period with ongoing subsoil Cr(VI) contamination in the order of 1 ka is predicted.

  18. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Multiple DG Units for the Enhancement of Voltage Profile and Loss Minimization in Transmission Systems Using Nature Inspired Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power grid becomes smarter nowadays along with technological development. The benefits of smart grid can be enhanced through the integration of renewable energy sources. In this paper, several studies have been made to reconfigure a conventional network into a smart grid. Amongst all the renewable sources, solar power takes the prominent position due to its availability in abundance. Proposed methodology presented in this paper is aimed at minimizing network power losses and at improving the voltage stability within the frame work of system operation and security constraints in a transmission system. Locations and capacities of DGs have a significant impact on the system losses in a transmission system. In this paper, combined nature inspired algorithms are presented for optimal location and sizing of DGs. This paper proposes a two-step optimization technique in order to integrate DG. In a first step, the best size of DG is determined through PSO metaheuristics and the results obtained through PSO is tested for reverse power flow by negative load approach to find possible bus locations. Then, optimal location is found by Loss Sensitivity Factor (LSF and weak (WK bus methods and the results are compared. In a second step, optimal sizing of DGs is determined by PSO, GSA, and hybrid PSOGSA algorithms. Apart from optimal sizing and siting of DGs, different scenarios with number of DGs (3, 4, and 5 and PQ capacities of DGs (P alone, Q alone, and  P and Q both are also analyzed and the results are analyzed in this paper. A detailed performance analysis is carried out on IEEE 30-bus system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  19. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Multiple DG Units for the Enhancement of Voltage Profile and Loss Minimization in Transmission Systems Using Nature Inspired Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Ambika; Ramachandran, Rajeswari

    2016-01-01

    Power grid becomes smarter nowadays along with technological development. The benefits of smart grid can be enhanced through the integration of renewable energy sources. In this paper, several studies have been made to reconfigure a conventional network into a smart grid. Amongst all the renewable sources, solar power takes the prominent position due to its availability in abundance. Proposed methodology presented in this paper is aimed at minimizing network power losses and at improving the voltage stability within the frame work of system operation and security constraints in a transmission system. Locations and capacities of DGs have a significant impact on the system losses in a transmission system. In this paper, combined nature inspired algorithms are presented for optimal location and sizing of DGs. This paper proposes a two-step optimization technique in order to integrate DG. In a first step, the best size of DG is determined through PSO metaheuristics and the results obtained through PSO is tested for reverse power flow by negative load approach to find possible bus locations. Then, optimal location is found by Loss Sensitivity Factor (LSF) and weak (WK) bus methods and the results are compared. In a second step, optimal sizing of DGs is determined by PSO, GSA, and hybrid PSOGSA algorithms. Apart from optimal sizing and siting of DGs, different scenarios with number of DGs (3, 4, and 5) and PQ capacities of DGs (P alone, Q alone, and P and Q both) are also analyzed and the results are analyzed in this paper. A detailed performance analysis is carried out on IEEE 30-bus system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  20. Long-term follow-up in repaired tetralogy of fallot: can deformation imaging help identify optimal timing of pulmonary valve replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabate Rotes, Anna; Bonnichsen, Crystal R; Reece, Chelsea L; Connolly, Heidi M; Burkhart, Harold M; Dearani, Joseph A; Eidem, Benjamin W

    2014-12-01

    Novel echocardiographic techniques based on myocardial deformation have not been extensively evaluated to assess right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) response after pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Between 2003 and 2012, 133 patients undergoing first-time PVR after tetralogy of Fallot repair underwent echocardiographic assessment at Mayo Clinic. The last echocardiogram before PVR and 1 year after surgery were retrospectively analyzed with Velocity Vector Imaging. Mean age at PVR was 35.5 ± 16.2 years (54% women). Longitudinal peak systolic strain and strain rate before PVR were low: for the left ventricle, -14.8 ± 3.5% and -0.8 ± 0.2 sec(-1), and for the right ventricle, -16.2 ± 4.1% and -0.9 ± 0.3 sec(-1), respectively. There was no significant change in either parameter after surgery. A close correlation between LV and RV deformational parameters was found before PVR and was maintained after surgery. In the multivariate analysis, patients with better LV and RV peak systolic strain preoperatively were found to have better LV and RV peak systolic strain after surgery (P = .004 and P = .006, respectively). However, patients with the most improvement in deformation were those with worse RV function preoperatively (P = .002). Mean New York Heart Association class at early follow-up improved from 2.2 ± 0.8 to 1.2 ± 0.6 (P tetralogy of Fallot undergoing PVR, and there was no significant change after surgery. However, preoperative systolic deformational parameters were predictive of postoperative ventricular function and New York Heart Association class after PVR and may be helpful to identify optimal timing for surgical intervention in this cohort. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ELIPGRID-PC and INRADS copyright: Tools for reducing costs and optimizing data collection on sites contaminated with NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Environmental Technology Section (ETS), located in Grand Junction, Colorado has more than ten years experience in radiological surveying and more than twenty years as part of the ongoing Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project surveys conducted by ORNL Health Sciences Research Division. As part of our mission, ETS researchers develops and applies innovative technologies to share with private industry. The ELIPGRID-PC software and INRADS multidetector radiologic survey instrument are works in progress are discussed. ELIPGRID-PC is a tool that aids in survey design, and the INRADS system automates and increases the amount of data collected

  2. Two DNA sites for MelR in the same orientation are sufficient for optimal MelR-dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Elrobh, M.; Webster, C.; Samarasinghe, S.; Durose, D.; Busby, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Escherichia coli melR gene encodes the MelR transcription factor that controls melibiose utilization. Expression of melR is autoregulated by MelR, which represses the melR promoter by binding to a target that overlaps the transcript start. Here, we show that MelR-dependent repression of the melR promoter can be enhanced by the presence of a second single DNA site for MelR located up to 250 base pairs upstream. Parallels with AraC-dependent repression at the araC–araBAD regulatory region a...

  3. Chance-constrained multi-objective optimization of groundwater remediation design at DNAPLs-contaminated sites using a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qi; Lu, Wenxi; Hou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yu; Li, Shuai; Luo, Jiannan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive multi-objective (AMALGAM) method is proposed as a multi-objective optimization solver. It was implemented in the multi-objective optimization of a groundwater remediation design at sites contaminated by dense non-aqueous phase liquids. In this study, there were two objectives: minimization of the total remediation cost, and minimization of the remediation time. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) was adopted to compare with the proposed method. For efficiency, the time-consuming surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation simulation model was replaced by a surrogate model constructed by a multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP) technique. Similarly, two other surrogate modeling methods-support vector regression (SVR) and Kriging (KRG)-were employed to make comparisons with MGGP. In addition, the surrogate-modeling uncertainty was incorporated in the optimization model by chance-constrained programming (CCP). The results showed that, for the problem considered in this study, (1) the solutions obtained by AMALGAM incurred less remediation cost and required less time than those of NSGA-II, indicating that AMALGAM outperformed NSGA-II. It was additionally shown that (2) the MGGP surrogate model was more accurate than SVR and KRG; and (3) the remediation cost and time increased with the confidence level, which can enable decision makers to make a suitable choice by considering the given budget, remediation time, and reliability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chance-constrained multi-objective optimization of groundwater remediation design at DNAPLs-contaminated sites using a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qi; Lu, Wenxi; Hou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yu; Li, Shuai; Luo, Jiannan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive multi-objective (AMALGAM) method is proposed as a multi-objective optimization solver. It was implemented in the multi-objective optimization of a groundwater remediation design at sites contaminated by dense non-aqueous phase liquids. In this study, there were two objectives: minimization of the total remediation cost, and minimization of the remediation time. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) was adopted to compare with the proposed method. For efficiency, the time-consuming surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation simulation model was replaced by a surrogate model constructed by a multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP) technique. Similarly, two other surrogate modeling methods-support vector regression (SVR) and Kriging (KRG)-were employed to make comparisons with MGGP. In addition, the surrogate-modeling uncertainty was incorporated in the optimization model by chance-constrained programming (CCP). The results showed that, for the problem considered in this study, (1) the solutions obtained by AMALGAM incurred less remediation cost and required less time than those of NSGA-II, indicating that AMALGAM outperformed NSGA-II. It was additionally shown that (2) the MGGP surrogate model was more accurate than SVR and KRG; and (3) the remediation cost and time increased with the confidence level, which can enable decision makers to make a suitable choice by considering the given budget, remediation time, and reliability.

  5. GIS-based approach for optimal siting and sizing of renewables considering techno-environmental constraints and the stochastic nature of meteorological inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalou, Olympia; Karanastasi, Maria; Markonis, Yannis; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    Following the legislative EU targets and taking advantage of its high renewable energy potential, Greece can obtain significant benefits from developing its water, solar and wind energy resources. In this context we present a GIS-based methodology for the optimal sizing and siting of solar and wind energy systems at the regional scale, which is tested in the Prefecture of Thessaly. First, we assess the wind and solar potential, taking into account the stochastic nature of the associated meteorological processes (i.e. wind speed and solar radiation, respectively), which is essential component for both planning (i.e., type selection and sizing of photovoltaic panels and wind turbines) and management purposes (i.e., real-time operation of the system). For the optimal siting, we assess the efficiency and economic performance of the energy system, also accounting for a number of constraints, associated with topographic limitations (e.g., terrain slope, proximity to road and electricity grid network, etc.), the environmental legislation and other land use constraints. Based on this analysis, we investigate favorable alternatives using technical, environmental as well as financial criteria. The final outcome is GIS maps that depict the available energy potential and the optimal layout for photovoltaic panels and wind turbines over the study area. We also consider a hypothetical scenario of future development of the study area, in which we assume the combined operation of the above renewables with major hydroelectric dams and pumped-storage facilities, thus providing a unique hybrid renewable system, extended at the regional scale.

  6. Optimization of breast reconstruction results using TMG flap in 30 cases: Evaluation of several refinements addressing flap design, shaping techniques, and reduction of donor site morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickl, Stefanie; Nedomansky, Jakob; Radtke, Christine; Haslik, Werner; Schroegendorfer, Klaus F

    2018-01-31

    The transverse myocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap is a widely used alternative to abdominal flaps in autologous breast reconstruction. However, secondary procedures for aesthetic refinement are frequently necessary. Herein, we present our experience with an optimized approach in TMG breast reconstruction to enhance aesthetic outcome and to reduce the need for secondary refinements. We retrospectively analyzed 37 immediate or delayed reconstructions with TMG flaps in 34 women, performed between 2009 and 2015. Four patients (5 flaps) constituted the conventional group (non-optimized approach). Thirty patients (32 flaps; modified group) underwent an optimized procedure consisting of modified flap harvesting and shaping techniques and methods utilized to reduce denting after rib resection and to diminish donor site morbidity. Statistically significant fewer secondary procedures (0.6 ± 0.9 versus 4.8 ± 2.2; P < .001) and fewer trips to the OR (0.4 ± 0.7 versus 2.3 ± 1.0 times; P = .001) for aesthetic refinement were needed in the modified group as compared to the conventional group. In the modified group, 4 patients (13.3%) required refinement of the reconstructed breast, 7 patients (23.3%) underwent mastopexy/mammoplasty or lipofilling of the contralateral breast, and 4 patients (13.3%) required refinement of the contralateral thigh. Total flap loss did not occur in any patient. Revision surgery was needed once. Compared to the conventional group, enhanced aesthetic results with consecutive reduction of secondary refinements could be achieved when using our modified flap harvesting and shaping techniques, as well as our methods for reducing contour deformities after rib resection and for overcoming donor site morbidities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mechanistic site-based emulation of a global ocean biogeochemical model (MEDUSA 1.0 for parametric analysis and calibration: an application of the Marine Model Optimization Testbed (MarMOT 1.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. P. Hemmings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogeochemical ocean circulation models used to investigate the role of plankton ecosystems in global change rely on adjustable parameters to capture the dominant biogeochemical dynamics of a complex biological system. In principle, optimal parameter values can be estimated by fitting models to observational data, including satellite ocean colour products such as chlorophyll that achieve good spatial and temporal coverage of the surface ocean. However, comprehensive parametric analyses require large ensemble experiments that are computationally infeasible with global 3-D simulations. Site-based simulations provide an efficient alternative but can only be used to make reliable inferences about global model performance if robust quantitative descriptions of their relationships with the corresponding 3-D simulations can be established. The feasibility of establishing such a relationship is investigated for an intermediate complexity biogeochemistry model (MEDUSA coupled with a widely used global ocean model (NEMO. A site-based mechanistic emulator is constructed for surface chlorophyll output from this target model as a function of model parameters. The emulator comprises an array of 1-D simulators and a statistical quantification of the uncertainty in their predictions. The unknown parameter-dependent biogeochemical environment, in terms of initial tracer concentrations and lateral flux information required by the simulators, is a significant source of uncertainty. It is approximated by a mean environment derived from a small ensemble of 3-D simulations representing variability of the target model behaviour over the parameter space of interest. The performance of two alternative uncertainty quantification schemes is examined: a direct method based on comparisons between simulator output and a sample of known target model "truths" and an indirect method that is only partially reliant on knowledge of the target model output. In general, chlorophyll

  8. Multi-site risk-based project planning, optimization, sequencing, & budgeting process and tool for the integrated facility disposition project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.G.; Castillo, C.; Huntsman, J.; Killoy, S.; Lucek, H.; Marks, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Faced with the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex Transformation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) was tasked with developing an integrated plan for the decommissioning of over 400 facilities and 300 environmental remediation units, as well as the many reconfiguration and modernization projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Y-12 Complex. Manual scheduling of remediation activities is time-consuming and inherently introduces bias of the scheduler or organization into the process. Clearly a well-defined process, quantitative risk-based tool was needed to develop an objective, unbiased baseline sequence and schedule with a sound technical foundation for the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP). Faced with limited available data, innovation was needed to extrapolate intelligent relative data for key risk parameters based on known data elements. The IFDP Supermodel was customized and expanded to provide this capability for conceptual planning of diverse project portfolios and multiple sites. (author)

  9. A corporative ALARA engineering support for all EDF sites a major improvement: the generic work areas optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiot, A.; Lebeau, J.

    2005-01-01

    ALARA studies performed by EDF plants are quite simple and empirical. Most often, feedback experience and common sense, with the help of simple calculations allow reaching useful and efficient decisions. This is particularly the case when the exposure situations are not complex, within a simple environment and with a single source, or one major source. However, in more complex cases this is not enough to guarantee that actual ALARA solutions are implemented. EDF has then decided to use its national corporate engineering as a support for its sites. That engineering support is in charge of using very efficient tools such as PANTHER-RP. The objective of the presentation is to describe the engineering process and tools now available at EDF, to illustrate them with a few case studies and to describe the goals and procedures set up by EDF. (authors)

  10. Anterior wrist and medial malleolus: the optimal sites for tissue selection in electric death through hand-to-foot circuit pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangtao; Su, Ruibing; Lv, Junyao; Lai, Xiaoping; Li, Xianxian; Wu, Jiayan; Hu, Bo; Xu, Long; Shen, Ruilin; Gu, Jiang; Yu, Xiaojun

    2017-03-01

    Specific morphological changes may be absent in some cases of electrocution shocked by the voltage of 220 V or lower. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate that the anterior wrist and medial malleolus were the optimal sites with promising and significant changes in electric death through the hand-to-foot circuit pathway. We established an electric shock rat model and observed histopathologic changes in the anterior wrist and medial malleolus. The results showed that the current intensities in the left anterior wrist and right medial malleolus were remarkably higher than those in the other sites, and the nuclei long/short (L/S) axis ratios of the arterial endotheliocyte and the skeletal muscle cell in these two areas were significantly higher than those in other parts of the body. These findings suggested that the anterior wrist and/or medial malleolus soft tissues as the narrowest parts of the limbs could be used as promising and useful sites for the assessment of electrical shock death, especially in forensic pathologic evaluation.

  11. Comparative assessment of environmental and socio-economic impacts of disposal of radioactive waste by shallow burial at sites identified by Nirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.E.M.; Morrow, A.J.; Watson, S.R.

