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Sample records for identify newly divergent

  1. Identifying Malnutrition: Nutritional Status in Newly Diagnosed Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Karthikayini; Li Yoong, Tang; Mei Chan, Chong; Peng Choong, Lau; Chinna, Karuthan

    2017-02-01

    Malnutrition is common among patients with cancer, but little attention is given to its risks and consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the nutritional status and identify the factors associated with malnutrition among newly diagnosed patients with cancer. Patients admitted with newly diagnosed cancer at a teaching hospital in Malaysia were recruited from January to April 2015. Nutritional status was assessed before treatment initiation, and patients were classified into three categories. A total of 132 pretreatment patients were recruited into the study. About half were severely malnourished. Patients with stage III cancer had the highest prevalence of severe malnourishment. Clinical parameters and disease characteristics were significantly associated with nutritional status. Demographic variables were also statistically significantly associated with severe nutritional status.

  2. Riverscape genetics identifies replicated ecological divergence across an Amazonian ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Georgina M; Landguth, Erin L; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2014-07-01

    Ecological speciation involves the evolution of reproductive isolation and niche divergence in the absence of a physical barrier to gene flow. The process is one of the most controversial topics of the speciation debate, particularly in tropical regions. Here, we investigate ecologically based divergence across an Amazonian ecotone in the electric fish, Steatogenys elegans. We combine phylogenetics, genome scans, and population genetics with a recently developed individual-based evolutionary landscape genetics approach that incorporates selection. This framework is used to assess the relative contributions of geography and divergent natural selection between environments as biodiversity drivers. We report on two closely related and sympatric lineages that exemplify how divergent selection across a major Amazonian aquatic ecotone (i.e., between rivers with markedly different hydrochemical properties) may result in replicated ecologically mediated speciation. The results link selection across an ecological gradient with reproductive isolation and we propose that assortative mating based on water color may be driving the divergence. Divergence resulting from ecologically driven selection highlights the importance of considering environmental heterogeneity in studies of speciation in tropical regions. Furthermore, we show that framing ecological speciation in a spatially explicit evolutionary landscape genetics framework provides an important first step in exploring a wide range of the potential effects of spatial dependence in natural selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Newly identified CHO ERCC3/XPB mutations and phenotype characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybanská, Ivana; Gurský, Ján; Fašková, Miriam; Salazar, Edmund P.; Kimlíčková-Polakovičová, Erika; Kleibl, Karol; Thompson, Larry H.; Piršel, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a complex multistage process involving many interacting gene products to repair a wide range of DNA lesions. Genetic defects in NER cause human hereditary diseases including xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), trichothiodystrophy and a combined XP/CS overlapping symptom. One key gene product associated with all these disorders is the excision repair cross-complementing 3/xeroderma pigmentosum B (ERCC3/XPB) DNA helicase, a subunit of the transcription factor IIH complex. ERCC3 is involved in initiation of basal transcription and global genome repair as well as in transcription-coupled repair (TCR). The hamster ERCC3 gene shows high degree of homology with the human ERCC3/XPB gene. We identified new mutations in the Chinese hamster ovary cell ERCC3 gene and characterized the role of hamster ERCC3 protein in DNA repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced and oxidative DNA damage. All but one newly described mutations are located in the protein C-terminal region around the last intron–exon boundary. Due to protein truncations or frameshifts, they lack amino acid Ser751, phosphorylation of which prevents the 5′ incision of the UV-induced lesion during NER. Thus, despite the various locations of the mutations, their phenotypes are similar. All ercc3 mutants are extremely sensitive to UV-C light and lack recovery of RNA synthesis (RRS), confirming a defect in TCR of UV-induced damage. Their limited global genome NER capacity averages ∼8%. We detected modest sensitivity of ercc3 mutants to the photosensitizer Ro19-8022, which primarily introduces 8-oxoguanine lesions into DNA. Ro19-8022-induced damage interfered with RRS, and some of the ercc3 mutants had delayed kinetics. All ercc3 mutants showed efficient base excision repair (BER). Thus, the positions of the mutations have no effect on the sensitivity to, and repair of, Ro19-8022-induced DNA damage, suggesting that the ERCC3 protein is not involved in BER. PMID:19942596

  4. Dissecting molecular stress networks: identifying nodes of divergence between life-history phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Tonia S; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2013-02-01

    The complex molecular network that underlies physiological stress response is comprised of nodes (proteins, metabolites, mRNAs, etc.) whose connections span cells, tissues and organs. Variable nodes are points in the network upon which natural selection may act. Thus, identifying variable nodes will reveal how this molecular stress network may evolve among populations in different habitats and how it might impact life-history evolution. Here, we use physiological and genetic assays to test whether laboratory-born juveniles from natural populations of garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans), which have diverged in their life-history phenotypes, vary concomitantly at candidate nodes of the stress response network, (i) under unstressed conditions and (ii) in response to an induced stress. We found that two common measures of stress (plasma corticosterone and liver gene expression of heat shock proteins) increased under stress in both life-history phenotypes. In contrast, the phenotypes diverged at four nodes both under unstressed conditions and in response to stress: circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (superoxide, H(2)O(2)); liver gene expression of GPX1 and erythrocyte DNA damage. Additionally, allele frequencies for SOD2 diverge from neutral markers, suggesting diversifying selection on SOD2 alleles. This study supports the hypothesis that these life-history phenotypes have diverged at the molecular level in how they respond to stress, particularly in nodes regulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, the differences between the life-history phenotypes were more pronounced in females. We discuss the responses to stress in the context of the associated life-history phenotype and the evolutionary pressures thought to be responsible for divergence between the phenotypes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. NEWLY IDENTIFIED EXTENDED GREEN OBJECTS (EGOs) FROM THE SPITZER GLIMPSE II SURVEY. II. MOLECULAR CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xi; Gan Conggui; Shen Zhiqiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P.; Titmarsh, Anita [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); He Jinhua, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Yunnan Astronomical Observatory/National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011, Yunnan Province (China)

    2013-06-01

    We have undertaken a survey of molecular lines in the 3 mm band toward 57 young stellar objects using the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m radio telescope. The target sources were young stellar objects with active outflows (extended green objects (EGOs)) newly identified from the GLIMPSE II survey. We observe a high detection rate (50%) of broad line wing emission in the HNC and CS thermal lines, which combined with the high detection rate of class I methanol masers toward these sources (reported in Paper I) further demonstrates that the GLIMPSE II EGOs are associated with outflows. The physical and kinematic characteristics derived from the 3 mm molecular lines for these newly identified EGOs are consistent with these sources being massive young stellar objects with ongoing outflow activity and rapid accretion. These findings support our previous investigations of the mid-infrared properties of these sources and their association with other star formation tracers (e.g., infrared dark clouds, methanol masers and millimeter dust sources) presented in Paper I. The high detection rate (64%) of the hot core tracer CH{sub 3}CN reveals that the majority of these new EGOs have evolved to the hot molecular core stage. Comparison of the observed molecular column densities with predictions from hot core chemistry models reveals that the newly identified EGOs from the GLIMPSE II survey are members of the youngest hot core population, with an evolutionary time scale of the order of 10{sup 3} yr.

  6. Identifying the principal coefficient of parabolic equations with non-divergent form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L S; Bian, B J

    2005-01-01

    We deal with an inverse problem of determining a coefficient a(x, t) of principal part for second order parabolic equations with non-divergent form when the solution is known. Such a problem has important applications in a large fields of applied science. We propose a well-posed approximate algorithm to identify the coefficient. The existence, uniqueness and stability of such solutions a(x, t) are proved. A necessary condition which is a couple system of a parabolic equation and a parabolic variational inequality is deduced. Our numerical simulations show that the coefficient is recovered very well

  7. Identifying the principal coefficient of parabolic equations with non-divergent form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L. S.; Bian, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    We deal with an inverse problem of determining a coefficient a(x, t) of principal part for second order parabolic equations with non-divergent form when the solution is known. Such a problem has important applications in a large fields of applied science. We propose a well-posed approximate algorithm to identify the coefficient. The existence, uniqueness and stability of such solutions a(x, t) are proved. A necessary condition which is a couple system of a parabolic equation and a parabolic variational inequality is deduced. Our numerical simulations show that the coefficient is recovered very well.

  8. The role of infections and coinfections with newly identified and emerging respiratory viruses in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debiaggi Maurizia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs, adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV, have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV, coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63 and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1, human Bocavirus (HBoV, new enterovirus (HEV, parechovirus (HpeV and rhinovirus (HRV strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV and KI (KIPyV and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood.

  9. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order...... of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any to other within the order....

  10. Association Analysis Suggests SOD2 as a Newly Identified Candidate Gene Associated With Leprosy Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Geovana Brotto; Salomão, Heloisa; Francio, Angela Schneider; Fava, Vinícius Medeiros; Werneck, Renata Iani; Mira, Marcelo Távora

    2016-08-01

    Genetic studies have identified several genes and genomic regions contributing to the control of host susceptibility to leprosy. Here, we test variants of the positional and functional candidate gene SOD2 for association with leprosy in 2 independent population samples. Family-based analysis revealed an association between leprosy and allele G of marker rs295340 (P = .042) and borderline evidence of an association between leprosy and alleles C and A of markers rs4880 (P = .077) and rs5746136 (P = .071), respectively. Findings were validated in an independent case-control sample for markers rs295340 (P = .049) and rs4880 (P = .038). These results suggest SOD2 as a newly identified gene conferring susceptibility to leprosy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.; Christensen, L.S.

    2004-01-01

    We present a 8904-nt sequence of the central part of the RNA genome of a novel virus with a filovirus-like, nonidentical morphology named Taastrup virus (TV) detected in the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus. Sequence analysis identified five potential open reading frames (ORFs) and a complex pattern of homologies to various members of the Mononegavirales suggests a genome organization with the following order of genes: 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5'. Sequence analyses reveal an unusually large glycoprotein (G) containing both potential O-linked (14) and N-linked (9) glycosylation sites--a feature shared with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any, to other within the order

  12. Hereditary internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation. A newly identified condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, M A; Hoyle, C H; Burleigh, D E; Law, P J; Swash, M; Martin, J E; Nicholls, R J; Northover, J M

    1991-03-01

    A newly identified myopathy of the internal anal sphincter is described. In the affected family, at least one member from each of five generations had severe proctalgia fugax; onset was usually in the third to fifth decades of life. Three members of the family have been studied in detail. Each had severe pain intermittently during the day and hourly during the night. Constipation was an associated symptom, in particular difficulty with rectal evacuation. Clinically the internal anal sphincter was thickened and of decreased compliance. The maximum anal canal pressure was usually increased with marked ultraslow wave activity. Anal endosonography confirmed a grossly thickened internal anal sphincter. Two patients were treated by internal anal sphincter strip myectomy; one showed marked improvement and one was relieved of the constipation but had only slight improvement of the pain. The hypertrophied muscle in two of the patients showed unique myopathic changes, consisting of vacuolar changes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive polyglycosan bodies in the smooth muscle fibers and increased endomysial fibrosis. In vitro organ-bath studies showed insensitivity of the muscle to noradrenaline, isoprenaline, carbachol, dimethylpiperazinium, and electrical-field stimulation. Immunohistochemical studies for substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, galanin, neuropeptide Y, and vasoactive intestinal peptide showed staining in a similar distribution to that in control tissue. A specific autosomal-dominant inherited myopathy of the internal anal sphincter that causes anal pain and constipation has been identified and characterized.

  13. TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 mediate immune recognition of putative newly identified periodontal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesan, Julie; Jiao, Yizu; Schaff, Riley A; Hao, Jie; Morelli, Thiago; Kinney, Janet S; Gerow, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Rachel; Rodrigues, Vinicius; Paster, Bruce J; Inohara, Naohiro; Giannobile, William V

    2016-06-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that results from the interaction between the oral microbiota and the host immunity. Although the innate immune response is important for disease initiation and progression, the innate immune receptors that recognize both classical and putative periodontal pathogens that elicit an immune response have not been elucidated. By using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM), we identified multiple predominant oral bacterial species in human plaque biofilm that strongly associate with severe periodontitis. Ten of the identified species were evaluated in greater depth, six being classical pathogens and four putative novel pathogens. Using human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) and murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type (WT) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-specific and MyD88 knockouts (KOs), we demonstrated that heat-killed Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, Selenomonas infelix, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia mediate high immunostimulatory activity. Campylobacter concisus, C. rectus, and S. infelix exhibited robust TLR4 stimulatory activity. Studies using mesothelial cells from WT and NOD1-specific KOs and NOD2-expressing human embryonic kidney cells demonstrated that Eubacterium saphenum, Eubacterium nodatum and Filifactor alocis exhibit robust NOD1 stimulatory activity, and that Porphyromonas endodontalis and Parvimonas micra have the highest NOD2 stimulatory activity. These studies allowed us to provide important evidence on newly identified putative pathogens in periodontal disease pathogenesis showing that these bacteria exhibit different immunostimulatory activity via TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01154855). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. New land disposal restrictions on contaminated soil and debris, and newly identified toxicity characteristic organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortune, William B.; Schumann, Jean C.; Fallon, William E.; Badden, Janet W.; Smith, Edward H.

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) program to radioactive mixed wastes (RMW) has been clarified through U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) rulemakings and notices. However, a number of waste management concerns involving RMW and RMW-contaminated soil and debris continue to exist with respect to achieving compliance with LDR provisions and treatment standards. Consequently, DOE has become increasingly proactive in its participation in the LDR rulemaking process and in the identification of LDR compliance issues associated with its RMW inventories. Both data and recommendations from across the DOE complex were collected and transmitted to EPA in response to proposed requirements that would implement LDR for contaminated soil and debris, and certain newly identified toxicity characteristic (TC) organics. Much of this information focused on concerns related to the application of proposed regulatory approaches to RMW streams. Highlights from the information included in these DOE responses are presented. (author)

  15. A newly identified protein of Leptospira interrogans mediates binding to laminin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Mariana T; Oliveira, Tatiane R; Romero, Eliete C; Gonçales, Amane P; de Morais, Zenaide M; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2009-10-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira is the aetiological agent of leptospirosis, a life-threatening disease that affects populations worldwide. The search for novel antigens that could be relevant in host-pathogen interactions is being pursued. These antigens have the potential to elicit several activities, including adhesion. This study focused on a hypothetical predicted lipoprotein of Leptospira, encoded by the gene LIC12895, thought to mediate attachment to extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 Star (DE3)pLys by using the expression vector pAE. The recombinant protein tagged with N-terminal hexahistidine was purified by metal-charged chromatography and characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The capacity of the protein to mediate attachment to ECM components was evaluated by binding assays. The leptospiral protein encoded by LIC12895, named Lsa27 (leptospiral surface adhesin, 27 kDa), bound strongly to laminin in a dose-dependent and saturable fashion. Moreover, Lsa27 was recognized by antibodies from serum samples of confirmed leptospirosis specimens in both the initial and the convalescent phases of the disease. Lsa27 is most likely a surface protein of Leptospira as revealed in liquid-phase immunofluorescence assays with living organisms. Taken together, these data indicate that this newly identified membrane protein is expressed during natural infection and may play a role in mediating adhesion of L. interrogans to its host.

  16. Identifying selected regions from heterozygosity and divergence using a light-coverage genomic dataset from two human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras K Oleksyk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available When a selective sweep occurs in the chromosomal region around a target gene in two populations that have recently separated, it produces three dramatic genomic consequences: 1 decreased multi-locus heterozygosity in the region; 2 elevated or diminished genetic divergence (F(ST of multiple polymorphic variants adjacent to the selected locus between the divergent populations, due to the alternative fixation of alleles; and 3 a consequent regional increase in the variance of F(ST (S(2F(ST for the same clustered variants, due to the increased alternative fixation of alleles in the loci surrounding the selection target. In the first part of our study, to search for potential targets of directional selection, we developed and validated a resampling-based computational approach; we then scanned an array of 31 different-sized moving windows of SNP variants (5-65 SNPs across the human genome in a set of European and African American population samples with 183,997 SNP loci after correcting for the recombination rate variation. The analysis revealed 180 regions of recent selection with very strong evidence in either population or both. In the second part of our study, we compared the newly discovered putative regions to those sites previously postulated in the literature, using methods based on inspecting patterns of linkage disequilibrium, population divergence and other methodologies. The newly found regions were cross-validated with those found in nine other studies that have searched for selection signals. Our study was replicated especially well in those regions confirmed by three or more studies. These validated regions were independently verified, using a combination of different methods and different databases in other studies, and should include fewer false positives. The main strength of our analysis method compared to others is that it does not require dense genotyping and therefore can be used with data from population-based genome SNP scans

  17. Mining environmental high-throughput sequence data sets to identify divergent amplicon clusters for phylogenetic reconstruction and morphotype visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    Environmental high-throughput sequencing (envHTS) is a very powerful tool, which in protistan ecology is predominantly used for the exploration of diversity and its geographic and local patterns. We here used a pyrosequenced V4-SSU rDNA data set from a solar saltern pond as test case to exploit such massive protistan amplicon data sets beyond this descriptive purpose. Therefore, we combined a Swarm-based blastn network including 11 579 ciliate V4 amplicons to identify divergent amplicon clusters with targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer design for full-length small subunit of the ribosomal DNA retrieval and probe design for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This powerful strategy allows to benefit from envHTS data sets to (i) reveal the phylogenetic position of the taxon behind divergent amplicons; (ii) improve phylogenetic resolution and evolutionary history of specific taxon groups; (iii) solidly assess an amplicons (species') degree of similarity to its closest described relative; (iv) visualize the morphotype behind a divergent amplicons cluster; (v) rapidly FISH screen many environmental samples for geographic/habitat distribution and abundances of the respective organism and (vi) to monitor the success of enrichment strategies in live samples for cultivation and isolation of the respective organisms. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An overview of the GAGE cancer/testis antigen family with the inclusion of newly identified members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Ditzel, H J

    2008-01-01

    . This review describes the structure and phylogeny of the GAGE family members and presents a revised nomenclature, which will enable a more clear distinction of genes and gene products. The GAGE gene locus at chromosome X p11.23 consists of at least 16 genes, each of which is located in one of an equal number...... of highly conserved tandem repeats, and more genes remain to be identified. These genes are likely the creation of unequal replication under positive selection after the divergence of primates from other mammals. The encoded products are predicted to be highly similar small acidic proteins involved in germ...

  19. Apolipoprotein A5: A newly identified gene impacting plasmatriglyceride levels in humans and mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2002-09-15

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is a newly described member of theapolipoprotein gene family whose initial discovery arose from comparativesequence analysis of the mammalian APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Functionalstudies in mice indicated that alteration in the level of APOA5significantly impacted plasma triglyceride concentrations. Miceover-expressing human APOA5 displayed significantly reducedtriglycerides, while mice lacking apoA5 had a large increase in thislipid parameter. Studies in humans have also suggested an important rolefor APOA5 in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations. In theseexperiments, polymorphisms in the human gene were found to define severalcommon haplotypes that were associated with significant changes intriglyceride concentrations in multiple populations. Several separateclinical studies have provided consistent and strong support for theeffect with 24 percent of Caucasians, 35 percent of African-Americans and53 percent of Hispanics carrying APOA5 haplotypes associated withincreased plasma triglyceride levels. In summary, APOA5 represents anewly discovered gene involved in triglyceride metabolism in both humansand mice whose mechanism of action remains to be deciphered.

  20. Newly Identified CYP2C93 Is a Functional Enzyme in Rhesus Monkey, but Not in Cynomolgus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Kohara, Sakae; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Nagata, Ryoichi; Fukuzaki, Koichiro; Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey are used in drug metabolism studies due to their evolutionary closeness and physiological resemblance to human. In cynomolgus monkey, we previously identified cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 2C76 that does not have a human ortholog and is partly responsible for species differences in drug metabolism between cynomolgus monkey and human. In this study, we report characterization of CYP2C93 cDNA newly identified in cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey. The CYP2C9...

  1. Worldwide drinking water occurrence and levels of newly-identified perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Hermann A; Vo Duy, Sung; Munoz, Gabriel; Méité, Ladji; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Liu, Jinxia; Sory, Traoré Karim; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2018-03-01

    In the last decade or so, concerns have arisen with respect to the widespread occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment, food, drinking water, and humans. In this study, the occurrence and levels of a large range of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated in drinking water (bottled and tap water samples) from various locations around the world. Automated off-line solid phase extraction followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to analyze PFASs of various chain lengths and functional groups. In total, 29 target and 104 suspect-target PFASs were screened in drinking water samples (n=97) from Canada and other countries (Burkina Faso, Chile, Ivory Coast, France, Japan, Mexico, Norway, and the USA) in 2015-2016. Out of the 29 PFASs quantitatively analyzed, perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs: C 4/14 ), perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs: C 4 , C 6 , C 8 ), and perfluoroalkyl acid precursors (e.g., 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylate (5:3 FTCA)) were recurrently detected in drinking water samples (concentration range: water samples from Canada showed noteworthy differences depending on their source; for instance, ∑ 29 PFASwas significantly greater in those produced from the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence River ecosystem than those produced from other types of sources (14 versus 5.3ngL -1 , respectively). A suspect-target screening approach indicated that other perfluoroalkane sulfonamides (FBSA, FHxSA), perfluoroethyl cyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS), ultrashort chain (C 2 -C 3 ) PFSAs (PFEtS, PFPrS), and two additional PFSAs (PFPeS (C 5 ) and PFHpS (C 7 )) were repeatedly present in tap water samples (concentration ranges: water. According to the newly updated US EPA health advisory for PFOS and PFOA (70ngL -1 ), the drinking water samples collected in the present monitoring would not pose a health risk to consumers as regards PFAA levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  2. f-divergence cutoff index to simultaneously identify differential expression in the integrated transcriptome and proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Shaojun; Hemberg, Martin; Cansizoglu, Ertugrul; Belin, Stephane; Kosik, Kenneth; Kreiman, Gabriel; Steen, Hanno; Steen, Judith

    2016-01-01

    The ability to integrate 'omics' (i.e., transcriptomics and proteomics) is becoming increasingly important to the understanding of regulatory mechanisms. There are currently no tools available to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs)across different 'omics'data types or multi-dimensional data including time courses. We present a model capable of simultaneously identifying DEGs from continuous and discrete transcriptomic, proteomic and integrated proteogenomic data. We show that...

  3. Identifying With a Stereotype: The Divergent Effects of Exposure to Homosexual Television Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Rodriguez, Nathian S

    2017-01-01

    Scholars examining homosexual television characters have typically come to one of two conclusions: either exposure to homosexual characters can lead to increased acceptance, or homosexual characters serve to reaffirm negative stereotypes. We seek to bridge these two bodies of research by introducing the concept of stereotyped identification-the idea that cognitively and emotionally identifying with fictional characters can increase acceptance of minorities, while reinforcing implicit stereotypes about how they look, act, and talk. Results from our national survey (N = 972) offer support for this hypothesis.

  4. Lsa63, a newly identified surface protein of Leptospira interrogans binds laminin and collagen IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Monica L; de Morais, Zenaide M; Gonçales, Amane P; Romero, Eliete C; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Nascimento, Ana L T O

    2010-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that affects populations worldwide. We have identified in proteomic studies a protein that is encoded by the gene LIC10314 and expressed in virulent strain of L. interrogans serovar Pomona. This protein was predicted to be surface exposed by PSORT program and contains a p83/100 domain identified by BLAST analysis that is conserved in protein antigens of several strains of Borrelia and Treponema spp. The proteins containing this domain have been claimed antigen candidates for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Thus, we have cloned the LIC10314 and expressed the protein in Escherichia coli BL21-SI strain by using the expression vector pAE. The recombinant protein tagged with N-terminal hexahistidine was purified by metal-charged chromatography and characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy. This protein is conserved among several species of pathogenic Leptospira and absent in the saprophytic strain L. biflexa. We confirm by liquid-phase immunofluorescence assays with living organisms that this protein is most likely a new surface leptospiral protein. The ability of the protein to mediate attachment to ECM components was evaluated by binding assays. The leptospiral protein encoded by LIC10314, named Lsa63 (Leptospiral surface adhesin of 63kDa), binds strongly to laminin and collagen IV in a dose-dependent and saturable fashion. In addition, Lsa63 is probably expressed during infection since it was recognized by antibodies of serum samples of confirmed-leptospirosis patients in convalescent phase of the disease. Altogether, the data suggests that this novel identified surface protein may be involved in leptospiral pathogenesis. 2009 The British Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidermal growth factor gene is a newly identified candidate gene for gout

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Han; Chunwei Cao; Zhaotong Jia; Shiguo Liu; Zhen Liu; Ruosai Xin; Can Wang; Xinde Li; Wei Ren; Xuefeng Wang; Changgui Li

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 4q25 has been identified as a genomic region associated with gout. However, the associations of gout with the genes in this region have not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed two-stage analysis to determine whether variations in candidate genes in the 4q25 region are associated with gout in a male Chinese Han population. We first evaluated 96 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight inflammatory/immune pathway- or glucose/lipid metabolism-related genes in the 4q25 re...

  6. A newly identified essential complex, Dre2-Tah18, controls mitochondria integrity and cell death after oxidative stress in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vernis

    Full Text Available A mutated allele of the essential gene TAH18 was previously identified in our laboratory in a genetic screen for new proteins interacting with the DNA polymerase delta in yeast [1]. The present work shows that Tah18 plays a role in response to oxidative stress. After exposure to lethal doses of H(2O(2, GFP-Tah18 relocalizes to the mitochondria and controls mitochondria integrity and cell death. Dre2, an essential Fe/S cluster protein and homologue of human anti-apoptotic Ciapin1, was identified as a molecular partner of Tah18 in the absence of stress. Moreover, Ciapin1 is able to replace yeast Dre2 in vivo and physically interacts with Tah18. Our results are in favour of an oxidative stress-induced cell death in yeast that involves mitochondria and is controlled by the newly identified Dre2-Tah18 complex.

  7. The comparison of the performance of two screening strategies identifying newly-diagnosed HIV during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Kees; Smit, Colette; van der Flier, Michiel; de Wolf, Frank

    2011-10-01

    In the Netherlands, a non-selective opt-out instead of a selective opt-in antenatal HIV screening strategy was implemented in 2004. In case of infection, screening was followed by prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT). We compared the performance of the two strategies in terms of detection of new cases of HIV and vertical transmission. HIV-infected pregnant women were identified retrospectively from the Dutch HIV cohort ATHENA January 2000 to January 2008. Apart from demographic, virological and immunological data, the date of HIV infection in relation to the index pregnancy was established. Separately, all infants diagnosed with HIV born following implementation of the screening program were identified by a questionnaire via the paediatric HIV centres. 162/481 (33.7%) HIV-positive pregnant women were diagnosed with HIV before 2004 and 172/214 (80.3%) after January 2004. Multivariate analysis showed an 8-fold (95% confidence interval 5.47-11.87) increase in the odds of HIV detection during pregnancy after the national introduction of the opt-out strategy. Still, three children born during a 5-year period after July 2004 were infected due to de novo infection in pregnancy. Implementation of a nation-wide screening strategy based upon non-selective opt-out screening followed by effective PMTCT appeared to detect more HIV-infected women for the first time in pregnancy and to reduce vertical transmission of HIV substantially. Nonetheless, still few children are infected because of maternal infection after the first trimester. We propose the introduction of partner screening on HIV as part of the antenatal screening strategy.

  8. Highly diverged novel subunit composition of apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase identified from Toxoplasma gondii

    KAUST Repository

    Salunke, Rahul

    2018-05-14

    The mitochondrial F-type ATP synthase, a multi-subunit nanomotor, is critical for maintaining cellular ATP levels. In Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites, many subunit components, necessary for proper assembly and functioning of this enzyme, appear to be missing. Here, we report the identification of 20 novel subunits of T. gondii F-type ATP synthase from mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified monomer (~600 kDa) and dimer (>1 MDa) forms of the enzyme. Despite extreme sequence diversification, key FO subunits, a, b and d, can be identified from conserved structural features. Orthologs for these proteins are restricted to apicomplexan, chromerid and dinoflagellate species. Interestingly, their absence in ciliates indicates a major diversion, with respect to subunit composition of this enzyme, within the alveolate clade. Discovery of these highly diversified novel components of the apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase complex will facilitate the development of novel anti-parasitic agents. Structural and functional characterization of this unusual enzyme complex will advance our fundamental understanding of energy metabolism in apicomplexan species.

  9. Highly diverged novel subunit composition of apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase identified from Toxoplasma gondii

    KAUST Repository

    Salunke, Rahul; Mourier, Tobias; Banerjee, Manidipa; Pain, Arnab; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrial F-type ATP synthase, a multi-subunit nanomotor, is critical for maintaining cellular ATP levels. In Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites, many subunit components, necessary for proper assembly and functioning of this enzyme, appear to be missing. Here, we report the identification of 20 novel subunits of T. gondii F-type ATP synthase from mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified monomer (~600 kDa) and dimer (>1 MDa) forms of the enzyme. Despite extreme sequence diversification, key FO subunits, a, b and d, can be identified from conserved structural features. Orthologs for these proteins are restricted to apicomplexan, chromerid and dinoflagellate species. Interestingly, their absence in ciliates indicates a major diversion, with respect to subunit composition of this enzyme, within the alveolate clade. Discovery of these highly diversified novel components of the apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase complex will facilitate the development of novel anti-parasitic agents. Structural and functional characterization of this unusual enzyme complex will advance our fundamental understanding of energy metabolism in apicomplexan species.

  10. Identifying different transcribed proteins in the newly described Theraphosidae Pamphobeteus verdolaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Gómez, Sebastian; Vargas-Muñoz, Leidy Johana; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Cifuentes, Yeimy; Perafan, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Theraphosidae spider venoms are well known for possess a complex mixture of protein and non-protein compounds in their venom. The objective of this study was to report and identify different proteins translated from the venom gland DNA information of the recently described Theraphosidae spider Pamphobeteus verdolaga. Using a venom gland transcriptomic analysis, we reported a set of the first complete sequences of seven different proteins of the recenlty described Theraphosidae spider P. verdolaga. Protein analysis indicates the presence of different proteins on the venom composition of this new spider, some of them uncommon in the Theraphosidae family. MS/MS analysis of P. verdolaga showed different fragments matching sphingomyelinases (sicaritoxin), barytoxins, hexatoxins, latroinsectotoxins, and linear (zadotoxins) peptides. Only four of the MS/MS fragments showed 100% sequence similarity with one of the transcribed proteins. Transcriptomic analysis showed the presence of different groups of proteins like phospholipases, hyaluronidases, inhibitory cysteine knots (ICK) peptides among others. The three database of protein domains used in this study (Pfam, SMART and CDD) showed congruency in the search of unique conserved protein domain for only four of the translated proteins. Those proteins matched with EF-hand proteins, cysteine rich secretory proteins, jingzhaotoxins, theraphotoxins and hexatoxins, from different Mygalomorphae spiders belonging to the families Theraphosidae, Barychelidae and Hexathelidae. None of the analyzed sequences showed a complete 100% similarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of a newly identified ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdel Martin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Characterization of novel fusion genes in acute leukemia is important for gaining information about leukemia genesis. We describe the characterization of a new ETV6 fusion gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML FAB M0 as a result of an uncommon translocation involving chromosomes 12 and 15. Methods The ETV6 locus at 12p13 was shown to be translocated and to constitute the 5' end of the fusion product by ETV6 break apart fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH. To identify a fusion partner 3' rapid amplification of cDNA-ends with polymerase chain reaction (RACE PCR was performed followed by cloning and sequencing. Results The NTRK3 gene on chromosome 15 was found to constitute the 3' end of the fusion gene and the underlying ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangement was verified by reverse transcriptase PCR. No RNA of the reciprocal NTRK3-ETV6 fusion gene could be detected. Conclusion We have characterized a novel ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript which has not been previously described in AML FAB M0 by FISH and RACE PCR. ETV6-NTRK3 rearrangements have been described in secretory breast carcinoma and congenital fibrosarcoma.

  12. A Role of a Newly Identified Isomerase From Yarrowia lipolytica in Erythritol Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra M. Mirończuk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Erythritol is a natural sweetener produced by microorganisms as an osmoprotectant. It belongs to the group of polyols and it can be utilized by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Despite the recent identification of the transcription factor of erythritol utilization (EUF1, the metabolic pathway of erythritol catabolism remains unknown. In this study we identified a new gene, YALI0F01628g, involved in erythritol assimilation. In silico analysis showed that YALI0F01628g is a putative isomerase and it is localized in the same region as EUF1. qRT-PCR analysis of Y. lipolytica showed a significant increase in YALI0F01628g expression during growth on erythritol and after overexpression of EUF1. Moreover, the deletion strain ΔF01628 showed significantly impaired erythritol assimilation, whereas synthesis of erythritol remained unchanged. The results showed that YALI0F1628g is involved in erythritol assimilation; thus we named the gene EYI1. Moreover, we suggest the metabolic pathway of erythritol assimilation in yeast Y. lipolytica.

  13. Epidermal growth factor gene is a newly identified candidate gene for gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Cao, Chunwei; Jia, Zhaotong; Liu, Shiguo; Liu, Zhen; Xin, Ruosai; Wang, Can; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 4q25 has been identified as a genomic region associated with gout. However, the associations of gout with the genes in this region have not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed two-stage analysis to determine whether variations in candidate genes in the 4q25 region are associated with gout in a male Chinese Han population. We first evaluated 96 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight inflammatory/immune pathway- or glucose/lipid metabolism-related genes in the 4q25 region in 480 male gout patients and 480 controls. The SNP rs12504538, located in the elongation of very-long-chain-fatty-acid-like family member 6 gene (Elovl6), was found to be associated with gout susceptibility (Padjusted = 0.00595). In the second stage of analysis, we performed fine mapping analysis of 93 tag SNPs in Elovl6 and in the epidermal growth factor gene (EGF) and its flanking regions in 1017 male patients gout and 1897 healthy male controls. We observed a significant association between the T allele of EGF rs2298999 and gout (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.67–0.88, Padjusted = 6.42 × 10−3). These results provide the first evidence for an association between the EGF rs2298999 C/T polymorphism and gout. Our findings should be validated in additional populations. PMID:27506295

  14. Epidermal growth factor gene is a newly identified candidate gene for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Cao, Chunwei; Jia, Zhaotong; Liu, Shiguo; Liu, Zhen; Xin, Ruosai; Wang, Can; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Changgui

    2016-08-10

    Chromosome 4q25 has been identified as a genomic region associated with gout. However, the associations of gout with the genes in this region have not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed two-stage analysis to determine whether variations in candidate genes in the 4q25 region are associated with gout in a male Chinese Han population. We first evaluated 96 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight inflammatory/immune pathway- or glucose/lipid metabolism-related genes in the 4q25 region in 480 male gout patients and 480 controls. The SNP rs12504538, located in the elongation of very-long-chain-fatty-acid-like family member 6 gene (Elovl6), was found to be associated with gout susceptibility (Padjusted = 0.00595). In the second stage of analysis, we performed fine mapping analysis of 93 tag SNPs in Elovl6 and in the epidermal growth factor gene (EGF) and its flanking regions in 1017 male patients gout and 1897 healthy male controls. We observed a significant association between the T allele of EGF rs2298999 and gout (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.88, Padjusted = 6.42 × 10(-3)). These results provide the first evidence for an association between the EGF rs2298999 C/T polymorphism and gout. Our findings should be validated in additional populations.

  15. Comparative analysis of the full genome of Helicobacter pylori isolate Sahul64 identifies genes of high divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Wise, Michael J; Tay, Chin Yen; Windsor, Helen M; Marshall, Barry J; Peacock, Christopher; Perkins, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Isolates of Helicobacter pylori can be classified phylogeographically. High genetic diversity and rapid microevolution are a hallmark of H. pylori genomes, a phenomenon that is proposed to play a functional role in persistence and colonization of diverse human populations. To provide further genomic evidence in the lineage of H. pylori and to further characterize diverse strains of this pathogen in different human populations, we report the finished genome sequence of Sahul64, an H. pylori strain isolated from an indigenous Australian. Our analysis identified genes that were highly divergent compared to the 38 publically available genomes, which include genes involved in the biosynthesis and modification of lipopolysaccharide, putative prophage genes, restriction modification components, and hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the virulence-associated vacA locus is a pseudogene and the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is not present. However, the genome does contain a gene cluster associated with pathogenicity, including dupA. Our analysis found that with the addition of Sahul64 to the 38 genomes, the core genome content of H. pylori is reduced by approximately 14% (∼170 genes) and the pan-genome has expanded from 2,070 to 2,238 genes. We have identified three putative horizontally acquired regions, including one that is likely to have been acquired from the closely related Helicobacter cetorum prior to speciation. Our results suggest that Sahul64, with the absence of cagPAI, highly divergent cell envelope proteins, and a predicted nontransportable VacA protein, could be more highly adapted to ancient indigenous Australian people but with lower virulence potential compared to other sequenced and cagPAI-positive H. pylori strains.

  16. GWAS-identified schizophrenia risk SNPs at TSPAN18 are highly diverged between Europeans and East Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiewei; Li, Ming; Su, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified multiple schizophrenia (SCZ) risk variants for samples of European and East Asian descent, but most of the identified susceptibility variants are population-specific to either Europeans or East Asians. This strong genetic heterogeneity suggests that differential population histories may play a role in SCZ susceptibility. Here, we explored this possibility by examining the allele frequency divergence of 136 previously reported genome-wide SCZ risk SNPs between European and East Asian populations. Our results showed that two SNPs (rs11038167 and rs11038172) at TSPAN18, reported as genome-wide significant SCZ risk variants in Han Chinese, were entirely monomorphic in Europeans, indicating a deep between-population divergence at this gene locus. To explore the evolutionary history of TSPAN18 in East Asians, we conducted population genetic analyses including multiple neutrality tests, the haplotype-based iHS and EHH tests, as well as haplotype bifurcation map and network constructions. We found that the protective allele of rs11038172 (G allele) had a long extended haplotype with much slower decay compared to the A allele. The star-like shape of the G-allele-carrying haplotypes indicates a recent enrichment in East Asians. Together, the evidences suggest that the protective allele of rs11038172 has experienced recent Darwinian positive selection in East Asians. These findings provide new insights that may help explain the strong genetic heterogeneity in SCZ risk and previous inconsistent association results for SCZ among both Europeans and East Asians. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  18. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Xie

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  19. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere sister lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E; Nowak, Michael; Healy, Rosanne A; Guevara, Gonzalo; Cázares, Efren; Kinoshita, Akihiko; Nouhra, Eduardo R; Domínguez, Laura S; Tedersoo, Leho; Murat, Claude; Wang, Yun; Moreno, Baldomero Arroyo; Pfister, Donald H; Nara, Kazuhide; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Trappe, James M; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2013-01-01

    Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae--the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash) Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp.) and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (~156 million years ago), with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of truffle

  20. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere sister lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Bonito

    Full Text Available Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae--the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp. and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (~156 million years ago, with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of

  1. Finite Divergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Pandya, P. K.; Chaochen, Zhou

    1995-01-01

    the framework of duration calculus. Axioms and proof rules are given. Patterns of occurrence of divergence are classified into dense divergence, accumulative divergence and discrete divergence by appropriate axioms. Induction rules are given for reasoning about discrete divergence...

  2. Cross-Genome Comparisons of Newly Identified Domains in Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Domain Architectures with Other Mycoplasma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Reddy Chilamakuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate functional annotation of protein sequences is hampered by important factors such as the failure of sequence search methods to identify relationships and the inherent diversity in function of proteins related at low sequence similarities. Earlier, we had employed intermediate sequence search approach to establish new domain relationships in the unassigned regions of gene products at the whole genome level by taking Mycoplasma gallisepticum as a specific example and established new domain relationships. In this paper, we report a detailed comparison of the conservation status of the domain and domain architectures of the gene products that bear our newly predicted domains amongst 14 other Mycoplasma genomes and reported the probable implications for the organisms. Some of the domain associations, observed in Mycoplasma that afflict humans and other non-human primates, are involved in regulation of solute transport and DNA binding suggesting specific modes of host-pathogen interactions.

  3. Viral etiology of bronchiolitis among pediatric inpatients in northern Taiwan with emphasis on newly identified respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Ho, Tai-Hua; Huang, Chung-Guei; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2014-04-01

    Viral etiology of bronchiolitis in children in Taiwan has been fragmentary. We conducted a prospective study to figure out the viral epidemiology of bronchiolitis in Taiwan. From January 2009 to March 2011, a total of 113 children with bronchiolitis, aged culture, antigen test, and polymerase chain reaction. A total of 120 viruses were detected from 113 children. Positive viral etiology was identified in 86 (76%) children. Mixed viral pathogens were found in 28 cases (25%). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most common pathogen and was identified in 43.4% of the cases. Human bocavirus (hBoV) was the second most common identified virus (in 19.5%), followed by human metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinovirus, influenza viruses, and coronavirus OC43. In terms of clinical characteristics, no significant difference was found among the children with bronchiolitis either caused by different single or mixed viral infection. RSV was the most common etiologic agent for children with bronchiolitis in Taiwan. Newly identified viruses, including hMPV and hBoV, were also among the common causative agents. Clinical characteristics were not significantly different among the children with bronchiolitis caused by different viruses. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Mutations in the newly identified RAX regulatory sequence are not a frequent cause of micro/anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Nicolas; Vigouroux, Adeline; Calvas, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    Microphthalmia and anophthalmia are at the severe end of the spectrum of abnormalities in ocular development. A few genes (SOX2, OTX2, RAX, and CHX10) have been implicated in isolated micro/anophthalmia, but causative mutations of these genes explain less than a quarter of these developmental defects. A specifically conserved SOX2/OTX2-mediated RAX expression regulatory sequence has recently been identified. We postulated that mutations in this sequence could lead to micro/anophthalmia, and thus we performed molecular screening of this regulatory element in patients suffering from micro/anophthalmia. Fifty-one patients suffering from nonsyndromic microphthalmia (n = 40) or anophthalmia (n = 11) were included in this study after negative molecular screening for SOX2, OTX2, RAX, and CHX10 mutations. Mutation screening of the RAX regulatory sequence was performed by direct sequencing for these patients. No mutations were identified in the highly conserved RAX regulatory sequence in any of the 51 patients. Mutations in the newly identified RAX regulatory sequence do not represent a frequent cause of nonsyndromic micro/anophthalmia.

  5. Newly identified psychiatric illness in one general practice: 12-month outcome and the influence of patients' personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A F; Anderson, A J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Relatively little is known about the natural history and outcome of psychological problems in patients who present to general practitioners. Only a small proportion of such patients are seen by specialists. Clinical experience suggests that patient personality is one of the factors influencing outcome in patients diagnosed as having psychiatric illness. AIM. This study set out to examine prospectively the progress and 12-month outcome of patients with newly identified psychiatric illness, and the association of patients' personality with outcome. METHOD. One hundred and seventy one patients with clinically significant psychiatric illness attending one practice in a Scottish new town were followed up prospectively (96 presented with psychological symptoms and 75 with somatic symptoms), and were compared with a group of 127 patients with chronic physical illness. Patients were assessed in terms of psychiatric state, social problems and personality using both computer-based and pencil and paper tests in addition to clinical assessments at each consultation during the follow-up year and structured interview one year after recruitment. RESULTS. Most of the improvement in psychiatric state scores on the 28-item general health questionnaire occurred in the first six months of the illness. Of the 171 patients with psychiatric illness 34% improved quickly and remained well, 54% had an intermittent course but had improved at 12-month follow up while 12% pursued a chronic course without improvement. The mean number of consultations in the follow-up year was 8.4 for patients presenting with psychological symptoms, 7.2 for those presenting with somatic symptoms and 6.6 for patients with chronic physical illness. The Eysenck N score proved a strong predictor of the outcome of new psychiatric illness. CONCLUSION. Only one in three patients with newly identified psychiatric illness improved quickly and and remained well, reflecting the importance of continuing care of

  6. TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 Mediate Immune Recognition of Putative Newly-Identified Periodontal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Riley A.; Hao, Jie; Morelli, Thiago; Kinney, Janet S.; Gerow, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Rachel; Rodrigues, Vinicius; Paster, Bruce J.; Inohara, Naohiro; Giannobile, William V.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that results from the interaction between the oral microbiota and the host immunity. While the innate immune response is important for disease initiation and progression, the innate immune receptors that recognize both classical and putative periodontal pathogens that elicit an immune response have not been elucidated. By using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM), we identified multiple predominant oral bacterial species in human plaque biofilm that strongly associate with severe periodontitis. Ten of the identified species were evaluated in greater depth, 6 being classical pathogens and 4 putative novel pathogens. Using human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) and murine bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type (WT) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-specific and MyD88 knockouts (KOs), we demonstrated that heat-killed Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, Selenomonas infelix, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia mediate high immunostimulatory activity. C. concisus, C. rectus, and S. infelix exhibited robust TLR4 stimulatory activity. Studies using mesothelial cells from WT and NOD1-specific KOs and NOD2-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells demonstrated that Eubacterium saphenum, Eubacterium nodatum and Filifactor alocis exhibit robust NOD1 stimulatory activity, and that Porphyromonas endodontalis and Parvimonas micra have the highest NOD2-stimulatory activity. These studies allowed us to provide important evidence on newly-identified putative pathogens in periodontal disease pathogenesis showing that these bacteria exhibit different immunostimulatory activity via TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01154855). PMID:26177212

  7. NRIP is newly identified as a Z-disc protein, activating calmodulin signaling for skeletal muscle contraction and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Hsiung; Chen, Wen-Pin; Yan, Wan-Lun; Huang, Yuan-Chun; Chang, Szu-Wei; Fu, Wen-Mei; Su, Ming-Jai; Yu, I-Shing; Tsai, Tzung-Chieh; Yan, Yu-Ting; Tsao, Yeou-Ping; Chen, Show-Li

    2015-11-15

    Nuclear receptor interaction protein (NRIP, also known as DCAF6 and IQWD1) is a Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin-binding protein. In this study, we newly identify NRIP as a Z-disc protein in skeletal muscle. NRIP-knockout mice were generated and found to have reduced muscle strength, susceptibility to fatigue and impaired adaptive exercise performance. The mechanisms of NRIP-regulated muscle contraction depend on NRIP being downstream of Ca(2+) signaling, where it stimulates activation of both 'calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1' (CaN-NFATc1; also known as NFATC1) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) through interaction with calmodulin (CaM), resulting in the induction of mitochondrial activity and the expression of genes encoding the slow class of myosin, and in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis through the internal Ca(2+) stores of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, NRIP-knockout mice have a delayed regenerative capacity. The amount of NRIP can be enhanced after muscle injury and is responsible for muscle regeneration, which is associated with the increased expression of myogenin, desmin and embryonic myosin heavy chain during myogenesis, as well as for myotube formation. In conclusion, NRIP is a novel Z-disc protein that is important for skeletal muscle strength and regenerative capacity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. A newly identified DNA ligase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in RAD52-independent repair of DNA double-strand breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Primo; Herrmann, Gernot; Daly, Graham; Lindahl, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA ligases are ATP-dependent DNA strand-joining enzymes that participate in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Whereas mammalian cells contain several different DNA ligases, encoded by at least three distinct genes, only one DNA ligase has been detected previously in either budding yeast or fission yeast. Here, we describe a newly identified nonessential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene that encodes a DNA ligase distinct from the CDC9 gene product. This DNA ligase shares significant amino acid sequence homology with human DNA ligase IV; accordingly, we designate the yeast gene LIG4. Recombinant LIG4 protein forms a covalent enzyme-AMP complex and can join a DNA single-strand break in a DNA/RNA hybrid duplex, the preferred substrate in vitro. Disruption of the LIG4 gene causes only marginally increased cellular sensitivity to several DNA damaging agents, and does not further sensitize cdc9 or rad52 mutant cells. In contrast, lig4 mutant cells have a 1000-fold reduced capacity for correct recircularization of linearized plasmids by illegitimate end-joining after transformation. Moreover, homozygous lig4 mutant diploids sporulate less efficiently than isogenic wild-type cells, and show retarded progression through meiotic prophase I. Spore viability is normal, but lig4 mutants appear to produce a higher proportion of tetrads with only three viable spores. The mutant phenotypes are consistent with functions of LIG4 in an illegitimate DNA end-joining pathway and ensuring efficient meiosis. PMID:9271115

  9. Juvenile hormone prevents 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced metamorphosis by regulating the phosphorylation of a newly identified broad protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-09-19

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5'-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Juvenile Hormone Prevents 20-Hydroxyecdysone-induced Metamorphosis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of a Newly Identified Broad Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5′-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. PMID:25096576

  11. Chimeric exchange of coronavirus nsp5 proteases (3CLpro) identifies common and divergent regulatory determinants of protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobart, Christopher C; Sexton, Nicole R; Munjal, Havisha; Lu, Xiaotao; Molland, Katrina L; Tomar, Sakshi; Mesecar, Andrew D; Denison, Mark R

    2013-12-01

    Human coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) cause epidemics of severe human respiratory disease. A conserved step of CoV replication is the translation and processing of replicase polyproteins containing 16 nonstructural protein domains (nsp's 1 to 16). The CoV nsp5 protease (3CLpro; Mpro) processes nsp's at 11 cleavage sites and is essential for virus replication. CoV nsp5 has a conserved 3-domain structure and catalytic residues. However, the intra- and intermolecular determinants of nsp5 activity and their conservation across divergent CoVs are unknown, in part due to challenges in cultivating many human and zoonotic CoVs. To test for conservation of nsp5 structure-function determinants, we engineered chimeric betacoronavirus murine hepatitis virus (MHV) genomes encoding nsp5 proteases of human and bat alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Exchange of nsp5 proteases from HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43, which share the same genogroup, genogroup 2a, with MHV, allowed for immediate viral recovery with efficient replication albeit with impaired fitness in direct competition with wild-type MHV. Introduction of MHV nsp5 temperature-sensitive mutations into chimeric HKU1 and OC43 nsp5 proteases resulted in clear differences in viability and temperature-sensitive phenotypes compared with MHV nsp5. These data indicate tight genetic linkage and coevolution between nsp5 protease and the genomic background and identify differences in intramolecular networks regulating nsp5 function. Our results also provide evidence that chimeric viruses within coronavirus genogroups can be used to test nsp5 determinants of function and inhibition in common isogenic backgrounds and cell types.

  12. Newly Identified Wild Rice Accessions Conferring High Salt Tolerance Might Use a Tissue Tolerance Mechanism in Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusty, Manas R.; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Vinarao, Ricky; Entila, Frederickson; Egdane, James; Diaz, Maria G. Q.; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2018-01-01

    Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is very sensitive to salt stress. So far a few rice landraces have been identified as a source of salt tolerance and utilized in rice improvement. These tolerant lines primarily use Na+ exclusion mechanism in root which removes Na+ from the xylem stream by membrane Na+ and K+ transporters, and resulted in low Na+ accumulation in shoot. Identification of a new donor source conferring high salt tolerance is imperative. Wild relatives of rice having wide genetic diversity are regarded as a potential source for crop improvement. However, they have been less exploited against salt stress. Here, we simultaneously evaluated all 22 wild Oryza species along with the cultivated tolerant lines including Pokkali, Nona Bokra, and FL478, and sensitive check varieties under high salinity (240 mM NaCl). Based on the visual salt injury score, three species (O. alta, O. latifolia, and O. coarctata) and four species (O. rhizomatis, O. eichingeri, O. minuta, and O. grandiglumis) showed higher and similar level of tolerance compared to the tolerant checks, respectively. All three CCDD genome species exhibited salt tolerance, suggesting that the CCDD genome might possess the common genetic factors for salt tolerance. Physiological and biochemical experiments were conducted using the newly isolated tolerant species together with checks under 180 mM NaCl. Interestingly, all wild species showed high Na+ concentration in shoot and low concentration in root unlike the tolerant checks. In addition, the wild-tolerant accessions showed a tendency of a high tissue tolerance in leaf, low malondialdehyde level in shoot, and high retention of chlorophyll in the young leaves. These results suggest that the wild species employ tissue tolerance mechanism to manage salt stress. Gene expression analyses of the key salt tolerance-related genes suggested that high Na+ in leaf of wild species might be affected by OsHKT1;4-mediated Na+ exclusion in leaf and the following Na

  13. Newly identified CYP2C93 is a functional enzyme in rhesus monkey, but not in cynomolgus monkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Uno

    Full Text Available Cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey are used in drug metabolism studies due to their evolutionary closeness and physiological resemblance to human. In cynomolgus monkey, we previously identified cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP 2C76 that does not have a human ortholog and is partly responsible for species differences in drug metabolism between cynomolgus monkey and human. In this study, we report characterization of CYP2C93 cDNA newly identified in cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey. The CYP2C93 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 490 amino acids approximately 84-86% identical to human CYP2Cs. CYP2C93 was located in the genomic region, which corresponded to the intergenic region in the human genome, indicating that CYP2C93 does not correspond to any human genes. CYP2C93 mRNA was expressed predominantly in the liver among 10 tissues analyzed. The CYP2C93 proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli metabolized human CYP2C substrates, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, paclitaxel, S-mephenytoin, and tolbutamide. In addition to a normal transcript (SV1, an aberrantly spliced transcript (SV2 lacking exon 2 was identified, which did not give rise to a functional protein due to frameshift and a premature termination codon. Mini gene assay revealed that the genetic variant IVS2-1G>T at the splice site of intron 1, at least partly, accounted for the exon-2 skipping; therefore, this genotype would influence CYP2C93-mediated drug metabolism. SV1 was expressed in 6 of 11 rhesus monkeys and 1 of 8 cynomolgus monkeys, but the SV1 in the cynomolgus monkey was nonfunctional due to a rare null genotype (c.102T>del. These results suggest that CYP2C93 can play roles as a drug-metabolizing enzyme in rhesus monkeys (not in cynomolgus monkeys, although its relative contribution to drug metabolism has yet to be validated.

