WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify major sources

  1. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important sectors and industries responsible for emissions at a national level; however, to be useful for air transport modelling, more precise information on the locations of emission is required. This paper describes the methodology applied, and the results of work that was conducted to assign anthropogenic mercury emissions to point sources as part of geospatial mapping of the 2010 global anthropogenic mercury emissions inventory prepared by AMAP/UNEP. Major point-source emission sectors addressed in this work account for about 850 tonnes of the emissions included in the 2010 inventory. This work allocated more than 90% of these emissions to some 4600 identified point source locations, including significantly more point source locations in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America than had been identified during previous work to geospatially-distribute the 2005 global inventory. The results demonstrate the utility and the limitations of using existing, mainly public domain resources to accomplish this work. Assumptions necessary to make use of selected online resources are discussed, as are artefacts that can arise when these assumptions are applied to assign (national-sector) emissions estimates to point sources in various countries and regions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the available information, the value of this procedure over alternative methods commonly used to geo-spatially distribute emissions, such as use of 'proxy' datasets to represent emissions patterns, is illustrated. Improvements in information that would facilitate greater use of these methods in future work to assign emissions to point-sources are discussed. These include improvements to both national

  2. Cre/lox Studies Identify Resident Macrophages as the Major Source of Circulating Coagulation Factor XIII-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Cora M L; Simpson, Kingsley R; Griffin, Kathryn J; Brown, Jane M; Cheah, Lih T; Smith, Kerrie A; Vacher, Jean; Cordell, Paul A; Kearney, Mark T; Grant, Peter J; Pease, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    To establish the cellular source of plasma factor (F)XIII-A. A novel mouse floxed for the F13a1 gene, FXIII-A flox/flox (Flox), was crossed with myeloid- and platelet-cre-expressing mice, and cellular FXIII-A mRNA expression and plasma and platelet FXIII-A levels were measured. The platelet factor 4-cre.Flox cross abolished platelet FXIII-A and reduced plasma FXIII-A to 23±3% ( P cre on plasma FXIII-A was exerted outside of the megakaryocyte lineage because plasma FXIII-A was not reduced in the Mpl -/- mouse, despite marked thrombocytopenia. In support of this, platelet factor 4-cre depleted FXIII-A mRNA in brain, aorta, and heart of floxed mice, where FXIII-A pos cells were identified as macrophages as they costained with CD163. In the integrin αM-cre.Flox and the double copy lysozyme 2-cre.cre.Flox crosses, plasma FXIII-A was reduced to, respectively, 75±5% ( P =0.003) and 30±7% ( P <0.001), with no change in FXIII-A content per platelet, further consistent with a macrophage origin of plasma FXIII-A. The change in plasma FXIII-A levels across the various mouse genotypes mirrored the change in FXIII-A mRNA expression in aorta. Bone marrow transplantation of FXIII-A +/+ bone marrow into FXIII-A -/- mice both restored plasma FXIII-A to normal levels and replaced aortic and cardiac FXIII-A mRNA, while its transplantation into FXIII-A +/+ mice did not increase plasma FXIII-A levels, suggesting that a limited population of niches exists that support FXIII-A-releasing cells. This work suggests that resident macrophages maintain plasma FXIII-A and exclude the platelet lineage as a major contributor. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important

  4. Major new sources of biological ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T.; Henderson-Begg, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all research on biological ice nucleation has focussed on a limited number of bacteria. Here we characterise several major new sources of biogenic ice nuclei. These include mosses, hornworts, liverworts and cyanobacteria. Ice nucleation in the eukaryotic bryophytes appears to be ubiquitous. The temperature at which these organisms nucleate is that at which the difference in vapour pressure over ice and water is at or close to its maximum. At these temperatures (-8 to -18 degrees C) ice will grow at the expense of supercooled water. These organisms are dependent for their water on occult precipitation - fog, dew and cloudwater which by its nature is not collected in conventional rain gauges. Therefore we suggest that these organism produce ice nuclei as a water harvesting mechanism. Since the same mechanism would also drive the Bergeron-Findeisen process, and as moss is known to become airborne, these nuclei may have a role in the initiation of precipitation. The properties of these ice nuclei are very different from the well characterised bacterial nuclei. We will also present DNA sequence data showing that, although related, the proteins responsible are only very distantly related to the classical bacterial ice nuclei.

  5. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  6. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To iden- tify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 ...

  7. The Protein Identifier Cross-Referencing (PICR service: reconciling protein identifiers across multiple source databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leinonen Rasko

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each major protein database uses its own conventions when assigning protein identifiers. Resolving the various, potentially unstable, identifiers that refer to identical proteins is a major challenge. This is a common problem when attempting to unify datasets that have been annotated with proteins from multiple data sources or querying data providers with one flavour of protein identifiers when the source database uses another. Partial solutions for protein identifier mapping exist but they are limited to specific species or techniques and to a very small number of databases. As a result, we have not found a solution that is generic enough and broad enough in mapping scope to suit our needs. Results We have created the Protein Identifier Cross-Reference (PICR service, a web application that provides interactive and programmatic (SOAP and REST access to a mapping algorithm that uses the UniProt Archive (UniParc as a data warehouse to offer protein cross-references based on 100% sequence identity to proteins from over 70 distinct source databases loaded into UniParc. Mappings can be limited by source database, taxonomic ID and activity status in the source database. Users can copy/paste or upload files containing protein identifiers or sequences in FASTA format to obtain mappings using the interactive interface. Search results can be viewed in simple or detailed HTML tables or downloaded as comma-separated values (CSV or Microsoft Excel (XLS files suitable for use in a local database or a spreadsheet. Alternatively, a SOAP interface is available to integrate PICR functionality in other applications, as is a lightweight REST interface. Conclusion We offer a publicly available service that can interactively map protein identifiers and protein sequences to the majority of commonly used protein databases. Programmatic access is available through a standards-compliant SOAP interface or a lightweight REST interface. The PICR

  8. A tripartite approach identifies the major sunflower seed albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Achala S; Franke, Bastian; Rosengren, Johan; Mylne, Joshua S

    2016-03-01

    We have used a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches to identify the napin-type albumin genes in sunflower and define their contributions to the seed albumin pool. Seed protein content is determined by the expression of what are typically large gene families. A major class of seed storage proteins is the napin-type, water soluble albumins. In this work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the napin-type albumin content of the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by analyzing a draft genome, a transcriptome and performing a proteomic analysis of the seed albumin fraction. We show that although sunflower contains at least 26 genes for napin-type albumins, only 15 of these are present at the mRNA level. We found protein evidence for 11 of these but the albumin content of mature seeds is dominated by the encoded products of just three genes. So despite high genetic redundancy for albumins, only a small sub-set of this gene family contributes to total seed albumin content. The three genes identified as producing the majority of sunflower seed albumin are potential future candidates for manipulation through genetics and breeding.

  9. Bioethanol as a major source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagha, Phani

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Achieving sustainability in agriculture requires taking into account many different factors: global climate, pollution, better use of industrial water, options regarding the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides, and also economic sustainability in terms of costs, competitiveness, and the number and quality of jobs created. The sugarcane industry is a good example of the integration of such concerns. It also illustrates what can be attained when people in developing countries receive the training they need to develop their own technologies. Bioethanol has taken precedence as Prime Biofuel after lot of controversy erupted on international food shortages and spiraling food prices. In spite of all the controversy Shrouding Biofuels, there has been universal acceptance and understanding that we need to continually look at alternate sources of fuels and feed stock's which are non food and this has seen visible interest for Sugarcane based Bioethanol to wheat, Maize and other food crops. In July 2008 alone, big investments in sugarcane/ethanol production were announced across the globe in sugar producing countries in the order of over 500 million dollars. The preceding months saw planned investment in the billions of dollars in the sector. The International Energy Agency sees world Biofuels production rising from 1.35 million barrels a day in 2008 to 1.95 million barrels a day in 2013- only five years away- and it is a safe bet that most of this increase will come from sugarcane ethanol. Dow Jones notes the sector seems impervious to the liquidity crunch with new investment being announced in Brazil despite high levels of existing debt. Pressure is also mounting on the developed countries to free up current import. (author)

  10. Identifying sources of aeolian mineral dust: Present and past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R; Prospero, Joseph M; Baddock, Matthew C; Gill, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Aeolian mineral dust is an important component of the Earth’s environmental systems, playing roles in the planetary radiation balance, as a source of fertilizer for biota in both terrestrial and marine realms and as an archive for understanding atmospheric circulation and paleoclimate in the geologic past. Crucial to understanding all of these roles of dust is the identification of dust sources. Here we review the methods used to identify dust sources active at present and in the past. Contemporary dust sources, produced by both glaciogenic and non-glaciogenic processes, can be readily identified by the use of Earth-orbiting satellites. These data show that present dust sources are concentrated in a global dust belt that encompasses large topographic basins in low-latitude arid and semiarid regions. Geomorphic studies indicate that specific point sources for dust in this zone include dry or ephemeral lakes, intermittent stream courses, dune fields, and some bedrock surfaces. Back-trajectory analyses are also used to identify dust sources, through modeling of wind fields and the movement of air parcels over periods of several days. Identification of dust sources from the past requires novel approaches that are part of the geologic toolbox of provenance studies. Identification of most dust sources of the past requires the use of physical, mineralogical, geochemical, and isotopic analyses of dust deposits. Physical properties include systematic spatial changes in dust deposit thickness and particle size away from a source. Mineralogy and geochemistry can pinpoint dust sources by clay mineral ratios and Sc-Th-La abundances, respectively. The most commonly used isotopic methods utilize isotopes of Nd, Sr, and Pb and have been applied extensively in dust archives of deep-sea cores, ice cores, and loess. All these methods have shown that dust sources have changed over time, with far more abundant dust supplies existing during glacial periods. Greater dust supplies in

  11. Source of Iodine-131 in Europe Identified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA has received information from the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority (HAEA) that the source of the iodine-131 (I-131) detected in Europe was most probably a release to the atmosphere from the Institute of Isotopes Ltd., Budapest. The Institute of Isotopes Ltd. produces radioisotopes for healthcare, research and industrial applications. According to the HAEA, the release occurred from September 8 to November 16, 2011. The cause of the release is under investigation. As previously mentioned, the levels of I-131 that have been detected in Europe are extremely low. There is no health concern to the population. If any member of the public were to breathe iodine for a whole year at the levels measured in European countries, then they would receive a dose in the range of 0.01 microsieverts for the year. To put this into perspective, the average annual background is 2 400 microsieverts per year. The IAEA was first notified of the presence of trace levels of I-131 by authorities from the Czech Republic on 11 November. Since this notification, the IAEA contacted several member states throughout the region to determine the cause and origin. The IAEA also worked with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to conduct air dispersion modelling, as part of efforts to determine the source. (IAEA)

  12. Identifying risk sources of air contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzlik, Jiri; Bozek, Frantisek; Pawelczyk, Adam; Licbinsky, Roman; Naplavova, Magdalena; Pondelicek, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This article is directed to determining concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are sorbed to solid particles in the air. Pollution sources were identified on the basis of the ratio of benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiPe) to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Because various important information is lost by determining the simple ratio of concentrations, least squares linear regression (classic ordinary least squares regression), reduced major axis, orthogonal regression, and Kendall-Theil robust diagnostics were utilized for identification. Statistical evaluation using all aforementioned methods demonstrated different ratios of the monitored PAHs in the intervals examined during warmer and colder periods. Analogous outputs were provided by comparing gradients of the emission factors acquired from the measured concentrations of BghiPe and BaP in motor vehicle exhaust gases. Based on these outputs, it was possible plausibly to state that the influence of burning organic fuels in heating stoves is prevalent in colder periods whereas in warmer periods transport was the exclusive source because other sources of PAH emissions were not found in the examined locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifiability and Identification of Trace Continuous Pollutant Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongquan Qu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental pollution events often threaten people’s health and lives, and a pollutant source is very necessary so that prompt remedial actions can be taken. In this paper, a trace continuous pollutant source identification method is developed to identify a sudden continuous emission pollutant source in an enclosed space. The location probability model is set up firstly, and then the identification method is realized by searching a global optimal objective value of the location probability. In order to discuss the identifiability performance of the presented method, a conception of a synergy degree of velocity fields is presented in order to quantitatively analyze the impact of velocity field on the identification performance. Based on this conception, some simulation cases were conducted. The application conditions of this method are obtained according to the simulation studies. In order to verify the presented method, we designed an experiment and identified an unknown source appearing in the experimental space. The result showed that the method can identify a sudden trace continuous source when the studied situation satisfies the application conditions.

  14. A Manual to Identify Sources of Fluvial Sediment | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedimentation is one of the main causes of stream/river aquatic life use impairments in R3. Currently states lack standard guidance on appropriate tools available to quantify sediment sources and develop sediment budgets in TMDL Development. Methods for distinguishing sediment types for TMDL development will focus stream restoration and soil conservation efforts in strategic locations in a watershed and may better target appropriate BMPs to achieve sediment load reductions. Properly identifying sediment sources in a TMDL will also help focus NPDES permitting, stream restoration activities and other TMDL implementation efforts. This project will focus on developing a framework that will be published as a guidance document that outlines steps and approaches to identify the significant sources of fine-grained sediment in 303D listed watersheds. In this framework, the sediment-fingerprinting and sediment budget approaches will be emphasized. This project will focus on developing a framework that will be published as a guidance document that outlines steps and approaches to identify the significant sources of fine-grained sediment in 303D listed watersheds. In this framework, the sediment-fingerprinting and sediment budget approaches will be emphasized.

  15. Behavior observation of major noise sources in critical care wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Kang, Jian; Mills, Gary H

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the behavior patterns of typical noise sources in critical care wards and relate their patterns to health care environment in which the sources adapt themselves in several different forms. An effective observation approach was designed for noise behavior in the critical care environment. Five descriptors have been identified for the behavior observations, namely, interval, frequency, duration, perceived loudness, and location. Both the single-bed and the multiple-bed wards at the selected Critical Care Department were randomly observed for 3 inconsecutive nights, from 11:30 pm to 7:00 am the following morning. The Matlab distribution fitting tool was applied afterward to plot several types of distributions and estimate the corresponding parameters. The lognormal distribution was considered the most appropriate statistical distribution for noise behaviors in terms of the interval and duration patterns. The turning of patients by staff was closely related to the increasing occurrences of noises. Among the observed noises, talking was identified with the highest frequency, shortest intervals, and the longest durations, followed by monitor alarms. The perceived loudness of talking in the nighttime wards was classified into 3 levels (raised, normal, and low). Most people engaged in verbal communication in the single-bed wards that occurred around the Entrance Zone, whereas talking in the multiple-bed wards was more likely to be situated in the Staff Work Zone. As expected, more occurrences of noises along with longer duration were observed in multiple-bed wards rather than single-bed wards. "Monitor plus ventilator alarms" was the most commonly observed combination of multiple noises. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Atmospheric deposition having been one of the major source of Pb in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Qi; Li, Haixia

    2018-03-01

    Many marine bays have been polluted by Pb due to the rapid development of industry, and identifying the major source of Pb is essential to pollution control. This paper analyzed the distribution and pollution source of Pb in Jiaozhou Bay in 1988. Results showed that Pb contents in surface waters in Jiaozhou Bay in April, July and October 1988 were 5.52-24.61 μg L‑1, 7.66-38.62 μg L‑1 and 6.89-19.30 μg L‑1, respectively. The major Pb sources in this bay were atmospheric deposition, and marine current, whose source strengths were 19.30-24.61μg L‑1 and 38.62 μg L‑1, respectively. Atmospheric deposition had been one of the major Pb sources in Jiaozhou Bay, and the source strengths were stable and strong. The pollution level of Pb in this bay in 1988 was moderate to heavy, and the source control measurements were necessary.

  17. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peace, H.; Owen, B.; Raper, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km 2 area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations

  18. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, H; Owen, B; Raper, D W

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km(2) area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations.

  19. Identifying avian sources of faecal contamination using sterol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devane, Megan L; Wood, David; Chappell, Andrew; Robson, Beth; Webster-Brown, Jenny; Gilpin, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Discrimination of the source of faecal pollution in water bodies is an important step in the assessment and mitigation of public health risk. One tool for faecal source tracking is the analysis of faecal sterols which are present in faeces of animals in a range of distinctive ratios. Published ratios are able to discriminate between human and herbivore mammal faecal inputs but are of less value for identifying pollution from wildfowl, which can be a common cause of elevated bacterial indicators in rivers and streams. In this study, the sterol profiles of 50 avian-derived faecal specimens (seagulls, ducks and chickens) were examined alongside those of 57 ruminant faeces and previously published sterol profiles of human wastewater, chicken effluent and animal meatwork effluent. Two novel sterol ratios were identified as specific to avian faecal scats, which, when incorporated into a decision tree with human and herbivore mammal indicative ratios, were able to identify sterols from avian-polluted waterways. For samples where the sterol profile was not consistent with herbivore mammal or human pollution, avian pollution is indicated when the ratio of 24-ethylcholestanol/(24-ethylcholestanol + 24-ethylcoprostanol + 24-ethylepicoprostanol) is ≥0.4 (avian ratio 1) and the ratio of cholestanol/(cholestanol + coprostanol + epicoprostanol) is ≥0.5 (avian ratio 2). When avian pollution is indicated, further confirmation by targeted PCR specific markers can be employed if greater confidence in the pollution source is required. A 66% concordance between sterol ratios and current avian PCR markers was achieved when 56 water samples from polluted waterways were analysed.

  20. A manual to identify sources of fluvial sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Allen C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sediment is an important pollutant of concern that can degrade and alter aquatic habitat. A sediment budget is an accounting of the sources, storage, and export of sediment over a defined spatial and temporal scale. This manual focuses on field approaches to estimate a sediment budget. We also highlight the sediment fingerprinting approach to attribute sediment to different watershed sources. Determining the sources and sinks of sediment is important in developing strategies to reduce sediment loads to water bodies impaired by sediment. Therefore, this manual can be used when developing a sediment TMDL requiring identification of sediment sources.The manual takes the user through the seven necessary steps to construct a sediment budget:Decision-making for watershed scale and time period of interestFamiliarization with the watershed by conducting a literature review, compiling background information and maps relevant to study questions, conducting a reconnaissance of the watershedDeveloping partnerships with landowners and jurisdictionsCharacterization of watershed geomorphic settingDevelopment of a sediment budget designData collectionInterpretation and construction of the sediment budgetGenerating products (maps, reports, and presentations) to communicate findings.Sediment budget construction begins with examining the question(s) being asked and whether a sediment budget is necessary to answer these question(s). If undertaking a sediment budget analysis is a viable option, the next step is to define the spatial scale of the watershed and the time scale needed to answer the question(s). Of course, we understand that monetary constraints play a big role in any decision.Early in the sediment budget development process, we suggest getting to know your watershed by conducting a reconnaissance and meeting with local stakeholders. The reconnaissance aids in understanding the geomorphic setting of the watershed and potential sources of sediment. Identifying the potential

  1. Use of remote sensing to identify waste sources at ORNL's SWSA 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, D.D.; Doll, W.E.; Nyquist, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Solid waste storage area (SWSA) 4, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), contributes 25% of the 90 Sr release from the ORNL complex. Disposal records were destroyed in a fire, thus limiting the ability to locate waste sources contributing to the releases. The use of remote sensing products, including photos and thermal spectra images, provided the needed information to allow field work to progress in an efficient and cost-effective manner. As a result, four major sources were identified. Preliminary estimates suggest that cost avoidance in excess of $5 million will be possible because of the detailed source location knowledge

  2. Identifying Sources of Scientific Knowledge: classifying non-source items in the WoS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calero-Medina, C.M.

    2016-07-01

    The sources of scientific knowledge can be tracked using the references in scientific publications. For instance, the publications from the scientific journals covered by the Web of Science database (WoS) contain references to publications for which an indexed source record exist in the WoS (source items) or to references for which an indexed source record does not exist in the WoS (non-source items). The classification of the non-source items is the main objective of the work in progress presented here. Some other scholars have classified and identified non-source items with different purposes (e.g. Butler & Visser (2006); Liseé, Larivière & Archambault (2008); Nerderhof, van Leeuwen & van Raan (2010); Hicks & Wang (2013); Boyack & Klavans (2014)). But these studies are focused in specific source types, fields or set of papers. The work presented here is much broader in terms of the number of publications, source types and fields. (Author)

  3. Identifying barriers in the diffusion of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleftheriadis, Iordanis M.; Anagnostopoulou, Evgenia G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid diffusion of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity power sector is crucial if the EU wants to fulfill its 2050 CO 2 reduction commitments. For this reason, identifying and alleviating all barriers that hinder the development of RES is necessary to the successful deployment of these technologies. This paper discusses the main barriers in the diffusion of wind and photovoltaic (PV) solar power in the Greek electricity sector by drawing on the literature of technological innovation systems and system functions. Furthermore, we provide an explanation of the different diffusion rates between the two technologies. Inadequate financial resources, low grid capacity, delays in the issuance of building permits, opposition from local communities to the construction of wind farms and the lack of a stable institutional framework are among the most important barriers that inhibit the diffusion of the wind and PV solar power. The nature of the barriers identified in this study calls for policy intervention. - Highlights: • Firms in the Greek wind and solar power sectors assess RES barriers. • Lack of financial resources is the most important RES barrier. • Lack of a stable institutional framework negatively affects RES deployment. • The support of the public sector is crucial to the diffusion of RES. •Wind power faces strong legitimization barriers

  4. On the use of coprostanol to identify source of nitrate pollution in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Amano, Hiroki; Takao, Yuji; Hosono, Takahiro; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2017-07-01

    Investigation of contaminant sources is indispensable for developing effective countermeasures against nitrate (NO3-) pollution in groundwater. Known major nitrogen (N) sources are chemical fertilizers, livestock waste, and domestic wastewater. In general, scatter diagrams of δ18O and δ15N from NO3- can be used to identify these pollution sources. However, this method can be difficult to use for chemical fertilizers and livestock waste sources due to the overlap of δ18O and δ15N ranges. In this study, we propose to use coprostanol as an indicator for the source of pollution. Coprostanol can be used as a fecal contamination indicator because it is a major fecal sterol formed by the conversion of cholesterol by intestinal bacteria in the gut of higher animals. The proposed method was applied to investigate NO3- pollution sources for groundwater in Shimabara, Nagasaki, Japan. Groundwater samples were collected at 33 locations from March 2013 to November 2015. These data were used to quantify relationships between NO3-N, δ15N-NO3-, δ18O-NO3-, and coprostanol. The results show that coprostanol has a potential for source identification of nitrate pollution. For lower coprostanol concentrations (conventional diagrams of isotopic ratios cannot distinguish pollution sources, coprostanol may be a useful tool.

  5. OSINT: A Major Source of Up-to-Date Information

    OpenAIRE

    Lapid, Ephraim

    2016-01-01

    OSINT has become a developing information collection agency throughout the modern world of intelligence. Intelligence bodies and individuals keep expanding their use of information, profiting from the various technological security and civil applications now available in cyberspace. Professional collaborations are recommended, as they would significantly enhance the filtering and processing of open-source information in this age of metadata.

  6. Methods to identify and locate spent radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide essential guidance to Member States with nuclear applications involving the use of a wide range of sealed radiation sources on the practical task of physically locating spent radiation sources not properly accounted for. Advice is also provided to render the located source safe on location. Refs, figs and tabs.