    1987-09-01

    This case study tested two methodologies, comparative assessment and multi-attribute value analysis, on repository site selection. Problems affecting their application stemmed from incomplete baseline and proposed project data and from the impacts being essentially indistinguishable between sites. The latter meant that initial screening was not possible and subsequent screening became arbitrary. The large number of impacts which had to be retained made handling difficult and meaningful rating under comparative assessment was virtually impossible without introducing implicit weightings and adjusting the scale. Multi-attribute value analysis, whilst the more data demanding of the two methodologies, has a greater capability for handling the impacts. Clearly, the limitations on what data can realistically be collected must be taken into account when the evaluation methodology is designed. Ideally a draft methodology should be applied to one site and modified as need be before used for the formal assessment. (author)

  12. Effect of co-administration of probiotics with polysaccharide based colon targeted delivery systems to optimize site specific drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudhviraj, G; Vaidya, Yogyata; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Yadav, Ankit Kumar; Kaur, Puneet; Gulati, Monica; Gowthamarajan, K

    2015-11-01

    Significant clinical success of colon targeted dosage forms has been limited by their inappropriate release profile at the target site. Their failure to release the drug completely in the colon may be attributed to changes in the colonic milieu because of pathological state, drug effect and psychological stress accompanying the diseased state or, a combination of these. Alteration in normal colonic pH and bacterial picture leads to incomplete release of drug from the designed delivery system. We report the effectiveness of a targeted delivery system wherein the constant replenishment of the colonic microbiota is achieved by concomitant administration of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based drug delivery system. Guar gum coated spheroids of sulfasalazine were prepared. In the dissolution studies, these spheroids showed markedly higher release in the simulated colonic fluid. In vivo experiments conducted in rats clearly demonstrated the therapeutic advantage of co-administration of probiotics with guar gum coated spheroids. Our results suggest that concomitant use of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based delivery systems can be a simple strategy to achieve satisfactory colon targeting of drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved framework model to allocate optimal rainwater harvesting sites in small watersheds for agro-forestry uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terêncio, D. P. S.; Sanches Fernandes, L. F.; Cortes, R. M. V.; Pacheco, F. A. L.

    2017-07-01

    This study introduces an improved rainwater harvesting (RWH) suitability model to help the implementation of agro-forestry projects (irrigation, wildfire combat) in catchments. The model combines a planning workflow to define suitability of catchments based on physical, socio-economic and ecologic variables, with an allocation workflow to constrain suitable RWH sites as function of project specific features (e.g., distance from rainfall collection to application area). The planning workflow comprises a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) implemented on a Geographic Information System (GIS), whereas the allocation workflow is based on a multiple-parameter ranking analysis. When compared to other similar models, improvement comes with the flexible weights of MCA and the entire allocation workflow. The method is tested in a contaminated watershed (the Ave River basin) located in Portugal. The pilot project encompasses the irrigation of a 400 ha crop land that consumes 2.69 Mm3 of water per year. The application of harvested water in the irrigation replaces the use of stream water with excessive anthropogenic nutrients that may raise nitrosamines in the food and accumulation in the food chain, with severe consequences to human health (cancer). The selected rainfall collection catchment is capable to harvest 12 Mm3·yr-1 (≈ 4.5 × the requirement) and is roughly 3 km far from the application area assuring crop irrigation by gravity flow with modest transport costs. The RWH system is an 8-meter high that can be built in earth with reduced costs.

  14. Optimizing the deposition of hydrogen evolution sites on suspended semiconductor particles using on-line photocatalytic reforming of aqueous methanol solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busser, G Wilma; Mei, Bastian; Muhler, Martin

    2012-11-01

    The deposition of hydrogen evolution sites on photocatalysts is a crucial step in the multistep process of synthesizing a catalyst that is active for overall photocatalytic water splitting. An alternative approach to conventional photodeposition was developed, applying the photocatalytic reforming of aqueous methanol solutions to deposit metal particles on semiconductor materials such as Ga₂O₃ and (Ga₀.₆ Zn₀.₄)(N₀.₆O₀.₄). The method allows optimizing the loading of the co-catalysts based on the stepwise addition of their precursors and the continuous online monitoring of the evolved hydrogen. Moreover, a synergetic effect between different co-catalysts can be directly established. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Analytical workflow of double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing based on empirical and in silico optimization in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Isobe, Sachiko

    2016-04-01

    Double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-Seq) enables high-throughput genome-wide genotyping with next-generation sequencing technology. Consequently, this method has become popular in plant genetics and breeding. Although computational in silico prediction of restriction sites from the genome sequence is recognized as an effective approach for choosing the restriction enzymes to be used, few reports have evaluated the in silico predictions in actual experimental data. In this study, we designed and demonstrated a workflow for in silico and empirical ddRAD-Seq analysis in tomato, as follows: (i)in silico prediction of optimum restriction enzymes from the reference genome, (ii) verification of the prediction by actual ddRAD-Seq data of four restriction enzyme combinations, (iii) establishment of a computational data processing pipeline for high-confidence single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling, and (iv) validation of SNP accuracy by construction of genetic linkage maps. The quality of SNPs based on de novo assembly reference of the ddRAD-Seq reads was comparable with that of SNPs obtained using the published reference genome of tomato. Comparisons of SNP calls in diverse tomato lines revealed that SNP density in the genome influenced the detectability of SNPs by ddRAD-Seq. In silico prediction prior to actual analysis contributed to optimization of the experimental conditions for ddRAD-Seq, e.g. choices of enzymes and plant materials. Following optimization, this ddRAD-Seq pipeline could help accelerate genetics, genomics, and molecular breeding in both model and non-model plants, including crops. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  16. Hydrous ferric oxide: evaluation of Cd-HFO surface complexation models combining Cd(K) EXAFS data, potentiometric titration results, and surface site structures identified from mineralogical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadini, Lorenzo; Schindler, Paul W; Charlet, Laurent; Manceau, Alain; Vala Ragnarsdottir, K

    2003-10-01

    The surface properties of ferrihydrite were studied by combining wet chemical data, Cd(K) EXAFS data, and a surface structure and protonation model of the ferrihydrite surface. Acid-base titration experiments and Cd(II)-ferrihydrite sorption experiments were performed within 3titration data could be adequately modeled by triple bond Fe- OH(2)(+1/2)-H(+)triple bond Fe-OH(-1/2),logk((int))=-8.29, assuming the existence of a unique intrinsic microscopic constant, logk((int)), and consequently the existence of a single significant type of acid-base reactive functional groups. The surface structure model indicates that these groups are terminal water groups. The Cd(II) data were modeled assuming the existence of a single reactive site. The model fits the data set at low Cd(II) concentration and up to 50% surface coverage. At high coverage more Cd(II) ions than predicted are adsorbed, which is indicative of the existence of a second type of site of lower affinity. This agrees with the surface structure and protonation model developed, which indicates comparable concentrations of high- and low-affinity sites. The model further shows that for each class of low- and high-affinity sites there exists a variety of corresponding Cd surface complex structure, depending on the model crystal faces on which the complexes develop. Generally, high-affinity surface structures have surface coordinations of 3 and 4, as compared to 1 and 2 for low-affinity surface structures.

  17. Website Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Remember when an optimized website was one that merely didn't take all day to appear? Times have changed. Today, website optimization can spell the difference between enterprise success and failure, and it takes a lot more know-how to achieve success. This book is a comprehensive guide to the tips, techniques, secrets, standards, and methods of website optimization. From increasing site traffic to maximizing leads, from revving up responsiveness to increasing navigability, from prospect retention to closing more sales, the world of 21st century website optimization is explored, exemplified a

  18. Mutational analysis of the EMCV 2A protein identifies a nuclear localization signal and an eIF4E binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppo, Rachel; Brown, Bradley A.; Palmenberg, Ann C.

    2011-01-01

    Cardioviruses have a unique 2A protein (143 aa). During genome translation, the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 2A is released through a ribosome skipping event mitigated through C-terminal 2A sequences and by subsequent N-terminal reaction with viral 3C pro . Although viral replication is cytoplasmic, mature 2A accumulates in nucleoli shortly after infection. Some protein also transiently associates with cytoplasmic 40S ribosomal subunits, an activity contributing to inhibition of cellular cap-dependent translation. Cardiovirus sequences predict an eIF4E binding site (aa 126-134) and a nuclear localization signal (NLS, aa 91-102), within 2A, both of which are functional during EMCV infection. Point mutations preventing eIF4E:2A interactions gave small-plaque phenotype viruses, but still inhibited cellular cap-dependent translation. Deletions within the NLS motif relocalized 2A to the cytoplasm and abrogated the inhibition of cap-dependent translation. A fusion protein linking the 2A NLS to eGFP was sufficient to redirect the reporter to the nucleus but not into nucleoli.

  19. Sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in HVTN 505 identifies vaccine pressure targeting the CD4 binding site of Env-gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCamp, Allan C; Rolland, Morgane; Edlefsen, Paul T; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Hall, Breana; Magaret, Craig A; Fiore-Gartland, Andrew J; Juraska, Michal; Carpp, Lindsay N; Karuna, Shelly T; Bose, Meera; LePore, Steven; Miller, Shana; O'Sullivan, Annemarie; Poltavee, Kultida; Bai, Hongjun; Dommaraju, Kalpana; Zhao, Hong; Wong, Kim; Chen, Lennie; Ahmed, Hasan; Goodman, Derrick; Tay, Matthew Z; Gottardo, Raphael; Koup, Richard A; Bailer, Robert; Mascola, John R; Graham, Barney S; Roederer, Mario; O'Connell, Robert J; Michael, Nelson L; Robb, Merlin L; Adams, Elizabeth; D'Souza, Patricia; Kublin, James; Corey, Lawrence; Geraghty, Daniel E; Frahm, Nicole; Tomaras, Georgia D; McElrath, M Juliana; Frenkel, Lisa; Styrchak, Sheila; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hammer, Scott M; Kim, Jerome H; Mullins, James I; Gilbert, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    Although the HVTN 505 DNA/recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector HIV-1 vaccine trial showed no overall efficacy, analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in participants can help determine whether vaccine-induced immune responses impacted viruses that caused infection. We analyzed 480 HIV-1 genomes sampled from 27 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients and found that intra-host HIV-1 diversity was significantly lower in vaccine recipients (P ≤ 0.04, Q-values ≤ 0.09) in Gag, Pol, Vif and envelope glycoprotein gp120 (Env-gp120). Furthermore, Env-gp120 sequences from vaccine recipients were significantly more distant from the subtype B vaccine insert than sequences from placebo recipients (P = 0.01, Q-value = 0.12). These vaccine effects were associated with signatures mapping to CD4 binding site and CD4-induced monoclonal antibody footprints. These results suggest either (i) no vaccine efficacy to block acquisition of any viral genotype but vaccine-accelerated Env evolution post-acquisition; or (ii) vaccine efficacy against HIV-1s with Env sequences closest to the vaccine insert combined with increased acquisition due to other factors, potentially including the vaccine vector.

  20. Tandem affinity purification of histones, coupled to mass spectrometry, identifies associated proteins and new sites of post-translational modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, M Luz; Sendra, Ramon; Pamblanco, Mercè

    2016-03-16

    Histones and their post-translational modifications contribute to regulating fundamental biological processes in all eukaryotic cells. We have applied a conventional tandem affinity purification strategy to histones H3 and H4 of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mass spectrometry analysis of the co-purified proteins revealed multiple associated proteins, including core histones, which indicates that tagged histones may be incorporated to the nucleosome particle. Among the many other co-isolated proteins there are histone chaperones, elements of chromatin remodeling, of nucleosome assembly/disassembly, and of histone modification complexes. The histone chaperone Rtt106p, two members of chromatin assembly FACT complex and Psh1p, an ubiquitin ligase, were the most abundant proteins obtained with both H3-TAP and H4-TAP, regardless of the cell extraction medium stringency. Our mass spectrometry analyses have also revealed numerous novel post-translational modifications, including 30 new chemical modifications in histones, mainly by ubiquitination. We have discovered not only new sites of ubiquitination but that, besides lysine, also serine and threonine residues are targets of ubiquitination on yeast histones. Our results show the standard tandem affinity purification procedure is suitable for application to yeast histones, in order to isolate and characterize histone-binding proteins and post-translational modifications, avoiding the bias caused by histone purification from a chromatin-enriched fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of geographic information systems (GIS to identify adequate sites for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavo E. S. de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to select potential areas for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Plastino & E.C. Oliveira (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The Geographic Information System (GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE were used to identify the most suitable areas. The Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP was applied to establish MCE weights, thereby generating viable areas for species cultivation. From a total of 3316.82 ha, around 53.67% (1780.06 ha were indicated as highly suitable areas, 40.93% (1357.58 ha as moderately suitable and 5.40% (179.18 ha as scarcely suitable for seaweed cultivation. Seven areas (1084.62 ha are located on the northern coast and 20 (2232.20 ha on the eastern coast. The results show that GIS can be used as an effective instrument for selecting seaweed cultivation areas.

  2. Global mapping of binding sites for Nrf2 identifies novel targets in cell survival response through ChIP-Seq profiling and network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepti; Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Singh, Anju; Srivastava, Siddhartha; Arenillas, David; Happel, Christine; Shyr, Casper; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Kensler, Thomas W.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Biswal, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2 p45-related factor 2) transcription factor responds to diverse oxidative and electrophilic environmental stresses by circumventing repression by Keap1, translocating to the nucleus, and activating cytoprotective genes. Nrf2 responses provide protection against chemical carcinogenesis, chronic inflammation, neurodegeneration, emphysema, asthma and sepsis in murine models. Nrf2 regulates the expression of a plethora of genes that detoxify oxidants and electrophiles and repair or remove damaged macromolecules, such as through proteasomal processing. However, many direct targets of Nrf2 remain undefined. Here, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) with either constitutive nuclear accumulation (Keap1−/−) or depletion (Nrf2−/−) of Nrf2 were utilized to perform chromatin-immunoprecipitation with parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and global transcription profiling. This unique Nrf2 ChIP-Seq dataset is highly enriched for Nrf2-binding motifs. Integrating ChIP-Seq and microarray analyses, we identified 645 basal and 654 inducible direct targets of Nrf2, with 244 genes at the intersection. Modulated pathways in stress response and cell proliferation distinguish the inducible and basal programs. Results were confirmed in an in vivo stress model of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. This study reveals global circuitry of the Nrf2 stress response emphasizing Nrf2 as a central node in cell survival response. PMID:20460467

  3. Optimizing and Validating a Brief Assessment for Identifying Children of Service Members at Risk for Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Journal of Family Therapy, 21, 313-323. Behar, L.B. (1997). The Preschool Behavior Questionnaire. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology , 5, 265-275... Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Julie Wargo Aikins, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Wayne State...Validating a Brief Assessment for Identifying Children of Service Members at Risk for Psychological Health Problems Following Parent Deployment 5b. GRANT

  4. http://www.D-MELD.com, the Italian survival calculator to optimize donor to recipient matching and to identify the unsustainable matches in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Alfonso W; Agnes, Salvatore; Cillo, Umberto; Lirosi, Maria C; Romagnoli, Renato; Baccarani, Umberto; Zamboni, Fausto; Nicolini, Daniele; Donataccio, Matteo; Perrella, Alessandro; Ettorre, Giuseppe M; Romano, Marina; Morelli, Nicola; Vennarecci, Giovanni; de Waure, Chiara; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Burra, Patrizia; Cucchetti, Alessandro

    2012-03-01

    Optimization of donor-recipient match is one of the exciting challenges in liver transplantation. Using algorithms obtained by the Italian D-MELD study (5256 liver transplants, 21 Centers, 2002-2009 period), a web-based survival calculator was developed. The calculator is available online at the URL http://www.D-MELD.com. The access is free. Registration and authentication are required. The website was developed using PHP scripting language on HTML platform and it is hosted by the web provider Aruba.it. For a given donor (expressed by donor age) and for three potential recipients (expressed by values of bilirubin, creatinine, INR, and by recipient age, HCV, HBV, portal thrombosis, re-transplant status), the website calculates the patient survival at 90days, 1year, 3years, and allows the identification of possible unsustainable matches (i.e. donor-recipient matches with predicted patient survival less than 50% at 5 years). This innovative approach allows the selection of the best recipient for each referred donor, avoiding the allocation of a high-risk graft to a high-risk recipient. The use of the D-MELD.com website can help transplant surgeons, hepatologists, and transplant coordinators in everyday practice of matching donors and recipients, by selecting the more appropriate recipient among various candidates with different prognostic factors. © 2012 The Authors. Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  5. Shade guide optimization--a novel shade arrangement principle for both ceramic and composite shade guides when identifying composite test objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østervemb, Niels; Jørgensen, Jette Nedergaard; Hørsted-Bindslev, Preben