  14. A molecular key for building hyphae aggregates: the role of the newly identified Streptomyces protein HyaS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Ilona; Overbeck, Jens; Piepmeyer, Sophie; Meschke, Holger; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2009-05-01

    Streptomycetes produce many metabolites with medical and biotechnological applications. During fermentations, their hyphae build aggregates, a process in which the newly identified protein HyaS plays an important role. The corresponding hyaS gene is present within all investigated Streptomyces species. Reporter fusions indicate that transcription of hyaS occurs within substrate hyphae of the Streptomyces lividans wild type (WT). The HyaS protein is dominantly associated with the substrate hyphae. The WT strain forms cylindrically shaped clumps of densely packed substrate hyphae, often fusing to higher aggregates (pellets), which remain stably associated during shaking. Investigations by electron microscopy suggest that HyaS induces tight fusion-like contacts among substrate hyphae. In contrast, the pellets of the designed hyaS disruption mutant ΔH are irregular in shape, contain frequently outgrowing bunches of hyphae, and fuse less frequently. ΔH complemented with a plasmid carrying hyaS resembles the WT phenotype. Biochemical studies indicate that the C-terminal region of HyaS has amine oxidase activity. Investigations of ΔH transformants, each carrying a specifically mutated gene, lead to the conclusion that the in situ oxidase activity correlates with the pellet-inducing role of HyaS, and depends on the presence of certain histidine residues. Furthermore, the level of undecylprodigiosin, a red pigment with antibiotic activity, is influenced by the engineered hyaS subtype within a strain. These data present the first molecular basis for future manipulation of pellets, and concomitant production of secondary metabolites during biotechnological processes. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Dynamic 18F-FET PET in newly diagnosed astrocytic low-grade glioma identifies high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Nathalie L; Suchorska, Bogdana; Wenter, Vera; Eigenbrod, Sabina; Schmid-Tannwald, Christine; Zwergal, Andreas; Niyazi, Maximilian; Drexler, Mark; Bartenstein, Peter; Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Thon, Niklas; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; la Fougère, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Because the clinical course of low-grade gliomas in the individual adult patient varies considerably and is unpredictable, we investigated the prognostic value of dynamic (18)F-fluorethyltyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET in the early diagnosis of astrocytic low-grade glioma (World Health Organization grade II). Fifty-nine patients with newly diagnosed low-grade glioma and dynamic (18)F-FET PET before histopathologic assessment were retrospectively investigated. (18)F-FET PET analysis comprised a qualitative visual classification of lesions; assessment of the semiquantitative parameters maximal, mean, and total standardized uptake value as ratio to background and biologic tumor volume; and dynamic analysis of intratumoral (18)F-FET uptake over time (increasing vs. decreasing time-activity curves). The correlation between PET parameters and progression-free survival, overall survival, and time to malignant transformation was investigated. (18)F-FET uptake greater than the background level was found in 34 of 59 tumors. Dynamic (18)F-FET uptake analysis was available for 30 of these 34 patients. Increasing and decreasing time-activity curves were found in 18 and 12 patients, respectively. Neither the qualitative factor presence or absence of (18)F-FET uptake nor any of the semiquantitative uptake parameters significantly influenced clinical outcome. In contrast, decreasing time-activity curves in the kinetic analysis were highly prognostic for shorter progression-free survival and time to malignant transformation (P dynamic (18)F-FET PET constitute an unfavorable prognostic factor in astrocytic low-grade glioma and, by identifying high-risk patients, may ease treatment decisions.

  16. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified Southern hemisphere sister lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Bonito; Matthew E. Smith; Michael Nowak; Rosanne A. Healy; Gonzalo Guevara; Efren Cazares; Akihiko Kinoshita; Eduardo R. Nouhra; Laura S. Dominguez; Leho Tedersoo; Claude Murat; Yun Wang; Baldomero Arroyo Moreno; Donald H. Pfister; Kazuhide Nara; Alessandra Zambonelli; James M. Trappe; Rytas. Vilgalys

    2013-01-01

    In this study we reassessed the biogeography and origin of the Tuberaceae and their relatives using multiple loci and a global sampling of taxa. Multiple independent transitions from an aboveground to a belowground truffie fruiting body form have occurred in the Tuberaceae and in its newly recognized sister lineage...

  17. Cellular Proliferation by Multiplex Immunohistochemistry Identifies High-Risk Multiple Myeloma in Newly Diagnosed, Treatment-Naive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Scott; Forsberg, Peter; Ouansafi, Ihsane; Rossi, Adriana; Modin, Alvin; Pearse, Roger; Pekle, Karen; Perry, Arthur; Coleman, Morton; Jayabalan, David; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Niesvizky, Ruben; Mark, Tomer M

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic options for multiple myeloma (MM) are growing, yet clinical outcomes remain heterogeneous. Cytogenetic analysis and disease staging are mainstays of risk stratification, but data suggest a complex interplay between numerous abnormalities. Myeloma cell proliferation is a metric shown to predict outcomes, but available methods are not feasible in clinical practice. Multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC), using multiple immunostains simultaneously, is universally available for clinical use. We tested mIHC as a method to calculate a plasma cell proliferation index (PCPI). By mIHC, marrow trephine core biopsy samples were costained for CD138, a plasma cell-specific marker, and Ki-67. Myeloma cells (CD138 + ) were counted as proliferating if coexpressing Ki-67. Retrospective analysis was performed on 151 newly diagnosed, treatment-naive patients divided into 2 groups on the basis of myeloma cell proliferation: low (PCPI ≤ 5%, n = 87), and high (PCPI > 5%, n = 64). Median overall survival (OS) was not reached versus 78.9 months (P = .0434) for the low versus high PCPI groups. Multivariate analysis showed that only high-risk cytogenetics (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.02; P = .023), International Staging System (ISS) stage > I (HR = 2.30; P = .014), and PCPI > 5% (HR = 1.70; P = .041) had independent effects on OS. Twenty-three (36%) of the 64 patients with low-risk disease (ISS stage 1, without high-risk cytogenetics) were uniquely reidentified as high risk by PCPI. PCPI is a practical method that predicts OS in newly diagnosed myeloma and facilitates broader use of MM cell proliferation for risk stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A convergence/divergence schema to identify impacts: The case of the Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualetti, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Until fairly recently, geographers have contributed only slightly to research on nuclear power plants. Most studies have dealt with ''site selection,'' though lately topics including socioeconomics, waste disposal, and emergency preparedness, have been addressed. Currently NRC-mandated investigations into many of the impacts of nuclear power plants tend to focus on local effects, but these often are not detailed and are only during the early planning stages. Little attention continues to be paid to questions of socioeconomic impacts and land use changes during or after construction. This limited approach is neither necessary nor imaginative, cohesive nor wise, because it fails to encompass or probe an appropriately wide geographical range of possible contributions. This traditionally small and parochial sphere of inquiry can be expanded by using the conceptual framework of convergence and divergence. Suggested examples include land use changes in value or function in association with various nuclear facilities, transportation and socioeconomic factors associated with the complexities of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the exportation of fuel and the nuclear fuel cycle, and the exportation of fuel and technology. The application of such a geographical perspective in the study of PVNGS illustrates the influence (often distant and unrecognized) which can follow a local decision to build a nuclear power plant

  19. Biochemical and Phylogenetic Characterization of a Novel Diaminopimelate Biosynthesis Pathway in Prokaryotes Identifies a Diverged Form of ll-Diaminopimelate Aminotransferase▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, André O.; Gilvarg, Charles; Leustek, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A variant of the diaminopimelate (DAP)-lysine biosynthesis pathway uses an ll-DAP aminotransferase (DapL, EC 2.6.1.83) to catalyze the direct conversion of l-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate to ll-DAP. Comparative genomic analysis and experimental verification of DapL candidates revealed the existence of two diverged forms of DapL (DapL1 and DapL2). DapL orthologs were identified in eubacteria and archaea. In some species the corresponding dapL gene was found to lie in genomic contiguity with o...

  20. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting ^8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of ^8-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among ^8-sphingolipid desaturases and ^6-fatty acid desaturase from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb5 (cytochrome b5) HPGG motif and...

  1. Identification of a mitochondrial target of thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizers (mTOT--relationship to newly identified mitochondrial pyruvate carrier proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R Colca

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinedione (TZD insulin sensitizers have the potential to effectively treat a number of human diseases, however the currently available agents have dose-limiting side effects that are mediated via activation of the transcription factor PPARγ. We have recently shown PPARγ-independent actions of TZD insulin sensitizers, but the molecular target of these molecules remained to be identified. Here we use a photo-catalyzable drug analog probe and mass spectrometry-based proteomics to identify a previously uncharacterized mitochondrial complex that specifically recognizes TZDs. These studies identify two well-conserved proteins previously known as brain protein 44 (BRP44 and BRP44 Like (BRP44L, which recently have been renamed Mpc2 and Mpc1 to signify their function as a mitochondrial pyruvate carrier complex. Knockdown of Mpc1 or Mpc2 in Drosophila melanogaster or pre-incubation with UK5099, an inhibitor of pyruvate transport, blocks the crosslinking of mitochondrial membranes by the TZD probe. Knockdown of these proteins in Drosophila also led to increased hemolymph glucose and blocked drug action. In isolated brown adipose tissue (BAT cells, MSDC-0602, a PPARγ-sparing TZD, altered the incorporation of (13C-labeled carbon from glucose into acetyl CoA. These results identify Mpc1 and Mpc2 as components of the mitochondrial target of TZDs (mTOT and suggest that understanding the modulation of this complex, which appears to regulate pyruvate entry into the mitochondria, may provide a viable target for insulin sensitizing pharmacology.

  2. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen

  3. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10......(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies....

  4. Newly Identified Gait Patterns in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis May Be Related to Push-off Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Jiska C E; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Knol, Dirk L; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen

    2016-11-01

    Limited walking ability is an important problem for patients with multiple sclerosis. A better understanding of how gait impairments lead to limited walking ability may help to develop more targeted interventions. Although gait classifications are available in cerebral palsy and stroke, relevant knowledge in MS is scarce. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify distinctive gait patterns in patients with MS based on a combined evaluation of kinematics, gait features, and muscle activity during walking and (2) to determine the clinical relevance of these gait patterns. This was a cross-sectional study of 81 patients with MS of mild-to-moderate severity (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] median score=3.0, range=1.0-7.0) and an age range of 28 to 69 years. The patients participated in 2-dimensional video gait analysis, with concurrent measurement of surface electromyography and ground reaction forces. A score chart of 73 gait items was used to rate each gait analysis. A single rater performed the scoring. Latent class analysis was used to identify gait classes. Analysis of the 73 gait variables revealed that 9 variables could distinguish 3 clinically meaningful gait classes. The 9 variables were: (1) heel-rise in terminal stance, (2) push-off, (3) clearance in initial swing, (4) plantar-flexion position in mid-swing, (5) pelvic rotation, (6) arm-trunk movement, (7) activity of the gastrocnemius muscle in pre-swing, (8) M-wave, and (9) propulsive force. The EDSS score and gait speed worsened in ascending classes. Most participants had mild-to-moderate limitations in walking ability based on their EDSS scores, and the number of walkers who were severely limited was small. Based on a small set of 9 variables measured with 2-dimensional clinical gait analysis, patients with MS could be divided into 3 different gait classes. The gait variables are suggestive of insufficient ankle push-off. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  5. Three newly identified galectin homologues from triangle sail mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii) function as potential pattern-recognition receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling-Ling; Hui, Kaimin; Wang, Yu-Qing; Wang, Yue; Ren, Qian; Li, Xin-Cang

    2018-05-01

    Galactoside-binding lectins, also known as galectins, play crucial roles in innate immune response in invertebrates. In this study, three cDNA sequences from Hyriopsis cumingii were identified and collectively called HcGalec genes. Each of the three deduced HcGalec proteins contained a galactose-binding lectin domain or a GLECT domain. All the three HcGalec genes are mainly present in the hepatopancreas and gills, and their expression is induced at 24 h after bacterial challenge. Three recombinant HcGalec proteins can bind and agglutinate (Ca 2+ -dependent) various microorganisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These proteins can attach to mannan and peptidoglycan. Meanwhile, the expression of the three HcGalec genes in the gills were significantly down-regulated after dsRNA interference (HcGalec1-RNAi, HcGalec2-RNAi, and HcGalec3-RNAi) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus injection. The expression levels of some antimicrobial peptides, including lysozyme 1 and lysozyme 2, were also markedly decreased after dsRNA interference. Overall, these results suggested that these three HcGalec proteins may function as potential receptors participating in the innate immune responses of H. cumingii against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  7. Nodule worm infection in humans and wild primates in Uganda: cryptic species in a newly identified region of human transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria R Ghai

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs are a major health concern in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Oesophagostomum infection is considered endemic to West Africa but has also been identified in Uganda, East Africa, among primates (including humans. However, the taxonomy and ecology of Oesophagostomum in Uganda have not been studied, except for in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, which are infected by both O. bifurcum and O. stephanostomum.We studied Oesophagostomum in Uganda in a community of non-human primates that live in close proximity to humans. Prevalence estimates based on microscopy were lower than those based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR, indicating greater sensitivity of PCR. Prevalence varied among host species, with humans and red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus infected at lowest prevalence (25% and 41% by PCR, respectively, and chimpanzees, olive baboons (Papio anubis, and l'hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti infected at highest prevalence (100% by PCR in all three species. Phylogenetic regression showed that primates travelling further and in smaller groups are at greatest risk of infection. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed three cryptic clades of Oesophagostomum that were not distinguishable based on morphological characteristics of their eggs. Of these, the clade with the greatest host range had not previously been described genetically. This novel clade infects humans, as well as five other species of primates.Multiple cryptic forms of Oesophagostomum circulate in the people and primates of western Uganda, and parasite clades differ in host range and cross-species transmission potential. Our results expand knowledge about human Oesophagostomum infection beyond the West African countries of Togo and Ghana, where the parasite is a known public health concern. Oesophagostomum infection in humans may be common throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, and the transmission of this neglected STH among primates, including zoonotic

  8. FANCG promotes formation of a newly identified protein complex containing BRCA2, FANCD2 and XRCC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J B; Yamamoto, K; Marriott, A S; Hussain, S; Sung, P; Hoatlin, M E; Mathew, C G; Takata, M; Thompson, L H; Kupfer, G M; Jones, N J

    2008-06-12

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human disorder characterized by cancer susceptibility and cellular sensitivity to DNA crosslinks and other damages. Thirteen complementation groups and genes are identified, including BRCA2, which is defective in the FA-D1 group. Eight of the FA proteins, including FANCG, participate in a nuclear core complex that is required for the monoubiquitylation of FANCD2 and FANCI. FANCD2, like FANCD1/BRCA2, is not part of the core complex, and we previously showed direct BRCA2-FANCD2 interaction using yeast two-hybrid analysis. We now show in human and hamster cells that expression of FANCG protein, but not the other core complex proteins, is required for co-precipitation of BRCA2 and FANCD2. We also show that phosphorylation of FANCG serine 7 is required for its co-precipitation with BRCA2, XRCC3 and FANCD2, as well as the direct interaction of BRCA2-FANCD2. These results argue that FANCG has a role independent of the FA core complex, and we propose that phosphorylation of serine 7 is the signalling event required for forming a discrete complex comprising FANCD1/BRCA2-FANCD2-FANCG-XRCC3 (D1-D2-G-X3). Cells that fail to express either phospho-Ser7-FANCG, or full length BRCA2 protein, lack the interactions amongst the four component proteins. A role for D1-D2-G-X3 in homologous recombination repair (HRR) is supported by our finding that FANCG and the RAD51-paralog XRCC3 are epistatic for sensitivity to DNA crosslinking compounds in DT40 chicken cells. Our findings further define the intricate interface between FANC and HRR proteins in maintaining chromosome stability.

  9. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND MORPHOLOGY OF A NEWLY IDENTIFIED COMPACT z = 4.04 LENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY IN ABELL 2218

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Kirsten K.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan; Petitpas, Glen; Egami, Eiichi

    2010-01-01

    We present the identification of a bright submillimeter (submm) source, SMM J163555.5+661300, detected in the lensing cluster Abell 2218, for which we have accurately determined the position using observations from the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The identified optical counterpart has a spectroscopic redshift of z = 4.044 ± 0.001 if we attribute the single emission line detected at λ = 6140 A to Lyα. This redshift identification is in good agreement with the optical/near-infrared photometric redshift as well as the submm flux ratio S 450 /S 850 ∼ 1.6, the radio-submm flux ratio S 1.4 /S 850 24 /S 850 12 L sun , which implies a star formation rate (SFR) of 230 M sun yr -1 . This makes it the lowest-luminosity submillimeter galaxy (SMG) known at z>4 to date. Previous CO(4-3) emission line observations yielded a non-detection, for which we derived an upper limit of the CO line luminosity of L CO ' = 0.3x10 10 K km s -1 pc -2 , which is not inconsistent with the L ' CO -L FIR relation for starburst galaxies. The best-fit model to the optical and near-infrared photometry give a stellar population with an age of 1.4 Gyr and a stellar mass of 1.6 x 10 10 M sun . The optical morphology is compact and in the source plane the galaxy has an extent of ∼6 x 3 kpc with individual star-forming knots of sun yr -1 kpc 2 . The redshift of J163556 extends the redshift distribution of faint, lensed SMGs, and we find no evidence that these have a different redshift distribution than bright SMGs.

  10. CD4+ T cell count, HIV-1 viral loads and demographic variables of newly identified patients with HIV infection in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man-Qing; Tang, Li; Kong, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Yao, Zhong-Zhao; Schilling, Robert; Zhou, Wang

    2013-10-01

    In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reduced Representation Libraries from DNA Pools Analysed with Next Generation Semiconductor Based-Sequencing to Identify SNPs in Extreme and Divergent Pigs for Back Fat Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Bovo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that could be associated with back fat thickness (BFT in pigs. To achieve this goal, we evaluated the potential and limits of an experimental design that combined several methodologies. DNA samples from two groups of Italian Large White pigs with divergent estimating breeding value (EBV for BFT were separately pooled and sequenced, after preparation of reduced representation libraries (RRLs, on the Ion Torrent technology. Taking advantage from SNAPE for SNPs calling in sequenced DNA pools, 39,165 SNPs were identified; 1/4 of them were novel variants not reported in dbSNP. Combining sequencing data with Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip genotyping results on the same animals, 661 genomic positions overlapped with a good approximation of minor allele frequency estimation. A total of 54 SNPs showing enriched alleles in one or in the other RRLs might be potential markers associated with BFT. Some of these SNPs were close to genes involved in obesity related phenotypes.

  12. Diverging Cohesion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    – which we define here as a combination of impartial bureaucratic practices, corruption and the rule of law – limits, and in some cases reverses the tendency towards greater divergence linked to trade. Countries with high levels of state capacity – that is, those that have greater government effectiveness......, stronger rule of law and lower corruption – experience lower levels of divergence, as they have the mechanisms to counterbalance the strong centripetal forces linked to openness. This claim is tested on countries that have experienced relatively high levels of increases in levels of economic and political......Why do increases in globalisation in the face of European expansion lead to sharp levels of regional divergences in wealth in some countries but not in others? The central crux of this paper is that convergence/divergence trends in European states are conditioned by ‘state capacity’. State capacity...

  13. A newly identified frontal path from fornix in septum pellucidum with 7.0T MRI track density imaging (TDI – The septum pellucidum tract (SPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang-Hee eCho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high anatomical contrast achieved with the newly emerging MRI tractographic technique of super-resolution track density imaging (TDI encouraged us to search for a new fiber tract in the septum pellucidum. Although this septum pellucidum tract (SPT has been observed previously, its connections were unclear due to ambiguity and limited resolution of conventional MRI images. It is now possible to identify detailed parts of SPT with the increased resolution of TDI, which involves diffusion MRI imaging, whole-brain tractography, and voxel subdivision using the track-count information. Four healthy male subjects were included in the study. The experiment was performed with 7.0T MRI, following the guidelines of the institute’s institutional review board. Data were processed with the super-resolution TDI technique to generate a tractographic map with 0.18 mm isotropic resolution. The SPT was identified in all subjects. Based on additional seed tracking method with inter-axis correlation search, we have succeeded in identifying a new frontal lobe pathway in the SPT. We hypothesize that the tract is connected as a superior dorsal branch of the fornix that leads to the prefrontal cortex.

  14. Biochemical and phylogenetic characterization of a novel diaminopimelate biosynthesis pathway in prokaryotes identifies a diverged form of LL-diaminopimelate aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, André O; Gilvarg, Charles; Leustek, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    A variant of the diaminopimelate (DAP)-lysine biosynthesis pathway uses an LL-DAP aminotransferase (DapL, EC 2.6.1.83) to catalyze the direct conversion of L-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate to LL-DAP. Comparative genomic analysis and experimental verification of DapL candidates revealed the existence of two diverged forms of DapL (DapL1 and DapL2). DapL orthologs were identified in eubacteria and archaea. In some species the corresponding dapL gene was found to lie in genomic contiguity with other dap genes, suggestive of a polycistronic structure. The DapL candidate enzymes were found to cluster into two classes sharing approximately 30% amino acid identity. The function of selected enzymes from each class was studied. Both classes were able to functionally complement Escherichia coli dapD and dapE mutants and to catalyze LL-DAP transamination, providing functional evidence for a role in DAP/lysine biosynthesis. In all cases the occurrence of dapL in a species correlated with the absence of genes for dapD and dapE representing the acyl DAP pathway variants, and only in a few cases was dapL coincident with ddh encoding meso-DAP dehydrogenase. The results indicate that the DapL pathway is restricted to specific lineages of eubacteria including the Cyanobacteria, Desulfuromonadales, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Spirochaeta, and Chloroflexi and two archaeal groups, the Methanobacteriaceae and Archaeoglobaceae.

  15. Biochemical and Phylogenetic Characterization of a Novel Diaminopimelate Biosynthesis Pathway in Prokaryotes Identifies a Diverged Form of ll-Diaminopimelate Aminotransferase▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, André O.; Gilvarg, Charles; Leustek, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A variant of the diaminopimelate (DAP)-lysine biosynthesis pathway uses an ll-DAP aminotransferase (DapL, EC 2.6.1.83) to catalyze the direct conversion of l-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate to ll-DAP. Comparative genomic analysis and experimental verification of DapL candidates revealed the existence of two diverged forms of DapL (DapL1 and DapL2). DapL orthologs were identified in eubacteria and archaea. In some species the corresponding dapL gene was found to lie in genomic contiguity with other dap genes, suggestive of a polycistronic structure. The DapL candidate enzymes were found to cluster into two classes sharing approximately 30% amino acid identity. The function of selected enzymes from each class was studied. Both classes were able to functionally complement Escherichia coli dapD and dapE mutants and to catalyze ll-DAP transamination, providing functional evidence for a role in DAP/lysine biosynthesis. In all cases the occurrence of dapL in a species correlated with the absence of genes for dapD and dapE representing the acyl DAP pathway variants, and only in a few cases was dapL coincident with ddh encoding meso-DAP dehydrogenase. The results indicate that the DapL pathway is restricted to specific lineages of eubacteria including the Cyanobacteria, Desulfuromonadales, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlamydiae, Spirochaeta, and Chloroflexi and two archaeal groups, the Methanobacteriaceae and Archaeoglobaceae. PMID:18310350

  16. Spin period evolution of the newly identified ULX pulsar (NGC 300 ULX1) associated with the supernova impostor SN2010da

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, G.; Haberl, F.; Carpano, S.; Maitra, C.

    2018-01-01

    Following the discovery of the newly discovered ULX pulsar in NGC 300 (ATel #11158) we searched the available X-ray data for the evolution of the spin period of the neutron star and the X-ray luminosity.

  17. A divergent spirochete strain isolated from a resident of the southeastern United States was identified by multilocus sequence typing as Borrelia bissettii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Vancová, Marie; Clark, K.; Oliver, J. H., Jr.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rudenko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, FEB 4 (2016), č. článku 68. ISSN 1756-3305 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia * Borrelia bissettii * MLST analysis * live spirochete * divergent strain Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  18. Deletion of a conserved regulatory element required for Hmx1 expression in craniofacial mesenchyme in the dumbo rat: a newly identified cause of congenital ear malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lely A. Quina

    2012-11-01

    Hmx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing eye, peripheral ganglia, and branchial arches of avian and mammalian embryos. Recent studies have identified a loss-of-function allele at the HMX1 locus as the causative mutation in the oculo-auricular syndrome (OAS in humans, characterized by ear and eye malformations. The mouse dumbo (dmbo mutation, with similar effects on ear and eye development, also results from a loss-of-function mutation in the Hmx1 gene. A recessive dmbo mutation causing ear malformation in rats has been mapped to the chromosomal region containing the Hmx1 gene, but the nature of the causative allele is unknown. Here we show that dumbo rats and mice exhibit similar neonatal ear and eye phenotypes. In midgestation embryos, dumbo rats show a specific loss of Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived craniofacial mesenchyme (CM, whereas Hmx1 is expressed normally in retinal progenitors, sensory ganglia and in CM, which is derived from mesoderm. High-throughput resequencing of 1 Mb of rat chromosome 14 from dmbo/dmbo rats, encompassing the Hmx1 locus, reveals numerous divergences from the rat genomic reference sequence, but no coding changes in Hmx1. Fine genetic mapping narrows the dmbo critical region to an interval of ∼410 kb immediately downstream of the Hmx1 transcription unit. Further sequence analysis of this region reveals a 5777-bp deletion located ∼80 kb downstream in dmbo/dmbo rats that is not apparent in 137 other rat strains. The dmbo deletion region contains a highly conserved domain of ∼500 bp, which is a candidate distal enhancer and which exhibits a similar relationship to Hmx genes in all vertebrate species for which data are available. We conclude that the rat dumbo phenotype is likely to result from loss of function of an ultraconserved enhancer specifically regulating Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived CM. Dysregulation of Hmx1 expression is thus a candidate mechanism for congenital ear

  19. Conservation and diversification of the miR166 family in soybean and potential roles of newly identified miR166s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuyan; Xie, Xin; Li, Ji; Cui, Yuhai; Hou, Yanming; Zhai, Lulu; Wang, Xiao; Fu, Yanli; Liu, Ranran; Bian, Shaomin

    2017-02-01

    microRNA166 (miR166) is a highly conserved family of miRNAs implicated in a wide range of cellular and physiological processes in plants. miR166 family generally comprises multiple miR166 members in plants, which might exhibit functional redundancy and specificity. The soybean miR166 family consists of 21 members according to the miRBase database. However, the evolutionary conservation and functional diversification of miR166 family members in soybean remain poorly understood. We identified five novel miR166s in soybean by data mining approach, thus enlarging the size of miR166 family from 21 to 26 members. Phylogenetic analyses of the 26 miR166s and their precursors indicated that soybean miR166 family exhibited both evolutionary conservation and diversification, and ten pairs of miR166 precursors with high sequence identity were individually grouped into a discrete clade in the phylogenetic tree. The analysis of genomic organization and evolution of MIR166 gene family revealed that eight segmental duplications and four tandem duplications might occur during evolution of the miR166 family in soybean. The cis-elements in promoters of MIR166 family genes and their putative targets pointed to their possible contributions to the functional conservation and diversification. The targets of soybean miR166s were predicted, and the cleavage of ATHB14-LIKE transcript was experimentally validated by RACE PCR. Further, the expression patterns of the five newly identified MIR166s and 12 target genes were examined during seed development and in response to abiotic stresses, which provided important clues for dissecting their functions and isoform specificity. This study enlarged the size of soybean miR166 family from 21 to 26 members, and the 26 soybean miR166s exhibited evolutionary conservation and diversification. These findings have laid a foundation for elucidating functional conservation and diversification of miR166 family members, especially during seed development or

  20. Genitores potenciais para hibridações identificados por divergência genética em feijão carioca Bean parents for hybridization identified by genetic divergence in "carioca" bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Noventa genótipos de feijão carioca (Phaseolus vulgaris L. foram avaliados, em dois anos agrícolas, em Santa Maria, RS, a fim de definir quais características agromorfológicas constituem-se como melhores descritores, realizar agrupamento em função de dissimilaridade genética e de definir quais combinações híbridas mais promissoras serão obtidas para o desenvolvimento de populações segregantes. Dos 20 caracteres agromorfológicos avaliados, apenas nove (ferrugem nos legumes, acamamento, nota geral, cor do tegumento, rendimento de grãos, massa de 100 sementes, altura de inserção do primeiro legume, altura de inserção do último legume e número de sementes por legume apresentaram maior contribuição para a divergência genética. Os genótipos de feijão carioca foram agrupados pelo método hierárquico de ligação completa. Populações segregantes, com variabilidade genética superior, podem ser obtidas com hibridações entre o genótipo ESAL 550 com genótipos do grupo 2 (LH-6, 17-4-32, R-78, H-4-5 e R-102 e/ou com genótipos do grupo 3 (FT 97-188, Cati-Taquari, CII-328, Carioca Precoce, FT 97-41, LH-11, FT 91-4067, Iapar 31, CI 102, Carioca MG, CII-54 e R-102.Carioca bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. were evaluated in two growing seasons in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. The objectives of this work were to evaluate which morpho-agronomic characteristics were the best descriptors, to group the genotypes in relation to genetic diversity and to determine which hybrid combinations are promissing to obtain higher segregation populations in carioca bean. From the 20 morpho-agronomic characteristics evaluated, only seven (pod rust, lodging, general note, colour of seed tegument, grain yield, 100 seed weight, height of first and final pod insertion and number of seeds per pod showed higher contribution to genetic diversity. The evaluated carioca bean genotypes were clustered by the complete linkage method. The following hybrid

  1. Assessment of Newly Proposed Clinical Criteria to Identify HNF1A MODY in Patients with an Initial Diagnosis of Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Grzanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY is caused by mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A (HNF1A gene. However, most HNF1A mutation-carriers are initially misdiagnosed with type 1 (T1DM or type 2 (T2DM diabetes mellitus; hence, they often receive nonoptimal treatment. The aim of our study was to test newly proposed clinical criteria for the identification of HNF1A MODY in patients with a diagnosis of T1DM or T2DM. To achieve this, the following criteria to preselect patients for screening were used: for T1DM: TDIR (total daily insulin requirement > 0.3 IU of insulin/kg and the percentage of basal insulin > 30% of TDIR; for T2DM: sulphonylurea- (SU- based oral treatment (monotherapy or combined with Metformin > 15 years and BMI < 30 kg/m2. We reviewed the clinical data of 140 patients with T1DM and 524 clinically diagnosed with T2DM. On the basis of these criteria, we found a HNF1A mutation in 1 out of 2 individuals with a diagnosis of T1DM and 1 out of 11 selected individuals with a diagnosis of T2DM. We believe that the simplicity of the proposed criteria might prove useful in clinical practice, as an alternative to more time-consuming classical diagnostic techniques.

  2. Assessment of Newly Proposed Clinical Criteria to Identify HNF1A MODY in Patients with an Initial Diagnosis of Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, Malgorzata; Matejko, Bartlomiej; Szopa, Magdalena; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Malecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The most common form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is caused by mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A (HNF1A) gene. However, most HNF1A mutation-carriers are initially misdiagnosed with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus; hence, they often receive nonoptimal treatment. The aim of our study was to test newly proposed clinical criteria for the identification of HNF1A MODY in patients with a diagnosis of T1DM or T2DM. To achieve this, the following criteria to preselect patients for screening were used: for T1DM: TDIR (total daily insulin requirement) > 0.3 IU of insulin/kg and the percentage of basal insulin > 30% of TDIR; for T2DM: sulphonylurea- (SU-) based oral treatment (monotherapy or combined with Metformin) > 15 years and BMI < 30 kg/m(2). We reviewed the clinical data of 140 patients with T1DM and 524 clinically diagnosed with T2DM. On the basis of these criteria, we found a HNF1A mutation in 1 out of 2 individuals with a diagnosis of T1DM and 1 out of 11 selected individuals with a diagnosis of T2DM. We believe that the simplicity of the proposed criteria might prove useful in clinical practice, as an alternative to more time-consuming classical diagnostic techniques.

  3. Evolutionary Analysis Predicts Sensitive Positions of MMP20 and Validates Newly- and Previously-Identified MMP20 Mutations Causing Amelogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasse, Barbara; Prasad, Megana; Delgado, Sidney; Huckert, Mathilde; Kawczynski, Marzena; Garret-Bernardin, Annelyse; Lopez-Cazaux, Serena; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Manière, Marie-Cécile; Stoetzel, Corinne; Bloch-Zupan, Agnès; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) designates a group of genetic diseases characterized by a large range of enamel disorders causing important social and health problems. These defects can result from mutations in enamel matrix proteins or protease encoding genes. A range of mutations in the enamel cleavage enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-20 gene ( MMP20 ) produce enamel defects of varying severity. To address how various alterations produce a range of AI phenotypes, we performed a targeted analysis to find MMP20 mutations in French patients diagnosed with non-syndromic AI. Genomic DNA was isolated from saliva and MMP20 exons and exon-intron boundaries sequenced. We identified several homozygous or heterozygous mutations, putatively involved in the AI phenotypes. To validate missense mutations and predict sensitive positions in the MMP20 sequence, we evolutionarily compared 75 sequences extracted from the public databases using the Datamonkey webserver. These sequences were representative of mammalian lineages, covering more than 150 million years of evolution. This analysis allowed us to find 324 sensitive positions (out of the 483 MMP20 residues), pinpoint functionally important domains, and build an evolutionary chart of important conserved MMP20 regions. This is an efficient tool to identify new- and previously-identified mutations. We thus identified six functional MMP20 mutations in unrelated families, finding two novel mutated sites. The genotypes and phenotypes of these six mutations are described and compared. To date, 13 MMP20 mutations causing AI have been reported, making these genotypes and associated hypomature enamel phenotypes the most frequent in AI.

  4. Evolutionary Analysis Predicts Sensitive Positions of MMP20 and Validates Newly- and Previously-Identified MMP20 Mutations Causing Amelogenesis Imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gasse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI designates a group of genetic diseases characterized by a large range of enamel disorders causing important social and health problems. These defects can result from mutations in enamel matrix proteins or protease encoding genes. A range of mutations in the enamel cleavage enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-20 gene (MMP20 produce enamel defects of varying severity. To address how various alterations produce a range of AI phenotypes, we performed a targeted analysis to find MMP20 mutations in French patients diagnosed with non-syndromic AI. Genomic DNA was isolated from saliva and MMP20 exons and exon-intron boundaries sequenced. We identified several homozygous or heterozygous mutations, putatively involved in the AI phenotypes. To validate missense mutations and predict sensitive positions in the MMP20 sequence, we evolutionarily compared 75 sequences extracted from the public databases using the Datamonkey webserver. These sequences were representative of mammalian lineages, covering more than 150 million years of evolution. This analysis allowed us to find 324 sensitive positions (out of the 483 MMP20 residues, pinpoint functionally important domains, and build an evolutionary chart of important conserved MMP20 regions. This is an efficient tool to identify new- and previously-identified mutations. We thus identified six functional MMP20 mutations in unrelated families, finding two novel mutated sites. The genotypes and phenotypes of these six mutations are described and compared. To date, 13 MMP20 mutations causing AI have been reported, making these genotypes and associated hypomature enamel phenotypes the most frequent in AI.

  5. CXCR6, a newly defined biomarker of tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal, identifies more aggressive human melanoma cancer stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzbeh Taghizadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in cancer research is identifying the cell type that is capable of sustaining neoplastic growth and its origin from normal tissue cells. Recent investigations of a variety of tumor types have shown that phenotypically identifiable and isolable subfractions of cells possess the tumor-forming ability. In the present paper, using two lineage-related human melanoma cell lines, primary melanoma line IGR39 and its metastatic derivative line IGR37, two main observations are reported. The first one is the first phenotypic evidence to support the origin of melanoma cancer stem cells (CSCs from mutated tissue-specific stem cells; and the second one is the identification of a more aggressive subpopulation of CSCs in melanoma that are CXCR6+.We defined CXCR6 as a new biomarker for tissue-specific stem cell asymmetric self-renewal. Thus, the relationship between melanoma formation and ABCG2 and CXCR6 expression was investigated. Consistent with their non-metastatic character, unsorted IGR39 cells formed significantly smaller tumors than unsorted IGR37 cells. In addition, ABCG2+ cells produced tumors that had a 2-fold greater mass than tumors produced by unsorted cells or ABCG2- cells. CXCR6+ cells produced more aggressive tumors. CXCR6 identifies a more discrete subpopulation of cultured human melanoma cells with a more aggressive MCSC phenotype than cells selected on the basis of the ABCG2+ phenotype alone.The association of a more aggressive tumor phenotype with asymmetric self-renewal phenotype reveals a previously unrecognized aspect of tumor cell physiology. Namely, the retention of some tissue-specific stem cell attributes, like the ability to asymmetrically self-renew, impacts the natural history of human tumor development. Knowledge of this new aspect of tumor development and progression may provide new targets for cancer prevention and treatment.

  6. Characterization and frequency of a newly identified HIV-1 BF1 intersubtype circulating recombinant form in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Walter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV circulating recombinant forms (CRFs play an important role in the global and regional HIV epidemics, particularly in regions where multiple subtypes are circulating. To date, several (>40 CRFs are recognized worldwide with five currently circulating in Brazil. Here, we report the characterization of near full-length genome sequences (NFLG of six phylogenetically related HIV-1 BF1 intersubtype recombinants (five from this study and one from other published sequences representing CRF46_BF1. Methods Initially, we selected 36 samples from 888 adult patients residing in São Paulo who had previously been diagnosed as being infected with subclade F1 based on pol subgenomic fragment sequencing. Proviral DNA integrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was amplified from the purified genomic DNA of all 36-blood samples by five overlapping PCR fragments followed by direct sequencing. Sequence data were obtained from the five fragments that showed identical genomic structure and phylogenetic trees were constructed and compared with previously published sequences. Genuine subclade F1 sequences and any other sequences that exhibited unique mosaic structures were omitted from further analysis Results Of the 36 samples analyzed, only six sequences, inferred from the pol region as subclade F1, displayed BF1 identical mosaic genomes with a single intersubtype breakpoint identified at the nef-U3 overlap (HXB2 position 9347-9365; LTR region. Five of these isolates formed a rigid cluster in phylogentic trees from different subclade F1 fragment regions, which we can now designate as CRF46_BF1. According to our estimate, the new CRF accounts for 0.56% of the HIV-1 circulating strains in São Paulo. Comparison with previously published sequences revealed an additional five isolates that share an identical mosaic structure with those reported in our study. Despite sharing a similar recombinant structure, only one sequence appeared to

  7. Isolation of cDNA encoding a newly identified major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen: intracellular targeting to the amyloplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M B; Hough, T; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Smith, P M; Taylor, P; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D; McCluskey, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major allergenic protein from rye-grass pollen, tentatively designated Lol pIb of 31kDa and with pI 9.0. A cDNA clone encoding Lol pIb has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Lol pIb is located mainly in the starch granules. This is a distinct allergen from Lol pI, which is located in the cytosol. Lol pIb is synthesized in pollen as a pre-allergen with a transit peptide targeting the allergen to amyloplasts. Epitope mapping of the fusion protein localized the IgE binding determinant in the C-terminal domain. Images PMID:1671715

  8. The goya mouse mutant reveals distinct newly identified roles for MAP3K1 in the development and survival of cochlear sensory hair cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Parker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAP3K1, plays an important role in a number of cellular processes, including epithelial migration during eye organogenesis. In addition, studies in keratinocytes indicate that MAP3K1 signalling through JNK is important for actin stress fibre formation and cell migration. However, MAP3K1 can also act independently of JNK in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. We have identified a mouse mutant, goya, which exhibits the eyes-open-at-birth and microphthalmia phenotypes. In addition, these mice also have hearing loss. The goya mice carry a splice site mutation in the Map3k1 gene. We show that goya and kinase-deficient Map3k1 homozygotes initially develop supernumerary cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs that subsequently degenerate, and a progressive profound hearing loss is observed by 9 weeks of age. Heterozygote mice also develop supernumerary OHCs, but no cellular degeneration or hearing loss is observed. MAP3K1 is expressed in a number of inner-ear cell types, including outer and inner hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. Investigation of targets downstream of MAP3K1 identified an increase in p38 phosphorylation (Thr180/Tyr182 in multiple cochlear tissues. We also show that the extra OHCs do not arise from aberrant control of proliferation via p27KIP1. The identification of the goya mutant reveals a signalling molecule involved with hair-cell development and survival. Mammalian hair cells do not have the ability to regenerate after damage, which can lead to irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Given the observed goya phenotype, and the many diverse cellular processes that MAP3K1 is known to act upon, further investigation of this model might help to elaborate upon the mechanisms underlying sensory hair cell specification, and pathways important for their survival. In addition, MAP3K1 is revealed as a new candidate gene for human sensorineural hearing loss.

  9. The goya mouse mutant reveals distinct newly identified roles for MAP3K1 in the development and survival of cochlear sensory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Cross, Sally H; Jackson, Ian J; Hardisty-Hughes, Rachel; Morse, Susan; Nicholson, George; Coghill, Emma; Bowl, Michael R; Brown, Steve D M

    2015-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAP3K1, plays an important role in a number of cellular processes, including epithelial migration during eye organogenesis. In addition, studies in keratinocytes indicate that MAP3K1 signalling through JNK is important for actin stress fibre formation and cell migration. However, MAP3K1 can also act independently of JNK in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. We have identified a mouse mutant, goya, which exhibits the eyes-open-at-birth and microphthalmia phenotypes. In addition, these mice also have hearing loss. The goya mice carry a splice site mutation in the Map3k1 gene. We show that goya and kinase-deficient Map3k1 homozygotes initially develop supernumerary cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) that subsequently degenerate, and a progressive profound hearing loss is observed by 9 weeks of age. Heterozygote mice also develop supernumerary OHCs, but no cellular degeneration or hearing loss is observed. MAP3K1 is expressed in a number of inner-ear cell types, including outer and inner hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. Investigation of targets downstream of MAP3K1 identified an increase in p38 phosphorylation (Thr180/Tyr182) in multiple cochlear tissues. We also show that the extra OHCs do not arise from aberrant control of proliferation via p27KIP1. The identification of the goya mutant reveals a signalling molecule involved with hair-cell development and survival. Mammalian hair cells do not have the ability to regenerate after damage, which can lead to irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Given the observed goya phenotype, and the many diverse cellular processes that MAP3K1 is known to act upon, further investigation of this model might help to elaborate upon the mechanisms underlying sensory hair cell specification, and pathways important for their survival. In addition, MAP3K1 is revealed as a new candidate gene for human sensorineural hearing loss. © 2015. Published by The Company of

  10. Comparative evaluation of extracellular β-D-fructofuranosidase in submerged and solid-state fermentation produced by newly identified Bacillus subtilis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Lynette; More, Sunil S

    2018-04-17

    To screen and identify a potential extracellular β-D-fructofuranosidase or invertase producing bacterium from soil, and comparatively evaluate the enzyme biosynthesis under submerged and solid-state fermentation. Extracellular invertase producing bacteria were screened from soil. Identification of the potent bacterium was performed based on microscopic examinations and 16S rDNA molecular sequencing. Bacillus subtilis LYN12 invertase secretion was surplus with wheat bran humidified with molasses medium (70%), with elevated activity at 48 h and 37 °C under solid-state fermentation, whereas under submerged conditions increased activity was observed at 24 h and 45 °C in the molasses medium. The study revealed a simple fermentative medium for elevated production of extracellular invertase from a fast growing Bacillus strain. Bacterial invertases are scarce and limited reports are available. By far, this is the first report on the comparative analysis of optimization of extracellular invertase synthesis from Bacillus subtilis strain by submerged and solid-state fermentation. The use of agricultural residues increased yields resulting in development of a cost-effective and stable approach. Bacillus subtilis LYN12 invertase possesses excellent fermenting capability to utilize agro-industrial residues under submerged and solid-state conditions. This could be a beneficial candidate in food and beverage processing industries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Tenrec ecaudatus, a Wild Mammal Introduced to Mayotte Island, as a Reservoir of the Newly Identified Human Pathogenic Leptospira mayottensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadec, Erwan; Gomard, Yann; Le Minter, Gildas; Cordonin, Colette; Cardinale, Eric; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dietrich, Muriel; Goodman, Steven M; Tortosa, Pablo; Dellagi, Koussay

    2016-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands. Human populations on western Indian Ocean islands are strongly affected by the disease although each archipelago shows contrasting epidemiology. For instance, Mayotte, part of the Comoros Archipelago, differs from the other neighbouring islands by a high diversity of Leptospira species infecting humans that includes Leptospira mayottensis, a species thought to be unique to this island. Using bacterial culture, molecular detection and typing, the present study explored the wild and domestic local mammalian fauna for renal carriage of leptospires and addressed the genetic relationships of the infecting strains with local isolates obtained from acute human cases and with Leptospira strains hosted by mammal species endemic to nearby Madagascar. Tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus, Family Tenrecidae), a terrestrial mammal introduced from Madagascar, is identified as a reservoir of L. mayottensis. All isolated L. mayottensis sequence types form a monophyletic clade that includes Leptospira strains infecting humans and tenrecs on Mayotte, as well as two other Malagasy endemic tenrecid species of the genus Microgale. The lower diversity of L. mayottensis in tenrecs from Mayotte, compared to that occurring in Madagascar, suggests that L. mayottensis has indeed a Malagasy origin. This study also showed that introduced rats (Rattus rattus) and dogs are probably the main reservoirs of Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri, both bacteria being prevalent in local clinical cases. Data emphasize the epidemiological link between the two neighbouring islands and the role of introduced small mammals in shaping the local epidemiology of leptospirosis.

  12. Identification of Tenrec ecaudatus, a Wild Mammal Introduced to Mayotte Island, as a Reservoir of the Newly Identified Human Pathogenic Leptospira mayottensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Lagadec

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands. Human populations on western Indian Ocean islands are strongly affected by the disease although each archipelago shows contrasting epidemiology. For instance, Mayotte, part of the Comoros Archipelago, differs from the other neighbouring islands by a high diversity of Leptospira species infecting humans that includes Leptospira mayottensis, a species thought to be unique to this island. Using bacterial culture, molecular detection and typing, the present study explored the wild and domestic local mammalian fauna for renal carriage of leptospires and addressed the genetic relationships of the infecting strains with local isolates obtained from acute human cases and with Leptospira strains hosted by mammal species endemic to nearby Madagascar. Tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus, Family Tenrecidae, a terrestrial mammal introduced from Madagascar, is identified as a reservoir of L. mayottensis. All isolated L. mayottensis sequence types form a monophyletic clade that includes Leptospira strains infecting humans and tenrecs on Mayotte, as well as two other Malagasy endemic tenrecid species of the genus Microgale. The lower diversity of L. mayottensis in tenrecs from Mayotte, compared to that occurring in Madagascar, suggests that L. mayottensis has indeed a Malagasy origin. This study also showed that introduced rats (Rattus rattus and dogs are probably the main reservoirs of Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri, both bacteria being prevalent in local clinical cases. Data emphasize the epidemiological link between the two neighbouring islands and the role of introduced small mammals in shaping the local epidemiology of leptospirosis.

  13. Effect of culture medium on polymer production and temperature on recovery of polymer produced from newly identified Rhyzopus oryzae ST29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermotolerant fungal isolate ST29 was identified by observing on cell morphology and molecular technique based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene to be Rhizopus oryzae. Among four culture media tested, the strain exhibited the highest growth in yeast malt extract (YM medium (4.87 g/l, followed by Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB (4.25 g/l, potato dextrose broth (PDB (4.10 g/l and palm oil mill effluent (POME (3.29 g/l, respectively, after 4 days cultivation at 45oC. However, the strain was found to produce polymer only in POME medium at 45oC, but not in the three synthetic media tested. Effect of temperature on separation of the biopolymer produced by this fungal strain was studied by incubating the culture broth in water bath with temperatures in the range of room temperature to 70oC. The biopolymer was recovered by filtration, centrifugation, and precipitation by adding 4 volumes of 95% ethanol, then freeze-drying. These temperatures therefore had no influence on the biopolymer yields (5.58-5.78 g/l or on biomass yields (2.90-3.29 g/l.

  14. A newly identified group of adolescents at “invisible” risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group (“invisible” risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the “invisible” risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the “invisible” group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The “invisible” group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  15. String perturbation theory diverges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Periwal, V.

    1988-01-01

    We prove that perturbation theory for the bosonic string diverges for arbitrary values of the coupling constant and is not Borel summable. This divergence is independent of the existence of the infinities that occur in the theory due to the presence of tachyons and dilaton tadpoles. We discuss the physical implications of such a divergence

  16. The Patchwork Divergence Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Tevian; Hellaby, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The divergence theorem in its usual form applies only to suitably smooth vector fields. For vector fields which are merely piecewise smooth, as is natural at a boundary between regions with different physical properties, one must patch together the divergence theorem applied separately in each region. We give an elegant derivation of the resulting "patchwork divergence theorem" which is independent of the metric signature in either region, and which is thus valid if the signature changes. (PA...

  17. Divergent Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran

    2016-01-01

    Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...

  18. On infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of infrared divergences is studied in superrenormalizable interactions. It is conjectured that there is an extension of the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk-Hepp theorem which copes also with infrared divergences. The consequences of this conjecture on the singularities of the Borel transform in a massless asymptotic free field theory are discussed. The application of these ideas to gauge theories is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Quantum skew divergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R., E-mail: koenraad.audenaert@rhul.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 0EX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Ghent, S9, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.

  20. Identifying and Prioritizing Gaps in Neuroendocrine Tumor Research: A Modified Delphi Process With Patients and Health Care Providers to Set the Research Action Plan for the Newly Formed Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelov, Eva; Chan, David; Lawrence, Ben; Pavlakis, Nick; Kennecke, Hagen F; Jackson, Christopher; Law, Calvin; Singh, Simron

    2017-08-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. The Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration (CommNETS) was established in 2015 to enhance outcomes for patients with NETs in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Patient/advocate and health care provider/researcher expert panels undertook Round 1, which canvassed 17 research priorities and 42 potential topics; in Round 2, these priorities were ranked. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. The Delphi groups consisted of 203 participants in Round 1 (64% health care providers/researchers, 36% patient/advocates; 52% Canadian, 32% Australian, and 17% New Zealander), of whom 132 participated in Round 2. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. Two major areas were ranked significantly higher by patients/advocates: early diagnosis and curative surgery. Six CommNETS working parties were established. This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans reflect unmet needs and priorities in the field.

  1. Identifying and Prioritizing Gaps in Neuroendocrine Tumor Research: A Modified Delphi Process With Patients and Health Care Providers to Set the Research Action Plan for the Newly Formed Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segelov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are a diverse group of malignancies that pose challenges common to all rare tumors. The Commonwealth Neuroendocrine Tumor Collaboration (CommNETS was established in 2015 to enhance outcomes for patients with NETs in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A modified Delphi process was undertaken involving patients, clinicians, and researchers to identify gaps in NETs research to produce a comprehensive and defensible research action plan. Methods: A three-round modified Delphi process was undertaken with larger representation than usual for medical consensus processes. Patient/advocate and health care provider/researcher expert panels undertook Round 1, which canvassed 17 research priorities and 42 potential topics; in Round 2, these priorities were ranked. Round 3 comprised a face-to-face meeting to generate final consensus rankings and formulate the research action plan. Results: The Delphi groups consisted of 203 participants in Round 1 (64% health care providers/researchers, 36% patient/advocates; 52% Canadian, 32% Australian, and 17% New Zealander, of whom 132 participated in Round 2. The top eight priorities were biomarker development; peptide receptor radionuclide therapy optimization; trials of new agents in advanced NETs; functional imaging; sequencing therapies for metastatic NETs, including development of validated surrogate end points for studies; pathologic classification; early diagnosis; interventional therapeutics; and curative surgery. Two major areas were ranked significantly higher by patients/advocates: early diagnosis and curative surgery. Six CommNETS working parties were established. Conclusion: This modified Delphi process resulted in a well-founded set of research priorities for the newly formed CommNETS collaboration by involving a large, diverse group of stakeholders. This approach to setting a research agenda for a new collaborative group should be adopted to ensure that research plans

  2. Genetic and molecular risk factors within the newly identified primate-specific exon of the SAP97/DLG1 gene in the 3q29 schizophrenia-associated locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezato, Akihito; Yamamoto, Naoki; Jitoku, Daisuke; Haramo, Emiko; Hiraaki, Eri; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Umino, Masakazu; Umino, Asami; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Kurumaji, Akeo; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Nishikawa, Toru

    2017-12-01

    The synapse-associated protein 97/discs, large homolog 1 of Drosophila (DLG1) gene encodes synaptic scaffold PDZ proteins interacting with ionotropic glutamate receptors including the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) that is presumed to be hypoactive in brains of patients with schizophrenia. The DLG1 gene resides in the chromosomal position 3q29, the microdeletion of which confers a 40-fold increase in the risk for schizophrenia. In the present study, we performed genetic association analyses for DLG1 gene using a Japanese cohort with 1808 schizophrenia patients and 2170 controls. We detected an association which remained significant after multiple comparison testing between schizophrenia and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3915512 that is located within the newly identified primate-specific exon (exon 3b) of the DLG1 gene and constitutes the exonic splicing enhancer sequence. When stratified by onset age, although it did not survive multiple comparisons, the association was observed in non-early onset schizophrenia, whose onset-age selectivity is consistent with our recent postmortem study demonstrating a decrease in the expression of the DLG1 variant in early-onset schizophrenia. Although the present study did not demonstrate the previously reported association of the SNP rs9843659 by itself, a meta-analysis revealed a significant association between DLG1 gene and schizophrenia. These findings provide a valuable clue for molecular mechanisms on how genetic variations in the primate-specific exon of the gene in the schizophrenia-associated 3q29 locus affect its regulation in the glutamate system and lead to the disease onset around a specific stage of brain development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  4. Local divergence and curvature divergence in first order optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafusire, Cosmas; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.