  7. Methods to identify and locate spent radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide essential guidance to Member States with nuclear applications involving the use of a wide range of sealed radiation sources on the practical task of physically locating spent radiation sources not properly accounted for. Advice is also provided to render the located source safe on location. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Methods to identify and locate spent radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide essential guidance to Member States with nuclear applications involving the use of a wide range of sealed radiation sources on the practical task of physically locating spent radiation sources not properly accounted for. Advice is also provided to render the located source safe on location. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: A major PAH source to urban stream sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witter, Amy E.; Nguyen, Minh H.; Baidar, Sunil; Sak, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    We used land-use analysis, PAH concentrations and assemblages, and multivariate statistics to identify sediment PAH sources in a small (∼1303 km 2 ) urbanizing watershed located in South-Central, Pennsylvania, USA. A geographic information system (GIS) was employed to quantify land-use features that may serve as PAH sources. Urban PAH concentrations were three times higher than rural levels, and were significantly and highly correlated with combined residential/commercial/industrial land use. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to group sediments with similar PAH assemblages, and correlation analysis compared PAH sediment assemblages to common PAH sources. The strongest correlations were observed between rural sediments (n = 7) and coke-oven emissions sources (r = 0.69–0.78, n = 5), and between urban sediments (n = 22) and coal-tar-based sealcoat dust (r = 0.94, n = 47) suggesting that coal-tar-based sealcoat is an important urban PAH source in this watershed linked to residential and commercial/industrial land use. -- Highlights: • Total PAH concentrations were measured at 35 sites along an urbanizing land-use gradient. • PAH concentrations increased with increasing urban land-use. • Urban land-use metrics were measured at three spatial scales using GIS. • PAH assemblages indicate coal-tar-based sealcoat is a major urban PAH source. • PAH assemblages indicate coke-oven emissions are an important rural PAH source. -- Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement is a major PAH source to urban freshwater stream sediments in south-central Pennsylvania, USA

  10. Consideration of Fugitive Emissions in Major Source Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Joint source based analysis of multiple brain structures in studying major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Rasoulian, Abtin; Hollenstein, Tom; Harkness, Kate; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2014-03-01

    We propose a joint Source-Based Analysis (jSBA) framework to identify brain structural variations in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this framework, features representing position, orientation and size (i.e. pose), shape, and local tissue composition are extracted. Subsequently, simultaneous analysis of these features within a joint analysis method is performed to generate the basis sources that show signi cant di erences between subjects with MDD and those in healthy control. Moreover, in a cross-validation leave- one-out experiment, we use a Fisher Linear Discriminant (FLD) classi er to identify individuals within the MDD group. Results show that we can classify the MDD subjects with an accuracy of 76% solely based on the information gathered from the joint analysis of pose, shape, and tissue composition in multiple brain structures.

  12. Investigation on supervising and monitoring of major radioactive pollution source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yibing; Zhang Zongrang; Men Meng; Zhang Peng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: In order to optimize the supervisory monitoring proposal of the major radioactive enterprises. Methods: The authors have worked out the public doses within the range of 0-1 km as well as 1-2 km through monitoring analysis of the radioactive pollutant enterprises on the samples of its surrounding air, water, soil and organism. Results: Generally the pollutant range of the enterprises runs from 0 to 1.5 km. Conclusion: Unnecessary working hours can be shortened as long as we keep the routine supervisory monitor of pollutant enterprises within the range of 2 km. (authors)

  13. Microbial source tracking: a tool for identifying sources of microbial contamination in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling-Lin; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The ability to trace fecal indicators and food-borne pathogens to the point of origin has major ramifications for food industry, food regulatory agencies, and public health. Such information would enable food producers and processors to better understand sources of contamination and thereby take corrective actions to prevent transmission. Microbial source tracking (MST), which currently is largely focused on determining sources of fecal contamination in waterways, is also providing the scientific community tools for tracking both fecal bacteria and food-borne pathogens contamination in the food chain. Approaches to MST are commonly classified as library-dependent methods (LDMs) or library-independent methods (LIMs). These tools will have widespread applications, including the use for regulatory compliance, pollution remediation, and risk assessment. These tools will reduce the incidence of illness associated with food and water. Our aim in this review is to highlight the use of molecular MST methods in application to understanding the source and transmission of food-borne pathogens. Moreover, the future directions of MST research are also discussed.

  14. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R. N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  15. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  16. Identifying Major Dietary Patterns Among the Elderly in Tehran Health Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies on diet have primarily focused on individual nutrients or foods. Recently, the analysis of dietary patterns has emerged as a possible approach for examining food consumption. A literature review revealed no studies of dietary patterns in elderly Iranians. Objectives Our objective was to identify the major dietary intake patterns among the elderly in the health homes located in Zone 5 of Tehran city, Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study (descriptive, 368 elderly people (≥ 60 years old were randomly selected. Their usual dietary intake during the past year was assessed using a 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Major food patterns were derived using factor analysis after the classification of food items into 26 groups. Results Four major dietary patterns were identified in the studied population: 1 healthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of vegetables, tomato and tomato sauce, vegetable oil, olive, and fruits; 2 unhealthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of red meat, fast food, snacks, sugar, honey and jam, soft drinks, and high-fat dairy products; 3. traditional pattern characterized by intake of whole grains, hydrogenated oil and animal fat, beans, salt, and pickles; and 4 protein-rich pattern, characterized by intake of chicken and poultry, fish, grains, and organ meats. These four major dietary patterns explained 16.3%, 7.5%, 6.7%, and 5.7% of the total variance, respectively. Conclusions Four major dietary patterns were identified in the present studied population that can be used to provide tangible dietary advice for the elderly.

  17. Temporally delineated sources of major chemical species in high Arctic snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Macdonald

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of aerosol from lower latitudes to the high Arctic may be a significant contributor to climate forcing in the Arctic. To identify the sources of key contaminants entering the Canadian High Arctic an intensive campaign of snow sampling was completed at Alert, Nunavut, from September 2014 to June 2015. Fresh snow samples collected every few days were analyzed for black carbon, major ions, and metals, and this rich data set provided an opportunity for a temporally refined source apportionment of snow composition via positive matrix factorization (PMF in conjunction with FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model potential emission sensitivity analysis. Seven source factors were identified: sea salt, crustal metals, black carbon, carboxylic acids, nitrate, non-crustal metals, and sulfate. The sea salt and crustal factors showed good agreement with expected composition and primarily northern sources. High loadings of V and Se onto Factor 2, crustal metals, was consistent with expected elemental ratios, implying these metals were not primarily anthropogenic in origin. Factor 3, black carbon, was an acidic factor dominated by black carbon but with some sulfate contribution over the winter-haze season. The lack of K+ associated with this factor, a Eurasian source, and limited known forest fire events coincident with this factor's peak suggested a predominantly anthropogenic combustion source. Factor 4, carboxylic acids, was dominated by formate and acetate with a moderate correlation to available sunlight and an oceanic and North American source. A robust identification of this factor was not possible; however, atmospheric photochemical reactions, ocean microlayer reaction, and biomass burning were explored as potential contributors. Factor 5, nitrate, was an acidic factor dominated by NO3−, with a likely Eurasian source and mid-winter peak. The isolation of NO3− on a separate factor may reflect its complex atmospheric

  18. Can subsyndromal manifestations of major depression be identified in children at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, M; Fitzgerald, M; Lin, K; Carrellas, N; Woodworth, H; Biederman, J

    2017-02-01

    Children of parents with major depression are at significantly increased risk for developing major depression themselves; however, not all children at genetic risk will develop major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the utility of subsyndromal scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Anxiety/Depression scale in identifying children at the highest risk for pediatric MDD from among the pool of children of parents with MDD or bipolar disorder. The sample was derived from two previously conducted longitudinal case-control family studies of psychiatrically and pediatrically referred youth and their families. For this study, probands were stratified based on the presence or absence of a parental mood disorder. Subsyndromal scores on the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale significantly separated the children at high risk for pediatric MDD from those at low risk in a variety of functional areas, including social and academic functioning. Additionally, children at genetic risk without elevated CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale scores were largely indistinguishable from controls. These results suggest that the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale can help identify children at highest risk for pediatric MDD. If implemented clinically, this scale would cost-effectively screen children and identify those most in need of early intervention resources to impede the progression of depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Intra-urban biomonitoring: Source apportionment using tree barks to identify air pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Amato, Luís Fernando Lourenço; Kang, Choong-Min; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2016-05-01

    It is of great interest to evaluate if there is a relationship between possible sources and trace elements using biomonitoring techniques. In this study, tree bark samples of 171 trees were collected using a biomonitoring technique in the inner city of São Paulo. The trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn) were determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to identify the plausible sources associated with tree bark measurements. The greatest source was vehicle-induced non-tailpipe emissions derived mainly from brakes and tires wear-out and road dust resuspension (characterized with Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), which was explained by 27.1% of the variance, followed by cement (14.8%), sea salt (11.6%) and biomass burning (10%), and fossil fuel combustion (9.8%). We also verified that the elements related to vehicular emission showed different concentrations at different sites of the same street, which might be helpful for a new street classification according to the emission source. The spatial distribution maps of element concentrations were obtained to evaluate the different levels of pollution in streets and avenues. Results indicated that biomonitoring techniques using tree bark can be applied to evaluate dispersion of air pollution and provide reliable data for the further epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying Cases of Type 2 Diabetes in Heterogeneous Data Sources: Strategy from the EMIF Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Roberto

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneity of existing European sources of observational healthcare data, data source-tailored choices are needed to execute multi-data source, multi-national epidemiological studies. This makes transparent documentation paramount. In this proof-of-concept study, a novel standard data derivation procedure was tested in a set of heterogeneous data sources. Identification of subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM was the test case. We included three primary care data sources (PCDs, three record linkage of administrative and/or registry data sources (RLDs, one hospital and one biobank. Overall, data from 12 million subjects from six European countries were extracted. Based on a shared event definition, sixteeen standard algorithms (components useful to identify T2DM cases were generated through a top-down/bottom-up iterative approach. Each component was based on one single data domain among diagnoses, drugs, diagnostic test utilization and laboratory results. Diagnoses-based components were subclassified considering the healthcare setting (primary, secondary, inpatient care. The Unified Medical Language System was used for semantic harmonization within data domains. Individual components were extracted and proportion of population identified was compared across data sources. Drug-based components performed similarly in RLDs and PCDs, unlike diagnoses-based components. Using components as building blocks, logical combinations with AND, OR, AND NOT were tested and local experts recommended their preferred data source-tailored combination. The population identified per data sources by resulting algorithms varied from 3.5% to 15.7%, however, age-specific results were fairly comparable. The impact of individual components was assessed: diagnoses-based components identified the majority of cases in PCDs (93-100%, while drug-based components were the main contributors in RLDs (81-100%. The proposed data derivation procedure allowed the

  1. Hyperspectral microscopy to identify foodborne bacteria with optimum lighting source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral microscopy is an emerging technology for rapid detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Since scattering spectral signatures from hyperspectral microscopic images (HMI) vary with lighting sources, it is important to select optimal lights. The objective of this study is to compare t...

  2. Identifying sources and estimating glandular output of salivary TIMP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Jensen, Siri Beier; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2008-01-01

    saliva (267.01 ng/min). Conclusion. This study shows that saliva contains authentic TIMP-1, the concentration of which was found to depend on gland type and salivary flow. Stimulated whole saliva is suggested as a reliable and easily accessible source for TIMP-1 determinations in bodily fluids....

  3. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse or p...

  4. A Manual to Identify Sources of Fluvial Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedimentation is one of the main causes of stream/river aquatic life use impairments in R3. Currently states lack standard guidance on appropriate tools available to quantify sediment sources and develop sediment budgets in TMDL Development. Methods for distinguishing sediment t...

  5. Interpretative approaches to identifying sources of hydrocarbons in complex contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical instrumental hardware and software have permitted the use of more sophisticated approaches in identifying or fingerprinting sources of hydrocarbons in complex matrix environments. In natural resource damage assessments and contaminated site investigations of both terrestrial and aquatic environments, chemical fingerprinting has become an important interpretative tool. The alkyl homologues of the major polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., phenanthrenes/anthracenes, dibenzothiophenes, chrysenes) have been found to the most valuable hydrocarbons in differentiating hydrocarbon sources, but there are other hydrocarbon analytes, such as the chemical biomarkers steranes and triterpanes, and alkyl homologues of benzene, and chemical methodologies, such as scanning UV fluorescence, that have been found to be useful in certain environments. This presentation will focus on recent data interpretative approaches for hydrocarbon source identification assessments. Selection of appropriate targets analytes and data quality requirements will be discussed and example cases including the Arabian Gulf War oil spill results will be presented

  6. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying sources of groundwater pollution using trace element signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmez, I.; Hayes, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A simple receptor modeling approach has been applied to groundwater pollution studies and has shown that marker trace elements can be used effectively in source identification and apportionment. Groundwater and source materials from one coal-fired and five oil-fired power plants, and one coal-tar deposit site have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for more than 20 minor and trace elements. In one of the oil-fired power plants, trace element patterns indicated a leak from the hazardous waste surface impoundments owing to the failure of a hypolon liner. Also, the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater contamination have been determined in a coal-tar deposit site

  8. A New Technique to Identify Arbitrarily Shaped Noise Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Tenenbaum

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic intensity is one of the available tools for evaluating sound radiation from vibrating bodies. Active intensity may, in some situations, not give a faithful insight about how much energy is in fact carried into the far field. It was then proposed a new parameter, the supersonic acoustic intensity, which takes into account only the intensity generated by components having a smaller wavenumber than the acoustic one. However, the method is only efective for simple sources, such as plane plates, cylinders and spheres. This work presents a new technique, based on the Boundary Elements Method and the Singular Value Decomposition, to compute the supersonic acoustic intensity for arbitrarily shaped sources. The technique is based in the Kirchoff-Helmholtz equation in a discretized approach, leading to a radiation operator that relates the normal velocity on the source's surface mesh with the pressure at grid points located in the field. Then, the singular value decomposition technique is set to the radiation operator and a cutoff criterion is applied to remove non propagating components. Some numerical examples are presented.

  9. A general method for identifying major hybrid male sterility genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L W; Singh, R S

    1995-10-01

    The genes responsible for hybrid male sterility in species crosses are usually identified by introgressing chromosome segments, monitored by visible markers, between closely related species by continuous backcrosses. This commonly used method, however, suffers from two problems. First, it relies on the availability of markers to monitor the introgressed regions and so the portion of the genome examined is limited to the marked regions. Secondly, the introgressed regions are usually large and it is impossible to tell if the effects of the introgressed regions are the result of single (or few) major genes or many minor genes (polygenes). Here we introduce a simple and general method for identifying putative major hybrid male sterility genes which is free of these problems. In this method, the actual hybrid male sterility genes (rather than markers), or tightly linked gene complexes with large effects, are selectively introgressed from one species into the background of another species by repeated backcrosses. This is performed by selectively backcrossing heterozygous (for hybrid male sterility gene or genes) females producing fertile and sterile sons in roughly equal proportions to males of either parental species. As no marker gene is required for this procedure, this method can be used with any species pairs that produce unisexual sterility. With the application of this method, a small X chromosome region of Drosophila mauritiana which produces complete hybrid male sterility (aspermic testes) in the background of D. simulans was identified. Recombination analysis reveals that this region contains a second major hybrid male sterility gene linked to the forked locus located at either 62.7 +/- 0.66 map units or at the centromere region of the X chromosome of D. mauritiana.

  10. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon

    Full Text Available Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely source of the human infections.

  11. Using Major Elements to Determine Sources of Nitrate in Groundwater, Suffolk County, Long Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, J.; Hanson, G.; Bokuniewicz, H.

    2004-05-01

    Suffolk County is the eastern most county on Long Island with an area of 2,500 square kilometers and a population of 1.4 million. Groundwater is the only source of potable water for Suffolk County. Nitrate levels have become a concern as a result of the continued eastward urbanization of Long Island since the mid 1900's. In 2003, 2% of 1000 public supply wells had greater than 10 ppm nitrogen as nitrate, 8% had 6 to 10 ppm nitrogen as nitrate and 62% of the wells were rated as susceptible to increased nitrate contamination based on land use, travel time and prevalence. Nitrogen as nitrate above 10 ppm is harmful to infants and is currently the drinking water standard of the Environmental Protection Agency. The major sources of the nitrate in the urbanized areas are most likely turf grass fertilizer and sewage from septic tank/cesspool systems and sewage treatment plants that provide only secondary treatment. Turf grass occupies about 28% of the land. Two-thirds of the houses have septic tank/cesspool systems and a majority of the sewage treatment plants discharge effluent to the groundwater. Previous investigators of the sources of nitrate in groundwater on Long Island have used 15N values of nitrate-nitrogen to identify nitrate contamination (Bleifuss et al., 2000; Flipse and Bonner, 1985; Flipse et al., 1984; Kreitler et al., 1978). However, due to overlapping source signatures, nitrogen isotopes alone were not sufficient to characterize the sources of nitrate. More recent studies have shown that major elements that accompany nitrate in the groundwater (Bleifuss et al., 2000; Elhatip et al., 2003; Trauth and Xanthopoulos, 1997) may distinguish sources of nitrate with less ambiguity. In this study samples of waste water from septic tank/cesspool systems and sewage treatment plants and samples of soil water collected below turf grass that is not fertilized, fertilized with organic fertilizer and fertilized with chemical fertilizer were analyzed for major elements

  12. The effects of majority versus minority source status on persuasion: a self-validation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcajo, Javier; Petty, Richard E; Briñol, Pablo

    2010-09-01

    The present research proposes that sources in the numerical majority (vs. minority) can affect persuasion by influencing the confidence with which people hold their thoughts in response to the persuasive message. Participants received a persuasive message composed of either strong or weak arguments that was presented by a majority or a minority source. Consistent with the self-validation hypothesis, we predicted and found that the majority (vs. minority) status of the source increased the confidence with which recipients held their thoughts. As a consequence, majority (vs. minority) sources increased argument quality effects in persuasion when source status information followed message processing (Experiment 1). In contrast, when the information regarding source status preceded (rather than followed) the persuasive message, it validated the perception of the position advocated, reducing message processing. As a consequence of having more confidence in the position advocated before receiving the message, majority (vs. minority) sources reduced argument quality effects in persuasion (Experiment 2). Finally, Experiment 3 isolated the timing of the source status manipulation, revealing that sources in the numerical majority (vs. minority) can increase or decrease persuasion to strong arguments depending on whether source status is introduced before or after processing the message. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Inability to identify source of HIV precludes damage award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-09

    The Florida Court of Appeals ruled that the spouse of a hemophiliac who contracted HIV from a tainted blood-clotting product cannot recover wrongful death damages because she could not identify a specific manufacturer. [Name removed] [name removed]'s widow sued four manufacturers of clotting concentrate, Armour Pharmaceutical Co., Alpha Therapeutic Corp., Cutter Laboratories, and Baxter Healthcare Corp. The court rejected the applicability of a market-share approach to liability in this case. The Court of Appeals explained that blood-clotting products do not share a uniform composition because the plasma is collected from different sites across the country.

  14. Identifying predictors, moderators, and mediators of antidepressant response in major depressive disorder: neuroimaging approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Chase, Henry W; Sheline, Yvette I; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R C; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes.

  15. Identifying Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L.; Chase, Henry W.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R.C.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. Method In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. Results The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Conclusions Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:25640931

  16. Relationship between Dietary Fat Intake, Its Major Food Sources and Assisted Reproduction Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    High dietary fat consumption may alter oocyte development and embryonic development. This prospective study was conducted to determine the relation between dietary fat consumption level, its food sources and the assisted reproduction parameters. A prospective study was conducted on 240 infertile women. In assisted reproduction treatment cycle, fat consumption and major food sources over the previous three months were identified. The number of retrieved oocytes, metaphase ΙΙ stage oocytes numbers, fertilization rate, embryo quality and clinical pregnancy rate were also determined. The data were analyzed using multiple regression, binary logistic regression, chi-square and t-test. The p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Total fat intake adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity and etiology of infertility was positively associated with the number of retrieved oocytes and inversely associated with the high embryo quality rate. An inverse association was observed between sausage and turkey ham intake and the number of retrieved oocytes. Also, oil intake level had an inverse association with good cleavage rate. The results revealed that higher levels of fat consumption tend to increase the number of retrieved oocytes and were adversely related to embryonic development. Among food sources of fat, vegetable oil, sausage and turkey ham intake may adversely affect assisted reproduction parameters.

  17. Conditional analysis identifies three novel major histocompatibility complex loci associated with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jo; Spain, Sarah L; Capon, Francesca; Hayday, Adrian; Nestle, Frank O; Clop, Alex; Barker, Jonathan N; Weale, Michael E; Trembath, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disorder. A number of genetic loci have been shown to confer risk for psoriasis. Collectively, these offer an integrated model for the inherited basis for susceptibility to psoriasis that combines altered skin barrier function together with the dysregulation of innate immune pathogen sensing and adap-tive immunity. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) harbours the psoriasis susceptibility region which exhibits the largest effect size, driven in part by variation contained on the HLA-Cw*0602 allele. However, the resolution of the number and genomic location of potential independent risk loci are hampered by extensive linkage disequilibrium across the region. We leveraged the power of large psoriasis case and control data sets and the statistical approach of conditional analysis to identify potential further association signals distributed across the MHC. In addition to the major loci at HLA-C (P = 2.20 × 10(-236)), we observed and replicated four additional independent signals for disease association, three of which are novel. We detected evidence for association at SNPs rs2507971 (P = 6.73 × 10(-14)), rs9260313 (P = 7.93 × 10(-09)), rs66609536 (P = 3.54 × 10(-07)) and rs380924 (P = 6.24 × 10(-06)), located within the class I region of the MHC, with each observation replicated in an independent sample (P ≤ 0.01). The previously identified locus is close to MICA, the other three lie near MICB, HLA-A and HCG9 (a non-coding RNA gene). The identification of disease associations with both MICA and MICB is particularly intriguing, since each encodes an MHC class I-related protein with potent immunological function.

  18. An audit of the global carbon budget: identifying and reducing sources of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. P.; Tans, P. P.; Marland, G.; Stocker, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainties in our carbon accounting practices may limit our ability to objectively verify emission reductions on regional scales. Furthermore uncertainties in the global C budget must be reduced to benchmark Earth System Models that incorporate carbon-climate interactions. Here we present an audit of the global C budget where we try to identify sources of uncertainty for major terms in the global C budget. The atmospheric growth rate of CO2 has increased significantly over the last 50 years, while the uncertainty in calculating the global atmospheric growth rate has been reduced from 0.4 ppm/yr to 0.2 ppm/yr (95% confidence). Although we have greatly reduced global CO2 growth rate uncertainties, there remain regions, such as the Southern Hemisphere, Tropics and Arctic, where changes in regional sources/sinks will remain difficult to detect without additional observations. Increases in fossil fuel (FF) emissions are the primary factor driving the increase in global CO2 growth rate; however, our confidence in FF emission estimates has actually gone down. Based on a comparison of multiple estimates, FF emissions have increased from 2.45 ± 0.12 PgC/yr in 1959 to 9.40 ± 0.66 PgC/yr in 2010. Major sources of increasing FF emission uncertainty are increased emissions from emerging economies, such as China and India, as well as subtle differences in accounting practices. Lastly, we evaluate emission estimates from Land Use Change (LUC). Although relative errors in emission estimates from LUC are quite high (2 sigma ~ 50%), LUC emissions have remained fairly constant in recent decades. We evaluate the three commonly used approaches to estimating LUC emissions- Bookkeeping, Satellite Imagery, and Model Simulations- to identify their main sources of error and their ability to detect net emissions from LUC.; Uncertainties in Fossil Fuel Emissions over the last 50 years.