    2011-02-01

    The most widely used shade guide for composite materials is made of ceramic and arranged according to a non-proven method. There is a need for a composite shade guide using a scientifically based arrangement principle. To compare the shade tab arrangement of the Vitapan Classical shade guide and an individually made composite shade guide using both the originally proposed arrangement principle and arranged according to ΔE2000 values with hue group division. An individual composite shade guide made from Filtek Supreme XT body colors was compared to the Vitapan Classical shade guide. Twenty-five students matched color samples made from Filtek Supreme XT body colors using the two shade guides arranged after the two proposed principles--four shade guides in total. Age, sequence, gender, time, and number of correct matches were recorded. The proposed visually optimal composite shade guide was both fastest and had the highest number of correct matches. Gender was significantly associated with time used for color sampling but not regarding the number of correct shade matches. A composite shade guide is superior compared to the ceramic Vitapan Classical guide when using composite test objects. A rearrangement of the shade guide according to hue, subdivided according to ΔE2000, significantly reduces the time needed to take a color sample and increases the number of correct shade matches. Total color difference in relation to the lightest tab with hue group division is recommended as a possible and universally applicable mode of tab arrangement in dental color standards. Moreover, a shade guide made of the composite materials itself is to be preferred as both a faster and more accurate method of determining color. © 2011, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2011, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  6. Process development of a New Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine and the use of mathematical modeling to identify process optimization possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans; V D Pol, Leo; Ghimire, Saroj; V D Wielen, Luuk A M; Ottens, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions being a cost-effective tool in preventing deaths among young children. The earliest vaccines were developed following empirical methods, creating vaccines by trial and error. New process development tools, for example mathematical modeling, as well as new regulatory initiatives requiring better understanding of both the product and the process are being applied to well-characterized biopharmaceuticals (for example recombinant proteins). The vaccine industry is still running behind in comparison to these industries. A production process for a new Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, including related quality control (QC) tests, was developed and transferred to a number of emerging vaccine manufacturers. This contributed to a sustainable global supply of affordable Hib conjugate vaccines, as illustrated by the market launch of the first Hib vaccine based on this technology in 2007 and concomitant price reduction of Hib vaccines. This paper describes the development approach followed for this Hib conjugate vaccine as well as the mathematical modeling tool applied recently in order to indicate options for further improvements of the initial Hib process. The strategy followed during the process development of this Hib conjugate vaccine was a targeted and integrated approach based on prior knowledge and experience with similar products using multi-disciplinary expertise. Mathematical modeling was used to develop a predictive model for the initial Hib process (the 'baseline' model) as well as an 'optimized' model, by proposing a number of process changes which could lead to further reduction in price. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:568-580, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Conserved Residues Lys57 and Lys401 of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Maintain an Active Site Conformation for Optimal Activity: Implications for Post-Translational Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Caba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite its study since the 1960's, very little is known about the post-translational regulation of the multiple catalytic activities performed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, the primary protein folding catalyst of the cell. This work identifies a functional role for the highly conserved CxxC-flanking residues Lys57 and Lys401 of human PDI in vitro. Mutagenesis studies have revealed these residues as modulating the oxidoreductase activity of PDI in a pH-dependent manner. Non-conservative amino acid substitutions resulted in enzyme variants upwards of 7-fold less efficient. This attenuated activity was found to translate into a 2-fold reduction of the rate of electron shuttling between PDI and the intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum oxidase, ERO1α, suggesting a functional significance to oxidative protein folding. In light of this, the possibility of lysine acetylation at residues Lys57 and Lys401 was assessed by in vitro treatment using acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin. A total of 28 acetyllysine residues were identified, including acLys57 and acLys401. The kinetic behavior of the acetylated protein form nearly mimicked that obtained with a K57/401Q double substitution variant providing an indication that acetylation of the active site-flanking lysine residues can act to reversibly modulate PDI activity.

  8. Conserved Residues Lys57 and Lys401 of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Maintain an Active Site Conformation for Optimal Activity: Implications for Post-Translational Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Cody; Ali Khan, Hyder; Auld, Janeen; Ushioda, Ryo; Araki, Kazutaka; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Mutus, Bulent

    2018-01-01

    Despite its study since the 1960's, very little is known about the post-translational regulation of the multiple catalytic activities performed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), the primary protein folding catalyst of the cell. This work identifies a functional role for the highly conserved CxxC-flanking residues Lys 57 and Lys 401 of human PDI in vitro . Mutagenesis studies have revealed these residues as modulating the oxidoreductase activity of PDI in a pH-dependent manner. Non-conservative amino acid substitutions resulted in enzyme variants upwards of 7-fold less efficient. This attenuated activity was found to translate into a 2-fold reduction of the rate of electron shuttling between PDI and the intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum oxidase, ERO1α, suggesting a functional significance to oxidative protein folding. In light of this, the possibility of lysine acetylation at residues Lys 57 and Lys 401 was assessed by in vitro treatment using acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). A total of 28 acetyllysine residues were identified, including acLys 57 and acLys 401 . The kinetic behavior of the acetylated protein form nearly mimicked that obtained with a K57/401Q double substitution variant providing an indication that acetylation of the active site-flanking lysine residues can act to reversibly modulate PDI activity.

  9. Optimal screening of children with acute malnutrition requires a change in current WHO guidelines as MUAC and WHZ identify different patient groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Prak, Sophonneary; de Groot, Richard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Timely treatment of acute malnutrition in children 500,000 deaths annually. Screening at community level is essential to identify children with malnutrition. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for malnutrition recommend a Mid Upper Arm...... Circumference (MUAC) of malnutrition (SAM). However, it is currently unclear how MUAC relates to the other indicator used to define acute malnutrition: weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ). METHODS: Secondary data from >11,000 Cambodian children, obtained by different surveys between...... 2010 and 2012, was used to calculate sensitivity and ROC curves for MUAC and WHZ. FINDINGS: The secondary analysis showed that using the current WHO cut-off of 115 mm for screening for severe acute malnutrition over 90% of children with a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ)

  10. An Allometric Modelling Approach to Identify the Optimal Body Shape Associated with, and Differences between Brazilian and Peruvian Youth Motor Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonete Silva

    Full Text Available Children from developed and developing countries differ in their body size and shape due to marked differences across their life history caused by social, economic and cultural differences which are also linked to their motor performance (MP. We used allometric models to identify size/shape characteristics associated with MP tests between Brazilian and Peruvian schoolchildren. A total of 4,560 subjects, 2,385 girls and 2,175 boys aged 9-15 years were studied. Height and weight were measured; biological maturation was estimated with the maturity offset technique; MP measures included the 12 minute run (12MR, handgrip strength (HG, standing long jump (SLJ and the shuttle run speed (SR tests; physical activity (PA was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. A multiplicative allometric model was adopted to adjust for body size differences across countries. Reciprocal ponderal index (RPI was found to be the most suitable body shape indicator associated with the 12MR, SLJ, HG and SR performance. A positive maturation offset parameter was also associated with a better performance in SLJ, HG and SR tests. Sex differences were found in all motor tests. Brazilian youth showed better scores in MP than their Peruvian peers, even when controlling for their body size differences The current study identified the key body size associated with four body mass-dependent MP tests. Biological maturation and PA were associated with strength and motor performance. Sex differences were found in all motor tests, as well as across countries favoring Brazilian children even when accounting for their body size/shape differences.

  11. An Allometric Modelling Approach to Identify the Optimal Body Shape Associated with, and Differences between Brazilian and Peruvian Youth Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simonete; Bustamante, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Freitas, Duarte; Prista, António; Maia, José

    2016-01-01

    Children from developed and developing countries differ in their body size and shape due to marked differences across their life history caused by social, economic and cultural differences which are also linked to their motor performance (MP). We used allometric models to identify size/shape characteristics associated with MP tests between Brazilian and Peruvian schoolchildren. A total of 4,560 subjects, 2,385 girls and 2,175 boys aged 9–15 years were studied. Height and weight were measured; biological maturation was estimated with the maturity offset technique; MP measures included the 12 minute run (12MR), handgrip strength (HG), standing long jump (SLJ) and the shuttle run speed (SR) tests; physical activity (PA) was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. A multiplicative allometric model was adopted to adjust for body size differences across countries. Reciprocal ponderal index (RPI) was found to be the most suitable body shape indicator associated with the 12MR, SLJ, HG and SR performance. A positive maturation offset parameter was also associated with a better performance in SLJ, HG and SR tests. Sex differences were found in all motor tests. Brazilian youth showed better scores in MP than their Peruvian peers, even when controlling for their body size differences The current study identified the key body size associated with four body mass-dependent MP tests. Biological maturation and PA were associated with strength and motor performance. Sex differences were found in all motor tests, as well as across countries favoring Brazilian children even when accounting for their body size/shape differences. PMID:26939118

  12. An Allometric Modelling Approach to Identify the Optimal Body Shape Associated with, and Differences between Brazilian and Peruvian Youth Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simonete; Bustamante, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Freitas, Duarte; Prista, António; Maia, José

    2016-01-01

    Children from developed and developing countries differ in their body size and shape due to marked differences across their life history caused by social, economic and cultural differences which are also linked to their motor performance (MP). We used allometric models to identify size/shape characteristics associated with MP tests between Brazilian and Peruvian schoolchildren. A total of 4,560 subjects, 2,385 girls and 2,175 boys aged 9-15 years were studied. Height and weight were measured; biological maturation was estimated with the maturity offset technique; MP measures included the 12 minute run (12MR), handgrip strength (HG), standing long jump (SLJ) and the shuttle run speed (SR) tests; physical activity (PA) was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. A multiplicative allometric model was adopted to adjust for body size differences across countries. Reciprocal ponderal index (RPI) was found to be the most suitable body shape indicator associated with the 12MR, SLJ, HG and SR performance. A positive maturation offset parameter was also associated with a better performance in SLJ, HG and SR tests. Sex differences were found in all motor tests. Brazilian youth showed better scores in MP than their Peruvian peers, even when controlling for their body size differences The current study identified the key body size associated with four body mass-dependent MP tests. Biological maturation and PA were associated with strength and motor performance. Sex differences were found in all motor tests, as well as across countries favoring Brazilian children even when accounting for their body size/shape differences.

  13. Optimal degree of protonation for {sup 1}H detection of aliphatic sites in randomly deuterated proteins as a function of the MAS frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, Sam [Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen (HMGU), Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt (HMGU) (Germany); Szekely, Kathrin; Schanda, Paul; Meier, Beat H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich (ETH Zuerich) (Switzerland); Reif, Bernd, E-mail: reif@tum.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen (HMGU), Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt (HMGU) (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The {sup 1}H dipolar network, which is the major obstacle for applying proton detection in the solid-state, can be reduced by deuteration, employing the RAP (Reduced Adjoining Protonation) labeling scheme, which yields random protonation at non-exchangeable sites. We present here a systematic study on the optimal degree of random sidechain protonation in RAP samples as a function of the MAS (magic angle spinning) frequency. In particular, we compare {sup 1}H sensitivity and linewidth of a microcrystalline protein, the SH3 domain of chicken {alpha}-spectrin, for samples, prepared with 5-25 % H{sub 2}O in the E. coli growth medium, in the MAS frequency range of 20-60 kHz. At an external field of 19.96 T (850 MHz), we find that using a proton concentration between 15 and 25 % in the M9 medium yields the best compromise in terms of sensitivity and resolution, with an achievable average {sup 1}H linewidth on the order of 40-50 Hz. Comparing sensitivities at a MAS frequency of 60 versus 20 kHz, a gain in sensitivity by a factor of 4-4.5 is observed in INEPT-based {sup 1}H detected 1D {sup 1}H,{sup 13}C correlation experiments. In total, we find that spectra recorded with a 1.3 mm rotor at 60 kHz have almost the same sensitivity as spectra recorded with a fully packed 3.2 mm rotor at 20 kHz, even though {approx}20 Multiplication-Sign less material is employed. The improved sensitivity is attributed to {sup 1}H line narrowing due to fast MAS and to the increased efficiency of the 1.3 mm coil.

  14. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  15. Optimal screening of children with acute malnutrition requires a change in current WHO guidelines as MUAC and WHZ identify different patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Prak, Sophonneary; de Groot, Richard; Whitney, Sophie; Conkle, Joel; Horton, Lindsey; Un, Sam Oeurn; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Wieringa, Frank T

    2014-01-01

    Timely treatment of acute malnutrition in children 500,000 deaths annually. Screening at community level is essential to identify children with malnutrition. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for malnutrition recommend a Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) of malnutrition (SAM). However, it is currently unclear how MUAC relates to the other indicator used to define acute malnutrition: weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ). Secondary data from >11,000 Cambodian children, obtained by different surveys between 2010 and 2012, was used to calculate sensitivity and ROC curves for MUAC and WHZ. The secondary analysis showed that using the current WHO cut-off of 115 mm for screening for severe acute malnutrition over 90% of children with a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) children with a MUAC65% of children with a WHZchildren with acute malnutrition, therefore these 2 indicators should be regarded as independent from each other. We suggest a 2-step model with MUAC used a screening at community level, followed by MUAC and WHZ measured at a primary health care unit, with both indicators used independently to diagnose severe acute malnutrition. Current guidelines should be changed to reflect this, with treatment initiated when either MUAC <115 mm or WHZ<-3.

  16. Optimal Screening of Children with Acute Malnutrition Requires a Change in Current WHO Guidelines as MUAC and WHZ Identify Different Patient Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Prak, Sophonneary; de Groot, Richard; Whitney, Sophie; Conkle, Joel; Horton, Lindsey; Un, Sam Oeurn; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Timely treatment of acute malnutrition in children 500,000 deaths annually. Screening at community level is essential to identify children with malnutrition. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for malnutrition recommend a Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) of malnutrition (SAM). However, it is currently unclear how MUAC relates to the other indicator used to define acute malnutrition: weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ). Methods Secondary data from >11,000 Cambodian children, obtained by different surveys between 2010 and 2012, was used to calculate sensitivity and ROC curves for MUAC and WHZ. Findings The secondary analysis showed that using the current WHO cut-off of 115 mm for screening for severe acute malnutrition over 90% of children with a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) 65% of children with a WHZmalnutrition, therefore these 2 indicators should be regarded as independent from each other. We suggest a 2-step model with MUAC used a screening at community level, followed by MUAC and WHZ measured at a primary health care unit, with both indicators used independently to diagnose severe acute malnutrition. Current guidelines should be changed to reflect this, with treatment initiated when either MUAC <115 mm or WHZ<−3. PMID:24983995

  17. Less Waste on Waist Measurements: Determination of Optimal Waist Circumference Measurement Site to Predict Visceral Adipose Tissue in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V. Seimon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With obesity being a leading cause of preventable death, it is vital to understand how best to identify individuals with greater risk of metabolic disease, especially those with high visceral adipose tissue (VAT. This study aimed to determine whether three commonly used waist circumference (WC measurement sites could provide accurate estimations of VAT, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which is a gold standard for measuring VAT, in postmenopausal women with obesity. VAT volume was measured by MRI of the total abdomen in 97 women aged 57.7 ± 0.4 years (mean ± SEM, mean body mass index 34.5 ± 0.2 kg/m2. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lowest rib and the iliac crest (WCmid, the narrowest point of the torso (WCnarrow, and at the level of the umbilicus (WCumbilicus. WC differed significantly according to measurement site, with WCnarrow (102.1 ± 0.7 cm < WCmid (108.3 ± 0.7 cm < WCumbilicus (115.7 ± 0.8 cm (p < 0.001. WCmid, WCnarrow and WCumbilicus were all significantly correlated with VAT, as measured by MRI (r = 0.581, 0.563 and 0.390, respectively; p < 0.001 for all, but the relationships between WCmid or WCnarrow and VAT determined by MRI were stronger than for WCumbilicus. Measurement of either WCmid or WCnarrow provides valid estimates of VAT in postmenopausal women with obesity, with WCnarrow being favoured in light of its greater ease and speed of measurement in this population.