    2018-06-01

    The far-field divergence of a light beam propagating through a first order optical system is presented as a square root of the sum of the squares of the local divergence and the curvature divergence. The local divergence is defined as the ratio of the beam parameter product to the beam width whilst the curvature divergence is a ratio of the space-angular moment also to the beam width. It is established that the beam’s focusing parameter can be defined as a ratio of the local divergence to the curvature divergence. The relationships between the two divergences and other second moment-based beam parameters are presented. Their various mathematical properties are presented such as their evolution through first order systems. The efficacy of the model in the analysis of high power continuous wave laser-based welding systems is briefly discussed.

  5. Convergence from divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Ovidiu; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2018-01-01

    We show how to convert divergent series, which typically occur in many applications in physics, into rapidly convergent inverse factorial series. This can be interpreted physically as a novel resummation of perturbative series. Being convergent, these new series allow rigorous extrapolation from an asymptotic region with a large parameter, to the opposite region where the parameter is small. We illustrate the method with various physical examples, and discuss how these convergent series relate to standard methods such as Borel summation, and also how they incorporate the physical Stokes phenomenon. We comment on the relation of these results to Dyson’s physical argument for the divergence of perturbation theory. This approach also leads naturally to a wide class of relations between bosonic and fermionic partition functions, and Klein-Gordon and Dirac determinants.

  6. Regularization of divergent integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.

  7. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  8. Ion divergence in magnetically insulated diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, S.A.; Lemke, R.W.; Pointon, T.D.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Filuk, A.; Bailey, J.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetically insulated ion diodes are being developed to drive inertial confinement fusion. Ion beam microdivergence must be reduced to achieve the very high beam intensities required to achieve this goal. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations indicate that instability induced fluctuations can produce significant ion divergence during acceleration. These simulations exhibit a fast growing mode early in time, which has been identified as the diocotron instability. The divergence generated by this mode is modest due to the relatively high frequency (>1GHz). Later, a low-frequency low-phase-velocity instability develops. This instability couples effectively to the ions, since the frequency is approximately the reciprocal of the ion transit time, and can generate unacceptably large ion divergences (>30 mrad). Linear stability theory reveals that this mode requires perturbations parallel to the applied magnetic field and is related to the modified two stream instability. Measurements of ion density fluctuations and energy-momentum correlations have confirmed that instabilities develop in ion diodes and contribute to the ion divergence. In addition, spectroscopic measurements indicate that the ions have a significant transverse temperature very close to the emission surface. Passive lithium fluoride (LiF) anodes have larger transverse beam temperatures than laser irradiated active sources. Calculations of source divergence expected from the roughness of LiF surfaces and the possible removal of this layer is presented

  9. A synthetic cannabinoid FDU-NNEI, two 2H-indazole isomers of synthetic cannabinoids AB-CHMINACA and NNEI indazole analog (MN-18), a phenethylamine derivative N-OH-EDMA, and a cathinone derivative dimethoxy-α-PHP, newly identified in illegal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Nahoko; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Demizu, Yosuke; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi

    Six new psychoactive substances were identified together with two other substances (compounds 1 - 8 ) in illegal products by our ongoing survey in Japan between January and July 2014. A new synthetic cannabinoid, FDU-NNEI [1-(4-fluorobenzyl)- N -(naphthalen-1-yl)-1 H -indole-3-carboxamide, 2 ], was detected with the newly distributed synthetic cannabinoid FDU-PB-22 ( 1 ). Two 2 H -indazole isomers of synthetic cannabinoids, AB-CHMINACA 2 H -indazole analog ( 3 ) and NNEI 2 H -indazole analog ( 4 ), were newly identified with 1 H -indazoles [AB-CHMINACA and NNEI indazole analog (MN-18)]. In addition, 2-methylpropyl N -(naphthalen-1-yl) carbamate ( 5 ) and isobutyl 1-pentyl-1 H -indazole-3-carboxylate ( 6 ) were detected in illegal products. Compound 6 is considered to be a by-product of the preparation of NNEI indazole analog from compound 5 and 1-pentyl-1 H -indazole. A phenethylamine derivative, N -OH-EDMA [ N -hydroxy-3,4-ethylenedioxy- N -methylamphetamine, 7 ], and a cathinone derivative, dimethoxy-α-PHP (dimethoxy-α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone, 8 ), were newly identified in illegal products. Among them, compounds 1 and 8 have been controlled as designated substances (Shitei-Yakubutsu) under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan since August and November 2014, respectively.

  10. Divergent Perturbation Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various perturbation series are factorially divergent. The behavior of their high-order terms can be determined by Lipatov's method, which involves the use of instanton configurations of appropriate functional integrals. When the Lipatov asymptotic form is known and several lowest order terms of the perturbation series are found by direct calculation of diagrams, one can gain insight into the behavior of the remaining terms of the series, which can be resummed to solve various strong-coupling problems in a certain approximation. This approach is demonstrated by determining the Gell-Mann-Low functions in φ 4 theory, QED, and QCD with arbitrary coupling constants. An overview of the mathematical theory of divergent series is presented, and interpretation of perturbation series is discussed. Explicit derivations of the Lipatov asymptotic form are presented for some basic problems in theoretical physics. A solution is proposed to the problem of renormalon contributions, which hampered progress in this field in the late 1970s. Practical perturbation-series summation schemes are described both for a coupling constant of order unity and in the strong-coupling limit. An interpretation of the Borel integral is given for 'non-Borel-summable' series. Higher order corrections to the Lipatov asymptotic form are discussed

  11. Analysis of Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec in Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus sciuri: identification of a novel ccr gene complex with a newly identified ccrA allotype (ccrA7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushibara, Noriko; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Mohammad Akram; Kawaguchiya, Mitsuyo; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2011-06-01

    Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is conferred by the acquisition in its chromosome of the mecA gene, which is located on a mobile genetic element called staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). Genetic type of SCCmec is defined by combination of mec gene complex class and cassette chromosome recombinase gene (ccr) allotype. In this study, we analyzed genetic diversity of the SCCmec in 11 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains and a Staphylococcus sciuri strain, which were recently isolated from clinical specimens in Bangladesh. Among these strains, only two S. haemolyticus strains were proved to have the known types of SCCmec, that is, SCCmec V (class C2 mec-ccrC) and VII (class C1 mec-ccrC). Five S. haemolyticus strains were assigned two unique mec-ccr gene complexes combination; that is, class C1 mec-ccrA4B4 (four isolates) and class A mec-ccrC (one isolate). In the remaining four S. haemolyticus strains with class C1 mec, no known ccr allotypes could be detected. A single S. sciuri strain with class A mec complex carried a ccrA gene belonging to a novel allotype designated ccrA7, together with ccrB3. The ccrA7 gene in the S. sciuri strain showed 61.7%-82.7% sequence identity to the ccrA gene sequences published so far, and 75.3% identity to ccrA3, which is a component of the type 3 ccr complex (ccrA3-ccrB3) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The results of the present study indicated that mec gene complex and ccr genes in coagulase-negative staphylococci are highly divergent, and distinct from those of common methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Identification of the novel ccrA7 allotype combined with ccrB3 suggested an occurrence of recombination between different ccr complexes in nature.

  12. Where the lake meets the sea: strong reproductive isolation is associated with adaptive divergence between lake resident and anadromous three-spined sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ravinet

    Full Text Available Contact zones between divergent forms of the same species are often characterised by high levels of phenotypic diversity over small geographic distances. What processes are involved in generating such high phenotypic diversity? One possibility is that introgression and recombination between divergent forms in contact zones results in greater phenotypic and genetic polymorphism. Alternatively, strong reproductive isolation between forms may maintain distinct phenotypes, preventing homogenisation by gene flow. Contact zones between divergent freshwater-resident and anadromous stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L. forms are numerous and common throughout the species distribution, offering an opportunity to examine these contrasting hypotheses in greater detail. This study reports on an interesting new contact zone located in a tidally influenced lake catchment in western Ireland, characterised by high polymorphism for lateral plate phenotypes. Using neutral and QTL-linked microsatellite markers, we tested whether the high diversity observed in this contact zone arose as a result of introgression or reproductive isolation between divergent forms: we found strong support for the latter hypothesis. Three phenotypic and genetic clusters were identified, consistent with two divergent resident forms and a distinct anadromous completely plated population that migrates in and out of the system. Given the strong neutral differentiation detected between all three morphotypes (mean FST = 0.12, we hypothesised that divergent selection between forms maintains reproductive isolation. We found a correlation between neutral genetic and adaptive genetic differentiation that support this. While strong associations between QTL linked markers and phenotypes were also observed in this wild population, our results support the suggestion that such associations may be more complex in some Atlantic populations compared to those in the Pacific. These findings provide an

  13. U-Pb baddeleyite ages and geochemistry of dolerite dykes in the Bas Drâa Inlier of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco: Newly identified 1380 Ma event in the West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bahat, Abdelhakim; Ikenne, Moha; Söderlund, Ulf; Cousens, Brian; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Ernst, Richard; Soulaimani, Abderrahmane; El Janati, M'hamed; Hafid, Ahmid

    2013-08-01

    In the Bas-Drâa Inlier (Anti-Atlas, Morocco), the Paleoproterozoic basement which is cut by the Ediacaran Taourgha granite is also crosscut by numerous dykes of a variety of trends, mostly of uncertain age. Two doleritic dykes are dated by the ID-TIMS U-Pb method on baddeleyite and yield emplacement ages of 1381 ± 8 Ma (MSWD = 0.84) and 1384 ± 6 Ma (MSWD = 1.4) determined for a N135°E and a N40°E trending dyke, respectively. These dates represent the first geochronological evidence of a Mesoproterozoic magmatic event in the Anti-Atlas. This magmatic event falls in the previously considered ca 1.7-1.0 Ga (Mesoproterozoic) gap in geological activity in the Anti-Atlas. The poorly dated Taghdout and Taarotihate sequences could represent remnants of the ca. 1380 Ma magmatism and rift-related sedimentation. The Mesoproterozoic sedimentary succession of the Atar Group in the Taoudeni basin (Mauritania) could also represent a good candidate for rift-related sedimentation but it postdates the 1380 Ma magmatic event by 270 Ma. The dated 1380 Ma dykes are transitional to mildly alkaline basalts, not unlike some Hawaiian lavas. However, these dykes have a distinct negative Nb anomaly (a common features in many Large Igneous Provinces, LIPs), and this requires interaction with the lithosphere. This interaction may have occurred at the level of the lithospheric mantle or the crust. These newly dated 1380 Ma dykes may converge to the north, speculatively suggesting a magmatic center (associated with a 1380 Ma mantle plume?) along the northern margin, and possibly linked to rifting and possible breakup on that margin, and also to a regional uplift that largely removed the evidence of a 1380 Ma cover sequence. Contemporaneous 1380-1390 Ma magmatism is reported elsewhere on other crustal blocks, and that in northeastern Laurentia (northern Greenland), northern Siberia (Anabar shield), and Baltica (southern Urals) can be reconstructed with that of the Bas Drâa Inlier (Anti

  14. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and impaired proinsulin conversion as newly identified predictors of the long-term non-response to a lifestyle intervention for diabetes prevention: results from the TULIP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Vera; Wagner, Robert; Sailer, Corinna; Fritsche, Louise; Kantartzis, Konstantinos; Peter, Andreas; Heni, Martin; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Lifestyle intervention is effective to prevent type 2 diabetes. However, a considerable long-term non-response occurs to a standard lifestyle intervention. We investigated which risk phenotypes at baseline and their changes during the lifestyle intervention predict long-term glycaemic non-response to the intervention. Of 300 participants at high risk for type 2 diabetes who participated in a 24 month lifestyle intervention with diet modification and increased physical activity, 190 participants could be re-examined after 8.7 ± 1.6 years. All individuals underwent a five-point 75 g OGTT and measurements of body fat compartments and liver fat content with MRI and spectroscopy at baseline, 9 and 24 months during the lifestyle intervention, and at long-term follow-up. Fasting proinsulin to insulin conversion (PI/I ratio) and insulin sensitivity and secretion were calculated from the OGTT. Non-response to lifestyle intervention was defined as no decrease in glycaemia, i.e. no decrease in AUC for glucose at 0-120 min during OGTT (AUCglucose 0-120 min ). Before the lifestyle intervention, 56% of participants had normal glucose regulation and 44% individuals had impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. At long-term follow-up, 11% had developed diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, BMI and change in BMI during the lifestyle intervention revealed that baseline insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, as well as change in insulin sensitivity during the lifestyle intervention, predicted long-term glycaemic control after 9 years. In addition, increased hepatic lipid content as well as impaired fasting proinsulin conversion at baseline were newly detected phenotypes that independently predicted long-term glycaemic control. Increased hepatic lipid content and impaired proinsulin conversion are new predictors, independent of change in body weight, for non-response to lifestyle intervention in addition to the

  15. Quadratic divergences and dimensional regularisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack, I.; Jones, D.R.T.

    1990-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of quadratic and quartic divergences in dimensionally regulated renormalisable theories. We perform explicit three-loop calculations for a general theory of scalars and fermions. We find that the higher-order quartic divergences are related to the lower-order ones by the renormalisation group β-functions. (orig.)

  16. Brief Report: IRF4 Newly Identified as a Common Susceptibility Locus for Systemic Sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Cross-Disease Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Isac, Elena; Martín, Jose Ezequiel; Assassi, Shervin; Simeón, Carmen P.; Carreira, Patricia; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Freire, Mayka; Beltrán, Emma; Narváez, Javier; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Balsa, Alejandro; Ortiz, Ana M.; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Santaniello, Alessandro; Bellocchi, Chiara; Lunardi, Claudio; Moroncini, Gianluca; Gabrielli, Armando; Witte, Torsten; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Distler, Jörg H W; Riekemasten, Gabriella; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H.; de Vries-Bouwstra, Jeska; Magro-Checa, Cesar; Voskuyl, Alexandre E.; Vonk, Madelon C.; Molberg, Øyvind; Merriman, Tony; Hesselstrand, Roger; Nordin, Annika; Padyukov, Leonid; Herrick, Ariane; Eyre, Steve; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Denton, Christopher P.; Fonseca, Carmen; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Worthington, Jane; Mayes, Maureen D.; Martín, Javier; Ríos, Raquel; Callejas, Jose Luis; Hitos, José Antonio Vargas; Portales, Rosa García; Camps, María Teresa; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; González-Escribano, María F.; García-Hernández, Francisco José; Castillo, Ma Jesús; Ángeles Aguirre, Ma; Gómez-Gracia, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Peña, Paloma García de la; Vicente, Esther; Andreu, José Luis; de Castro, Mónica Fernández; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Martínez, Lina; Fonollosa, Vicente; Guillén, Alfredo; Castellví, Iván; Espinosa, Gerard; Tolosa, Carlos; Pros, Anna; Carballeira, Mónica Rodríguez; Narváez, Francisco Javier; Rivas, Manel Rubio; Ortiz-Santamaría, Vera; Madroñero, Ana Belén; Díaz, Bernardino; Trapiella, Luis; Sousa, Adrián; Egurbide, María Victoria; Mateo, Patricia Fanlo; Sáez-Comet, Luis; Díaz, Federico; Hernández, Vanesa; Beltrán, Emma; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; Grau, Elena; Alegre-Sancho, Juan José; Blanco García, Francisco J.; Oreiro, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are autoimmune diseases that have similar clinical and immunologic characteristics. To date, several shared SSc–RA genetic loci have been identified independently. The aim of the current study was to systematically search for new

  17. Newly identified CpG ODNs, M5-30 and M6-395, stimulate mouse immune cells to secrete TNF-alpha and enhance Th1-mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Shim; Chung, Eunkyung; Jung, Yu-Jin

    2010-08-01

    Bacterial CpG motifs are known to induce both innate and adaptive immunity in infected hosts via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Because small oligonucleotides (ODNs) mimicking bacterial CpG motifs are easily synthesized, they have found use as immunomodulatory agents in a number of disease models. We have developed a novel bioinformatics approach to identify effective CpG ODN sequences and evaluate their function as TLR9 ligands in a murine system. Among the CpG ODNs we identified, M5-30 and M6-395 showed significant ability to stimulate TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma production in a mouse macrophage cell line and mouse splenocytes, respectively. We also found that these CpG ODNs activated cells through the canonical NF-kappa B signaling pathway. Moreover, both CpG ODNs were able to induce Th1-mediated immunity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected mice. Our results demonstrate that M5-30 and M6-395 function as TLR9-specific ligands, making them useful in the study of TLR9 functionality and signaling in mice.

  18. Linear energy divergences in Coulomb gauge QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Andrasi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of linear energy divergences is analysed on the example of one graph to 3-loop order. Such dangerous divergences do cancel when all graphs are added, but next to leading divergences do not cancel out.

  19. Boiling flow through diverging microchannel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    such systems, for small pressure drop penalty and with good flow stability. .... ied the effect of divergence angle on mean and transient pressure/temperature distribution and .... supplying a fixed voltage and current using a power source meter.

  20. Effect of co-substrate on production of poly-β- hydroxybutyrate (PHB and copolymer PHBV from newly identified mutant Rhodobacter sphaeroides U7 cultivated under aerobic-dark condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemarajt Kemavongse

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic bacterial mutant strain U7 was identified using both classical and molecular (16S rDNA techniques to be Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The glutamate-acetate (GA medium containing sodium acetate and sodium glutamate as carbon and nitrogen sources was used for production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB from R. sphaeroides U7 cultivated under aerobic-dark condition (200 rpm at 37oC. Effect of auxiliary carbon sources (propionate and valerate and concentrations (molar ratio of 40/0, 40/20, 40/40 and 40/80 on copolymer production were studied. Both combinations of acetate with valerate and acetate with propionate were found to induce the accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV within the cell. Acetate with propionate in the molar ratio of 40/40 gave the highest poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA content (77.68%, followed by acetate with valerate at the same molar ratio (77.42%. Although their polymer contents were similar, the presence of 40 mM valerate gave more than 4 times higher hydroxyvalerate (HV fraction (84.77% than in the presence of 40 mM propionate (19.12% HV fraction.

  1. Atmospheric horizontal divergence and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castans, M.

    1981-01-01

    The action of horizontal divergence on diffusion near the ground is established through.a very simple flow model. The shape of the well-known Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves, that apparently take account in some way of divergence, is justified. The possibility of explaining the discre--pancies between the conventional straight line model and experimental results, mainly under low-wind-speed satable conditions, is considered. Some hints for further research are made. (auth.)

  2. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of diploid Leucaena (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae) reveal cryptic species diversity and patterns of divergent allopatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Hughes, Colin E; Bailey, C Donovan

    2011-12-01

    Leucaena comprises 17 diploid species, five tetraploid species, and a complex series of hybrids whose evolutionary histories have been influenced by human seed translocation, cultivation, and subsequent spontaneous hybridization. Here we investigated patterns of evolutionary divergence among diploid Leucaena through comprehensively sampled multilocus phylogenetic and population genetic approaches to address species delimitation, interspecific relationships, hybridization, and the predominant mode of speciation among diploids. Parsimony- and maximum-likelihood-based phylogenetic approaches were applied to 59 accessions sequenced for six SCAR-based nuclear loci, nrDNA ITS, and four cpDNA regions. Population genetic comparisons included 1215 AFLP loci representing 42 populations and 424 individuals. Phylogenetic results provided a well-resolved hypothesis of divergent species relationships, recovering previously recognized clades of diploids as well as newly resolved relationships. Phylogenetic and population genetic assessments identified two cryptic species that are consistent with geography and morphology. Findings from this study highlight the importance and utility of multilocus data in the recovery of complex evolutionary histories. The results are consistent with allopatric divergence representing the predominant mode of speciation among diploid Leucaena. These findings contrast with the potential hybrid origin of several tetraploid species and highlight the importance of human translocation of seed to the origin of these tetraploids. The recognition of one previously unrecognized species (L. cruziana) and the elevation of another taxon (L. collinsii subsp. zacapana) to specific status (L. zacapana) is consistent with a growing number of newly diagnosed species from neotropical seasonally dry forests, suggesting these communities harbor greater species diversity than previously recognized.

  3. String loop divergences and effective lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, W.; Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.

    1988-01-01

    We isolate logarithmic divergences from bosonic string amplitudes on a disc. These divergences are compared with 'tadpole' divergences in the effective field theory, with a covariant cosmological term implied by the counting of string coupling constants. We find an inconsistency between the two. This might be a problem in eliminating divergences from the bosonic string. (orig.)

  4. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  5. Semantic search during divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Richard W

    2017-09-01

    Divergent thinking, as a method of examining creative cognition, has not been adequately analyzed in the context of modern cognitive theories. This article casts divergent thinking responding in the context of theories of memory search. First, it was argued that divergent thinking tasks are similar to semantic fluency tasks, but are more constrained, and less well structured. Next, response time distributions from 54 participants were analyzed for temporal and semantic clustering. Participants responded to two prompts from the alternative uses test: uses for a brick and uses for a bottle, for two minutes each. Participants' cumulative response curves were negatively accelerating, in line with theories of search of associative memory. However, results of analyses of semantic and temporal clustering suggested that clustering is less evident in alternative uses responding compared to semantic fluency tasks. This suggests either that divergent thinking responding does not involve an exhaustive search through a clustered memory trace, but rather that the process is more exploratory, yielding fewer overall responses that tend to drift away from close associates of the divergent thinking prompt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Divergent Foster Care Careers for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Foster care children who experience placement disruption and foster care instability are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, yet little work considers what these unstable foster care careers look like or what causes them. In this article, I start by using previous studies on foster care...

  7. Newly identified interfibrillar collagen crosslinking suppresses cell proliferation and remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Benedetto; Le Nihouannen, Damien; Hacking, S Adam; Tran, Simon; Li, Jingjing; Murshed, Monzur; Doillon, Charles J; Ghezzi, Chiara E; Zhang, Yu Ling; Nazhat, Showan N; Barralet, Jake E

    2015-06-01

    Copper is becoming recognised as a key cation in a variety of biological processes. Copper chelation has been studied as a potential anti-angiogenic strategy for arresting tumour growth. Conversely the delivery of copper ions and complexes in vivo can elicit a pro-angiogenic effect. Previously we unexpectedly found that copper-stimulated intraperitoneal angiogenesis was accompanied by collagen deposition. Here, in hard tissue, not only was healing accelerated by copper, but again enhanced deposition of collagen was detected at 2 weeks. Experiments with reconstituted collagen showed that addition of copper ions post-fibrillogenesis rendered plastically-compressed gels resistant to collagenases, enhanced their mechanical properties and increased the denaturation temperature of the protein. Unexpectedly, this apparently interfibrillar crosslinking was not affected by addition of glucose or ascorbic acid, which are required for crosslinking by advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Fibroblasts cultured on copper-crosslinked gels did not proliferate, whereas those cultured with an equivalent quantity of copper on either tissue culture plastic or collagen showed no effect compared with controls. Although non-proliferative, fibroblasts grown on copper-cross-linked collagen could migrate, remained metabolically active for at least 14 days and displayed a 6-fold increase in Mmps 1 and 3 mRNA expression compared with copper-free controls. The ability of copper ions to crosslink collagen fibrils during densification and independently of AGEs or Fenton type reactions is previously unreported. The effect on MMP susceptibility of collagen and the dramatic change in cell behaviour on this crosslinked ECM may contribute to shedding some light on unexplained phenomena as the apparent benefit of copper complexation in fibrotic disorders or the enhanced collagen deposition in response to localised copper delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seven newly identified loci for autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jason D; Simmonds, Matthew J; Walker, Neil M; Burren, Oliver; Brand, Oliver J; Guo, Hui; Wallace, Chris; Stevens, Helen; Coleman, Gillian; Franklyn, Jayne A; Todd, John A; Gough, Stephen C L

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), including Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), is one of the most common of the immune-mediated diseases. To further investigate the genetic determinants of AITD, we conducted an association study using a custom-made single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, the ImmunoChip. The SNP array contains all known and genotype-able SNPs across 186 distinct susceptibility loci associated with one or more immune-mediated diseases. After stringent quality control, we analysed 103 875 common SNPs (minor allele frequency >0.05) in 2285 GD and 462 HT patients and 9364 controls. We found evidence for seven new AITD risk loci (P test derived significance threshold), five at locations previously associated and two at locations awaiting confirmation, with other immune-mediated diseases.

  9. Generational differences among newly licensed registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepnews, David M; Brewer, Carol S; Kovner, Christine T; Shin, Juh Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Responses of 2369 newly licensed registered nurses from 3 generational cohorts-Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y-were studied to identify differences in their characteristics, work-related experiences, and attitudes. These responses revealed significant differences among generations in: job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work motivation, work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, distributive justice, promotional opportunities, supervisory support, mentor support, procedural justice, and perceptions of local job opportunities. Health organizations and their leaders need to anticipate intergenerational differences among newly licensed nurses and should provide for supportive working environments that recognize those differences. Orientation and residency programs for newly licensed nurses should be tailored to the varying needs of different generations. Future research should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of orientation and residency programs with regard to different generations so that these programs can be tailored to meet the varying needs of newly licensed nurses at the start of their careers. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyperreal Numbers for Infinite Divergent Series

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Treating divergent series properly has been an ongoing issue in mathematics. However, many of the problems in divergent series stem from the fact that divergent series were discovered prior to having a number system which could handle them. The infinities that resulted from divergent series led to contradictions within the real number system, but these contradictions are largely alleviated with the hyperreal number system. Hyperreal numbers provide a framework for dealing with divergent serie...

  11. Chained Kullback-Leibler Divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlichin, Dmitri S.; Weissman, Tsachy

    2017-01-01

    We define and characterize the “chained” Kullback-Leibler divergence minw D(p‖w) + D(w‖q) minimized over all intermediate distributions w and the analogous k-fold chained K-L divergence min D(p‖wk−1) + … + D(w2‖w1) + D(w1‖q) minimized over the entire path (w1,…,wk−1). This quantity arises in a large deviations analysis of a Markov chain on the set of types – the Wright-Fisher model of neutral genetic drift: a population with allele distribution q produces offspring with allele distribution w, which then produce offspring with allele distribution p, and so on. The chained divergences enjoy some of the same properties as the K-L divergence (like joint convexity in the arguments) and appear in k-step versions of some of the same settings as the K-L divergence (like information projections and a conditional limit theorem). We further characterize the optimal k-step “path” of distributions appearing in the definition and apply our findings in a large deviations analysis of the Wright-Fisher process. We make a connection to information geometry via the previously studied continuum limit, where the number of steps tends to infinity, and the limiting path is a geodesic in the Fisher information metric. Finally, we offer a thermodynamic interpretation of the chained divergence (as the rate of operation of an appropriately defined Maxwell’s demon) and we state some natural extensions and applications (a k-step mutual information and k-step maximum likelihood inference). We release code for computing the objects we study. PMID:29130024

  12. Unexpected Functional Divergence of Bat Influenza Virus NS1 Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Hannah L; Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Tsolakos, Nikos; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Schwemmle, Martin; Hale, Benjamin G

    2018-03-01

    Recently, two influenza A virus (FLUAV) genomes were identified in Central and South American bats. These sequences exhibit notable divergence from classical FLUAV counterparts, and functionally, bat FLUAV glycoproteins lack canonical receptor binding and destroying activity. Nevertheless, other features that distinguish these viruses from classical FLUAVs have yet to be explored. Here, we studied the viral nonstructural protein NS1, a virulence factor that modulates host signaling to promote efficient propagation. Like all FLUAV NS1 proteins, bat FLUAV NS1s bind double-stranded RNA and act as interferon antagonists. Unexpectedly, we found that bat FLUAV NS1s are unique in being unable to bind host p85β, a regulatory subunit of the cellular metabolism-regulating enzyme, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Furthermore, neither bat FLUAV NS1 alone nor infection with a chimeric bat FLUAV efficiently activates Akt, a PI3K effector. Structure-guided mutagenesis revealed that the bat FLUAV NS1-p85β interaction can be reengineered (in a strain-specific manner) by changing two to four NS1 residues (96L, 99M, 100I, and 145T), thereby creating a hydrophobic patch. Notably, ameliorated p85β-binding is insufficient for bat FLUAV NS1 to activate PI3K, and a chimeric bat FLUAV expressing NS1 with engineered hydrophobic patch mutations exhibits cell-type-dependent, but species-independent, propagation phenotypes. We hypothesize that bat FLUAV hijacking of PI3K in the natural bat host has been selected against, perhaps because genes in this metabolic pathway were differentially shaped by evolution to suit the unique energy use strategies of this flying mammal. These data expand our understanding of the enigmatic functional divergence between bat FLUAVs and classical mammalian and avian FLUAVs. IMPORTANCE The potential for novel influenza A viruses to establish infections in humans from animals is a source of continuous concern due to possible severe outbreaks or pandemics. The

  13. Computational Investigations in Rectangular Convergent and Divergent Ribbed Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Karthikeyan; Kulasekharan, N.; Natarajan, E.

    2018-05-01

    Computational investigations on the rib turbulated flow inside a convergent and divergent rectangular channel with square ribs of different rib heights and different Reynolds numbers (Re=20,000, 40,000 and 60,000). The ribs were arranged in a staggered fashion between the upper and lower surfaces of the test section. Computational investigations are carried out using computational fluid dynamic software ANSYS Fluent 14.0. Suitable solver settings like turbulence models were identified from the literature and the boundary conditions for the simulations on a solution of independent grid. Computations were carried out for both convergent and divergent channels with 0 (smooth duct), 1.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mm rib heights, to identify the ribbed channel with optimal performance, assessed using a thermo hydraulic performance parameter. The convergent and divergent rectangular channels show higher Nu values than the standard correlation values.

  14. Genetic divergence in sesame based on morphological and agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Helena Castro Arriel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of diversity in germplasm collections is important for both plant breeders and germplasmcurators to optimize the use of the variability available. Diversity can be estimated by different genetic markers. The purposeof this study was to estimate the genetic divergence of 30 morphological and agronomic traits in 108 sesame genotypes bymultivariate analysis. The Cole-Rodgers index was used to establish the dissimilarity matrices. The principal componentanalysis identified the traits that contributed most to the divergence and the genotypes were clustered by Tocher’s optimization.Despite the narrow genetic basis, the markers were efficient to characterize the genotypes and identify the most similar groupsor duplicate and divergent genotypes. Greatest variation was found for the traits number of capsules per plant and grain yield.

  15. On Hölder Projective Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank

    2017-03-16

    We describe a framework to build distances by measuring the tightness of inequalities and introduce the notion of proper statistical divergences and improper pseudo-divergences. We then consider the Holder ordinary and reverse inequalities and present two novel classes of Holder divergences and pseudo-divergences that both encapsulate the special case of the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence. We report closed-form formulas for those statistical dissimilarities when considering distributions belonging to the same exponential family provided that the natural parameter space is a cone (e.g., multivariate Gaussians) or affine (e.g., categorical distributions). Those new classes of Holder distances are invariant to rescaling and thus do not require distributions to be normalized. Finally, we show how to compute statistical Holder centroids with respect to those divergences and carry out center-based clustering toy experiments on a set of Gaussian distributions which demonstrate empirically that symmetrized Holder divergences outperform the symmetric Cauchy-Schwarz divergence.

  16. On Hölder Projective Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank; Sun, Ke; Marchand-Maillet, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    We describe a framework to build distances by measuring the tightness of inequalities and introduce the notion of proper statistical divergences and improper pseudo-divergences. We then consider the Holder ordinary and reverse inequalities and present two novel classes of Holder divergences and pseudo-divergences that both encapsulate the special case of the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence. We report closed-form formulas for those statistical dissimilarities when considering distributions belonging to the same exponential family provided that the natural parameter space is a cone (e.g., multivariate Gaussians) or affine (e.g., categorical distributions). Those new classes of Holder distances are invariant to rescaling and thus do not require distributions to be normalized. Finally, we show how to compute statistical Holder centroids with respect to those divergences and carry out center-based clustering toy experiments on a set of Gaussian distributions which demonstrate empirically that symmetrized Holder divergences outperform the symmetric Cauchy-Schwarz divergence.

  17. Genetic Divergence in Sugarcane Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Mohammad; Rahman, Hidayatur; Gul, Rahmani; Ali, Amjad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    To assess genetic divergence of sugarcane germplasm, an experiment comprising 25 sugarcane genotypes was conducted at Sugar Crops Research Institute (SCRI), Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in quadruple lattice design during 2008-09. Among the 14 parameters evaluated, majority exhibited significant differences while some showed nonsignificant mean squares. The initial correlation matrix revealed medium to high correlations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that there were two pr...

  18. Computer recognition of divergences in Feynman graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, J

    1973-05-01

    The program described recognizes whether or not a graph is divergent. It determines the kind of the divergences found: vacuum polarizations, electron self energies and vertices. it does not consider infrared divergences. The programming language used is REDUCE. A LISP version is also available. The nature of the divergences and their counter terms was extensively used to write down this program, therefore it is limited to the case of quantum electrodynamics. (auth)

  19. Genetic divergence of tomato subsamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pugnal Mattedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.

  20. Genetic Divergence in Ducks for Economic Traits | Kalita | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D2 Statistics was used to identify the genetic divergence in 4 groups of duck, namely Khaki Campbell (KC), Desi (D), Khaki Campbell x Desi (KC x D) and Desi x Khaki Campbell (D x KC) reared under rural conditions at the Siphajar, Darrang District, Assam, India. The study showed that both Khaki Campbell and Desi or ...

  1. Statistical inference based on divergence measures

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    The idea of using functionals of Information Theory, such as entropies or divergences, in statistical inference is not new. However, in spite of the fact that divergence statistics have become a very good alternative to the classical likelihood ratio test and the Pearson-type statistic in discrete models, many statisticians remain unaware of this powerful approach.Statistical Inference Based on Divergence Measures explores classical problems of statistical inference, such as estimation and hypothesis testing, on the basis of measures of entropy and divergence. The first two chapters form an overview, from a statistical perspective, of the most important measures of entropy and divergence and study their properties. The author then examines the statistical analysis of discrete multivariate data with emphasis is on problems in contingency tables and loglinear models using phi-divergence test statistics as well as minimum phi-divergence estimators. The final chapter looks at testing in general populations, prese...

  2. Ultraviolet divergences and supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagnotti, A.

    1984-09-01

    This article is closely related to the one by Ferrara in these same Proceedings. It deals with what is perhaps the most fascinating property of supersymmetric theories, their improved ultraviolet behavior. My aim here is to present a survey of the state of the art as of August, 1984, and a somewhat more detailed discussion of the breakdown of the superspace power-counting beyond N = 2 superfields. A method is also described for simplifying divergence calculations that uses the locality of subtracted Feynman integrals. 74 references

  3. Ultraviolet divergences of Einstein gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goroff, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    The author discuss a two-loop calculation showing that the S matrix of Einstein's theory of gravity contains nonrenormalizable ultraviolet divergences in four dimension. The author discusses the calculation in both background field and normal field theory. The author describes a new method for dealing with ghost fields in gauge theories by combining them with suitable extensions of the gauge fields in higher dimensions. The author shows how using subtracted integrals in the calculation of higher loop graphs simplifies the calculation in the background field method by eliminating the need for mixed counterterms. Finally, the author makes some remarks about the implications of the result for supergravity theories

  4. Divergent thinking and constructing episodic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Donna Rose; Pan, Ling; Musicaro, Regina; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Divergent thinking likely plays an important role in simulating autobiographical events. We investigated whether divergent thinking is differentially associated with the ability to construct detailed imagined future and imagined past events as opposed to recalling past events. We also examined whether age differences in divergent thinking might underlie the reduced episodic detail generated by older adults. The richness of episodic detail comprising autobiographical events in young and older adults was assessed using the Autobiographical Interview. Divergent thinking abilities were measured using the Alternative Uses Task. Divergent thinking was significantly associated with the amount of episodic detail for imagined future events. Moreover, while age was significantly associated with imagined episodic detail, this effect was strongly related to age-related changes in episodic retrieval rather than divergent thinking.

  5. Divergence of gene body DNA methylation and evolution of plant duplicate genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available It has been shown that gene body DNA methylation is associated with gene expression. However, whether and how deviation of gene body DNA methylation between duplicate genes can influence their divergence remains largely unexplored. Here, we aim to elucidate the potential role of gene body DNA methylation in the fate of duplicate genes. We identified paralogous gene pairs from Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica genomes and reprocessed their single-base resolution methylome data. We show that methylation in paralogous genes nonlinearly correlates with several gene properties including exon number/gene length, expression level and mutation rate. Further, we demonstrated that divergence of methylation level and pattern in paralogs indeed positively correlate with their sequence and expression divergences. This result held even after controlling for other confounding factors known to influence the divergence of paralogs. We observed that methylation level divergence might be more relevant to the expression divergence of paralogs than methylation pattern divergence. Finally, we explored the mechanisms that might give rise to the divergence of gene body methylation in paralogs. We found that exonic methylation divergence more closely correlates with expression divergence than intronic methylation divergence. We show that genomic environments (e.g., flanked by transposable elements and repetitive sequences of paralogs generated by various duplication mechanisms are associated with the methylation divergence of paralogs. Overall, our results suggest that the changes in gene body DNA methylation could provide another avenue for duplicate genes to develop differential expression patterns and undergo different evolutionary fates in plant genomes.

  6. Genomic Analyses Reveal Demographic History and Temperate Adaptation of the Newly Discovered Honey Bee Subspecies Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan n. ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Zhiguang; Pan, Qi; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Huihua; Guo, Haikun; Liu, Shidong; Lu, Hongfeng; Tian, Shilin; Li, Ruiqiang; Shi, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Studying the genetic signatures of climate-driven selection can produce insights into local adaptation and the potential impacts of climate change on populations. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is an interesting species to study local adaptation because it originated in tropical/subtropical climatic regions and subsequently spread into temperate regions. However, little is known about the genetic basis of its adaptation to temperate climates. Here, we resequenced the whole genomes of ten individual bees from a newly discovered population in temperate China and downloaded resequenced data from 35 individuals from other populations. We found that the new population is an undescribed subspecies in the M-lineage of A. mellifera (Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan). Analyses of population history show that long-term global temperature has strongly influenced the demographic history of A. m. sinisxinyuan and its divergence from other subspecies. Further analyses comparing temperate and tropical populations identified several candidate genes related to fat body and the Hippo signaling pathway that are potentially involved in adaptation to temperate climates. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of the newly discovered A. m. sinisxinyuan, as well as the genetic basis of adaptation of A. mellifera to temperate climates at the genomic level. These findings will facilitate the selective breeding of A. mellifera to improve the survival of overwintering colonies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Genetic divergence analysis in pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quamruzzaman, A.M.; Moniruzzaman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic divergence among 18 punpkin genotypes was estimated using Mahalanohis's 1) statistic. Altogether lour clusters were formed where cluster I contained the highest number of genotypes (8) and cluster II contained the lowest (I). The highest intra-cluster distance was observed h.ir cluster I (0.83 I) and the lowest for clustcr IV (0.65 I). The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and 11(24.346). Cluster II recorded the highest mean for fruit number/plant, TSS, fruit yield and niinitnuiii III cavity length and cavity diameter. Cluster III had the second highest mean for fruit diameter, fruit number/plant, individual unit weight, fruit yield and the fewest number of days to 1st Female flowering, earliness being a desirable trait. These crosses may produce new recombinants with desirable traits. (author)

  8. Divergence operator and related inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    This Brief is mainly devoted to two classical and related results: the existence of a right inverse of the divergence operator and the so-called Korn Inequalities. It is well known that both results are fundamental tools in the analysis of some classic differential equations, particularly in those arising in fluid dynamics and elasticity. Several connections between these two topics and improved Poincaré inequalities are extensively treated. From simple key ideas the book is growing smoothly in complexity. Beginning with the study of these problems on star-shaped domains the arguments are extended first to John domains and then to Hölder α domains where the need of weighted spaces arises naturally. In this fashion, the authors succeed in presenting in an unified and concise way several classic and recent developments in the field. These features certainly makes this Brief useful for students, post-graduate students, and researchers as well.

  9. Ramanujan summation of divergent series

    CERN Document Server

    Candelpergher, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this monograph is to give a detailed exposition of the summation method that Ramanujan uses in Chapter VI of his second Notebook. This method, presented by Ramanujan as an application of the Euler-MacLaurin formula, is here extended using a difference equation in a space of analytic functions. This provides simple proofs of theorems on the summation of some divergent series. Several examples and applications are given. For numerical evaluation, a formula in terms of convergent series is provided by the use of Newton interpolation. The relation with other summation processes such as those of Borel and Euler is also studied. Finally, in the last chapter, a purely algebraic theory is developed that unifies all these summation processes. This monograph is aimed at graduate students and researchers who have a basic knowledge of analytic function theory.

  10. Beam divergence scaling in neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main considerations in the design of neutral beam injectors is to monimize the divergence of the primary ion beam and hence maximize the beam transport and minimize the input of thermal gas. Experimental measurements of the divergence of a cylindrical ion beam are presented and these measurements are used to analyze the major components of ion beam divergence, namely: space charge expansion, gas-ion scattering, emittance and optical aberrations. The implication of these divergence components in the design of a neutral beam injector system is discussed and a method of maximizing the beam current is described for a given area of source plasma

  11. Guises and disguises of quadratic divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchiglia, A.L., E-mail: adriano@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vieira, A.R., E-mail: arvieira@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte@teor.fis.uc.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Baêta Scarpelli, A.P., E-mail: scarpelli.apbs@dpf.gov.br [Setor Técnico-Científico, Departamento de Polícia Federal, Rua Hugo D’Antola, 95 - Lapa, São Paulo (Brazil); Sampaio, Marcos, E-mail: marcos.sampaio@durham.ac.uk [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    In this contribution, we present a new perspective on the control of quadratic divergences in quantum field theory, in general, and in the Higgs naturalness problem, in particular. Our discussion is essentially based on an approach where UV divergences are parameterized, after being reduced to basic divergent integrals (BDI) in one internal momentum, as functions of a cutoff and a renormalization group scale λ. We illustrate our proposal with well-known examples, such as the gluon vacuum self energy of QCD and the Higgs decay in two photons within this approach. We also discuss frameworks in effective low-energy QCD models, where quadratic divergences are indeed fundamental.

  12. Divergence Palsy due to Divalproex and Oxcarbazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marc Albert; Caplan, Louis R; Torun, Nurhan

    This case series is the first to describe divergence palsy as an adverse effect of antiepileptic drug use. Diplopia is a common adverse effect of antiepileptic drugs, but no explanatory motility deficit has ever been reported. We present 2 patients, 1 on oxcarbazepine and 1 on divalproex, each with a normal examination result between spells and divergency palsy when symptomatic. Discontinuation of the antiepileptic medication led to resolution of the episodes in both cases. Rechallenge with the offending agent after washout in one patient resulted in recurrence of diplopia and divergence palsy, both resolving after subsequent withdrawal of the antiepileptic. Antiepileptic drugs may cause divergence palsy.

  13. k-Means Clustering with Hölder Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank; Sun, Ke; Marchand-Maillet, Sté phane

    2017-01-01

    We introduced two novel classes of Hölder divergences and Hölder pseudo-divergences that are both invariant to rescaling, and that both encapsulate the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence and the skew Bhattacharyya divergences. We review the elementary concepts of those parametric divergences, and perform a clustering analysis on two synthetic datasets. It is shown experimentally that the symmetrized Hölder divergences consistently outperform significantly the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence in clustering tasks.

  14. k-Means Clustering with Hölder Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank

    2017-10-24

    We introduced two novel classes of Hölder divergences and Hölder pseudo-divergences that are both invariant to rescaling, and that both encapsulate the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence and the skew Bhattacharyya divergences. We review the elementary concepts of those parametric divergences, and perform a clustering analysis on two synthetic datasets. It is shown experimentally that the symmetrized Hölder divergences consistently outperform significantly the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence in clustering tasks.

  15. Newly Discovered Ebola Virus Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Jonathan S.; Sealy, Tara K.; Khristova, Marina L.; Albariño, César G.; Conlan, Sean; Reeder, Serena A.; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Lipkin, W. Ian; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Okware, Samuel; Lutwama, Julius; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Kayiwa, John; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses have been responsible for large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with case fatalities ranging from 53% to 90%, while a third species, Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, caused a single non-fatal HF case. In November 2007, HF cases were reported in Bundibugyo District, Western Uganda. Laboratory investigation of the initial 29 suspect-case blood specimens by classic methods (antigen capture, IgM and IgG ELISA) and a recently developed random-primed pyrosequencing approach quickly identified this to be an Ebola HF outbreak associated with a newly discovered ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus) distantly related to the Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus found in western Africa. Due to the sequence divergence of this new virus relative to all previously recognized ebolaviruses, these findings have important implications for design of future diagnostic assays to monitor Ebola HF disease in humans and animals, and ongoing efforts to develop effective antivirals and vaccines. PMID:19023410

  16. Lexicographic presentation of grammatical divergence in Sesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relying on existing insights from the field of theoretical lexicography this article gives an innovative application to the relation of divergence by introducing the notion of grammatical divergence. In bilingual dictionaries with English and Sesotho sa Leboa as language pair lexicographers are confronted with a real challenge ...

  17. Divergent Thinking and Age-Related Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…

  18. Parapatric genetic divergence among deep evolutionary lineages in the Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Brachyura, Portunoidea, Carcinidae), accounts for a sharp phylogeographic break in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Temim; Kalkan, Evrim; Karhan, Selahattin Ünsal; Uzunova, Sonya; Keikhosravi, Alireza; Bilgin, Raşit; Schubart, Christoph D

    2018-04-11

    Recently, population genetic studies of Mediterranean marine species highlighted patterns of genetic divergence and phylogeographic breaks, due to the interplay between impacts of Pleistocene climate shifts and contemporary hydrographical barriers. These factors markedly shaped the distribution of marine organisms and their genetic makeup. The present study is part of an ongoing effort to understand the phylogeography and evolutionary history of the highly dispersive Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847), across the Mediterranean Sea. Recently, marked divergence between two highly separated haplogroups (genetic types I and II) of C. aestuarii was discerned across the Siculo-Tunisian Strait, suggesting an Early Pleistocene vicariant event. In order to better identify phylogeographic patterns in this species, a total of 263 individuals from 22 Mediterranean locations were analysed by comparing a 587 basepair region of the mitochondrial gene Cox1 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1). The examined dataset is composed of both newly generated sequences (76) and previously investigated ones (187). Our results unveiled the occurrence of a highly divergent haplogroup (genetic type III) in the most north-eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Divergence between the most distinct type III and the common ancestor of both types I and II corresponds to the Early Pleistocene and coincides with the historical episode of separation between types I and II. Our results also revealed strong genetic divergence among adjacent regions (separating the Aegean and Marmara seas from the remaining distribution zone) and confirmed a sharp phylogeographic break across the Eastern Mediterranean. The recorded parapatric genetic divergence, with the potential existence of a contact zone between both groups in the Ionian Sea and notable differences in the demographic history, suggest the likely impact of paleoclimatic events, as well as past and contemporary oceanographic processes

  19. Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B A; Osterlind, K; Roer, O

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons newly diagnosed with cancer (65+ years) in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), hope, social network and support, and to identify which factors were associated...

  20. Importance of circulating tumor cells in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalum, Guus; Stam, Gerrit-Jan; Scholten, Loes F.A.; Mastboom, Walter J.B.; Vermes, I.; Tibbe, Arjan G.J.; De Groot, Marco R.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2015-01-01

    Presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) is associated with poor prognosis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study was conducted to determine if the presence of CTC prior to surgery and during follow‑up in patients with newly diagnosed non-metastatic CRC can identify

  1. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus / sinensis complex (Poaceae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Ge, Xue-Jun; Chen, Charles; Wu, Tai-Han; Chou, Chang-Hung; Huang, Hao-Jen; Gojobori, Takashi; Osada, Naoki; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  2. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus / sinensis complex (Poaceae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li

    2014-11-11

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  3. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  4. The estimation of genetic divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, R.; Conroy, T.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the criticism of Nei and Tateno (1978) of the REH (random evolutionary hits) theory of genetic divergence in nucleic acids and proteins, and to their proposed alternative estimator of total fixed mutations designated X2. It is argued that the assumption of nonuniform amino acid or nucleotide substitution will necessarily increase REH estimates relative to those made for a model where each locus has an equal likelihood of fixing mutations, thus the resulting value will not be an overestimation. The relative values of X2 and measures calculated on the basis of the PAM and REH theories for the number of nucleotide substitutions necessary to explain a given number of observed amino acid differences between two homologous proteins are compared, and the smaller values of X2 are attributed to (1) a mathematical model based on the incorrect assumption that an entire structural gene is free to fix mutations and (2) the assumptions of different numbers of variable codons for the X2 and REH calculations. Results of a repeat of the computer simulations of Nei and Tateno are presented which, in contrast to the original results, confirm the REH theory. It is pointed out that while a negative correlation is observed between estimations of the fixation intensity per varion and the number of varions for a given pair of sequences, the correlation between the two fixation intensities and varion numbers of two different pairs of sequences need not be negative. Finally, REH theory is used to resolve a paradox concerning the high rate of covarion turnover and the nature of general function sites as permanent covarions.

  5. Verbal and visual divergent thinking in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    According to the peak and decline model divergent thinking declines at a specific age (in or after middle age). However, if divergent thinking declines steadily in aging still has to be clarified. In order to explore the age-related changes in verbal and visual divergent thinking, in the present study a sample of 159 participants was divided in five age groups: young adults (18-35 years), middle-aged adults (36-55), young old (56-74), old (75-85) and the oldest-old (86-98). Two divergent thinking tasks were administered: the alternative uses for cardboard boxes, aimed at assessing verbal ideational fluency, flexibility and originality; the completion drawing task, aimed at assessing visual ideational fluency, flexibility and originality. Results showed that after peaking in the young adult group (20-35 years) all components of verbal and visual divergent thinking stabilized in the middle-aged adult group (36-55 years) and then started declining in the young old group (56-75). Interestingly, all components were found to be preserved after declining. Yet, verbal and visual divergent thinking were found at the same extent across age groups, with the exception of visual ideational fluency, that was higher in the young old group, the old group and the oldest-old group than verbal ideational fluency. These results support the idea that divergent thinking does not decline steadily in the elderly. Given that older people can preserve to some extent verbal and visual divergent thinking, these findings have important implications for active aging, that is, divergent thinking might be fostered in aging in order to prevent the cognitive decline.

  6. Two New Measures of Fuzzy Divergence and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Parkash

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Several measures of directed divergence and their corresponding measures of fuzzy divergence are available in the exiting literature. Two new measures of fuzzy divergence have been developed and their desirable properties have been discussed.

  7. Chrysosplenium japonicum (Saxifragaceae, Newly Recorded from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chrysosplenium japonicum (Maxim. Makino (Saxifragaceae is newly recorded from northeastern Taiwan. Description, color photos and a key to the Chrysosplenium species in Taiwan are provided.

  8. A Multiparameter Network Reveals Extensive Divergence between C. elegans bHLH Transcription Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, C.; De Masi, Federico; Newburger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    parameters remain undetermined. We comprehensively identify dimerization partners, spatiotemporal expression patterns, and DNA-binding specificities for the C. elegans bHLH family of TFs, and model these data into an integrated network. This network displays both specificity and promiscuity, as some b......HLH proteins, DNA sequences, and tissues are highly connected, whereas others are not. By comparing all bHLH TFs, we find extensive divergence and that all three parameters contribute equally to bHLH divergence. Our approach provides a framework for examining divergence for other protein families in C. elegans...

  9. Treatment of divergent expansions in scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersten, A.; Malin, S.

    1978-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles in applying quantum field theory to realistic scattering problems are the divergencies of pertubation expansions for large coupling constants and the divergencies of partial wave expansions for massless particles exchanges. There exist, however, methods of summation of the divergent expansions which can lead to significant application in physics. In this paper we treat the problem of summing such expansions using three methods: (i) a generalization of the Pade approximation to the multivariable case. The suggested definition is unique and preserves unitarity. (ii) The summation of divergent partial waves for arbitrary spins. (iii) A successful application of a series inversion to the 3 P 1 nucleon-nucleon phase shift up to 200 MeV. (orig./WL) [de

  10. Divergence and convergence in nutrition science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, Bart; Spruit, Shannon L.; Sikkema, Jan; Maat, Jan; Schuurbiers, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Nutrigenomics diverged from mainstream nutrition science, ideologically, instrumentally and culturally, due to the establishment of a protective niche. That protection is fading. This article chronicles a case in which convergence between nutrigenomics and nutrition science is pursued. Here we

  11. Decoding divergent series in nonparaxial optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Riccardo; Gori, Franco; Guattari, Giorgio; Santarsiero, Massimo

    2011-03-15

    A theoretical analysis aimed at investigating the divergent character of perturbative series involved in the study of free-space nonparaxial propagation of vectorial optical beams is proposed. Our analysis predicts a factorial divergence for such series and provides a theoretical framework within which the results of recently published numerical experiments concerning nonparaxial propagation of vectorial Gaussian beams find a meaningful interpretation in terms of the decoding operated on such series by the Weniger transformation.