  19. Extended exome sequencing identifies BACH2 as a novel major risk locus for Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, D; Bianchi, M; Landegren, N; Nordin, J; Dalin, F; Mathioudaki, A; Eriksson, G N; Hultin-Rosenberg, L; Dahlqvist, J; Zetterqvist, H; Karlsson, Å; Hallgren, Å; Farias, F H G; Murén, E; Ahlgren, K M; Lobell, A; Andersson, G; Tandre, K; Dahlqvist, S R; Söderkvist, P; Rönnblom, L; Hulting, A-L; Wahlberg, J; Ekwall, O; Dahlqvist, P; Meadows, J R S; Bensing, S; Lindblad-Toh, K; Kämpe, O; Pielberg, G R

    2016-12-01

    Autoimmune disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Addison's disease, the adrenal glands are targeted by destructive autoimmunity. Despite being the most common cause of primary adrenal failure, little is known about its aetiology. To understand the genetic background of Addison's disease, we utilized the extensively characterized patients of the Swedish Addison Registry. We developed an extended exome capture array comprising a selected set of 1853 genes and their potential regulatory elements, for the purpose of sequencing 479 patients with Addison's disease and 1394 controls. We identified BACH2 (rs62408233-A, OR = 2.01 (1.71-2.37), P = 1.66 × 10 -15 , MAF 0.46/0.29 in cases/controls) as a novel gene associated with Addison's disease development. We also confirmed the previously known associations with the HLA complex. Whilst BACH2 has been previously reported to associate with organ-specific autoimmune diseases co-inherited with Addison's disease, we have identified BACH2 as a major risk locus in Addison's disease, independent of concomitant autoimmune diseases. Our results may enable future research towards preventive disease treatment. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  20. Enriched pathways for major depressive disorder identified from a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Feng; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2012-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has caused a substantial burden of disease worldwide with moderate heritability. Despite efforts through conducting numerous association studies and now, genome-wide association (GWA) studies, the success of identifying susceptibility loci for MDD has been limited, which is partially attributed to the complex nature of depression pathogenesis. A pathway-based analytic strategy to investigate the joint effects of various genes within specific biological pathways has emerged as a powerful tool for complex traits. The present study aimed to identify enriched pathways for depression using a GWA dataset for MDD. For each gene, we estimated its gene-wise p value using combined and minimum p value, separately. Canonical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and BioCarta were used. We employed four pathway-based analytic approaches (gene set enrichment analysis, hypergeometric test, sum-square statistic, sum-statistic). We adjusted for multiple testing using Benjamini & Hochberg's method to report significant pathways. We found 17 significantly enriched pathways for depression, which presented low-to-intermediate crosstalk. The top four pathways were long-term depression (p⩽1×10-5), calcium signalling (p⩽6×10-5), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (p⩽1.6×10-4) and cell adhesion molecules (p⩽2.2×10-4). In conclusion, our comprehensive pathway analyses identified promising pathways for depression that are related to neurotransmitter and neuronal systems, immune system and inflammatory response, which may be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression. We demonstrated that pathway enrichment analysis is promising to facilitate our understanding of complex traits through a deeper interpretation of GWA data. Application of this comprehensive analytic strategy in upcoming GWA data for depression could validate the findings reported in this study.

  1. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Raufu, Ibrahim; Thorup Nielsen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely...

  2. Sources of sub-micrometre particles near a major international airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masiol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The international airport of Heathrow is a major source of nitrogen oxides, but its contribution to the levels of sub-micrometre particles is unknown and is the objective of this study. Two sampling campaigns were carried out during warm and cold seasons at a site close to the airfield (1.2 km. Size spectra were largely dominated by ultrafine particles: nucleation particles ( < 30 nm were found to be  ∼ 10 times higher than those commonly measured in urban background environments of London. Five clusters and six factors were identified by applying k means cluster analysis and positive matrix factorisation (PMF, respectively, to particle number size distributions; their interpretation was based on their modal structures, wind directionality, diurnal patterns, road and airport traffic volumes, and on the relationship with weather and other air pollutants. Airport emissions, fresh and aged road traffic, urban accumulation mode, and two secondary sources were then identified and apportioned. The fingerprint of Heathrow has a characteristic modal structure peaking at  < 20 nm and accounts for 30–35 % of total particles in both the seasons. Other main contributors are fresh (24–36 % and aged (16–21 % road traffic emissions and urban accumulation from London (around 10 %. Secondary sources accounted for less than 6 % in number concentrations but for more than 50 % in volume concentration. The analysis of a strong regional nucleation event showed that both the cluster categorisation and PMF contributions were affected during the first 6 h of the event. In 2016, the UK government provisionally approved the construction of a third runway; therefore the direct and indirect impact of Heathrow on local air quality is expected to increase unless mitigation strategies are applied successfully.

  3. Urban NH3 levels and sources in six major Spanish cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Cristina; Viana, Mar; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Cusack, Michael; Alastuey, Andrés; Artiñano, Begoña; Revuelta, M Aranzazu; López-Mahía, Purificación; Blanco-Heras, Gustavo; Rodríguez, Sergio; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Mantilla, Enrique; Tang, Y Sim; Querol, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A detailed spatial and temporal assessment of urban NH3 levels and potential emission sources was made with passive samplers in six major Spanish cities (Barcelona, Madrid, A Coruña, Huelva, Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Valencia). Measurements were conducted during two different periods (winter-autumn and spring-summer) in each city. Barcelona showed the clearest spatial pattern, with the highest concentrations in the old city centre, an area characterised by a high population density and a dense urban architecture. The variability in NH3 concentrations did not follow a common seasonal pattern across the different cities. The relationship of urban NH3 with SO2 and NOX allowed concluding on the causes responsible for the variations in NH3 levels between measurement periods observed in Barcelona, Huelva and Madrid. However, the factors governing the variations in A Coruña, Valencia and Santa Cruz de Tenerife are still not fully understood. This study identified a broad variability in NH3 concentrations at the city-scale, and it confirms that NH3 sources in Spanish urban environments are vehicular traffic, biological sources (e.g. garbage containers), wastewater treatment plants, solid waste treatment plants and industry. The importance of NH3 monitoring in urban environments relies on its role as a precursor of secondary inorganic species and therefore PMX. Further research should be addressed in order to establish criteria to develop and implement mitigation strategies for cities, and to include urban NH3 sources in the emission inventories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated genomic and gene expression profiling identifies two major genomic circuits in urothelial carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lindgren

    Full Text Available Similar to other malignancies, urothelial carcinoma (UC is characterized by specific recurrent chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations. However, the interconnection between specific genomic alterations, and how patterns of chromosomal alterations adhere to different molecular subgroups of UC, is less clear. We applied tiling resolution array CGH to 146 cases of UC and identified a number of regions harboring recurrent focal genomic amplifications and deletions. Several potential oncogenes were included in the amplified regions, including known oncogenes like E2F3, CCND1, and CCNE1, as well as new candidate genes, such as SETDB1 (1q21, and BCL2L1 (20q11. We next combined genome profiling with global gene expression, gene mutation, and protein expression data and identified two major genomic circuits operating in urothelial carcinoma. The first circuit was characterized by FGFR3 alterations, overexpression of CCND1, and 9q and CDKN2A deletions. The second circuit was defined by E3F3 amplifications and RB1 deletions, as well as gains of 5p, deletions at PTEN and 2q36, 16q, 20q, and elevated CDKN2A levels. TP53/MDM2 alterations were common for advanced tumors within the two circuits. Our data also suggest a possible RAS/RAF circuit. The tumors with worst prognosis showed a gene expression profile that indicated a keratinized phenotype. Taken together, our integrative approach revealed at least two separate networks of genomic alterations linked to the molecular diversity seen in UC, and that these circuits may reflect distinct pathways of tumor development.

  5. Beyond BLASTing: Tertiary and Quaternary Structure Analysis Helps Identify Major Vault Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and then quaternary structure (docking) of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein (MVP) that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. We used the iterative threading assembly refinement server (I-TASSER) to predict whether putative MVP sequences identified by BLASTp and PSI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool are structurally similar to the experimentally determined rodent MVP tertiary structures. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat (Rattus norvegicus) vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults. These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. As the negative control, I-TASSER did not predict an MVP-like structure from a randomized rat MVP sequence, even when constrained to the rat MVP crystal structure (PDB:2ZUO), thus further validating the method. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of 300 residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via

  6. Tissue plasminogen activator; identifying major barriers related to intravenous injection in ischemic acute cerebral infraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to previous publications, in patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction, thrombolytic therapy using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA necessitates precise documentation of symptoms' onset. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers related to the IV-tPA injection in such patients. Materials and Methods: Between the year 2014-2015, patients with definitive diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction (n = 180 who attended the neurology ward located at the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital were studied. To investigate barriers related to door to IV-tPA needle time, personal reasons, and criteria for inclusion or exclusion of patients, three questionnaire forms were designed based on the Food and Drug Administration-approved indications or contraindications. Results: The mean age of males versus females was 60 versus 77.5 years (ranged 23–93 vs. 29–70 years, respectively. Out of total population, only 10.7% transferred to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms. Regarding to eligibility for IV-tPA, 68.9% of total population have had criteria for such treatment. Concerning to both items such as transferring to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms and eligibility for IV-tPA, only 6.6% of total population met the criteria for such management. There was ignorance or inattention to symptoms in 75% of population studied. There was a mean of 195.92 ± 6.65 min (182.8–209.04 min for door to IV-tPA needle time. Conclusion: Despite the international guidelines for IV-tPA injection within 3–4.5 h of ischemic stroke symptoms' onset, the results of this study revealed that falling time due to ignorance of symptoms, literacy, and living alone might need further attention. As a result, to decrease death and disability, educational programs related to the symptoms' onset by consultant neurologist in Isfahan/Iran seem to be advantageous.

  7. Source Water Protection Planning for Ontario First Nations Communities: Case Studies Identifying Challenges and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Collins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After the Walkerton tragedy in 2000, where drinking water contamination left seven people dead and many suffering from chronic illness, the Province of Ontario, Canada implemented policies to develop Source Water Protection (SWP plans. Under the Clean Water Act (2006, thirty-six regional Conservation Authorities were mandated to develop watershed-based SWP plans under 19 Source Protection Regions. Most First Nations in Ontario are outside of these Source Protection Regions and reserve lands are under Federal jurisdiction. This paper explores how First Nations in Ontario are attempting to address SWP to improve drinking water quality in their communities even though these communities are not part of the Ontario SWP framework. The case studies highlight the gap between the regulatory requirements of the Federal and Provincial governments and the challenges for First Nations in Ontario from lack of funding to implement solutions to address the threats identified in SWP planning. This analysis of different approaches taken by Ontario First Nations shows that the Ontario framework for SWP planning is not an option for the majority of First Nations communities, and does not adequately address threats originating on reserve lands. First Nations attempting to address on-reserve threats to drinking water are using a variety of resources and approaches to develop community SWP plans. However, a common theme of all the cases surveyed is a lack of funding to support implementing solutions for the threats identified by the SWP planning process. Federal government initiatives to address the chronic problem of boil water advisories within Indigenous communities do not recognize SWP planning as a cost-effective tool for improving drinking water quality.

  8. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Sarah E. Jovan; Demetrios Gatziolis; Igor Burstyn; Yvonne L. Michael; Michael C. Amacher; Vicente J. Monleon

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting....

  9. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H., E-mail: gdonovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E., E-mail: sjovan@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Gatziolis, Demetrios, E-mail: dgatziolis@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 620 SW Main, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Burstyn, Igor, E-mail: igor.burstyn@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Michael, Yvonne L., E-mail: ylm23@drexel.edu [Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Nesbitt Hall, 3215 Market St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Amacher, Michael C., E-mail: mcamacher1@outlook.com [USDA Forest Service, Logan Forest Sciences Laboratory, 860 North 1200 East, Logan, UT 84321 (United States); Monleon, Vicente J., E-mail: vjmonleon@fs.fed.us [USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m{sup 3}, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m{sup 3}, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m{sup 3} for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two

  10. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H.; Jovan, Sarah E.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Monleon, Vicente J.

    2016-01-01

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50 m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon–Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500 m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500 m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120 m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4 ng/m"3, which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6 ng/m"3, and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67 ng/m"3 for stained-glass manufacturer #2. - Highlights: • Bio-indicators are a valid method for measuring atmospheric pollutants • We used moss to map atmospheric cadmium in Portland, Oregon • Using a spatial linear model, we identified two stained

  11. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... significantly affecting the environment. (a) General guidelines. The phrase, “major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment,” as used in this part, shall be construed with a...

  12. Galleria mellonella model identifies highly virulent strains among all major molecular types of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the number of cases due to C. gattii is increasing, affecting mainly immunocompetent hosts. C. gattii is divided into four major molecular types, VGI to VGIV, which differ in their host range, epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. Besides studies on the Vancouver Island outbreak strains, which showed that the subtype VGIIa is highly virulent compared to the subtype VGIIb, little is known about the virulence of the other major molecular types. To elucidate the virulence potential of the major molecular types of C. gattii, Galleria mellonella larvae were inoculated with ten globally selected strains per molecular type. Survival rates were recorded and known virulence factors were studied. One VGII, one VGIII and one VGIV strain were more virulent (p 0.05, 21 (five VGI, five VGII, four VGIII and seven VGIV were less virulent (p <0.05 while one strain of each molecular type were avirulent. Cell and capsule size of all strains increased markedly during larvae infection (p <0.001. No differences in growth rate at 37°C were observed. Melanin synthesis was directly related with the level of virulence: more virulent strains produced more melanin than less virulent strains (p <0.05. The results indicate that all C. gattii major molecular types exhibit a range of virulence, with some strains having the potential to be more virulent. The study highlights the necessity to further investigate the genetic background of more and less virulent strains in order to recognize critical features, other than the known virulence factors (capsule, melanin and growth at mammalian body temperature, that maybe crucial for the development and progression of cryptococcosis.

  13. CVExplorer: identifying candidate developers by mining and exploring their open source contributions.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greene, GJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Open source code contributions contain a large amount of technical skill information about developers, which can help to identify suitable candidates for a particular development job and therefore impact the success of a development team. We develop...

  14. Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Naomi R; Ripke, Stephan; Mattheisen, Manuel; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Byrne, Enda M; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Adams, Mark J; Agerbo, Esben; Air, Tracy M; Andlauer, Till M F; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Beekman, Aartjan F T; Bigdeli, Tim B; Binder, Elisabeth B; Blackwood, Douglas R H; Bryois, Julien; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas; Cai, Na; Castelao, Enrique; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Coleman, Jonathan I R; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Craddock, Nick; Crawford, Gregory E; Crowley, Cheynna A; Dashti, Hassan S; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J; Degenhardt, Franziska; Derks, Eske M; Direk, Nese; Dolan, Conor V; Dunn, Erin C; Eley, Thalia C; Eriksson, Nicholas; Escott-Price, Valentina; Kiadeh, Farnush Hassan Farhadi; Finucane, Hilary K; Forstner, Andreas J; Frank, Josef; Gaspar, Héléna A; Gill, Michael; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Goes, Fernando S; Gordon, Scott D; Grove, Jakob; Hall, Lynsey S; Hannon, Eilis; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Hansen, Thomas F; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B; Hoffmann, Per; Homuth, Georg; Horn, Carsten; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hougaard, David M; Hu, Ming; Hyde, Craig L; Ising, Marcus; Jansen, Rick; Jin, Fulai; Jorgenson, Eric; Knowles, James A; Kohane, Isaac S; Kraft, Julia; Kretzschmar, Warren W; Krogh, Jesper; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lane, Jacqueline M; Li, Yihan; Li, Yun; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Leina; MacIntyre, Donald J; MacKinnon, Dean F; Maier, Robert M; Maier, Wolfgang; Marchini, Jonathan; Mbarek, Hamdi; McGrath, Patrick; McGuffin, Peter; Medland, Sarah E; Mehta, Divya; Middeldorp, Christel M; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Milani, Lili; Mill, Jonathan; Mondimore, Francis M; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostafavi, Sara; Mullins, Niamh; Nauck, Matthias; Ng, Bernard; Nivard, Michel G; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Reilly, Paul F; Oskarsson, Hogni; Owen, Michael J; Painter, Jodie N; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz; Peterson, Roseann E; Pettersson, Erik; Peyrot, Wouter J; Pistis, Giorgio; Posthuma, Danielle; Purcell, Shaun M; Quiroz, Jorge A; Qvist, Per; Rice, John P; Riley, Brien P; Rivera, Margarita; Saeed Mirza, Saira; Saxena, Richa; Schoevers, Robert; Schulte, Eva C; Shen, Ling; Shi, Jianxin; Shyn, Stanley I; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Sinnamon, Grant B C; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Daniel J; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockmeier, Craig A; Streit, Fabian; Strohmaier, Jana; Tansey, Katherine E; Teismann, Henning; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Wesley; Thomson, Pippa A; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Tian, Chao; Traylor, Matthew; Treutlein, Jens; Trubetskoy, Vassily; Uitterlinden, André G; Umbricht, Daniel; Van der Auwera, Sandra; van Hemert, Albert M; Viktorin, Alexander; Visscher, Peter M; Wang, Yunpeng; Webb, Bradley T; Weinsheimer, Shantel Marie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witt, Stephanie H; Wu, Yang; Xi, Hualin S; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Futao; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Berger, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cichon, Sven; Dannlowski, Udo; de Geus, E C J; DePaulo, J Raymond; Domenici, Enrico; Domschke, Katharina; Esko, Tõnu; Grabe, Hans J; Hamilton, Steven P; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kloiber, Stefan; Lewis, Glyn; Li, Qingqin S; Lucae, Susanne; Madden, Pamela F A; Magnusson, Patrik K; Martin, Nicholas G; McIntosh, Andrew M; Metspalu, Andres; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nordentoft, Merete; Nöthen, Markus M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Paciga, Sara A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perlis, Roy H; Porteous, David J; Potash, James B; Preisig, Martin; Rietschel, Marcella; Schaefer, Catherine; Schulze, Thomas G; Smoller, Jordan W; Stefansson, Kari; Tiemeier, Henning; Uher, Rudolf; Völzke, Henry; Weissman, Myrna M; Werge, Thomas; Winslow, Ashley R; Lewis, Cathryn M; Levinson, Douglas F; Breen, Gerome; Børglum, Anders D; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2018-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.

  15. Effects of Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings Identified in Midlatitude Mesospheric Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sox, L.; Wickwar, V. B.; Fish, C. S.; Herron, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions. However, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The very dense 11-year data set, collected between 1993-2004, with the Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) at the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU), has been carefully examined for such anomalies. The temperatures derived from these data extend over the mesosphere, from 45 to 90 km. During this period extensive data were acquired during seven major SSW events. In this work we aim to determine the characteristics of the midlatitude mesospheric temperatures during these seven major SSWs. To do this, comparisons were made between the temperature profiles on individual nights before, during, and after the SSW events and the corresponding derived climatological temperature profiles (31-day by 11-year average) for those nights. A consistent disturbance pattern was observed in the mesospheric temperatures during these SSWs. A distinct shift from the nominal winter temperature pattern to a pattern more characteristic of summer temperatures was seen in the midlatitude mesosphere close to when the zonal winds in the polar stratosphere (at 10 hPa, 60° N) reversed from eastward to westward. This shift lasted for several days. This change in pattern included coolings in the upper mesosphere, comparable to those seen in the polar regions, and warmings in the lower mesosphere.

  16. Market integration among electricity markets and their major fuel source markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjelde, James W.; Bessler, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic price information flows among U.S. electricity wholesale spot prices and the prices of the major electricity generation fuel sources, natural gas, uranium, coal, and crude oil, are studied. Multivariate time series methods applied to weekly price data show that in contemporaneous time peak electricity prices move natural gas prices, which in turn influence crude oil. In the long run, price is discovered in the fuel sources market (except uranium), as these prices are weakly exogenous in a reduced rank regression representation of these energy prices.

  17. Lipids Reprogram Metabolism to Become a Major Carbon Source for Histone Acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDonnell, Eoin; Crown, Scott B; Fox, Douglas B

    2016-01-01

    Cells integrate nutrient sensing and metabolism to coordinate proper cellular responses to a particular nutrient source. For example, glucose drives a gene expression program characterized by activating genes involved in its metabolism, in part by increasing glucose-derived histone acetylation....... Here, we find that lipid-derived acetyl-CoA is a major source of carbon for histone acetylation. Using (13)C-carbon tracing combined with acetyl-proteomics, we show that up to 90% of acetylation on certain histone lysines can be derived from fatty acid carbon, even in the presence of excess glucose...

  18. Whole genome population genetics analysis of Sudanese goats identifies regions harboring genes associated with major traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatalla, Siham A; Arends, Danny; Reissmann, Monika; Said Ahmed, Ammar; Wimmers, Klaus; Reyer, Henry; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2017-10-23

    Sudan is endowed with a variety of indigenous goat breeds which are used for meat and milk production and which are well adapted to the local environment. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity and relationship within and between the four main Sudanese breeds of Nubian, Desert, Taggar and Nilotic goats. Using the 50 K SNP chip, 24 animals of each breed were genotyped. More than 96% of high quality SNPs were polymorphic with an average minor allele frequency of 0.3. In all breeds, no significant difference between observed (0.4) and expected (0.4) heterozygosity was found and the inbreeding coefficients (F IS ) did not differ from zero. F st coefficients for the genetic distance between breeds also did not significantly deviate from zero. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance revealed that 93% of the total variance in the examined population can be explained by differences among individuals, while only 7% result from differences between the breeds. These findings provide evidence for high genetic diversity and little inbreeding within breeds on one hand, and low diversity between breeds on the other hand. Further examinations using Nei's genetic distance and STRUCTURE analysis clustered Taggar goats distinct from the other breeds. In a principal component (PC) analysis, PC1 could separate Taggar, Nilotic and a mix of Nubian and Desert goats into three groups. The SNPs that contributed strongly to PC1 showed high F st values in Taggar goat versus the other goat breeds. PCA allowed us to identify target genomic regions which contain genes known to influence growth, development, bone formation and the immune system. The information on the genetic variability and diversity in this study confirmed that Taggar goat is genetically different from the other goat breeds in Sudan. The SNPs identified by the first principal components show high F st values in Taggar goat and allowed to identify candidate genes which can be used in the

  19. News Sources, Gender and Majority-Minority in Danish TV News Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina

    In this paper, I am going to identify some central methodological challenges in relation to a project on TV-news and news sources in a perspective of intersectionality and to sketch a research design. In what follows, I will present some methodological issues and research designs of previous...

  20. Shakespearean tragedies dynamics: identifying a generic structure in Shakespeare's four major tragedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma; Mrotzek, Maximilian

    2012-10-01

    Many interpretations of Shakespearean tragedy have been conducted, mostly following the principles of interpretation in literary study. In our paper, four tragedies by William Shakespeare - Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth - were analysed systemically to find out whether they inhabit a common structure. Using the plot structure as the basis for our analysis, we identified the most important system elements, their connections, and interactive behaviour using causal loop diagrams (CLDs). Our results revealed that all four tragedies basically conform to Senge's archetypal structure 'shifting the burden', adding the action of the heroine or villain and the characters' boundaries of perception. The results suggest that, even though characters and settings vary highly, these tragedies have similar structures and archetypal solutions exist to overcome the problem. Furthermore, we propose that CLDs and systems archetypes are a reasonable hermeneutic tool to analyse not only Shakespearean tragedies but also other literary works.