  18. Identifying unstable sites on logging roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice; J. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    Logging roads are an important source of forestry-related erosion. The amount of erosion on a forest road is determined by the interaction between how the road is constructed and maintained and the environment in which it is built. The roads in this study were constructed with large bulldozers, and most excavated material was sidecast. The roads studied were...

  19. Environmental Modeling, The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nutrient removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Natural Filter Wetland Priority layers identify priority wetland restoration sites by subwatershed. Land use,...

  20. Identifying Optimal Temporal Scale for the Correlation of AOD and Ground Measurements of PM2.5 to Improve the Model Performance in a Real-time Air Quality Estimation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Faruque, Fazlay; Williams, Worth; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Crosson, William; Rickman, Douglas; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD), an indirect estimate of particle matter using satellite observations, has shown great promise in improving estimates of PM 2.5 air quality surface. Currently, few studies have been conducted to explore the optimal way to apply AOD data to improve the model accuracy of PM 2.5 surface estimation in a real-time air quality system. We believe that two major aspects may be worthy of consideration in that area: 1) the approach to integrate satellite measurements with ground measurements in the pollution estimation, and 2) identification of an optimal temporal scale to calculate the correlation of AOD and ground measurements. This paper is focused on the second aspect on the identifying the optimal temporal scale to correlate AOD with PM2.5. Five following different temporal scales were chosen to evaluate their impact on the model performance: 1) within the last 3 days, 2) within the last 10 days, 3) within the last 30 days, 4) within the last 90 days, and 5) the time period with the highest correlation in a year. The model performance is evaluated for its accuracy, bias, and errors based on the following selected statistics: the Mean Bias, the Normalized Mean Bias, the Root Mean Square Error, Normalized Mean Error, and the Index of Agreement. This research shows that the model with the temporal scale of within the last 30 days displays the best model performance in this study area using 2004 and 2005 data sets.

  1. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  2. Promoting Your Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  3. Exploring the influence of EGCG on the β-sheet-rich oligomers of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP1-37 and identifying its possible binding sites from molecular dynamics simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wang

    Full Text Available EGCG possesses the ability of disaggregating the existing amyloid fibrils which were associated with many age-related degenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanism of EGCG to disaggregate these fibrils is poorly known. In this work, to study the influence of EGCG on the full-length human islet amyloid polypeptide 1-37 (hIAPP1-37 oligomers, molecular dynamics simulations of hIAPP1-37 pentamer and decamer with EGCG were performed, respectively. The obtained results indicate that EGCG indeed destabilized the hIAPP1-37 oligomers. The nematic order parameter and secondary structure calculations coupled with the free-energy landscape indicate that EGCG broke the initial ordered pattern of two polymers, greatly reduced their β-sheet content and enlarged their conformational space. On this basis, three possible target sites were identified with the binding capacity order of S1>S2>S3. After a deeper analysis of each site, we found that S1 was the most possible site on which residues B-Ile26/Ala25, A-Phe23, B/C-Leu27 and E-Tyr37 played an important role for their binding. The proposal of this molecular mechanism can not only provide a prospective interaction figure between EGCG and β-sheet-rich fibrils of hIAPP1-37, but also is useful for further discovering other potential inhibitors.

  4. Identification of sumoylation sites in CCDC6, the first identified RET partner gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma, uncovers a mode of regulating CCDC6 function on CREB1 transcriptional activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Luise

    Full Text Available CCDC6 was originally identified in chimeric genes as caused by chromosomal translocation involving the RET protooncogene in some thyroid tumors. Recognised as a 65 kDa pro-apoptotic phosphoprotein, CCDC6 has been enrolled as an ATM substrate that contribute to protect genome integrity by modulating PP4c activity in response to genotoxic stress. Recently, CCDC6 has been identified as a repressor of CREB1-dependent transcription. Sumoylation has emerged as an important mechanism in transcriptional control. Here, we report the identification and characterization of three sites of sumoylation in CCDC6 (K74, K266 and K424 which are highly conserved in vertebrates. We demonstrate that the post-translational modifications by SUMO2 constrain most of the CCDC6 protein in the cytosol and affect its functional interaction with CREB1 with a decrease of CCDC6 repressive function on CREB1 transcriptional activity. Indeed, the impairment of functional outcome of sumoylated CCDC6 is obtained knocking down all three the sumoylation sites. Interestingly, in thyroid cells the SUMO2-mediated CCDC6 post-translational modifications are induced by Forskolin, a cAMP analog. Signal transduction via the cAMP pathway is known to be ubiquitous and represents a major line of communication between many organisms and their environment. We believe that CCDC6 could be an important player in the dynamics of cAMP signaling by fine regulating CREB1 transcriptional activity in normal and transformed thyroid cells.

  5. O-GlcNAcPRED-II: an integrated classification algorithm for identifying O-GlcNAcylation sites based on fuzzy undersampling and a K-means PCA oversampling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Cangzhi; Zuo, Yun; Zou, Quan; Hancock, John

    2018-02-06

    Protein O-GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc) is an important post-translational modification of serine (S)/threonine (T) residues that involves multiple molecular and cellular processes. Recent studies have suggested that abnormal O-G1cNAcylation causes many diseases, such as cancer and various neurodegenerative diseases. With the available protein O-G1cNAcylation sites experimentally verified, it is highly desired to develop automated methods to rapidly and effectively identify O-G1cNAcylation sites. Although some computational methods have been proposed, their performance has been unsatisfactory, particularly in terms of prediction sensitivity. In this study, we developed an ensemble model O-GlcNAcPRED-II to identify potential O-G1cNAcylation sites. A K-means principal component analysis oversampling technique (KPCA) and fuzzy undersampling method (FUS) were first proposed and incorporated to reduce the proportion of the original positive and negative training samples. Then, rotation forest, a type of classifier-integrated system, was adopted to divide the eight types of feature space into several subsets using four sub-classifiers: random forest, k-nearest neighbour, naive Bayesian and support vector machine. We observed that O-GlcNAcPRED-II achieved a sensitivity of 81.05%, specificity of 95.91%, accuracy of 91.43% and Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.7928 for five-fold cross-validation run 10 times. Additionally, the results obtained by O-GlcNAcPRED-II on two independent datasets also indicated that the proposed predictor outperformed five published prediction tools. http://121.42.167.206/OGlcPred/. cangzhijia@dlmu.edu.cn or zouquan@nclab.net. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Optimal Cut-Offs of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to Identify Dysglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 15-Year Prospective Study in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Shih, A Z L; Woo, Y C; Fong, C H Y; Leung, O Y; Janus, E; Cheung, B M Y; Lam, K S L

    The optimal reference range of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normal Chinese population has not been clearly defined. Here we address this issue using the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS), a prospective population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up. In this study, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were defined according to the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. Dysglycemia referred to IFG, IGT or T2DM. This study comprised two parts. Part one was a cross-sectional study involving 2,649 Hong Kong Chinese subjects, aged 25-74 years, at baseline CRISPS-1 (1995-1996). The optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs for dysglycemia and T2DM were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Part two was a prospective study involving 872 subjects who had persistent NGT at CRISPS-4 (2010-2012) after 15 years of follow-up. At baseline, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs to identify dysglyceia and T2DM were 1.37 (AUC = 0.735; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.713-0.758; Sensitivity [Se] = 65.6%, Specificity [Sp] = 71.3%] and 1.97 (AUC = 0.807; 95% CI = 0.777-0.886; Se = 65.5%, Sp = 82.9%) respectively. These cut-offs, derived from the cross-sectional study at baseline, corresponded closely to the 75th (1.44) and 90th (2.03) percentiles, respectively, of the HOMA-IR reference range derived from the prospective study of subjects with persistent NGT. HOMA-IR cut-offs, of 1.4 and 2.0, which discriminated dysglycemia and T2DM respectively from NGT in Southern Chinese, can be usefully employed as references in clinical research involving the assessment of insulin resistance.

  7. Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel LMNA Splice-Site Mutation and Multigenic Heterozygosity of Potential Modifiers in a Family with Sick Sinus Syndrome, Dilated Cardiomyopathy, and Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V Zaragoza

    Full Text Available The goals are to understand the primary genetic mechanisms that cause Sick Sinus Syndrome and to identify potential modifiers that may result in intrafamilial variability within a multigenerational family. The proband is a 63-year-old male with a family history of individuals (>10 with sinus node dysfunction, ventricular arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and sudden death. We used exome sequencing of a single individual to identify a novel LMNA mutation and demonstrated the importance of Sanger validation and family studies when evaluating candidates. After initial single-gene studies were negative, we conducted exome sequencing for the proband which produced 9 gigabases of sequencing data. Bioinformatics analysis showed 94% of the reads mapped to the reference and identified 128,563 unique variants with 108,795 (85% located in 16,319 genes of 19,056 target genes. We discovered multiple variants in known arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, or ion channel associated genes that may serve as potential modifiers in disease expression. To identify candidate mutations, we focused on ~2,000 variants located in 237 genes of 283 known arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, or ion channel associated genes. We filtered the candidates to 41 variants in 33 genes using zygosity, protein impact, database searches, and clinical association. Only 21 of 41 (51% variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. We selected nine confirmed variants with minor allele frequencies G, a novel heterozygous splice-site mutation as the primary mutation with rare or novel variants in HCN4, MYBPC3, PKP4, TMPO, TTN, DMPK and KCNJ10 as potential modifiers and a mechanism consistent with haploinsufficiency.

  8. Optimal river monitoring network using optimal partition analysis: a case study of Hun River, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Chunyue; Rong, Luge; Wang, Xiaoxu; Sun, Lina; Luo, Qing; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-09

    River monitoring networks play an important role in water environmental management and assessment, and it is critical to develop an appropriate method to optimize the monitoring network. In this study, an effective method was proposed based on the attainment rate of National Grade III water quality, optimal partition analysis and Euclidean distance, and Hun River was taken as a method validation case. There were 7 sampling sites in the monitoring network of the Hun River, and 17 monitoring items were analyzed once a month during January 2009 to December 2010. The results showed that the main monitoring items in the surface water of Hun River were ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), chemical oxygen demand, and biochemical oxygen demand. After optimization, the required number of monitoring sites was reduced from seven to three, and 57% of the cost was saved. In addition, there were no significant differences between non-optimized and optimized monitoring networks, and the optimized monitoring networks could correctly represent the original monitoring network. The duplicate setting degree of monitoring sites decreased after optimization, and the rationality of the monitoring network was improved. Therefore, the optimal method was identified as feasible, efficient, and economic.

  9. Epibenthic Assessment of a Renewable Tidal Energy Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V. Sheehan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concern over global climate change as a result of fossil fuel use has resulted in energy production from renewable sources. Marine renewable energy devices provide clean electricity but can also cause physical disturbance to the local environment. There is a considerable paucity of ecological data at potential marine renewable energy sites that is needed to assess potential future impacts and allow optimal siting of devices. Here, we provide a baseline benthic survey for the Big Russel in Guernsey, UK, a potential site for tidal energy development. To assess the suitability of proposed sites for marine renewable energy in the Big Russel and to identify potential control sites, we compared species assemblages and habitat types. This baseline survey can be used to select control habitats to compare and monitor the benthic communities after installation of the device and contribute towards the optimal siting of any future installation.

  10. Jointly optimizing selection of fuel treatments and siting of forest biomass-based energy production facilities for landscape-scale fire hazard reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Daugherty; Jeremy S. Fried

    2007-01-01

    Landscape-scale fuel treatments for forest fire hazard reduction potentially produce large quantities of material suitable for biomass energy production. The analytic framework FIA BioSum addresses this situation by developing detailed data on forest conditions and production under alternative fuel treatment prescriptions, and computes haul costs to alternative sites...

  11. Using the Multi-Criteria AHP for the Optimal Selection of Site Location and Wastewater Collection System The Case Study of Varzeghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan talebi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of multi-criteria decision making in waste management and selection of the site location and proper wastewater collection and processing system in Varzeqan Town. Moreover, the effect of the decision-making method employed on ranking the final alternatives will be evaluated. Different factors are involved in the selection of wastewater treatment construction sites. These factors, in turn, not only depend on the special location and time the decision is made but also have their own weights in the final decision. In this study, the environmental conditions in the study area are initially investigated to select one site from among five different alternatives proposed for the construction of the facility using the AHP method. Also, the AHP method is used to evaluate and select the suitable collection and treatment method from among the four non-conventional options including Septic Tank Effluent Gravity, Septic Tank Effluent Pressure, Vacuum Sewerage System, and Simplified Sewerage for this region based on the special geographical and geotechnical conditions. The results indicate that the barren lands between Varzeghan Town and Dizaj Safar Ali Village are the best site for constructing the treatment facility and that the simplified sewarge system is the best collection system for the region.

  12. Repeated assessment of orthotopic glioma pO2 by multi-site EPR oximetry: A technique with the potential to guide therapeutic optimization by repeated measurements of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadeem; Mupparaju, Sriram; Hou, Huagang; Williams, Benjamin B.; Swartz, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia plays a vital role in therapeutic resistance. Consequently, measurements of tumor pO2 could be used to optimize the outcome of oxygen-dependent therapies, such as, chemoradiation. However, the potential optimizations are restricted by the lack of methods to repeatedly and quantitatively assess tumor pO2 during therapies, particularly in gliomas. We describe the procedures for repeated measurements of orthotopic glioma pO2 by multi-site electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry. This oximetry approach provides simultaneous measurements of pO2 at more than one site in the glioma and contralateral cerebral tissue. The pO2 of intracerebral 9L, C6, F98 and U251 tumors, as well as contralateral brain, were measured repeatedly for five consecutive days. The 9L glioma was well oxygenated with pO2 of 27 - 36 mm Hg, while C6, F98 and U251 glioma were hypoxic with pO2 of 7 - 12 mm Hg. The potential of multi-site EPR oximetry to assess temporal changes in tissue pO2 was investigated in rats breathing 100% O2. A significant increase in F98 tumor and contralateral brain pO2 was observed on day 1 and day 2, however, glioma oxygenation declined on subsequent days. In conclusion, EPR oximetry provides the capability to repeatedly assess temporal changes in orthotopic glioma pO2. This information could be used to test and optimize the methods being developed to modulate tumor hypoxia. Furthermore, EPR oximetry could be potentially used to enhance the outcome of chemoradiation by scheduling treatments at times of increase in glioma pO2. PMID:22079559

  13. Environmental Modeling, The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land use, hydrology, soil, and landscape characteristics were analyzed to rank opportunities with high nitrogen removal potential., Published in 2014, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Maryland Department of Natural Resources (DNR).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Environmental Modeling dataset current as of 2014. The Buffer Priority layers for Nitrogen Removal identify priority forest/grass buffer sites by subwatershed. Land...

  14. Optimization and Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Chinchuluun, Altannar; Enkhbat, Rentsen; Tseveendorj, Ider

    2010-01-01

    During the last four decades there has been a remarkable development in optimization and optimal control. Due to its wide variety of applications, many scientists and researchers have paid attention to fields of optimization and optimal control. A huge number of new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational results have been observed in the last few years. This book gives the latest advances, and due to the rapid development of these fields, there are no other recent publications on the same topics. Key features: Provides a collection of selected contributions giving a state-of-the-art accou

  15. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known, and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time, optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer and the HFS solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N = 1098 variables, the D-Wave device is between one to two orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver.