  12. Detection of novel divergent arenaviruses in boid snakes with inclusion body disease in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, R; Kik, M J L; Raj, V Stalin; Schapendonk, C M E; Haagmans, B L; Smits, S L; Osterhaus, A D M E

    2013-06-01

    Arenaviruses are bi-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses, which were until recently only detected in rodents and humans. Now highly divergent arenaviruses have been identified in boid snakes with inclusion body disease (IBD). Here, we describe the identification of a new species and variants of the highly divergent arenaviruses, which were detected in tissues of captive boid snakes with IBD in The Netherlands by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequence of the open reading frames of the four predicted proteins of one of the detected viruses revealed that this virus was most closely related to the recently identified Golden Gate virus, while considerable sequence differences were observed between the highly divergent arenaviruses detected in this study. These findings add to the recent identification of the highly divergent arenaviruses in boid snakes with IBD in the United States and indicate that these viruses also circulate among boid snakes in Europe.

  13. Collinearity, convergence and cancelling infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavelle, Martin; McMullan, David

    2006-01-01

    The Lee-Nauenberg theorem is a fundamental quantum mechanical result which provides the standard theoretical response to the problem of collinear and infrared divergences. Its argument, that the divergences due to massless charged particles can be removed by summing over degenerate states, has been successfully applied to systems with final state degeneracies such as LEP processes. If there are massless particles in both the initial and final states, as will be the case at the LHC, the theorem requires the incorporation of disconnected diagrams which produce connected interference effects at the level of the cross-section. However, this aspect of the theory has never been fully tested in the calculation of a cross-section. We show through explicit examples that in such cases the theorem introduces a divergent series of diagrams and hence fails to cancel the infrared divergences. It is also demonstrated that the widespread practice of treating soft infrared divergences by the Bloch-Nordsieck method and handling collinear divergences by the Lee-Nauenberg method is not consistent in such cases

  14. Newly Homeless Youth Typically Return Home

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Batterham, Philip; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    165 newly homeless adolescents from Melbourne, Australia and 261 from Los Angeles, United States were surveyed and followed for two years. Most newly homeless adolescents returned home (70% U.S., 47% Australia) for significant amounts of time (39% U.S., 17% Australia more than 12 months) within two years of becoming homeless.

  15. Immunoparesis in newly diagnosed Multiple Myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W.; Salomo, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Immunoparesis (hypogammaglobulinemia) is associated to an unfavorable prognosis in newly diagnosed Multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, this finding has not been validated in an unselected population-based cohort. We analyzed 2558 newly diagnosed MM patients in the Danish Multiple Myeloma...

  16. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. BACKGROUND: Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use...... underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. CONCLUSION: The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions....... The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources....

  17. Properties of classical and quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Briët (Jop); P. Harremoës (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractJensen-Shannon divergence (JD) is a symmetrized and smoothed version of the most important divergence measure of information theory, Kullback divergence. As opposed to Kullback divergence it determines in a very direct way a metric; indeed, it is the square of a metric. We consider a

  18. Beam Angular Divergence Effects in Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsky, T. N.; Hahto, S. K.; Bilbrough, D. G.; Jacobson, D. C.; Krull, W. A.; Goldberg, R. D.; Current, M. I.; Hamamoto, N.; Umisedo, S.

    2008-01-01

    An important difference between monomer ion beams and heavy molecular beams is a significant reduction in beam angular divergence and increased on-wafer angular accuracy for molecular beams. This advantage in beam quality stems from a reduction in space-charge effects within the beam. Such improved angular accuracy has been shown to have a significant impact on the quality and yield of transistor devices [1,12]. In this study, B 18 H x + beam current and angular divergence data collected on a hybrid scanned beam line that magnetically scans the beam across the wafer is presented. Angular divergence is kept below 0.5 deg from an effective boron energy of 200 eV to 3000 eV. Under these conditions, the beam current is shown analytically to be limited by space charge below about 1 keV, but by the matching of the beam emittance to the acceptance of the beam line above 1 keV. In addition, results of a beam transport model which includes variable space charge compensation are presented, in which a drift mode B 18 H x + beam is compared to an otherwise identical boron beam after deceleration. Deceleration is shown to introduce significant space-charge blow up resulting in a large on-wafer angular divergence. The divergence effects introduced by wafer charging are also discussed.

  19. The divergence theorem for divergence measure vectorfields on sets with fractal boundaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2009), s. 445-455 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : divergence measure vectorfields * fractal s * divergence theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.065, year: 2009

  20. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  1. Being a team leader: newly registered nurses relate their experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Louise; Idvall, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study that explores how newly qualified registered nurses experience their leadership role in the ward-based nursing care team. A nurse's clinical leadership affects the quality of care provided. Newly qualified nurses experience difficulties during the transition period from student to qualified professional and find it challenging to lead nursing care. Twelve nurses were interviewed and the transcribed texts analysed using qualitative content analysis to assess both manifest and latent content. Five themes were identified: feeling stranded; forming well-functioning teams; learning to lead; having the courage, strength, and desire to lead; and ensuring appropriate care. The findings indicate that many factors limit nurses' leadership but some circumstances are supportive. The leadership prerequisites for newly registered nurses need to improve, emphasizing different ways to create a supportive atmosphere that promotes professional development and job satisfaction. To increase nurse retention and promote quality of care, nurse managers need to clarify expectations and guide and support newly qualified nurses in a planned way. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Vibhakti Divergence between Sanskrit and Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Preeti; Shukl, Devanand; Kulkarni, Amba

    Translation divergence at various levels between languages arises due to the different conventions followed by different languages for coding the information of grammatical relations. Though Sanskrit and Hindi belong to the same Indo-Aryan family and structurally as well as lexically Hindi inherits a lot from Sanskrit, yet divergences are observed at the level of function words such as vibhaktis. Pāṇini in his Aṣṭādhyāyī has assigned a default vibhakti to kārakas alongwith many scopes for exceptions. He handles these exceptions either by imposing a new kāraka role or by assigning a special vibhakti. However, these methods are not acceptable in Hindi in toto. Based on the nature of deviation, we propose seven cases of divergences in this paper.

  3. Complex patterns of genetic and phenotypic divergence in an island bird and the consequences for delimiting conservation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillimore, A B; Owens, I P F; Black, R A; Chittock, J; Burke, T; Clegg, S M

    2008-06-01

    Substantial phenotypic and genetic variation is often found below the species level and this may be useful in quantifying biodiversity and predicting future diversification. However, relatively few studies have tested whether different aspects of intraspecific variation show congruent patterns across populations. Here, we quantify several aspects of divergence between 13 insular populations of an island endemic bird, the Vanuatu white-eye (Zosterops flavifrons). The components of divergence studied are mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), nuclear DNA microsatellites and morphology. These different aspects of divergence present subtly different scenarios. For instance, an mtDNA phylogenetic tree reveals a potential cryptic species on the most southerly island in Vanuatu and considerable divergence between at least two other major phylogroups. Microsatellite loci suggest that population genetic divergence between insular populations, both between and within phylogroups, is substantial, a result that is consistent with a low level of interisland gene flow. Finally, most populations were found to be strongly morphologically divergent, but no single population was morphologically diagnosable from all others. Taken together, our results show that, although many measures of divergence are concordant in this system, the number of divergent units identified varies widely depending on the characters considered and approach used. A continuum of divergence and a degree of discordance between different characters are both to be expected under simple models of evolution, but they present problems in terms of delimiting conservation units.

  4. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Many firms assume that outsourcing partnerships may allow them to strengthen their overall competitiveness. Lured by its intuitive appeal, several enter into such partnerships, only to realize that they represent a marginal rather than a magical solution to their quest for increasing market...... performance. We explore the proposed impact of diverging relationship norms on relationship expectations using data from an ongoing field study of Danish buyers and Chinese suppliers. We link these diverging expectations to the business practices of Danish buyers and Chinese and their institutional contexts...

  5. Universal portfolios generated by the Bregman divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choon Peng; Kuang, Kee Seng

    2017-04-01

    The Bregman divergence of two probability vectors is a stronger form of the f-divergence introduced by Csiszar. Two versions of the Bregman universal portfolio are presented by exploiting the mean-value theorem. The explicit form of the Bregman universal portfolio generated by a function of a convex polynomial is derived and studied empirically. This portfolio can be regarded as another generalized of the well-known Helmbold portfolio. By running the portfolios on selected stock-price data sets from the local stock exchange, it is shown that it is possible to increase the wealth of the investor by using the portfolios in investment.

  6. Functional divergence caused by ancient positive selection of a Drosophila hybrid incompatibility locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Barbash

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrid lethality and sterility are a consequence of divergent evolution between species and serve to maintain the discrete identities of species. The evolution of hybrid incompatibilities has been described in widely accepted models by Dobzhansky and Muller where lineage-specific functional divergence is the essential characteristic of hybrid incompatibility genes. Experimentally tractable models are required to identify and test candidate hybrid incompatibility genes. Several Drosophila melanogaster genes involved in hybrid incompatibility have been identified but none has yet been shown to have functionally diverged in accordance with the Dobzhansky-Muller model. By introducing transgenic copies of the X-linked Hybrid male rescue (Hmr gene into D. melanogaster from its sibling species D. simulans and D. mauritiana, we demonstrate that Hmr has functionally diverged to cause F1 hybrid incompatibility between these species. Consistent with the Dobzhansky-Muller model, we find that Hmr has diverged extensively in the D. melanogaster lineage, but we also find extensive divergence in the sibling-species lineage. Together, these findings implicate over 13% of the amino acids encoded by Hmr as candidates for causing hybrid incompatibility. The exceptional level of divergence at Hmr cannot be explained by neutral processes because we use phylogenetic methods and population genetic analyses to show that the elevated amino-acid divergence in both lineages is due to positive selection in the distant past-at least one million generations ago. Our findings suggest that multiple substitutions driven by natural selection may be a general phenomenon required to generate hybrid incompatibility alleles.

  7. Confidence in leadership among the newly qualified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss-Pratt, Lisa; Morley, Mary; Bagley, Liz; Alderson, Steven

    2013-10-23

    The Francis report highlighted the importance of strong leadership from health professionals but it is unclear how prepared those who are newly qualified feel to take on a leadership role. We aimed to assess the confidence of newly qualified health professionals working in the West Midlands in the different competencies of the NHS Leadership Framework. Most respondents felt confident in their abilities to demonstrate personal qualities and work with others, but less so at managing or improving services or setting direction.

  8. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Várilly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  9. Taming infrared divergences in the effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias-Miro, J. [IFAE, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Espinosa, J.R. [IFAE, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain); Konstandin, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    The Higgs effective potential in the Standard Model (SM), calculated perturbatively, generically suffers from infrared (IR) divergences when the (field-dependent) tree-level mass of the Goldstone bosons goes to zero. Such divergences can affect both the potential and its first derivative and become worse with increasing loop order. In this paper we show that these IR divergences are spurious, we perform a simple resummation of all IR-problematic terms known (up to three loops) and explain how to extend the resummation to cure all such divergences to any order. The method is of general applicability and would work in scenarios other than the SM. Our discussion has some bearing on a scenario recently proposed as a mechanism for gauge mediation of scale breaking in the ultraviolet, in which it is claimed that the low-energy Higgs potential is non-standard. We argue that all non-decoupling effects from the heavy sector can be absorbed in the renormalization of low-energy parameters leading to a SM-like effective theory.

  10. Bounding the bias of contrastive divergence learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anja; Igel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Optimization based on k-step contrastive divergence (CD) has become a common way to train restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). The k-step CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient relying on Gibbs sampling. We derive a new upper bound for this bias. Its magnitude depends on k...

  11. Behavioural divergence, interfertility and speciation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Neville; Rymer, Tasmin L

    2012-11-01

    Behavioural compatibility between mates is fundamental for maintaining species boundaries and is achieved through appropriate communication between males and females. A breakdown in communication will lead to behavioural divergence and reduced interfertility. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on male signals and female perception of these signals, integrating the literature from several taxa. We advocate that signaller-perceiver coevolution, which is usually under strong stabilising selection to enable mating, forms the basis of species-specific mate recognition systems. The mechanisms (phylogeny, geography, ecology, biology) shaping signaller-perceiver systems are briefly discussed to demonstrate the factors underpinning the evolution of signaller-perceiver couplings. Since divergence and diversification of communication systems is driven by changes in the mechanical properties of sensory pathways and morphology of sensory organs, we highlight signal modalities (auditory, olfactory, visual, tactile) and their importance in communication, particularly in mate selection. Next, using available examples and generating a stylised model, we suggest how disruption (biological, ecological, stochastic) of signaller-perceiver systems drives behavioural divergence and consequently results in reduced interfertility and speciation. Future studies should adopt an integrative approach, combining multiple parameters (phylogeny, adaptive utility of communication systems, genetics and biomechanical/biochemical properties of signals and perception) to explore how disruption of signaller-perceiver systems results in behavioural divergence and reduced interfertility. Finally, we question the impact that rapid environmental change will have on disruption of communication systems, potentially interfering with signaller-perceiver couplings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hamiltonian representation of divergence-free fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-11-01

    Globally divergence-free fields, such as the magnetic field and the vorticity, can be described by a two degree of freedom Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian function provides a complete topological description of the field lines. The formulation also separates the dissipative and inertial time scale evolution of the magnetic and the vorticity fields

  13. Viewpoint Environmental Slogans: Memes with Diverging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental slogans can be seen as memes, i.e. cultural constructs that, not unlike genes, replicate themselves from one generation to the next. Memes may, however, be divergently interpreted and some memes can even have unwanted side-effects. We wanted to find out how supporters of an environmental ...

  14. The divergence theorem for unbounded vector fields

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, Thierry; Pfeffer, Washek F.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of Lebesgue integration, we derive the divergence theorem for unbounded vector. elds that can have singularities at every point of a compact set whose Minkowski content of codimension greater than two is. nite. The resulting integration by parts theorem is applied to removable sets of holomorphic and harmonic functions.

  15. Divergent Priors and well Behaved Bayes Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Strachan (Rodney); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDivergent priors are improper when defined on unbounded supports. Bartlett's paradox has been taken to imply that using improper priors results in ill-defined Bayes factors, preventing model comparison by posterior probabilities. However many improper priors have attractive properties

  16. The Harmonic Series Diverges Again and Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifowit, Steven J.; Stamps, Terra A.

    2006-01-01

    The harmonic series is one of the most celebrated infinite series of mathematics. A quick glance at a variety of modern calculus textbooks reveals that there are two very popular proofs of the divergence of the harmonic series. In this article, the authors survey these popular proofs along with many other proofs that are equally simple and…

  17. Design of a divergence and alignment indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenizer, J.S. Jr.; Raine, D.A.; Gao, J.; Chen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The divergence and alignment indicator (DAI) is an extension of the ASTM E803 L/D thermal neutron radiography L/D device that allows the user to determine both the beam centerline and the beam divergence. The DAI was made using aluminium plate and rods, and incorporated cadmium wire for contrast. Circular symmetry was utilized to simplify manufacture. The DAI was placed with the five posts against the film cassette or radioscopic imaging device in the physical center of the beam. The DAI was perpendicular to the selected beam radius when the front and back center Cd wire images overlap. The degree of misalignment was indicated by their image positions. After the DAI was aligned, analysis of the cadmium wire ''+'' image spacing yielded the beam divergence. The DAI was tested in a neutron beam which has an L/D of 30 but a small degree of divergence. The DAI was also imaged using an X-ray source. The point source predictions of Cd wire image locations showed good agreement with those measured from the X-ray radiograph. The neutron radiographic locations could be predicted using the point source equations, even though the neutron beam was a complex distributed source. (orig.)

  18. Enhancing Divergent Search through Extinction Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    for the capacity to evolve. This hypothesis is tested through experiments in two evolutionary robotics domains. The results show that combining extinction events with divergent search increases evolvability, while combining them with convergent search offers no similar benefit. The conclusion is that extinction...

  19. Taming infrared divergences in the effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias-Miro, J.; Konstandin, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Higgs effective potential in the Standard Model (SM), calculated perturbatively, generically suffers from infrared (IR) divergences when the (field-dependent) tree-level mass of the Goldstone bosons goes to zero. Such divergences can affect both the potential and its first derivative and become worse with increasing loop order. In this paper we show that these IR divergences are spurious, we perform a simple resummation of all IR-problematic terms known (up to three loops) and explain how to extend the resummation to cure all such divergences to any order. The method is of general applicability and would work in scenarios other than the SM. Our discussion has some bearing on a scenario recently proposed as a mechanism for gauge mediation of scale breaking in the ultraviolet, in which it is claimed that the low-energy Higgs potential is non-standard. We argue that all non-decoupling effects from the heavy sector can be absorbed in the renormalization of low-energy parameters leading to a SM-like effective theory.

  20. Evolution of cichlid vision via trans-regulatory divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Quin Kelly E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution may occur through mutations that affect either the structure or expression of protein-coding genes. Although the evolution of color vision has historically been attributed to structural mutations within the opsin genes, recent research has shown that opsin regulatory mutations can also tune photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision. Visual sensitivity in African cichlid fishes varies as a result of the differential expression of seven opsin genes. We crossed cichlid species that express different opsin gene sets and scanned their genome for expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL responsible for these differences. Our results shed light on the role that different structural, cis-, and trans-regulatory mutations play in the evolution of color vision. Results We identified 11 eQTL that contribute to the divergent expression of five opsin genes. On three linkage groups, several eQTL formed regulatory “hotspots” associated with the expression of multiple opsins. Importantly, however, the majority of the eQTL we identified (8/11 or 73% occur on linkage groups located trans to the opsin genes, suggesting that cichlid color vision has evolved primarily via trans-regulatory divergence. By modeling the impact of just two of these trans-regulatory eQTL, we show that opsin regulatory mutations can alter cichlid photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision at least as much as opsin structural mutations can. Conclusions Combined with previous work, we demonstrate that the evolution of cichlid color vision results from the interplay of structural, cis-, and especially trans-regulatory loci. Although there are numerous examples of structural and cis-regulatory mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution, our results suggest that trans-regulatory mutations could contribute to phenotypic divergence more commonly than previously expected, especially in systems like color vision, where compensatory changes in the

  1. Genetic surfing, not allopatric divergence, explains spatial sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes in venomous coralsnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; McEntee, Jay P; Drzich, Laura C; Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Smart, Utpal; Parkinson, Christopher L; Jezkova, Tereza; Smith, Eric N; Castoe, Todd A

    2016-07-01

    Strong spatial sorting of genetic variation in contiguous populations is often explained by local adaptation or secondary contact following allopatric divergence. A third explanation, spatial sorting by stochastic effects of range expansion, has been considered less often though theoretical models suggest it should be widespread, if ephemeral. In a study designed to delimit species within a clade of venomous coralsnakes, we identified an unusual pattern within the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener): strong spatial sorting of divergent mitochondrial (mtDNA) lineages over a portion of its range, but weak sorting of these lineages elsewhere. We tested three alternative hypotheses to explain this pattern-local adaptation, secondary contact following allopatric divergence, and range expansion. Collectively, near panmixia of nuclear DNA, the signal of range expansion associated sampling drift, expansion origins in the Gulf Coast of Mexico, and species distribution modeling suggest that the spatial sorting of divergent mtDNA lineages within M. tener has resulted from genetic surfing of standing mtDNA variation-not local adaptation or allopatric divergence. Our findings highlight the potential for the stochastic effects of recent range expansion to mislead estimations of population divergence made from mtDNA, which may be exacerbated in systems with low vagility, ancestral mtDNA polymorphism, and male-biased dispersal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Neuropsychological and psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Baker, Gus A

    2015-07-22

    Many people with epilepsy report experiencing psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression and neuropsychological deficits including memory problems. Research has shown that these difficulties are often present not only for people with chronic epilepsy but also for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Despite this, there are very few published interventions that detail means to help people with newly diagnosed epilepsy manage these problems. To identify and assess possible psychological and neuropsychological interventions for adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We searched the following databases on 30 June 2015: the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), SCOPUS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). This review includes all randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort controlled studies, and prospective before and after studies which include psychological or neuropsychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We excluded studies that included people with epilepsy and any other psychological disorder or neurological condition. We excluded studies carried out which recruited only children. We used the standard methodological procedure expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently completed data extraction and risk of bias analysis. The results of this were cross-checked and third author resolved any discrepancies. In the event of missing data, we contacted the study authors. Meta-analysis was not completed due to differences in the intervention and outcomes reported in the two studies. We included two randomised controlled trials assessing psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. One study assessed a cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) in an adolescent

  3. Cancellation of soft and collinear divergences in noncommutative QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, B.; Zarei, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the behavior of noncommutative IR divergences and will also discuss their cancellation in the physical cross sections. The commutative IR (soft) divergences existing in the nonplanar diagrams will be examined in order to prove an all-order cancellation of these divergences using the Weinberg's method. In noncommutative QED, collinear divergences due to triple photon splitting vertex, were encountered, which are shown to be canceled out by the noncommutative version of KLN theorem. This guarantees that there is no mixing between the Collinear, soft divergences and noncommutative IR divergences

  4. Quality of life of elderly persons with newly diagnosed cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B A; Osterlind, K; Roer, O

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate quality of life (QoL) in elderly persons newly diagnosed with cancer (65+ years) in relation to age, contact with the health-care system, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), hope, social network and support, and to identify which factors were associated...... with low QoL. The sample consisted of 101 patients (75 women and 26 men) newly diagnosed with cancer. EORTC QLQ-C30, Nowotny's Hope Scale, Katz ADL and the Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI) were used. The analysis was carried out in four age groups and revealed no significant differences...... in QoL. Compared with the other age groups, those of a high age (80+ years) more often lived alone, used more home-help service and had a smaller social network. Factors associated with low QoL were 'no other incomes than retirement pension', 'low level of hope' and 'lung cancer'. In addition, 'being...

  5. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal deep divergences among Anopheles punctulatus sibling species in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logue Kyle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Anopheles punctulatus group (AP group are the primary vectors of human malaria in Papua New Guinea. The AP group includes 13 sibling species, most of them morphologically indistinguishable. Understanding why only certain species are able to transmit malaria requires a better comprehension of their evolutionary history. In particular, understanding relationships and divergence times among Anopheles species may enable assessing how malaria-related traits (e.g. blood feeding behaviours, vector competence have evolved. Methods DNA sequences of 14 mitochondrial (mt genomes from five AP sibling species and two species of the Anopheles dirus complex of Southeast Asia were sequenced. DNA sequences from all concatenated protein coding genes (10,770 bp were then analysed using a Bayesian approach to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and date the divergence of the AP sibling species. Results Phylogenetic reconstruction using the concatenated DNA sequence of all mitochondrial protein coding genes indicates that the ancestors of the AP group arrived in Papua New Guinea 25 to 54 million years ago and rapidly diverged to form the current sibling species. Conclusion Through evaluation of newly described mt genome sequences, this study has revealed a divergence among members of the AP group in Papua New Guinea that would significantly predate the arrival of humans in this region, 50 thousand years ago. The divergence observed among the mtDNA sequences studied here may have resulted from reproductive isolation during historical changes in sea-level through glacial minima and maxima. This leads to a hypothesis that the AP sibling species have evolved independently for potentially thousands of generations. This suggests that the evolution of many phenotypes, such as insecticide resistance will arise independently in each of the AP sibling species studied here.

  6. Genetic divergence among Brazilian turmeric germplasm using morpho-agronomical descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Sigrist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is a vegetatively-propagated crop which is used as a natural dye in the food industryand also presents many biological active compounds. Turmeric conventional breeding is difficult and often limited to germplasmselection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence among turmeric accessions available in Brazil using sevenmorpho-agronomical descriptors. Overall genetic divergence was low, although some divergent genotypes were identified. Fourmain groups of genotypes were identified and could be further used in breeding programs. Canonical variable analysis suggestedthat some descriptors were more important to discriminate accessions and also that one of the descriptors could be discarded. Theresults provided useful insights for better management of the germplasm collection, optimizing conservational and breeding efforts.

  7. Value of a newly sequenced bacterial genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Eudes; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel Tj

    2014-01-01

    and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the "scientific value" of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses...... heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting...

  8. Phenotypic Divergence in the Reproductive Traits of Marbled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall, the results indicated some level of phenotypic divergence of the fish ... divergence cannot be partitioned between fishing mortality, genetic .... female fish was estimated from the egg counts ..... that greatly improved the quality of the.

  9. Endemic infrared divergences in QED3 at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Pok Man; Swanson, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that massless QED in three dimensions contains endemic infrared divergences. It is argued that these divergences do not affect observables; furthermore, it is possible to choose a gauge that renders the theory finite.

  10. Divergent Geophysical Evolution of Vesta and Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Ermakov, A.; Castillo, J. C.; Fu, R. R.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; McCord, T. B.; Park, R. S.; Russell, C. T.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Jaumann, R.; Konopliv, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Dawn mission explored two massive protoplanets in the main asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres, that are fossils from the earliest epoch of solar system formation. Dawn's data provide evidence that these bodies formed very early, within the first few million years after CAIs, yet they followed divergent evolutionary paths. Vesta formed globally homogeneous distribution of minerals across the surface indicates that Ceres' interior experienced pervasive alteration. Topography and morphology of the surface reveals smoother, apparently resurfaced areas, generally at lower elevation, and rougher areas with greater relief. Local morphology such as crater floor deposits, isolated mountains, and enigmatic bright areas indicate recently active processes on Ceres, likely driven by brine cryovolcanism. Causes of the divergent evolution of these bodies include their accretionary environment, timing of accretion and size. Acknowledgements: Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. PUBLIC INTEGRITY AND THE DIVERGENCE FROM IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona‐Roxana ULMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public Integrity is one of the public sector’s essential objectives to attain. In contradiction, as a divergence from it, corruption is one of the persistent problems of the societies over years and it affects the credibility of public institutions and its ambassadors in front of the citizens and of the other related countries. All nations complain of corruption and, as it is observed in the Corruption Perception Index 2012, no country has a maximum score which shows that a country is totally clean. In this context, the study of the most important elements of the public integrity concept, the identification of what causes the divergence from it and the solutions detection become a relevant option for economic literature. In this context, the main objective of this paper is to emphasize the public integrity concept and its main aspects and to make a comparison between countries to achieve a large perspective of the world’s public integrity juncture.

  12. Flow over convergent and divergent wall riblets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeltzsch, K.; Dinkelacker, A.; Grundmann, R. [Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 36460 Merkers (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Fast swimming sharks have small riblets on their skin, which are assumed to improve the swimming performance of the fish. Fluid dynamic experiments in water as well as in air confirm this assumption. With riblet surfaces as compared to smooth surfaces, drag reductions up to about 10% were measured. The overall riblet pattern on sharks shows parallel riblets directed from head to tail, but besides this overall pattern fast swimming sharks have also small areas with converging riblets and others with diverging riblets. In the present study the velocity field over convergent and divergent riblet patterns is investigated by hot-wire measurements in turbulent pipe flow. Significant changes in the near wall velocity field were found. (orig.)

  13. Gluon mass generation without seagull divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Arlene C.; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2010-01-01

    Dynamical gluon mass generation has been traditionally plagued with seagull divergences, and all regularization procedures proposed over the years yield finite but scheme-dependent gluon masses. In this work we show how such divergences can be eliminated completely by virtue of a characteristic identity, valid in dimensional regularization. The ability to trigger the aforementioned identity hinges crucially on the particular Ansatz employed for the three-gluon vertex entering into the Schwinger-Dyson equation governing the gluon propagator. The use of the appropriate three-gluon vertex brings about an additional advantage: one obtains two separate (but coupled) integral equations, one for the effective charge and one for the gluon mass. This system of integral equations has a unique solution, which unambiguously determines these two quantities. Most notably, the effective charge freezes in the infrared, and the gluon mass displays power-law running in the ultraviolet, in agreement with earlier considerations.

  14. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSellaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the trustee after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated cognitive states.

  15. High temperature phase transitions without infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetradis, N.; Wetterich, C.

    1993-09-01

    The most commonly used method for the study of high temperature phase transitions is based on the perturbative evaluation of the temperature dependent effective potential. This method becomes unreliable in the case of a second order or weakly first order phase transition, due to the appearance of infrared divergences. These divergences can be controlled through the method of the effective average action which employs renormalization group ideas. We report on the study of the high temperature phase transition for the N-component φ 4 theory. A detailed quantitative picture of the second order phase transition is presented, including the critical exponents for the behaviour in the vicinity of the critical temperature. An independent check of the results is obtained in the large N limit, and contact with the perturbative approach is established through the study of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. (orig.)

  16. COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. CONVERGENCE VERSUS DIVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ECOBICI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I compared the Romanian financial statements with the US GAAP financial statements in terms of two criteria: first the reference period and secondly the shape, structure and content of financial statements. Nowadays the two accounting systems, the French and Anglo-Saxon, tend to harmonize. I will present the convergences and the divergences between the financial statements of Romania, subject to OMFP 3055/2009, in parallel with the Anglo-Saxon accounting system.

  17. Divergent Effects of Dendritic Cells on Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    role of dendritic cells in pancreatitis. Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells which initiate innate and adaptive immune... Lymphoid -tissue-specific homing of bone- marrow-derived dendritic cells . Blood. 113:6638–6647. http://dx.doi .org/10.1182/blood-2009-02-204321 Dapito...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0313 TITLE: Divergent Effects of Dendritic Cells on Pancreatitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. George Miller

  18. Initial States: IR and Collinear Divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavelle, Martin; McMullan, David

    2007-01-01

    The standard approach to the infra-red problem is to use the Bloch-Nordsieck trick to handle soft divergences and the Lee-Nauenberg (LN) theorem for collinear singularities. We show that this is inconsistent in the presence of massless initial particles. Furthermore, we show that using the LN theorem with such initial states introduces a non-convergent infinite series of diagrams at any fixed order in perturbation theory

  19. Carnot efficiency at divergent power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2017-05-01

    The widely debated feasibility of thermodynamic machines achieving Carnot efficiency at finite power has been convincingly dismissed. Yet, the common wisdom that efficiency can only be optimal in the limit of infinitely slow processes overlooks the dual scenario of infinitely fast processes. We corroborate that efficient engines at divergent power output are not theoretically impossible, framing our claims within the theory of Stochastic Thermodynamics. We inspect the case of an electronic quantum dot coupled to three particle reservoirs to illustrate the physical rationale.

  20. Genetic divergence among interspecific Paspalum hybrids based on seed production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of genetic divergence as a basis for identifying superior individuals, with greater heterozygosity, is important in view of the difficulty when selecting of dissimilar genotypes exhibiting high average for interest traits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence and the expression of seed production traits in seventeen apomictic Paspalum plicatulum × Paspalum guenoarum hybrids and two male parents (P. guenoarum. A randomized block design was used, with genotypes individually arranged into ten blocks. The following traits were assessed: total number of tillers/plant (TT, reproductive tiller/plant (RT, number of racemes per inflorescence (NRI, reproductive tiller height (RTH, inflorescence rachis length (IRL, number of seeds/inflorescence (NSI, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS and seed production (SP. Genetic divergence among the genotypes was estimated using the Tocher method and UPGMA clustering, based on the generalized Mahalanobis distance (D2 ii’. The Tocher and UPGMA optimization methods showed high concordance. The traits that most contributed to genetic divergence were RTH (23.59%, IRL (21.63%, WTS (16.67% and SP (14.23%. The presence of genetic diversity made it possible to identify divergent genotypes and those with high means for the traits studied, allowing the selection of genotypes with significant breeding potential. Repeated cross-breeding of female superior plants with the genotypes Azulão and H20 can result in a high heterosis effect on seed production characteristics.

  1. Fast algorithms for computing phylogenetic divergence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Ralph W; Williams, Tiffani L

    2017-12-06

    The inference of species divergence time is a key step in most phylogenetic studies. Methods have been available for the last ten years to perform the inference, but the performance of the methods does not yet scale well to studies with hundreds of taxa and thousands of DNA base pairs. For example a study of 349 primate taxa was estimated to require over 9 months of processing time. In this work, we present a new algorithm, AncestralAge, that significantly improves the performance of the divergence time process. As part of AncestralAge, we demonstrate a new method for the computation of phylogenetic likelihood and our experiments show a 90% improvement in likelihood computation time on the aforementioned dataset of 349 primates taxa with over 60,000 DNA base pairs. Additionally, we show that our new method for the computation of the Bayesian prior on node ages reduces the running time for this computation on the 349 taxa dataset by 99%. Through the use of these new algorithms we open up the ability to perform divergence time inference on large phylogenetic studies.

  2. Two families of astrophysical diverging lens models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Xinzhong; Rogers, Adam

    2018-03-01

    In the standard gravitational lensing scenario, rays from a background source are bent in the direction of a foreground lensing mass distribution. Diverging lens behaviour produces deflections in the opposite sense to gravitational lensing, and is also of astrophysical interest. In fact, diverging lensing due to compact distributions of plasma has been proposed as an explanation for the extreme scattering events that produce frequency-dependent dimming of extragalactic radio sources, and may also be related to the refractive radio wave phenomena observed to affect the flux density of pulsars. In this work we study the behaviour of two families of astrophysical diverging lenses in the geometric optics limit, the power law, and the exponential plasma lenses. Generally, the members of these model families show distinct behaviour in terms of image formation and magnification, however the inclusion of a finite core for certain power-law lenses can produce a caustic and critical curve morphology that is similar to the well-studied Gaussian plasma lens. Both model families can produce dual radial critical curves, a novel distinction from the tangential distortion usually produced by gravitational (converging) lenses. The deflection angle and magnification of a plasma lens vary with the observational frequency, producing wavelength-dependent magnifications that alter the amplitudes and the shape of the light curves. Thus, multiwavelength observations can be used to physically constrain the distribution of the electron density in such lenses.

  3. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  4. Newly-graduated midwives transcending barriers: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michele J; Hauck, Yvonne L; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Clarke, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Midwifery has developed its own philosophy to formalise its unique identity as a profession. Newly-graduated midwives are taught, and ideally embrace, this philosophy during their education. However, embarking in their career within a predominantly institutionalised and the medically focused health-care model may challenge this application. The research question guiding this study was as follows: 'How do newly graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice?' The aim was to generate a grounded theory around this social process. This Western Australian grounded theory study is conceptualised within the social theory of symbolic interactionism. Data were collected by means of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 11 recent midwifery graduates. Participant and interviewer's journals provided supplementary data. The 'constant comparison' approach was used for data analysis. The substantive theory of transcending barriers was generated. Three stages in transcending barriers were identified: Addressing personal attributes, Understanding the 'bigger picture', and finally, 'Evaluating, planning and acting' to provide woman-centred care. An overview of these three stages provides the focus of this article. The theory of transcending barriers provides a new perspective on how newly-graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice. A number of implications for pre and post registration midwifery education and policy development are suggested, as well as recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A divergent Cardinium found in daddy long-legs (Arachnida: Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin; Masters, Amber; Avery, Amanda; Werren, John H

    2010-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that a newly described bacterial endosymbiont, Cardinium, is widespread in arthropods and induces different reproductive manipulations in hosts. In this study, we used a portion of the 16S rRNA gene of the Cardinium to screen 16 Opilionid species from the suborder Palptores. We found the incidence of Cardinium in these Opiliones was significantly higher than in other pooled arthropods (31.2% versus 7.2%, P=0.007). Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analysis revealed two distinct clades in Opiliones. One is a divergent monophyletic clade with strong support that has so far not been found in other arthropods, and a second one contains Cardinium both from Opiliones and other arthropods. There is not complete concordance of the Cardinium strains with host phylogeny, suggesting some horizontal movement of the bacteria among Opiliones. Although the divergence in the sequenced 16S rRNA region between the Cardinium infecting Opiliones and Cardinium from other arthropods is greater than among Cardinium found in other arthropods, all are monophyletic with respect to the outgroup bacteria (endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba). Based on high pairwise genetic distances, deep branch, and a distinct phylogenetic grouping, we conclude that some Opiliones harbor a newly discovered Cardinium clade. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The direct Flow parametric Proof of Gauss' Divergence Theorem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    The standard proof of the divergence theorem in undergraduate calculus courses covers the theorem for static domains between two graph surfaces. We show that within first year undergraduate curriculum, the flow proof of the dynamic version of the divergence theorem - which is usually considered...... we apply the key instrumental concepts and verify the various steps towards this alternative proof of the divergence theorem....

  7. Meeting and activating the newly unemployed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    -demanding activity. As intensive activation is usually accompanied by intensive search monitoring, it is important to disentangling the contribution of the costly activation programs from that of caseworker meetings. Using Danish data for the period 2010-13, the paper shows that requiring newly unemployed intensive...... activation, contrary to job search meetings, reduces employment and increases sickness benefit claims....

  8. Clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Bart; Speelman, Johannes D.; de Haan, Rob J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease using cluster analysis and to describe the subgroups in terms of impairment, disability, perceived quality of life, and use of dopaminergic therapy. METHODS: We conducted a k-means cluster analysis in a prospective

  9. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Tian-Chuan Hsu; Jia-Jung Lin; Shih-Wen Chung

    2009-01-01

    Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst.) Seem. (Scrophulariaceae), native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L.) E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae), native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  10. Chest Radiographic Findings in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five hundred newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis were treated with directly observed short-course treatment and 100 of them had chest radiographic examination done. The various chest radiographic patterns in the 100 subjects were studied and included: Fluffy exudative changes 80(80%), fibrosis 70(70%) ...

  11. The impact of selection, gene flow and demographic history on heterogeneous genomic divergence: three-spine sticklebacks in divergent environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Hansen, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous genomic divergence between populations may reflect selection, but should also be seen in conjunction with gene flow and drift, particularly population bottlenecks. Marine and freshwater three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations often exhibit different lateral armour plate morphs. Moreover, strikingly parallel genomic footprints across different marine-freshwater population pairs are interpreted as parallel evolution and gene reuse. Nevertheless, in some geographic regions like the North Sea and Baltic Sea, different patterns are observed. Freshwater populations in coastal regions are often dominated by marine morphs, suggesting that gene flow overwhelms selection, and genomic parallelism may also be less pronounced. We used RAD sequencing for analysing 28 888 SNPs in two marine and seven freshwater populations in Denmark, Europe. Freshwater populations represented a variety of environments: river populations accessible to gene flow from marine sticklebacks and large and small isolated lakes with and without fish predators. Sticklebacks in an accessible river environment showed minimal morphological and genomewide divergence from marine populations, supporting the hypothesis of gene flow overriding selection. Allele frequency spectra suggested bottlenecks in all freshwater populations, and particularly two small lake populations. However, genomic footprints ascribed to selection could nevertheless be identified. No genomic regions were consistent freshwater-marine outliers, and parallelism was much lower than in other comparable studies. Two genomic regions previously described to be under divergent selection in freshwater and marine populations were outliers between different freshwater populations. We ascribe these patterns to stronger environmental heterogeneity among freshwater populations in our study as compared to most other studies, although the demographic history involving bottlenecks should also be considered in the

  12. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  13. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. WORMHOLE: Novel Least Diverged Ortholog Prediction through Machine Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L Sutphin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advancement of technology in genomics and targeted genetic manipulation has made comparative biology an increasingly prominent strategy to model human disease processes. Predicting orthology relationships between species is a vital component of comparative biology. Dozens of strategies for predicting orthologs have been developed using combinations of gene and protein sequence, phylogenetic history, and functional interaction with progressively increasing accuracy. A relatively new class of orthology prediction strategies combines aspects of multiple methods into meta-tools, resulting in improved prediction performance. Here we present WORMHOLE, a novel ortholog prediction meta-tool that applies machine learning to integrate 17 distinct ortholog prediction algorithms to identify novel least diverged orthologs (LDOs between 6 eukaryotic species-humans, mice, zebrafish, fruit flies, nematodes, and budding yeast. Machine learning allows WORMHOLE to intelligently incorporate predictions from a wide-spectrum of strategies in order to form aggregate predictions of LDOs with high confidence. In this study we demonstrate the performance of WORMHOLE across each combination of query and target species. We show that WORMHOLE is particularly adept at improving LDO prediction performance between distantly related species, expanding the pool of LDOs while maintaining low evolutionary distance and a high level of functional relatedness between genes in LDO pairs. We present extensive validation, including cross-validated prediction of PANTHER LDOs and evaluation of evolutionary divergence and functional similarity, and discuss future applications of machine learning in ortholog prediction. A WORMHOLE web tool has been developed and is available at http://wormhole.jax.org/.

  15. WORMHOLE: Novel Least Diverged Ortholog Prediction through Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, George L.; Mahoney, J. Matthew; Sheppard, Keith; Walton, David O.; Korstanje, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The rapid advancement of technology in genomics and targeted genetic manipulation has made comparative biology an increasingly prominent strategy to model human disease processes. Predicting orthology relationships between species is a vital component of comparative biology. Dozens of strategies for predicting orthologs have been developed using combinations of gene and protein sequence, phylogenetic history, and functional interaction with progressively increasing accuracy. A relatively new class of orthology prediction strategies combines aspects of multiple methods into meta-tools, resulting in improved prediction performance. Here we present WORMHOLE, a novel ortholog prediction meta-tool that applies machine learning to integrate 17 distinct ortholog prediction algorithms to identify novel least diverged orthologs (LDOs) between 6 eukaryotic species—humans, mice, zebrafish, fruit flies, nematodes, and budding yeast. Machine learning allows WORMHOLE to intelligently incorporate predictions from a wide-spectrum of strategies in order to form aggregate predictions of LDOs with high confidence. In this study we demonstrate the performance of WORMHOLE across each combination of query and target species. We show that WORMHOLE is particularly adept at improving LDO prediction performance between distantly related species, expanding the pool of LDOs while maintaining low evolutionary distance and a high level of functional relatedness between genes in LDO pairs. We present extensive validation, including cross-validated prediction of PANTHER LDOs and evaluation of evolutionary divergence and functional similarity, and discuss future applications of machine learning in ortholog prediction. A WORMHOLE web tool has been developed and is available at http://wormhole.jax.org/. PMID:27812085

  16. Constrained body shape among highly genetically divergent allopatric lineages of the supralittoral isopod Ligia occidentalis (Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple highly divergent lineages have been identified within Ligia occidentalis sensu lato, a rocky supralittoral isopod distributed along a ~3000 km latitudinal gradient that encompasses several proposed marine biogeographic provinces and ecoregions in the eastern Pacific. Highly divergent lineages have nonoverlapping geographic distributions, with distributional limits that generally correspond with sharp environmental changes. Crossbreeding experiments suggest postmating reproductive barriers exist among some of them, and surveys of mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers do not show evidence of hybridization. Populations are highly isolated, some of which appear to be very small; thus, the effects of drift are expected to reduce the efficiency of selection. Large genetic divergences among lineages, marked environmental differences in their ranges, reproductive isolation, and/or high isolation of populations may have resulted in morphological differences in L. occidentalis, not detected yet by traditional taxonomy. We used landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses to test for differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages of L. occidentalis, and among populations within these lineages. We analyzed a total of 492 individuals from 53 coastal localities from the southern California Bight to Central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. We conducted discriminant function analyses (DFAs) on body shape morphometrics to assess morphological variation among genetically differentiated lineages and their populations. We also tested for associations between phylogeny and morphological variation, and whether genetic divergence is correlated to multivariate morphological divergence. We detected significant differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages, and among populations within these lineages. Nonetheless, neither lineages nor populations can be discriminated on the basis of body shape, because correct classification rates of cross

  17. Variational divergence in wave scattering theory with Kirchhoffean trial functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    In a recent study of variational improvement of the Kirchhoff approximation for electromagnetic scattering by rough surfaces, a key ingredient in the variational principle was found to diverge for important configurations (e.g., backscatter) if the polarization had any vertical component. The cause and a cure of this divergence are discussed here. The divergence is demonstrated to occur for arbitrary perfectly conducting scatterers and its universal characterstics are determined, by means of a general divergence criterion that is derived. A variational cure for the divergence is prescribed, and it is tested successfully on a standard scattering model.

  18. System Members at Odds: Managing Divergent Perspectives in the Higher Education Change Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Achieving a shared vision is often cited as a prerequisite to successful organisational change. What change strategists do not take into consideration is how this concept applies to complex systems such as those found in higher education. This paper explores and identifies the divergent perspectives and meanings found among the multiplicity of…

  19. Non-diverging analytic expression for the on-axis sensitivity of converging collimators: analytic derivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accorsi, R; Metzler, S D

    2006-01-01

    The expressions for the sensitivity of converging collimators found in the literature diverge at points near the focal locus of the collimator. In this paper, an analytical formula that does not diverge is derived and compared to that available in the literature. An analysis is provided to predict the cases in which use of the new formula is advisable. Since the first expression derived is rather complex, approximations were made to reach simpler formulae. The formulae derived can be used to define and extend the realm of applicability of the literature expression in the cases identified in their derivation

  20. Sensible and latent heat forced divergent circulations in the West African Monsoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, S.; Zhang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Field properties of divergent circulation are utilized to identify the roles of various diabatic processes in forcing moisture transport in the dynamics of the West African Monsoon and its seasonal cycle. In this analysis, the divergence field is treated as a set of point sources and is partitioned into two sub-sets corresponding to latent heat release and surface sensible heat flux at each respective point. The divergent circulation associated with each set is then calculated from the Poisson's equation using Gauss-Seidel iteration. Moisture transport by each set of divergent circulation is subsequently estimated. The results show different roles of the divergent circulations forced by surface sensible and latent heating in the monsoon dynamics. Surface sensible heating drives a shallow meridional circulation, which transports moisture deep into the continent at the polar side of the monsoon rain band and thereby promotes the seasonal northward migration of monsoon precipitation during the monsoon onset season. In contrast, the circulation directly associated with latent heating is deep and the corresponding moisture convergence is within the region of precipitation. Latent heating also induces dry air advection from the north. Neither effect promotes the seasonal northward migration of precipitation. The relative contributions of the processes associated with latent and sensible heating to the net moisture convergence, and hence the seasonal evolution of monsoon precipitation, depend on the background moisture.

  1. Differential Survival between Visual Environments Supports a Role of Divergent Sensory Drive in Cichlid Fish Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, Martine E; Seehausen, Ole; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the selective forces that initiate ecological speciation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Sensory drive has been implicated in speciation in various taxa, largely based on phenotype-environment correlations and signatures of selection in sensory genes. Here, we present a reciprocal transplant experiment revealing species differences in performance in alternative visual environments, consistent with speciation by divergent sensory drive. The closely related cichlids Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei inhabit different visual environments in Lake Victoria and show associated differences in visual system properties. Mimicking the two light environments in the laboratory, we find a substantial reduction in survival of both species when reared in the other species' visual environment. This implies that the observed differences in Pundamilia color vision are indeed adaptive and substantiates the implicit assumption in sensory drive speciation models that divergent environmental selection is strong enough to drive divergence in sensory properties.

  2. On the Lamb vector divergence as a momentum field diagnostic employed in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamman, Curtis W.; Kirby, Robert M.; Klewicki, Joseph C.

    2006-11-01

    Vorticity, enstrophy, helicity, and other derived field variables provide invaluable information about the kinematics and dynamics of fluids. However, whether or not derived field variables exist that intrinsically identify spatially localized motions having a distinct capacity to affect a time rate of change of linear momentum is seldom addressed in the literature. The purpose of the present study is to illustrate the unique attributes of the divergence of the Lamb vector in order to qualify its potential for characterizing such spatially localized motions. Toward this aim, we describe the mathematical properties, near-wall behavior, and scaling characteristics of the divergence of the Lamb vector for turbulent channel flow. When scaled by inner variables, the mean divergence of the Lamb vector merges to a single curve in the inner layer, and the fluctuating quantities exhibit a strong correlation with the Bernoulli function throughout much of the inner layer.

  3. The Eurozone Dynamic Cohesion: Convergence or Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonin Rusek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The long term economic dynamics of the Eurozone’s original 12 countries (Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, Austria, Finland, France is analyzed and compared. It is today increasingly recognized that the diverging competitiveness between the Eurozone members is at the root of the current crisis. But the competitiveness dynamics and its impact on the crucial fiscal and financial variables during the common currency existence is seldom analyzed and compared, especially as far as the different groups of countries (and/or different areas within the Eurozone are concerned.

  4. Diverging patterns with endogenous labor migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichlin, P; Rustichini, A

    1998-05-05

    "The standard neoclassical model cannot explain persistent migration flows and lack of cross-country convergence when capital and labor are mobile. Here we present a model where both phenomena may take place.... Our model is based on the Arrow-Romer approach to endogenous growth theory. We single out the importance of a (however weak) scale effect from the size of the workforce.... The main conclusion of this simple model is that lack of convergence, or even divergence, among countries is possible, even with perfect capital mobility and labor mobility." excerpt

  5. Projection Pursuit Through ϕ-Divergence Minimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Touboul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In his 1985 article (“Projection pursuit”, Huber demonstrates the interest of his method to estimate a density from a data set in a simple given case. He considers the factorization of density through a Gaussian component and some residual density. Huber’s work is based on maximizing Kullback–Leibler divergence. Our proposal leads to a new algorithm. Furthermore, we will also consider the case when the density to be factorized is estimated from an i.i.d. sample. We will then propose a test for the factorization of the estimated density. Applications include a new test of fit pertaining to the elliptical copulas.

  6. Divergence-based tests for model diagnostic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Tomáš; Esteban, M. D.; Morales, D.; Marhuenda, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 13 (2008), s. 1702-1710 ISSN 0167-7152 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (ES) MTM2006-05693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : goodness of fit * devergence statistics * GLM * model checking * bootstrap Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/SI/hobza-divergence-based%20tests%20for%20model%20diagnostic.pdf

  7. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Many firms assume that outsourcing partnerships may allow them to strengthen their overall competitiveness. Lured by its intuitive appeal, several enter into such partnerships, only to realize that they represent a marginal rather than a magical solution to their quest for increasing market...... SMEs. We discuss four relational expectations derived from the B2B literature on relational norms for addressing these divergences: Quality, frequency and scope of communication, role specifications and coordination of work nature of planning horizons, and trustworthiness and link these to relationship...

  8. Newly elected IAEA Board of Governors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives information about the election of 11 Member States to the IAEA Board of Governors, the 35-member policy-making body, during the 44th regular session of the IAEA's General Conference (18 - 22 September 2000, Austria Center, Vienna). The newly elected Member States are: Argentina, Egypt, Ghana, Ireland, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, Switzerland, Thailand, Ukraine. The other 24 Member States of the Board are also given

  9. Newly elected IAEA Board of Governors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document gives information about the election of 11 Member States to the IAEA Board of Governors, the 35-member policy-making body, during the 45th regular session of the IAEA's General Conference (17-21 September 2001, Austria Center, Vienna). The newly elected Member States are: Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Chile, Colombia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kuwait, Morocco, Philippines, Romania, Spain, and Turkey. The other 24 Member States of the Board are also given

  10. Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Two herbs are newly discovered in Taiwan. Limnophila fragrans (G. Forst. Seem. (Scrophulariaceae, native in SE Asia, is recognized from southern lowlands. Anagallis minima (L. E. H. L. Krause (Primulaceae, native in N America and Europe, was found from northern mountainous region at low altitudes. In this study, descriptions, line drawings, color photos and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  11. Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three newly naturalized plants are reported in this paper. Hypochaeris microcephala (Sch. Bip. Cabrera var. albiflora (Kuntze Cabrera (Asteraceae is naturalized in urban areas of northern Taiwan. Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria Matsum. (Leguminosae is naturalized in low elevations of northern and southern Taiwan and in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Lamium purpureum L. (Laminaceae has become naturalized locally in middle elevations of central Taiwan. Descriptions, illustrations and color photos of these plants are provided.