  1. Inverse modelling of fluvial sediment connectivity identifies characteristics and spatial distribution of sediment sources in a large river network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. J. P.; Bizzi, S.; Kondolf, G. M.; Rubin, Z.; Castelletti, A.

    2016-12-01

    Field and laboratory evidence indicates that the spatial distribution of transport in both alluvial and bedrock rivers is an adaptation to sediment supply. Sediment supply, in turn, depends on spatial distribution and properties (e.g., grain sizes and supply rates) of individual sediment sources. Analyzing the distribution of transport capacity in a river network could hence clarify the spatial distribution and properties of sediment sources. Yet, challenges include a) identifying magnitude and spatial distribution of transport capacity for each of multiple grain sizes being simultaneously transported, and b) estimating source grain sizes and supply rates, both at network scales. Herein, we approach the problem of identifying the spatial distribution of sediment sources and the resulting network sediment fluxes in a major, poorly monitored tributary (80,000 km2) of the Mekong. Therefore, we apply the CASCADE modeling framework (Schmitt et al. (2016)). CASCADE calculates transport capacities and sediment fluxes for multiple grainsizes on the network scale based on remotely-sensed morphology and modelled hydrology. CASCADE is run in an inverse Monte Carlo approach for 7500 random initializations of source grain sizes. In all runs, supply of each source is inferred from the minimum downstream transport capacity for the source grain size. Results for each realization are compared to sparse available sedimentary records. Only 1 % of initializations reproduced the sedimentary record. Results for these realizations revealed a spatial pattern in source supply rates, grain sizes, and network sediment fluxes that correlated well with map-derived patterns in lithology and river-morphology. Hence, we propose that observable river hydro-morphology contains information on upstream source properties that can be back-calculated using an inverse modeling approach. Such an approach could be coupled to more detailed models of hillslope processes in future to derive integrated models

  2. Sources of sub-micrometre particles near a major international airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.; Vu, Tuan V.; Beddows, David C. S.

    2017-10-01

    The international airport of Heathrow is a major source of nitrogen oxides, but its contribution to the levels of sub-micrometre particles is unknown and is the objective of this study. Two sampling campaigns were carried out during warm and cold seasons at a site close to the airfield (1.2 km). Size spectra were largely dominated by ultrafine particles: nucleation particles ( strategies are applied successfully.

  3. Identifying Major Transitions in the Evolution of Lithic Cutting Edge Production Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Muller

    Full Text Available The notion that the evolution of core reduction strategies involved increasing efficiency in cutting edge production is prevalent in narratives of hominin technological evolution. Yet a number of studies comparing two different knapping technologies have found no significant differences in edge production. Using digital analysis methods we present an investigation of raw material efficiency in eight core technologies broadly representative of the long-term evolution of lithic technology. These are bipolar, multiplatform, discoidal, biface, Levallois, prismatic blade, punch blade and pressure blade production. Raw material efficiency is assessed by the ratio of cutting edge length to original core mass. We also examine which flake attributes contribute to maximising raw material efficiency, as well as compare the difference between expert and intermediate knappers in terms of cutting edge produced per gram of core. We identify a gradual increase in raw material efficiency over the broad sweep of lithic technological evolution. The results indicate that the most significant transition in efficiency likely took place with the introduction of small foliate biface, Levallois and prismatic blade knapping, all introduced in the Middle Stone Age / Middle Palaeolithic among early Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. This suggests that no difference in raw material efficiency existed between these species. With prismatic blade technology securely dated to the Middle Palaeolithic, by including the more recent punch and pressure blade technology our results dispel the notion that the transition to the Upper Palaeolithic was accompanied by an increase in efficiency. However, further increases in cutting edge efficiency are evident, with pressure blades possessing the highest efficiency in this study, indicating that late/epi-Palaeolithic and Neolithic blade technologies further increased efficiency.

  4. Source characterization of major emission sources in the Imperial and Mexicali Valleys along the US/Mexico border

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C. [Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Pkwy., 89512 Reno, NV (United States)

    2001-08-10

    Chemical profiles for particle emissions are needed for source apportionment studies using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Source measurements of geological sources, motor vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning (e.g. asparagus, field burning, charbroil cooking), and industrial sources (e.g. oil-fueled glass plant, manure-fueled power plants) were acquired as part of the Imperial/Mexicali Valley Cross Border PM{sub 10} Transport Study in 1992. Six different source sampling techniques (i.e. hot- and diluted-exhaust sampling, ground-based source sampling, particle sweeping/grab sampling, vacuum sampling, and laboratory resuspension sampling) were applied to acquire filter samples of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 and 10 {mu}m, respectively). Filter samples were analyzed for mass by gravimetry, elements (Na to U) by X-ray fluorescence, anions (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup =}) by ion chromatography, ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) by automated colorimetry, soluble sodium (Na{sup +}) and potassium (K{sup +}) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) by thermal/optical reflectance. Concentration data were acquired for a total of 50 chemical species. Elevated abundances of crustal components (Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe) from geological material, carbon (OC, EC) and trace elements (Br, Pb) from vehicle exhausts, carbon (OC, EC) and ions (K{sup +}, Cl{sup -}) from vegetative burning, ions (SO{sub 4}{sup =}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cl{sup -}) and elements (Cl, Se) from a manure-fueled power plants, and sulfur and trace elements (Na{sup +}, Pb, Se, Ni, V) from an oil-fueled glass plant were found in the resulting source profiles. Abundances of crustal species (e.g. Al, Si, Ca) in the Imperial/Mexicali Valley geological profiles are more than twice those found in central and southern California. Abundances of lead in motor vehicle exhausts indicate different

  5. In or Out When Out & About?: Identifying the Professional Support Needs of LGBT Preservice Social Work & Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.; Giesler, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore how preservice social work and teacher education majors navigate field practicums (e.g., student teaching) as self-identified gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals. In-depth interviews with 26 preservice candidates, representative of two public, comprehensive…

  6. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  7. Application of positive matrix factorization to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil of Dalian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Degao; Tian Fulin; Yang Meng; Liu Chenlin; Li Yifan

    2009-01-01

    Soil derived sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Dalian, China were investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Three factors were separated based on PMF for the statistical investigation of the datasets both in summer and winter. These factors were dominated by the pattern of single sources or groups of similar sources, showing seasonal and regional variations. The main sources of PAHs in Dalian soil in summer were the emissions from coal combustion average (46%), diesel engine (30%), and gasoline engine (24%). In winter, the main sources were the emissions from coal-fired boiler (72%), traffic average (20%), and gasoline engine (8%). These factors with strong seasonality indicated that coal combustion in winter and traffic exhaust in summer dominated the sources of PAHs in soil. These results suggested that PMF model was a proper approach to identify the sources of PAHs in soil. - PMF model is a proper approach to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil based on the PAH profiles measured in the field and those published in the literature.

  8. Distraction 'on the buses': a novel framework of ergonomics methods for identifying sources and effects of bus driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Young, Kristie L; Regan, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Driver distraction represents a significant problem in the public transport sector. Various methods exist for investigating distraction; however, the majority are difficult to apply within the context of naturalistic bus driving. This article investigates the nature of bus driver distraction at a major Australian public transport company, including the sources of distraction present, and their effects on driver performance, through the application of a novel framework of ergonomics methods. The framework represents a novel approach for assessing distraction in a real world context. The findings suggest that there are a number of sources of distraction that could potentially distract bus drivers while driving, including those that derive from the driving task itself, and those that derive from the additional requirements associated with bus operation, such as passenger and ticketing-related distractions. A taxonomy of the sources of bus driver distraction identified is presented, along with a discussion of proposed countermeasures designed to remove the sources identified or mitigate their effects on driver performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Procedures for identifying reasonably available control technology for stationary sources of PM-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ellefson, R.

    1992-09-01

    The guidance document sets forth procedures and identifies sources of information that will assist State and local air pollution control agencies in determining Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for PM-10 (particulate matter having a nominal aerometric diameter of 10 microns or less) emission from existing stationary sources on a case-by-case basis. It provides an annotated bibliography of documents to aid in identifying the activities that cause PM-10 emissions as well as applicable air pollution control measures and their effectiveness in reducing emissions. The most stringent state total particulate matter (PM) emission limits are identified for several categories of PM-10 sources and compared to available emission test data. Finally, guidance is provided on procedures for estimating total capital investment and total annual cost of the control measures which are generally used to control PM-10 emissions

  10. Automated Source Code Analysis to Identify and Remove Software Security Vulnerabilities: Case Studies on Java Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan Meghanathan

    2013-01-01

    The high-level contribution of this paper is to illustrate the development of generic solution strategies to remove software security vulnerabilities that could be identified using automated tools for source code analysis on software programs (developed in Java). We use the Source Code Analyzer and Audit Workbench automated tools, developed by HP Fortify Inc., for our testing purposes. We present case studies involving a file writer program embedded with features for password validation, and ...

  11. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log 10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log 10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log 10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log 10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants which can

  12. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: a major PAH source to urban stream sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Amy E; Nguyen, Minh H; Baidar, Sunil; Sak, Peter B

    2014-02-01

    We used land-use analysis, PAH concentrations and assemblages, and multivariate statistics to identify sediment PAH sources in a small (~1303 km(2)) urbanizing watershed located in South-Central, Pennsylvania, USA. A geographic information system (GIS) was employed to quantify land-use features that may serve as PAH sources. Urban PAH concentrations were three times higher than rural levels, and were significantly and highly correlated with combined residential/commercial/industrial land use. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to group sediments with similar PAH assemblages, and correlation analysis compared PAH sediment assemblages to common PAH sources. The strongest correlations were observed between rural sediments (n = 7) and coke-oven emissions sources (r = 0.69-0.78, n = 5), and between urban sediments (n = 22) and coal-tar-based sealcoat dust (r = 0.94, n = 47) suggesting that coal-tar-based sealcoat is an important urban PAH source in this watershed linked to residential and commercial/industrial land use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying the source, transport path and sinks of sewage derived organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, Stephen M.; Duce, Caroline E.

    2005-01-01

    Since sewage discharges can significantly contribute to the contaminant loadings in coastal areas, it is important to identify sources, pathways and environmental sinks. Sterol and fatty alcohol biomarkers were quantified in source materials, suspended sediments and settling matter from the Ria Formosa Lagoon. Simple ratios between key biomarkers including 5β-coprostanol, cholesterol and epi-coprostanol were able to identify the sewage sources and effected deposition sites. Multivariate methods (PCA) were used to identify co-varying sites. PLS analysis using the sewage discharge as the signature indicated ∼ 25% of the variance in the sites could be predicted by the sewage signature. A new source of sewage derived organic matter was found with a high sewage predictable signature. The suspended sediments had relatively low sewage signatures as the material was diluted with other organic matter from in situ production. From a management viewpoint, PLS provides a useful tool in identifying the pathways and accumulation sites for such contaminants. - Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify pathways and accumulation sites for contaminants in coastal waters

  14. Major reactive species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their sources in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Min; FU; Linlin; LIU; Ying; LU; Sihua; ZHANG; Yuanhan

    2005-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important precursors of atmospheric chemical processes. As a whole mixture, the ambient VOCs show very strong chemical reactivity. Based on OH radical loss rates in the air, the chemical reactivity of VOCs in Beijing was calculated. The results revealed that alkenes, accounting for only about 15% in the mixing ratio of VOCs, provide nearly 75% of the reactivity of ambient VOCs and the C4 to C5 alkenes were the major reactive species among the alkenes. The study of emission characteristics of various VOCs sources indicated that these alkenes are mainly from vehicle exhaust and gasoline evaporation. The reduction of alkene species in these two sources will be effective in photochemical pollution control in Beijing.

  15. Bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis for identifying systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources from electroencephalographic or magnetoencephalographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chella, Federico; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Nolte, Guido; Marzetti, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Brain cognitive functions arise through the coordinated activity of several brain regions, which actually form complex dynamical systems operating at multiple frequencies. These systems often consist of interacting subsystems, whose characterization is of importance for a complete understanding of the brain interaction processes. To address this issue, we present a technique, namely the bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis (biPISA), for analyzing systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources when multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) or magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data are available. Specifically, the biPISA makes it possible to identify one or many subsystems of cross-frequency interacting sources by decomposing the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra between EEG or MEG signals, based on the assumption that interactions are pairwise. Thanks to the properties of the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra, biPISA is also robust to spurious interactions arising from mixing artifacts, i.e., volume conduction or field spread, which always affect EEG or MEG functional connectivity estimates. This method is an extension of the pairwise interacting source analysis (PISA), which was originally introduced for investigating interactions at the same frequency, to the study of cross-frequency interactions. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in simulations for up to three interacting source pairs and for real MEG recordings of spontaneous brain activity. Simulations show that the performances of biPISA in estimating the phase difference between the interacting sources are affected by the increasing level of noise rather than by the number of the interacting subsystems. The analysis of real MEG data reveals an interaction between two pairs of sources of central mu and beta rhythms, localizing in the proximity of the left and right central sulci.

  16. Sensitivity of Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission Navigation Accuracy to Major Error Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Long, Anne; Car[emter. Russell

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four satellites flying in formation in highly elliptical orbits about the Earth, with a primary objective of studying magnetic reconnection. The baseline navigation concept is independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements referenced to an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) with accelerometer measurements included during maneuvers. MMS state estimation is performed onboard each spacecraft using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS), which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the sensitivity of MMS navigation performance to two major error sources: USO clock errors and thrust acceleration knowledge errors.

  17. Sensitivity of Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission Naviation Accuracy to Major Error Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Long, Anne; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four satellites flying in formation in highly elliptical orbits about the Earth, with a primary objective of studying magnetic reconnection. The baseline navigation concept is independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements referenced to an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) with accelerometer measurements included during maneuvers. MMS state estimation is performed onboard each spacecraft using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS), which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the sensitivity of MMS navigation performance to two major error sources: USO clock errors and thrust acceleration knowledge errors.

  18. THE MULTIPHASE STRUCTURE AND POWER SOURCES OF GALACTIC WINDS IN MAJOR MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupke, David S. N.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Massive, galaxy-scale outflows are known to be ubiquitous in major mergers of disk galaxies in the local universe. In this paper, we explore the multiphase structure and power sources of galactic winds in six ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z –1 , and the highest velocities (2000-3000 km s –1 ) are seen only in ionized gas. The outflow energy and momentum in the QSOs are difficult to produce from a starburst alone, but are consistent with the QSO contributing significantly to the driving of the flow. Finally, when all gas phases are accounted for, the outflows are massive enough to provide negative feedback to star formation.

  19. Leveraging Diverse Data Sources to Identify and Describe U.S. Health Care Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Genna R; Jones, David J; Heeringa, Jessica; Barrett, Kirsten; Furukawa, Michael F; Miller, Dan; Mutti, Anne; Reschovsky, James D; Machta, Rachel; Shortell, Stephen M; Fraze, Taressa; Rich, Eugene

    2017-12-15

    Health care delivery systems are a growing presence in the U.S., yet research is hindered by the lack of universally agreed-upon criteria to denote formal systems. A clearer understanding of how to leverage real-world data sources to empirically identify systems is a necessary first step to such policy-relevant research. We draw from our experience in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Comparative Health System Performance (CHSP) initiative to assess available data sources to identify and describe systems, including system members (for example, hospitals and physicians) and relationships among the members (for example, hospital ownership of physician groups). We highlight five national data sources that either explicitly track system membership or detail system relationships: (1) American Hospital Association annual survey of hospitals; (2) Healthcare Relational Services Databases; (3) SK&A Healthcare Databases; (4) Provider Enrollment, Chain, and Ownership System; and (5) Internal Revenue Service 990 forms. Each data source has strengths and limitations for identifying and describing systems due to their varied content, linkages across data sources, and data collection methods. In addition, although no single national data source provides a complete picture of U.S. systems and their members, the CHSP initiative will create an early model of how such data can be combined to compensate for their individual limitations. Identifying systems in a way that can be repeated over time and linked to a host of other data sources will support analysis of how different types of organizations deliver health care and, ultimately, comparison of their performance.

  20. Perceived stress among medical students: To identify its sources and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhada Gade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress in medical education is common and process-oriented. It often exerts a negative effect on their academic performance, physical health, and psychological well being. Aims: This study aims at identification of such susceptible students in the early stage i.e. first year of medical education, and to provide them essential support in the form of an intervention program to lessen the negative consequences of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the First MBBS students of NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Nagpur, India. A 41-item questionnaire was designed to assess the sources of stress and their severity. Likert′s 5-point scale was used to quantify the extent of severity on each item. Coping strategies adopted by students were assessed by using a 22-item stress inventory, and a questionnaire based on 19 institutional stress-reducing factors was used to identify its role. Results: The survey resulted into an overall response rate of 87% (131 out of 150 students. Median stress level based on 41 items was evaluated for each student. About 29% (40 students had median stress level greater than 3. Female students were more stressed (17.19% than male students (14.93%. The study revealed that students generally adopt active coping strategies rather than avoidant strategies like alcohol and drug abuse. The study indicated that emotional support system is a major stress-relieving factor for students. Conclusion: Prevalence of perceived stress is high among medical students. It seems that academic-related problems are greater perceived stressors. Review of academics, exam schedules and patterns, better interaction with the faculty and proper guidance, intervention programs and counseling could certainly help a lot to reduce stress in medical students.

  1. Application of classification-tree methods to identify nitrate sources in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruill, T.B.; Showers, W.J.; Howe, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if nitrate sources in ground water (fertilizer on crops, fertilizer on golf courses, irrigation spray from hog (Sus scrofa) wastes, and leachate from poultry litter and septic systems) could be classified with 80% or greater success. Two statistical classification-tree models were devised from 48 water samples containing nitrate from five source categories. Model I was constructed by evaluating 32 variables and selecting four primary predictor variables (??15N, nitrate to ammonia ratio, sodium to potassium ratio, and zinc) to identify nitrate sources. A ??15N value of nitrate plus potassium 18.2 indicated inorganic or soil organic N. A nitrate to ammonia ratio 575 indicated nitrate from golf courses. A sodium to potassium ratio 3.2 indicated spray or poultry wastes. A value for zinc 2.8 indicated poultry wastes. Model 2 was devised by using all variables except ??15N. This model also included four variables (sodium plus potassium, nitrate to ammonia ratio, calcium to magnesium ratio, and sodium to potassium ratio) to distinguish categories. Both models were able to distinguish all five source categories with better than 80% overall success and with 71 to 100% success in individual categories using the learning samples. Seventeen water samples that were not used in model development were tested using Model 2 for three categories, and all were correctly classified. Classification-tree models show great potential in identifying sources of contamination and variables important in the source-identification process.

  2. The use of source memory to identify one's own episodic confusion errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Tindell, D R; Pierce, B H; Gilliland, T R; Gerkens, D R

    2001-03-01

    In 4 category cued recall experiments, participants falsely recalled nonlist common members, a semantic confusion error. Errors were more likely if critical nonlist words were presented on an incidental task, causing source memory failures called episodic confusion errors. Participants could better identify the source of falsely recalled words if they had deeply processed the words on the incidental task. For deep but not shallow processing, participants could reliably include or exclude incidentally shown category members in recall. The illusion that critical items actually appeared on categorized lists was diminished but not eradicated when participants identified episodic confusion errors post hoc among their own recalled responses; participants often believed that critical items had been on both the incidental task and the study list. Improved source monitoring can potentially mitigate episodic (but not semantic) confusion errors.

  3. Targeting allergenic fungi in agricultural environments aids the identification of major sources and potential risks for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikl, F; Radl, V; Munch, J C; Pritsch, K

    2015-10-01

    Fungi are, after pollen, the second most important producers of outdoor airborne allergens. To identify sources of airborne fungal allergens, a workflow for qPCR quantification from environmental samples was developed, thoroughly tested, and finally applied. We concentrated on determining the levels of allergenic fungi belonging to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma in plant and soil samples from agricultural fields in which cereals were grown. Our aims were to identify the major sources of allergenic fungi and factors potentially influencing their occurrence. Plant materials were the main source of the tested fungi at and after harvest. Amounts of A. alternata and C. cladosporioides varied significantly in fields under different management conditions, but absolute levels were very high in all cases. This finding suggests that high numbers of allergenic fungi may be an inevitable side effect of farming in several crops. Applied in large-scale studies, the concept described here may help to explain the high number of sensitization to airborne fungal allergens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Taguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%. The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day, also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2% and green tea (26.6% were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake.

  5. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Chinese forest soil: Will combustion become a major source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Zheng, Qian; Pan, Suhong; Luo, Chunling; Zhu, Haolin; Nizzetto, Luca; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    We collected O- and A-horizon soil samples in 26 Chinese mountainous forests to investigate the content, spatial pattern, and potential sources of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Spatial patterns were influenced mainly by the approximation to sources and soil organic contents. High concentrations often occurred close to populated or industrialized areas. Combustion-related activities contributed to PCN pollution. Relatively high proportions of CN-73 in northern China may be attributed to coke consumption, while CN-51 could be an indicator of biomass burning in Southwest China. There are evidences that PCNs may largely derived from unintentional production. If uncontrolled, UP-PCN (unintentionally produced PCNs) emissions could increase with industrial development. The abnormally high concentrations at Gongga and Changbai Mountains appear to be associated with the high efficient of forest filter of atmospheric contaminants at these densely forested sites. We question whether this is caused by ecotones between forests, and raise additional questions for future analyses. - Highlights: • PCNs were measured in the O- and A-horizon soil of Chinese mountainous forests. • SOC and source emissions are mainly responsible for PCN pollution. • Thermal processes may contribute to PCN pollution on a regional scale. • CN-73 could be an indicator of coke consumption in northern China. - Combustion-related activities may contributed to a major part of PCN pollution in Chinese background soil

  6. Human sewage identified as likely source of white pox disease of the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kathryn Patterson; Porter, James W; Turner, Jeffrey W; Thomas, Brian J; Looney, Erin E; Luna, Trevor P; Meyers, Meredith K; Futch, J Carrie; Lipp, Erin K

    2010-05-01

    Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, has been decimated in recent years, resulting in the listing of this species as threatened under the United States Endangered Species Act. A major contributing factor in the decline of this iconic species is white pox disease. In 2002, we identified the faecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as an etiological agent for white pox. During outbreaks in 2003 a unique strain of S. marcescens was identified in both human sewage and white pox lesions. This strain (PDR60) was also identified from corallivorious snails (Coralliophila abbreviata), reef water, and two non-acroporid coral species, Siderastrea siderea and Solenastrea bournoni. Identification of PDR60 in sewage, diseased Acropora palmata and other reef invertebrates within a discrete time frame suggests a causal link between white pox and sewage contamination on reefs and supports the conclusion that humans are a likely source of this disease.

  7. A Nondestructive Method to Identify POP Contamination Sources in Omnivorous Seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Rosanne J; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Parsons, John R; Kraak, Michiel H S

    2018-03-13

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are present in almost all environments due to their high bioaccumulation potential. Especially species that adapted to human activities, like gulls, might be exposed to harmful concentrations of these chemicals. The nature and degree of the exposure to POPs greatly vary between individual gulls, due to their diverse foraging behavior and specialization in certain foraging tactics. Therefore, in order clarify the effect of POP-contaminated areas on gull populations, it is important to identify the sources of POP contamination in individual gulls. Conventional sampling methods applied when studying POP contamination are destructive and ethically undesired. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the potential of using feathers as a nondestructive method to determine sources of POP contamination in individual gulls. The reviewed data showed that high concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in feathers together with a large proportion of less bioaccumulative congeners may indicate that the contamination originates from landfills. Low PCB and PBDE concentrations in feathers and a large proportion of more bioaccumulative congeners could indicate that the contamination originates from marine prey. We propose a nondestructive approach to identify the source of contamination in individual gulls based on individual contamination levels and PCB and PBDE congener profiles in feathers. Despite some uncertainties that might be reduced by future research, we conclude that especially when integrated with other methods like GPS tracking and the analysis of stable isotopic signatures, identifying the source of POP contamination based on congener profiles in feathers could become a powerful nondestructive method.