  16. Identifying Functional Neighborhoods within the Cell Nucleus: Proximity Analysis of Early S-Phase Replicating Chromatin Domains to Sites of Transcription, RNA Polymerase II, HP1γ, Matrin 3 and SAF-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyavantham, Kishore S; Bhattacharya, Sambit; Barbeitos, Marcos; Mukherjee, Lopamudra; Xu, Jinhui; Fackelmayer, Frank O; Berezney, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Higher order chromatin organization in concert with epigenetic regulation is a key process that determines gene expression at the global level. The organization of dynamic chromatin domains and their associated protein factors is intertwined with nuclear function to create higher levels of functional zones within the cell nucleus. As a step towards elucidating the organization and dynamics of these functional zones, we have investigated the spatial proximities among a constellation of functionally related sites that are found within euchromatic regions of the cell nucleus including: HP1γ, nascent transcript sites (TS), active DNA replicating sites in early S phase (PCNA) and RNA polymerase II sites. We report close associations among these different sites with proximity values specific for each combination. Analysis of matrin 3 and SAF-A sites demonstrates that these nuclear matrix proteins are highly proximal with the functionally related sites as well as to each other and display closely aligned and overlapping regions following application of the minimal spanning tree (MST) algorithm to visualize higher order network-like patterns. Our findings suggest that multiple factors within the nuclear microenvironment collectively form higher order combinatorial arrays of function. We propose a model for the organization of these functional neighborhoods which takes into account the proximity values of the individual sites and their spatial organization within the nuclear architecture. PMID:18618731

  17. Optimal Site Selection of Wind-Solar Complementary Power Generation Project for a Large-Scale Plug-In Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wind-solar hybrid power generation project combined with electric vehicle charging stations can effectively reduce the impact on the power system caused by the random charging of electric cars, contribute to the in-situ wind-solar complementary system and reduce the harm arising from its output volatility. In this paper, the site selection index system of a landscape complementary power generation project is established by using the statistical methods and statistical analysis in the literature. Subsequently, using the Analytic Network Process to calculate the index weight, a cloud model was used in combination with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations to transform and sort uncertain language information. Finally, using the results of the decision-making for the location of the Shanghai wind-solar complementary project and by carrying out contrast analysis and sensitivity analysis, the superiority and stability of the decision model constructed in this study was demonstrated.

  18. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  19. Study of methylation sites and factors in contaminated aquatic systems in the Amazon using an optimized radiochemical technique. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davee Guimaraes, Jean Remy

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Highlights and achievements: We confirmed that high methylation potentials (up to 22%) are found in roots of Paspalum repens and other floating macrophyte species such as Eichhomia crassipes and Ludwigia helmynthoryza during both phases of the hydrological cycle, with a tendency for higher values in the wet season, confirming findings of previous studies, and a strong intra and interlake variation. Hg methylation in macrophyte roots is carried out mainly in the root-associated periphyton a complex and variable assemblage of benthic microalgae, fungi, bacteria and organic and inorganic detritus. However, no significant correlation was found in the first campaign between Hg methylation in samples of Paspalum sp. roots and the amount of periphyton in these samples. We also verified that total plankton and phytoplankton are sites of a low 203 Hg; Basic infrastructure problems caused partial loss of samples in one of the campaigns. (author)

  20. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  1. Single-tooth implant restorations in the esthetic zone--contemporary concepts for optimization and maintenance of soft tissue esthetics in the replacement of failing teeth in compromised sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoo, Tidu

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, implant dentistry has undergone a profound shift in emphasis. The focus evolved first from a surgically driven approach to a prosthetically driven approach and now to a more biologically driven approach with the goal of optimizing and maintaining esthetics. While traditional implant protocols are well established for management of implants placed in healed edentulous sites, the data available offer little clarity on the factors and procedures for long-term esthetic success, particularly in terms of maintained stable soft tissue outcomes around implant restorations in the esthetic zone. Unfortunately, the 90%+ success rates indicated in most studies of dental implant systems today do not represent the success of the esthetic outcome. This has created a demand--certainly among clinicians in private practice focused on the ongoing maintenance of esthetic outcomes--for clear treatment protocols to achieve esthetic results that are not only predictable and consistent but that can withstand the test of time.

  2. Application of Microarrays and qPCR to Identify Phylogenetic and Functional Biomarkers Diagnostic of Microbial Communities that Biodegrade Chlorinated Solvents to Ethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    appropriate and cost - effective biomarkers to assess, monitor, and optimize performance. Commonly, biomarker development has focused on identifying...field sites. Firmicutes (Mostly Clostridium spp.), Bacteroidetes (Mostly Bacteroides spp.), as well as Proteobacteria (Mostly sulfate-reducer, i.e...continuous-flow chemostat, and environmental samples from contaminated field sites. Firmicutes (Mostly Clostridium spp.), Bacteroidetes (Mostly

  3. Optimization of heterologous DNA-prime, protein boost regimens and site of vaccination to enhance therapeutic immunity against human papillomavirus-associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shiwen; Qiu, Jin; Yang, Andrew; Yang, Benjamin; Jeang, Jessica; Wang, Joshua W; Chang, Yung-Nien; Brayton, Cory; Roden, Richard B S; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the primary etiologic factor of cervical cancer as well as subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. The two HPV viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, are uniquely and consistently expressed in all HPV infected cells and are therefore promising targets for therapeutic vaccination. Both recombinant naked DNA and protein-based HPV vaccines have been demonstrated to elicit HPV-specific CD8+ T cell responses that provide therapeutic effects against HPV-associated tumor models. Here we examine the immunogenicity in a preclinical model of priming with HPV DNA vaccine followed by boosting with filterable aggregates of HPV 16 L2E6E7 fusion protein (TA-CIN). We observed that priming twice with an HPV DNA vaccine followed by a single TA-CIN booster immunization generated the strongest antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response compared to other prime-boost combinations tested in C57BL/6 mice, whether naïve or bearing the HPV16 E6/E7 transformed syngeneic tumor model, TC-1. We showed that the magnitude of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response generated by the DNA vaccine prime, TA-CIN protein vaccine boost combinatorial strategy is dependent on the dose of TA-CIN protein vaccine. In addition, we found that a single booster immunization comprising intradermal or intramuscular administration of TA-CIN after priming twice with an HPV DNA vaccine generated a comparable boost to E7-specific CD8+ T cell responses. We also demonstrated that the immune responses elicited by the DNA vaccine prime, TA-CIN protein vaccine boost strategy translate into potent prophylactic and therapeutic antitumor effects. Finally, as seen for repeat TA-CIN protein vaccination, we showed that the heterologous DNA prime and protein boost vaccination strategy is well tolerated by mice. Our results provide rationale for future clinical testing of HPV DNA vaccine prime, TA-CIN protein vaccine boost immunization regimen for the control of HPV-associated diseases.

  4. International developments in uranium mining and mill site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarch, H.; Kuhlmann, J.; Daroussin, J.L.; Poyser, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    At the end of production, mine sites, mill sites, tailings ponds, heap leaching residues in uranium mining districts world-wide have to be remediated in a responsible and sustainable manner in order to minimize long term environmental impacts. Current practice, regulatory environments and rehabilitation objectives in some of the most important uranium producing countries are briefly characterized as well as applicable radioprotection and geotechnical criteria. Important local and regional variables are outlined which determine optimal site specific solutions. Examples from Europe and North America are shown. Monitoring and control requirements as well as areas of current and necessary research and development are identified

  5. Site Selection for the Salt Disposition Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Rueter, K.J.; Morin, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A site selection study was conducted to identify a suitable location for the construction and operation of a new Salt Disposition Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility to be sited is a single processing facility and support buildings that could house either of three technology alternatives being developed by the High Level Waste Systems Engineering Team: Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation, Crystalline Silicotitanate Non-Elutable Ion Exchange or Caustic Side Solvent Extraction. A fourth alternative, Direct Disposal in grout, is not part of the site selection study because a location has been identified that is unique to this technology (i.e., Z-Area). Facility site selection at SRS is a formal, documented process that seeks to optimize siting of new facilities with respect to facility-specific engineering requirements, sensitive environmental resources, and applicable regulatory requirements. In this manner, the prime objectives of cost minimization, environmental protection, and regulatory compliance are achieved. The results from this geotechnical characterization indicated that continued consideration be given to Site B for the proposed SDF. Suitable topography, the lack of surface hydrology and floodplain issues, no significant groundwater contamination, the presence of minor soft zones along the northeast portion of footprint, and no apparent geological structure in the Gordon Aquitard support this recommendation

  6. SITE SUITABILITY ANALYSIS AND ROUTE OPTIMIZATION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fimba

    University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria .... Garmin Hand held Global positioning system and the software used was ESRI's ArcMap 10.1. The Table 1 .... Innovative Paradigms in Engineering & Technology (NCIPET-2012). ... Disposal in Jimeta, Nigeria, Adamawa state university Journal of scientific research.

  7. AutoSite: an automated approach for pseudo-ligands prediction—from ligand-binding sites identification to predicting key ligand atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Pradeep Anand; Sanner, Michel F.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The identification of ligand-binding sites from a protein structure facilitates computational drug design and optimization, and protein function assignment. We introduce AutoSite: an efficient software tool for identifying ligand-binding sites and predicting pseudo ligand corresponding to each binding site identified. Binding sites are reported as clusters of 3D points called fills in which every point is labelled as hydrophobic or as hydrogen bond donor or acceptor. From these fills AutoSite derives feature points: a set of putative positions of hydrophobic-, and hydrogen-bond forming ligand atoms. Results: We show that AutoSite identifies ligand-binding sites with higher accuracy than other leading methods, and produces fills that better matches the ligand shape and properties, than the fills obtained with a software program with similar capabilities, AutoLigand. In addition, we demonstrate that for the Astex Diverse Set, the feature points identify 79% of hydrophobic ligand atoms, and 81% and 62% of the hydrogen acceptor and donor hydrogen ligand atoms interacting with the receptor, and predict 81.2% of water molecules mediating interactions between ligand and receptor. Finally, we illustrate potential uses of the predicted feature points in the context of lead optimization in drug discovery projects. Availability and Implementation: http://adfr.scripps.edu/AutoDockFR/autosite.html Contact: sanner@scripps.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27354702

  8. Optimal body fat percentage cut-off values for identifying cardiovascular risk factors in Mongolian and Han adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanlong; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wenrui; Dong, Fen; Qian, Yonggang; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Li, Guoju; Pan, Li; Zhu, Guangjin; Shan, Guangliang

    2017-04-17

    The present study was designed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat percentage (BF%) for the detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Mongolian and Han adults. This cross-sectional study involving 3221 Chinese adults (2308 Han and 913 Mongolian) aged 20-80 years was conducted in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, in 2014. Data from a standardised questionnaire, physical examination and blood sample were obtained. The BF% was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Optimal BF% cut-offs were analysed by receiver operating characteristic curves to predict the risk of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the OR of each CVD risk factor according to obesity defined by BF%. Mean BF% levels were lower in men than in women (22.54±5.77 vs 32.95±6.18 in Han, 23.86±5.72 vs 33.98±6.40 in Mongolian population, respectively; ppopulation, the area under curve (AUC) values for BF% ranged from 0.589 to 0.699 for men and from 0.711 to 0.763 for women. Compared with men, AUCs for diabetes and clustering of ≥2 risk factors in women were significantly higher (ppopulation. In Han adults, the optimal BF% cut-off values to detect CVD risk factors varied from 18.7% to 24.2% in men and 32.7% to 35.4% in women. In Mongolian population, the optimal cut-off values of BF% for men and women ranged from 21.0% to 24.6% and from 35.7% to 40.0%, respectively. Subjects with high BF% (≥24% in men, ≥34% in women) had higher risk of CVD risk factors in Han (age-adjusted ORs from 1.479 to 3.680, 2.660 to 4.016, respectively). In Mongolia, adults with high BF% (≥25% in men, ≥35% in women) had higher risk of CVD risk factors (age-adjusted ORs from 2.587 to 3.772, 2.061 to 4.882, respectively). The optimal BF% cut-offs for obesity for the prediction of CVD risk factors in Chinese men and women were approximately 24% and 34% for Han adults and 25% and 35% for Mongolian

  9. Machine Learning meets Mathematical Optimization to predict the optimal production of offshore wind parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Fraccaro, Marco

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we propose a combination of Mathematical Optimization and Machine Learning to estimate the value of optimized solutions. In particular, we investigate if a machine, trained on a large number of optimized solutions, could accurately estimate the value of the optimized solution for new...... in production between optimized/non optimized solutions, it is not trivial to understand the potential value of a new site without running a complete optimization. This could be too time consuming if a lot of sites need to be evaluated, therefore we propose to use Machine Learning to quickly estimate...... the potential of new sites (i.e., to estimate the optimized production of a site without explicitly running the optimization). To do so, we trained and tested different Machine Learning models on a dataset of 3000+ optimized layouts found by the optimizer. Thanks to the close collaboration with a leading...

  10. Optimization of surface maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeverland, E.

    1990-01-01

    The present conference paper deals with methods of optimizing the surface maintenance of steel-made offshore installations. The paper aims at identifying important approaches to the problems regarding the long-range planning of an economical and cost effective maintenance program. The methods of optimization are based on the obtained experiences from the maintenance of installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. 3 figs

  11. Long term developments in irradiated natural uranium processing costs. Optimal size and siting of plants; Perspectives a long terme des couts de traitement de l'uranium naturel irradie. Tailles et localisations optimales des usines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Oger, C; Vaumas, P de [Saint-Gobain Nucleaire, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    1964-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to help solve the problem of the selection of optimal sizes and sites for spent nuclear fuel processing plants associated with power capacity programmes already installed. Firstly, the structure of capital and running costs of irradiated natural uranium processing plants is studied, as well as the influence of plant sizes on these costs and structures. Shipping costs from the production site to the plant must also be added to processing costs. An attempt to reach a minimum cost for the production of a country or a group of countries must therefore take into account both the size and the location of the plants. The foreseeable shipping costs and their structure (freight, insurance, container cost and depreciation), for spent natural uranium are indicated. Secondly, for various annual spent fuel reprocessing programmes, the optimal sizes and locations of the plants are determined. The sensitivity of the results to the basic assumptions relative to processing costs, shipping costs, the starting up year of the plant programme and the length of period considered, is also tested. - this rather complex problem, of a combinative nature, is solved through dynamic programming methods. - It is shown that these methods can also be applied to the problem of selecting the optimal sizes and locations of processing plants for MTR type fuel elements, related to research reactor programmes, as well as to future plutonium element processing plants related to breeder reactors. Thirdly, the case where yearly extraction of the plutonium contained in the irradiated natural uranium is not compulsory is examined; some stockpiling of the fuel is then allowed some years, entailing delayed processing. The load factor of such plants is thus greatly improved with respect to that of plants where the annual plutonium demand is strictly satisfied. By including spent natural uranium stockpiling costs an optimal rhythm of introduction and optimal sizes for spent fuel

  12. Secondary plant succession on disturbed sites at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angerer, J.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Schultz, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study of secondary plant succession on disturbed sites created during initial site investigations in the late 1970s and early 1980s at Yucca Mountain, NV. Specific study objectives were to determine the rate and success of secondary plant succession, identify plant species found in disturbances that may be suitable for site-specific reclamation, and to identify environmental variables that influence succession on disturbed sites. During 1991 and 1992, fifty seven disturbed sites were located. Vegetation parameters, disturbance characteristics and environmental variables were measured at each site. Disturbed site vegetation parameters were compared to that of undisturbed sites to determine the status of disturbed site plant succession. Vegetation on disturbed sites, after an average of ten years, was different from undisturbed areas. Ambrosia dumosa, Chrysothamnus teretifolius, Hymenoclea salsola, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex canescens, and Stephanomeria pauciflora were the most dominant species across all disturbed sites. With the exception of A. dumosa, these species were generally minor components of the undisturbed vegetation. Elevation, soil compaction, soil potassium, and amounts of sand and gravel in the soil were found to be significant environmental variables influencing the species composition and abundance of perennial plants on disturbed sites. The recovery rate for disturbed site secondary succession was estimated. Using a linear function (which would represent optimal conditions), the recovery rate for perennial plant cover, regardless of which species comprised the cover, was estimated to be 20 years. However, when a logarithmic function (which would represent probable conditions) was used, the recovery rate was estimated to be 845 years. Recommendations for future studies and site-specific reclamation of disturbances are presented

  13. Secondary plant succession on disturbed sites at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angerer, J.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Schultz, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study of secondary plant succession on disturbed sites created during initial site investigations in the late 1970s and early 1980s at Yucca Mountain, NV. Specific study objectives were to determine the rate and success of secondary plant succession, identify plant species found in disturbances that may be suitable for site-specific reclamation, and to identify environmental variables that influence succession on disturbed sites. During 1991 and 1992, fifty seven disturbed sites were located. Vegetation parameters, disturbance characteristics and environmental variables were measured at each site. Disturbed site vegetation parameters were compared to that of undisturbed sites to determine the status of disturbed site plant succession. Vegetation on disturbed sites, after an average of ten years, was different from undisturbed areas. Ambrosia dumosa, Chrysothamnus teretifolius, Hymenoclea salsola, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex canescens, and Stephanomeria pauciflora were the most dominant species across all disturbed sites. With the exception of A. dumosa, these species were generally minor components of the undisturbed vegetation. Elevation, soil compaction, soil potassium, and amounts of sand and gravel in the soil were found to be significant environmental variables influencing the species composition and abundance of perennial plants on disturbed sites. The recovery rate for disturbed site secondary succession was estimated. Using a linear function (which would represent optimal conditions), the recovery rate for perennial plant cover, regardless of which species comprised the cover, was estimated to be 20 years. However, when a logarithmic function (which would represent probable conditions) was used, the recovery rate was estimated to be 845 years. Recommendations for future studies and site-specific reclamation of disturbances are presented.