  12. The practical skills of newly qualified nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Birkelund, Regner

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of newly qualified nurses and which subjects the nurses regarded as the most important in order to be able to live up to the requirements of clinical practice, and how they experience their potential for developing practical and moral skills, after the decrease in practical training. A qualitative approach guided the research process and the analysis of the data. The data was collected by participant observation and qualitative interviews with four nurses as informants. The conclusions made in this study are based on the statements and the observations of the newly qualified nurses. Our findings are discussed in relation to the Aristotelian concept and other relevant literature. The main message is that the newly qualified nurses did not feel equipped when they finished their training. This could be interpreted as a direct consequence of the decrease in practical training. Our study also underlines that the way nursing theory is perceived and taught is problematic. The interviews revealed that the nurses think that nursing theories should be applied directly in practice. This misunderstanding is probably also applicable to the teachers of the theories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Fasciola spp. Isolated from Different Host Species in a Newly Emerging Focus of Human Fascioliasis in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Reza; Sarkari, Bahador; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmuod; Mowlavi, Gholam Reza; Moshfe, Abdolali

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to find out the morphometric and genotypic divergences of the flukes isolated from different hosts in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in Iran. Adult Fasciola spp. were collected from 34 cattle, 13 sheep, and 11 goats from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwest of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted from the flukes and PCR-RFLP was used to characterize the isolates. The ITS1, ITS2, and mitochondrial genes (mtDNA) of NDI and COI from individual liver flukes were amplified and the amplicons were sequenced. Genetic variation within and between the species was evaluated by comparing the sequences. Moreover, morphometric characteristics of flukes were measured through a computer image analysis system. Based on RFLP profile, from the total of 58 isolates, 41 isolates (from cattle, sheep, and goat) were identified as Fasciola hepatica, while 17 isolates from cattle were identified as Fasciola gigantica. Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences showed six and seven single-base substitutions, resulting in segregation of the specimens into two different genotypes. The sequences of COI markers showed seven DNA polymorphic sites for F. hepatica and 35 DNA polymorphic sites for F. gigantica. Morphological diversity of the two species was observed in linear, ratios, and areas measurements. The findings have implications for studying the population genetics, epidemiology, and control of the disease. PMID:25018891

  14. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Fasciola spp. Isolated from Different Host Species in a Newly Emerging Focus of Human Fascioliasis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shafiei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to find out the morphometric and genotypic divergences of the flukes isolated from different hosts in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in Iran. Adult Fasciola spp. were collected from 34 cattle, 13 sheep, and 11 goats from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwest of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted from the flukes and PCR-RFLP was used to characterize the isolates. The ITS1, ITS2, and mitochondrial genes (mtDNA of NDI and COI from individual liver flukes were amplified and the amplicons were sequenced. Genetic variation within and between the species was evaluated by comparing the sequences. Moreover, morphometric characteristics of flukes were measured through a computer image analysis system. Based on RFLP profile, from the total of 58 isolates, 41 isolates (from cattle, sheep, and goat were identified as Fasciola hepatica, while 17 isolates from cattle were identified as Fasciola gigantica. Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences showed six and seven single-base substitutions, resulting in segregation of the specimens into two different genotypes. The sequences of COI markers showed seven DNA polymorphic sites for F. hepatica and 35 DNA polymorphic sites for F. gigantica. Morphological diversity of the two species was observed in linear, ratios, and areas measurements. The findings have implications for studying the population genetics, epidemiology, and control of the disease.

  15. Gene expression profiling for molecular classification of multiple myeloma in newly diagnosed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broyl, Annemiek; Hose, Dirk; Lokhorst, Henk; de Knegt, Yvonne; Peeters, Justine; Jauch, Anna; Bertsch, Uta; Buijs, Arjan; Stevens-Kroef, Marian; Beverloo, H. Berna; Vellenga, Edo; Zweegman, Sonja; Kersten, Marie-Josée; van der Holt, Bronno; el Jarari, Laila; Mulligan, George; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; van Duin, Mark; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    To identify molecularly defined subgroups in multiple myeloma, gene expression profiling was performed on purified CD138(+) plasma cells of 320 newly diagnosed myeloma patients included in the Dutch-Belgian/German HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 trial. Hierarchical clustering identified 10 subgroups; 6

  16. World health inequality: convergence, divergence, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rob

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies characterize the last half of the twentieth century as an era of cross-national health convergence, with some attributing welfare gains in the developing world to economic growth. In this study, I examine the extent to which welfare outcomes have actually converged and the extent to which economic development is responsible for the observed trends. Drawing from estimates covering 195 nations during the 1955-2005 period, I find that life expectancy averages converged during this time, but that infant mortality rates continuously diverged. I develop a narrative that implicates economic development in these contrasting trends, suggesting that health outcomes follow a "welfare Kuznets curve." Among poor countries, economic development improves life expectancy more than it reduces infant mortality, whereas the situation is reversed among wealthier nations. In this way, development has contributed to both convergence in life expectancy and divergence in infant mortality. Drawing from 674 observations across 163 countries during the 1980-2005 period, I find that the positive effect of GDP PC on life expectancy attenuates at higher levels of development, while the negative effect of GDP PC on infant mortality grows stronger. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Worldwide Patterns of Ancestry, Divergence, and Admixture in Domesticated Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jared E.; McKay, Stephanie D.; Rolf, Megan M.; Kim, JaeWoo; Molina Alcalá, Antonio; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Hanotte, Olivier; Götherström, Anders; Seabury, Christopher M.; Praharani, Lisa; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Correia de Almeida Regitano, Luciana; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Heaton, Michael P.; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Reecy, James M.; Saif-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.

    2014-01-01

    The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. PMID:24675901

  18. Growth divergence: a challenging opportunity for dendrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Wilmking, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Dendrochronology is an essential cornerstone of paleoclimatology and the evaluation of climate change impacts on forest ecosystems. However, a growing body of literature indicates that the standard dendrochronological approach may too rigorously neglect individualistic tree-growth (e.g. Wilmking et al., 2004, Buras et al., 2016). Amongst others, these studies showed convincing evidence that individual trees of the same species sampled at one site expressed different long-term growth patterns and therefore differing climate-growth relationships. This phenomenon is commonly termed growth divergence (GD) and possibly weakens our ability to correctly estimate past climate variability as discussed in the context of the so-called divergence phenomenon (D'Arrigo et al., 2008). In this context, climate change may naturally select for trees on the stand-level which are better adapted to future conditions. Although GD has been reported for several sites, the standard dendrochronological approach yet does not consider the existence of GD. A possible reason for this methodological persistence is the lack of detailed information on the frequency, magnitude, and impact of GD occurrence. To assess GD occurrence and related tree-individual variations in climate-growth response we conducted a global GD study by using 134 ring-width data representing 52 tree species and 16 genera distributed over 115 sites across 22 countries. Our analyses clearly reveal GD to be a common phenomenon as occurring in 85 % of all sites. GD was clearly related to the degree of tree-individual differences in climate-growth response. Respective transfer functions which appropriately accounted for GD by selection of tree-cohorts with a high share of long-term variance on average increased the precision and stability of tree-ring based climate reconstructions. Concluding, incorporation of GD assessments into the dendrochronological approach has a strong potential to improve the precision of our predictions

  19. Coping strategies among patients with newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson Larsson, Birgitta; Nordin, Karin; Askmark, Håkan; Nygren, Ingela

    2014-11-01

    To prospectively identify different coping strategies among newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and whether they change over time and to determine whether physical function, psychological well-being, age and gender correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal disease with impact on both physical function and psychological well-being. Different coping strategies are used to manage symptoms and disease progression, but knowledge about coping in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is scarce. This was a prospective study with a longitudinal and descriptive design. A total of 33 patients were included and evaluation was made at two time points, one to three months and six months after diagnosis. Patients were asked to complete the Motor Neuron Disease Coping Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Physical function was estimated using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale. The most commonly used strategies were support and independence. Avoidance/venting and information seeking were seldom used at both time points. The use of information seeking decreased between the two time points. Men did not differ from women, but patients ≤64 years used positive action more often than older patients. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale was positively correlated with positive action at time point 1, but not at time point 2. Patients' psychological well-being was correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Support and independence were the most used coping strategies, and the use of different strategies changed over time. Psychological well-being was correlated with different coping strategies in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. The knowledge about coping strategies in early stage of the disease may help the nurses to improve and develop the care and support for these patients. © 2014 John Wiley

  20. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-01-01

    wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637

  1. A Separation between Divergence and Holevo Information for Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rahul; Nayak, Ashwin; Su, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The notion of divergence information of an ensemble of probability distributions was introduced by Jain, Radhakrishnan, and Sen in the context of the ``substate theorem''. Since then, divergence has been recognized as a more natural measure of information in several situations in quantum and classical communication. We construct ensembles of probability distributions for which divergence information may be significantly smaller than the more standard Holevo information. As a result, we establ...

  2. Exact cancellation of quadratic divergences in top condensation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhofer, A.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the hierarchy problem and the corresponding quadratic divergences in the top mode Standard Model. Quadratic divergences appear at each order 1/N c since fermionic and bosonic contributions are of different order 1/N c . It is shown that the full dynamical system to all orders in 1/N c admits a solution, where the sum of all quadratic divergent contributions disappears. ((orig.))

  3. Newly introduced sample preparation techniques: towards miniaturization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Sampling and sample preparation are of crucial importance in an analytical procedure, representing quite often a source of errors. The technique chosen for the isolation of analytes greatly affects the success of a chemical determination. On the other hand, growing concerns about environmental and human safety, along with the introduction of international regulations for quality control, have moved the interest of scientists towards specific needs. Newly introduced sample preparation techniques are challenged to meet new criteria: (i) miniaturization, (ii) higher sensitivity and selectivity, and (iii) automation. In this survey, the most recent techniques introduced in the field of sample preparation will be described and discussed, along with many examples of applications.

  4. Newly democratic Mongolia offering exploration contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttila, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Mongolia, formerly the Mongolian People's Republic, is working to open its exploration prospects to international operators as it emerges as the world's 15th largest independent nation. The country, about the same size as Alaska with a population of 2 million, held its first free election in July 1990. The newly elected government drafted a constitution that took effect Feb. 12, 1992. The document modifies the previous government's structures to eliminate bureaucracy and allows for political pluralism. At the same time, the government is formulating energy policies, state oil company structure, and resource development philosophy

  5. Demography and genome divergence of lake and stream populations of an East African cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Bernd; Roesti, Marius; Böhne, Astrid; Roth, Olivia; Salzburger, Walter

    2017-10-01

    Disentangling the processes and mechanisms underlying adaptive diversification is facilitated by the comparative study of replicate population pairs that have diverged along a similar environmental gradient. Such a setting is realized in a cichlid fish from southern Lake Tanganyika, Astatotilapia burtoni, which occurs within the lake proper as well as in various affluent rivers. Previously, we demonstrated that independent lake and stream populations show similar adaptations to the two habitat regimes. However, little is known about the evolutionary and demographic history of the A. burtoni populations in question and the patterns of genome divergence among them. Here, we apply restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) to examine the evolutionary history, the population structure and genomic differentiation of lake and stream populations in A. burtoni. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on genome-wide molecular data largely resolved the evolutionary relationships among populations, allowing us to re-evaluate the independence of replicate lake-stream population clusters. Further, we detected a strong pattern of isolation by distance, with baseline genomic divergence increasing with geographic distance and decreasing with the level of gene flow between lake and stream populations. Genome divergence patterns were heterogeneous and inconsistent among lake-stream population clusters, which is explained by differences in divergence times, levels of gene flow and local selection regimes. In line with the latter, we only detected consistent outlier loci when the most divergent lake-stream population pair was excluded. Several of the thus identified candidate genes have inferred functions in immune and neuronal systems and show differences in gene expression between lake and stream populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Divergence in function and expression of the NOD26-like intrinsic proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ying

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs that belong to the aquaporin superfamily are plant-specific and exhibit a similar three-dimensional structure. Experimental evidences however revealed that functional divergence should have extensively occurred among NIP genes. It is therefore intriguing to further investigate the evolutionary mechanisms being responsible for the functional diversification of the NIP genes. To better understand this process, a comprehensive analysis including the phylogenetic, positive selection, functional divergence, and transcriptional analysis was carried out. Results The origination of NIPs could be dated back to the primitive land plants, and their diversification would be no younger than the emergence time of the moss P. patens. The rapid proliferation of NIPs in plants may be primarily attributed to the segmental chromosome duplication produced by polyploidy and tandem duplications. The maximum likelihood analysis revealed that NIPs should have experienced strong selective pressure for adaptive evolution after gene duplication and/or speciation, prompting the formation of distinct NIP groups. Functional divergence analysis at the amino acid level has provided strong statistical evidence for shifted evolutionary rate and/or radical change of the physiochemical properties of amino acids after gene duplication, and DIVERGE2 has identified the critical amino acid sites that are thought to be responsible for the divergence for further investigation. The expression of plant NIPs displays a distinct tissue-, cell-type-, and developmental specific pattern, and their responses to various stress treatments are quite different also. The differences in organization of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions may partially explain their distinction in expression. Conclusion A number of analyses both at the DNA and amino acid sequence levels have provided strong evidences that plant NIPs have

  7. Culturally divergent responses to mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Kellams, Christine; Blascovich, Jim

    2011-08-01

    Two experiments compared the effects of death thoughts, or mortality salience, on European and Asian Americans. Research on terror management theory has demonstrated that in Western cultural groups, individuals typically employ self-protective strategies in the face of death-related thoughts. Given fundamental East-West differences in self-construal (i.e., the independent vs. interdependent self), we predicted that members of Eastern cultural groups would affirm other people, rather than defend and affirm the self, after encountering conditions of mortality salience. We primed European Americans and Asian Americans with either a death or a control prime and examined the effect of this manipulation on attitudes about a person who violates cultural norms (Study 1) and on attributions about the plight of an innocent victim (Study 2). Mortality salience promoted culturally divergent responses, leading European Americans to defend the self and Asian Americans to defend other people.

  8. Process model simulations of the divergence effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchukaitis, K. J.; Evans, M. N.; D'Arrigo, R. D.; Smerdon, J. E.; Hughes, M. K.; Kaplan, A.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    We explore the extent to which the Vaganov-Shashkin (VS) model of conifer tree-ring formation can explain evidence for changing relationships between climate and tree growth over recent decades. The VS model is driven by daily environmental forcing (temperature, soil moisture, and solar radiation), and simulates tree-ring growth cell-by-cell as a function of the most limiting environmental control. This simplified representation of tree physiology allows us to examine using a selection of case studies whether instances of divergence may be explained in terms of changes in limiting environmental dependencies or transient climate change. Identification of model-data differences permits further exploration of the effects of tree-ring standardization, atmospheric composition, and additional non-climatic factors.

  9. Hamiltonian mechanics and divergence-free fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1986-08-01

    The field lines, or integral curves, of a divergence-free field in three dimensions are shown to be topologically equivalent to the trajectories of a Hamiltonian with two degrees of freedom. The consideration of fields that depend on a parameter allow the construction of a canonical perturbation theory which is valid even if the perturbation is large. If the parametric dependence of the magnetic, or the vorticity field is interpreted as time dependence, evolution equations are obtained which give Kelvin's theorem or the flux conservation theorem for ideal fluids and plasmas. The Hamiltonian methods prove especially useful for study of fields in which the field lines must be known throughout a volume of space

  10. Some Divergence Properties of Asset Price Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stummer

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We consider asset price processes Xt which are weak solutions of one-dimensional stochastic differential equations of the form (equation (2 Such price models can be interpreted as non-lognormally-distributed generalizations of the geometric Brownian motion. We study properties of the Iα-divergence between the law of the solution Xt and the corresponding drift-less measure (the special case α=1 is the relative entropy. This will be applied to some context in statistical information theory as well as to arbitrage theory and contingent claim valuation. For instance, the seminal option pricing theorems of Black-Scholes and Merton appear as a special case.

  11. DIVERGING DISCOURSES ON THE SYR DARYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eelke Kraak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic mission of the Soviet Union has transformed Central Asia’s Syr Darya River into a governable entity. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union the river system disintegrated and conflict arose over the operation of the main dam and reservoir of the river: the Toktogul. Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan have widely different and diverging sanctioned discourses on how the dam should be operated and on the nature of the water itself. These discourses have had a significant impact on the hydro-politics of the river basin and the operation of the dam. The central argument of this paper is that both the decline of the Aral Sea, and the potential conflict between the states are driven by the same modernist governmentality of the river.

  12. Divergent clonal selection dominates medulloblastoma at recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissy, A. Sorana; Garzia, Livia; Shih, David J. H.; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Huang, Xi; Skowron, Patryk; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M. G.; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jelveh, Salomeh; Donovan, Laura K.; Wang, Xin; Luu, Betty; Zayne, Kory; Li, Yisu; Mayoh, Chelsea; Thiessen, Nina; Mercier, Eloi; Mungall, Karen L.; Ma, Yusanne; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Shumansky, Karey; Roth, Andrew J. L.; Shah, Sohrab; Farooq, Hamza; Kijima, Noriyuki; Holgado, Borja L.; Lee, John J. Y.; Matan-Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Jessica; Mack, Stephen C.; Manno, Alex; Michealraj, K. A.; Nor, Carolina; Peacock, John; Qin, Lei; Reimand, Juri; Rolider, Adi; Thompson, Yuan Y.; Wu, Xiaochong; Pugh, Trevor; Ally, Adrian; Bilenky, Mikhail; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Young; Chuah, Eric; Corbett, Richard D.; Dhalla, Noreen; He, An; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Long, William; Mayo, Michael; Plettner, Patrick; Qian, Jenny Q.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Tam, Angela; Wong, Tina; Birol, Inanc; Zhao, Yongjun; Faria, Claudia C.; Pimentel, José; Nunes, Sofia; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Pollack, Ian F.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Li, Xiao-Nan; Bendel, Anne E.; Fults, Daniel W.; Walter, Andrew W.; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Collins, V. Peter; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Hoffman, Caitlin; Lyden, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H.; Garvin, James H.; Stearns, Duncan S.; Massimi, Luca; Schüller, Ulrich; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Puget, Stephanie; Ayrault, Olivier; Dunn, Sandra E.; Tirapelli, Daniela P. C.; Carlotti, Carlos G.; Wheeler, Helen; Hallahan, Andrew R.; Ingram, Wendy; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Pietsch, Torsten; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Ra, Young Shin; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Clifford, Steven C.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Cooper, Michael K.; Packer, Roger J.; Massimino, Maura; Garre, Maria Luisa; Bartels, Ute; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Dirks, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Weiss, William A.; Collier, Lara S.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T. W.; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Largaespada, David A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Jabado, Nada; Bader, Gary D.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Malkin, David; Marra, Marco A.; Taylor, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon–driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with ‘humanized’ in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy. PMID:26760213

  13. Genetic divergence and units for conservation in the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi, C.; Beaumont, M. A.; Swingland, I. R.; Bruford, M. W.

    1999-01-01

    In the past decade much attention has focused on the role that genetics can play in the formation of management strategies in conservation. Here, we describe genetic diversity in the world's largest lizard, the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), examining the evolutionary relationships and population genetic history of the four islands in south-east Indonesia, which form the vast majority of its range. We identify distinct genetic groups for conservation. The population on the island of Komodo shows by far the largest values of genetic divergence and is proposed that it should be a separate conservation management unit. Other populations, surviving either on small islands with substantially reduced genetic variability, or in isolated patches, are identified as particularly vulnerable to stochastic threats and habitat loss. Our results provide an example of how data defining intraspecific levels of genetic divergence can provide information to help management plans, ensure the maintenance of genetic variability across populations and identify evolutionary potential within endangered species.

  14. Divergence and Conservative Evolution of XTNX Genes in Land Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Mei Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR and Nucleotide-binding site (NBS domains are two major components of the TIR-NBS-leucine-rich repeat family plant disease resistance genes. Extensive functional and evolutionary studies have been performed on these genes; however, the characterization of a small group of genes that are composed of atypical TIR and NBS domains, namely XTNX genes, is limited. The present study investigated this specific gene family by conducting genome-wide analyses of 59 green plant genomes. A total of 143 XTNX genes were identified in 51 of the 52 land plant genomes, whereas no XTNX gene was detected in any green algae genomes, which indicated that XTNX genes originated upon emergence of land plants. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ancestral XTNX gene underwent two rounds of ancient duplications in land plants, which resulted in the formation of clades I/II and clades IIa/IIb successively. Although clades I and IIb have evolved conservatively in angiosperms, the motif composition difference and sequence divergence at the amino acid level suggest that functional divergence may have occurred since the separation of the two clades. In contrast, several features of the clade IIa genes, including the absence in the majority of dicots, the long branches in the tree, the frequent loss of ancestral motifs, and the loss of expression in all detected tissues of Zea mays, all suggest that the genes in this lineage might have undergone pseudogenization. This study highlights that XTNX genes are a gene family originated anciently in land plants and underwent specific conservative pattern in evolution.

  15. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources: a meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Hall, Elisabeth O C

    2016-08-01

    To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources are increasing though generated from scattered healthcare contexts. Therefore, a metasynthesis of qualitative research on what knowledge sources new graduates use in decision-making was conducted. Meta-ethnography. Nineteen reports, representing 17 studies, published from 2000-2014 were identified from iterative searches in relevant databases from May 2013-May 2014. Included reports were appraised for quality and Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography guided the interpretation and synthesis of data. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources during their first 2-year postgraduation were interpreted in the main theme 'self and others as knowledge sources,' with two subthemes 'doing and following' and 'knowing and doing,' each with several elucidating categories. The metasynthesis revealed a line of argument among the report findings underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions. The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Using Dendritic Heat Maps to Simultaneously Display Genotype Divergence with Phenotype Divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellom, Matthew; Raymond, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of techniques to visualize and analyze large-scale sequencing datasets is an area of active research and is rooted in traditional techniques such as heat maps and dendrograms. We introduce dendritic heat maps that display heat map results over aligned DNA sequence clusters for a range of clustering cutoffs. Dendritic heat maps aid in visualizing the effects of group differences on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance of sampled sequences. Here, we artificially generate two separate datasets with simplified mutation and population growth procedures with GC content group separation to use as example phenotypes. In this work, we use the term phenotype to represent any feature by which groups can be separated. These sequences were clustered in a fractional identity range of 0.75 to 1.0 using agglomerative minimum-, maximum-, and average-linkage algorithms, as well as a divisive centroid-based algorithm. We demonstrate that dendritic heat maps give freedom to scrutinize specific clustering levels across a range of cutoffs, track changes in phenotype inequity across multiple levels of sequence clustering specificity, and easily visualize how deeply rooted changes in phenotype inequity are in a dataset. As genotypes diverge in sample populations, clusters are shown to break apart into smaller clusters at higher identity cutoff levels, similar to a dendrogram. Phenotype divergence, which is shown as a heat map of relative abundance bin response, may or may not follow genotype divergences. This joined view highlights the relationship between genotype and phenotype divergence for treatment groups. We discuss the minimum-, maximum-, average-, and centroid-linkage algorithm approaches to building dendritic heat maps and make a case for the divisive "top-down" centroid-based clustering methodology as being the best option visualize the effects of changing factors on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance.

  17. Using Dendritic Heat Maps to Simultaneously Display Genotype Divergence with Phenotype Divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kellom

    Full Text Available The advancement of techniques to visualize and analyze large-scale sequencing datasets is an area of active research and is rooted in traditional techniques such as heat maps and dendrograms. We introduce dendritic heat maps that display heat map results over aligned DNA sequence clusters for a range of clustering cutoffs. Dendritic heat maps aid in visualizing the effects of group differences on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance of sampled sequences. Here, we artificially generate two separate datasets with simplified mutation and population growth procedures with GC content group separation to use as example phenotypes. In this work, we use the term phenotype to represent any feature by which groups can be separated. These sequences were clustered in a fractional identity range of 0.75 to 1.0 using agglomerative minimum-, maximum-, and average-linkage algorithms, as well as a divisive centroid-based algorithm. We demonstrate that dendritic heat maps give freedom to scrutinize specific clustering levels across a range of cutoffs, track changes in phenotype inequity across multiple levels of sequence clustering specificity, and easily visualize how deeply rooted changes in phenotype inequity are in a dataset. As genotypes diverge in sample populations, clusters are shown to break apart into smaller clusters at higher identity cutoff levels, similar to a dendrogram. Phenotype divergence, which is shown as a heat map of relative abundance bin response, may or may not follow genotype divergences. This joined view highlights the relationship between genotype and phenotype divergence for treatment groups. We discuss the minimum-, maximum-, average-, and centroid-linkage algorithm approaches to building dendritic heat maps and make a case for the divisive "top-down" centroid-based clustering methodology as being the best option visualize the effects of changing factors on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance.

  18. Testing evolutionary hypotheses for phenotypic divergence using landscape genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W Chris; Murphy, Melanie A

    2010-02-01

    Understanding the evolutionary causes of phenotypic variation among populations has long been a central theme in evolutionary biology. Several factors can influence phenotypic divergence, including geographic isolation, genetic drift, divergent natural or sexual selection, and phenotypic plasticity. But the relative importance of these factors in generating phenotypic divergence in nature is still a tantalizing and unresolved problem in evolutionary biology. The origin and maintenance of phenotypic divergence is also at the root of many ongoing debates in evolutionary biology, such as the extent to which gene flow constrains adaptive divergence (Garant et al. 2007) and the relative importance of genetic drift, natural selection, and sexual selection in initiating reproductive isolation and speciation (Coyne & Orr 2004). In this issue, Wang & Summers (2010) test the causes of one of the most fantastic examples of phenotypic divergence in nature: colour pattern divergence among populations of the strawberry poison frog (Dendrobates pumilio) in Panama and Costa Rica (Fig. 1). This study provides a beautiful example of the use of the emerging field of landscape genetics to differentiate among hypotheses for phenotypic divergence. Using landscape genetic analyses, Wang & Summers were able to reject the hypotheses that colour pattern divergence is due to isolation-by-distance (IBD) or landscape resistance. Instead, the hypothesis left standing is that colour divergence is due to divergent selection, in turn driving reproductive isolation among populations with different colour morphs. More generally, this study provides a wonderful example of how the emerging field of landscape genetics, which has primarily been applied to questions in conservation and ecology, now plays an essential role in evolutionary research.

  19. The $16,819 pay gap for newly trained physicians: the unexplained trend of men earning more than women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sasso, Anthony T; Richards, Michael R; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Gerber, Susan E

    2011-02-01

    Prior research has suggested that gender differences in physicians' salaries can be accounted for by the tendency of women to enter primary care fields and work fewer hours. However, in examining starting salaries by gender of physicians leaving residency programs in New York State during 1999-2008, we found a significant gender gap that cannot be explained by specialty choice, practice setting, work hours, or other characteristics. The unexplained trend toward diverging salaries appears to be a recent development that is growing over time. In 2008, male physicians newly trained in New York State made on average $16,819 more than newly trained female physicians, compared to a $3,600 difference in 1999.

  20. Polyketide synthase chemistry does not direct biosynthetic divergence between 9- and 10-membered enediynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, Geoff P.; Chen, Yihua; Thorson, Jon S.; Shen, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Enediynes are potent antitumor antibiotics that are classified as 9- or 10-membered according to the size of the enediyne core structure. However, almost nothing is known about enediyne core biosynthesis, and the determinants of 9- versus 10-membered enediyne core biosynthetic divergence remain elusive. Previous work identified enediyne-specific polyketide synthases (PKSEs) that can be phylogenetically distinguished as being involved in 9- versus 10-membered enediyne biosynthesis, suggesting that biosynthetic divergence might originate from differing PKSE chemistries. Recent in vitro studies have identified several compounds produced by the PKSE and associated thioesterase (TE), but condition-dependent product profiles make it difficult to ascertain a true catalytic difference between 9- and 10-membered PKSE-TE systems. Here we report that PKSE chemistry does not direct 9- versus 10-membered enediyne core biosynthetic divergence as revealed by comparing the products from three 9-membered and two 10-membered PKSE-TE systems under identical conditions using robust in vivo assays. Three independent experiments support a common catalytic function for 9- and 10-membered PKSEs by the production of a heptaene metabolite from: (i) all five cognate PKSE-TE pairs in Escherichia coli; (ii) the C-1027 and calicheamicin cognate PKSE-TEs in Streptomyces lividans K4-114; and (iii) selected native producers of both 9- and 10-membered enediynes. Furthermore, PKSEs and TEs from different 9- and 10-membered enediyne biosynthetic machineries are freely interchangeable, revealing that 9- versus 10-membered enediyne core biosynthetic divergence occurs beyond the PKSE-TE level. These findings establish a starting point for determining the origins of this biosynthetic divergence. PMID:20534556

  1. DNA barcoding of recently diverged species: relative performance of matching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van Velzen

    Full Text Available Recently diverged species are challenging for identification, yet they are frequently of special interest scientifically as well as from a regulatory perspective. DNA barcoding has proven instrumental in species identification, especially in insects and vertebrates, but for the identification of recently diverged species it has been reported to be problematic in some cases. Problems are mostly due to incomplete lineage sorting or simply lack of a 'barcode gap' and probably related to large effective population size and/or low mutation rate. Our objective was to compare six methods in their ability to correctly identify recently diverged species with DNA barcodes: neighbor joining and parsimony (both tree-based, nearest neighbor and BLAST (similarity-based, and the diagnostic methods DNA-BAR, and BLOG. We analyzed simulated data assuming three different effective population sizes as well as three selected empirical data sets from published studies. Results show, as expected, that success rates are significantly lower for recently diverged species (∼75% than for older species (∼97% (P<0.00001. Similarity-based and diagnostic methods significantly outperform tree-based methods, when applied to simulated DNA barcode data (P<0.00001. The diagnostic method BLOG had highest correct query identification rate based on simulated (86.2% as well as empirical data (93.1%, indicating that it is a consistently better method overall. Another advantage of BLOG is that it offers species-level information that can be used outside the realm of DNA barcoding, for instance in species description or molecular detection assays. Even though we can confirm that identification success based on DNA barcoding is generally high in our data, recently diverged species remain difficult to identify. Nevertheless, our results contribute to improved solutions for their accurate identification.

  2. Three Types of Flower Structures in a Divergent-Wrench Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Liu, Chi-yang

    2017-12-01

    Flower structures are typical features of wrench fault zones. In conventional studies, two distinct kinds of flower structures have been identified based on differences in their internal structural architecture: (1) negative flower structures characterized by synforms and normal separations and (2) positive flower structures characterized by antiforms and reverse separations. In addition to negative and positive flower structures, in this study, a third kind of flower structure was identified in a divergent-wrench fault zone, a hybrid characterized by both antiforms and normal separations. Negative flower structures widely occur in divergent-wrench fault zones, and their presence indicates the combined effects of extensional and strike-slip motion. In contrast, positive and hybrid flower structures occur only in fault restraining bends and step overs. A hybrid flower structure can be considered as product of a kind of structural deformation typical of divergent-wrench zones; it is the result of the combined effects of extensional, compressional, and strike-slip strains under a locally appropriate compressional environment. The strain situation in it represents the transition stage that in between positive and negative flower structures. Kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the hybrid flower structures indicate the salient features of structural deformation in restraining bends and step overs along divergent-wrench faults, including the coexistence of three kinds of strains (i.e., compression, extension, and strike-slip) and synchronous presence of compressional (i.e., typical fault-bend fold) and extensional (normal faults) deformation in the same place. Hybrid flower structures are also favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbons because of their special structural configuration in divergent-wrench fault zones.

  3. Conformal anomaly and elimination of infrared divergences in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, A.A.; Nesteruk, A.V.; Pritomanov, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The relation between the problem of eliminating the infrared divergences and the conformal anomaly of the regularized energy-momentum tensor is studied in homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic spacetime. It is shown that elimination of the infrared divergence by means of a cutoff or the introduction of a conformally invariant mass of the field leads to the absence of the conformal anomaly

  4. Performance analysis of alpha divergence in nonnegative matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is achieved by using a suitable cost function to determine the optimal factorization. Most work in this field has focused on the use of Euclidean and Kullback-Liebler (KL) divergence. This study looks into the use of α-divergence based non negative factorization in the context of single channel musical sound separation.

  5. Convergent and Divergent Thinking in the Context of Narrative Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, William G.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    This project demonstrates how narrative mysteries provide a context in which readers engage in creative cognition. Drawing on the concepts of convergent and divergent thinking, we wrote stories that had either convergent or divergent outcomes. For example, one story had a character give his girlfriend a ring (a convergent outcome), whereas the…

  6. Transcriptome-wide patterns of divergence during allopatric evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Barreto, Felipe S; Pierce, N Tessa; Carneiro, Miguel; Burton, Ronald S

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed repeated patterns of genomic divergence associated with species formation. Such patterns suggest that natural selection tends to target a set of available genes, but is also indicative that closely related taxa share evolutionary constraints that limit genetic variability. Studying patterns of genomic divergence among populations within the same species may shed light on the underlying evolutionary processes. Here, we examine transcriptome-wide divergence and polymorphism in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus, a species where allopatric evolution has led to replicate sets of populations with varying degrees of divergence and hybrid incompatibility. Our analyses suggest that relatively small effective population sizes have resulted in an exponential decline of shared polymorphisms during population divergence and also facilitated the fixation of slightly deleterious mutations within allopatric populations. Five interpopulation comparisons at three different stages of divergence show that nonsynonymous mutations tend to accumulate in a specific set of proteins. These include proteins with central roles in cellular metabolism, such as those encoded in mtDNA, but also include an additional set of proteins that repeatedly show signatures of positive selection during allopatric divergence. Although our results are consistent with a contribution of nonadaptive processes, such as genetic drift and gene expression levels, generating repeatable patterns of genomic divergence in closely related taxa, they also indicate that adaptive evolution targeting a specific set of genes contributes to this pattern. Our results yield insights into the predictability of evolution at the gene level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ultraviolet divergences in 1/N expansions of quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, C.

    1984-01-01

    For asymptotically free theories, ultraviolet divergencies computed in 1/N expansion with dimensional regularization reduces to simple poles plus powers of Inelement of or finite terms. All divergences are determined by the two loop perturbative renormalization group functions. In an infrared free theory, however, element of = 0 becomes an essential singularity in the 1/N expansion

  8. Multiloop divergences in the closed bosonic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gava, E.; Iengo, R.; Jayaraman, T.; Ramachandran, R.

    1985-12-01

    We discuss the structure of the divergences in the multiloop vacuum diagrams for the closed bosonic strings in the framework of the Polyakov covariant formalism. We find, by an explicit computation, that all the divergences in the theory may be interpreted as due to tadpole diagrams in which the dilation goes into the vacuum. (author)

  9. Evidence of multiple divergent mitochondrial lineages within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On this basis, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) was used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Bicoxidens and reveal divergent lineages within the genus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses recovered a paraphyletic Bicoxidens phylogram with divergent lineages present in three species ...

  10. Neuroanatomical phenotypes in mental illness: identifying convergent and divergent cortical phenotypes across autism, ADHD and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Tae M; Raznahan, Armin; Shaw, Philip; Gogtay, Nitin; Lerch, Jason P; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2018-05-01

    There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations. First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods. Next, we developed a novel methodology to determine whether cortical deficits specifically target or are "enriched" within functional resting-state networks. We found cortical anomalies were preferentially enriched across functional networks rather than clustering spatially. Specifically, cortical thickness showed significant enrichment between patients with ASD and those with ADHD in the default mode network, between patients with ASD and those with schizophrenia in the frontoparietal and limbic networks, and between patients with ADHD and those with schizophrenia in the ventral attention network. Networks enriched in cortical thickness anomalies were also strongly represented in functional MRI results (Neurosynth; r = 0.64, p = 0.032). We did not account for variable symptom dimensions and severity in patient populations, and our cross-sectional design prevented longitudinal analyses of developmental trajectories. These findings suggest that common deficits across neuropsychiatric disorders cannot simply be characterized as arising out of local changes in cortical grey matter, but rather as entities of both local and systemic alterations targeting brain networks.

  11. Analysis of a Caenorhabditis elegans Twist homolog identifies conserved and divergent aspects of mesodermal patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Harfe, Brian D.; Gomes, Ana Vaz; Kenyon, Cynthia; Liu, Jun; Krause, Michael; Fire, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Mesodermal development is a multistep process in which cells become increasingly specialized to form specific tissue types. In Drosophila and mammals, proper segregation and patterning of the mesoderm involves the bHLH factor Twist. We investigated the activity of a Twist-related factor, CeTwist, during Caenorhabditis elegans mesoderm development. Embryonic mesoderm in C. elegans derives from a number of distinct founder cells that are specified during the early lineages; in contrast, a singl...

  12. Genomic divergence of zebu and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural selection has molded the evolution across all taxa. At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically ad...

  13. Genomic divergence of indicine and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically adapted Bos primigenius indicus. Human selection exponentially...

  14. Newly identified historical tornadoes in the Czech Republic from 16th to the 20th centuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacinová, M.; Munzar, Jan; Franc, M.

    -, č. 83 (2007), s. 488-492 ISSN 0169-8095 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : tornado * history * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.786, year: 2007

  15. Structural characterization of novel sophorolipid biosurfactants from a newly-identified species of Candida yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sophorolipids are a group of O-acylsophorose-based biosurfactants produced by several yeasts of the Starmerella clade. The known sophorolipids are typically partially acetylated 2-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose (sophorose) ß-O-glycosidically-linked to 17-L-hydroxy-delta-9-octadecenoic aci...

  16. Identifying Predictors of Achievement in the Newly Defined Information Literacy: A Neural Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Randall; Hignite, Michael; Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.

    2009-01-01

    Information Literacy is a concept that evolved as a result of efforts to move technology-based instructional and research efforts beyond the concepts previously associated with "computer literacy." While computer literacy was largely a topic devoted to knowledge of hardware and software, information literacy is concerned with students' abilities…

  17. hapter 3 Sedimentology of the newly identified middle lake beds unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassy Mtelela

    relationship and pilot detrital zircon geochronology, these isolated, enigmatic strata are herein informally ... exposures with uncertain age relationships, but which can be divided into five distinctive ... very little geologic attention until very.

  18. Newly identified protein Imi1 affects mitochondrial integrity and glutathione homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalec, Piotr; Grynberg, Marcin; Pająk, Beata; Socha, Anna; Winiarska, Katarzyna; Fronk, Jan; Kurlandzka, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Glutathione homeostasis is crucial for cell functioning. We describe a novel Imi1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae affecting mitochondrial integrity and involved in controlling glutathione level. Imi1 is cytoplasmic and, except for its N-terminal Flo11 domain, has a distinct solenoid structure. A lack of Imi1 leads to mitochondrial lesions comprising aberrant morphology of cristae and multifarious mtDNA rearrangements and impaired respiration. The mitochondrial malfunctioning is coupled to significantly decrease the level of intracellular reduced glutathione without affecting oxidized glutathione, which decreases the reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio. These defects are accompanied by decreased cadmium sensitivity and increased phytochelatin-2 level. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Response Properties of a Newly Identified Tristratified Narrow Field Amacrine Cell in the Mouse Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Newkirk

    Full Text Available Amacrine cells were targeted for whole cell recording using two-photon fluorescence microscopy in a transgenic mouse line in which the promoter for dopamine receptor 2 drove expression of green fluorescent protein in a narrow field tristratified amacrine cell (TNAC that had not been studied previously. Light evoked a multiphasic response that was the sum of hyperpolarizing and depolarization synaptic inputs consistent with distinct dendritic ramifications in the off and on sublamina of the inner plexiform layer. The amplitude and waveform of the response, which consisted of an initial brief hyperpolarization at light onset followed by recovery to a plateau potential close to dark resting potential and a hyperpolarizing response at the light offset varied little over an intensity range from 0.4 to ~10^6 Rh*/rod/s. This suggests that the cell functions as a differentiator that generates an output signal (a transient reduction in inhibitory input to downstream retina neurons that is proportional to the derivative of light input independent of its intensity. The underlying circuitry appears to consist of rod and cone driven on and off bipolar cells that provide direct excitatory input to the cell as well as to GABAergic amacrine cells that are synaptically coupled to TNAC. Canonical reagents that blocked excitatory (glutamatergic and inhibitory (GABA and glycine synaptic transmission had effects on responses to scotopic stimuli consistent with the rod driven component of the proposed circuit. However, responses evoked by photopic stimuli were paradoxical and could not be interpreted on the basis of conventional thinking about the neuropharmacology of synaptic interactions in the retina.

  20. The comparison of the performance of two screening strategies identifying newly-diagnosed HIV during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, K.; Smit, C.; Flier, M. van der; Wolf, F. de; Koopmans †, P.P.; Crevel, R. van; Eggink, A.J.; Groot, R. de; Keuter, M.; Post, F.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Warris, A.; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, a non-selective opt-out instead of a selective opt-in antenatal HIV screening strategy was implemented in 2004. In case of infection, screening was followed by prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT). We compared the performance of the two strategies in

  1. The comparison of the performance of two screening strategies identifying newly-diagnosed HIV during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Kees; Smit, Colette; van der Flier, Michiel; de Wolf, Frank; Bezemer, D. O.; Gras, L. A. J.; Kesselring, A. M.; van Sighem, A. I.; Smit, C.; Zhang, S.; Zaheri, S.; Bronsveld, W.; Hillebrand-Haverkort, M. E.; Prins, J. M.; Branger, J.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K. M.; Gisolf, J.; Godfried, M. H.; Lange, J. M. A.; Lettinga, K. D.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; van der Poll, T.; Reiss, P.; Ruys, Th A.; Steingrover, R.; van Twillert, G.; Vermeulen, J. N.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Pajkrt, D.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van Eeden, A.; Brinkman, K.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Roos, J. C.; Schouten, W. E. M.; Bekendam, D. J.; Weigel, H. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Wagenaar, J.; Veenstra, J.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Claessen, F. A. P.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a non-selective opt-out instead of a selective opt-in antenatal HIV screening strategy was implemented in 2004. In case of infection, screening was followed by prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT). We compared the performance of the two strategies in terms of

  2. Michael Maier--nine newly discovered letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenke, Nils; Roudet, Nicolas; Tilton, Hereward

    2014-02-01

    The authors provide a transcription, translation, and evaluation of nine newly discovered letters from the alchemist Michael Maier (1568-1622) to Gebhardt Johann von Alvensleben (1576-1631), a noble landholder in the vicinity of Magdeburg. Stemming from the final year of his life, this correspondence casts new light on Maier's biography, detailing his efforts to secure patronage amid the financial crisis of the early Thirty Years' War. While his ill-fated quest to perfect potable gold continued to form the central focus of his patronage suits, Maier also offered his services in several arts that he had condemned in his printed works, namely astrology and "supernatural" magic. Remarks concerning his previously unknown acquaintance with Heinrich Khunrath call for a re-evaluation of Maier's negotiation of the discursive boundaries between Lutheran orthodoxy and Paracelsianism. The letters also reveal Maier's substantial contribution to a work previously ascribed solely to the English alchemist Francis Anthony.

  3. Perceptions of the clinical competence of newly registered nurses in the North West province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Moeti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical competence of newly registered nurses relating to the care of individual Clients, depends on their ability to correlate theoretical knowledge learned in the classroom with practice and the development of clinical skills. Its foundation lies in the ability to identify and solve problems that emanate from critical thinking, analytical reasoning and reflective practice. It is clear that the quality of clinical exposure plays a leading role in the development of nursing professionals. Nursing skills alone cannot ensure quality care of clients without the application of theory. Facilitation of this theory to practice therefore remains an essential component of nursing education. This study was aimed at identifying areas of incompetence of newly registered nurses (1998- 2001 in the clinical area by determining the newly registered nurses1 and professional nurses1 perceptions of the competence of the newly registered nurses. A quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive survey was used to collect the data regarding the clinical competence of newly registered nurses (1998-2001.

  4. The genomic landscape at a late stage of stickleback speciation: High genomic divergence interspersed by small localized regions of introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ravinet

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Speciation is a continuous process and analysis of species pairs at different stages of divergence provides insight into how it unfolds. Previous genomic studies on young species pairs have revealed peaks of divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation. Yet less known is how localised peaks of differentiation progress to genome-wide divergence during the later stages of speciation in the presence of persistent gene flow. Spanning the speciation continuum, stickleback species pairs are ideal for investigating how genomic divergence builds up during speciation. However, attention has largely focused on young postglacial species pairs, with little knowledge of the genomic signatures of divergence and introgression in older stickleback systems. The Japanese stickleback species pair, composed of the Pacific Ocean three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and the Japan Sea stickleback (G. nipponicus, which co-occur in the Japanese islands, is at a late stage of speciation. Divergence likely started well before the end of the last glacial period and crosses between Japan Sea females and Pacific Ocean males result in hybrid male sterility. Here we use coalescent analyses and Approximate Bayesian Computation to show that the two species split approximately 0.68-1 million years ago but that they have continued to exchange genes at a low rate throughout divergence. Population genomic data revealed that, despite gene flow, a high level of genomic differentiation is maintained across the majority of the genome. However, we identified multiple, small regions of introgression, occurring mainly in areas of low recombination rate. Our results demonstrate that a high level of genome-wide divergence can establish in the face of persistent introgression and that gene flow can be localized to small genomic regions at the later stages of speciation with gene flow.

  5. The genomic landscape at a late stage of stickleback speciation: High genomic divergence interspersed by small localized regions of introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Mark; Yoshida, Kohta; Shigenobu, Shuji; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kitano, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Speciation is a continuous process and analysis of species pairs at different stages of divergence provides insight into how it unfolds. Previous genomic studies on young species pairs have revealed peaks of divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation. Yet less known is how localised peaks of differentiation progress to genome-wide divergence during the later stages of speciation in the presence of persistent gene flow. Spanning the speciation continuum, stickleback species pairs are ideal for investigating how genomic divergence builds up during speciation. However, attention has largely focused on young postglacial species pairs, with little knowledge of the genomic signatures of divergence and introgression in older stickleback systems. The Japanese stickleback species pair, composed of the Pacific Ocean three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the Japan Sea stickleback (G. nipponicus), which co-occur in the Japanese islands, is at a late stage of speciation. Divergence likely started well before the end of the last glacial period and crosses between Japan Sea females and Pacific Ocean males result in hybrid male sterility. Here we use coalescent analyses and Approximate Bayesian Computation to show that the two species split approximately 0.68-1 million years ago but that they have continued to exchange genes at a low rate throughout divergence. Population genomic data revealed that, despite gene flow, a high level of genomic differentiation is maintained across the majority of the genome. However, we identified multiple, small regions of introgression, occurring mainly in areas of low recombination rate. Our results demonstrate that a high level of genome-wide divergence can establish in the face of persistent introgression and that gene flow can be localized to small genomic regions at the later stages of speciation with gene flow.

  6. Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research-practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n = 618). Pearson's chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Hope in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggleby, Wendy; Ghosh, Sunita; Cooper, Dan; Dwernychuk, Lynne

    2013-11-01

    Hope is important to cancer patients as it helps them deal with their diagnosis. Little is known about hope in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Based on the Transcending Possibilities conceptual model of hope, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of hope with pain, energy, and psychological and demographic characteristics in newly diagnosed adult oncology outpatients. Data from 310 New Patient Assessment Forms from cancer outpatients' health records were collected. Health records from the first six months of 2009 were reviewed and data were collected on hope, energy, pain, depression, anxiety, feeling overwhelmed, and demographic variables. A generalized linear modeling approach was used to study the relationship of hope scores with these variables. Hypothesized variables and variables that were significant at the P = 0.01 level from the univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate model, with hope scores as the dependent variable. Hope scores were significantly negatively related to age (P = 0.02). More specifically, oncology patients who were 65 years of age or older had significantly less hope than those under the age of 65 years (P = 0.01). Gender (P = 0.009) also was a significant factor, with men having higher hope scores than women. No other variables were significant. Older adults comprise the majority of persons in Canada with cancer. The lower hope scores found in this age group compared with their younger counterparts underscore the importance of further research. This study provides a foundation for future research in this important area for oncology patients. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hope as experienced in women newly diagnosed with gynaecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Kristianna; Mogensen, Ole; Hall, Elisabeth O C

    2009-01-01

    cancer diagnosis made the women oscillate between hope and hopelessness, between positive expectations of getting cured and frightening feelings of the disease taking over. Five major interrelated themes of hope were identified: hope of being cured, cared for and getting back to normal, hope as being...... at a gynaecological department of a Danish university hospital. The women, aged 24-87 (median 52yrs), were diagnosed with ovarian, endometrial, cervical and vulvar cancer. RESULTS: Hope was found to be connected to both diagnosis, cure, family life and life itself and closely tied to hopelessness. The newly received...... active and feeling well, hope as an internal power to maintain integration, hope as significant relationships and hope as fighting against hopelessness. Thus, hope was woven together with hopelessness in a mysterious way; it took command through inner strength and courage based on a trust in being cured...

  9. Illness-behaviour, attitude, and knowledge in newly diagnosed diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, B E; Vesterdal Jørgensen, H; Sestoft, L

    1986-01-01

    Sixty-five consecutive patients with newly diagnosed type I diabetes, aged 15-52, were exposed to a systematic educational programme and followed up by three-monthly controls for two to four years. In order to identify psychic, social and behavioural factors associated with good metabolic control...... and appropriate adaptation to illness, they were clinically tested and filled in a questionnaire. The study shows that the illness and the therapeutic regime created few problems regarding practical circumstances of daily living, but there were a vast number of psychological problems: perceived disability......, fatigue, fear, anger, strain, bad conscience, and perceived discrimination. The patients assessed the treatment regimen they had been taught as fair, but still the majority reported inadequate compliance and problems in relation to compliance, especially regarding dietary restrictions. The educational...

  10. Newly Emerging Immune Checkpoints: Promises for Future Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Torphy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy has been a great breakthrough, with immune checkpoint inhibitors leading the way. Despite the clinical effectiveness of certain immune checkpoint inhibitors, the overall response rate remains low, and the effectiveness of immunotherapies for many tumors has been disappointing. There is substantial interest in looking for additional immune checkpoint molecules that may act as therapeutic targets for cancer. Recent advances during the last decade have identified several novel immune checkpoint targets, including lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA, programmed death-1 homolog (PD-1H, T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain (TIM-3/carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1, and the poliovirus receptor (PVR-like receptors. The investigations into these molecules have generated promising results in preclinical studies. Herein, we will summarize our current progress and understanding of these newly-characterized immune checkpoints and their potential application in cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Analysis of a native whitefly transcriptome and its sequence divergence with two invasive whitefly species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-Wei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic divergence between invasive and native species may provide insight into the molecular basis underlying specific characteristics that drive the invasion and displacement of closely related species. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of an indigenous species, Asia II 3, of the Bemisia tabaci complex and compared its genetic divergence with the transcriptomes of two invasive whiteflies species, Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1 and Mediterranean (MED, respectively. Results More than 16 million reads of 74 base pairs in length were obtained for the Asia II 3 species using the Illumina sequencing platform. These reads were assembled into 52,535 distinct sequences (mean size: 466 bp and 16,596 sequences were annotated with an E-value above 10-5. Protein family comparisons revealed obvious diversification among the transcriptomes of these species suggesting species-specific adaptations during whitefly evolution. On the contrary, substantial conservation of the whitefly transcriptomes was also evident, despite their differences. The overall divergence of coding sequences between the orthologous gene pairs of Asia II 3 and MEAM1 is 1.73%, which is comparable to the average divergence of Asia II 3 and MED transcriptomes (1.84% and much higher than that of MEAM1 and MED (0.83%. This is consistent with the previous phylogenetic analyses and crossing experiments suggesting these are distinct species. We also identified hundreds of highly diverged genes and compiled sequence identify data into gene functional groups and found the most divergent gene classes are Cytochrome P450, Glutathione metabolism and Oxidative phosphorylation. These results strongly suggest that the divergence of genes related to metabolism might be the driving force of the MEAM1 and Asia II 3 differentiation. We also analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms within the orthologous gene pairs of indigenous and invasive whiteflies which are helpful for

  12. Vorticity and divergence in the high-latitude upper thermosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, J.P.; Killeen, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements made from the Dynamics Explorer-2 satellite in November 1981 through January 1982 and November 1982 through January 1983 have been analyzed to determine the divergence and vertical component of vorticity of the high-latitude neutral wind field in the upper thermosphere for quiet (kp≤6) geomagnetic conditions and for both northern (winter) and southern (summer) hemispheres in the polar thermosphere and provides insight into the relative strengths of the different sources of momentum and energy responsible for driving the winds. The principal findings from this work include the following: The mean neutral wind pattern is dominated by rotational flow rather than by divergent flow, with a typical vorticity: divergence ratio of ∼ 2:1 for active conditions and ∼ 4:1 for quiet conditions. Comparison of the divergence and vorticity patterns for quiet and active conditions indicates that the divergent component of the neutral flow intensifies more significantly with increasing geomagnetic activity than does the rotational component

  13. Escort entropies and divergences and related canonical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercher, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss two families of two-parameter entropies and divergences, derived from the standard Renyi and Tsallis entropies and divergences. These divergences and entropies are found as divergences or entropies of escort distributions. Exploiting the nonnegativity of the divergences, we derive the expression of the canonical distribution associated to the new entropies and a observable given as an escort-mean value. We show that this canonical distribution extends, and smoothly connects, the results obtained in nonextensive thermodynamics for the standard and generalized mean value constraints. -- Highlights: → Two-parameter entropies are derived from q-entropies and escort distributions. → The related canonical distribution is derived. → This connects and extends known results in nonextensive statistics.

  14. One-loop divergences in the quantum theory of supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhuizen, P. van; Vermaseren, J.A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Supergravity does not lead to a finite quantum theory of gravitation when coupled to the spin 1, 1/2 matter multiplet. The S-matrix of photon-photon scattering diverges; its divergences are proportional to the square of the photon energy-momentum tensor, in agreement with electro-magnetic duality and chiral invariance. The graviton self-energy corrections are divergent in pure supergravity as well as in the coupled Maxwell-Einstein system and satisfy their Ward identity because the supersymmetry ghost field is commuting. The photon-graviton vertex corrections diverge, as expected from the non-invariance of the action under local scale transformations, and satisfy the equivalence principle at the quantum level. The photon self-energy is divergent. (Auth.)