  8. Using Social Media to Identify Sources of Healthy Food in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Iris N; Clarke, Philippa; Hill, Alex B; Romero, Daniel M; Goodspeed, Robert; Berrocal, Veronica J; Vinod Vydiswaran, V G; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2017-06-01

    An established body of research has used secondary data sources (such as proprietary business databases) to demonstrate the importance of the neighborhood food environment for multiple health outcomes. However, documenting food availability using secondary sources in low-income urban neighborhoods can be particularly challenging since small businesses play a crucial role in food availability. These small businesses are typically underrepresented in national databases, which rely on secondary sources to develop data for marketing purposes. Using social media and other crowdsourced data to account for these smaller businesses holds promise, but the quality of these data remains unknown. This paper compares the quality of full-line grocery store information from Yelp, a crowdsourced content service, to a "ground truth" data set (Detroit Food Map) and a commercially-available dataset (Reference USA) for the greater Detroit area. Results suggest that Yelp is more accurate than Reference USA in identifying healthy food stores in urban areas. Researchers investigating the relationship between the nutrition environment and health may consider Yelp as a reliable and valid source for identifying sources of healthy food in urban environments.

  9. Sources of toxicity and exposure information for identifying chemicals of high concern to children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Alex; Delistraty, Damon

    2010-01-01

    Due to the large number of chemicals in commerce without adequate toxicity characterization data, coupled with an ineffective federal policy for chemical management in the United States, many states are grappling with the challenge to identify toxic chemicals that may pose a risk to human health and the environment. Specific populations (e.g., children, elderly) are particularly sensitive to these toxic chemicals. In 2008, the Children's Safe Product Act (CSPA) was passed in Washington State. The CSPA included specific requirements to identify High Priority Chemicals (HPCs) and Chemicals of High Concern to Children (CHCCs). To implement this legislation, a methodology was developed to identify HPCs from authoritative scientific and regulatory sources on the basis of toxicity criteria. Another set of chemicals of concern was then identified from authoritative sources, based on their potential exposure to children. Exposure potential was evaluated by identifying chemicals detected in biomonitoring studies (i.e., human tissues), as well as those present in residential exposure media (e.g., indoor air, house dust, drinking water, consumer products). Accordingly, CHCCs were defined as HPCs that also appear in biomonitoring studies or relevant exposure media. For chemicals with unique Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, we identified 2044 HPCs and 2219 chemicals with potential exposure to children, resulting in 476 CHCCs. The process of chemical identification is dynamic, so that chemicals may be added or subtracted as new information becomes available. Although beyond the scope of this paper, the 476 CHCCs will be prioritized in a more detailed assessment, based on the strength and weight of evidence of toxicity and exposure data. Our approach was developed to be flexible which allows the addition or removal of specific sources of toxicity or exposure information, as well as transparent to allow clear identification of inputs. Although the methodology was

  10. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Becker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations......We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres of this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark) using three...

  11. Identifying sources of emerging organic contaminants in a mixed use watershed using principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuzcu, M Ekrem; Fairbairn, David; Arnold, William A; Barber, Brian L; Kaufenberg, Elizabeth; Koskinen, William C; Novak, Paige J; Rice, Pamela J; Swackhamer, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify sources of emerging organic contaminants in the Zumbro River watershed in Southeastern Minnesota. Two main principal components (PCs) were identified, which together explained more than 50% of the variance in the data. Principal Component 1 (PC1) was attributed to urban wastewater-derived sources, including municipal wastewater and residential septic tank effluents, while Principal Component 2 (PC2) was attributed to agricultural sources. The variances of the concentrations of cotinine, DEET and the prescription drugs carbamazepine, erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole were best explained by PC1, while the variances of the concentrations of the agricultural pesticides atrazine, metolachlor and acetochlor were best explained by PC2. Mixed use compounds carbaryl, iprodione and daidzein did not specifically group with either PC1 or PC2. Furthermore, despite the fact that caffeine and acetaminophen have been historically associated with human use, they could not be attributed to a single dominant land use category (e.g., urban/residential or agricultural). Contributions from septic systems did not clarify the source for these two compounds, suggesting that additional sources, such as runoff from biosolid-amended soils, may exist. Based on these results, PCA may be a useful way to broadly categorize the sources of new and previously uncharacterized emerging contaminants or may help to clarify transport pathways in a given area. Acetaminophen and caffeine were not ideal markers for urban/residential contamination sources in the study area and may need to be reconsidered as such in other areas as well.

  12. A review on the major sources of the interior sound vibration and riding comfort in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDhahebi, Adel Mohammed; Junoh, Ahmad Kadri; Ahmed, Amran

    2016-10-01

    Vehicle interior comfort is a crucial criteria that is considered by the perspective customer when purchasing a new vehicle. Meanwhile, automotive industries face the challenges for producing vehicles with better design criteria that meet the expectations of customers and eventually promote higher competitive advantages in areas of acoustic performance, cost effectiveness, product weight, and global competitive market. This review presents the major sources that influence the generation of noise and vibration in the interior part of the vehicles. It also demonstrates the relative methods that are used to assess the interior acoustics and vibration and further improve the riding comfort. This study is of a particular importance for acoustical researchers and automobile engineers, where it brings about suggestions and fundamentals that can contribute to acoustical comfort in vehicles.

  13. Silencing of omega-5 gliadins in transgenic wheat eliminates a major source of environmental variability and improves dough mixing properties of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background The end-use quality of wheat flour varies as a result of the growth conditions of the plant. Among the wheat gluten proteins, the omega-5 gliadins have been identified as a major source of environmental variability, increasing in proportion in grain from plants that receive fertilizer or ...

  14. Identifying sources of atmospheric fine particles in Havana City using Positive Matrix Factorization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnera, I.; Perez, G.; Ramos, M.; Guibert, R.; Aldape, F.; Flores M, J.; Martinez, M.; Molina, E.; Fernandez, A.

    2011-01-01

    In previous study a set of samples of fine and coarse airborne particulate matter collected in a urban area of Havana City were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The concentrations of 14 elements (S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb) were consistently determined in both particle sizes. The analytical database provided by PIXE was statistically analyzed in order to determine the local pollution sources. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) technique was applied to fine particle data in order to identify possible pollution sources. These sources were further verified by enrichment factor (EF) calculation. A general discussion about these results is presented in this work. (Author)

  15. Prospects for identifying the sources of the Galactic cosmic rays with IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, Francis; Kappes, Alexander; O Murchadha, Aongus

    2008-01-01

    We quantitatively address whether IceCube, a kilometer-scale neutrino detector under construction at the South Pole, can observe neutrinos pointing back at the accelerators of the Galactic cosmic rays. The photon flux from candidate sources identified by the Milagro detector in a survey of the TeV sky is consistent with the flux expected from a typical cosmic-ray generating supernova remnant interacting with the interstellar medium. We show here that IceCube can provide incontrovertible evidence of cosmic-ray acceleration in these sources by detecting neutrinos. We find that the signal is optimally identified by specializing to events with energies above 30 TeV where the atmospheric neutrino background is low. We conclude that evidence for a correlation between the Milagro and IceCube sky maps should be conclusive after several years.

  16. Identifying (subsurface) anthropogenic heat sources that influence temperature in the drinking water distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Vera, Claudia M.; Blokker, Mirjam; de Kater, Henk; Lafort, Rob

    2017-09-01

    The water temperature in the drinking water distribution system and at customers' taps approaches the surrounding soil temperature at a depth of 1 m. Water temperature is an important determinant of water quality. In the Netherlands drinking water is distributed without additional residual disinfectant and the temperature of drinking water at customers' taps is not allowed to exceed 25 °C. In recent decades, the urban (sub)surface has been getting more occupied by various types of infrastructures, and some of these can be heat sources. Only recently have the anthropogenic sources and their influence on the underground been studied on coarse spatial scales. Little is known about the urban shallow underground heat profile on small spatial scales, of the order of 10 m × 10 m. Routine water quality samples at the tap in urban areas have shown up locations - so-called hotspots - in the city, with relatively high soil temperatures - up to 7 °C warmer - compared to the soil temperatures in the surrounding rural areas. Yet the sources and the locations of these hotspots have not been identified. It is expected that with climate change during a warm summer the soil temperature in the hotspots can be above 25 °C. The objective of this paper is to find a method to identify heat sources and urban characteristics that locally influence the soil temperature. The proposed method combines mapping of urban anthropogenic heat sources, retrospective modelling of the soil temperature, analysis of water temperature measurements at the tap, and extensive soil temperature measurements. This approach provided insight into the typical range of the variation of the urban soil temperature, and it is a first step to identifying areas with potential underground heat stress towards thermal underground management in cities.

  17. Utilising identifier error variation in linkage of large administrative data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Harron

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Linkage of administrative data sources often relies on probabilistic methods using a set of common identifiers (e.g. sex, date of birth, postcode. Variation in data quality on an individual or organisational level (e.g. by hospital can result in clustering of identifier errors, violating the assumption of independence between identifiers required for traditional probabilistic match weight estimation. This potentially introduces selection bias to the resulting linked dataset. We aimed to measure variation in identifier error rates in a large English administrative data source (Hospital Episode Statistics; HES and to incorporate this information into match weight calculation. Methods We used 30,000 randomly selected HES hospital admissions records of patients aged 0–1, 5–6 and 18–19 years, for 2011/2012, linked via NHS number with data from the Personal Demographic Service (PDS; our gold-standard. We calculated identifier error rates for sex, date of birth and postcode and used multi-level logistic regression to investigate associations with individual-level attributes (age, ethnicity, and gender and organisational variation. We then derived: i weights incorporating dependence between identifiers; ii attribute-specific weights (varying by age, ethnicity and gender; and iii organisation-specific weights (by hospital. Results were compared with traditional match weights using a simulation study. Results Identifier errors (where values disagreed in linked HES-PDS records or missing values were found in 0.11% of records for sex and date of birth and in 53% of records for postcode. Identifier error rates differed significantly by age, ethnicity and sex (p < 0.0005. Errors were less frequent in males, in 5–6 year olds and 18–19 year olds compared with infants, and were lowest for the Asian ethic group. A simulation study demonstrated that substantial bias was introduced into estimated readmission rates in the presence

  18. Transfer, sources and sinks for major and trace elements in urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnetger, B.; Brumsack, H.J.; Heinrichs, H.

    1996-01-01

    Spider webs and air filter samples from 11 German cities were analyzed for major and trace elements to determine the composition of urban particulates. Model calculation was used for the estimation of the sources (fraction of components with decreasing importance): tire abrasion, diesel soot, tar, material from the earth crust and brick abrasion, concrete abrasion, sulfur, gasoline soot, cement production, hard coal ash, lignite fly ash, steel production, waste incineration, sea spray, oil combustion, brake abrasion. Heavy metals in city dust are mostly related to traffic and industrial high temperature processes. The most important sink for the metals and acids of polluted air masses was found to be the forested areas of mountains exposed to the main wind direction. High enrichment of heavy metals and low pH values in the top soils of such areas (Harz Mountain, Germany) were found. From previously (now damaged) forested areas an acid front moves downward. Metals from the top soils were dissolved by this process. In the investigated area precipitation of the released metals takes place in the lakes and a drinking water reservoir. These sinks again become a source when acidification increases. (author)

  19. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Taïbi, Khaled; Campo, Antonio D. del; Vilagrosa Carmona, Alberto; Bellés, José M.; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Pla, Davinia; Calvete, Juan J.; López-Nicolás, José M.; Mulet, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine) seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of pre...

  20. Optimization method for identifying the source term in an inverse wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Deiveegan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the inverse problem of identifying a space-wise dependent source term of wave equation from the measurement on the boundary. On the basis of the optimal control framework, the inverse problem is transformed into an optimization problem. The existence and necessary condition of the minimizer for the cost functional are obtained. The projected gradient method and two-parameter model function method are applied to the minimization problem and numerical results are illustrated.

  1. Identifying Emergency Department Patients at Low Risk for a Variceal Source of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Lauren R; Money, Joel; Maharaj, Kaveesh; Robinson, Aaron; Lai, Tarissa; Driver, Brian E

    2017-11-01

    Assessing the likelihood of a variceal versus nonvariceal source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) guides therapy, but can be difficult to determine on clinical grounds. The objective of this study was to determine if there are easily ascertainable clinical and laboratory findings that can identify a patient as low risk for a variceal source of hemorrhage. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult ED patients with UGIB between January 2008 and December 2014 who had upper endoscopy performed during hospitalization. Clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from the medical record. The source of the UGIB was defined as variceal or nonvariceal based on endoscopic reports. Binary recursive partitioning was utilized to create a clinical decision rule. The rule was internally validated and test characteristics were calculated with 1,000 bootstrap replications. A total of 719 patients were identified; mean age was 55 years and 61% were male. There were 71 (10%) patients with a variceal UGIB identified on endoscopy. Binary recursive partitioning yielded a two-step decision rule (platelet count > 200 × 10 9 /L and an international normalized ratio [INR] study must be externally validated before widespread use, patients presenting to the ED with an acute UGIB with platelet count of >200 × 10 9 /L and an INR of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  2. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans.

  3. Identifying diffused nitrate sources in a stream in an agricultural field using a dual isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Jingtao; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; He, Liansheng; Liu, Hongliang; Dai, Xuanli; Yu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate (NO 3 − ) pollution is a severe problem in aquatic systems in Taihu Lake Basin in China. A dual isotope approach (δ 15 N-NO 3 − and δ 18 O-NO 3 − ) was applied to identify diffused NO 3 − inputs in a stream in an agricultural field at the basin in 2013. The site-specific isotopic characteristics of five NO 3 − sources (atmospheric deposition, AD; NO 3 − derived from soil organic matter nitrification, NS; NO 3 − derived from chemical fertilizer nitrification, NF; groundwater, GW; and manure and sewage, M and S) were identified. NO 3 − concentrations in the stream during the rainy season [mean ± standard deviation (SD) = 2.5 ± 0.4 mg/L] were lower than those during the dry season (mean ± SD = 4.0 ± 0.5 mg/L), whereas the δ 18 O-NO 3 − values during the rainy season (mean ± SD = + 12.3 ± 3.6‰) were higher than those during the dry season (mean ± SD = + 0.9 ± 1.9‰). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that mixing with atmospheric NO 3 − resulted in the high δ 18 O values during the rainy season, whereas NS and M and S were the dominant NO 3 − sources during the dry season. A Bayesian model was used to determine the contribution of each NO 3 − source to total stream NO 3 − . Results showed that reduced N nitrification in soil zones (including soil organic matter and fertilizer) was the main NO 3 − source throughout the year. M and S contributed more NO 3 − during the dry season (22.4%) than during the rainy season (17.8%). AD generated substantial amounts of NO 3 − in May (18.4%), June (29.8%), and July (24.5%). With the assessment of temporal variation of diffused NO 3 − sources in agricultural field, improved agricultural management practices can be implemented to protect the water resource and avoid further water quality deterioration in Taihu Lake Basin. - Highlights: • The isotopic characteristics of potential NO 3 − sources were identified. • Mixing with atmospheric NO 3 − resulted

  4. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin - Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions.

  5. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution. PMID:26308032

  6. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI) in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Li, Weixin; Qian, Xin

    2015-08-21

    Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI) to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution.

  7. Identification of Major Risk Sources for Surface Water Pollution by Risk Indexes (RI in the Multi-Provincial Boundary Region of the Taihu Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental safety in multi-district boundary regions has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Act of 2014. Five types were categorized concerning the risk sources for surface water pollution in the multi-provincial boundary region of the Taihu basin: production enterprises, waste disposal sites, chemical storage sites, agricultural non-point sources and waterway transportations. Considering the hazard of risk sources, the purification property of environmental medium and the vulnerability of risk receptors, 52 specific attributes on the risk levels of each type of risk source were screened out. Continuous piecewise linear function model, expert consultation method and fuzzy integral model were used to calculate the integrated risk indexes (RI to characterize the risk levels of pollution sources. In the studied area, 2716 pollution sources were characterized by RI values. There were 56 high-risk sources screened out as major risk sources, accounting for about 2% of the total. The numbers of sources with high-moderate, moderate, moderate-low and low pollution risk were 376, 1059, 101 and 1124, respectively, accounting for 14%, 38%, 5% and 41% of the total. The procedure proposed could be included in the integrated risk management systems of the multi-district boundary region of the Taihu basin. It could help decision makers to identify major risk sources in the risk prevention and reduction of surface water pollution.

  8. RNAseq Analyses Identify Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Inflammation as a Major Abnormality in ALS Spinal Cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Brohawn

    Full Text Available ALS is a rapidly progressive, devastating neurodegenerative illness of adults that produces disabling weakness and spasticity arising from death of lower and upper motor neurons. No meaningful therapies exist to slow ALS progression, and molecular insights into pathogenesis and progression are sorely needed. In that context, we used high-depth, next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq, Illumina to define gene network abnormalities in RNA samples depleted of rRNA and isolated from cervical spinal cord sections of 7 ALS and 8 CTL samples. We aligned >50 million 2X150 bp paired-end sequences/sample to the hg19 human genome and applied three different algorithms (Cuffdiff2, DEseq2, EdgeR for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEG's. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA identified inflammatory processes as significantly elevated in our ALS samples, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF found to be a major pathway regulator (IPA and TNFα-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2 as a major network "hub" gene (WGCNA. Using the oPOSSUM algorithm, we analyzed transcription factors (TF controlling expression of the nine DEG/hub genes in the ALS samples and identified TF's involved in inflammation (NFkB, REL, NFkB1 and macrophage function (NR1H2::RXRA heterodimer. Transient expression in human iPSC-derived motor neurons of TNFAIP2 (also a DEG identified by all three algorithms reduced cell viability and induced caspase 3/7 activation. Using high-density RNAseq, multiple algorithms for DEG identification, and an unsupervised gene co-expression network approach, we identified significant elevation of inflammatory processes in ALS spinal cord with TNF as a major regulatory molecule. Overexpression of the DEG TNFAIP2 in human motor neurons, the population most vulnerable to die in ALS, increased cell death and caspase 3/7 activation. We propose that therapies targeted to reduce inflammatory TNFα signaling may be

  9. Potential use of ionic species for identifying source land-uses of stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jin Hwi; Mendoza, Joseph A; Lee, Chang-Hee; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2017-02-01

    Identifying critical land-uses or source areas is important to prioritize resources for cost-effective stormwater management. This study investigated the use of information on ionic composition as a fingerprint to identify the source land-use of stormwater runoff. We used 12 ionic species in stormwater runoff monitored for a total of 20 storm events at five sites with different land-use compositions during the 2012-2014 wet seasons. A stepwise forward discriminant function analysis (DFA) with the jack-knifed cross validation approach was used to select ionic species that better discriminate the land-use of its source. Of the 12 ionic species, 9 species (K + , Mg 2+ , Na + , NH 4 + , Br - , Cl - , F - , NO 2 - , and SO 4 2- ) were selected for better performance of the DFA. The DFA successfully differentiated stormwater samples from urban, rural, and construction sites using concentrations of the ionic species (70%, 95%, and 91% of correct classification, respectively). Over 80% of the new data cases were correctly classified by the trained DFA model. When applied to data cases from a mixed land-use catchment and downstream, the DFA model showed the greater impact of urban areas and rural areas respectively in the earlier and later parts of a storm event.

  10. From voice to voices: identifying a plurality of Muslim sources in the news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnik, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    This article identifies a qualitative change in the diversity of actors who represent Muslims in British news media. Hitherto, the literature discussing Muslims and the media has tended to characterize media organizations as institutions which portray Muslims in an essentialized, monolithic way. In contrast, I propose in this article that the process of representation is more complex, including greater agency and engaging a wider diversity of Muslims than the prevailing literature suggests. Sociological studies distinguish between official and unofficial sources who help determine the representations that journalists employ in their texts, and I apply this to Muslim communities in Glasgow. Using qualitative methods drawn from media production analysis, including participant-observation and ethnographic interviews, I identify a shift from a 'gatekeeper' model of representing the community to that of a plurality of sources, which reveals and insists on the diversity of Muslim communities and voices. I will show why a wider range of actors emerged to speak publicly, what differentiates them and how they position themselves as representatives of Muslims. This focus on producers and on source strategies brings fresh insights into a field dominated by content analysis and a 'media-centric' approach.

  11. Source/process apportionment of major and trace elements in sinking particles in the Sargasso sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Conte, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental composition of the particle flux at the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) time-series site off Bermuda was measured from January 2002 to March 2005. Eighteen elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Ba and Pb) in sediment trap material from 500, 1500 and 3200 m depths were quantified using fusion-HR-ICPMS. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was used to elucidate sources, elemental associations and processes that affect geochemical behavior in the water column. Results provide evidence for intense elemental cycling between the sinking flux material and the dissolved and suspended pools within mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters. Biological processing and remineralization rapidly deplete the sinking flux material in organic matter and associated elements (N, P, Cd, Zn) between 500 and 1500 m depth. Suspended particle aggregation, authigenic mineral precipitation, and chemical scavenging enriches the flux material in lithogenic minerals, barite and redox sensitive elements (Mn, Co, V, Fe). A large increase in the flux of lithogenic elements is observed with depth and confirms that the northeast Sargasso is a significant sink for advected continental materials, likely supplied via Gulf Stream circulation. PMF resolved major sources that contribute to sinking flux at all depths (carbonate, high-Mg carbonate, opal, organic matter, lithogenic material, and barite) as well as additional depth-specific elemental associations that contribute about half of the compositional variability in the flux. PMF solutions indicate close geochemical associations of barite-opal, Cd-P, Zn-Co, Zn-Pb and redox sensitive elements in the sinking flux material at 500 m depth. Major reorganizations of element associations occur as labile carrier phases break down and elements redistribute among new carrier phases deeper in the water column. Factor scores show strong covariation and similar temporal phasing among the three trap depths and indicate a tight

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament injury: Identifying information sources and risk factor awareness among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuharu Nagano

    Full Text Available Raising awareness on a disorder is important for its prevention and for promoting public health. However, for sports injuries like the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury no studies have investigated the awareness on risk factors for injury and possible preventative measures in the general population. The sources of information among the population are also unclear. The purpose of the present study was to identify these aspects of public awareness about the ACL injury.A questionnaire was randomly distributed among the general population registered with a web based questionnaire supplier, to recruit 900 participants who were aware about the ACL injury. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Question 1 asked them about their sources of information regarding the ACL injury; Question 2 asked them about the risk factors for ACL injury. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the information sources that provide a good understanding of the risk factors.The leading source of information for ACL injury was television (57.0%. However, the results of logistic regression analysis revealed that television was not an effective medium to create awareness about the risk factors, among the general population. Instead "Lecture by a coach", "Classroom session on Health", and "Newspaper" were significantly more effective in creating a good awareness of the risk factors (p < 0.001.