  14. Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan (HIP) has been prepared as an overview of the facilities, utilities, systems, and services that support all activities on the Hanford Site. Its purpose is three-fold: to examine in detail the existing condition of the Hanford Site's aging utility systems, transportation systems, Site services and general-purpose facilities; to evaluate the ability of these systems to meet present and forecasted Site missions; to identify maintenance and upgrade projects necessary to ensure continued safe and cost-effective support to Hanford Site programs well into the twenty-first century. The HIP is intended to be a dynamic document that will be updated accordingly as Site activities, conditions, and requirements change. 35 figs., 25 tabs

  15. An Optimization Scheme for ProdMod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    A general purpose dynamic optimization scheme has been devised in conjunction with the ProdMod simulator. The optimization scheme is suitable for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) complex operations, and able to handle different types of optimizations such as linear, nonlinear, etc. The optimization is performed in the stand-alone FORTRAN based optimization deliver, while the optimizer is interfaced with the ProdMod simulator for flow of information between the two

  16. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  17. Management of Decommissioning on a Multi-Facility Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laraia, Michele; McIntyre, Peter; Visagie, Abrie

    2008-01-01

    The management of the decommissioning of multi-facility sites may be inadequate or inappropriate if based on approaches and strategies developed for sites consisting of only a single facility. The varied nature of activities undertaken, their interfaces and their interdependencies are likely to complicate the management of decommissioning. These issues can be exacerbated where some facilities are entering the decommissioning phase while others are still operational or even new facilities are being built. Multi-facility sites are not uncommon worldwide but perhaps insufficient attention has been paid to optimizing the overall site decommissioning in the context of the entire life cycle of facilities. Decommissioning management arrangements need to be established taking a view across the whole site. A site-wide decommissioning management system is required. This should include a project evaluation and approval process and specific arrangements to manage identified interfaces and interdependencies. A group should be created to manage decommissioning across the site, ensuring adequate and consistent practices in accordance with the management system. Decommissioning management should be aimed at the entire life cycle of facilities. In the case of multi facility sites, the process becomes more complex and decommissioning management arrangements need to be established with a view to the whole site. A site decommissioning management system, a group that is responsible for decommissioning on site, a site project evaluation and approval process and specific arrangements to manage the identified interfaces are key areas of a site decommissioning management structure that need to be addressed to ensure adequate and consistent decommissioning practices. A decommissioning strategy based on single facilities in a sequential manner is deemed inadequate

  18. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  19. Search Engine Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harold

    2006-01-01

    SEO--short for Search Engine Optimization--is the art, craft, and science of driving web traffic to web sites. Web traffic is food, drink, and oxygen--in short, life itself--to any web-based business. Whether your web site depends on broad, general traffic, or high-quality, targeted traffic, this PDF has the tools and information you need to draw more traffic to your site. You'll learn how to effectively use PageRank (and Google itself); how to get listed, get links, and get syndicated; and much more. The field of SEO is expanding into all the possible ways of promoting web traffic. This

  20. Optimization of Surveys with Internet Operated Deep-sea Crawlers, as an Integrated Tool for Ocean Cabled Observatories: Monitoring the Benthic Community of a Methane Hydrates Site in Barkley Canyon (BC, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzievangelou, D.; Suarez, A.; Aguzzi, J.; Bigham, K.; Thomsen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Deep-sea research is entering an era of coordinated, multidisciplinary monitoring of benthic ecosystems, from local and regional to global scale. Technological advances, such as the development of ocean cabled observatories and mobile vehicles operating within them, raise the issue of "smart" study designs. The objective is optimizing the balance among reduced effort (i.e. sampling, data transfer and storage, a posteriori treatment), accurate representation of the monitored ecosystems and a minimal ecological footprint. For this study, 18 linear imaging transects ( 25 m each, 1 Hz frequency) were performed by the Internet Operated Deep-sea Crawler "Wally" at the Barkley Canyon hydrates site (870 m depth) within the Ocean Networks Canada NEPTUNE observatory, generating a total of 19920 images. In order to evaluate sampling effort, species accumulation curves were calculated against the number of transects, and the permanence time of mobile individuals in the crawler's field of view was used to assess the number of individuals captured for different potential imaging frequencies. The effect of the crawler caterpillars on benthic organisms was evaluated by comparing the images of disturbed (i.e previous tracks) vs. undisturbed seabed. The analyses showed that maximum species richness (i.e. 18 species) was achieved after 10 transects, while 0.33 Hz and 0.5 Hz imaging frequencies captured more than 95% of the individuals counted with the original 1 Hz method. Preliminary results indicate no differences in the numbers of benthic animals between the disturbed and the undisturbed seabed parts. These findings allow the design of future experiments under similar conditions with minimized costs and effort without compromising data quality. Finally, the low invasiveness of the crawler as a monitoring platform, as long as certain protocols are followed, is highlighted. Ongoing analyses of the same transects assess the varying macro- and megafauna, in relation to the distance

  1. Mode of transgene expression after fusion to early or late viral genes of a conditionally replicating adenovirus via an optimized internal ribosome entry site in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Angel A.; Wang Minghui; Suzuki, Kaori; Uil, Taco G.; Krasnykh, Victor; Curiel, David T.; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.

    2004-01-01

    The expression of therapeutic genes by oncolytic viruses is a promising strategy to improve viral oncolysis, to augment gene transfer compared with a nonreplicating adenoviral vector, or to combine virotherapy and gene therapy. Both the mode of transgene expression and the locale of transgene insertion into the virus genome critically determine the efficacy of this approach. We report here on the properties of oncolytic adenoviruses which contain the luciferase cDNA fused via an optimized internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to the immediate early adenoviral gene E1A (AdΔE1AIL), the early gene E2B (AdΔE2BIL), or the late fiber gene (AdΔfiberIL). These viruses showed distinct kinetics of transgene expression and luciferase activity. Early after infection, luciferase activities were lower for these viruses, especially for AdΔE2BIL, compared with nonreplicating AdTL, which contained the luciferase gene expressed from the strong CMV promoter. However, 6 days after infection, luciferase activities were approximately four (AdΔE1AIL) to six (AdΔfiberIL) orders of magnitude higher than for AdTL, reflecting virus replication and efficient transgene expression. Similar results were obtained in vivo after intratumoral injection of AdΔE2BIL, AdΔfiberIL, and AdTL. AdΔfiberIL and the parental virus, Ad5-Δ24, resulted in similar cytotoxicity, but AdΔE2BIL and AdΔE1AIL were slightly attenuated. Disruption of the expression of neighboring viral genes by insertion of the transgene was minimal for AdΔE2BIL and AdΔfiberIL, but substantial for AdΔE1AIL. Our observations suggest that insertion of IRES-transgene cassettes into viral transcription units is an attractive strategy for the development of armed oncolytic adenoviruses with defined kinetics and strength of transgene expression

  2. A qualitative approach using the integrative model of behaviour change to identify intervention strategies to increase optimal child restraint practices among culturally and linguistically diverse families in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Burton, Danielle; Nikolin, Stevan; Crooks, Philippa Jane; Hatfield, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E

    2013-02-01

    To qualitatively explore barriers to optimal child restraint use using the integrative behaviour change model in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A semi-structured discussion was used to conduct 11 language specific focus groups in Arabic, Assyrian, Cantonese, Mandarin, Vietnamese and Turkish. Translated transcriptions were analysed using the major concepts of the integrative behaviour change model. Restraint use intent among CALD community carers is related to perceived safety of their children and complying with the law. While most participants appreciated the safety benefits of correct and appropriate use, a minority did not. Child restraint legislation may positively influence social norms, and enforcement appears to increase parental self-efficacy. However, concerns over child comfort may negatively influence both norms and self-efficacy. There are clear deficits in knowledge that may act as barriers as well as confusion over best practice in safely transporting children. Large family size, vehicle size and cost appear to be real environmental constraints in CALD communities. Determinants of intent and deficits in knowledge in this diverse range of CALD communities in NSW Australia are similar to those reported in other qualitative studies regardless of the population studied. This indicates that key messages should be the same regardless of the target population. However, for CALD communities there is a specific need to ensure access to detailed information through appropriate delivery strategies and languages. Furthermore, practical constraints such as cost of restraints and family size may be particularly important in CALD communities.

  3. Siting controversial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Blacker, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    There is often significant difficulty involved with siting controversial facilities. The social and political problems are frequently far more difficult to resolve than the technical and economic issues. The tendancy for most developing organizations is to address only technical issues in the search for a technically optimal site, to the exclusion of such weighting considerations as the social and political climate associated with potential sites--an approach which often imperils the success of the project. The site selection processes currently suggested is summarized and two contemporary examples of their application are cited. The difference between developers' real objectives and the objectives they have implicitly assumed by adopting the recommended approaches without augmentation are noted. The resulting morass of public opposition is attributed to the failure to consider the needs of individuals and groups who stand to be negatively impacted by the development. A comprehensive implementation strategy which addresses non-technical consideration in parallel with technical ones is presented and evaluated

  4. Site organization and site arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, B.; Macqueron, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW) [de

  5. Optimally frugal foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénichou, O.; Bhat, U.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2018-02-01

    We introduce the frugal foraging model in which a forager performs a discrete-time random walk on a lattice in which each site initially contains S food units. The forager metabolizes one unit of food at each step and starves to death when it last ate S steps in the past. Whenever the forager eats, it consumes all food at its current site and this site remains empty forever (no food replenishment). The crucial property of the forager is that it is frugal and eats only when encountering food within at most k steps of starvation. We compute the average lifetime analytically as a function of the frugality threshold and show that there exists an optimal strategy, namely, an optimal frugality threshold k* that maximizes the forager lifetime.

  6. Site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, W.B.; Ebenhack, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter is a discussion of the management and operations practices used at the Barnwell Waste Management Facility in Barnwell, SC. The following topics are discussed: (1) Waste receiving and inspection, including manifest and certificates of compliance, radiological surveys, disposition of nonconforming items, and decontamination and disposition of secondary waste streams; (2) Waste disposal, including Title 10 CFR 61 requirements, disposal area evaluations, shipment offloading, container emplacement, and radiation protection; (3) Trench closure, including trench backfilling, trench capping, and permanent markers; (4) Site maintenance and stabilization, including trench maintenance, surface water management, and site closure activities; (5) Site monitoring programs, including operational monitoring, and environmental monitoring program; (6) Personnel training and qualifications, including basic training program, safety training program, special skills training, and physical qualifications; (7) Records management, including waste records, personnel training records, personnel dosimetry records, site monitoring records, trench qualification and construction records, and site drawings and stabilization records; (8) Site security; (9) Emergency response plans; and (10) Quality assurance

  7. Optimization of Antivirus Software

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin BOJA; Adrian VISOIU

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the main techniques used in development of computer antivirus software applications. For this particular category of software, are identified and defined optimum criteria that helps determine which solution is better and what are the objectives of the optimization process. From the general viewpoint of software optimization are presented methods and techniques that are applied at code development level. Regarding the particularities of antivirus software, the paper analyze...

  8. Optimization of Antivirus Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main techniques used in development of computer antivirus software applications. For this particular category of software, are identified and defined optimum criteria that helps determine which solution is better and what are the objectives of the optimization process. From the general viewpoint of software optimization are presented methods and techniques that are applied at code development level. Regarding the particularities of antivirus software, the paper analyzes some of the optimization concepts applied to this category of applications

  9. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  10. Site directed recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  11. Site decommissioning management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff's strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites

  12. Site decommissioning management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  13. Identifying potential surface water sampling sites for emerging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging chemical pollutants (ECPs) are defined as new chemicals which do not have a regulatory status, but which may have an adverse effect on human health and the environment. The occurrence and concentrations of ECPs in South African water bodies are largely unknown, so monitoring is required in order to ...

  14. CT Perfusion Characteristics Identify Metastatic Sites in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue perfusion plays a critical role in oncology because growth and migration of cancerous cells require proliferation of new blood vessels through the process of tumor angiogenesis. Computed tomography (CT perfusion is an emerging functional imaging modality that measures tissue perfusion through dynamic CT scanning following intravenous administration of contrast medium. This noninvasive technique provides a quantitative basis for assessing tumor angiogenesis. CT perfusion has been utilized on a variety of organs including lung, prostate, liver, and brain, with promising results in cancer diagnosis, disease prognostication, prediction, and treatment monitoring. In this paper, we focus on assessing the extent to which CT perfusion characteristics can be used to discriminate liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors from normal liver tissues. The neuroendocrine liver metastases were analyzed by distributed parameter modeling to yield tissue blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, mean transit time (MTT, permeability (PS, and hepatic arterial fraction (HAF, for tumor and normal liver. The result reveals the potential of CT perfusion as a tool for constructing biomarkers from features of the hepatic vasculature for guiding cancer detection, prognostication, and treatment selection.

  15. Methods and systems for identifying ligand-protein binding sites

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin; Naveed, Hammad

    2016-01-01

    The invention provides a novel integrated structure and system-based approach for drug target prediction that enables the large-scale discovery of new targets for existing drugs Novel computer-readable storage media and computer systems are also

  16. Superfund Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer represents active Superfund Sites published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These data were extracted from the Superfund Enterprise...

  17. Site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, J.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a general view over all necessary considerations to develop the site after it has been chosen and before starting with the construction of a nuclear power plant. (orig./RW) [de

  18. Optimized remedial groundwater extraction using linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater extraction systems are typically installed to remediate contaminant plumes or prevent further spread of contamination. These systems are expensive to install and maintain. A traditional approach to designing such a wellfield uses a series of trial-and-error simulations to test the effects of various well locations and pump rates. However, the optimal locations and pump rates of extraction wells are difficult to determine when objectives related to the site hydrogeology and potential pumping scheme are considered. This paper describes a case study of an application of linear programming theory to determine optimal well placement and pump rates. The objectives of the pumping scheme were to contain contaminant migration and reduce contaminant concentrations while minimizing the total amount of water pumped and treated. Past site activities at the area under study included disposal of contaminants in pits. Several groundwater plumes have been identified, and others may be present. The area of concern is bordered on three sides by a wetland, which receives a portion of its input budget as groundwater discharge from the pits. Optimization of the containment pumping scheme was intended to meet three goals: (1) prevent discharge of contaminated groundwater to the wetland, (2) minimize the total water pumped and treated (cost benefit), and (3) avoid dewatering of the wetland (cost and ecological benefits). Possible well locations were placed at known source areas. To constrain the problem, the optimization program was instructed to prevent any flow toward the wetland along a user-specified border. In this manner, the optimization routine selects well locations and pump rates so that a groundwater divide is produced along this boundary

  19. Savannah River Site's Site Specific Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering

  20. Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián

    2011-01-01

    Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.

  1. Medicinsk Optimering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkholm, Klavs

    2010-01-01

    En undersøgelse af anvendelsen af medicin til optimering af koncentration, hukommelse og følelsestonus. Efterfulgt af etiske overvejelser og anbefalinger til det politiske system......En undersøgelse af anvendelsen af medicin til optimering af koncentration, hukommelse og følelsestonus. Efterfulgt af etiske overvejelser og anbefalinger til det politiske system...

  2. Structural optimization

    CERN Document Server

    MacBain, Keith M

    2009-01-01

    Intends to supplement the engineer's box of analysis and design tools making optimization as commonplace as the finite element method in the engineering workplace. This title introduces structural optimization and the methods of nonlinear programming such as Lagrange multipliers, Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and calculus of variations.