  15. Active learning for noisy oracle via density power divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Kawahara, Yoshinobu; Washio, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    The accuracy of active learning is critically influenced by the existence of noisy labels given by a noisy oracle. In this paper, we propose a novel pool-based active learning framework through robust measures based on density power divergence. By minimizing density power divergence, such as β-divergence and γ-divergence, one can estimate the model accurately even under the existence of noisy labels within data. Accordingly, we develop query selecting measures for pool-based active learning using these divergences. In addition, we propose an evaluation scheme for these measures based on asymptotic statistical analyses, which enables us to perform active learning by evaluating an estimation error directly. Experiments with benchmark datasets and real-world image datasets show that our active learning scheme performs better than several baseline methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Human Convergence and Divergence Using Mobile Phone Location Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigating human mobility patterns can help researchers and agencies understand the driving forces of human movement, with potential benefits for urban planning and traffic management. Recent advances in location-aware technologies have provided many new data sources (e.g., mobile phone and social media data for studying human space-time behavioral regularity. Although existing studies have utilized these new datasets to characterize human mobility patterns from various aspects, such as predicting human mobility and monitoring urban dynamics, few studies have focused on human convergence and divergence patterns within a city. This study aims to explore human spatial convergence and divergence and their evolutions over time using large-scale mobile phone location data. Using a dataset from Shenzhen, China, we developed a method to identify spatiotemporal patterns of human convergence and divergence. Eight distinct patterns were extracted, and the spatial distributions of these patterns are discussed in the context of urban functional regions. Thus, this study investigates urban human convergence and divergence patterns and their relationships with the urban functional environment, which is helpful for urban policy development, urban planning and traffic management.

  17. Early gene expression divergence between allopatric populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Jarosław; Somel, Mehmet; Lorenc, Anna; Teschke, Meike

    2013-03-01

    Divergence of gene expression is known to contribute to the differentiation and separation of populations and species, although the dynamics of this process in early stages of population divergence remains unclear. We analyzed gene expression differences in three organs (brain, liver, and testis) between two natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus that have been separated for at most 3000 years. We used two different microarray platforms to corroborate the results at a large scale and identified hundreds of genes with significant expression differences between the populations. We find that although the three tissues have similar number of differentially expressed genes, brain and liver have more tissue-specific genes than testis. Most genes show changes in a single tissue only, even when expressed in all tissues, supporting the notion that tissue-specific enhancers act as separable targets of evolution. In terms of functional categories, in brain and to a smaller extent in liver, we find transcription factors and their targets to be particularly variable between populations, similar to previous findings in primates. Testis, however, has a different set of differently expressed genes, both with respect to functional categories and overall correlation with the other tissues, the latter indicating that gene expression divergence of potential importance might be present in other datasets where no differences in fraction of differentially expressed genes were reported. Our results show that a significant amount of gene expression divergence quickly accumulates between allopatric populations.

  18. Subclassification of newly diagnosed glioblastomas through an immunohistochemical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Conroy

    Full Text Available Molecular signatures in Glioblastoma (GBM have been described that correlate with clinical outcome and response to therapy. The Proneural (PN and Mesenchymal (MES signatures have been identified most consistently, but others including Classical (CLAS have also been reported. The molecular signatures have been detected by array techniques at RNA and DNA level, but these methods are costly and cannot take into account individual contributions of different cells within a tumor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether subclasses of newly diagnosed GBMs could be assessed and assigned by application of standard pathology laboratory procedures. 123 newly diagnosed GBMs were analyzed for the tumor cell expression of 23 pre-identified proteins and EGFR amplification, together allowing for the subclassification of 65% of the tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC-based profiling was found to be analogous to transcription-based profiling using a 9-gene transcriptional signature for PN and MES subclasses. Based on these data a novel, minimal IHC-based scheme for subclass assignment for GBMs is proposed. Positive staining for IDH1R132H can be used for PN subclass assignment, high EGFR expression for the CLAS subtype and a combined high expression of PTEN, VIM and/or YKL40 for the MES subclass. The application of the proposed scheme was evaluated in an independent tumor set, which resulted in similar subclass assignment rates as those observed in the training set. The IHC-based subclassification scheme proposed in this study therefore could provide very useful in future studies for stratification of individual patient samples.

  19. Criterion and Divergent Validity of the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Goldbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual minority adolescents (SMA consistently report health disparities compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet the underlying mechanisms of these negative health outcomes remain unclear. The predominant explanatory model is the minority stress theory; however, this model was developed largely with adults, and no valid and comprehensive measure of minority stress has been developed for adolescents. The present study validated a newly developed instrument to measure minority stress among racially and ethnically diverse SMA. A sample of 346 SMA aged 14–17 was recruited and surveyed between February 2015 and July 2016. The focal measure of interest was the 64-item, 11-factor Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory (SMASI developed in the initial phase of this study. Criterion validation measures included measures of depressive symptoms, suicidality and self-harm, youth problem behaviors, and substance use; the general Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ was included as a measure of divergent validity. Analyses included Pearson and tetrachoric correlations to establish criterion and divergent validity and structural equation modeling to assess the explanatory utility of the SMASI relative to the ASQ. SMASI scores were significantly associated with all outcomes but only moderately associated with the ASQ (r = −0.13 to 0.51. Analyses revealed significant associations of a latent minority stress variable with both proximal and distal health outcomes beyond the variation explained by general stress. Results show that the SMASI is the first instrument to validly measure minority stress among SMA.

  20. An Evolutionarily Young Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus Endogenous Retrovirus Identified from Next Generation Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Tsangaras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus tissues identified sequences with similarity to Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERV. Based on these sequences, four proviral copies and 15 solo long terminal repeats (LTRs of a newly described endogenous retrovirus were characterized from the polar bear draft genome sequence. Closely related sequences were identified by PCR analysis of brown bear (Ursus arctos and black bear (Ursus americanus but were absent in non-Ursinae bear species. The virus was therefore designated UrsusERV. Two distinct groups of LTRs were observed including a recombinant ERV that contained one LTR belonging to each group indicating that genomic invasions by at least two UrsusERV variants have recently occurred. Age estimates based on proviral LTR divergence and conservation of integration sites among ursids suggest the viral group is only a few million years old. The youngest provirus was polar bear specific, had intact open reading frames (ORFs and could potentially encode functional proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of UrsusERV consensus protein sequences suggest that it is part of a pig, gibbon and koala retrovirus clade. The young age estimates and lineage specificity of the virus suggests UrsusERV is a recent cross species transmission from an unknown reservoir and places the viral group among the youngest of ERVs identified in mammals.

  1. An Evolutionarily Young Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Endogenous Retrovirus Identified from Next Generation Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Mayer, Jens; Alquezar-Planas, David E; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-11-24

    Transcriptome analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues identified sequences with similarity to Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERV). Based on these sequences, four proviral copies and 15 solo long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a newly described endogenous retrovirus were characterized from the polar bear draft genome sequence. Closely related sequences were identified by PCR analysis of brown bear (Ursus arctos) and black bear (Ursus americanus) but were absent in non-Ursinae bear species. The virus was therefore designated UrsusERV. Two distinct groups of LTRs were observed including a recombinant ERV that contained one LTR belonging to each group indicating that genomic invasions by at least two UrsusERV variants have recently occurred. Age estimates based on proviral LTR divergence and conservation of integration sites among ursids suggest the viral group is only a few million years old. The youngest provirus was polar bear specific, had intact open reading frames (ORFs) and could potentially encode functional proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of UrsusERV consensus protein sequences suggest that it is part of a pig, gibbon and koala retrovirus clade. The young age estimates and lineage specificity of the virus suggests UrsusERV is a recent cross species transmission from an unknown reservoir and places the viral group among the youngest of ERVs identified in mammals.

  2. An Evolutionarily Young Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Endogenous Retrovirus Identified from Next Generation Sequence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Mayer, Jens; Alquezar-Planas, David E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues identified sequences with similarity to Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERV). Based on these sequences, four proviral copies and 15 solo long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a newly described endogenous retrovirus were characterized from the polar bear draft genome sequence. Closely related sequences were identified by PCR analysis of brown bear (Ursus arctos) and black bear (Ursus americanus) but were absent in non-Ursinae bear species. The virus was therefore designated UrsusERV. Two distinct groups of LTRs were observed including a recombinant ERV that contained one LTR belonging to each group indicating that genomic invasions by at least two UrsusERV variants have recently occurred. Age estimates based on proviral LTR divergence and conservation of integration sites among ursids suggest the viral group is only a few million years old. The youngest provirus was polar bear specific, had intact open reading frames (ORFs) and could potentially encode functional proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of UrsusERV consensus protein sequences suggest that it is part of a pig, gibbon and koala retrovirus clade. The young age estimates and lineage specificity of the virus suggests UrsusERV is a recent cross species transmission from an unknown reservoir and places the viral group among the youngest of ERVs identified in mammals. PMID:26610552

  3. Evidence for Deep Regulatory Similarities in Early Developmental Programs across Highly Diverged Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Samee, Md. Abul Hassan; Halfon, Marc S.; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Many genes familiar from Drosophila development, such as the so-called gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes, play important roles in the development of other insects and in many cases appear to be deployed in a similar fashion, despite the fact that Drosophila-like “long germband” development is highly derived and confined to a subset of insect families. Whether or not these similarities extend to the regulatory level is unknown. Identification of regulatory regions beyond the well-studied Drosophila has been challenging as even within the Diptera (flies, including mosquitoes) regulatory sequences have diverged past the point of recognition by standard alignment methods. Here, we demonstrate that methods we previously developed for computational cis-regulatory module (CRM) discovery in Drosophila can be used effectively in highly diverged (250–350 Myr) insect species including Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, and Nasonia vitripennis. In Drosophila, we have successfully used small sets of known CRMs as “training data” to guide the search for other CRMs with related function. We show here that although species-specific CRM training data do not exist, training sets from Drosophila can facilitate CRM discovery in diverged insects. We validate in vivo over a dozen new CRMs, roughly doubling the number of known CRMs in the four non-Drosophila species. Given the growing wealth of Drosophila CRM annotation, these results suggest that extensive regulatory sequence annotation will be possible in newly sequenced insects without recourse to costly and labor-intensive genome-scale experiments. We develop a new method, Regulus, which computes a probabilistic score of similarity based on binding site composition (despite the absence of nucleotide-level sequence alignment), and demonstrate similarity between functionally related CRMs from orthologous loci. Our work represents an important step toward being able to trace the evolutionary

  4. Divergent mortality trends by ethnicity in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard; Carter, Karen; Naidu, Shivnay; Linhart, Christine; Azim, Syed; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D

    2013-12-01

    To examine trends in infant mortality rate (IMR), adult mortality and life expectancy (LE) in the two major Fijian ethnic groups since 1975. Estimates of IMR, adult mortality (15-59 years) and LE by ethnicity are calculated from previously unreported Fiji Ministry of Health data and extracted from published sources. Over 1975-2008: IMR decreased from 33 to 20 deaths/1,000 live births in i-Taukei (Fiji Melanesians); and 38 to 18 in Fijians of Indian descent. Increased adult male mortality among i-Taukei and decline among Fijians of Indian descent led to an equal probability of dying in 2007 of 29%; while in female adults the probability trended upwards in i-Taukei to 25%, and declined in Fijians of Indian descent to 17%. Life expectancy in both ethnicities increased until 1985 (to 64 years for males; 68 for females) then forming a plateau in males of both ethnicities, and Fijian females of Indian descent, but declining in i-Taukei females to 66 years in 2007. Despite IMR declines over 1975-2008, LE for i-Taukei and Fijians of Indian descent has not increased since 1985, and has actually decreased in i-Taukei women, consistent with trends in adult mortality (15-59 years). Mortality analyses in Fiji that consider the entire population mask divergent trends in the major ethnic groups. This situation is most likely a consequence of non-communicable disease mortality, requiring further assessment and a strengthened response.

  5. On the divergences of inflationary superhorizon perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enqvist, K; Nurmi, S [Physics Department, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Podolsky, D; Rigopoulos, G I, E-mail: kari.enqvist@helsinki.fi, E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi, E-mail: dmitry.podolsky@helsinki.fi, E-mail: gerasimos.rigopoulos@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2008-04-15

    We discuss the infrared divergences that appear to plague cosmological perturbation theory. We show that, within the stochastic framework, they are regulated by eternal inflation so that the theory predicts finite fluctuations. Using the {Delta}N formalism to one loop, we demonstrate that the infrared modes can be absorbed into additive constants and the coefficients of the diagrammatic expansion for the connected parts of two-and three-point functions of the curvature perturbation. As a result, the use of any infrared cutoff below the scale of eternal inflation is permitted, provided that the background fields are appropriately redefined. The natural choice for the infrared cutoff would, of course, be the present horizon; other choices manifest themselves in the running of the correlators. We also demonstrate that it is possible to define observables that are renormalization-group-invariant. As an example, we derive a non-perturbative, infrared finite and renormalization point-independent relation between the two-point correlators of the curvature perturbation for the case of the free single field.

  6. Remarkable ancient divergences amongst neglected lorisiform primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekaris, K. Anne‐Isola; Perkin, Andrew; Bearder, Simon K.; Pimley, Elizabeth R.; Schulze, Helga; Streicher, Ulrike; Nadler, Tilo; Kitchener, Andrew; Zischler, Hans; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Lorisiform primates (Primates: Strepsirrhini: Lorisiformes) represent almost 10% of the living primate species and are widely distributed in sub‐Saharan Africa and South/South‐East Asia; however, their taxonomy, evolutionary history, and biogeography are still poorly understood. In this study we report the largest molecular phylogeny in terms of the number of represented taxa. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for 86 lorisiform specimens, including ∼80% of all the species currently recognized. Our results support the monophyly of the Galagidae, but a common ancestry of the Lorisinae and Perodicticinae (family Lorisidae) was not recovered. These three lineages have early origins, with the Galagidae and the Lorisinae diverging in the Oligocene at about 30 Mya and the Perodicticinae emerging in the early Miocene. Our mitochondrial phylogeny agrees with recent studies based on nuclear data, and supports Euoticus as the oldest galagid lineage and the polyphyletic status of Galagoides. Moreover, we have elucidated phylogenetic relationships for several species never included before in a molecular phylogeny. The results obtained in this study suggest that lorisiform diversity remains substantially underestimated and that previously unnoticed cryptic diversity might be present within many lineages, thus urgently requiring a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this primate group. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London PMID:26900177

  7. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A.; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S. Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L.; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-01-01

    Background: The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school…

  8. Assessment by Employers of Newly Graduated Civil Engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enshassi, Adnan; Hassouna, Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation process is very important to identify and recognize the strengths and the weaknesses of graduated students. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the newly graduated civil engineers from the Islamic University of Gaza in Palestine. The methodology was based on questionnaires and informal interview. The…

  9. Convergence and divergence of neurocognitive patterns in schizophrenia and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sugai; Brown, Matthew R G; Deng, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Mingli; Hu, Xun; Juhas, Michal; Li, Xinmin; Greiner, Russell; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Li, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Neurocognitive impairments are frequently observed in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unclear whether reported neurocognitive abnormalities could objectively identify an individual as having schizophrenia or MDD. The current study included 220 first-episode patients with schizophrenia, 110 patients with MDD and 240 demographically matched healthy controls (HC). All participants performed the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China; the immediate and delayed logical memory of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in China; and seven tests from the computerized Cambridge Neurocognitive Test Automated Battery to evaluate neurocognitive performance. The three-class AdaBoost tree-based ensemble algorithm was employed to identify neurocognitive endophenotypes that may distinguish between subjects in the categories of schizophrenia, depression and HC. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to further explore the neurocognitive patterns in each group. The AdaBoost algorithm identified individual's diagnostic class with an average accuracy of 77.73% (80.81% for schizophrenia, 53.49% for depression and 86.21% for HC). The average area under ROC curve was 0.92 (0.96 in schizophrenia, 0.86 in depression and 0.92 in HC). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed for MDD and schizophrenia, convergent altered neurocognition patterns related to shifting, sustained attention, planning, working memory and visual memory. Divergent neurocognition patterns for MDD and schizophrenia related to motor speed, general intelligence, perceptual sensitivity and reversal learning were identified. Neurocognitive abnormalities could predict whether the individual has schizophrenia, depression or neither with relatively high accuracy. Additionally, the neurocognitive features showed promise as endophenotypes for discriminating between schizophrenia and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Divergence of RNA polymerase ? subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Blazier, J. Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP ? subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled an...

  11. Divergent modes of enzyme inhibition in a homologous structure-activity series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rafaela S; Bryant, Clifford; Ang, Kenny K H; McKerrow, James H; Shoichet, Brian K; Renslo, Adam R

    2009-08-27

    A docking screen identified reversible, noncovalent inhibitors (e.g., 1) of the parasite cysteine protease cruzain. Chemical optimization of 1 led to a series of oxadiazoles possessing interpretable SAR and potencies as much as 500-fold greater than 1. Detailed investigation of the SAR series subsequently revealed that many members of the oxadiazole class (and surprisingly also 1) act via divergent modes of inhibition (competitive or via colloidal aggregation) depending on the assay conditions employed.

  12. Jensen divergence based on Fisher’s information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Moreno, P; Zarzo, A; Dehesa, J S

    2012-01-01

    The measure of Jensen–Fisher divergence between probability distributions is introduced and its theoretical grounds set up. This quantity, in contrast to the remaining Jensen divergences, grasps the fluctuations of the probability distributions because it is controlled by the (local) Fisher information, which is a gradient functional of the distribution. So it is appropriate and informative when studying the similarity of distributions, mainly for those having oscillatory character. The new Jensen–Fisher divergence shares with the Jensen–Shannon divergence the following properties: non-negativity, additivity when applied to an arbitrary number of probability densities, symmetry under exchange of these densities, vanishing under certain conditions and definiteness even when these densities present non-common zeros. Moreover, the Jensen–Fisher divergence is shown to be expressed in terms of the relative Fisher information as the Jensen–Shannon divergence does in terms of the Kullback–Leibler or relative Shannon entropy. Finally, the Jensen–Shannon and Jensen–Fisher divergences are compared for the following three large, non-trivial and qualitatively different families of probability distributions: the sinusoidal, generalized gamma-like and Rakhmanov–Hermite distributions, which are closely related to the quantum-mechanical probability densities of numerous physical systems. (paper)

  13. Total Bregman Divergence and its Applications to Shape Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meizhu; Vemuri, Baba C; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Nielsen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Shape database search is ubiquitous in the world of biometric systems, CAD systems etc. Shape data in these domains is experiencing an explosive growth and usually requires search of whole shape databases to retrieve the best matches with accuracy and efficiency for a variety of tasks. In this paper, we present a novel divergence measure between any two given points in [Formula: see text] or two distribution functions. This divergence measures the orthogonal distance between the tangent to the convex function (used in the definition of the divergence) at one of its input arguments and its second argument. This is in contrast to the ordinate distance taken in the usual definition of the Bregman class of divergences [4]. We use this orthogonal distance to redefine the Bregman class of divergences and develop a new theory for estimating the center of a set of vectors as well as probability distribution functions. The new class of divergences are dubbed the total Bregman divergence (TBD). We present the l 1 -norm based TBD center that is dubbed the t-center which is then used as a cluster center of a class of shapes The t-center is weighted mean and this weight is small for noise and outliers. We present a shape retrieval scheme using TBD and the t-center for representing the classes of shapes from the MPEG-7 database and compare the results with other state-of-the-art methods in literature.

  14. Ecological divergence in the yellow-bellied kingsnake (Lampropeltis calligaster) at two North American biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvy, A D; Burbrink, F T

    2017-01-01

    Several biogeographic barriers in the Eastern Nearctic appear to reduce gene flow among populations of many species in predictable ways, however these patterns used to infer process of divergence may be deceiving if alternative modes of diversification are not considered. By using a multilocus statistical phylogeographic approach to examine diversity within a North American snake, Lampropeltis calligaster, we find that mode and timing of speciation near the Mississippi River embayment and peninsular Florida, two main biodiversity hotspots in eastern North America, challenge previously held notions of strict vicariance as the causal factor behind patterns of divergence seen among taxa at these locations. We found three species inhabiting distinct ecological niches with divergences dating to the mid- and early-Pleistocene with subsequently stable or increasing effective population sizes, further supporting the idea that the Pleistocene was an important driver of diversification in North America. Our results lead to a revised hypothesis that ecological divergence has occurred in this group across environments associated with the Mississippi River and at the Florida peninsula. Importantly, in their western distributions, we show that species divergence is associated with the ecological transition from distinct forested habitats to grasslands, rather than the nearby Mississippi River, a barrier often implicated for many other organisms. Additionally, we stress the importance of examining each delimited lineage with respect to conservation, since ecological niche models suggest that by the end of the century changes in climate may negatively alter habitat suitability and, barring adaptation, substantially reduce the suitable range of two of the three species we identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural selection on MHC IIβ in parapatric lake and stream stickleback: Balancing, divergent, both or neither?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, William E; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2017-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that play a central role in vertebrates' adaptive immunity to parasites. MHC loci are among the most polymorphic in vertebrates' genomes, inspiring many studies to identify evolutionary processes driving MHC polymorphism within populations and divergence between populations. Leading hypotheses include balancing selection favouring rare alleles within populations, and spatially divergent selection. These hypotheses do not always produce diagnosably distinct predictions, causing many studies of MHC to yield inconsistent or ambiguous results. We suggest a novel strategy to distinguish balancing vs. divergent selection on MHC, taking advantage of natural admixture between parapatric populations. With divergent selection, individuals with immigrant alleles will be more infected and less fit because they are susceptible to novel parasites in their new habitat. With balancing selection, individuals with locally rare immigrant alleles will be more fit (less infected). We tested these contrasting predictions using three-spine stickleback from three replicate pairs of parapatric lake and stream habitats. We found numerous positive and negative associations between particular MHC IIβ alleles and particular parasite taxa. A few allele-parasite comparisons supported balancing selection, and others supported divergent selection between habitats. But, there was no overall tendency for fish with immigrant MHC alleles to be more or less heavily infected. Instead, locally rare MHC alleles (not necessarily immigrants) were associated with heavier infections. Our results illustrate the complex relationship between MHC IIβ allelic variation and spatially varying multispecies parasite communities: different hypotheses may be concurrently true for different allele-parasite combinations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  17. Limited role for extended maintenance temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatzki, Dorothee; Kickingereder, Philipp; Hentschel, Bettina; Felsberg, Jörg; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Schackert, Gabriele; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Westphal, Manfred; Sabel, Michael; Schlegel, Uwe; Wick, Wolfgang; Pietsch, Torsten; Reifenberger, Guido; Loeffler, Markus; Bendszus, Martin; Weller, Michael

    2017-04-11

    To explore an association with survival of modifying the current standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma of surgery followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent and 6 cycles of maintenance temozolomide chemotherapy (TMZ/RT → TMZ) by extending TMZ beyond 6 cycles. The German Glioma Network cohort was screened for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma who received TMZ/RT → TMZ and completed ≥6 cycles of maintenance chemotherapy without progression. Associations of clinical patient characteristics, molecular markers, and residual tumor determined by magnetic resonance imaging after 6 cycles of TMZ with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed with the log-rank test. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to assess associations of prolonged TMZ use with outcome. Sixty-one of 142 identified patients received at least 7 maintenance TMZ cycles (median 11, range 7-20). Patients with extended maintenance TMZ treatment had better PFS (20.5 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 17.7-23.3, vs 17.2 months, 95% CI 10.2-24.2, p = 0.035) but not OS (32.6 months, 95% CI 28.9-36.4, vs 33.2 months, 95% CI 25.3-41.0, p = 0.126). However, there was no significant association of prolonged TMZ chemotherapy with PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6, p = 0.559) or OS (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.8-3.3, p = 0.218) adjusted for age, extent of resection, Karnofsky performance score, presence of residual tumor, O 6 -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status, or isocitrate dehydrogenase ( IDH ) mutation status. These data may not support the practice of prolonging maintenance TMZ chemotherapy beyond 6 cycles. This study provides Class III evidence that in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, prolonged TMZ chemotherapy does not significantly increase PFS or OS. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Factors Associated with Newly Diagnosed Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Mirsadraee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus type 1 is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases in pediatrics. Diabetic ketoacidosis is considered as one of the most threatening clinical pictures of DM1, especially if occurred as the first presentation of DM1 in children. Objectives The current study aimed to identify factors which may play a role in DKA onset in children. Methods This case-control study included all patients under 18 years old who referred to department of pediatrics endocrinology at Mashhad University Hospital (Imam Reza from January 2013 to December 2015 as newly diagnosed patients with DM1. Patients who fulfilled DKA criteria at diagnosis were considered as DKA group and those who referred with other presentations were considered as control group (non-DKA group. Data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 16. Results During the study period, 97 (39.2% male newly diagnosed patients were included as DKA group. Accordingly 97 gender- and age-matched patients were added as non-DKA group. The most prevalent symptoms in both groups were polyuria (91.88% and polydipsia (88.66%. Fever and cold symptoms were significantly higher in the DKA group (P < 0.001 and P =0.005, respectively. Hemoglobin A1c level was significantly higher in the DKA group (P = 0.001, while body mass index was significantly lower in the DKA group (P = 0.045. Fever and father’s education level were the most important risk and protective factors in the DKA onset in newly diagnosed patients with DM1 (adjusted OR = 10.1, 95% CI = 2.9-35.3; P < 0.001 and adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3 - 0.9 and P = 0.019, respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, a recent febrile illness was found as the strongest risk factor and father’s education level as the main protective factor in the DKA to diagnose children with DM1. The study findings suggested that DKA is a severe form of DM1 instead of a neglected or misdiagnosed disease.

  19. Divergência genética entre progênies de café robusta Genetic divergence among robusta coffe progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Gonçalves Ivoglo

    2008-12-01

    recurrent selection and production of hybrids. The importance of the traits for divergence was, also, evaluated by the sequential discards the variables, according its relative contributions. The trial was carry out in an experimental field located in the Pólo Regional do Nordeste Paulista, Mococa-SP, using randomized blocks with 21 treatments and 24 replicates. The datas were analyzed by Tocher and UPGMA methods. The matrix of genetic divergence was gotten on the generalized Mahalanobis distance that it served of base for the formation of the groups. The employed methods had been efficient in detecting ample genetic variability between the evaluated progenies. Some groups of similarity had been identified. The IAC 2262, IAC 2290, IAC 2286, IAC 2292 and IAC 2291 progenies are indicated to compose programs of intercrosses, being considered the most promising in the attainment of segregantes populations or hybrid heterotics. The characteristics that had less contributed for the genetic divergence had been: canopy diameter before pruning, plant height before pruning and leaf area.

  20. Sex differences in emotional perception: Meta analysis of divergent activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkowski, Megan M; Olsen, Rachel M; Duda, Bryant; Wanger, Timothy J; Sabatinelli, Dean

    2017-02-15

    Behavioral and physiological sex differences in emotional reactivity are well documented, yet comparatively few neural differences have been identified. Here we apply quantitative activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis across functional brain imaging studies that each reported clusters of activity differentiating men and women as they participated in emotion-evoking tasks in the visual modality. This approach requires the experimental paradigm to be balanced across the sexes, and thus may provide greater clarity than previous efforts. Results across 56 emotion-eliciting studies (n=1907) reveal distinct activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal pole, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in men relative to women. Women show distinct activation in bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, and regions of the dorsal midbrain including the periaqueductal gray/superior colliculus and locus coeruleus. While some clusters are consistent with prevailing perspectives on the foundations of sex differences in emotional reactivity, thalamic and brainstem regions have not previously been highlighted as sexually divergent. These data strongly support the need to include sex as a factor in functional brain imaging studies of emotion, and to extend our investigative focus beyond the cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Newly discovered young CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munemasa, Maruo; Nikaido, Masato; Nishihara, Hidenori; Donnellan, Stephen; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-15

    Although recent mammalian genome projects have uncovered a large part of genomic component of various groups, several repetitive sequences still remain to be characterized and classified for particular groups. The short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) distributed among marsupial genomes are one example. We have identified and characterized two new SINEs from marsupial genomes that belong to the CORE-SINE family, characterized by a highly conserved "CORE" domain. PCR and genomic dot blot analyses revealed that the distribution of each SINE shows distinct patterns among the marsupial genomes, implying different timing of their retroposition during the evolution of marsupials. The members of Mar3 (Marsupialia 3) SINE are distributed throughout the genomes of all marsupials, whereas the Mac1 (Macropodoidea 1) SINE is distributed specifically in the genomes of kangaroos. Sequence alignment of the Mar3 SINEs revealed that they can be further divided into four subgroups, each of which has diagnostic nucleotides. The insertion patterns of each SINE at particular genomic loci, together with the distribution patterns of each SINE, suggest that the Mar3 SINEs have intensively amplified after the radiation of diprotodontians, whereas the Mac1 SINE has amplified only slightly after the divergence of hypsiprimnodons from other macropods. By compiling the information of CORE-SINEs characterized to date, we propose a comprehensive picture of how SINE evolution occurred in the genomes of marsupials.

  2. Estimation of phenotypic divergence and powdery mildew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the 30 populations were plotted on the first two principal components, accounting for 46% of the total variation, five clusters were identified, accounting for ... powdery mildew resistance can assist geneticists and breeders to identify populations with desirable characteristics for inclusion in variety breeding programs.

  3. Interspecific genetic divergence in grey mullets from the Goa region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Martins, M.; Naik, S.

    Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships among Mugil cephalus, Liza subviridis and Valamugil cunnesius were investigated by examining the electrophoretic patterns of ten enzymes and sarcoplasmic proteins. Among the 19 loci detected, eight...

  4. Role of mantle flow in Nubia-Somalia plate divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Iaffaldano, G.; Calais, E.

    2015-01-01

    Present-day continental extension along the East African Rift System (EARS) has often been attributed to diverging sublithospheric mantle flow associated with the African Superplume. This implies a degree of viscous coupling between mantle and lithosphere that remains poorly constrained. Recent advances in estimating present-day opening rates along the EARS from geodesy offer an opportunity to address this issue with geodynamic modeling of the mantle-lithosphere system. Here we use numerical models of the global mantle-plates coupled system to test the role of present-day mantle flow in Nubia-Somalia plate divergence across the EARS. The scenario yielding the best fit to geodetic observations is one where torques associated with gradients of gravitational potential energy stored in the African highlands are resisted by weak continental faults and mantle basal drag. These results suggest that shear tractions from diverging mantle flow play a minor role in present-day Nubia-Somalia divergence.

  5. Diverging diamond interchange performance evaluation (I-44 and Route 13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Performance evaluation was conducted on the first diverging diamond interchange (DDI) or double : crossover interchange (DCD) constructed in the United States. This evaluation assessed traffic operations, safety and : public perceptions t...

  6. A divergence theorem for pseudo-Finsler spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Minguzzi, E.

    2015-01-01

    We study the divergence theorem on pseudo-Finsler spaces and obtain a completely Finslerian version for spaces having a vanishing mean Cartan torsion. This result helps to clarify the problem of energy-momentum conservation in Finsler gravity theories.

  7. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Várilly, Joseph C.; Gracia-Bondía, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  8. Principal Curves for Statistical Divergences and an Application to Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia P. Rodrigues

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for the beta pricing model under the consideration of non-Gaussian returns by means of a generalization of the mean-variance model and the use of principal curves to define a divergence model for the optimization of the pricing model. We rely on the q-exponential model so consider the properties of the divergences which are used to describe the statistical model and fully characterize the behavior of the assets. We derive the minimum divergence portfolio, which generalizes the Markowitz’s (mean-divergence approach and relying on the information geometrical aspects of the distributions the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM is then derived under the geometrical characterization of the distributions which model the data, all by the consideration of principal curves approach. We discuss the possibility of integration of our model into an adaptive procedure that can be used for the search of optimum points on finance applications.

  9. NATO Technology: From Gap to Divergence? (Defense Horizons, July 2004)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Donald

    2004-01-01

    .... Over several decades, great disparities in the funding of defense research and technology by NATO members has produced a widening technological gap that threatens to become a divergence a condition...

  10. Camouflage target detection via hyperspectral imaging plus information divergence measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Jiankang; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Target detection is one of most important applications in remote sensing. Nowadays accurate camouflage target distinction is often resorted to spectral imaging technique due to its high-resolution spectral/spatial information acquisition ability as well as plenty of data processing methods. In this paper, hyper-spectral imaging technique together with spectral information divergence measure method is used to solve camouflage target detection problem. A self-developed visual-band hyper-spectral imaging device is adopted to collect data cubes of certain experimental scene before spectral information divergences are worked out so as to discriminate target camouflage and anomaly. Full-band information divergences are measured to evaluate target detection effect visually and quantitatively. Information divergence measurement is proved to be a low-cost and effective tool for target detection task and can be further developed to other target detection applications beyond spectral imaging technique.

  11. Impact of urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation on tumor stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chalise

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary bladder cancer is classified as urothelial or non-urothelial. Ninenty percent of bladder cancer are urothelial and has propensity for divergent differentiation. Squamous differentiation is associated with unfavourable prognostic features. The aim of this study is to determine the significance of urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation in relation to tumor stage and lymphovascular as well as perineural invasion in radical cystectomy and partial cystectomy specimen.Materials and methods: This prospective study was done among 51 patients who underwent radical cystectomy or partial cystectomy at Bhaktapur Cancer Hospital from 1st August 2013 to 31st December 2015. Received specimen was grossed following standard protocol and histopathological evaluation was done in relation to tumor type, depth of invasion, Lymphovascular and perineural invasion.Results: Pure urothelial carcinoma comprises 47.1% of cases. Among the divergent differentiation, urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation was the commonest one (39.2% followed by glandular differentiation (5.9%, sarcomatoid differentiation (3.9%, clear cell variant (2.0% and squamous along with sarcomatoid variant (2.0%. Statistical significant correlation was found between urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation and tumor stage (p<0.012. Statistically significant correlation was also found between urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation and lymphovascular invasion (p=0.012 as well as perineural invasion (p=0.037.Conclusion:  Most common divergent differentiation was squamous differentiation. Urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation was associated with higher stage and lymphovascular as well as perineural invasion. So it is mandatory to search for the divergent differentiation in urothelial carcinoma as this may be associated with unfavourable prognosis.

  12. The direct Flow parametric Proof of Gauss' Divergence Theorem revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    The standard proof of the divergence theorem in undergraduate calculus courses covers the theorem for static domains between two graph surfaces. We show that within first year undergraduate curriculum, the flow proof of the dynamic version of the divergence theorem - which is usually considered only much later in more advanced math courses - is comprehensible with only a little extension of the first year curriculum. Moreover, it is more intuitive than the static proof. We support this intuit...

  13. Dimensional regularization and infrared divergences in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marculescu, S.

    1979-01-01

    Dimensional continuation was devised as a powerful regularization method for ultraviolet divergences in quantum field theories. Recently it was clear, at least for quantum electrodynamics, that such a method could be employed for factorizing out infrared divergences from the on-shell S-matrix elements. This provides a renormalization scheme on the electron mass-shell without using a gauge violating ''photon mass''. (author)

  14. Diverging Trade Strategies in Latin America: An Analytical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Vinod K.; Espach, Ralph H.

    2003-01-01

    Although there is increasing divergence among the trade policies of various Latin American nations, overall the last twenty years have seen a dramatic shift away from protectionism towards liberalization. Focusing on case studies of four Latin American nations — Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Argentina — the authors use an analytical framework to explain the rationales behind divergent policies. The analytical approach used considers the combination of economic, political and strategic objectives ...

  15. Robust bounds on risk-sensitive functionals via Renyi divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Atar, Rami; Chowdhary, Kamaljit; Dupuis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We extend the duality between exponential integrals and relative entropy to a variational formula for exponential integrals involving the Renyi divergence. This formula characterizes the dependence of risk-sensitive functionals and related quantities determined by tail behavior to perturbations in the underlying distributions, in terms of the Renyi divergence. The characterization gives rise to upper and lower bounds that are meaningful for all values of a large deviation scaling parameter, a...

  16. Numerical simulation of the divergence of a wind turbine airfoil : part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdenee, D.; Minea, I.S.; Tardiff d' Hamonville, T.; Illinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de Recherche en Energie Eolienne

    2010-07-01

    The development of larger, more flexible wind turbine blades is creating the need for an improved understanding of the mechanisms surrounding unsteady flow-structure interactions. This 2-part study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify and model the aerodynamic and aeroelastic phenomena around wind turbine blades. Aeroelastic divergence was modelled using coupled aerodynamic and elastic models with an ANSYS software program. The fluid-structure interactions of an NACA0012 airfoil were simulated in order to determine the divergence phenomenon created by aerodynamic loads and transient fluid flow. The airfoil profile was fixed and exempted from all rotational degrees of liberty while being subjected to a constant flow of velocity. The fixing was then removed and the constant flow was compared with a shock wave on the airfoil profile. The profile then oscillated with damped amplitude due to the aerodynamic damping imposed. Results of the analysis will be compared with results obtained in future studies. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Microarray analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue from mature cows with divergent body weight gain after feed restriction and realimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body weight response to periods of feed restriction and realimentation is critical and relevant to the agricultural industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differentially expressed genes identified in subcutaneous adipose tissue collected from cows divergent in body weight (BW) gain afte...

  18. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve.

  19. Divergence in Patterns of Leaf Growth Polarity Is Associated with the Expression Divergence of miR396.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, Mainak; Nath, Utpal

    2015-10-01

    Lateral appendages often show allometric growth with a specific growth polarity along the proximo-distal axis. Studies on leaf growth in model plants have identified a basipetal growth direction with the highest growth rate at the proximal end and progressively lower rates toward the distal end. Although the molecular mechanisms governing such a growth pattern have been studied recently, variation in leaf growth polarity and, therefore, its evolutionary origin remain unknown. By surveying 75 eudicot species, here we report that leaf growth polarity is divergent. Leaf growth in the proximo-distal axis is polar, with more growth arising from either the proximal or the distal end; dispersed with no apparent polarity; or bidirectional, with more growth contributed by the central region and less growth at either end. We further demonstrate that the expression gradient of the miR396-GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR module strongly correlates with the polarity of leaf growth. Altering the endogenous pattern of miR396 expression in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana leaves only partially modified the spatial pattern of cell expansion, suggesting that the diverse growth polarities might have evolved via concerted changes in multiple gene regulatory networks. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural Mechanisms of Episodic Retrieval Support Divergent Creative Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Kevin P; Thakral, Preston P; Beaty, Roger E; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-11-17

    Prior research has indicated that brain regions and networks that support semantic memory, top-down and bottom-up attention, and cognitive control are all involved in divergent creative thinking. Kernels of evidence suggest that neural processes supporting episodic memory-the retrieval of particular elements of prior experiences-may also be involved in divergent thinking, but such processes have typically been characterized as not very relevant for, or even a hindrance to, creative output. In the present study, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with an experimental manipulation to test formally, for the first time, episodic memory's involvement in divergent thinking. Following a manipulation that facilitates detailed episodic retrieval, we observed greater neural activity in the hippocampus and stronger connectivity between a core brain network linked to episodic processing and a frontoparietal brain network linked to cognitive control during divergent thinking relative to an object association control task that requires little divergent thinking. Stronger coupling following the retrieval manipulation extended to a subsequent resting-state scan. Neural effects of the episodic manipulation were consistent with behavioral effects of enhanced idea production on divergent thinking but not object association. The results indicate that conceptual frameworks should accommodate the idea that episodic retrieval can function as a component process of creative idea generation, and highlight how the brain flexibly utilizes the retrieval of episodic details for tasks beyond simple remembering. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Genetic divergence between two clinostomatid fish endoparasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-11-16

    . To identify usable oligonucleotide prim- ers, a trial study was conducted using parasite DNA and six different 10-mer primers. For amplification, we used a mix- ture including 0.125 ~I DNA polymerase (Takara Taq), 2.5 ~I.

  2. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  3. Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tovar

    Full Text Available Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%-17.4%, there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar

  4. Genetic divergence through joint analysis of morphoagronomic and molecular characters in accessions of Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana-Caldas, C N; Silva, S A; Machado, E L; de Souza, D R; Cerqueira-Pereira, E C; Silva, M S

    2016-10-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic divergence between accessions of Jatropha curcas through joint analysis of morphoagronomic and molecular characters. To this end, we investigated 11 morphoagronomic characters and performed molecular genotyping, using 23 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers in 46 accessions of J. curcas. We calculated the contribution of each character on divergence using analysis of variance. The grouping among accessions was performed using the Ward-MLM (modified location model) method, using morphoagronomic and molecular data, whereas the cophenetic correlation was obtained based on Gower's algorithm. There were significant differences in all growth-related characteristics: number of primary and secondary branches per plant, plant height, and stem diameter. For characters related to grain production, differences were found for number of fruit clusters per plant and number of inflorescence clusters per plant and average number of seeds per fruit. The greatest phenotypic variation was found in plant height (59.67- 222.33 cm), whereas the smallest variation was found in average number of seeds per fruit (0-2.90), followed by the number of fruit clusters per plant (0-8.67). In total, 94 polymorphic ISSR fragments were obtained. The genotypic grouping identified six groups, indicating that there is genetic divergence among the accessions. The most promising crossings for future hybridization were identified among accessions UFRB60 and UFVJC45, and UFRB61 and UFVJC18. In conclusion, the joint analysis of morphoagronomic characters and ISSR markers is an efficient method to assess the genetic divergence in J. curcas.

  5. Tricks of the trade: time management tips for newly qualified doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Gozie; Doherty, Eva

    2018-03-01

    The transition from medical student to doctor is an important milestone. The discovery that their time is no longer their own and that the demands of their job are greater than the time they have available is extremely challenging. At a recent surgical boot camp training programme, 60 first-year surgical trainees who had just completed their internship were invited to reflect on the lessons learnt regarding effective time management and to recommend tips for their newly qualified colleagues. They were asked to identify clinical duties that were considered urgent and important using the time management matrix and the common time traps encountered by newly qualified doctors. The surgical trainees identified several practical tips that ranged from writing a priority list to working on relationships within the team. These tips are generic and so applicable to all newly qualified medial doctors. We hope that awareness of these tips from the outset as against learning them through experience will greatly assist newly qualified doctors. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Assessment for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess for markers of nephropathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics, using blood pressure levels, endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary protein excretion as markers of renal disease. Study design: Ninety newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics were studied within 6 weeks of diagnosis. They were in ...

  7. The impact of organisational culture on the adaptation of newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usually newly employed nurses find adjusting to a work setting a challenging experience. Their successful adaptation to their work situation is greatly influenced by the socialisation process inherent in the organisational culture. The newly employed nurse often finds that the norms are unclear, confusing and restrictive.

  8. Problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus can be a frightening experience for newly diagnosed patients. The aim of this study was to determine and describe the problems faced by newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus patients at primary healthcare facilities at Mopani district, Limpopo Province. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual research ...

  9. How Schools Can Promote Healthy Development for Newly Arrived Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents: Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea A; Morland, Lyn; Doty, S Benjamin; Meschke, Laurie L; Awad, Summer; Husain, Altaf; Nashwan, Ayat

    2017-02-01

    The US education system must find creative and effective ways to foster the healthy development of the approximately 2 million newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents, many of whom contend with language barriers, limited prior education, trauma, and discrimination. We identify research priorities for promoting the school success of these youth. The study used the 4-phase priority-setting method of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. In the final stage, 132 researchers, service providers, educators, and policymakers based in the United States were asked to rate the importance of 36 research options. The highest priority research options (range 1 to 5) were: evaluating newcomer programs (mean = 4.44, SD = 0.55), identifying how family and community stressors affect newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents' functioning in school (mean = 4.40, SD = 0.56), identifying teachers' major stressors in working with this population (mean = 4.36, SD = 0.72), and identifying how to engage immigrant and refugee families in their children's education (mean = 4.35, SD = 0.62). These research priorities emphasize the generation of practical knowledge that could translate to immediate, tangible benefits for schools. Funders, schools, and researchers can use these research priorities to guide research for the highest benefit of schools and the newly arrived immigrant and refugee adolescents they serve. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  10. Divergence of RNA polymerase α subunits in angiosperm plastid genomes is mediated by genomic rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazier, J Chris; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Rehman, Sumaiyah K; Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K

    2016-04-18

    Genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) persist in the plastid genomes of all photosynthetic angiosperms. However, three unrelated lineages (Annonaceae, Passifloraceae and Geraniaceae) have been identified with unusually divergent open reading frames (ORFs) in the conserved region of rpoA, the gene encoding the PEP α subunit. We used sequence-based approaches to evaluate whether these genes retain function. Both gene sequences and complete plastid genome sequences were assembled and analyzed from each of the three angiosperm families. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that the rpoA sequences are likely functional despite retaining as low as 30% nucleotide sequence identity with rpoA genes from outgroups in the same angiosperm order. The ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions indicated that these genes are under purifying selection, and bioinformatic prediction of conserved domains indicated that functional domains are preserved. One of the lineages (Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) contains species with multiple rpoA-like ORFs that show evidence of ongoing inter-paralog gene conversion. The plastid genomes containing these divergent rpoA genes have experienced extensive structural rearrangement, including large expansions of the inverted repeat. We propose that illegitimate recombination, not positive selection, has driven the divergence of rpoA.

  11. Evolutionary divergence in the fungal response to fluconazole revealed by soft clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Kuo, Dwight; Tan, Kai; Zinman, Guy; Ravasi, Timothy; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Ideker, Trey

    2010-01-01

    Background: Fungal infections are an emerging health risk, especially those involving yeast that are resistant to antifungal agents. To understand the range of mechanisms by which yeasts can respond to anti-fungals, we compared gene expression patterns across three evolutionarily distant species - Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida glabrata and Kluyveromyces lactis - over time following fluconazole exposure. Results: Conserved and diverged expression patterns were identified using a novel soft clustering algorithm that concurrently clusters data from all species while incorporating sequence orthology. The analysis suggests complementary strategies for coping with ergosterol depletion by azoles - Saccharomyces imports exogenous ergosterol, Candida exports fluconazole, while Kluyveromyces does neither, leading to extreme sensitivity. In support of this hypothesis we find that only Saccharomyces becomes more azole resistant in ergosterol-supplemented media; that this depends on sterol importers Aus1 and Pdr11; and that transgenic expression of sterol importers in Kluyveromyces alleviates its drug sensitivity. Conclusions: We have compared the dynamic transcriptional responses of three diverse yeast species to fluconazole treatment using a novel clustering algorithm. This approach revealed significant divergence among regulatory programs associated with fluconazole sensitivity. In future, such approaches might be used to survey a wider range of species, drug concentrations and stimuli to reveal conserved and divergent molecular response pathways.

  12. Evolutionary divergence in the fungal response to fluconazole revealed by soft clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Kuo, Dwight

    2010-07-23

    Background: Fungal infections are an emerging health risk, especially those involving yeast that are resistant to antifungal agents. To understand the range of mechanisms by which yeasts can respond to anti-fungals, we compared gene expression patterns across three evolutionarily distant species - Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida glabrata and Kluyveromyces lactis - over time following fluconazole exposure. Results: Conserved and diverged expression patterns were identified using a novel soft clustering algorithm that concurrently clusters data from all species while incorporating sequence orthology. The analysis suggests complementary strategies for coping with ergosterol depletion by azoles - Saccharomyces imports exogenous ergosterol, Candida exports fluconazole, while Kluyveromyces does neither, leading to extreme sensitivity. In support of this hypothesis we find that only Saccharomyces becomes more azole resistant in ergosterol-supplemented media; that this depends on sterol importers Aus1 and Pdr11; and that transgenic expression of sterol importers in Kluyveromyces alleviates its drug sensitivity. Conclusions: We have compared the dynamic transcriptional responses of three diverse yeast species to fluconazole treatment using a novel clustering algorithm. This approach revealed significant divergence among regulatory programs associated with fluconazole sensitivity. In future, such approaches might be used to survey a wider range of species, drug concentrations and stimuli to reveal conserved and divergent molecular response pathways.

  13. Niche divergence builds the case for ecological speciation in skinks of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Guinevere O.U.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to different thermal environments has the potential to cause evolutionary changes that are sufficient to drive ecological speciation. Here, we examine whether climate-based niche divergence in lizards of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex is consistent with the outcomes of such a process. Previous work on this group shows that a mechanical sexual barrier has evolved between species that differ mainly in body size and that the barrier may be a by-product of selection for increased body size in lineages that have invaded xeric environments; however, baseline information on niche divergence among members of the group is lacking. We quantified the climatic niche using mechanistic physiological and correlative niche models and then estimated niche differences among species using ordination techniques and tests of niche overlap and equivalency. Our results show that the thermal niches of size-divergent, reproductively isolated morphospecies are significantly differentiated and that precipitation may have been as important as temperature in causing increased shifts in body size in xeric habitats. While these findings alone do not demonstrate thermal adaptation or identify the cause of speciation, their integration with earlier genetic and behavioral studies provides a useful test of phenotype–environment associations that further support the case for ecological speciation in these lizards.

  14. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones were originally launched from the NASA B-52 bomber and later from a DC-130. The DAST vehicle's flight was monitored from the sky by an F

  15. Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Blažica

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic energy spectra from the mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model ALADIN with horizontal resolution 4.4 km are split into divergent and rotational components which are then compared at horizontal scales below 300 km and various vertical levels. It is shown that about 50% of kinetic energy in the free troposphere in ALADIN is divergent energy. The percentage increases towards 70% near the surface and in the upper troposphere towards 100 hPa. The maximal percentage of divergent energy is found at stratospheric levels around 100 hPa and at scales below 100 km which are not represented by the global models. At all levels, the divergent energy spectra are characterised by shallower slopes than the rotational energy spectra, and the difference increases as horizontal scales become larger. A very similar vertical distribution of divergent energy is obtained by using the standard ALADIN approach for the computation of spectra based on the extension zone and by applying detrending approach commonly used in mesoscale NWP community.

  16. Sufficient Statistics for Divergence and the Probability of Misclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirein, J.

    1972-01-01

    One particular aspect is considered of the feature selection problem which results from the transformation x=Bz, where B is a k by n matrix of rank k and k is or = to n. It is shown that in general, such a transformation results in a loss of information. In terms of the divergence, this is equivalent to the fact that the average divergence computed using the variable x is less than or equal to the average divergence computed using the variable z. A loss of information in terms of the probability of misclassification is shown to be equivalent to the fact that the probability of misclassification computed using variable x is greater than or equal to the probability of misclassification computed using variable z. First, the necessary facts relating k-dimensional and n-dimensional integrals are derived. Then the mentioned results about the divergence and probability of misclassification are derived. Finally it is shown that if no information is lost (in x = Bz) as measured by the divergence, then no information is lost as measured by the probability of misclassification.

  17. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  18. Sandwiched Rényi divergence satisfies data processing inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigi, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Sandwiched (quantum) α-Rényi divergence has been recently defined in the independent works of Wilde et al. [“Strong converse for the classical capacity of entanglement-breaking channels,” preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1306.1586 (2013)] and Müller-Lennert et al. [“On quantum Rényi entropies: a new definition, some properties and several conjectures,” preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1306.3142v1 (2013)]. This new quantum divergence has already found applications in quantum information theory. Here we further investigate properties of this new quantum divergence. In particular, we show that sandwiched α-Rényi divergence satisfies the data processing inequality for all values of α > 1. Moreover we prove that α-Holevo information, a variant of Holevo information defined in terms of sandwiched α-Rényi divergence, is super-additive. Our results are based on Hölder's inequality, the Riesz-Thorin theorem and ideas from the theory of complex interpolation. We also employ Sion's minimax theorem

  19. Ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking while decreasing conventional convergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, K P C; Riba, J; de la Fuente Revenga, M; Barker, S; Theunissen, E L; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy. Another psychological facet that could potentially be targeted by ayahuasca is creative divergent thinking. This mode of thinking can enhance and strengthen psychological flexibility by allowing individuals to generate new and effective cognitive, emotional, and behavioral strategies. The present study aimed to assess the potential effects of ayahuasca on creative thinking. We visited two spiritual ayahuasca workshops and invited participants to conduct creativity tests before and during the acute effects of ayahuasca. In total, 26 participants consented. Creativity tests included the "pattern/line meanings test" (PLMT) and the "picture concept test" (PCT), both assessing divergent thinking and the latter also assessing convergent thinking. While no significant effects were found for the PLMT, ayahuasca intake significantly modified divergent and convergent thinking as measured by the PCT. While convergent thinking decreased after intake, divergent thinking increased. The present data indicate that ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking. They suggest that ayahuasca increases psychological flexibility, which may facilitate psychotherapeutic interventions and support clinical trial initiatives.

  20. Newly detected molecules in dense interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, William M.; Avery, L. W.; Friberg, P.; Matthews, H. E.; Ziurys, L. M.

    Several new interstellar molecules have been identified including C2S, C3S, C5H, C6H and (probably) HC2CHO in the cold, dark cloud TMC-1; and the discovery of the first interstellar phosphorus-containing molecule, PN, in the Orion "plateau" source. Further results include the observations of 13C3H2 and C3HD, and the first detection of HCOOH (formic acid) in a cold cloud.