  13. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a major source of canine genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kirkness, Ewen F

    2005-12-01

    SINEs are retrotransposons that have enjoyed remarkable reproductive success during the course of mammalian evolution, and have played a major role in shaping mammalian genomes. Previously, an analysis of survey-sequence data from an individual dog (a poodle) indicated that canine genomes harbor a high frequency of alleles that differ only by the absence or presence of a SINEC_Cf repeat. Comparison of this survey-sequence data with a draft genome sequence of a distinct dog (a boxer) has confirmed this prediction, and revealed the chromosomal coordinates for >10,000 loci that are bimorphic for SINEC_Cf insertions. Analysis of SINE insertion sites from the genomes of nine additional dogs indicates that 3%-5% are absent from either the poodle or boxer genome sequences--suggesting that an additional 10,000 bimorphic loci could be readily identified in the general dog population. We describe a methodology that can be used to identify these loci, and could be adapted to exploit these bimorphic loci for genotyping purposes. Approximately half of all annotated canine genes contain SINEC_Cf repeats, and these elements are occasionally transcribed. When transcribed in the antisense orientation, they provide splice acceptor sites that can result in incorporation of novel exons. The high frequency of bimorphic SINE insertions in the dog population is predicted to provide numerous examples of allele-specific transcription patterns that will be valuable for the study of differential gene expression among multiple dog breeds.

  14. Using Soluble Reactive Phosphorus and Ammonia to Identify Point Source Discharge from Large Livestock Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrello, M. C.; Scribner, M.; Chessin, K.

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of research draws attention to the negative environmental impacts on surface water from large livestock facilities. These impacts are mostly in the form of excessive nutrient loading resulting in significantly decreased oxygen levels. Over-application of animal waste on fields as well as direct discharge into surface water from facilities themselves has been identified as the main contributor to the development of hypoxic zones in Lake Erie, Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Some regulators claim enforcement of water quality laws is problematic because of the nature and pervasiveness of non-point source impacts. Any direct discharge by a facility is a violation of permits governed by the Clean Water Act, unless the facility has special dispensation for discharge. Previous research by the principal author and others has shown runoff and underdrain transport are the main mechanisms by which nutrients enter surface water. This study utilized previous work to determine if the effects of non-point source discharge can be distinguished from direct (point-source) discharge using simple nutrient analysis and dissolved oxygen (DO) parameters. Nutrient and DO parameters were measured from three sites: 1. A stream adjacent to a field receiving manure, upstream of a large livestock facility with a history of direct discharge, 2. The same stream downstream of the facility and 3. A stream in an area relatively unimpacted by large-scale agriculture (control site). Results show that calculating a simple Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and ammonia over time as well as temperature and DO, distinguishes non-point source from point source discharge into surface water. The r value for SRP and ammonia for the upstream site was 0.01 while the r value for the downstream site was 0.92. The control site had an r value of 0.20. Likewise, r values were calculated on temperature and DO for each site. High negative correlations

  15. How to decode Unemployment Persistence: An econometric framework for identifying and comparing the sources of persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    2016-01-01

    Most econometric analyses of persistence focus on the existence of non-stationary unemployment but not the origin of this. The present research contains a multivariate econometric framework for identifying and comparing different sources of unemployment persistence (e.g. hysteresis versus a slowly...... moving equilibrium rate). A small example, considering historical data (1988-2006) for the UK, demonstrates how the method can be applied in practice. Although this primarily serves as an illustration, the evidence clearly suggests that persistence was due to a slowly moving equilibrium (driven...

  16. The use of nitrate isotopes to identify contamination sources in the Bou-Areg aquifer (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, Viviana [Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Dorsoduro 2137, Venice, 30123 (Italy); Sacchi, Elisa [University of Pavia, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, 27100 (Italy); Allais, Enrico [ISO4 s.n.c., Via Ferrata 1, Pavia, 27100 (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    The Bou-Areg coastal aquifer (Morocco) is affected by high nitrate levels in groundwater, with possible consequences for the natural environment and human health. The use of environmental tracers, including δ{sup 15}NNO{sub 3} and δ{sup 18}ONO{sub 3}, allowed identifying the main sources of nitrate contamination in groundwater samples collected in 2010. These are manure and septic effluents, especially in urban areas, and synthetic fertilizers in agricultural areas. This work represents a preliminary step for a more detailed nitrate vulnerability assessment to support groundwater management and protection in the studied region. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues.

  18. Identifying Competences and Their Sources in a Not-for-Profit Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vega, Diego; Sanchez, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Effective competence-based management (CBM) requires in the first instance an ability to identify an organization’s competences and the sources of those competences. Identifying competences can be especially challenging in the context of not-for-profit organizations, which have often been...... characterized as being “different” from for-profit organizations. In this paper we argue that not-for-profit organizations have fundamentally the same systemic requirements for survival and success as for-profit organizations – and therefore that not-for-profits ought to be amenable to competence identification...... and analysis through use of CBM concepts and theory in essentially the same way as for-profit organizations. We support this basic proposition through a case study of competence identification and analysis in a humanitarian relief organization (HRO), an increasingly important kind of not-for-profit...

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies major loci for carcass weight on BTA14 in Hanwoo (Korean cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available This genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted to identify major loci that are significantly associated with carcass weight, and their effects, in order to provide increased understanding of the genetic architecture of carcass weight in Hanwoo. This genome-wide association study identified one major chromosome region ranging from 23 Mb to 25 Mb on chromosome 14 as being associated with carcass weight in Hanwoo. Significant Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide associations (P<1.52×10(-6 were detected for 6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP loci for carcass weight on chromosome 14. The most significant SNP was BTB-01280026 (P = 4.02×10(-11, located in the 25 Mb region on Bos taurus autosome 14 (BTA14. The other 5 significant SNPs were Hapmap27934-BTC-065223 (P = 4.04×10(-11 in 25.2 Mb, BTB-01143580 (P = 6.35×10(-11 in 24.3 Mb, Hapmap30932-BTC-011225 (P = 5.92×10(-10 in 24.8 Mb, Hapmap27112-BTC-063342 (P = 5.18×10(-9 in 25.4 Mb, and Hapmap24414-BTC-073009 (P = 7.38×10(-8 in 25.4 Mb, all on BTA 14. One SNP (BTB-01143580; P = 6.35×10(-11 lies independently from the other 5 SNPs. The 5 SNPs that lie together showed a large Linkage disequilibrium (LD block (block size of 553 kb with LD coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.89 within the block. The most significant SNPs accounted for 6.73% to 10.55% of additive genetic variance, which is quite a large proportion of the total additive genetic variance. The most significant SNP (BTB-01280026; P = 4.02×10(-11 had 16.96 kg of allele substitution effect, and the second most significant SNP (Hapmap27934-BTC-065223; P = 4.04×10(-11 had 18.06 kg of effect on carcass weight, which correspond to 44% and 47%, respectively, of the phenotypic standard deviation for carcass weight in Hanwoo cattle. Our results demonstrated that carcass weight was affected by a major Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL with a large effect and by many SNPs with small effects that are normally

  20. Optimal anthropometric measures and thresholds to identify undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in three major Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Lim, Wei-Yen; Mok-Kwee Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-10-01

    To identify optimal anthropometric measures and cutoffs to identify undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDM) in three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indians). Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 14,815 ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian participants of the Singapore National Health Surveys, which included anthropometric measures and an oral glucose tolerance test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) for the identification of UDM. BMI performed significantly worse (AUCMEN  = 0.70; AUCWOMEN  = 0.75) than abdominal measures, whereas WHTR (AUCMEN  = 0.76; AUCWOMEN  = 0.79) was among the best performing measures in both sexes and all ethnic groups. Anthropometric measures performed better in Chinese than in Asian-Indian participants for the identification of UDM. A WHTR cutoff of 0.52 appeared optimal with a sensitivity of 76% in men and 73% in women and a specificity of 63% in men and 70% in women. Although ethnic differences were observed in the performance of anthropometric measures for the identification of UDM, abdominal adiposity measures generally performed better than BMI, and WHTR performed best in all Asian ethnic groups. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  1. Application of isotopic and hydro-geochemical methods in identifying sources of mine inrushing water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Huiping; Ma Zhiyuan; Cao Haidong; Liu Feng; Hu Weiwei; Li Ting

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic and hydro-geochemical surveys were carried out to identify the source of mine inrushing water at the #73003 face in the Laohutai Mine.Based on the analysis of isotopes and hydro-chemical features of surface water,groundwater from different levels and the inrushing water,a special relationship between water at the #73003 face and cretaceous water has been found.The results show that the isotopic and hydro-chemical features of the inrushing water are completely different from those of other groundwater bodies,except for the cretaceous water.The isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of cretaceous water are similar to the inrushing water of the #73003 face,which aided with obtaining the evidence for the possible source of the inrushing water at the #73003 face.The isotope calculations show that the inrushing water at the #73003 face is a mixture of cretaceous water and Quaternary water,water from the cretaceous conglomerate is the main source,accounting for 67% of the inrushing water,while the Quaternary water accounts for 33%.The conclusion is also supported by a study of inrushing-water channels and an active fault near the inrushing-water plot on the #73003 face.

  2. Combining Ordinary Kriging with wind directions to identify sources of industrial odors in Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Ted C; Wright, Samantha G; Simpson, Logan K; Walker, Joe L; Kolmes, Steven A; Houck, James E; Velasquez, Sandra C

    2018-01-01

    This study combines Ordinary Kriging, odor monitoring, and wind direction data to demonstrate how these elements can be applied to identify the source of an industrial odor. The specific case study used as an example of how to address this issue was the University Park neighborhood of Portland, Oregon (USA) where residents frequently complain about industrial odors, and suspect the main source to be a nearby Daimler Trucks North America LLC manufacturing plant. We collected 19,665 odor observations plus 105,120 wind measurements, using an automated weather station to measure winds in the area at five-minute intervals, logging continuously from December 2014 through November 2015, while we also measured odors at 19 locations, three times per day, using methods from the American Society of the International Association for Testing and Materials. Our results quantify how winds vary with season and time of day when industrial odors were observed versus when they were not observed, while also mapping spatiotemporal patterns in these odors using Ordinary Kriging. Our analyses show that industrial odors were detected most frequently to the northwest of the Daimler plant, mostly when winds blew from the southeast, suggesting Daimler's facility is a likely source for much of this odor.

  3. A spectroscopic tool for identifying sources of origin for materials of military interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziolek, Andrzej W.; De Lucia, Frank C.

    2014-05-01

    There is a need to identify the source of origin for many items of military interest, including ammunition and weapons that may be circulated and traded in illicit markets. Both fieldable systems (man-portable or handheld) as well as benchtop systems in field and home base laboratories are desired for screening and attribution purposes. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) continues to show significant capability as a promising new tool for materials identification, matching, and provenance. With the use of the broadband, high resolution spectrometer systems, the LIBS devices can not only determine the elemental inventory of the sample, but they are also capable of elemental fingerprinting to signify sources of origin of various materials. We present the results of an initial study to differentiate and match spent cartridges from different manufacturers and countries. We have found that using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) we are able to achieve on average 93.3% True Positives and 5.3% False Positives. These results add to the large body of publications that have demonstrated that LIBS is a particularly suitable tool for source of origin determinations.

  4. New Insights from Zinc and Copper Isotopic Compositions into the Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter from Two Major European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R Ochoa; Strekopytov, S; Amato, F; Querol, X; Reche, C; Weiss, D

    2016-09-20

    This study reports spatial and temporal variability of Zn and Cu isotopes in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collected in two major European cities with contrasting atmospheric pollution, Barcelona and London. We demonstrate that nontraditional stable isotopes identify source contributions of Zn and Cu and can play a major role in future air quality studies. In Barcelona, samples of fine PM were collected at street level at sites with variable traffic density. The isotopic signatures ranged between -0.13 ± 0.09 and -0.51 ± 0.05‰ for δ(66)ZnIRMM and between +0.04 ± 0.20 and +0.33 ± 0.15‰ for δ(65)CuAE633. Copper isotope signatures similar to those of Cu sulfides and Cu/Sb ratios within the range typically found in brake wear suggest that nonexhaust emissions from vehicles are dominant. Negative Zn isotopic signatures characteristic for gaseous emissions from smelting and combustion and large enrichments of Zn and Cd suggest contribution from metallurgical industries. In London, samples of coarse PM collected on the top of a building over 18 months display isotope signatures ranging between +0.03 ± 0.04 and +0.49 ± 0.02‰ for δ(66)ZnIRMM and between +0.37 ± 0.17 and +0.97 ± 0.21‰ for δ(65)CuAE633. Heavy Cu isotope signatures (up to +0.97 ± 0.21‰) and higher enrichments and Cu/Sb ratios during winter time indicate important contribution from fossil fuel combustion. The positive δ(66)ZnIRMM signatures are in good agreement with signatures characteristic for ore concentrates used for the production of tires and galvanized materials, suggesting nonexhaust emissions from vehicles as the main source of Zn pollution.

  5. Using an epiphytic moss to identify previously unknown sources of atmospheric cadmium pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Jovan, Sarah E; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Burstyn, Igor; Michael, Yvonne L; Amacher, Michael C; Monleon, Vicente J

    2016-07-15

    Urban networks of air-quality monitors are often too widely spaced to identify sources of air pollutants, especially if they do not disperse far from emission sources. The objectives of this study were to test the use of moss bio-indicators to develop a fine-scale map of atmospherically-derived cadmium and to identify the sources of cadmium in a complex urban setting. We collected 346 samples of the moss Orthotrichum lyellii from deciduous trees in December, 2013 using a modified randomized grid-based sampling strategy across Portland, Oregon. We estimated a spatial linear model of moss cadmium levels and predicted cadmium on a 50m grid across the city. Cadmium levels in moss were positively correlated with proximity to two stained-glass manufacturers, proximity to the Oregon-Washington border, and percent industrial land in a 500m buffer, and negatively correlated with percent residential land in a 500m buffer. The maps showed very high concentrations of cadmium around the two stained-glass manufacturers, neither of which were known to environmental regulators as cadmium emitters. In addition, in response to our findings, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality placed an instrumental monitor 120m from the larger stained-glass manufacturer in October, 2015. The monthly average atmospheric cadmium concentration was 29.4ng/m(3), which is 49 times higher than Oregon's benchmark of 0.6ng/m(3), and high enough to pose a health risk from even short-term exposure. Both stained-glass manufacturers voluntarily stopped using cadmium after the monitoring results were made public, and the monthly average cadmium levels precipitously dropped to 1.1ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #1 and 0.67ng/m(3) for stained-glass manufacturer #2. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïbi, Khaled; Del Campo, Antonio D; Vilagrosa, Alberto; Bellés, José M; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Pla, Davinia; Calvete, Juan J; López-Nicolás, José M; Mulet, José M

    2017-01-01

    Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine) seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of predicting the ability of formerly uncharacterized seedlings to cope with drought stress. Gas-exchange, water potential, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, free amino acids, glutathione and proteomic analyses were carried out on control and drought-stressed seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Gas-exchange determinations were also assessed in field-planted seedlings in order to validate the greenhouse experimental conditions. Drought-tolerant seed sources presented higher values of photosynthetic rates, water use efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and soluble carbohydrates concentrations. We observed the same pattern of variation of photosynthesis rate and maximal efficiency of PSII in field. Interestingly drought-tolerant seed sources exhibited increased levels of glutathione, methionine and cysteine. The proteomic profile of drought tolerant seedlings identified two heat shock proteins and an enzyme related to methionine biosynthesis that were not present in drought sensitive seedlings, pointing to the synthesis of sulfur amino acids as a limiting factor for drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis . Our results established physiological and molecular traits useful as distinctive markers to predict drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis provenances that could be reliably used in reforestation programs in drought prone areas.

  7. Drought Tolerance in Pinus halepensis Seed Sources As Identified by Distinctive Physiological and Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Taïbi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the main constraints determining forest species growth, survival and productivity, and therefore one of the main limitations for reforestation or afforestation. The aim of this study is to characterize the drought response at the physiological and molecular level of different Pinus halepensis (common name Aleppo pine seed sources, previously characterized in field trials as drought-sensitive or drought-tolerant. This approach aims to identify different traits capable of predicting the ability of formerly uncharacterized seedlings to cope with drought stress. Gas-exchange, water potential, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, free amino acids, glutathione and proteomic analyses were carried out on control and drought-stressed seedlings in greenhouse conditions. Gas-exchange determinations were also assessed in field-planted seedlings in order to validate the greenhouse experimental conditions. Drought-tolerant seed sources presented higher values of photosynthetic rates, water use efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and soluble carbohydrates concentrations. We observed the same pattern of variation of photosynthesis rate and maximal efficiency of PSII in field. Interestingly drought-tolerant seed sources exhibited increased levels of glutathione, methionine and cysteine. The proteomic profile of drought tolerant seedlings identified two heat shock proteins and an enzyme related to methionine biosynthesis that were not present in drought sensitive seedlings, pointing to the synthesis of sulfur amino acids as a limiting factor for drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis. Our results established physiological and molecular traits useful as distinctive markers to predict drought tolerance in Pinus halepensis provenances that could be reliably used in reforestation programs in drought prone areas.

  8. Theoretical and Numerical Modeling of Transport of Land Use-Specific Fecal Source Identifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardelli, F. A.; Sirikanchana, K. J.; Bae, S.; Wuertz, S.

    2008-12-01

    Microbial contamination in coastal and estuarine waters is of particular concern to public health officials. In this work, we advocate that well-formulated and developed mathematical and numerical transport models can be combined with modern molecular techniques in order to predict continuous concentrations of microbial indicators under diverse scenarios of interest, and that they can help in source identification of fecal pollution. As a proof of concept, we present initially the theory, numerical implementation and validation of one- and two-dimensional numerical models aimed at computing the distribution of fecal source identifiers in water bodies (based on Bacteroidales marker DNA sequences) coming from different land uses such as wildlife, livestock, humans, dogs or cats. These models have been developed to allow for source identification of fecal contamination in large bodies of water. We test the model predictions using diverse velocity fields and boundary conditions. Then, we present some preliminary results of an application of a three-dimensional water quality model to address the source of fecal contamination in the San Pablo Bay (SPB), United States, which constitutes an important sub-embayment of the San Francisco Bay. The transport equations for Bacteroidales include the processes of advection, diffusion, and decay of Bacteroidales. We discuss the validation of the developed models through comparisons of numerical results with field campaigns developed in the SPB. We determine the extent and importance of the contamination in the bay for two decay rates obtained from field observations, corresponding to total host-specific Bacteroidales DNA and host-specific viable Bacteroidales cells, respectively. Finally, we infer transport conditions in the SPB based on the numerical results, characterizing the fate of outflows coming from the Napa, Petaluma and Sonoma rivers.

  9. A formal method for identifying distinct states of variability in time-varying sources: SGR A* as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L.; Witzel, G.; Ghez, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Longstaff, F. A. [UCLA Anderson School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1481 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Continuously time variable sources are often characterized by their power spectral density and flux distribution. These quantities can undergo dramatic changes over time if the underlying physical processes change. However, some changes can be subtle and not distinguishable using standard statistical approaches. Here, we report a methodology that aims to identify distinct but similar states of time variability. We apply this method to the Galactic supermassive black hole, where 2.2 μm flux is observed from a source associated with Sgr A* and where two distinct states have recently been suggested. Our approach is taken from mathematical finance and works with conditional flux density distributions that depend on the previous flux value. The discrete, unobserved (hidden) state variable is modeled as a stochastic process and the transition probabilities are inferred from the flux density time series. Using the most comprehensive data set to date, in which all Keck and a majority of the publicly available Very Large Telescope data have been merged, we show that Sgr A* is sufficiently described by a single intrinsic state. However, the observed flux densities exhibit two states: noise dominated and source dominated. Our methodology reported here will prove extremely useful to assess the effects of the putative gas cloud G2 that is on its way toward the black hole and might create a new state of variability.

  10. Using artificial sweeteners to identify contamination sources and infiltration zones in a coupled river-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    In shallow or unconfined aquifers the infiltration of contaminated river water might be a major threat to groundwater quality. Thus, the identification of possible contamination sources in coupled surface- and groundwater systems is of paramount importance to ensure water quality. Micropollutants like artificial sweeteners are promising markers for domestic waste water in natural water bodies. Compounds, such as artificial sweeteners, might enter the aquatic environment via discharge of waste water treatment plants, leaky sewer systems or septic tanks and are ubiquitously found in waste water receiving waters. The hereby presented field study aims at the (1) identification of contamination sources and (2) delineation of infiltration zones in a connected river-aquifer system. River bank filtrate in the groundwater body was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using a combined approach of hydrochemical analysis and artificial sweeteners (acesulfame ACE) as waste water markers. The investigated aquifer lies within a mesoscale alpine head water catchment and is used for drinking water production. It is hypothesized that a large proportion of the groundwater flux originates from bank filtrate of a nearby losing stream. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners at the investigated site. The municipal waste water treatment plant was identified as point-source for ACE in the river network. In the aquifer ACE was present in more than 80% of the monitoring wells. In addition, water samples were classified according to their hydrochemical composition, identifying two predominant types of water in the aquifer: (1) groundwater influenced by bank filtrate and (2) groundwater originating from local recharge. In combination with ACE concentrations a third type of water could be discriminated: (3) groundwater influence by bank filtrate but infiltrated prior to the waste water treatment plant. Moreover, the presence of ACE

  11. Outbreaks source: A new mathematical approach to identify their possible location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscema, Massimo; Grossi, Enzo; Breda, Marco; Jefferson, Tom

    2009-11-01

    Classical epidemiology has generally relied on the description and explanation of the occurrence of infectious diseases in relation to time occurrence of events rather than to place of occurrence. In recent times, computer generated dot maps have facilitated the modeling of the spread of infectious epidemic diseases either with classical statistics approaches or with artificial “intelligent systems”. Few attempts, however, have been made so far to identify the origin of the epidemic spread rather than its evolution by mathematical topology methods. We report on the use of a new artificial intelligence method (the H-PST Algorithm) and we compare this new technique with other well known algorithms to identify the source of three examples of infectious disease outbreaks derived from literature. The H-PST algorithm is a new system able to project a distances matrix of points (events) into a bi-dimensional space, with the generation of a new point, named hidden unit. This new hidden unit deforms the original Euclidean space and transforms it into a new space (cognitive space). The cost function of this transformation is the minimization of the differences between the original distance matrix among the assigned points and the distance matrix of the same points projected into the bi-dimensional map (or any different set of constraints). For many reasons we will discuss, the position of the hidden unit shows to target the outbreak source in many epidemics much better than the other classic algorithms specifically targeted for this task. Compared with main algorithms known in the location theory, the hidden unit was within yards of the outbreak source in the first example (the 2007 epidemic of Chikungunya fever in Italy). The hidden unit was located in the river between the two village epicentres of the spread exactly where the index case was living. Equally in the second (the 1967 foot and mouth disease epidemic in England), and the third (1854 London Cholera epidemic