  3. The site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most arduous tasks associated with the management of radioactive wastes is the siting of new disposal facilities. Experience has shown that the performance of the disposal facility during and after disposal operations is critically dependent on the characteristics of the site itself. The site selection process consists of defining needs and objectives, identifying geographic regions of interest, screening and selecting candidate sites, collecting data on the candidate sites, and finally selecting the preferred site. Before the site selection procedures can be implemented, however, a formal legal system must be in place that defines broad objectives and, most importantly, clearly establishes responsibilities and accompanying authorities for the decision-making steps in the procedure. Site selection authorities should make every effort to develop trust and credibility with the public, local officials, and the news media. The responsibilities of supporting agencies must also be spelled out. Finally, a stable funding arrangement must be established so that activities such as data collection can proceed without interruption. Several examples, both international and within the US, are given

  4. Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    . A way to solve the initial design problem namely finding a form can be solved by so-called topology optimization. The idea is to define a design region and an amount of material. The loads and supports are also fidefined, and the algorithm finds the optimal material distribution. The objective function...... dictates the form, and the designer can choose e.g. maximum stiness, maximum allowable stresses or maximum lowest eigenfrequency. The result of the topology optimization is a relatively coarse map of material layout. This design can be transferred to a CAD system and given the necessary geometrically...... refinements, and then remeshed and reanalysed in other to secure that the design requirements are met correctly. The output of standard topology optimization has seldom well-defined, sharp contours leaving the designer with a tedious interpretation, which often results in less optimal structures. In the paper...

  5. Dispositional Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Optimism is a cognitive construct (expectancies regarding future outcomes) that also relates to motivation: optimistic people exert effort, whereas pessimistic people disengage from effort. Study of optimism began largely in health contexts, finding positive associations between optimism and markers of better psychological and physical health. Physical health effects likely occur through differences in both health-promoting behaviors and physiological concomitants of coping. Recently, the scientific study of optimism has extended to the realm of social relations: new evidence indicates that optimists have better social connections, partly because they work harder at them. In this review, we examine the myriad ways this trait can benefit an individual, and our current understanding of the biological basis of optimism. PMID:24630971

  6. Taking Stock of Unrealistic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A.; Klein, William M. P.; Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have used terms such as unrealistic optimism and optimistic bias to refer to concepts that are similar but not synonymous. Drawing from three decades of research, we critically discuss how researchers define unrealistic optimism and we identify four types that reflect different measurement approaches: unrealistic absolute optimism at the individual and group level and unrealistic comparative optimism at the individual and group level. In addition, we discuss methodological criticisms leveled against research on unrealistic optimism and note that the criticisms are primarily relevant to only one type—the group form of unrealistic comparative optimism. We further clarify how the criticisms are not nearly as problematic even for unrealistic comparative optimism as they might seem. Finally, we note boundary conditions on the different types of unrealistic optimism and reflect on five broad questions that deserve further attention. PMID:26045714

  7. Taking Stock of Unrealistic Optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A; Klein, William M P; Waters, Erika A; Weinstein, Neil D

    2013-07-01

    Researchers have used terms such as unrealistic optimism and optimistic bias to refer to concepts that are similar but not synonymous. Drawing from three decades of research, we critically discuss how researchers define unrealistic optimism and we identify four types that reflect different measurement approaches: unrealistic absolute optimism at the individual and group level and unrealistic comparative optimism at the individual and group level. In addition, we discuss methodological criticisms leveled against research on unrealistic optimism and note that the criticisms are primarily relevant to only one type-the group form of unrealistic comparative optimism. We further clarify how the criticisms are not nearly as problematic even for unrealistic comparative optimism as they might seem. Finally, we note boundary conditions on the different types of unrealistic optimism and reflect on five broad questions that deserve further attention.

  8. Management strategy for site characterization at candidate HLW repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for HLW repository site characterization which is aimed at producing an optimal characterization trajectory for site suitability and licensing evaluations. The core feature of the strategy is a matrix of alternative performance targets and alternative information-level targets which can be used to allocate and justify program effort. Strategies for work concerning evaluation of expected and disrupted repository performance are distinguished, and the need for issue closure criteria is discussed

  9. Automatic Planning of External Search Engine Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Jasevičiūtė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the external search engine optimization (SEO action planning tool, dedicated to automatically extract a small set of most important keywords for each month during whole year period. The keywords in the set are extracted accordingly to external measured parameters, such as average number of searches during the year and for every month individually. Additionally the position of the optimized web site for each keyword is taken into account. The generated optimization plan is similar to the optimization plans prepared manually by the SEO professionals and can be successfully used as a support tool for web site search engine optimization.

  10. Site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a low-level radioactive waste land disposal facility is little different than any industrial development of similar scope. Consideration must be made for normal business and operations management, security, facility maintenance, traffic control and necessary amenities for personnel. The item specific to the low-level waste site is the handling of radioactive waste materials and the regulatory and environmental protection procedures that must be planned for and accomodated in the site design and development. Each of these elements and the facility as a whole must be designed to be compatible with local land use plans, available transportation and support services, and the social and economic goals of the local community. Plans should also be made for quality control and orderly construction. This chapter deals with those aspects of the facility, its design and construction which are integral parts to the overall performance of the site

  11. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  12. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  13. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated

  14. Solid waste management complex site development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-30

    The main purpose of this Solid Waste Management Complex Site Development Plan is to optimize the location of future solid waste treatment and storage facilities and the infrastructure required to support them. An overall site plan is recommended. Further, a series of layouts are included that depict site conditions as facilities are constructed at the SWMC site. In this respect the report serves not only as the siting basis for future projects, but provides siting guidance for Project W-112, as well. The plan is intended to function as a template for expected growth of the site over the next 30 years so that future facilities and infrastructure will be properly integrated.

  15. Site Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahedi, Haseebullah

    2016-01-01

    different practices in the construction phase. The research is based on an ethnographic study of a case in Denmark. The empirical data were collected through direct observations and semi-structured interviews with site managers, contract managers, foremen and craftsmen. Findings revealed...... that the construction phase comprises several communities and practices, leading to various uses of the drawings. The results indicated that the craftsmen used drawings to position themselves in the correct location, and that the site managers and contract managers used them as management tools and legal documents...

  16. Identifying the challenges of creating an optimal dissemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is crucial that census data is disseminated in such a way that it satisfies most user needs as far as possible, to ensure that there is optimum use of the information and that maximum value for money is provided. In the past, Statistics South Africa disseminated data at the same geographic level created for data collection.

  17. Modeling of CPDOs - Identifying Optimal and Implied Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    famous notably by Standard & Poor's rating model error which illustrated that closed-form analytical pricing is necessary in order to evaluate and understand complex derivatives. This article aims to shed a light on CPDOs specific structural enhancements and mechanisms. The author quantifies inherent...... risks and provides a dynamic closed-form pricing formula....

  18. Modeling of CPDOs - Identifying optimal and implied leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    by Standard & Poor's rating model error which illustrated that closed-form analytical pricing is necessary in order to evaluate and understand complex derivatives. This article aims to shed a light on CPDOs' specific structural enhancements and mechanisms. We quantify inherent risks and provide a dynamic...

  19. Modeling of CPDOs - Identifying Optimal and Implied Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    When the subprime crisis started emerging, collateralized products based on Credit Default Swap (CDS) exposures combined with security features seemed to be a more rational alternative to classic asset backed securities. Constant Proportion Collateralized Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are a mixture...... risks and provides a dynamic closed-form pricing formula....

  20. Identifying the Optimal Age to Perform Newborn Screening for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of disability worldwide affecting up to 6/1000 births. ... particularly vulnerable to social isolation and abuse due to the ... 1Ian Hutcheon Clinic for Children, Harpenden, 2Ugandan Maternal and .... developmental milestones for hearing and speech and contact ..... Outcomes of children with mild‑profound congenital hearing.

  1. Modeling of CPDOs - Identifying Optimal and Implied Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    When the subprime crisis started emerging, collateralized products based on Credit Default Swap (CDS) exposures combined with security features seemed to be a more rational alternative to classic asset backed securities. Constant Proportion Collateralized Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are a mixture...... of Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs) and CPPIs with inverse mechanism. This new asset targets to meet the investors' demand for credit derivatives with security enhancements, but quantitative approaches for pricing except for simulation algorithms do not exist yet up to he author's knowledge. CPDOs became...... risks and provides a dynamic closed-form pricing formula....

  2. Structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) and a C164Q mutant provide templates for antibacterial drug discovery and identify a buried potassium ion and a ligand-binding site that is an artefact of the crystal form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Bernhard [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Lecker, Laura S. M.; Zoltner, Martin [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Jaenicke, Elmar [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Jakob Welder Weg 26, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Schnell, Robert [Karolinska Institutet, 17 177 Stockholm (Sweden); Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Brenk, Ruth, E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-28

    Three crystal structures of recombinant P. aeruginosa FabF are reported: the apoenzyme, an active-site mutant and a complex with a fragment of a natural product inhibitor. The characterization provides reagents and new information to support antibacterial drug discovery. Bacterial infections remain a serious health concern, in particular causing life-threatening infections of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The situation is exacerbated by the rise in antibacterial drug resistance, and new treatments are urgently sought. In this endeavour, accurate structures of molecular targets can support early-stage drug discovery. Here, crystal structures, in three distinct forms, of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) are presented. This enzyme, which is involved in fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been validated by genetic and chemical means as an antibiotic target in Gram-positive bacteria and represents a potential target in Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of apo FabF, of a C164Q mutant in which the binding site is altered to resemble the substrate-bound state and of a complex with 3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are reported. This compound mimics aspects of a known natural product inhibitor, platensimycin, and surprisingly was observed binding outside the active site, interacting with a symmetry-related molecule. An unusual feature is a completely buried potassium-binding site that was identified in all three structures. Comparisons suggest that this may represent a conserved structural feature of FabF relevant to fold stability. The new structures provide templates for structure-based ligand design and, together with the protocols and reagents, may underpin a target-based drug-discovery project for urgently needed antibacterials.

  3. Structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) and a C164Q mutant provide templates for antibacterial drug discovery and identify a buried potassium ion and a ligand-binding site that is an artefact of the crystal form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Bernhard; Lecker, Laura S. M.; Zoltner, Martin; Jaenicke, Elmar; Schnell, Robert; Hunter, William N.; Brenk, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Three crystal structures of recombinant P. aeruginosa FabF are reported: the apoenzyme, an active-site mutant and a complex with a fragment of a natural product inhibitor. The characterization provides reagents and new information to support antibacterial drug discovery. Bacterial infections remain a serious health concern, in particular causing life-threatening infections of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The situation is exacerbated by the rise in antibacterial drug resistance, and new treatments are urgently sought. In this endeavour, accurate structures of molecular targets can support early-stage drug discovery. Here, crystal structures, in three distinct forms, of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) are presented. This enzyme, which is involved in fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been validated by genetic and chemical means as an antibiotic target in Gram-positive bacteria and represents a potential target in Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of apo FabF, of a C164Q mutant in which the binding site is altered to resemble the substrate-bound state and of a complex with 3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are reported. This compound mimics aspects of a known natural product inhibitor, platensimycin, and surprisingly was observed binding outside the active site, interacting with a symmetry-related molecule. An unusual feature is a completely buried potassium-binding site that was identified in all three structures. Comparisons suggest that this may represent a conserved structural feature of FabF relevant to fold stability. The new structures provide templates for structure-based ligand design and, together with the protocols and reagents, may underpin a target-based drug-discovery project for urgently needed antibacterials

  4. URBAN RAIN GAUGE SITING SELECTION BASED ON GIS-MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly rapid growth of urbanization and climate change, urban rainfall monitoring as well as urban waterlogging has widely been paid attention. In the light of conventional siting selection methods do not take into consideration of geographic surroundings and spatial-temporal scale for the urban rain gauge site selection, this paper primarily aims at finding the appropriate siting selection rules and methods for rain gauge in urban area. Additionally, for optimization gauge location, a spatial decision support system (DSS aided by geographical information system (GIS has been developed. In terms of a series of criteria, the rain gauge optimal site-search problem can be addressed by a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA. A series of spatial analytical techniques are required for MCDA to identify the prospective sites. With the platform of GIS, using spatial kernel density analysis can reflect the population density; GIS buffer analysis is used to optimize the location with the rain gauge signal transmission character. Experiment results show that the rules and the proposed method are proper for the rain gauge site selection in urban areas, which is significant for the siting selection of urban hydrological facilities and infrastructure, such as water gauge.

  5. An Optimal Centralized Carbon Dioxide Repository for Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Poiencot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, the United States Department of Energy, and engineers, geologists, and scientists from all over the world have investigated the potential for reducing atmospheric carbon emissions through carbon sequestration. Numerous reports exist analyzing the potential for sequestering carbon dioxide at various sites around the globe, but none have identified the potential for a statewide system in Florida, USA. In 2005, 83% of Florida’s electrical energy was produced by natural gas, coal, or oil (e.g., fossil fuels, from power plants spread across the state. In addition, only limited research has been completed on evaluating optimal pipeline transportation networks to centralized carbon dioxide repositories. This paper describes the feasibility and preliminary locations for an optimal centralized Florida-wide carbon sequestration repository. Linear programming optimization modeling is used to plan and route an idealized pipeline network to existing Florida power plants. Further analysis of the subsurface geology in these general locations will provide insight into the suitability of the subsurface conditions and the available capacity for carbon sequestration at selected possible repository sites. The identification of the most favorable site(s is also presented.

  6. Site selection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    To help resolve the problem of site selection for the proposed 300 GeV machine, the Council selected "three wise men" (left to right, J H Bannier of the Netherlands, A Chavanne of Switzerland and L K Boggild of Denmark).

  7. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  8. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  9. Portfolio Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Issagali, Aizhan; Alshimbayeva, Damira; Zhalgas, Aidana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Portfolio Optimization techniques were used to determine the most favorable investment portfolio. In particular, stock indices of three companies, namely Microsoft Corporation, Christian Dior Fashion House and Shevron Corporation were evaluated. Using this data the amounts invested in each asset when a portfolio is chosen on the efficient frontier were calculated. In addition, the Portfolio with minimum variance, tangency portfolio and optimal Markowitz portfolio are presented.

  10. Rethinking the Business Model in Construction by the Use of Off-Site System Deliverance: Case of the Shaft Project

    OpenAIRE

    Thuesen, Christian; Hvam, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a set of insights to be used in the development of business models for off-site system deliveries contributing to the development of Off-Site Manufacturing practices (OSM). The theoretical offset for discussing the development of business models is the blue ocean strategy literature combined with theories on mass-customization and platform development identifying the optimization of cost and value through the handling of complexity as the central process. This framework is...

  11. DOE site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions

  12. Optimization problem in quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Howard E

    2003-01-01

    A complete optimization was recently performed, yielding the maximum information gain by a general unitary entangling probe in the four-state protocol of quantum cryptography. A larger set of optimum probe parameters was found than was known previously from an incomplete optimization. In the present work, a detailed comparison is made between the complete and incomplete optimizations. Also, a new set of optimum probe parameters is identified for the four-state protocol

  13. Site remediation using biological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, J.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.; Pouliot, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The main process used in the bioremediation of contaminated sites is the microbial degradation and mineralization of pollutants. The bioengineering processes developed and applied by the company to optimize the microbial degradation are described and full scale case studies are reviewed. In each case, the site characteristics (type of contaminants, nature of soil, geographic location, etc.) and the results obtained are presented. The selected projects cover different bioremediation techniques (biopile, bioventing and air sparging), different contaminants (PAH, PCP, hydrocarbons) and different types of industrial sites (former gas work plant, petroleum depot, refinery, etc.)

  14. Learning optimal embedded cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberian, Mohammad Javad; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2012-10-01

    The problem of automatic and optimal design of embedded object detector cascades is considered. Two main challenges are identified: optimization of the cascade configuration and optimization of individual cascade stages, so as to achieve the best tradeoff between classification accuracy and speed, under a detection rate constraint. Two novel boosting algorithms are proposed to address these problems. The first, RCBoost, formulates boosting as a constrained optimization problem which is solved with a barrier penalty method. The constraint is the target detection rate, which is met at all iterations of the boosting process. This enables the design of embedded cascades of known configuration without extensive cross validation or heuristics. The second, ECBoost, searches over cascade configurations to achieve the optimal tradeoff between classification risk and speed. The two algorithms are combined into an overall boosting procedure, RCECBoost, which optimizes both the cascade configuration and its stages under a detection rate constraint, in a fully automated manner. Extensive experiments in face, car, pedestrian, and panda detection show that the resulting detectors achieve an accuracy versus speed tradeoff superior to those of previous methods.