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of divergent and convergent thinking in Big-C creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japardi, Kevin; Bookheimer, Susan; Knudsen, Kendra; Ghahremani, Dara G; Bilder, Robert M

    2018-02-15

    The cognitive and physiological processes underlying creativity remain unclear, and very few studies to date have attempted to identify the behavioral and brain characteristics that distinguish exceptional ("Big-C") from everyday ("little-c") creativity. The Big-C Project examined functional brain responses during tasks demanding divergent and convergent thinking in 35 Big-C Visual Artists (VIS), 41 Big-C Scientists (SCI), and 31 individuals in a "smart comparison group" (SCG) matched to the Big-C groups on parental educational attainment and estimated IQ. Functional MRI (fMRI) scans included two activation paradigms widely used in prior creativity research, the Alternate Uses Task (AUT) and Remote Associates Task (RAT), to assess brain function during divergent and convergent thinking, respectively. Task performance did not differ between groups. Functional MRI activation in Big-C and SCG groups differed during the divergent thinking task. No differences in activation were seen during the convergent thinking task. Big-C groups had less activation than SCG in frontal pole, right frontal operculum, left middle frontal gyrus, and bilaterally in occipital cortex. SCI displayed lower frontal and parietal activation relative to the SCG when generating alternate uses in the AUT, while VIS displayed lower frontal activation than SCI and SCG when generating typical qualities (the control condition in the AUT). VIS showed more activation in right inferior frontal gyrus and left supramarginal gyrus relative to SCI. All groups displayed considerable overlapping activation during the RAT. The results confirm substantial overlap in functional activation across groups, but suggest that exceptionally creative individuals may depend less on task-positive networks during tasks that demand divergent thinking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. First divergence time estimate of spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks (subphylum: Chelicerata) inferred from mitochondrial phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaprakash, Ayyamperumal; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2009-01-01

    Spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks (chelicerates) form one of the most diverse groups of arthropods on land, but their origin and times of diversification are not yet established. We estimated, for the first time, the molecular divergence times for these chelicerates using complete mitochondrial sequences from 25 taxa. All mitochondrial genes were evaluated individually or after concatenation. Sequences belonging to three missing genes (ND3, 6, and tRNA-Asp) from three taxa, as well as the faster-evolving ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S), tRNAs, and the third base of each codon from 11 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (COI-III, CYTB, ATP8, 6, ND1-2, 4L, and 4-5), were identified and removed. The remaining concatenated sequences from 11 PCGs produced a completely resolved phylogenetic tree and confirmed that all chelicerates are monophyletic. Removing the third base from each codon was essential to resolve the phylogeny, which allowed deep divergence times to be calculated using three nodes calibrated with upper and lower priors. Our estimates indicate that the orders and classes of spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks diversified in the late Paleozoic, much earlier than previously reported from fossil date estimates. The divergence time estimated for ticks suggests that their first land hosts could have been amphibians rather than reptiles. Using molecular data, we separated the spider-scorpion clades and estimated their divergence times at 397 +/- 23 million years ago. Algae, fungi, plants, and animals, including insects, were well established on land when these chelicerates diversified. Future analyses, involving mitochondrial sequences from additional chelicerate taxa and the inclusion of nuclear genes (or entire genomes) will provide a more complete picture of the evolution of the Chelicerata, the second most abundant group of animals on earth.

  3. Enhanced vulnerability of human proteins towards disease-associated inactivation through divergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Carmona, Encarnación; Fuchs, Julian E; Gavira, Jose A; Mesa-Torres, Noel; Neira, Jose L; Salido, Eduardo; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Burgos, Miguel; Timson, David J; Pey, Angel L

    2017-09-15

    Human proteins are vulnerable towards disease-associated single amino acid replacements affecting protein stability and function. Interestingly, a few studies have shown that consensus amino acids from mammals or vertebrates can enhance protein stability when incorporated into human proteins. Here, we investigate yet unexplored relationships between the high vulnerability of human proteins towards disease-associated inactivation and recent evolutionary site-specific divergence of stabilizing amino acids. Using phylogenetic, structural and experimental analyses, we show that divergence from the consensus amino acids at several sites during mammalian evolution has caused local protein destabilization in two human proteins linked to disease: cancer-associated NQO1 and alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase, mutated in primary hyperoxaluria type I. We demonstrate that a single consensus mutation (H80R) acts as a disease suppressor on the most common cancer-associated polymorphism in NQO1 (P187S). The H80R mutation reactivates P187S by enhancing FAD binding affinity through local and dynamic stabilization of its binding site. Furthermore, we show how a second suppressor mutation (E247Q) cooperates with H80R in protecting the P187S polymorphism towards inactivation through long-range allosteric communication within the structural ensemble of the protein. Our results support that recent divergence of consensus amino acids may have occurred with neutral effects on many functional and regulatory traits of wild-type human proteins. However, divergence at certain sites may have increased the propensity of some human proteins towards inactivation due to disease-associated mutations and polymorphisms. Consensus mutations also emerge as a potential strategy to identify structural hot-spots in proteins as targets for pharmacological rescue in loss-of-function genetic diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  4. Probing the phylogenetic relationships of a few newly recorded intertidal zoanthids of Gujarat coast (India) with mtDNA COI sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sneha; Poriya, Paresh; Kundu, Rahul

    2016-11-01

    The present study reports the phylogenetic relationship of six zoanthid species belonging to three genera, Isaurus, Palythoa, and Zoanthus identified using systematic computational analysis of mtDNA gene sequences. All six species are first recorded from the coasts of Kathiawar Peninsula, India. Genus: Isaurus is represented by Isaurus tuberculatus, genus Zoanthus is represented by Zoanthus kuroshio and Zoanthus sansibaricus, while genus Palythoa is represented by Palythoa tuberculosa, P. sp. JVK-2006 and Palythoa heliodiscus. Results of the present study revealed that among the various species observed along the coastline, a minimum of 99% sequence divergence and a maximum of 96% sequence divergence were seen. An interspecific divergence of 1-4% and negligible intraspecific divergence was observed. These results not only highlighted the efficiency of the COI gene region in species identification but also demonstrated the genetic variability of zoanthids along the Saurashtra coastline of the west coast of India.

  5. Degradation of dibenzofuran via multiple dioxygenation by a newly isolated Agrobacterium sp. PH-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T T; Murugesan, K; Nam, I-H; Jeon, J-R; Chang, Y-S

    2014-03-01

    To demonstrate the biodegradation of dibenzofuran (DF) and its structural analogs by a newly isolated Agrobacterium sp. PH-08. To assess the biodegradation potential of newly isolated Agrobacterium sp. PH-08, various substrates were evaluated as sole carbon sources in growth and biotransformation experiments. ESI LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of angular degrading by-products as well as lateral dioxygenation metabolites in the upper pathway. The metabolites in the lower pathway also were detected. In addition, the cometabolically degraded daughter compounds of DF-related compounds such as BP and dibenzothiophene (DBT) in dual substrate degradation were observed. Strain PH-08 exhibited the evidence of meta-cleavage pathway as confirmed by the activity and gene expression of catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. Newly isolated bacterial strain, Agrobacterium sp. PH-08, grew well with and degraded DF via both angular and lateral dioxygenation as demonstrated by metabolites identified through ESI LC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses. The other heterocyclic pollutants were also cometabolically degraded. Few reports have described the complete degradation of DF by a cometabolic lateral pathway. Our study demonstrates the novel results that the newly isolated strain utilized the DF as a sole carbon source and mineralized it via multiple dioxygenation. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Mentorship for newly appointed physicians: a strategy for enhancing patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Reema; McClean, Serwaa; Lawton, Rebecca; Wright, John; Kay, Clive

    2014-09-01

    Mentorship is an increasingly popular innovation from business and industry that is being applied in health-care contexts. This paper explores the concept of mentorship for newly appointed physicians in their first substantive senior post, and specifically its utilization to enhance patient safety. Semi-structured face to face and telephone interviews with Medical Directors (n = 5), Deputy Medical Directors (n = 4), and Clinical Directors (n = 6) from 9 acute NHS Trusts in the Yorkshire and Humber region in the north of England. A focused thematic analysis was used. A number of beneficial outcomes were associated with mentorship for newly appointed physicians including greater personal and professional support, organizational commitment, and general well-being. Providing newly appointed senior physicians with support through mentorship was considered to enhance the safety of patient care. Mentorship may prevent or reduce active failures, be used to identify threats in the local working environment, and in the longer term, address latent threats to safety within the organization by encouraging a healthier safety culture. Offering mentorship to all newly appointed physicians in their first substantive post in health care may be a useful strategy to support the development of their clinical, professional, and personal skills in this transitional period that may also enhance the safety of patient care.

  7. Frequencies of digits, divergence points, and Schmidt games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Sets of divergence points, i.e. numbers x (or tuples of numbers) for which the limiting frequency of a given string of N-adic digits of x fails to exist, have recently attracted huge interest in the literature. In this paper we consider sets of simultaneous divergence points, i.e. numbers x (or tuples of numbers) for which the limiting frequencies of all strings of N-adic digits of x fail to exist. We show that many natural sets of simultaneous divergence points are (α, β)-wining sets in the sense of the Schmidt game. As an application we obtain lower bounds for the Hausdorff dimension of these sets.

  8. Structure of UV divergences in maximally supersymmetric gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, D. I.; Borlakov, A. T.; Tolkachev, D. M.; Vlasenko, D. E.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the UV divergences up to sub-subleading order for the four-point on-shell scattering amplitudes in D =8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the planar limit. We trace how the leading, subleading, etc divergences appear in all orders of perturbation theory. The structure of these divergences is typical for any local quantum field theory independently on renormalizability. We show how the generalized renormalization group equations allow one to evaluate the leading, subleading, etc. contributions in all orders of perturbation theory starting from one-, two-, etc. loop diagrams respectively. We focus then on subtraction scheme dependence of the results and show that in full analogy with renormalizable theories the scheme dependence can be absorbed into the redefinition of the couplings. The only difference is that the role of the couplings play dimensionless combinations like g2s2 or g2t2, where s and t are the Mandelstam variables.

  9. To be liked versus respected: Divergent goals in interracial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsieker, Hilary B; Shelton, J Nicole; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2010-08-01

    Pervasive representations of Blacks and Latinos as unintelligent and of Whites as racist may give rise to divergent impression management goals in interracial interactions. We present studies showing that in interracial interactions racial minorities seek to be respected and seen as competent more than Whites do, whereas Whites seek to be liked and seen as moral more than racial minorities do. These divergent impression management goals are reflected in Whites' and racial minorities' self-report responses (Studies 1a, 1b, 2, and 4) and behaviors (Studies 3a and 3b). Divergent goals are observed in pre-existing relationships (Study 2), as well as in live interactions (Studies 3a, 3b, and 4), and are associated with higher levels of negative other-directed affect (Study 4). Implications of these goals for interracial communication and misunderstandings are discussed.

  10. Does niche divergence accompany allopatric divergence in Aphelocoma jays as predicted under ecological speciation? Insights from tests with niche models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, John E; Zellmer, Amanda J; Knowles, L Lacey

    2010-05-01

    The role of ecology in the origin of species has been the subject of long-standing interest to evolutionary biologists. New sources of spatially explicit ecological data allow for large-scale tests of whether speciation is associated with niche divergence or whether closely related species tend to be similar ecologically (niche conservatism). Because of the confounding effects of spatial autocorrelation of environmental variables, we generate null expectations for niche divergence for both an ecological-niche modeling and a multivariate approach to address the question: do allopatrically distributed taxa occupy similar niches? In a classic system for the study of niche evolution--the Aphelocoma jays--we show that there is little evidence for niche divergence among Mexican Jay (A. ultramarina) lineages in the process of speciation, contrary to previous results. In contrast, Aphelocoma species that exist in partial sympatry in some regions show evidence for niche divergence. Our approach is widely applicable to the many cases of allopatric lineages in the beginning stages of speciation. These results do not support an ecological speciation model for Mexican Jay lineages because, in most cases, the allopatric environments they occupy are not significantly more divergent than expected under a null model.

  11. Scenario Archetypes: Converging Rather than Diverging Themes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Sadler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Future scenarios provide challenging, plausible and relevant stories about how the future could unfold. Urban Futures (UF research has identified a substantial set (>450 of seemingly disparate scenarios published over the period 1997–2011 and within this research, a sub-set of >160 scenarios has been identified (and categorized based on their narratives according to the structure first proposed by the Global Scenario Group (GSG in 1997; three world types (Business as Usual, Barbarization, and Great Transitions and six scenarios, two for each world type (Policy Reform—PR, Market Forces—MF, Breakdown—B, Fortress World—FW, Eco-Communalism—EC and New Sustainability Paradigm—NSP. It is suggested that four of these scenario archetypes (MF, PR, NSP and FW are sufficiently distinct to facilitate active stakeholder engagement in futures thinking. Moreover they are accompanied by a well-established, internally consistent set of narratives that provide a deeper understanding of the key fundamental drivers (e.g., STEEP—Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental and Political that could bring about realistic world changes through a push or a pull effect. This is testament to the original concept of the GSG scenarios and their development and refinement over a 16 year period.

  12. Are habitat fragmentation, local adaptation and isolation-by-distance driving population divergence in wild rice Oryza rufipogon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Vrieling, Klaas; Liao, Hui; Xiao, Manqiu; Zhu, Yongqing; Rong, Jun; Zhang, Wenju; Wang, Yuguo; Yang, Ji; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping

    2013-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation weakens the connection between populations and is accompanied with isolation by distance (IBD) and local adaptation (isolation by adaptation, IBA), both leading to genetic divergence between populations. To understand the evolutionary potential of a population and to formulate proper conservation strategies, information on the roles of IBD and IBA in driving population divergence is critical. The putative ancestor of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) is endangered in China due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We investigated the genetic variation in 11 Chinese Oryza rufipogon populations using 79 microsatellite loci to infer the effects of habitat fragmentation, IBD and IBA on genetic structure. Historical and current gene flows were found to be rare (mh  = 0.0002-0.0013, mc  = 0.007-0.029), indicating IBD and resulting in a high level of population divergence (FST  = 0.343). High within-population genetic variation (HE  = 0.377-0.515), relatively large effective population sizes (Ne  = 96-158), absence of bottlenecks and limited gene flow were found, demonstrating little impact of recent habitat fragmentation on these populations. Eleven gene-linked microsatellite loci were identified as outliers, indicating local adaptation. Hierarchical AMOVA and partial Mantel tests indicated that population divergence of Chinese O. rufipogon was significantly correlated with environmental factors, especially habitat temperature. Common garden trials detected a significant adaptive population divergence associated with latitude. Collectively, these findings imply that IBD due to historical rather than recent fragmentation, followed by local adaptation, has driven population divergence in O. rufipogon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Identifying Instability Pockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Shalini Signh, Domestic Tourism in Asia: A Diversity and Divergence (London: Earthscan), 183. 30...125 Solomon. 126 Globalpolicy.Org, “Water In Conflict,” (2014), accessed June 30, 2014, http://www.globalpolicy.org/the- dark -side-of-natural-resources...Globalpolicy.Org. “Water In Conflict,” (2014). Accessed June 30, 2014. http://www.globalpolicy.org/the- dark -side-of-natural-resources-st/water-in-conflict.html

  14. Robust Covariance Estimators Based on Information Divergences and Riemannian Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Hua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a class of covariance estimators based on information divergences in heterogeneous environments. In particular, the problem of covariance estimation is reformulated on the Riemannian manifold of Hermitian positive-definite (HPD matrices. The means associated with information divergences are derived and used as the estimators. Without resorting to the complete knowledge of the probability distribution of the sample data, the geometry of the Riemannian manifold of HPD matrices is considered in mean estimators. Moreover, the robustness of mean estimators is analyzed using the influence function. Simulation results indicate the robustness and superiority of an adaptive normalized matched filter with our proposed estimators compared with the existing alternatives.

  15. Bubble Divergences: Sorting out Topology from Cell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzom, Valentin; Smerlak, Matteo

    2012-02-01

    We conclude our analysis of bubble divergences in the flat spinfoam model. In [arXiv:1008.1476] we showed that the divergence degree of an arbitrary two-complex Gamma can be evaluated exactly by means of twisted cohomology. Here, we specialize this result to the case where Gamma is the two-skeleton of the cell decomposition of a pseudomanifold, and sharpen it with a careful analysis of the cellular and topological structures involved. Moreover, we explain in detail how this approach reproduces all the previous powercounting results for the Boulatov-Ooguri (colored) tensor models, and sheds light on algebraic-topological aspects of Gurau's 1/N expansion.

  16. Zimmermann's forest formula, infrared divergences and the QCD beta function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Herzog

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We review Zimmermann's forest formula, which solves Bogoliubov's recursive R-operation for the subtraction of ultraviolet divergences in perturbative Quantum Field Theory. We further discuss a generalisation of the R-operation which subtracts besides ultraviolet also Euclidean infrared divergences. This generalisation, which goes under the name of the R⁎-operation, can be used efficiently to compute renormalisation constants. We will discuss several results obtained by this method with focus on the QCD beta function at five loops as well as the application to hadronic Higgs boson decay rates at N4LO. This article summarizes a talk given at the Wolfhart Zimmermann Memorial Symposium.

  17. Divergence from factorizable distributions and matroid representations by partitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 12 (2009), s. 5375-5381 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603; GA ČR GA201/04/0393 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Information divergence * relative entropy * Shannon entropy * exponential family * hierarchical model * log-linear model * contingency table * Gibbs distribution * matroid representation * secret sharing scheme * maximum likelihood. Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/MTR/matus-divergence from factorizable distributions and matroid representations by partitions.pdf

  18. O Cabimento dos Embargos de Divergência

    OpenAIRE

    LOURENCO, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    A presente pesquisa objetiva demonstrar os embargos de divergência com enfoque nos elementos processuais do cabimento de tal modalidade recursal em nosso ordenamento jurídico. Para tanto, investigaremos os aspectos gerais dos embargos de divergência, a partir da análise dos elementos históricos enquanto a criação do instituto, como também sua finalidade e classificação no ordenamento jurídico brasileiro. Após, analisaremos o requisito de admissibilidade do cabimento dos embargo...

  19. Ultraviolet divergences in higher dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, P.S.; Stelle, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    We determine the loop orders for the onset of allowed ultra-violet divergences in higher dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. Cancellations are controlled by the non-renormalization theorems for the linearly realizable supersymmetries and by the requirement that counterterms display the full non-linear supersymmetries when the classical equations of motion are imposed. The first allowed divergences in the maximal super Yang-Mills theories occur at four loops in five dimensions, three loops in six dimensions and two loops in seven dimensions. (orig.)

  20. Asymptotic states and infrared divergences in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The gauge theories, Gravity and QCD are shown to be infrared finite to a non-trival order by a generalization of the coherent state approach. The asymptotic Hamiltonian operator is used, along with a mathematical theorem by Magnus, to specify a S-operator and to show cancellation of infrared divergences at the amplitude level. This procedure is exemplified in Gravity to third order and applied to QCD for leading order divergences to fifth order in the coupling constant. Dimensional regularization is used to isolate the infrared singularities in QCD. The sections on Gravity include a derivation of the infrared structure of the propagators for a massive particle and the graviton

  1. An ancient divergence among the bacteria. [methanogenic phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, W. E.; Magrum, L. J.; Fox, G. E.; Wolfe, R. S.; Woese, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    The 16S ribosomal RNZs from two species of met methanogenic bacteria, the mesophile Methanobacterium ruminantium and the thermophile Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, have been characterized in terms of the oligonucleotides produced by digestion with T1 ribonuclease. These two organisms are found to be sufficiently related that they can be considered members of the same genus or family. However, they bear only slight resemblance to 'typical' Procaryotic genera; such as Escherichia, Bacillus and Anacystis. The divergence of the methanogenic bacteria from other bacteria may be the most ancient phylogenetic event yet detected - antedating considerably the divergence of the blue green algal line for example, from the main bacterial line.

  2. Evidence for deep regulatory similarities in early developmental programs across highly diverged insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Majid; Suryamohan, Kushal; Chen, Jia-Yu; Zhang, Yinan; Samee, Md Abul Hassan; Halfon, Marc S; Sinha, Saurabh

    2014-09-01

    Many genes familiar from Drosophila development, such as the so-called gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes, play important roles in the development of other insects and in many cases appear to be deployed in a similar fashion, despite the fact that Drosophila-like "long germband" development is highly derived and confined to a subset of insect families. Whether or not these similarities extend to the regulatory level is unknown. Identification of regulatory regions beyond the well-studied Drosophila has been challenging as even within the Diptera (flies, including mosquitoes) regulatory sequences have diverged past the point of recognition by standard alignment methods. Here, we demonstrate that methods we previously developed for computational cis-regulatory module (CRM) discovery in Drosophila can be used effectively in highly diverged (250-350 Myr) insect species including Anopheles gambiae, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, and Nasonia vitripennis. In Drosophila, we have successfully used small sets of known CRMs as "training data" to guide the search for other CRMs with related function. We show here that although species-specific CRM training data do not exist, training sets from Drosophila can facilitate CRM discovery in diverged insects. We validate in vivo over a dozen new CRMs, roughly doubling the number of known CRMs in the four non-Drosophila species. Given the growing wealth of Drosophila CRM annotation, these results suggest that extensive regulatory sequence annotation will be possible in newly sequenced insects without recourse to costly and labor-intensive genome-scale experiments. We develop a new method, Regulus, which computes a probabilistic score of similarity based on binding site composition (despite the absence of nucleotide-level sequence alignment), and demonstrate similarity between functionally related CRMs from orthologous loci. Our work represents an important step toward being able to trace the evolutionary history of gene

  3. Pollen parameters estimates of genetic variability among newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen parameters estimates of genetic variability among newly selected Nigerian roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) genotypes. ... Estimates of some pollen parameters where used to assess the genetic diversity among ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. Combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of a newly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a newly developed CRDI single cylinder diesel engine. AVINASH ... In case of unit injector and unit pump systems, fuel injection pressure depends on ... nozzle hole diameters were effective in reducing smoke and PM emissions. However ...

  5. Yield and Adaptability Evaluation of Newly Introduced Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High yield is a major ambition to tomato plant breeders and farmers. The purpose of the ... Tabora Region on the growth and yield of newly introduced tomato varieties. The tested ..... (1985). Evaluation of some American tomatocultivars grown.

  6. Workplace Violence and Job Outcomes of Newly Licensed Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hyoung Eun; Cho, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of workplace violence toward newly licensed nurses and the relationship between workplace violence and job outcomes. Methods: An online survey was conducted of newly licensed registered nurses who had obtained their license in 2012 or 2013 in South Korea and had been working for 5–12 months after first being employed. The sample consisted of 312 nurses working in hospitals or clinics. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire...

  7. Divergência genética entre cultivares de gérbera utilizando marcadores RAPD Genetic divergence among cultivars of gerbera using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Kelson Silva Rezende

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available No processo de produção comercial de mudas de gérbera, a cor da flor é uma das principais características morfológicas de interesse agronômico, sendo uma característica importante em programas de melhoramento genético. A utilização de marcadores moleculares pode servir para direcionar cruzamentos, confirmar novos híbridos ou genótipos mutantes e identificar novos genótipos para fins comerciais. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a divergência genética entre seis cultivares de Gerbera jamesonii ('Jaguar Yellow', 'Jaguar Cream', 'Jaguar Lemon', 'Jaguar Salmon Pastel', 'Jaguar Red', 'Jaguar Deep Rose'. A análise de divergência genética entre as cultivares de gérbera foi realizada utilizando-se 21 primers, os quais amplificaram 37 fragmentos polimórficos de DNA, que foram usados para estimar o coeficiente de Jaccard, o qual apresentou uma média de 0,38, variando de 0,28 a 0,56. A estrutura genética entre as cultivares foi estimada pelo UPGMA, revelando dois grupos distintos, a 38% de similaridade genética. A maior similaridade genética encontrada (56% foi entre as cultivares 'Jaguar Yellow' e 'Jaguar Lemon'. Os resultados demonstram que a técnica RAPD oferece uma maneira rápida, relativamente barata e útil para a caracterização da divergência genética entre as diferentes cultivares de Gerbera jamesonii com relação à cor da flor.During the commercial production of gerbera seedlings, flower color is one of the main morphological aspects that have an agronomic interest and becoming an important feature in genetic breeding programs. The use of molecular markers may serve to direct crossings, new hybrids and mutants, besides confirm and identify new genotypes for commercial purposes. In that context, this work aimed to analyze the genetic divergence among six cultivars of Gerbera jamesonii ('Jaguar Yellow', 'Jaguar Cream', 'Jaguar Lemon', 'Jaguar Salmon Pastel', 'Jaguar Red', 'Jaguar Deep Rose'. The

  8. First large-scale DNA barcoding assessment of reptiles in the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar, based on newly designed COI primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán T; Sonet, Gontran; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding of non-avian reptiles based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is still in a very early stage, mainly due to technical problems. Using a newly developed set of reptile-specific primers for COI we present the first comprehensive study targeting the entire reptile fauna of the fourth-largest island in the world, the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar. Representatives of the majority of Madagascan non-avian reptile species (including Squamata and Testudines) were sampled and successfully DNA barcoded. The new primer pair achieved a constantly high success rate (72.7-100%) for most squamates. More than 250 species of reptiles (out of the 393 described ones; representing around 64% of the known diversity of species) were barcoded. The average interspecific genetic distance within families ranged from a low of 13.4% in the Boidae to a high of 29.8% in the Gekkonidae. Using the average genetic divergence between sister species as a threshold, 41-48 new candidate (undescribed) species were identified. Simulations were used to evaluate the performance of DNA barcoding as a function of completeness of taxon sampling and fragment length. Compared with available multi-gene phylogenies, DNA barcoding correctly assigned most samples to species, genus and family with high confidence and the analysis of fewer taxa resulted in an increased number of well supported lineages. Shorter marker-lengths generally decreased the number of well supported nodes, but even mini-barcodes of 100 bp correctly assigned many samples to genus and family. The new protocols might help to promote DNA barcoding of reptiles and the established library of reference DNA barcodes will facilitate the molecular identification of Madagascan reptiles. Our results might be useful to easily recognize undescribed diversity (i.e. novel taxa), to resolve taxonomic problems, and to monitor the international pet trade without specialized expert knowledge.

  9. HIV status and treatment influence on fertility desires among women newly becoming eligible for antiretroviral therapy in western Kenya: insights from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayieko, James; Ti, Angeline; Hagey, Jill; Akama, Eliud; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Patel, Rena C

    2017-08-08

    Factors influencing fertility desires among HIV-infected individuals remain poorly understood. With new recommendations for universal HIV treatment and increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, we sought to evaluate how access to early ART influences fertility desires among HIV-infected ART-naïve women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with a select subgroup of 20 HIV-infected ART-naïve women attending one of 13 HIV facilities in western Kenya between July and August 2014 who would soon newly become eligible to initiate ART based on the latest national policy recommendations. The interviews covered four major themes: 1) definitions of family and children's role in community; 2) personal, interpersonal, institutional, and societal factors influencing fertility desires; 3) influence of HIV-positive status on fertility desires; and 4) influence of future ART initiation on fertility desires. An iterative process of reading transcripts, applying inductive codes, and comparing and contrasting codes was used to identify convergent and divergent themes. The women indicated their HIV-positive status did influence-largely negatively-their fertility desires. Furthermore, initiating ART and anticipating improved health status did not necessarily translate to increased fertility desires. Instead, individual factors, such as age, parity, current health status, financial resources and number of surviving or HIV-infected children, played a crucial role in decisions about future fertility. In addition, societal influences, such as community norms and health providers' expectations of their fertility desires, played an equally important role in determining fertility desires. Initiating ART may not be the leading factor influencing fertility desires among previously ART-naïve HIV-infected women. Instead, individual and societal factors appear to be the major determinants of fertility desires among these women.

  10. First Large-Scale DNA Barcoding Assessment of Reptiles in the Biodiversity Hotspot of Madagascar, Based on Newly Designed COI Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán T.; Sonet, Gontran; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding of non-avian reptiles based on the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is still in a very early stage, mainly due to technical problems. Using a newly developed set of reptile-specific primers for COI we present the first comprehensive study targeting the entire reptile fauna of the fourth-largest island in the world, the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar. Methodology/Principal Findings Representatives of the majority of Madagascan non-avian reptile species (including Squamata and Testudines) were sampled and successfully DNA barcoded. The new primer pair achieved a constantly high success rate (72.7–100%) for most squamates. More than 250 species of reptiles (out of the 393 described ones; representing around 64% of the known diversity of species) were barcoded. The average interspecific genetic distance within families ranged from a low of 13.4% in the Boidae to a high of 29.8% in the Gekkonidae. Using the average genetic divergence between sister species as a threshold, 41–48 new candidate (undescribed) species were identified. Simulations were used to evaluate the performance of DNA barcoding as a function of completeness of taxon sampling and fragment length. Compared with available multi-gene phylogenies, DNA barcoding correctly assigned most samples to species, genus and family with high confidence and the analysis of fewer taxa resulted in an increased number of well supported lineages. Shorter marker-lengths generally decreased the number of well supported nodes, but even mini-barcodes of 100 bp correctly assigned many samples to genus and family. Conclusions/Significance The new protocols might help to promote DNA barcoding of reptiles and the established library of reference DNA barcodes will facilitate the molecular identification of Madagascan reptiles. Our results might be useful to easily recognize undescribed diversity (i.e. novel taxa), to resolve taxonomic problems, and to monitor the international pet trade

  11. Maintaining Professional Commitment as a Newly Credentialed Athletic Trainer in the Secondary School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Myers, Sarah L; Walker, Stacy E; Kirby, Jessica

    2018-03-01

      Professional commitment, or one's affinity and loyalty to a career, has become a topic of interest in athletic training. The expanding research on the topic, however, has omitted newly credentialed athletic trainers (ATs). For an impressionable group of practitioners, transitioning to clinical practice can be stressful.   To explore the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting.   Secondary school.   Qualitative study.   A total of 31 newly credentialed ATs (6 men, 25 women; mean age = 24 ± 3 years) participated. Of these, 17 ATs (4 men, 13 women; mean age = 25 ± 4 years) were employed full time in the secondary school setting, and 14 ATs (2 men, 12 women; mean age = 23.0 ± 2.0 years) were graduate assistant students in the secondary school setting.   All participants completed semistructured interviews, which focused on their experiences in the secondary school setting and transitioning into the role and setting. Transcripts were analyzed using the phenomenologic approach. Creditability was established by peer review, member checks, and researcher triangulation.   Four main findings related to the professional commitment of newly credentialed ATs in the secondary school setting were identified. Work-life balance, professional relationships formed with the student-athletes, enjoyment gained from working in the secondary school setting, and professional responsibility emerged as factors facilitating commitment.   Affective commitment is a primary facilitator of professional commitment. Newly credentialed ATs who enjoy their jobs and have time to engage in nonwork roles are able to maintain a positive professional commitment. Our findings align with the previous literature and help strengthen our understanding that rejuvenation and passion are important to professional commitment.

  12. Depth-variable settlement patterns and predation influence on newly settled reef fishes (Haemulon spp., Haemulidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance K B Jordan

    Full Text Available During early demersal ontogeny, many marine fishes display complex habitat-use patterns. Grunts of the speciose genus Haemulon are among the most abundant fishes on western North Atlantic coral reefs, with most species settling to shallow habitats (≤12 m. To gain understanding into cross-shelf distributional patterns exhibited by newly settled stages of grunts (<2 cm total length, we examined: 1 depth-specific distributions of congeners at settlement among sites at 8 m, 12 m, and 21 m, and 2 depth-variable predation pressure on newly settled individuals (species pooled. Of the six species identified from collections of newly settled specimens (n = 2125, Haemulon aurolineatum (tomtate, H. flavolineatum (French grunt, and H. striatum (striped grunt comprised 98% of the total abundance; with the first two species present at all sites. Prevalence of H. aurolineatum and H. flavolineatum decreased substantially from the 8-m site to the two deeper sites. In contrast, H. striatum was absent from the 8-m site and exhibited its highest frequency at the 21-m site. Comparison of newly settled grunt delta density for all species on caged (predator exclusion and control artificial reefs at the shallowest site (8-m revealed no difference, while the 12-m and 21-m sites exhibited significantly greater delta densities on the caged treatment. This result, along with significantly higher abundances of co-occurring piscivorous fishes at the deeper sites, indicated lower predation pressure at the 8-m site. This study suggests habitat-use patterns of newly settled stages of some coral reef fishes that undergo ontogenetic shifts are a function of depth-variable predation pressure while, for at least one deeper-water species, proximity to adult habitat appears to be an important factor affecting settlement distribution.

  13. Genetic divergence among toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria of the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Harshini M; Magana Arachchi, Dhammika N; Chandrasekaran, Naduviladath V

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka has rich cyanobacterial diversity, however, only few studies have been conducted to identify the potential toxin producers in water bodies used for human consumption. As the detection of cyanotoxin is vital in water quality management, a study was done by employing 16S rRNA gene to explore the genetic divergence, phylogenetic relationships and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria in reservoirs and well waters in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Forty five, 16S rRNA gene sequences were assayed and phylogenetic tree was constructed. Among 45 isolates, 20 isolates were classified as unidentified cyanobacteria and considered as novel cyanobacterial genera. Of 25 identified isolates, seven isolates were identified up to species level. With 16S rRNA phylogeny, 20 unidentified cyanobacterial isolates were able to place on their taxonomic positions up to order level. Results revealed that water samples understudy had vast cyanobacterial diversity with potential microcystin (MC) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) producers and eleven clusters clearly demonstrated five cyanobacterial orders with more than 90% similarity irrespective to their toxicity which showed the suitability of 16S rRNA gene for taxonomic differentiation. Sixteen isolates had the potential to produce MC and two isolates to produce CYN. Findings of the study confirm the rich cyanobacterial diversity and the divergence among the potential cyanotoxin producers in the dry zone water bodies of Sri Lanka.

  14. Cryptic diversity and deep divergence in an upper Amazonian leaflitter frog, Eleutherodactylus ockendeni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila José A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The forests of the upper Amazon basin harbour some of the world's highest anuran species richness, but to date we have only the sparsest understanding of the distribution of genetic diversity within and among species in this region. To quantify region-wide genealogical patterns and to test for the presence of deep intraspecific divergences that have been documented in some other neotropical anurans, we developed a molecular phylogeny of the wide-spread terrestrial leaflitter frog Eleutherodactylus ockendeni (Leptodactylidae from 13 localities throughout its range in Ecuador using data from two mitochondrial genes (16S and cyt b; 1246 base pairs. We examined the relation between divergence of mtDNA and the nuclear genome, as sampled by five species-specific microsatellite loci, to evaluate indirectly whether lineages are reproductively isolated where they co-occur. Our extensive phylogeographic survey thus assesses the spatial distribution of E. ockendeni genetic diversity across eastern Ecuador. Results We identified three distinct and well-supported clades within the Ecuadorean range of E. ockendeni: an uplands clade spanning north to south, a northeastern and central lowlands clade, and a central and southeastern clade, which is basal. Clades are separated by 12% to 15% net corrected p-distance for cytochrome b, with comparatively low sequence divergence within clades. Clades marginally overlap in some geographic areas (e.g., Napo River basin but are reproductively isolated, evidenced by diagnostic differences in microsatellite PCR amplification profiles or DNA repeat number and coalescent analyses (in MDIV best modelled without migration. Using Bayesian (BEAST and net phylogenetic estimates, the Southeastern Clade diverged from the Upland/Lowland clades in the mid-Miocene or late Oligocene. Lowland and Upland clades speciated more recently, in the early or late Miocene. Conclusion Our findings uncover previously

  15. Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin P; Allen, Julie M; Olds, Brett P; Mugisha, Lawrence; Reed, David L; Paige, Ken N; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2014-02-22

    The rate of DNA mutation and divergence is highly variable across the tree of life. However, the reasons underlying this variation are not well understood. Comparing the rates of genetic changes between hosts and parasite lineages that diverged at the same time is one way to begin to understand differences in genetic mutation and substitution rates. Such studies have indicated that the rate of genetic divergence in parasites is often faster than that of their hosts when comparing single genes. However, the variation in this relative rate of molecular evolution across different genes in the genome is unknown. We compared the rate of DNA sequence divergence between humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasitic lice for 1534 protein-coding genes across their genomes. The rate of DNA substitution in these orthologous genes was on average 14 times faster for lice than for humans and chimpanzees. In addition, these rates were positively correlated across genes. Because this correlation only occurred for substitutions that changed the amino acid, this pattern is probably produced by similar functional constraints across the same genes in humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasites.

  16. Micropolar Fluids Using B-spline Divergence Conforming Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel; Garcia, Daniel; Dalcin, Lisandro; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    The divergence free formulation was used to guarantee an accurate solution of the flow. This formulation was implemented using the framework PetIGA as a basis, using its parallel stuctures to achieve high scalability. The results of the square heat driven cavity test case are in good agreement with those reported earlier.

  17. Divergent apparent temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Song; Shuli Niu; Ruise Luo; Yiqi Luo; Jiquan Chen; Guirui Yu; Janusz Olejnik; Georg Wohlfahrt; Gerard Kiely; Ako Noormets; Leonardo Montagnani; Alessandro Cescatti; Vincenzo Magliulo; Beverly Elizabeth Law; Magnus Lund; Andrej Varlagin; Antonio Raschi; Matthias Peichl; Mats B. Nilsson; Lutz Merbold

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed convergent temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Re) within aquatic ecosystems and between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We do not know yet whether various terrestrial ecosystems have consistent or divergent temperature sensitivity. Here, we synthesized 163 eddy covariance flux sites across the world and...

  18. Gauge-invariance and infrared divergences in the luminosity distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biern, Sang Gyu; Yoo, Jaiyul, E-mail: sgbiern@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of the luminosity distance have played a key role in discovering the late-time cosmic acceleration. However, when accounting for inhomogeneities in the Universe, its interpretation has been plagued with infrared divergences in its theoretical predictions, which are in some cases used to explain the cosmic acceleration without dark energy. The infrared divergences in most calculations are artificially removed by imposing an infrared cut-off scale. We show that a gauge-invariant calculation of the luminosity distance is devoid of such divergences and consistent with the equivalence principle, eliminating the need to impose a cut-off scale. We present proper numerical calculations of the luminosity distance using the gauge-invariant expression and demonstrate that the numerical results with an ad hoc cut-off scale in previous calculations have negligible systematic errors as long as the cut-off scale is larger than the horizon scale. We discuss the origin of infrared divergences and their cancellation in the luminosity distance.

  19. Mass generation and the problem of seagull divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, C. T.; Aguilar, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The gluon mass generation is a purely non-perturbative effect, and the natural framework to study it in the continuum are the Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDEs) of the theory. At the level of the SDEs the generation of such a mass is associated with the existence of infrared finite solutions for the gluon propagator. From the theoretical point of view, the dynamical gluon mass generation has been traditionally plagued with seagull divergences. In this work, we will review how such divergences can be eliminated completely by virtue of a characteristic identity, valid in dimensional regularization. As a pedagogical example, we will first discuss in the context of scalar QED how it is possible to eliminate all seagull divergences, by triggering the aforementioned special identity, which enforces the masslessness of the photon. Then, we will discuss what happens in QCD and present an Ansatz for the three gluon vertex, which completely eliminates all seagull divergences and at same time allows for the possibility of a dynamical gluon mass generation. (paper)

  20. Sand-mediated divergence between shallow reef communities on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand-mediated divergence between shallow reef communities on horizontal and vertical substrata in the western Indian Ocean. SN Porter, GM Branch, KJ Sink. Abstract. Distinctions are rarely made between vertical and horizontal surfaces when assessing reef community composition, yet physical differences are expected ...

  1. Speciation in rapidly diverging systems: lessons from Lake Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, P D; Kocher, T D

    2001-05-01

    Rapid evolutionary radiations provide insight into the fundamental processes involved in species formation. Here we examine the diversification of one such group, the cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi, which have radiated from a single ancestor into more than 400 species over the past 700 000 years. The phylogenetic history of this group suggests: (i) that their divergence has proceeded in three major bursts of cladogenesis; and (ii) that different selective forces have dominated each cladogenic event. The first episode resulted in the divergence of two major lineages, the sand- and rock-dwellers, each adapted to a major benthic macrohabitat. Among the rock-dwellers, competition for trophic resources then drove a second burst of cladogenesis, which resulted in the differentiation of trophic morphology. The third episode of cladogenesis is associated with differentiation of male nuptial colouration, most likely in response to divergent sexual selection. We discuss models of speciation in relation to this observed pattern. We advocate a model, divergence with gene flow, which reconciles the disparate selective forces responsible for the diversification of this group and suggest that the nonadaptive nature of the tertiary episode has significantly contributed to the extraordinary species richness of this group.

  2. Determining divergence times with a protein clock: update and reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, D. F.; Cho, G.; Doolittle, R. F.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    A recent study of the divergence times of the major groups of organisms as gauged by amino acid sequence comparison has been expanded and the data have been reanalyzed with a distance measure that corrects for both constraints on amino acid interchange and variation in substitution rate at different sites. Beyond that, the availability of complete genome sequences for several eubacteria and an archaebacterium has had a great impact on the interpretation of certain aspects of the data. Thus, the majority of the archaebacterial sequences are not consistent with currently accepted views of the Tree of Life which cluster the archaebacteria with eukaryotes. Instead, they are either outliers or mixed in with eubacterial orthologs. The simplest resolution of the problem is to postulate that many of these sequences were carried into eukaryotes by early eubacterial endosymbionts about 2 billion years ago, only very shortly after or even coincident with the divergence of eukaryotes and archaebacteria. The strong resemblances of these same enzymes among the major eubacterial groups suggest that the cyanobacteria and Gram-positive and Gram-negative eubacteria also diverged at about this same time, whereas the much greater differences between archaebacterial and eubacterial sequences indicate these two groups may have diverged between 3 and 4 billion years ago.

  3. Divergent Explanatory Production (DEP): The Relationship between Resilience and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Óscar Sánchez; Méndez, Francisco Xavier; Garber, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to describe and analyze a new test and construct, Divergent Explanatory Production (DEP), defined as the ability to observe adverse situations from various points of view. At the theoretical level, it is a bridge between the reformulated model of learned helplessness (as a resilience model), and creative…

  4. Gauge-invariance and infrared divergences in the luminosity distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biern, Sang Gyu; Yoo, Jaiyul

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the luminosity distance have played a key role in discovering the late-time cosmic acceleration. However, when accounting for inhomogeneities in the Universe, its interpretation has been plagued with infrared divergences in its theoretical predictions, which are in some cases used to explain the cosmic acceleration without dark energy. The infrared divergences in most calculations are artificially removed by imposing an infrared cut-off scale. We show that a gauge-invariant calculation of the luminosity distance is devoid of such divergences and consistent with the equivalence principle, eliminating the need to impose a cut-off scale. We present proper numerical calculations of the luminosity distance using the gauge-invariant expression and demonstrate that the numerical results with an ad hoc cut-off scale in previous calculations have negligible systematic errors as long as the cut-off scale is larger than the horizon scale. We discuss the origin of infrared divergences and their cancellation in the luminosity distance.

  5. The equational theory of prebisimilarity over basic CCS with divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aceto, L.; Capobianco, S.; Ingólfsdóttir, A.; Luttik, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the equational theory of prebisimilarity, a bisimulation-based preorder introduced by Hennessy and Milner in the early 1980s, over basic CCS with the divergent process O. It is well known that prebisimilarity affords a finite ground-complete axiomatization over this language; this

  6. Stimulating Divergent Thinking in Junior High Career Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, Charlotte; Champoux, Ellen M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a middle school career-oriented teaching unit with emphasis on teaching for divergent thinking. The unit provides hands-on opportunities for eighth-grade students to explore careers using the knowledge and skills developed in their home economics class. The careers are restaurant management, hospitality service, and interior design. (CT)

  7. Divergence time estimates of mammals from molecular clocks and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-10-30

    Oct 30, 2009 ... In the last decade and a half, mammalian phylogeny and lineage divergence .... not the sudden availability of ecological niches following the KTB mass .... fish fauna, ostracods, and palynofossils (Singh et al. 2006;. Prasad et al. ... tendons and hence the functional adaptations of the animal during its life and ...

  8. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) enhances divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Ritter, Simone M; Steenbergen, Laura

    2018-03-01

    Creativity is one of the most important cognitive skills in our complex and fast-changing world. Previous correlative evidence showed that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in divergent but not convergent thinking. In the current study, a placebo/sham-controlled, randomized between-group design was used to test a causal relation between vagus nerve and creativity. We employed transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique to stimulate afferent fibers of the vagus nerve and speculated to increase GABA levels, in 80 healthy young volunteers. Creative performance was assessed in terms of divergent thinking (Alternate Uses Task) and convergent thinking tasks (Remote Associates Test, Creative Problem Solving Task, Idea Selection Task). Results demonstrate active tVNS, compared to sham stimulation, enhanced divergent thinking. Bayesian analysis reported the data to be inconclusive regarding a possible effect of tVNS on convergent thinking. Therefore, our findings corroborate the idea that the vagus nerve is causally involved in creative performance. Even thought we did not directly measure GABA levels, our results suggest that GABA (likely to be increased in active tVNS condition) supports the ability to select among competing options in high selection demand (divergent thinking) but not in low selection demand (convergent thinking). Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. The loop expansion as a divergent-power-series expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, N.

    1981-01-01

    The loop expansion should be divergent, possibly an asymptotic one, in the Euclidean path integral formulation. This consideration is important in applications of the symmetric and mass-independent renormalization. The [1,1] Pade approximant is calculated in a PHI 4 model. Its classical vacua may be not truely stable for nonzero coupling constant. (author)

  10. Ground state energies from converging and diverging power series expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, C.; Norris, S.; Pelphrey, R.; Stefanovich, E.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that bound states of quantum mechanical systems are intrinsically non-perturbative in nature and therefore any power series expansion methods should be inapplicable to predict the energies for attractive potentials. However, if the spatial domain of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian for attractive one-dimensional potentials is confined to a finite length L, the usual Rayleigh–Schrödinger perturbation theory can converge rapidly and is perfectly accurate in the weak-binding region where the ground state’s spatial extension is comparable to L. Once the binding strength is so strong that the ground state’s extension is less than L, the power expansion becomes divergent, consistent with the expectation that bound states are non-perturbative. However, we propose a new truncated Borel-like summation technique that can recover the bound state energy from the diverging sum. We also show that perturbation theory becomes divergent in the vicinity of an avoided-level crossing. Here the same numerical summation technique can be applied to reproduce the energies from the diverging perturbative sums.

  11. An asymptotic formula of the divergent bilateral basic hypergeometric series

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    We show an asymptotic formula of the divergent bilateral basic hypergeometric series ${}_1\\psi_0 (a;-;q,\\cdot)$ with using the $q$-Borel-Laplace method. We also give the limit $q\\to 1-0$ of our asymptotic formula.

  12. Ground state energies from converging and diverging power series expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, C.; Norris, S.; Pelphrey, R.; Stefanovich, E., E-mail: eugene-stefanovich@usa.net; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2016-10-15

    It is often assumed that bound states of quantum mechanical systems are intrinsically non-perturbative in nature and therefore any power series expansion methods should be inapplicable to predict the energies for attractive potentials. However, if the spatial domain of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian for attractive one-dimensional potentials is confined to a finite length L, the usual Rayleigh–Schrödinger perturbation theory can converge rapidly and is perfectly accurate in the weak-binding region where the ground state’s spatial extension is comparable to L. Once the binding strength is so strong that the ground state’s extension is less than L, the power expansion becomes divergent, consistent with the expectation that bound states are non-perturbative. However, we propose a new truncated Borel-like summation technique that can recover the bound state energy from the diverging sum. We also show that perturbation theory becomes divergent in the vicinity of an avoided-level crossing. Here the same numerical summation technique can be applied to reproduce the energies from the diverging perturbative sums.

  13. Divergent synthesis and optoelectronic properties of oligodiacetylene building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilzak, G.S.; Lagen, van B.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2008-01-01

    A new and divergent synthetic route to oligodiacetylene (ODA) building blocks has been developed via Sonogashira reactions under a reductive atmosphere. These central building blocks provide a new way for rapid preparation of long ODAs. In addition, we report on their optoelectronic properties which

  14. Navier–Stokes flow in converging–diverging distensible tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Sochi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We use a method based on the lubrication approximation in conjunction with a residual-based mass-continuity iterative solution scheme to compute the flow rate and pressure field in distensible converging–diverging tubes for Navier–Stokes fluids. We employ an analytical formula derived from a one-dimensional version of the Navier–Stokes equations to describe the underlying flow model that provides the residual function. This formula correlates the flow rate to the boundary pressures in straight cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius. We validate our findings by the convergence toward a final solution with fine discretization as well as by comparison to the Poiseuille-type flow in its convergence toward analytic solutions found earlier in rigid converging–diverging tubes. We also tested the method on limiting special cases of cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius where the numerical solutions converged to the expected analytical solutions. The distensible model has also been endorsed by its convergence toward the rigid Poiseuille-type model with increasing the tube wall stiffness. Lubrication-based one-dimensional finite element method was also used for verification. In this investigation five converging–diverging geometries are used for demonstration, validation and as prototypes for modeling converging–diverging geometries in general.

  15. Functional Analysis of HIV/AIDS Stigma: Consensus or Divergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Hossain, Syeda Zakia

    2011-01-01

    Functional theory proposes that attitudes may serve a variety of purposes for individuals. This study aimed to determine whether stigmatized attitudes toward HIV/AIDS serve the same function for all (consensus function) or serve different functions for different individuals (divergence function) by assessing various aspects of HIV/AIDS stigma…

  16. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Crispin Y.; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce ...

  17. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A

    2015-12-01

    Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce consistent flowering time responses among species; for example, how often do water restriction and herbivory both delay flowering? We focus on the direction of change in flowering time, which affects the potential for divergence in heterogeneous environments. We also tested whether these stressors influenced time to flowering and nonphenology traits using Mimulus guttatus. The literature review suggests that water restriction has variable effects on flowering time, whereas herbivory delays flowering with exceptional consistency. In the Mimulus experiment, low water and herbivory advanced and delayed flowering, respectively. Overall, our results temper theoretical predictions for evolutionary divergence due to habitat-induced changes in flowering time; in particular, we discuss how accounting for variation in the direction of change in flowering time can either increase or decrease the potential for divergence. In addition, we caution against adaptive interpretations of stress-induced phenology shifts.

  18. Micropolar Fluids Using B-spline Divergence Conforming Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel

    2014-06-06

    We discretized the two-dimensional linear momentum, microrotation, energy and mass conservation equations from micropolar fluids theory, with the finite element method, creating divergence conforming spaces based on B-spline basis functions to obtain pointwise divergence free solutions [8]. Weak boundary conditions were imposed using Nitsche\\'s method for tangential conditions, while normal conditions were imposed strongly. Once the exact mass conservation was provided by the divergence free formulation, we focused on evaluating the differences between micropolar fluids and conventional fluids, to show the advantages of using the micropolar fluid model to capture the features of complex fluids. A square and an arc heat driven cavities were solved as test cases. A variation of the parameters of the model, along with the variation of Rayleigh number were performed for a better understanding of the system. The divergence free formulation was used to guarantee an accurate solution of the flow. This formulation was implemented using the framework PetIGA as a basis, using its parallel stuctures to achieve high scalability. The results of the square heat driven cavity test case are in good agreement with those reported earlier.

  19. The odd couple: Diverging paths in language policy and educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the divergences between what educational policy calls for in South African schools with regard to language and learning and what takes place in schools. It argues that South African constitutional and education policy statements employ an idea of languages as bound entities and systems, and ...

  20. Analysis of growth characteristics in short-term divergently selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weeks of age body weight in divergent lines of Japanese quail. Growth curves for both sexes within each selection group resembled the general sigmoid shape of a typical growth curve. Gompertz model curves and the observed growth curves were ...

  1. Divergence-Free Wavelets on the Hypercube : General Boundary Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, R.

    2016-01-01

    On the n-dimensional hypercube, for given k∈N, wavelet Riesz bases are constructed for the subspace of divergence-free vector fields of the Sobolev space Hk((0,1)n)n with general homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions, including slip or no-slip boundary conditions. Both primal and suitable dual

  2. Factor analysis models via I-divergence optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finesso, L.; Spreij, P.

    2016-01-01

    Given a positive definite covariance matrix Σˆ of dimension n, we approximate it with a covariance of the form HH⊤+D, where H has a prescribed number k0 is diagonal. The quality of the approximation is gauged by the I-divergence between the zero mean normal laws with covariances

  3. Therapeutic enhancement of newly derived bacteriocins against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Eglal I; Mossallam, Shereen F; Mahrous, Hoda

    2014-11-01

    Trials for identifying efficient anti-giardial agents are still ongoing. Nowadays, bacteriocins have attracted the attention as potential antimicrobial compounds. For the first time, the current study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriocins derived from newly isolated Egyptian strains of probiotics Lactobacilli; L. acidophilus (P106) and L. plantarum (P164) against Giardia lamblia. Bacteriocins' efficacy was evaluated both in vitro; by growth inhibition and adherence assays, and in vivo; through estimation of parasite density, intestinal histopathological examination and ultrastructural analysis of Giardia trophozoites. In vivo bacteriocins' clinical safety was assessed. In vitro results proved that 50 µg of L. acidophilus bacteriocin induced reduction of the mean Giardia lamblia trophozoites by 58.3 ± 4.04%, while at lower concentrations of 10 and 20 µg of both L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, non significant reduction of the mean parasite density was achieved. In vitro trophozoites adherence was susceptible to the tested bacteriocins at all studied concentrations with variable degrees, while the highest adherence reduction was demonstrated using 50 µg of L acidophilus bacteriocin. In vivo, oral inoculation of 50 µg/mouse L. acidophilus bacteriocin for 5 successive days resulted in a noteworthy decline of the intestinal parasite density, along with amelioration of intestinal pathology of infected mice. Ultrastructural examination proved thatfive doses of L. acidophilus bacteriocin showed marked changes in cellular architecture of the trophozoites with evident disorganization of the cell membrane, adhesive disc and cytoplasmic components. This is the first reported study of the safe anti-giardial efficacy of L. acidophilus (P106) derived bacteriocin, hence highlighting its great promise as a potential therapeutic safe alternative to existing commercial drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Patient/Family Education for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landier, Wendy; Ahern, JoAnn; Barakat, Lamia P; Bhatia, Smita; Bingen, Kristin M; Bondurant, Patricia G; Cohn, Susan L; Dobrozsi, Sarah K; Haugen, Maureen; Herring, Ruth Anne; Hooke, Mary C; Martin, Melissa; Murphy, Kathryn; Newman, Amy R; Rodgers, Cheryl C; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Sullivan, Jeneane; Weiss, Marianne; Withycombe, Janice; Yasui, Lise; Hockenberry, Marilyn

    There is a paucity of data to support evidence-based practices in the provision of patient/family education in the context of a new childhood cancer diagnosis. Since the majority of children with cancer are treated on pediatric oncology clinical trials, lack of effective patient/family education has the potential to negatively affect both patient and clinical trial outcomes. The Children's Oncology Group Nursing Discipline convened an interprofessional expert panel from within and beyond pediatric oncology to review available and emerging evidence and develop expert consensus recommendations regarding harmonization of patient/family education practices for newly diagnosed pediatric oncology patients across institutions. Five broad principles, with associated recommendations, were identified by the panel, including recognition that (1) in pediatric oncology, patient/family education is family-centered; (2) a diagnosis of childhood cancer is overwhelming and the family needs time to process the diagnosis and develop a plan for managing ongoing life demands before they can successfully learn to care for the child; (3) patient/family education should be an interprofessional endeavor with 3 key areas of focus: (a) diagnosis/treatment, (b) psychosocial coping, and (c) care of the child; (4) patient/family education should occur across the continuum of care; and (5) a supportive environment is necessary to optimize learning. Dissemination and implementation of these recommendations will set the stage for future studies that aim to develop evidence to inform best practices, and ultimately to establish the standard of care for effective patient/family education in pediatric oncology.