  12. Transcriptome association analysis identifies miR-375 as a major determinant of variable acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Freytsis, Marina; Court, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    Acetaminophen is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in many countries including the United States. Hepatic glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A subfamily enzymes is the major route of acetaminophen elimination. Reduced glucuronidation may predispose some individuals to acetaminophen-induced ALF, but mechanisms underlying reduced glucuronidation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may reduce UGT1A activity by direct effects on the UGT1A 3'-UTR shared by all UGT1A enzyme transcripts, or by indirect effects on transcription factors regulating UGT1A expression. We performed an unbiased miRNA whole transcriptome association analysis using a bank of human livers with known acetaminophen glucuronidation activities. Of 754 miRNAs evaluated, 9 miRNAs were identified that were significantly overexpressed (p2-fold) in livers with low acetaminophen glucuronidation activities compared with those with high activities. miR-375 showed the highest difference (>10-fold), and was chosen for further mechanistic validation. We demonstrated using in silico analysis and luciferase reporter assays that miR-375 has a unique functional binding site in the 3'-UTR of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene. Furthermore overexpression of miR-375 in LS180 cells demonstrated significant repression of endogenous AhR protein (by 40%) and mRNA (by 10%), as well as enzyme activity and/or mRNA of AhR regulated enzymes including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and CYP1A2, without affecting UGT2B7, which is not regulated by AhR. Thus miR-375 is identified as a novel repressor of UGT1A-mediated hepatic acetaminophen glucuronidation through reduced AhR expression, which could predispose some individuals to increased risk for acetaminophen-induced ALF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Chagas disease vector blood meal sources identified by protein mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith I Keller

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a complex vector borne parasitic disease involving blood feeding Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae insects, also known as kissing bugs, and the vertebrates they feed on. This disease has tremendous impacts on millions of people and is a global health problem. The etiological agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae, is deposited on the mammalian host in the insect's feces during a blood meal, and enters the host's blood stream through mucous membranes or a break in the skin. Identifying the blood meal sources of triatomine vectors is critical in understanding Chagas disease transmission dynamics, can lead to identification of other vertebrates important in the transmission cycle, and aids management decisions. The latter is particularly important as there is little in the way of effective therapeutics for Chagas disease. Several techniques, mostly DNA-based, are available for blood meal identification. However, further methods are needed, particularly when sample conditions lead to low-quality DNA or to assess the risk of human cross-contamination. We demonstrate a proteomics-based approach, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to identify host-specific hemoglobin peptides for blood meal identification in mouse blood control samples and apply LC-MS/MS for the first time to Triatoma dimidiata insect vectors, tracing blood sources to species. In contrast to most proteins, hemoglobin, stabilized by iron, is incredibly stable even being preserved through geologic time. We compared blood stored with and without an anticoagulant and examined field-collected insect specimens stored in suboptimal conditions such as at room temperature for long periods of time. To our knowledge, this is the first study using LC-MS/MS on field-collected arthropod disease vectors to identify blood meal composition, and where blood meal identification was confirmed with more

  14. Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Five Major Classes of Potentially Therapeutic Enzymes Secreted by Lucilia sericata Medical Maggots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Zdeněk; Vogel, Heiko; Lehmann, Rüdiger; Rupp, Oliver; Goesmann, Alexander; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Lucilia sericata larvae are used as an alternative treatment for recalcitrant and chronic wounds. Their excretions/secretions contain molecules that facilitate tissue debridement, disinfect, or accelerate wound healing and have therefore been recognized as a potential source of novel therapeutic compounds. Among the substances present in excretions/secretions various peptidase activities promoting the wound healing processes have been detected but the peptidases responsible for these activities remain mostly unidentified. To explore these enzymes we applied next generation sequencing to analyze the transcriptomes of different maggot tissues (salivary glands, gut, and crop) associated with the production of excretions/secretions and/or with digestion as well as the rest of the larval body. As a result we obtained more than 123.8 million paired-end reads, which were assembled de novo using Trinity and Oases assemblers, yielding 41,421 contigs with an N50 contig length of 2.22 kb and a total length of 67.79 Mb. BLASTp analysis against the MEROPS database identified 1729 contigs in 577 clusters encoding five peptidase classes (serine, cysteine, aspartic, threonine, and metallopeptidases), which were assigned to 26 clans, 48 families, and 185 peptidase species. The individual enzymes were differentially expressed among maggot tissues and included peptidase activities related to the therapeutic effects of maggot excretions/secretions.

  15. Interfacial photochemistry of biogenic surfactants: a major source of abiotic volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Hayeck, Nathalie; Bonnineau, Chloé; Pesce, Stéphane; Alpert, Peter A; Perrier, Sébastien; Zuth, Christoph; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Chen, Jianmin; George, Christian

    2017-08-24

    Films of biogenic compounds exposed to the atmosphere are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of cloud droplets, aerosol particles, buildings, plants, soils and the ocean. These air/water interfaces host countless amphiphilic compounds concentrated there with respect to in bulk water, leading to a unique chemical environment. Here, photochemical processes at the air/water interface of biofilm-containing solutions were studied, demonstrating abiotic VOC production from authentic biogenic surfactants under ambient conditions. Using a combination of online-APCI-HRMS and PTR-ToF-MS, unsaturated and functionalized VOCs were identified and quantified, giving emission fluxes comparable to previous field and laboratory observations. Interestingly, VOC fluxes increased with the decay of microbial cells in the samples, indicating that cell lysis due to cell death was the main source for surfactants and VOC production. In particular, irradiation of samples containing solely biofilm cells without matrix components exhibited the strongest VOC production upon irradiation. In agreement with previous studies, LC-MS measurements of the liquid phase suggested the presence of fatty acids and known photosensitizers, possibly inducing the observed VOC production via peroxy radical chemistry. Up to now, such VOC emissions were directly accounted to high biological activity in surface waters. However, the results obtained suggest that abiotic photochemistry can lead to similar emissions into the atmosphere, especially in less biologically-active regions. Furthermore, chamber experiments suggest that oxidation (O 3 /OH radicals) of the photochemically-produced VOCs leads to aerosol formation and growth, possibly affecting atmospheric chemistry and climate-related processes, such as cloud formation or the Earth's radiation budget.

  16. Diagenesis and geochemistry of Australian ochre deposits: a review of methods and prospects for geochemically finger-printing major sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.A. [National Museum of Australia, Canberra, ACT (Australia). People and Environment Section; Fankhauser, B. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Division of Archaeology and Natural History

    1997-12-31

    Full text: The potential to examine prehistoric trade, exchange systems, social boundaries or regional interconnections through characterising the major ethnographic red ochre sources has long been recognised by Australian archaeologists. Recently several teams have made a start in characterising major ochre deposits and in attempting to source ochres recovered in archaeological contexts. Here we review prospects and progress with this line of research. We present case studies of the geochemistry of several major Australian ochre deposits - including Bookartoo, Karrku and Wilgie Mia -looking at their diagenesis, geochemistry and variability and explore the application of various analytical techniques, principally XRD, SEM/EDXA, ICP/MS and stable isotope analysis. We then explore an archaeological application at the Puritjarra shelter in central Australia where ochre sourcing has major implications for understanding prehistoric land use. Our results show that a systematic program of characterising ochre sources and archaeological ochres has great potential in Australia. Major ochre sources often have distinctive chemical fingerprints, particularly if a range of analytical techniques are used in conjunction to characterise ochres. Ochre is frequently found in both late Pleistocene and Holocene contexts, often in sufficient quantity to permit systematic study of temporal changes in prehistoric systems. To fully realize the potential of this research however it will be important to work collaboratively to build up centralized data files of compositional analyses of Australian ochres.

  17. Diagenesis and geochemistry of Australian ochre deposits: a review of methods and prospects for geochemically finger-printing major sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.; Fankhauser, B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The potential to examine prehistoric trade, exchange systems, social boundaries or regional interconnections through characterising the major ethnographic red ochre sources has long been recognised by Australian archaeologists. Recently several teams have made a start in characterising major ochre deposits and in attempting to source ochres recovered in archaeological contexts. Here we review prospects and progress with this line of research. We present case studies of the geochemistry of several major Australian ochre deposits - including Bookartoo, Karrku and Wilgie Mia -looking at their diagenesis, geochemistry and variability and explore the application of various analytical techniques, principally XRD, SEM/EDXA, ICP/MS and stable isotope analysis. We then explore an archaeological application at the Puritjarra shelter in central Australia where ochre sourcing has major implications for understanding prehistoric land use. Our results show that a systematic program of characterising ochre sources and archaeological ochres has great potential in Australia. Major ochre sources often have distinctive chemical fingerprints, particularly if a range of analytical techniques are used in conjunction to characterise ochres. Ochre is frequently found in both late Pleistocene and Holocene contexts, often in sufficient quantity to permit systematic study of temporal changes in prehistoric systems. To fully realize the potential of this research however it will be important to work collaboratively to build up centralized data files of compositional analyses of Australian ochres

  18. Identifying the TeV gamma-ray source MGRO J2228+61, FINALLY!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliu, Ester

    2012-09-01

    New VERITAS observations of MGRO J2228+61 allow us to associate its TeV emission with the enigmatic radio supernova remnant SNR G106.3+2.7. This remnant is part of a large complex that includes the Boomerang pulsar and nebula. The reduced field suggests that the TeV emission is not powered by the Boomerang, but instead associated with a much larger remnant. A recent SUZAKU X-ray observation of the smaller gamma-ray error box reveals two possible pulsar candidates. We propose short ACIS exposures to identify these sources to determine if one or both can be responsible for the gamma-ray emission. This will allow us to address the long standing problem on the nature of both MGRO J2228+61 and SNR G106.3+2.7.

  19. Identifying Methane Sources with an Airborne Pulsed IPDA Lidar System Operating near 1.65 µm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerasi, A.; Bartholomew, J.; Tandy, W., Jr.; Emery, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas that is predicted to play an important role in future global climate trends. It would therefore be beneficial to locate areas that produce methane in significant amounts so that these trends can be better understood. In this investigation, some initial performance test results of a lidar system called the Advanced Leak Detector Lidar - Natural Gas (ALDL-NG) are discussed. The feasibility of applying its fundamental principle of operation to methane source identification is also explored. The ALDL-NG was originally created by the Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. to reveal leaks emanating from pipelines that transport natural gas, which is primarily composed of methane. It operates in a pulsed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) configuration and it is carried by a piloted, single-engine aircraft. In order to detect the presence of natural gas leaks, the laser wavelengths of its online and offline channels operate in the 1.65 µm region. The functionality of the ALDL-NG was tested during a recent field campaign in Colorado. It was determined that the ambient concentration of methane in the troposphere ( 1.8 ppm) could indeed be retrieved from ALDL-NG data with a lower-than-expected uncertainty ( 0.2 ppm). Furthermore, when the ALDL-NG scanned over areas that were presumed to be methane sources (feedlots, landfills, etc.), significantly higher concentrations of methane were retrieved. These results are intriguing because the ALDL-NG was not specifically designed to observe anything beyond natural gas pipelines. Nevertheless, they strongly indicate that utilizing an airborne pulsed IPDA lidar system operating near 1.65 µm may very well be a viable technique for identifying methane sources. Perhaps future lidar systems could build upon the heritage of the ALDL-NG and measure methane concentration with even better precision for a variety of scientific applications.

  20. Diverse origins of Arctic and Subarctic methane point source emissions identified with multiply-substituted isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M. J.; Stolper, D. A.; Smith, D. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Winterdahl, M.; Eiler, J. M.; Sessions, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and there are concerns that its natural emissions from the Arctic could act as a substantial positive feedback to anthropogenic global warming. Determining the sources of methane emissions and the biogeochemical processes controlling them is important for understanding present and future Arctic contributions to atmospheric methane budgets. Here we apply measurements of multiply-substituted isotopologues, or clumped isotopes, of methane as a new tool to identify the origins of ebullitive fluxes in Alaska, Sweden and the Arctic Ocean. When methane forms in isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotope measurements indicate the formation temperature. In some microbial methane, however, non-equilibrium isotope effects, probably related to the kinetics of methanogenesis, lead to low clumped isotope values. We identify four categories of emissions in the studied samples: thermogenic methane, deep subsurface or marine microbial methane formed in isotopic equilibrium, freshwater microbial methane with non-equilibrium clumped isotope values, and mixtures of deep and shallow methane (i.e., combinations of the first three end members). Mixing between deep and shallow methane sources produces a non-linear variation in clumped isotope values with mixing proportion that provides new constraints for the formation environment of the mixing end-members. Analyses of microbial methane emitted from lakes, as well as a methanol-consuming methanogen pure culture, support the hypothesis that non-equilibrium clumped isotope values are controlled, in part, by kinetic isotope effects induced during enzymatic reactions involved in methanogenesis. Our results indicate that these kinetic isotope effects vary widely in microbial methane produced in Arctic lake sediments, with non-equilibrium Δ18 values spanning a range of more than 5‰.

  1. An exploratory study identifying where local government public health decision makers source their evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Melissa; Dodds, James

    2014-08-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Public Health Bill will replace the antiquated Health Act 1911. One of the proposed clauses of the Bill requires all WA local governments to develop a Public Health Plan. The Bill states that Public Health Plans should be based on evidence from all levels, including national and statewide priorities, community needs, local statistical evidence, and stakeholder data. This exploratory study, which targeted 533 WA local government officers, aimed to identify the sources of evidence used to generate the list of public health risks to be included in local government Public Health Plans. The top four sources identified for informing local policy were: observation of the consequences of the risks in the local community (24.5%), statewide evidence (17.6%), local evidence (17.6%) and coverage in local media (16.2%). This study confirms that both hard and soft data are used to inform policy decisions at the local level. Therefore, the challenge that this study has highlighted is in the definition or constitution of evidence. SO WHAT? Evidence is critical to the process of sound policy development. This study highlights issues associated with what actually constitutes evidence in the policy development process at the local government level. With the exception of those who work in an extremely narrow field, it is difficult for local government officers, whose role includes policymaking, to read the vast amount of information that has been published in their area of expertise. For those who are committed to the notion of evidence-based policymaking, as advocated within the WA Public Health Bill, this presents a considerable challenge.

  2. Identifying sources of subsurface nitrate pollution with stable nitrogen isotopes. Final report, August 1976-March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolterink, T.J.; Williamson, H.J.; Jones, D.C.; Grimshaw, T.W.; Holland, W.F.

    1979-08-01

    This report describes the methods, results, conclusions, and recommendations of an investigation of a technique to identify sources of nitrate in ground water. A discussion of the theoretical basis of the technique is also provided. Over 300 soil and ground water samples were collected for this study. The samples are from numerous sites around the United States, representing a variety of environmental conditions. The nitrate in 66 of these samples was separated from other nitrogen species, converted to N2 gas, purified, and analyzed to determine the ratio (15)N/(14)N. These data were combined with the results of analyses performed previously by Jones (1) and Kreitler (2). Standard statistical techniques were used to analyze the observed variations in delta (15)N values, with respect to several nitrate sources and various environmental factors. It was found that nitrates from feedlots, barnyards and septic tanks can be distinguished from natural soil nitrates on the basis of their delta (15)N values. They cannot, however, be distinguished from each other. Environmental factors contributed to the observed variation in delta (15)N values

  3. Quantifying sources of bias in National Healthcare Safety Network laboratory-identified Clostridium difficile infection rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Valerie B; DiRienzo, A Gregory; Lutterloh, Emily C; Stricof, Rachel L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effect of multiple sources of bias on state- and hospital-specific National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) laboratory-identified Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates. Sensitivity analysis. A total of 124 New York hospitals in 2010. New York NHSN CDI events from audited hospitals were matched to New York hospital discharge billing records to obtain additional information on patient age, length of stay, and previous hospital discharges. "Corrected" hospital-onset (HO) CDI rates were calculated after (1) correcting inaccurate case reporting found during audits, (2) incorporating knowledge of laboratory results from outside hospitals, (3) excluding days when patients were not at risk from the denominator of the rates, and (4) adjusting for patient age. Data sets were simulated with each of these sources of bias reintroduced individually and combined. The simulated rates were compared with the corrected rates. Performance (ie, better, worse, or average compared with the state average) was categorized, and misclassification compared with the corrected data set was measured. Counting days patients were not at risk in the denominator reduced the state HO rate by 45% and resulted in 8% misclassification. Age adjustment and reporting errors also shifted rates (7% and 6% misclassification, respectively). Changing the NHSN protocol to require reporting of age-stratified patient-days and adjusting for patient-days at risk would improve comparability of rates across hospitals. Further research is needed to validate the risk-adjustment model before these data should be used as hospital performance measures.

  4. Synoptic sampling and principal components analysis to identify sources of water and metals to an acid mine drainage stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Combining the synoptic mass balance approach with principal components analysis (PCA) can be an effective method for discretising the chemistry of inflows and source areas in watersheds where contamination is diffuse in nature and/or complicated by groundwater interactions. This paper presents a field-scale study in which synoptic sampling and PCA are employed in a mineralized watershed (Lion Creek, Colorado, USA) under low flow conditions to (i) quantify the impacts of mining activity on stream water quality; (ii) quantify the spatial pattern of constituent loading; and (iii) identify inflow sources most responsible for observed changes in stream chemistry and constituent loading. Several of the constituents investigated (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) fail to meet chronic aquatic life standards along most of the study reach. The spatial pattern of constituent loading suggests four primary sources of contamination under low flow conditions. Three of these sources are associated with acidic (pH metal and major ion) chemistry using PCA suggests a hydraulic connection between many of the left bank inflows and mine water in the Minnesota Mine shaft located to the north-east of the river channel. In addition, water chemistry data during a rainfall-runoff event suggests the spatial pattern of constituent loading may be modified during rainfall due to dissolution of efflorescent salts or erosion of streamside tailings. These data point to the complexity of contaminant mobilisation processes and constituent loading in mining-affected watersheds but the combined synoptic sampling and PCA approach enables a conceptual model of contaminant dynamics to be developed to inform remediation.

  5. Functional genomic analysis identifies indoxyl sulfate as a major, poorly dialyzable uremic toxin in end-stage renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jhawar

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure is characterized by progressive renal scarring and accelerated arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease despite what is considered to be adequate hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In rodents with reduced renal mass, renal scarring has been attributed to poorly filtered, small protein-bound molecules. The best studied of these is indoxyl sulfate (IS.We have attempted to establish whether there are uremic toxins that are not effectively removed by hemodialysis. We examined plasma from patients undergoing hemodialysis, employing global gene expression in normal human renal cortical cells incubated in pre- and post- dialysis plasma as a reporter system. Responses in cells incubated with pre- and post-dialysis uremic plasma (n = 10 were compared with responses elicited by plasma from control subjects (n = 5. The effects of adding IS to control plasma and of adding probenecid to uremic plasma were examined. Plasma concentrations of IS were measured by HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography.Gene expression in our reporter system revealed dysregulation of 1912 genes in cells incubated with pre-dialysis uremic plasma. In cells incubated in post-dialysis plasma, the expression of 537 of those genes returned to baseline but the majority of them (1375 remained dysregulated. IS concentration was markedly elevated in pre- and post-dialysis plasma. Addition of IS to control plasma simulated more than 80% of the effects of uremic plasma on gene expression; the addition of probenecid, an organic anion transport (OAT inhibitor, to uremic plasma reversed the changes in gene expression.These findings provide evidence that hemodialysis fails to effectively clear one or more solutes that effect gene expression, in our reporter system, from the plasma of patients with uremia. The finding that gene dysregulation was simulated by the addition of IS to control plasma and inhibited by addition of an OAT inhibitor to uremic plasma identifies IS

  6. Identifying non-point sources of endocrine active compounds and their biological impacts in freshwater lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Beth H.; Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Ferrey, Mark L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Lundy, James R.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern, particularly endocrine active compounds (EACs), have been identified as a threat to aquatic wildlife. However, little is known about the impact of EACs on lakes through groundwater from onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). This study aims to identify specific contributions of OWTS to Sullivan Lake, Minnesota, USA. Lake hydrology, water chemistry, caged bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposures were used to assess whether EACs entered the lake through OWTS inflow and the resultant biological impact on fish. Study areas included two OWTS-influenced near-shore sites with native bluegill spawning habitats and two in-lake control sites without nearby EAC sources. Caged bluegill sunfish were analyzed for plasma vitellogenin concentrations, organosomatic indices, and histological pathologies. Surface and porewater was collected from each site and analyzed for EACs. Porewater was also collected for laboratory exposure of larval fathead minnow, before analysis of predator escape performance and gene expression profiles. Chemical analysis showed EACs present at low concentrations at each study site, whereas discrete variations were reported between sites and between summer and fall samplings. Body condition index and liver vacuolization of sunfish were found to differ among study sites as did gene expression in exposed larval fathead minnows. Interestingly, biological exposure data and water chemistry did not match. Therefore, although results highlight the potential impacts of seepage from OWTS, further investigation of mixture effects and life history factor as well as chemical fate is warranted.

  7. The Majority Rule Act. EdSource Election Brief: Proposition 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.

    This article summarizes "The Majority Rule Act for Smaller Classes, Safer Schools and Financial Accountability" (Proposition 26). The Majority Rule Act deals with the percentage vote that a school district, county office of education, or community college, needs in an election to authorize local general-obligation bonds for school…

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for neuroticism and shows polygenic association with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Marleen H.M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppälä, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbara; Giegling, Ina; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heinonen, Kati; Henders, Anjali K.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Karlsson, Robert; Kemp, John P.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Latvala, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Magri, Chiara; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marten, Jonathan; Maschio, Andrea; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nauck, Matthias; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pettersson, Erik; Polasek, Ozren; Qian, Yong; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Pourcain, Beate St; Sutin, Angelina R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trochet, Holly; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Wouda, Jasper; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Scotland, Generation; Porteous, David; Minelli, Alessandra; Palmer, Abraham A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Metspalu, Andres; Kaprio, Jaakko; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Wilson, James F.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Bierut, Laura J.; Hettema, John M.; Grabe, Hans J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Evans, David M.; Schlessinger, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Terracciano, Antonio; McGue, Matt; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Neuroticism is a personality trait that is briefly defined by emotional instability. It is a robust genetic risk factor for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Hence, neuroticism is an important phenotype for psychiatric genetics. The Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) has created a resource for genome-wide association analyses of personality traits in over 63,000 participants (including MDD cases). Objective To identify genetic variants associated with neuroticism by performing a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results based on 1000Genomes imputation, to evaluate if common genetic variants as assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) explain variation in neuroticism by estimating SNP-based heritability, and to examine whether SNPs that predict neuroticism also predict MDD. Setting 30 cohorts with genome-wide genotype, personality and MDD data from the GPC. Participants The study included 63,661 participants from 29 discovery cohorts and 9,786 participants from a replication cohort. Participants came from Europe, the United States or Australia. Main outcome measure(s) Neuroticism scores harmonized across all cohorts by Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis, and clinically assessed MDD case-control status. Results A genome-wide significant SNP was found in the MAGI1 gene (rs35855737; P=9.26 × 10−9 in the discovery meta-analysis, and P=2.38 × 10−8 in the meta-analysis of all 30 cohorts). Common genetic variants explain 15% of the variance in neuroticism. Polygenic scores based on the meta-analysis of neuroticism in 27 of the discovery cohorts significantly predicted neuroticism in 2 independent cohorts. Importantly, polygenic scores also predicted MDD in these cohorts. Conclusions and relevance This study identifies a novel locus for neuroticism. The variant is located in a known gene that has been associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in previous studies. In addition, the study

  9. Utility of the PHQ-9 to identify major depressive disorder in adult patients in Spanish primary care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Navarro, Roger; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Medrano, Leonardo Adrián; Schmitz, Florian; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Paloma; Abellán-Maeso, Carmen; Font-Payeras, Maria Antonia; Hermosilla-Pasamar, Ana María

    2017-08-09

    The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Spanish primary care (PC) centres is high. However, MDD is frequently underdiagnosed and consequently only some patients receive the appropriate treatment. The present study aims to determine the utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to identify MDD in a subset of PC patients participating in the large PsicAP study. A total of 178 patients completed the full PHQ test, including the depression module (PHQ-9). Also, a Spanish version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was implemented by clinical psychologists that were blinded to the PHQ-9 results. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 as a screening tool as compared to the SCID-I as a reference standard. The psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 for a cut-off value of 10 points were as follows: sensitivity, 0.95; specificity, 0.67. Using a cut-off of 12 points, the values were: sensitivity, 0.84; specificity, 0.78. Finally, using the diagnostic algorithm for depression (DSM-IV criteria), the sensitivity was 0.88 and the specificity 0.80. As a screening instrument, the PHQ-9 performed better with a cut-off value of 12 versus the standard cut-off of 10. However, the best psychometric properties were obtained with the DSM-IV diagnostic algorithm for depression. These findings indicate that the PHQ-9 is a highly satisfactory tool that can be used for screening MDD in the PC setting. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58437086 . Registered 20 May 2013.