  15. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  16. Radiological optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    1998-01-01

    Radiological optimization is one of the basic principles in each radiation-protection system and it is a basic requirement in the safety standards for radiation protection in the European Communities. The objectives of the research, performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN, are: (1) to implement the ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for optimization techniques in decision-aiding; (3) to optimize radiological assessment models by validation and intercomparison; (4) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (5) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (6) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (7) to investigate existing software programmes in the domain of multi criteria analysis. The main achievements for 1997 are given

  17. Optimizing detectability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    HPLC is useful for trace and ultratrace analyses of a variety of compounds. For most applications, HPLC is useful for determinations in the nanogram-to-microgram range; however, detection limits of a picogram or less have been demonstrated in certain cases. These determinations require state-of-the-art capability; several examples of such determinations are provided in this chapter. As mentioned before, to detect and/or analyze low quantities of a given analyte at submicrogram or ultratrace levels, it is necessary to optimize the whole separation system, including the quantity and type of sample, sample preparation, HPLC equipment, chromatographic conditions (including column), choice of detector, and quantitation techniques. A limited discussion is provided here for optimization based on theoretical considerations, chromatographic conditions, detector selection, and miscellaneous approaches to detectability optimization. 59 refs

  18. Unconstrained Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, P. E.; Jonasson, K.; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1999-01-01

    This lecture note is intended for use in the course 04212 Optimization and Data Fitting at the Technincal University of Denmark. It covers about 25% of the curriculum. Hopefully, the note may be useful also to interested persons not participating in that course. The aim of the note is to give...... an introduction to algorithms for unconstrained optimization. We present Conjugate Gradient, Damped Newton and Quasi Newton methods together with the relevant theoretical background. The reader is assumed to be familiar with algorithms for solving linear and nonlinear system of equations, at a level corresponding...

  19. New composite index based on midlatency auditory evoked potential and electroencephalographic parameters to optimize correlation with propofol effect site concentration - Comparison with bispectral index and solitary used fast extracting auditory evoked potential index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereecke, HEM; Vasquez, PM; Jensen, EW; Thas, O; Vandenbroecke, R; Mortier, EP; Struys, MMRF

    Background: This study investigates the accuracy of a composite index, the A-Line (R) auditory evoked potentials index version 1.6 (AAI(1.6); Danmeter A/S, Odense, Denmark), as a measure of cerebral anesthetic drug effect in a model for predicting a calculated effect site concentration of propofol

  20. Identifying species conservation strategies to reduce disease-associated declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Brian D.; Converse, Sarah J.; Muths, Erin L.; Crockett, Harry J.; Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a salient threat to many animal taxa, causing local and global extinctions, altering communities and ecosystem function. The EID chytridiomycosis is a prominent driver of amphibian declines, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). To guide conservation policy, we developed a predictive decision-analytic model that combines empirical knowledge of host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics with expert judgment regarding effects of management actions, to select from potential conservation strategies. We apply our approach to a boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) and Bd system, identifying optimal strategies that balance tradeoffs in maximizing toad population persistence and landscape-level distribution, while considering costs. The most robust strategy is expected to reduce the decline of toad breeding sites from 53% to 21% over 50 years. Our findings are incorporated into management policy to guide conservation planning. Our online modeling application provides a template for managers of other systems challenged by EIDs.

  1. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  2. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  3. Site identification presentation: Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The final step in the site identification process for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project is described. The candidate sites are identified. The site identification methodology is presented. The general objectives which must be met in selecting the final site are listed. Considerations used in the screening process are also listed. Summary tables of the guidelines used are included

  4. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  5. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  6. Topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Taking as a starting point a design case for a compliant mechanism (a force inverter), the fundamental elements of topology optimization are described. The basis for the developments is a FEM format for this design problem and emphasis is given to the parameterization of design as a raster image...

  7. OPTIMIZATION METHODS AND SEO TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SEO is the activity of optimizing Web pages or whole sites in order to make them more search engine friendly, thus getting higher positions in search results. Search engine optimization (SEO involves designing, writing, and coding a website in a way that helps to improve the volume and quality of traffic to your website from people using search engines. While Search Engine Optimization is the focus of this booklet, keep in mind that it is one of many marketing techniques. A brief overview of other marketing techniques is provided at the end of this booklet.

  8. Measuring site occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Williamson, James

    2014-01-01

    occupancy of the modification site. We show that, on one hand, heavily modified cysteines are not necessarily involved in the response to oxidative stress. On the other hand residues with low modification level can be dramatically affected by mild oxidative imbalance. We make use of high resolution mass...... peptides corresponding to 90 proteins. Only 6 modified peptides changed significantly under mild oxidative stress. Quantitative information allowed us to determine relative modification site occupancy of each identified modified residue and pin point heavily modified ones. The method proved to be precise...... and sensitive enough to detect and quantify endogenous levels of oxidative stress on proteome-wide scale and brings a new perspective on the role of the modification site occupancy in cellular redox response....

  9. An optimal renewable energy mix for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Patrizio, Piera; Yowargana, Ping; Kraxner, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia has experienced a constant increase of the use of petroleum and coal in the power sector, while the share of renewable sources has remained stable at 6% of the total energy production during the last decade. As its domestic energy demand undeniably continues to grow, Indonesia is committed to increase the production of renewable energy. Mainly to decrease its dependency on fossil fuel-based resources, and to decrease the anthropogenic emissions, the government of Indonesia has established a 23 percent target for renewable energy by 2025, along with a 100 percent electrification target by 2020 (the current rate is 80.4 percent). In that respect, Indonesia has abundant resources to meet these targets, but there is - inter alia - a lack of proper integrated planning, regulatory support, investment, distribution in remote areas of the Archipelago, and missing data to back the planning. To support the government of Indonesia in its sustainable energy system planning, a geographic explicit energy modeling approach is applied. This approach is based on the energy systems optimization model BeWhere, which identifies the optimal location of energy conversion sites based on the minimization of the costs of the supply chain. The model will incorporate the existing fossil fuel-based infrastructures, and evaluate the optimal costs, potentials and locations for the development of renewable energy technologies (i.e., wind, solar, hydro, biomass and geothermal based technologies), as well as the development of biomass co-firing in existing coal plants. With the help of the model, an optimally adapted renewable energy mix - vis-à-vis the competing fossil fuel based resources and applicable policies in order to promote the development of those renewable energy technologies - will be identified. The development of the optimal renewable energy technologies is carried out with special focus on nature protection and cultural heritage areas, where feedstock (e.g., biomass

  10. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  11. Shaft siting decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study identifies and establishes relative guidelines to be used for siting of repository shafts. Weights were determined for the significant factors that impact the selection of shaft locations for a nuclear waste repository in salt. The study identified a total of 45 factors. A panel of experienced mining people utilized the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) Decision Analysis Process to perform a structured evaluation of each significant shaft siting factor. The evaluation determined that 22 of the factors were absolute constraints and that the other 23 factors were desirable characteristics. The group established the relative weights for each of the 23 desirable characteristics by using a paired comparison method. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Where and how to manage: Optimal selection of conservation actions for multiple species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid van Teeffelen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple alternative options are frequently available for the protection, maintenance or restoration of conservation areas. The choice of a particular management action can have large effects on the species occurring in the area, because different actions have different effects on different species. Together with the fact that conservation funds are limited and particular management actions are costly, it would be desirable to be able to identify where, and what kind of management should be applied to maximize conservation benefits. Currently available site-selection algorithms can identify the optimal set of sites for a reserve network. However, these algorithms have not been designed to answer what kind of action would be most beneficial at these sites when multiple alternative actions are available. We describe an algorithm capable of solving multi-species planning problems with multiple management options per site. The algorithm is based on benefit functions, which translate the effect of a management action on species representation levels into a value, in order to identify the most beneficial option. We test the performance of this algorithm with simulated data for different types of benefit functions and show that the algorithm’s solutions are optimal, or very near globally optimal, partially depending on the type of benefit function used. The good performance of the proposed algorithm suggests that it could be profitably used for large multi-action multi-species conservation planning problems.

  13. Radiological assessment and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.; Sohier, A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological assessment and optimization are (1) to implement ALARA principles in activities with radiological consequences; (2) to develop methodologies for radiological optimization in decision-aiding; (3) to improve methods to assess in real time the radiological hazards in the environment in case of an accident; (4) to develop methods and programmes to assist decision-makers during a nuclear emergency; (5) to support the policy of radioactive waste management authorities in the field of radiation protection; (6) to investigate computer codes in the area of multi criteria analysis; (7) to organise courses on off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents. Main achievements in these areas for 1997 are summarised

  14. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  15. Selecting Suitable Sites for Mine Waste Dumps Using GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... number of factors such as financial, environmental and safety requirements ... Applying further constraints, 2 out of the 21 optimal sites were determined as the best sites. ... Most mining companies use different methods for.

  16. Mochovce site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In Mochovce site the construction of four units of WWER 440 NPP with V-213 type of reactor is being carried out. The financing of Mochovce units completion was resolved in April 1996. The completion work commenced at the construction site under leadership of SKODA Prague, the general supplier. The completion work on building part and tests of constructional electric distributions and lightning constructors started. The revisions in technological part were finished, and final protocols from revisions are the basis for starting of completion work. The assembly of transport container anchorage,ventilation system in hermetic areas and hermetic coverage of pools for stored spent nuclear fuel is being carried out. The pre-completion tests of instrumentation and control of ventilation systems, individual dosimetric control in medical station, and tests of nuclear programme according to commissioning and assembling work schedule at the equipment for physical protection of the NPP area started. Inspection activities at Mochovce were performed in accordance with inspection plan for 1996. Evaluation of routine inspections was performed by means of quarterly protocols. Main findings from the inspections performed in Mochovce were in the following areas: (a) deficiencies in the knowledge of the respective regulation and conditions from the Resolution of the state regulatory body, concerning selected employees; (b) training of the selected employees; (c) aim of the measures imposes by inspectors is to eliminate deficiencies in preparation of programmes for pre-completion and completion testing. NRA SR assessment activities at Mochovce NPP were focused mainly on approving and inspecting of design modification to approving programmes for pre-completion and completion testing of system s and equipment and on approving quality assurance programmes. The suggestions of international missions, which reviewed Mochovce safety in the years, were taken into consideration in the programme

  17. SITE-94. Mineralogy of the Aespoe site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Karin

    1996-12-01

    The water composition has several impacts on the repository. It will influence the behaviour of the engineered materials (e.g. corrosion). It may also determine the possible solubility and speciation of released radionuclides. It also acts as a transport medium for the released elements. The groundwater composition and the potential development of the composition due to the presence of the repository as well as due to external variations is thus an important issue in a safety analysis. The development of the groundwater composition is strongly dependent on reactions with the minerals present in water bearing fractures. Here equilibrium chemistry may be of importance, but also reaction kinetics is important to the long-term behaviour. Within the SITE-94 project, a safety analysis is performed for the conditions at the Aespoe site. The mineralogy of the area has been evaluated from drill cores at various places at the site. In this report a recommendation for selection of mineralogy to be used in geochemical modelling of the repository is given. Calcite and iron containing minerals dominate the fracture filling mineralogy at the Aespoe site. Some typical fracture filling mineralogies may be identified in the fractures: epidote, chlorite, calcite, hematite, some illite/smectite + quartz, fluorite, pyrite and goethite. In addition to these a number of minor minerals are found in the fractures. Uncertainties in the fracture filling data may be due to problems when taking out the drill cores. Drilling water may remove important clay minerals and sealed fractures may be reopened mechanically and treated as water conducting fractures. The problem of determining the variability of the mineralogy along the flow paths also remains. This problem will never be solved when the investigation is performed by drilling investigation holes

  18. Optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Aschepkov, Leonid T; Kim, Taekyun; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures from a one-year course at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) as well as on workshops on optimal control offered to students at various mathematical departments at the university level. The main themes of the theory of linear and nonlinear systems are considered, including the basic problem of establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimal processes. In the first part of the course, the theory of linear control systems is constructed on the basis of the separation theorem and the concept of a reachability set. The authors prove the closure of a reachability set in the class of piecewise continuous controls, and the problems of controllability, observability, identification, performance and terminal control are also considered. The second part of the course is devoted to nonlinear control systems. Using the method of variations and the Lagrange multipliers rule of nonlinear problems, the authors prove the Pontryagin maximum principle for prob...

  19. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Siting Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential and development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  20. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  1. Structuring a cost-effective site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Little, C.A.; Swaja, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Successful chemical and radiological site characterizations are complex activities which require meticulously detailed planning. Each layer of investigation is based upon previously generated information about the site. Baseline historical, physical, geological, and regulatory information is prerequisite for preliminary studies at a site. Preliminary studies then provide samples and measurements which define the identity of potential contaminants and define boundaries around the area to be investigated. The goal of a full site characterization is to accurately determine the extent and magnitude of contaminants and carefully define the site conditions such that the future movements of site contaminants can be assessed for potential exposure to human occupants and/or environmental impacts. Critical to this process is the selection of appropriate measurement and sampling methodology, selection and use of appropriate instrumentation and management/interpretation of site information. Site investigations require optimization between the need of information to maximize the understanding of site conditions and the cost of acquiring that information. 5 refs., 1 tab

  2. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  3. Identifying subgroup markers in heterogeneous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, Jorma J.; Rigaill, Guillem; Rottenberg, Sven; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods that aim to identify biomarkers that distinguish between two groups, like Significance Analysis of Microarrays or the t-test, perform optimally when such biomarkers show homogeneous behavior within each group and differential behavior between the groups. However, in many

  4. Optimizing use of library technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M; Killingsworth, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes optimizing the use of library technology.

  5. Pilot Project to Optimize Superfund-financed Pump and Treat Systems: Summary Report and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes Phase II (site optimization) of the Nationwide Fund-lead Pump and Treat Optimization Project. This phase included conducting Remediation System Evaluations (RSEs) at each of the 20 sites selected in Phase I.

  6. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  7. Schedule optimization study implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This Implementation Plan is intended to provide a basis for improvements in the conduct of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at Hanford. The Plan is based on the findings of the Schedule Optimization Study (SOS) team which was convened for two weeks in September 1992 at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL). The need for the study arose out of a schedule dispute regarding the submission of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit (OU) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan. The SOS team was comprised of independent professionals from other federal agencies and the private sector experienced in environmental restoration within the federal system. The objective of the team was to examine reasons for the lengthy RI/FS process and recommend ways to expedite it. The SOS team issued their Final Report in December 1992. The report found the most serious impediments to cleanup relate to a series of management and policy issues which are within the control of the three parties managing and monitoring Hanford -- the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology). The SOS Report identified the following eight cross-cutting issues as the root of major impediments to the Hanford Site cleanup. Each of these eight issues is quoted from the SOS Report followed by a brief, general description of the proposed approach being developed

  8. Siting the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.; Rooney, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering established the Super Collider Site Evaluation Committee to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites for the Superconducting Super Collider. Thirty-six proposals were examined by the committee. Using the set of criteria announced by DOE in its Invitation for Site Proposals, the committee identified eight sites that merited inclusion on a ''best qualified list.'' The list represents the best collective judgment of 21 individuals, carefully chosen for their expertise and impartiality, after a detailed assessment of the proposals using 19 technical subcriteria and DOE's life cycle cost estimates. The sites, in alphabetical order, are: Arizona/Maricopa; Colorado; Illinois; Michigan/Stockbridge; New York/Rochester; North Carolina; Tennessee; and Texas/Dallas-Fort Worth. The evaluation of these sites and the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this book

  9. Discrete optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R Gary

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the fundamental issues and algorithmic strategies emerging as the core of the discipline of discrete optimization in a comprehensive and rigorous fashion. Following an introductory chapter on computational complexity, the basic algorithmic results for the two major models of polynomial algorithms are introduced--models using matroids and linear programming. Further chapters treat the major non-polynomial algorithms: branch-and-bound and cutting planes. The text concludes with a chapter on heuristic algorithms.Several appendixes are included which review the fundamental ideas o

  10. FRS (Facility Registration System) Sites, Geographic NAD83, EPA (2007) [facility_registration_system_sites_LA_EPA_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset contains locations of Facility Registry System (FRS) sites which were pulled from a centrally managed database that