  5. Quantitative protein localization signatures reveal an association between spatial and functional divergences of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Lit-Hsin; Laksameethanasan, Danai; Tung, Yi-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Protein subcellular localization is a major determinant of protein function. However, this important protein feature is often described in terms of discrete and qualitative categories of subcellular compartments, and therefore it has limited applications in quantitative protein function analyses. Here, we present Protein Localization Analysis and Search Tools (PLAST), an automated analysis framework for constructing and comparing quantitative signatures of protein subcellular localization patterns based on microscopy images. PLAST produces human-interpretable protein localization maps that quantitatively describe the similarities in the localization patterns of proteins and major subcellular compartments, without requiring manual assignment or supervised learning of these compartments. Using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we show that PLAST is more accurate than existing, qualitative protein localization annotations in identifying known co-localized proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PLAST can reveal protein localization-function relationships that are not obvious from these annotations. First, we identified proteins that have similar localization patterns and participate in closely-related biological processes, but do not necessarily form stable complexes with each other or localize at the same organelles. Second, we found an association between spatial and functional divergences of proteins during evolution. Surprisingly, as proteins with common ancestors evolve, they tend to develop more diverged subcellular localization patterns, but still occupy similar numbers of compartments. This suggests that divergence of protein localization might be more frequently due to the development of more specific localization patterns over ancestral compartments than the occupation of new compartments. PLAST enables systematic and quantitative analyses of protein localization-function relationships, and will be useful to elucidate protein

  6. Transcriptome analysis and comparison reveal divergence between two invasive whitefly cryptic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Jun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive species are valuable model systems for examining the evolutionary processes and molecular mechanisms associated with their specific characteristics by comparison with closely related species. Over the past 20 years, two species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci species complex, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1 and Mediterranean (MED, have both spread from their origin Middle East/Mediterranean to many countries despite their apparent differences in many life history parameters. Previously, we have sequenced the transcriptome of MED. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of MEAM1 and took a comparative genomic approach to investigate the transcriptome evolution and the genetic factors underlying the differences between MEAM1 and MED. Results Using Illumina sequencing technology, we generated 17 million sequencing reads for MEAM1. These reads were assembled into 57,741 unique sequences and 15,922 sequences were annotated with an E-value above 10-5. Compared with the MED transcriptome, we identified 3,585 pairs of high quality orthologous genes and inferred their sequence divergences. The average differences in coding, 5' untranslated and 3' untranslated region were 0.83%, 1.66% and 1.43%, respectively. The level of sequence divergence provides additional support to the proposition that MEAM1 and MED are two species. Based on the ratio of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions, we identified 24 sequences that have evolved in response to positive selection. Many of those genes are predicted to be involved in metabolism and insecticide resistance which might contribute to the divergence of the two whitefly species. Conclusions Our data present a comprehensive sequence comparison between the two invasive whitefly species. This study will provide a road map for future investigations on the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological differences.

  7. Ecological and Genetic Divergences with Gene Flow of Two Sister Species (Leucomeris decora and Nouelia insignis) Driving by Climatic Transition in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yujuan; Yin, Genshen; Pan, Yuezhi; Gong, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Understanding of the processes of divergence and speciation is a major task for biodiversity researches and may offer clearer insight into mechanisms generating biological diversity. Here, we employ an integrative approach to explore genetic and ecological differentiation of Leucomeris decora and Nouelia insignis distributed allopatrically along the two sides of the biogeographic boundary 'Tanaka Line' in Southwest China. We addressed these questions using ten low-copy nuclear genes and nine plastid DNA regions sequenced among individuals sampled from 28 populations across their geographic ranges in China. Phylogenetic, coalescent-based population genetic analyses, approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework and ecological niche models (ENMs) were conducted. We identified a closer phylogenetic relationship in maternal lineage of L. decora with N. insignis than that between L . decora and congeneric Leucomeris spectabilis . A deep divergence between the two species was observed and occurred at the boundary between later Pliocene and early Pleistocene. However, the evidence of significant chloroplast DNA gene flow was also detected between the marginal populations of L. decora and N. insignis . Niche models and statistical analyses showed significant ecological differentiation, and two nuclear loci among the ten nuclear genes may be under divergent selection. These integrative results imply that the role of climatic shift from Pliocene to Pleistocene may be the prominent factor for the divergence of L . decora and N . insignis , and population expansion after divergence may have given rise to chloroplast DNA introgression. The divergence was maintained by differential selection despite in the face of gene flow.

  8. The Revolution Continues: Newly Discovered Systems Expand the CRISPR-Cas Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Karthik; Babu, Kesavan; Sundaresan, Ramya; Rajan, Rakhi; Sashital, Dipali G

    2017-10-05

    CRISPR-Cas systems defend prokaryotes against bacteriophages and mobile genetic elements and serve as the basis for revolutionary tools for genetic engineering. Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems use single Cas endonucleases paired with guide RNAs to cleave complementary nucleic acid targets, enabling programmable sequence-specific targeting with minimal machinery. Recent discoveries of previously unidentified CRISPR-Cas systems have uncovered a deep reservoir of potential biotechnological tools beyond the well-characterized Type II Cas9 systems. Here we review the current mechanistic understanding of newly discovered single-protein Cas endonucleases. Comparison of these Cas effectors reveals substantial mechanistic diversity, underscoring the phylogenetic divergence of related CRISPR-Cas systems. This diversity has enabled further expansion of CRISPR-Cas biotechnological toolkits, with wide-ranging applications from genome editing to diagnostic tools based on various Cas endonuclease activities. These advances highlight the exciting prospects for future tools based on the continually expanding set of CRISPR-Cas systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUNK, W. CHRIS; LOVICH, ROBERT E.; HOHENLOHE, PAUL A.; HOFMAN, COURTNEY A.; MORRISON, SCOTT A.; SILLETT, T. SCOTT; GHALAMBOR, CAMERON K.; MALDONADO, JESUS E.; RICK, TORBEN C.; DAY, MITCH D.; POLATO, NICHOLAS R.; FITZPATRICK, SARAH W.; COONAN, TIMOTHY J.; CROOKS, KEVIN R.; DILLON, ADAM; GARCELON, DAVID K.; KING, JULIE L.; BOSER, CHRISTINA L.; GOULD, NICHOLAS; ANDELT, WILLIAM F.

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of 6 subspecies, each of which occupies a different California Channel Island. Analysis of 5293 SNP loci generated using Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing found support for genetic drift as the dominant evolutionary mechanism driving population divergence among island fox populations. In particular, populations had exceptionally low genetic variation, small Ne (range = 2.1–89.7; median = 19.4), and significant genetic signatures of bottlenecks. Moreover, islands with the lowest genetic variation (and, by inference, the strongest historical genetic drift) were most genetically differentiated from mainland gray foxes, and vice versa, indicating genetic drift drives genome-wide divergence. Nonetheless, outlier tests identified 3.6–6.6% of loci as high FST outliers, suggesting that despite strong genetic drift, divergent selection contributes to population divergence. Patterns of similarity among populations based on high FST outliers mirrored patterns based on morphology, providing additional evidence that outliers reflect adaptive divergence. Extremely low genetic variation and small Ne in some island fox populations, particularly on San Nicolas Island, suggest that they may be vulnerable to fixation of deleterious alleles, decreased fitness, and reduced adaptive potential. PMID:26992010

  10. Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W Chris; Lovich, Robert E; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Hofman, Courtney A; Morrison, Scott A; Sillett, T Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Rick, Torben C; Day, Mitch D; Polato, Nicholas R; Fitzpatrick, Sarah W; Coonan, Timothy J; Crooks, Kevin R; Dillon, Adam; Garcelon, David K; King, Julie L; Boser, Christina L; Gould, Nicholas; Andelt, William F

    2016-05-01

    The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of six subspecies, each of which occupies a different California Channel Island. Analysis of 5293 SNP loci generated using Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing found support for genetic drift as the dominant evolutionary mechanism driving population divergence among island fox populations. In particular, populations had exceptionally low genetic variation, small Ne (range = 2.1-89.7; median = 19.4), and significant genetic signatures of bottlenecks. Moreover, islands with the lowest genetic variation (and, by inference, the strongest historical genetic drift) were most genetically differentiated from mainland grey foxes, and vice versa, indicating genetic drift drives genome-wide divergence. Nonetheless, outlier tests identified 3.6-6.6% of loci as high FST outliers, suggesting that despite strong genetic drift, divergent selection contributes to population divergence. Patterns of similarity among populations based on high FST outliers mirrored patterns based on morphology, providing additional evidence that outliers reflect adaptive divergence. Extremely low genetic variation and small Ne in some island fox populations, particularly on San Nicolas Island, suggest that they may be vulnerable to fixation of deleterious alleles, decreased fitness and reduced adaptive potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Remunicipalisation and Foundation of Municipal Utilities in the German Energy Sector: Details about Newly Established Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Wagner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the majority of network concession contracts in Germany were set to expire some time between 2005 and 2016, a window of opportunity arose in which to rebuild and remunicipalise the local energy supply. As a result, 72 new local power companies were established in Germany within the space of just seven years (between early 2005 and late 2012. This paper provides an introduction to the topic of establishing municipal utilities in Germany. The findings were identified on the basis of the comprehensive screening of all newly established municipal utilities in Germany. Our analysis provides information about regional concentration, the size of municipalities, the legal forms of the newly founded municipal public utilities and the role of strategic partnerships. The key findings are that remunicipalisation is not a question of size and that knowledge gaps may be closed by entering into close strategic partnerships.

  12. Baseline staging tests based on molecular subtype is necessary for newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuesong; Sun, Lichun; Cong, Yingying; Zhang, Tingting; Lin, Qiushi; Meng, Qingwei; Pang, Hui; Zhao, Yanbin; Li, Yu; Cai, Li; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2014-03-17

    Bone scanning (BS), liver ultrasonography (LUS), and chest radiography (CXR) are commonly recommended for baseline staging in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether these tests are indicated for specific patient subpopulation based on clinical staging and molecular subtype. A retrospective study on 5406 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer was conducted to identify differences in occurrence of metastasis based on clinical staging and molecular subtypes. All patients had been evaluated by BS, LUS and CXR at diagnosis. Complete information on clinical staging was available in 5184 patients. For stage I, II, and III, bone metastasis rate was 0%, 0.6% and 2.7%, respectively (P diagnosed breast cancer.

  13. Morphological divergence and flow-induced phenotypic plasticity in a native fish from anthropogenically altered stream habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Nathan R; Stewart, Laura K; Schaefer, Jacob F

    2013-11-01

    Understanding population-level responses to human-induced changes to habitats can elucidate the evolutionary consequences of rapid habitat alteration. Reservoirs constructed on streams expose stream fishes to novel selective pressures in these habitats. Assessing the drivers of trait divergence facilitated by these habitats will help identify evolutionary and ecological consequences of reservoir habitats. We tested for morphological divergence in a stream fish that occupies both stream and reservoir habitats. To assess contributions of genetic-level differences and phenotypic plasticity induced by flow variation, we spawned and reared individuals from both habitats types in flow and no flow conditions. Body shape significantly and consistently diverged in reservoir habitats compared with streams; individuals from reservoirs were shallower bodied with smaller heads compared with individuals from streams. Significant population-level differences in morphology persisted in offspring but morphological variation compared with field-collected individuals was limited to the head region. Populations demonstrated dissimilar flow-induced phenotypic plasticity when reared under flow, but phenotypic plasticity in response to flow variation was an unlikely explanation for observed phenotypic divergence in the field. Our results, together with previous investigations, suggest the environmental conditions currently thought to drive morphological change in reservoirs (i.e., predation and flow regimes) may not be the sole drivers of phenotypic change.

  14. Divergência genética em linhagens de melancia Genetic divergence in watermelon lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de França Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A divergência genética entre 31 genótipos de melancia foi avaliada por meio da análise de variáveis canônicas e de técnicas de agrupamento (Tocher e método hierárquico de Ward baseadas na distância generalizada de Mahalanobis (D²ii'. Trinta linhagens, obtidas a partir de acessos coletados no Nordeste brasileiro e a cultivar 'Crimson Sweet' foram avaliadas quanto ao número de dias para o aparecimento da primeira flor masculina e da primeira flor feminina (NDM e NDF; número do nó da primeira flor masculina e da primeira flor feminina (NGM e NGF; número de frutos por planta (NFP; comprimento de rama principal (CRP; peso médio de fruto (PMF; teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS; diâmetro transversal e longitudinal do fruto (DTF e DLF e espessura média de casca (EMC. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, compostas por parcelas de sete plantas. As características que mais contribuíram para a divergência entre as linhagens foram número de frutos por planta, diâmetro longitudinal, teor de sólidos solúveis e peso médio de fruto. Foram formados três grupos por meio do método de otimização de Tocher, três por meio do método hierárquico de Ward e quatro grupos pela dispersão gráfica baseada nas duas primeiras variáveis canônicas. Neste caso, o grupo I compôs-se de sete linhagens de Pernambuco e uma da Bahia; o grupo II reuniu todas as 21 linhagens do Maranhão; os grupos III e IV foram compostos pela linhagem 97-0247.008 (Pernambuco e pela cultivar Crimson Sweet, respectivamente. As linhagens 87-019.021 e 87-019.022 foram as mais semelhantes, enquanto a linhagem 87-019.023 e 'Crimson Sweet' apresentaram maior dissimilaridade pela distância generalizada Mahalanobis (D²ii'. Os cruzamentos mais promissores serão aqueles realizados entre Crimson Sweet e as linhagens do grupo II. Cruzamentos entre Crimson Sweet e as linhagens do grupo I serão interessantes para a obtenção de

  15. Mechanistically Distinct Pathways of Divergent Regulatory DNA Creation Contribute to Evolution of Human-Specific Genomic Regulatory Networks Driving Phenotypic Divergence of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2016-09-19

    Thousands of candidate human-specific regulatory sequences (HSRS) have been identified, supporting the hypothesis that unique to human phenotypes result from human-specific alterations of genomic regulatory networks. Collectively, a compendium of multiple diverse families of HSRS that are functionally and structurally divergent from Great Apes could be defined as the backbone of human-specific genomic regulatory networks. Here, the conservation patterns analysis of 18,364 candidate HSRS was carried out requiring that 100% of bases must remap during the alignments of human, chimpanzee, and bonobo sequences. A total of 5,535 candidate HSRS were identified that are: (i) highly conserved in Great Apes; (ii) evolved by the exaptation of highly conserved ancestral DNA; (iii) defined by either the acceleration of mutation rates on the human lineage or the functional divergence from non-human primates. The exaptation of highly conserved ancestral DNA pathway seems mechanistically distinct from the evolution of regulatory DNA segments driven by the species-specific expansion of transposable elements. Genome-wide proximity placement analysis of HSRS revealed that a small fraction of topologically associating domains (TADs) contain more than half of HSRS from four distinct families. TADs that are enriched for HSRS and termed rapidly evolving in humans TADs (revTADs) comprise 0.8-10.3% of 3,127 TADs in the hESC genome. RevTADs manifest distinct correlation patterns between placements of human accelerated regions, human-specific transcription factor-binding sites, and recombination rates. There is a significant enrichment within revTAD boundaries of hESC-enhancers, primate-specific CTCF-binding sites, human-specific RNAPII-binding sites, hCONDELs, and H3K4me3 peaks with human-specific enrichment at TSS in prefrontal cortex neurons (P sapiens is driven by the evolution of human-specific genomic regulatory networks via at least two mechanistically distinct pathways of creation of

  16. People newly in love are more responsive to positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cassandra L; Beninger, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    Passionate love is associated with increased activity in dopamine-rich regions of the brain. Increased dopamine in these regions is associated with a greater tendency to learn from reward in trial-and-error learning tasks. This study examined the prediction that individuals who were newly in love would be better at responding to reward (positive feedback). In test trials, people who were newly in love selected positive outcomes significantly more often than their single (not in love) counterparts but were no better at the task overall. This suggests that people who are newly in love show a bias toward responding to positive feedback, which may reflect a general bias towards reward-seeking.

  17. The role of immunohistochemistry in medullomyoblastoma – a case series highlighting divergent differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra Rajesh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To analyse the histo-morphology of cases of medullomyoblastoma and identifying its divergent differentiation. Methods A retrospective review of all cases reported as medulloblastoma between the period of Jan 2000 to Dec 2006 was carried out on Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E stained slides. The cases were screened on light microscopy for primitive neuroectodermal component of a medulloblastoma accompanied by areas of "myoid" differentiation, identified on the basis of presence of strap cells (indicating a clear skeletal muscle differentiation and/or large anaplastic cells with vescicular nuclei and moderate to abundant amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm. All these cases were subjected to a panel of immunohistochemical stains, including Desmin, GFAP, NFP, HMB45, SMA, S100, CK and EMA. Ultrastructral analysis was done on tissue obtained from paraffin blocks in 2 cases. Results Male predominance (M:F = 5:1 was noted with an incidence of five percent of all cases of medulloblastoma (6 out of 120 cases over a period of 6 years. Primitive neuroectodermal areas were accompanied with areas of "myoid" differentiation, 5 cases showing strap cells. Two cases with epithelial and cartilaginous differentiation were seen. Three cases showed focal melanocytic differentiation, identified only on HMB45 immunostaining. Four cases showed glial differentiation. Neuronal differentiation again was very focally seen in two cases, of which one was identified only by NFP immunostain. Seventh case is included in the study, however it is not considered to calculate incidence as it occurred beyond the period of 6 years of records search. Conclusion Medullomyoblastoma is a rare childhood tumor of cerebellum. Majority of cases reveal divergent differentiation, which are identified with the help of panel of immunostains indicating multi-potential nature of primitive neuroectodermal cells.

  18. The role of immunohistochemistry in medullomyoblastoma--a case series highlighting divergent differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Man Updesh S; Vankalakunti, Mahesha; Rangan, Aruna; Radotra, Bishan D; Chhabra, Rajesh; Vasishta, Rakesh K

    2008-04-25

    To analyse the histo-morphology of cases of medullomyoblastoma and identifying its divergent differentiation. A retrospective review of all cases reported as medulloblastoma between the period of Jan 2000 to Dec 2006 was carried out on Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stained slides. The cases were screened on light microscopy for primitive neuroectodermal component of a medulloblastoma accompanied by areas of "myoid" differentiation, identified on the basis of presence of strap cells (indicating a clear skeletal muscle differentiation) and/or large anaplastic cells with vescicular nuclei and moderate to abundant amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm. All these cases were subjected to a panel of immunohistochemical stains, including Desmin, GFAP, NFP, HMB45, SMA, S100, CK and EMA. Ultrastructural analysis was done on tissue obtained from paraffin blocks in 2 cases. Male predominance (M:F = 5:1) was noted with an incidence of five percent of all cases of medulloblastoma (6 out of 120 cases) over a period of 6 years. Primitive neuroectodermal areas were accompanied with areas of "myoid" differentiation, 5 cases showing strap cells. Two cases with epithelial and cartilaginous differentiation were seen. Three cases showed focal melanocytic differentiation, identified only on HMB45 immunostaining. Four cases showed glial differentiation. Neuronal differentiation again was very focally seen in two cases, of which one was identified only by NFP immunostain. Seventh case is included in the study, however it is not considered to calculate incidence as it occurred beyond the period of 6 years of records search. Medullomyoblastoma is a rare childhood tumor of cerebellum. Majority of cases reveal divergent differentiation, which are identified with the help of panel of immunostains indicating multi-potential nature of primitive neuroectodermal cells.

  19. Nilotinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saglio, Giuseppe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Issaragrisil, Surapol

    2010-01-01

    Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase.......Nilotinib has been shown to be a more potent inhibitor of BCR-ABL than imatinib. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nilotinib, as compared with imatinib, in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase....

  20. [Principles of nutrition in patients with newly appointed stoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachocka, Lucyna Małgorzata; Urbanik, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of intestinal stoma is often a difficult experience for patients and results in numerous problems in the physical, psychological and social aspects. Therefore, post-operative care of the patient with the newly appointed stoma should be taken by therapeutic team consisting of doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, dieticians, psychologists and social workers. Appropriate nutritional education of patients aims to improve their quality of life and to prevent from unpleasant ailments formed after the operation. The specific type of stoma may decide about certain dietary recommendations. The presented work provides a practical dietary recommendations for patients with newly appointed stoma.

  1. Structure of rapidity divergences in multi-parton scattering soft factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    We discuss the structure of rapidity divergences that are presented in the soft factors of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization theorems. To provide the discussion on the most general level we consider soft factors for multi-parton scattering. We show that the rapidity divergences are result of the gluon exchanges with the distant transverse plane, and are structurally equivalent to the ultraviolet divergences. It allows to formulate and to prove the renormalization theorem for rapidity divergences. The proof is made with the help the conformal transformation which maps rapidity divergences to ultraviolet divergences. The theorem is the systematic form of the factorization of rapidity divergences, which is required for the definition of TMD parton distributions. In particular, the definition of multi parton distributions is presented. The equivalence of ultraviolet and rapidity divergences leads to the exact relation between soft and rapidity anomalous dimensions. Using this relation we derive the rapidity anomalous dimension at the three-loop order.

  2. Divergence of perturbation theory in large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Enrico; van der Woude, Drian

    2018-05-01

    We make progress towards an analytical understanding of the regime of validity of perturbation theory for large scale structures and the nature of some non-perturbative corrections. We restrict ourselves to 1D gravitational collapse, for which exact solutions before shell crossing are known. We review the convergence of perturbation theory for the power spectrum, recently proven by McQuinn and White [1], and extend it to non-Gaussian initial conditions and the bispectrum. In contrast, we prove that perturbation theory diverges for the real space two-point correlation function and for the probability density function (PDF) of the density averaged in cells and all the cumulants derived from it. We attribute these divergences to the statistical averaging intrinsic to cosmological observables, which, even on very large and "perturbative" scales, gives non-vanishing weight to all extreme fluctuations. Finally, we discuss some general properties of non-perturbative effects in real space and Fourier space.

  3. Little evidence for dynamic divergences in ultraviscous molecular liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Nielsen, Albena; Olsen, Niels Boye

    2008-01-01

    The physics of the ultraviscous liquid phase preceding glass formation continues to pose major problems that remain unsolved. It is actively debated, for instance, whether the marked increase of the relaxation time reflects an underlying phase transition to a state of infinite relaxation time....... To elucidate the empirical evidence for this intriguing scenario, some of the most accurate relaxationtime data available for any class of ultraviscous liquids-those obtained by dielectric relaxation experiments on organic liquids just above the glass transition-were compiled. Analysis of data for 42 liquids...... shows that there is no compelling evidence for the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) prediction that the relaxation time diverges at a finite temperature.We conclude that theories with a dynamic divergence of the VFT formlack a direct experimental basis....

  4. Convergence and divergence, a concept for explaining drug actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takehiko; Kamisaki, Yoshinori; Timmerman, Henk

    2004-10-01

    For the teaching and/or learning about drug actions and for the discovery and development of new drugs, it is important to understand how drugs act on living bodies. So far, there has been no clear description on the general principle of drug action in pharmacology textbooks. We propose two principles to depict the action mechanism of drugs. The first is that most, if not all, drugs act on proteins at the molecular level, that is, enzymes, receptors, ion channels, and transporters. The second is that a drug may cause divergent or convergent responses, resulting in changes of a physiological or pathological function of the human body. The concept of divergence and convergence can be used to explain the complex individuality of drug actions.

  5. Divergent biparietal diameter growth rates in twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, M C

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-eight twin pregnancies were monitored by serial ultrasonic cephalometry from 30 or 31 weeks' gestation. The rates of growth of the individual twins as determined by biparietal diameters were similar in 11 cases (39%) and divergent in 17 (61%). When the rates of growth were divergent, the lesser rate was always below the mean for singleton pregnancies, and the incidence of small-for-gestational-age babies was 18 of 34 (53%). It was apparent that the greater the difference in biparietal diameters within the 2 weeks preceding delivery, the higher the risk of a small-for-gestation-age baby being delivered. No comment could be made on the growth rate prior to 28 weeks except that at diagnosis there was little or no difference in biparietal diameters.

  6. Divergent unprotected peptide macrocyclisation by palladium-mediated cysteine arylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Anthony J; Zhang, Chi; Vinogradova, Ekaterina V; Buchwald, Nathan H; Reilly, John; Pentelute, Bradley L; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2017-06-01

    Macrocyclic peptides are important therapeutic candidates due to their improved physicochemical properties in comparison to their linear counterparts. Here we detail a method for a divergent macrocyclisation of unprotected peptides by crosslinking two cysteine residues with bis-palladium organometallic reagents. These synthetic intermediates are prepared in a single step from commercially available aryl bis-halides. Two bioactive linear peptides with cysteine residues at i , i + 4 and i , i + 7 positions, respectively, were cyclised to introduce a diverse array of aryl and bi-aryl linkers. These two series of macrocyclic peptides displayed similar linker-dependent lipophilicity, phospholipid affinity, and unique volume of distributions. Additionally, one of the bioactive peptides showed target binding affinity that was predominantly affected by the length of the linker. Collectively, this divergent strategy allowed rapid and convenient access to various aryl linkers, enabling the systematic evaluation of the effect of appending unit on the medicinal properties of macrocyclic peptides.

  7. Summation of Divergent Series and Zeldovich's Regularization Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mur, V.D.; Pozdnyakov, S.G.; Popruzhenko, S.V.; Popov, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    A method for summing divergent series, including perturbation-theory series, is considered. This method is an analog of Zeldovich's regularization method in the theory of quasistationary states. It is shown that the method in question is more powerful than the well-known Abel and Borel methods, but that it is compatible with them (that is, it leads to the same value for the sum of a series). The constraints on the parameter domain that arise upon the removal of the regularization of divergent integrals by this method are discussed. The dynamical Stark shifts and widths of loosely bound s states in the field of a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave are calculated at various values of the Keldysh adiabaticity parameter and the multiquantum parameter

  8. Divergence-free MHD Simulations with the HERACLES Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vides J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD equations have played a significant role in plasma research over the years. The need of obtaining physical and stable solutions to these equations has led to the development of several schemes, all requiring to satisfy and preserve the divergence constraint of the magnetic field numerically. In this paper, we aim to show the importance of maintaining this constraint numerically. We investigate in particular the hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique applied to the ideal MHD equations on a collocated grid and compare it to the constrained transport technique that uses a staggered grid to maintain the property. The methods are implemented in the software HERACLES and several numerical tests are presented, where the robustness and accuracy of the different schemes can be directly compared.

  9. Relations between heat exchange and Rényi divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we establish an exact relation which connects the heat exchange between two systems initialized in their thermodynamic equilibrium states at different temperatures and the Rényi divergences between the initial thermodynamic equilibrium state and the final nonequilibrium state of the total system. The relation tells us that the various moments of the heat statistics are determined by the Renyi divergences between the initial equilibrium state and the final nonequilibrium state of the global system. In particular the average heat exchange is quantified by the relative entropy between the initial equilibrium state and the final nonequilibrium state of the global system. The relation is applicable to both finite classical systems and finite quantum systems.

  10. Divergent series, summability and resurgence II simple and multiple summability

    CERN Document Server

    Loday-Richaud, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the question how to “sum” a power series in one variable when it diverges, that is, how to attach to it analytic functions, the volume gives answers by presenting and comparing the various theories of k-summability and multisummability. These theories apply in particular to all solutions of ordinary differential equations. The volume includes applications, examples and revisits, from a cohomological point of view, the group of tangent-to-identity germs of diffeomorphisms of C studied in volume 1. With a view to applying the theories to solutions of differential equations, a detailed survey of linear ordinary differential equations is provided which includes Gevrey asymptotic expansions, Newton polygons, index theorems and Sibuya’s proof of the meromorphic classification theorem that characterizes the Stokes phenomenon for linear differential equations. This volume is the second of a series of three entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence. It is aimed at graduate students and res...

  11. Chemical variation in a dominant tree species: population divergence, selection and genetic stability across environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne M O'Reilly-Wapstra

    Full Text Available Understanding among and within population genetic variation of ecologically important plant traits provides insight into the potential evolutionary processes affecting those traits. The strength and consistency of selection driving variability in traits would be affected by plasticity in differences among genotypes across environments (G×E. We investigated population divergence, selection and environmental plasticity of foliar plant secondary metabolites (PSMs in a dominant tree species, Eucalyptus globulus. Using two common garden trials we examined variation in PSMs at multiple genetic scales; among 12 populations covering the full geographic range of the species and among up to 60 families within populations. Significant genetic variation in the expression of many PSMs resides both among and within populations of E. globulus with moderate (e.g., sideroxylonal A h(2op = 0.24 to high (e.g., macrocarpal G h(2op = 0.48 narrow sense heritabilities and high coefficients of additive genetic variation estimated for some compounds. A comparison of Qst and Fst estimates suggest that variability in some of these traits may be due to selection. Importantly, there was no genetic by environment interaction in the expression of any of the quantitative chemical traits despite often significant site effects. These results provide evidence that natural selection has contributed to population divergence in PSMs in E. globulus, and identifies the formylated phloroglucinol compounds (particularly sideroxylonal and a dominant oil, 1,8-cineole, as candidates for traits whose genetic architecture has been shaped by divergent selection. Additionally, as the genetic differences in these PSMs that influence community phenotypes is stable across environments, the role of plant genotype in structuring communities is strengthened and these genotypic differences may be relatively stable under global environmental changes.

  12. GENETIC DIVERGENCE AMONG Passiflora cristalina Vanderpl & Zappi. GENOTYPES BASED ON FLOWER AND FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREICIELE FARIAS DA SILVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the genetic divergence among Passiflora cristalina genotypes and quantify the relative contribution of 30 flower and fruit characteristics, seeking to support the preservation and characterization of genetic resources of the species for preservation and use in future breeding programs. We evaluated 150 fruit and 150 flowers collected in 15 genotypes with naturally occurring in the municipality of Alta Floresta, MT. The characterization of genotypes was performed through 30 morphological characteristics of flowers and fruits, 21 of these for flower and 9 for fruit. Data were evaluated using the principal components and cluster methods obtained by UPGMA method from the similarity matrix (Euclidian mean distance, using the Genes software. By principal component analysis, it has been found that the first three components have absorbed 52.11% of the accumulated variation. The characteristics that most contributed to the discrimination of genotypes were fresh fruit weight, stigma length, length of corona filaments, fruit width, petal width and pulp weight, which are more responsive for the selection of P.cristalina genotypes. Smaller contributions to diversity were obtained from anther width, bract width and fruit length. The smallest contributions for diversity were obtained from the following characteristics: anther width, bract width and fruit length. Through UPGMA clustering method, it was found that there is a large genetic divergence among genotypes analyzed because all genotypes were grouped with over 50% of dissimilarity. This study identified genotypes 4, 5 and 9 as the most divergent and therefore the most suitable for breeding in future breeding programs and genetic conservation of the species.

  13. Divergence of Cs-137 sources fluence used in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, E.A.; Almeida, C.E. de

    1998-01-01

    In this work the experimental determination of correction factor for fluence divergence (kln) of linear Cs-137 sources CDCS J4, with Farmer ionization chamber model 2571 in a central and perpendicular plan to source axis, for distances range from 1 to 7 cm., has been presented. The experimental results were compared to calculating by Kondo and Randolph (1960) isotropic theory and Bielajew (1990) anisotropic theory. (Author)

  14. Real and metaphorical hunger: the case of The Divergent Trilogy

    OpenAIRE

    Paravano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13). Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social ...

  15. Divergence, recombination and retention of functionality during protein evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yanlong O

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have only a vague idea of precisely how protein sequences evolve in the context of protein structure and function. This is primarily because structural and functional contexts are not easily predictable from the primary sequence, and evaluating patterns of evolution at individual residue positions is also difficult. As a result of increasing biodiversity in genomics studies, progress is being made in detecting context-dependent variation in substitution processes, but it remains unclear exactly what context-dependent patterns we should be looking for. To address this, we have been simulating protein evolution in the context of structure and function using lattice models of proteins and ligands (or substrates. These simulations include thermodynamic features of protein stability and population dynamics. We refer to this approach as 'ab initio evolution' to emphasise the fact that the equilibrium details of fitness distributions arise from the physical principles of the system and not from any preconceived notions or arbitrary mathematical distributions. Here, we present results on the retention of functionality in homologous recombinants following population divergence. A central result is that protein structure characteristics can strongly influence recombinant functionality. Exceptional structures with many sequence options evolve quickly and tend to retain functionality -- even in highly diverged recombinants. By contrast, the more common structures with fewer sequence options evolve more slowly, but the fitness of recombinants drops off rapidly as homologous proteins diverge. These results have implications for understanding viral evolution, speciation and directed evolutionary experiments. Our analysis of the divergence process can also guide improved methods for accurately approximating folding probabilities in more complex but realistic systems.

  16. [Phylogeny and divergence time estimation of Schizothoracinae fishes in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelhan, Haysa; Guo, Yan; Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Ma, Yanwu

    2014-10-01

    Based on combined data of mitochondrial COI, ND4 and 16S RNA genes, molecular phylogeny of 4 genera, 10 species or subspecies of Schizothoracinae fishes distributed in Xinjiang were analyzed. The molecular clock was calibrated by divergence time of Cyprininae and geological segregation event between the upper Yellow River and Qinghai Lake. Divergence time of Schizothoracinae fishes was calculated, and its relationship with the major geological events and the climate changes in surrounding areas of Tarim Basin was discussed. The results showed that genus Aspiorhynchus did not form an independent clade, but clustered with Schizothorax biddulphi and S. irregularis. Kimura 2-parameter model was used to calculate the genetic distance of COI gene, the genetic distance between genus Aspiorhynchus and Schizothorax did not reach genus level, and Aspiorhynchus laticeps might be a specialized species of genus Schizothorax. Cluster analysis showed a different result with morphological classification method, and it did not support the subgenus division of Schizothorax fishes. Divergence of two groups of primitive Schizothoracinae (8.18Ma) and divergence of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii and Diptychus maculates (7.67Ma) occurred in late Miocene, which might be related with the separation of Kunlun Mountain and north Tianshan Mountain River system that was caused by the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Tianshan Mountain, and the aridification of Tarim Basin. The terrain of Tarim Basin that was affected by Quaternary Himalayan movement was high in west but low in east, as a result, Lop Nor became the center of surrounding mountain rivers in Tarim Basin, which shaped the distribution pattern of genus Schizothorax.

  17. Existence and multiplicity of solutions for divergence type elliptic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We establish the existence and multiplicity of weak solutions of a problem involving a uniformly convex elliptic operator in divergence form. We find one nontrivial solution by the mountain pass lemma, when the nonlinearity has a $(p-1$-superlinear growth at infinity, and two nontrivial solutions by minimization and mountain pass when the nonlinear term has a $(p-1$-sublinear growth at infinity.

  18. Infra-red divergences and Regge behaviour in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1980-01-01

    We analyze high energy behaviour of multi-gluon exchange amplitudes in the leading-lns approximation in perturbation theory. Working in the Coulomb gauge and employing Ward identities we derive an integral equation for the n-gluon system in the exchange channel. We find that the Regge behaviour is associated with exponentiation of leading infrared divergences, and the position of the j-plane singularities is determined by the colour quantum numbers of the exchanged system. (author)

  19. Schroedinger propagation of initial discontinuities leads to divergence of moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the large phase expansion of the Schroedinger propagation of an initially discontinuous wave function leads to the divergence of average energy, momentum, and displacement, rendering them unphysical states. If initially discontinuous wave functions are considered to be approximations to continuous ones, the determinant of the spreading rate of these averages is the maximal gradient of the initial wave function. Therefore a dilemma arises between the inclusion of discontinuous wave functions in quantum mechanics and the requirement of finite moments.

  20. Schroedinger propagation of initial discontinuities leads to divergence of moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchewka, A., E-mail: avi.marchewka@gmail.co [Ruppin Academic Center, Emek-Hefer 40250 (Israel); Schuss, Z., E-mail: schuss@post.tau.ac.i [Department of Mathematics, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2009-09-21

    We show that the large phase expansion of the Schroedinger propagation of an initially discontinuous wave function leads to the divergence of average energy, momentum, and displacement, rendering them unphysical states. If initially discontinuous wave functions are considered to be approximations to continuous ones, the determinant of the spreading rate of these averages is the maximal gradient of the initial wave function. Therefore a dilemma arises between the inclusion of discontinuous wave functions in quantum mechanics and the requirement of finite moments.

  1. Chloroplast Genome Evolution in Early Diverged Leptosporangiate Ferns

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chung, Myong Gi; Kim, Ki-Joong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the chloroplast (cp) genome sequences from three early diverged leptosporangiate ferns were completed and analyzed in order to understand the evolution of the genome of the fern lineages. The complete cp genome sequence of Osmunda cinnamomea (Osmundales) was 142,812 base pairs (bp). The cp genome structure was similar to that of eusporangiate ferns. The gene/intron losses that frequently occurred in the cp genome of leptosporangiate ferns were not found in the cp genome of O. c...

  2. A limit of the quantum Rényi divergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Nilanjana; Leditzky, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an interesting quantity called the quantum Rényi divergence (or ‘sandwiched’ Rényi relative entropy) was defined for pairs of positive semi-definite operators ρ and σ. It depends on a parameter α and acts as a parent quantity for other relative entropies which have important operational significance in quantum information theory: the quantum relative entropy and the min- and max-relative entropies. There is, however, another relative entropy, called the 0-relative Rényi entropy, which plays a key role in the analysis of various quantum information-processing tasks in the one-shot setting. We prove that the 0-relative Rényi entropy is obtainable from the quantum Rényi divergence only if ρ and σ have equal supports. This, along with existing results in the literature, suggests that it suffices to consider two essential parent quantities from which operationally relevant entropic quantities can be derived—the quantum Rényi divergence with parameter α ⩾ 1/2, and the α-relative Rényi entropy with α ∈ [0, 1). (paper)

  3. Infrared divergences for free quantum fields in cosmological spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Rendell, Nicola

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the nature of infrared divergences for the free graviton and inflaton two-point functions in flat Friedman–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker spacetime. These divergences arise because the momentum integral for these two-point functions diverges in the infrared. It is straightforward to see that the power of the momentum in the integrand can be increased by 2 in the infrared using large gauge transformations, which are sufficient for rendering these two-point functions infrared finite for slow-roll inflation. In other words, if the integrand of the momentum integral for these two-point functions behaves like , where p is the momentum, in the infrared, then it can be made to behave like by large gauge transformations. On the other hand, it is known that, if one smears these two-point functions in a gauge-invariant manner, the power of the momentum in the integrand is changed from to . This fact suggests that the power of the momentum in the integrand for these two-point functions can be increased by 4 using large gauge transformations. In this paper we show that this is indeed the case. Thus, the two-point functions for the graviton and inflaton fields can be made finite by large gauge transformations for a large class of potentials and states in single-field inflation.

  4. A vadose zone water fluxmeter with divergence control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Caldwell, T.G.; Ritter, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Unsaturated water flux densities are needed to quantify water and contaminant transfer within the vadose zone. However, water flux densities are seldom measured directly and often are predicted with uncertainties of an order or magnitude or more. A water fluxmeter was designed, constructed, and tested to directly measure drainage fluxes in field soils. The fluxmeter was designed to minimize divergence. It concentrates flow into a narrow sensing region filled with a fiberglass wick. The wick applies suction, proportional to its length, and passively drains the meter. The meter can be installed in an augured borehole at almost any depth below the root zone. Water flux through the meter is measured with a self‐calibrating tipping bucket, with a sensitivity of ∼4 mL tip−1. For our meter this is equivalent to detection limit of ∼0.1 mm. Passive‐wick devices previously have not properly corrected for flow divergence. Laboratory measurements supported predictions of a two‐dimensional (2‐D) numerical model, which showed that control of the collector height H and knowledge of soil hydraulic properties are required for improving divergence control, particularly at fluxes below 1000 mm yr−1. The water fluxmeter is simple in concept, is inexpensive, and has the capability of providing continuous and reliable monitoring of unsaturated water fluxes ranging from less than 1 mm yr−1 to more than 1000 mm yr−1.

  5. Divergence of iron metabolism in wild Malaysian yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hana N; Mostovoy, Yulia; Hsu, Tiffany Y; Chang, Amanda H; Brem, Rachel B

    2013-12-09

    Comparative genomic studies have reported widespread variation in levels of gene expression within and between species. Using these data to infer organism-level trait divergence has proven to be a key challenge in the field. We have used a wild Malaysian population of S. cerevisiae as a test bed in the search to predict and validate trait differences based on observations of regulatory variation. Malaysian yeast, when cultured in standard medium, activated regulatory programs that protect cells from the toxic effects of high iron. Malaysian yeast also showed a hyperactive regulatory response during culture in the presence of excess iron and had a unique growth defect in conditions of high iron. Molecular validation experiments pinpointed the iron metabolism factors AFT1, CCC1, and YAP5 as contributors to these molecular and cellular phenotypes; in genome-scale sequence analyses, a suite of iron toxicity response genes showed evidence for rapid protein evolution in Malaysian yeast. Our findings support a model in which iron metabolism has diverged in Malaysian yeast as a consequence of a change in selective pressure, with Malaysian alleles shifting the dynamic range of iron response to low-iron concentrations and weakening resistance to extreme iron toxicity. By dissecting the iron scarcity specialist behavior of Malaysian yeast, our work highlights the power of expression divergence as a signpost for biologically and evolutionarily relevant variation at the organismal level. Interpreting the phenotypic relevance of gene expression variation is one of the primary challenges of modern genomics.

  6. Flutter and divergence instability of supported piezoelectric nanotubes conveying fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaadini, Reza; Hosseini, Mohammad; Jamali, Behnam

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, divergence and flutter instabilities of supported piezoelectric nanotubes containing flowing fluid are investigated. To take the size effects into account, the nonlocal elasticity theory is implemented in conjunction with the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory incorporating surface stress effects. The Knudsen number is applied to investigate the slip boundary conditions between the flow and wall of nanotube. The nonlocal governing equations of nanotube are obtained using Newtonian method, including the influence of piezoelectric voltage, surface effects, Knudsen number and nonlocal parameter. Applying Galerkin approach to transform resulting equations into a set of eigenvalue equations under the simple-simple (S-S) and clamped-clamped (C-C) boundary conditions. The effects of the piezoelectric voltage, surface effects, Knudsen number, nonlocal parameter and boundary conditions on the divergence and flutter boundaries of nanotubes are discussed. It is observed that the fluid-conveying nanotubes with both ends supported lose their stability by divergence first and then by flutter with increase in fluid velocity. Results indicate the importance of using piezoelectric voltage, nonlocal parameter and Knudsen number in decrease of critical flow velocities of system. Moreover, the surface effects have a significant role on the eigenfrequencies and critical fluid velocity.

  7. Reduction of the divergence angle of an incident beam to enhance the demagnification factor of a two-stage acceleration lens in a gas ion nanobeam system of several tens of keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Kojima, Takuji

    2018-04-01

    The demagnification factor of a two-stage acceleration lens in a gas ion nanobeam system that produces ion beams with energies in the order of 10 keV was enhanced in this study so that a hydrogen ion beam with a diameter of 115 nm could be produced. The reduction of the divergence angle of the incident beam into the two-stage acceleration lens is the effective method for enhancing the demagnification factor. The divergence angle has been gradually reduced by firstly introducing the preacceleration electrodes to control the divergence angle, namely divergence-angle-control electrodes, and secondly replacing an anode with a modified anode that possesses a Pierce electrode, both of which were in an ion source directly connected to the lens. In this study, the divergence angle of less than 3.6 × 10-4 rad that was previously used to produce a 160-nm hydrogen ion beam with the energy of 46 keV by the above procedure was numerically determined using an ion beam extraction simulation code. The determined minimum divergence angle of the incident ion beam was calculated to be 2.0 × 10-4 rad, which was about half of the previously obtained divergence angle; this was used to experimentally form a hydrogen beam with a diameter of 115 ± 10 nm and the energy of 47 keV. The demagnification factor was estimated to be 1,739 using the newly formed hydrogen beam, which was similar to the simulation result.

  8. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators.

  9. The subject of pedagogy from theory to practice--the view of newly registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Bodil; Nilsson, Gunilla

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to describe, from the newly registered nurses' perspective, specific events when using their pedagogical knowledge in their everyday clinical practice. The design was qualitative and the critical incident technique was used. Data was collected via interviews with ten newly registered nurses who graduated from the same University program 10 months earlier and are now employed at a university hospital. Two categories emerged in the analyses. The first category was "Pedagogical methods in theory" with the sub-categories Theory and the application of the course in practice, Knowledge of pedagogy and Information as a professional competence. The second category was "Pedagogical methods in everyday clinical practice" with sub-categories Factual knowledge versus pedagogical knowledge, Information and relatives, Difficulties when giving information, Understanding information received, Pedagogical tools, Collaboration in teams in pedagogical situations, and Time and giving information. By identifying specific events regarding pedagogical methods the findings can be useful for everyone from teachers and health-care managers to nurse students and newly registered nurses, to improve teaching methods in nurse education.

  10. A model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekoe, Eunice

    2014-04-24

    South Africa transformed higher education through the enactment of the Higher Education Act (No. 101 of 1997). The researcher identified the need to develop a model for the mentoring of newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.  To develop and describe the model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa.  A qualitative and theory-generating design was used (following empirical findings regarding needs analysis) in order to develop the model. The conceptualisation of the framework focused on the context, content, process and the theoretical domains that influenced the model. Ideas from different theories were borrowed from and integrated with the literature and deductive and inductive strategies were applied.  The structure of the model is multidimensional and complex in nature (macro, mesoand micro) based on the philosophy of reflective practice, competency-based practice andcritical learning theories. The assumptions are in relation to stakeholders, context, mentoring, outcome, process and dynamic. The stakeholders are the mentor and mentee within an interactive participatory relationship. The mentoring takes place within the process with a sequence of activities such as relationship building, development, engagement, reflective process and assessment. Capacity building and empowerment are outcomes of mentoring driven by motivation.  The implication for nurse managers is that the model can be used to develop mentoring programmes for newly-appointed nurse educators.

  11. A model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Seekoe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa transformed higher education through the enactment of the Higher Education Act (No. 101 of 1997. The researcher identified the need to develop a model for the mentoring of newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa. Objectives: To develop and describe the model for mentoring newly-appointed nurse educators in nursing education institutions in South Africa. Method: A qualitative and theory-generating design was used (following empirical findings regarding needs analysis in order to develop the model. The conceptualisation of the framework focused on the context, content, process and the theoretical domains that influenced the model. Ideas from different theories were borrowed from and integrated with the literature and deductive and inductive strategies were applied. Results: The structure of the model is multidimensional and complex in nature (macro, mesoand micro based on the philosophy of reflective practice, competency-based practice andcritical learning theories. The assumptions are in relation to stakeholders, context, mentoring, outcome, process and dynamic. The stakeholders are the mentor and mentee within an interactive participatory relationship. The mentoring takes place within the process with a sequence of activities such as relationship building, development, engagement, reflective process and assessment. Capacity building and empowerment are outcomes of mentoring driven by motivation. Conclusion: The implication for nurse managers is that the model can be used to develop mentoring programmes for newly-appointed nurse educators.

  12. Predictors for reproductive isolation in a ring species complex following genetic and ecological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Monahan, William B; Wake, David B

    2011-07-06

    Reproductive isolation (RI) is widely accepted as an important "check point" in the diversification process, since it defines irreversible evolutionary trajectories. Much less consensus exists about the processes that might drive RI. Here, we employ a formal quantitative analysis of genetic interactions at several stages of divergence within the ring species complex Ensatina eschscholtzii in order to assess the relative contribution of genetic and ecological divergence for the development of RI. By augmenting previous genetic datasets and adding new ecological data, we quantify levels of genetic and ecological divergence between populations and test how they correlate with a restriction of genetic admixture upon secondary contact. Our results indicate that the isolated effect of ecological divergence between parental populations does not result in reproductively isolated taxa, even when genetic transitions between parental taxa are narrow. Instead, processes associated with overall genetic divergence are the best predictors of reproductive isolation, and when parental taxa diverge in nuclear markers we observe a complete cessation of hybridization, even to sympatric occurrence of distinct evolutionary lineages. Although every parental population has diverged in mitochondrial DNA, its degree of divergence does not predict the extent of RI. These results show that in Ensatina, the evolutionary outcomes of ecological divergence differ from those of genetic divergence. While evident properties of taxa may emerge via ecological divergence, such as adaptation to local environment, RI is likely to be a byproduct of processes that contribute to overall genetic divergence, such as time in geographic isolation, rather than being a direct outcome of local adaptation.

  13. At the Bridging Point: Tutoring Newly Arrived Students in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Helen

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, tutoring in the mother tongue is a special support measure primarily intended for newly arrived students to facilitate their transition into the Swedish school system. Tutoring is premised on the collaboration between the class teacher, responsible for subject-related expertise, and the tutor, who contributes with knowledge of the…

  14. Chenodeoxycholic acid reduces intestinal permeability in newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Y.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Bosch, van den M.; Holst, J.J.; Moreto, M.; Buurman, W.A.; Kulik, W.; Kempen, van T.A.T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Piglets are highly susceptible to gut health-related problems. Intravenously administered chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) affects gut health mediated through glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). To test whether CDCA is a suitable feed additive for improving gut health, a trial was performed with newly

  15. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved breeding strategy by anther culture ... more efficient in pure line selection rather than the hete- .... Regional and productivity tests showed that Huapei 8 had .... Large-scale production of wheat and triticale double.

  16. Yield evaluation and stability analysis in newly selected `KSA' cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield evaluation and stability analysis in newly selected `KSA' cotton cultivars in Western Kenya. R M Opondo, G A Ombakho. Abstract. (African Crop Science Journal, 1997 5(2): 119-126). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v5i2.27854 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  17. Oral Cancer Knowledge Assessment: Newly Graduated versus Senior Dental Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado de Souza, Ricardo; Gallego Arias Pecorari, Vanessa; Lauria Dib, Luciano

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the level of dentists' knowledge regarding oral cancer in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to compare the level of knowledge among newly graduated and senior clinicians. A total of 20,154 e-mails were correctly delivered to the dentists registered in the database of the Regional Dentistry Council of São Paulo, and 477 (2.36%) responses were received. This sample consisted of 84 newly graduated clinicians and 105 senior clinicians. For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test and the logistic regression analysis were performed with α = 0.05, and the results were described herein. According to their knowledge level, the results were statistically different between the groups, since 19% of the newly graduated clinicians were evaluated with knowledge grade A (excellent) in comparison to 6.7% of the senior clinicians. In spite of the results indicated that newly graduated clinicians' knowledge regarding oral cancer was 2.1 times higher, 34.5% of the professionals in this group had regular or poor knowledge on the subject, and several questions relating to clinical characteristics and risk factors indicated that there still exist some knowledge gaps, demonstrating that there is a need for further studies and information activities addressing oral cancer. PMID:29666649

  18. Clinical and immunological status of a newly diagnosed HIV positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and the immune status of newly HIV diagnosed patients, in Marrakech city and its neighboring area, in Morocco. Methods: We performed a retrospective study on 235 patients who have been previously confirmed for HIV infection, and underwent a CD4 T cells using flow cytometry ...

  19. Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae, a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsueh Tseng

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly naturalized plant, Rivina humilis L., was found recently in the central part of Taiwan. This plant represents a new record of this genus and species for Taiwan. This Neotropical plant, native to the southern USA, Mexico, the Caribbean islands, and Central and South America, is described and illustrated in this report.

  20. Dilemmas of a Newly Recruited Academic Qualified Professor: A Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anand

    2015-01-01

    This case describes the situation of a newly recruited academic professor who volunteered to teach a course on Research Methods to first-term MBA students in a practitioner-oriented case method Business School. Research Methods is a unique course due to its relevance not only in business but also across all graduate programs. Instructional and…