  10. 75 FR 32005 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Manufacturers of motor vehicle parts and accessories. 221 Electric, gas, and sanitary services. 622 Health...)) vacating and remanding CAA section 112(d) MACT standards for the Brick and Structural Clay Ceramics source...

  11. Secondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic mass at Bakersfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA), known to form in the atmosphere from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by anthropogenic and biogenic sources, are a poorly understood but substantial component of atmospheric particles. In this study, we examined the chemic...

  12. Drinking water: a major source of lead exposure in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, N; Arain, M A; Badar, N; Rasheed, M; Haque, Z

    2011-11-01

    Excess lead in drinking water is a neglected source of lead toxicity in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey in 2007/08 was made of water samples from drinking water sources in Karachi, a large industrial city. This study aimed to compare lead levels between untreated ground water and treated surface (tap) water in 18 different districts. Of 216 ground and surface water samples collected, 86% had lead levels higher than the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of l0 ppb. Mean lead concentration in ground water [146 (SD 119) ppb] was significantly higher than in surface water [77.1 (SD 54) ppb]. None of the 18 districts had a mean lead level of ground or surface water below the WHO cut-off and ground water sources in 9 districts had a severe level of contamination (>150 ppb). Urgent action is needed to eliminate sources of contamination.

  13. Nonpoint and Point Sources of Nitrogen in Major Watersheds of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Larry J.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of nonpoint and point sources of nitrogen were made for 107 watersheds located in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program study units throughout the conterminous United States. The proportions of nitrogen originating from fertilizer, manure, atmospheric deposition, sewage, and industrial sources were found to vary with climate, hydrologic conditions, land use, population, and physiography. Fertilizer sources of nitrogen are proportionally greater in agricultural areas of the West and the Midwest than in other parts of the Nation. Animal manure contributes large proportions of nitrogen in the South and parts of the Northeast. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen is generally greatest in areas of greatest precipitation, such as the Northeast. Point sources (sewage and industrial) generally are predominant in watersheds near cities, where they may account for large proportions of the nitrogen in streams. The transport of nitrogen in streams increases as amounts of precipitation and runoff increase and is greatest in the Northeastern United States. Because no single nonpoint nitrogen source is dominant everywhere, approaches to control nitrogen must vary throughout the Nation. Watershed-based approaches to understanding nonpoint and point sources of contamination, as used by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, will aid water-quality and environmental managers to devise methods to reduce nitrogen pollution.

  14. Identifying the Barriers upon Development of Virtual Education in Engineering Majors (Case Study: The University of Isfahan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoonezhad, Sepideh; Nili, Mohammadreza; Esfahani, Ahmadreza Nasr

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating barriers upon development of virtual education in engineering majors at the University of Isfahan. The study has applied a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) and its population consists all of the department members of the technical and engineering majors at the University of Isfahan including 125…

  15. A Systematic Approach to Identify Sources of Abnormal Interior Noise for a High-Speed Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic approach to identify sources of abnormal interior noise occurring in a high-speed train is presented and applied in this paper to resolve a particular noise issue. This approach is developed based on a number of previous dealings with similar noise problems. The particular noise issue occurs in a Chinese high-speed train. It is measured that there is a difference of 7 dB(A in overall Sound Pressure Level (SPL between two nominally identical VIP cabins at 250 km/h. The systematic approach is applied to identify the root cause of the 7 dB(A difference. Well planned measurements are performed in both the VIP cabins. Sound pressure contributions, either in terms of frequency band or in terms of facing area, are analyzed. Order analysis is also carried out. Based on these analyses, it is found that the problematic frequency is the sleeper passing frequency of the train, and an area on the roof contributes the most. In order to determine what causes that area to be the main contributor without disassembling the structure of the roof, measured noise and vibration data for different train speeds are further analyzed. It is then reasoned that roof is the main contributor caused by sound pressure behind the panel. Up to this point, panels of the roof are removed, revealing that a hole of 300 cm2 for running cables is presented behind the red area without proper sound insulation. This study can provide a basis for abnormal interior noise analysis and control of high-speed trains.

  16. Identifying Sources of Funding That Contribute to Scholastic Productivity in Academic Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qing Zhao; Cohen, Justin B; Baek, Yoonji; Chen, Austin D; Doval, Andres F; Singhal, Dhruv; Fukudome, Eugene Y; Lin, Samuel J; Lee, Bernard T

    2018-04-01

    Scholastic productivity has previously been shown to be positively associated with National Institute of Health (NIH) grants and industry funding. This study examines whether society, industry, or federal funding contributes toward academic productivity as measured by scholastic output of academic plastic surgeons. Institution Web sites were used to acquire academic attributes of full-time academic plastic surgeons. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payment database, NIH reporter, the Plastic Surgery Foundation (PSF), and American Association of Plastic Surgeons (AAPS) Web sites were accessed for funding and endowment details. Bibliometric data of each surgeon were then collected via Scopus to ascertain strengths of association with each source. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify significant contributors to high scholastic output. We identified 935 academic plastic surgeons with 94 (10.1%), 24 (2.6%), 724 (77.4%), and 62 (6.6%) receiving funding from PSF, AAPS, industry, and NIH, respectively. There were positive correlations in receiving NIH, PSF, and/or AAPS funding (P funding was found to negatively associate with PSF (r = -0.75, P = 0.022) grants. The NIH R award was consistently found to be the most predictive of academic output across bibliometrics, followed by the AAPS academic scholarship award. Conventional measures of academic seniority remained predictive across all measures used. Our study demonstrates for the first time interactions between industry, federal, and association funding. The NIH R award was the strongest determinant of high scholastic productivity. Recognition through AAPS academic scholarships seemed to associate with subsequent success in NIH funding.

  17. The Content of Fat and Polyenoic Acids in the Major Food Sources of the Arctic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, V. K. S.; Clausen, Jytte Lene; Egsgaard, Helge

    1980-01-01

    In relation to the apparently low incidence of coronary heart diseases in Arctic populations the fatty acid pattern of muscle and fat tissue of the Arctic seal, birds and mammals were compared with the fatty acid pattern of the corresponding tissues of domestic animals normally used as meat sources...... in western countries. The triglyceride content of muscle samples was also estimated. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system was used for localizing the position of double bonds in the unsaturated acids, by means of their pyrrolidides. The fat tissue from the seal was the main source of polyenoic acids......, tri- and pentaenoic acids in the diet of the Arctic hunter. Those acids were derived metabolically from linolenic acid. In contrast polyenoic acids, linoleic acid and its derivatives in the nonarctic diet, were mainly supplied from muscle of nonruminant animals and from sources of vegetable origin...

  18. Study on performance of a simultaneous spectrometer of ICP emission source for the determination of the major elements in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The optimization of operational parameters of a simultaneous spectrometer coupled to an ICP excitation source in order to establish an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the major elements in rocks is studied. The mutual spectral interferences, calibration curves for the acid and saline matrix and the internal standard method with ytrium are analyzed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  19. Identifying the sources of produced water in the oil field by isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Minh Quy; Hoang Long; Le Thi Thu Huong; Luong Van Huan; Vo Thi Tuong Hanh

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the sources of the formation water in the Southwest Su-Tu-Den (STD SW) basement reservoir. To achieve the objective, isotopic techniques along with geochemical analysis for chloride, bromide, strontium dissolved in the water were applied. The isotopic techniques used in this study were the determination of water stable isotopes signatures (δ 2 H and (δ 18 O) and of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of strontium in rock cutting sample and that dissolved in the formation water. The obtained results showed that the stable isotopes compositions of water in the Lower Miocene was -3‰ and -23‰ for (δ 18 O and (δ 2 H, respectively indicating the primeval nature of seawater in the reservoir. Meanwhile, the isotopic composition of water in the basement was clustered in a range of alternated freshwater with (δ 18 O and (δ 2 H being -(3-4)‰ and -(54-60)‰, respectively). The strontium isotopes ratio for water in the Lower Miocene reservoir was lower compared to that for water in the basement confirming the different natures of the water in the two reservoirs. The obtained results are assured for the techniques applicability, and it is recommended that studies on identification of the flow-path of the formation water in the STD SW basement reservoir should be continued. (author)

  20. CD4 T cells remain the major source of HIV-1 during end stage disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van der Ende (Marchina); M. Schutten (Martin); B. Raschdorff; G. Grosschupff; P. Racz; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); K. Tenner-Racz

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the source of HIV-1 production in lymphoid tissue biopsies from HIV-infected patients, with no prior anti-retroviral protease inhibitor treatment, with a CD4 cell count > 150 x 10(6)/l (group I) or < 50 x 10(6)/l (group II), co-infected with Mycobacterium

  1. Seagrass as major source of transparent exopolymer particles in the oligotrophic Mediterranean coast

    KAUST Repository

    Iuculano, Francesca; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà , Nú ria; Agusti, Susana

    2017-01-01

    rates of TEP production by P. oceanica litter, allowing calculations of the associated TEP yield. We demonstrated that P. oceanica is an important source of TEP to the Mediterranean Sea, contributing an estimated 0.10 Tg C as TEP annually. TEP release

  2. 75 FR 15655 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Electroplating, plating, polishing, anodizing, and coloring. 336 Manufacturers of motor vehicle parts and... 1994 and amended several times since then; they are contained in subpart B, 40 CFR 63.50 through 63.56...; May 30, 2003) to allow a source additional time to compile the information necessary for the...

  3. Physical Properties and Lung Deposition of Particles Emitted from Five Major Indoor Sources.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tuan, V.Vu.; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Delgado-Saborit, J.M.; Harrison, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-14 ISSN 1873-9318 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 - HEXACOMM Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : indoor sources * particle size * hygroscopic growth Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.184, year: 2016

  4. A Theoretical Framework: News Sources, Gender and Majority-Minority in Danish TV News Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The general theme of this research paper is the relationship between democracy, gender/ethnicity (here characterized as majority/ minority status) and media. The media are among our most powerful agents of entertainment, information, and socialization. Media can also be considered a vital political...

  5. Simultaneous assessments of occurrence, ecological, human health, and organoleptic hazards for 77 VOCs in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10"−"7 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 4.24 × 10"−"4) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. - Highlights: • VOCs with various polarities were screened in typical water sources of China. • Ecological, human health and olfactory assessments were simultaneously performed. • The risk assessments were used to identify the major hazards by VOCs. • The detected VOCs posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks. • Odor problems occurred extensively in source water of China. - Detected VOCs with various polarities caused odor problems and posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks in drinking water sources in China.

  6. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-01-01

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biofiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly

  7. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed

  8. Mangroves, a major source of dissolved organic carbon to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Thorsten; Hertkorn, Norbert; Kattner, Gerhard; Lara, RubéN. J.

    2006-03-01

    Organic matter, which is dissolved in low concentrations in the vast waters of the oceans, contains a total amount of carbon similar to atmospheric carbon dioxide. To understand global biogeochemical cycles, it is crucial to quantify the sources of marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We investigated the impact of mangroves, the dominant intertidal vegetation of the tropics, on marine DOC inventories. Stable carbon isotopes and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that mangroves are the main source of terrigenous DOC in the open ocean off northern Brazil. Sunlight efficiently destroyed aromatic molecules during transport offshore, removing about one third of mangrove-derived DOC. The remainder was refractory and may thus be distributed over the oceans. On a global scale, we estimate that mangroves account for >10% of the terrestrially derived, refractory DOC transported to the ocean, while they cover only <0.1% of the continents' surface.

  9. Genome-wide association study identifies a single major locus contributing to survival into old age; the APOE locus revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deelen, Joris; Beekman, Marian; Uh, Hae-Won

    2011-01-01

    By studying the loci which contribute to human longevity, we aim to identify mechanisms that contribute to healthy aging. To identify such loci, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) comparing 403 unrelated nonagenarians from long-living families included in the Leiden Longevity Stu...

  10. Identifying Patterns in the Weather of Europe for Source Term Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klampanos, Iraklis; Pappas, Charalambos; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Davvetas, Athanasios; Ikonomopoulos, Andreas; Karkaletsis, Vangelis

    2017-04-01

    During emergencies that involve the release of hazardous substances into the atmosphere the potential health effects on the human population and the environment are of primary concern. Such events have occurred in the past, most notably involving radioactive and toxic substances. Examples of radioactive release events include the Chernobyl accident in 1986, as well as the more recent Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Often, the release of dangerous substances in the atmosphere is detected at locations different from the release origin. The objective of this work is the rapid estimation of such unknown sources shortly after the detection of dangerous substances in the atmosphere, with an initial focus on nuclear or radiological releases. Typically, after the detection of a radioactive substance in the atmosphere indicating the occurrence of an unknown release, the source location is estimated via inverse modelling. However, depending on factors such as the spatial resolution desired, traditional inverse modelling can be computationally time-consuming. This is especially true for cases where complex topography and weather conditions are involved and can therefore be problematic when timing is critical. Making use of machine learning techniques and the Big Data Europe platform1, our approach moves the bulk of the computation before any such event taking place, therefore allowing for rapid initial, albeit rougher, estimations regarding the source location. Our proposed approach is based on the automatic identification of weather patterns within the European continent. Identifying weather patterns has long been an active research field. Our case is differentiated by the fact that it focuses on plume dispersion patterns and these meteorological variables that affect dispersion the most. For a small set of recurrent weather patterns, we simulate hypothetical radioactive releases from a pre-known set of nuclear reactor locations and for different substance and temporal

  11. New complete sample of identified radio sources. Part 2. Statistical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltan, A.

    1978-01-01

    Complete sample of radio sources with known redshifts selected in Paper I is studied. Source counts in the sample and the luminosity - volume test show that both quasars and galaxies are subject to the evolution. Luminosity functions for different ranges of redshifts are obtained. Due to many uncertainties only simplified models of the evolution are tested. Exponential decline of the liminosity with time of all the bright sources is in a good agreement both with the luminosity- volume test and N(S) realtion in the entire range of observed flux densities. It is shown that sources in the sample are randomly distributed in scales greater than about 17 Mpc. (author)

  12. New airborne geophysical data from the Waterberg coalfield. South Africa's major future energy source

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation (110m thick in the south) • Recent cover is from the weathering of gneiss of the Limpopo Mobile Belt and the Karoo rock in the north; but from Waterberg sandstones in the south • Intrusive rocks – the most important of these rocks are those... 2) shows the northern contact of the Ellisras Basin clearly. It also shows the large block faulting and radioactive material eroding from the source (Waterberg Sandstones) in the south into the sediment load of the north-flowing Mokolo River...

  13. Applicablitiy Determinations on the PSD 100 tpy Major Source Threshold Catergory for Fossil Fuel Boilers Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Proteomic analysis identifies mitochondrial metabolic enzymes as major discriminators between different stages of the failing human myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Wiggers, Henrik; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM).......Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM)....

  15. Seagrass as major source of transparent exopolymer particles in the oligotrophic Mediterranean coast

    KAUST Repository

    Iuculano, Francesca

    2017-01-09

    The role of seagrass, Posidonia oceanica, meadows as a source of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) to Mediterranean coastal waters was tested by comparing the TEP dynamics in two adjacent coastal waters in the oligotrophic NW Mediterranean Sea, one characterized by oligotrophic open-sea waters and the other accumulating seagrass leaf litter, together with an experimental examination of TEP release by seagrass litter. TEP concentrations ranged from 4.6 µg XG Eq L−1 to 90.6 µg XG Eq L−1, with mean (±SE) values of 38.7 (±2.02) µg XG Eq L−1 in the site devoid of seagrass litter, whereas the coastal beach site accumulating leaf litter had > 10-fold mean TEP concentrations of 487.02 (±72.8) µg XG Eq L−1 . Experimental evaluation confirmed high rates of TEP production by P. oceanica litter, allowing calculations of the associated TEP yield. We demonstrated that P. oceanica is an important source of TEP to the Mediterranean Sea, contributing an estimated 0.10 Tg C as TEP annually. TEP release by P. oceanica seagrass explains the elevated TEP concentration relative to the low chlorophyll a concentration in the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. Water quality assessment and apportionment of pollution sources using APCS-MLR and PMF receptor modeling techniques in three major rivers of South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Gholizadeh, Mohammad; Melesse, Assefa M; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-10-01

    In this study, principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), and the absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) receptor modeling technique were used to assess the water quality and identify and quantify the potential pollution sources affecting the water quality of three major rivers of South Florida. For this purpose, 15years (2000-2014) dataset of 12 water quality variables covering 16 monitoring stations, and approximately 35,000 observations was used. The PCA/FA method identified five and four potential pollution sources in wet and dry seasons, respectively, and the effective mechanisms, rules and causes were explained. The APCS-MLR apportioned their contributions to each water quality variable. Results showed that the point source pollution discharges from anthropogenic factors due to the discharge of agriculture waste and domestic and industrial wastewater were the major sources of river water contamination. Also, the studied variables were categorized into three groups of nutrients (total kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, total phosphate, and ammonia-N), water murkiness conducive parameters (total suspended solids, turbidity, and chlorophyll-a), and salt ions (magnesium, chloride, and sodium), and average contributions of different potential pollution sources to these categories were considered separately. The data matrix was also subjected to PMF receptor model using the EPA PMF-5.0 program and the two-way model described was performed for the PMF analyses. Comparison of the obtained results of PMF and APCS-MLR models showed that there were some significant differences in estimated contribution for each potential pollution source, especially in the wet season. Eventually, it was concluded that the APCS-MLR receptor modeling approach appears to be more physically plausible for the current study. It is believed that the results of apportionment could be very useful to the local authorities for the control and

  17. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF. - Highlights: • Ensemble models including stochastic gradient boosting and random forest are used. • The models were verified by cross-validation and SGB performed better than RF. • Heavy metal pollution sources on a local scale are identified and apportioned. • Models illustrate good suitability in assessing sources in local-scale agricultural soils. • Anthropogenic sources contributed most to soil Pb and Cd pollution in our case. - Multi-source and multi-phase pollution by heavy metals in agricultural soils on a local scale were identified and apportioned.

  18. Toward morphological thoracic EIT: major signal sources correspond to respective organ locations in CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Damien; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy; Solà, Josep; Böhm, Stephan H; Bodenstein, Marc

    2012-11-01

    Lung and cardiovascular monitoring applications of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) require localization of relevant functional structures or organs of interest within the reconstructed images. We describe an algorithm for automatic detection of heart and lung regions in a time series of EIT images. Using EIT reconstruction based on anatomical models, candidate regions are identified in the frequency domain and image-based classification techniques applied. The algorithm was validated on a set of simultaneously recorded EIT and CT data in pigs. In all cases, identified regions in EIT images corresponded to those manually segmented in the matched CT image. Results demonstrate the ability of EIT technology to reconstruct relevant impedance changes at their anatomical locations, provided that information about the thoracic boundary shape (and electrode positions) are used for reconstruction.

  19. Adolescents show sex-specific preferences on media when pornography is a major source of sexual knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anna Lund; Svarrer, Rebekka; Lauszus, Finn Friis

    2017-01-01

    photographs;thus, these magazines constituted a major source of adolescent girls. Girls knew the gestational age of legal abortion in Denmark and had their knowledge from non-explicit magazines while this was not the case for boys (p=0.004). Pupils who stated their knowledge on sex from these magazines knew...... the first sign of pregnancy (menostasia), the correct facts of legal abortion, and STI.Conclusions: Pornography in different media is used in the vast majority of adolescents and its use is sex-specific. Knowledge on STI, pregnancy, legal abortion was variably associated with the type of media....... with focus on pornography and what media was used. Pornography was divided according to five media subcategories. Knowledge on sexually transmitted infection (STI), pregnancy and abortion and their associations with pornography were explored.Results: Pornography was reported as the second largest source...

  20. Caloric beverages were major sources of energy among children and adults in Mexico, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5-11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12-19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20-49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P energy intake per capita in children aged 1-19 y and adults aged ≥20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1-19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ≥20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among children and adult females in Mexico. Because caloric soda is currently 1 of the top beverages consumed, a 10% tax on SSBs might help to significantly reduce added sugars intake in Mexico. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  2. Factor analysis in the Genetics of Asthma International Network family study identifies five major quantitative asthma phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillai, S. G.; Tang, Y.; van den Oord, E.; Klotsman, M.; Barnes, K.; Carlsen, K.; Gerritsen, J.; Lenney, W.; Silverman, M.; Sly, P.; Sundy, J.; Tsanakas, J.; von Berg, A.; Whyte, M.; Ortega, H. G.; Anderson, W. H.; Helms, P. J.

    Background Asthma is a clinically heterogeneous disease caused by a complex interaction between genetic susceptibility and diverse environmental factors. In common with other complex diseases the lack of a standardized scheme to evaluate the phenotypic variability poses challenges in identifying the

  3. On - road mobile source pollutant emissions : identifying hotspots and ranking roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    A considerable amount of pollution to the air in the forms of hydrocarbons, carbon : monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and air toxics comes : from the on-road mobile sources. Estimation of the emissions of these pollutants...

  4. Using spatiotemporal source separation to identify prominent features in multichannel data without sinusoidal filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X

    2017-09-27

    The number of simultaneously recorded electrodes in neuroscience is steadily increasing, providing new opportunities for understanding brain function, but also new challenges for appropriately dealing with the increase in dimensionality. Multivariate source separation analysis methods have been particularly effective at improving signal-to-noise ratio while reducing the dimensionality of the data and are widely used for cleaning, classifying and source-localizing multichannel neural time series data. Most source separation methods produce a spatial component (that is, a weighted combination of channels to produce one time series); here, this is extended to apply source separation to a time series, with the idea of obtaining a weighted combination of successive time points, such that the weights are optimized to satisfy some criteria. This is achieved via a two-stage source separation procedure, in which an optimal spatial filter is first constructed and then its optimal temporal basis function is computed. This second stage is achieved with a time-delay-embedding matrix, in which additional rows of a matrix are created from time-delayed versions of existing rows. The optimal spatial and temporal weights can be obtained by solving a generalized eigendecomposition of covariance matrices. The method is demonstrated in simulated data and in an empirical electroencephalogram study on theta-band activity during response conflict. Spatiotemporal source separation has several advantages, including defining empirical filters without the need to apply sinusoidal narrowband filters. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The integration of major fuel source markets in China. Evidence from panel cointegration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Hengyun; Oxley, Les

    2010-01-01

    The paper tests for energy price co-movement in China over the 'new regime' as part of a strategy to test for the existence of a national energy market. Panel cointegration test statistics suggest that not all energy commodities are spatially homogenous in prices and the processes of energy price cointegration are different over time and over groups of fuels. The statistics demonstrate China's gradual, spatially partial and idiosyncratic energy reform process. Coal and electricity price series have co-moved since 2003, while the national panel cointegration test statistics suggest that gasoline and diesel price series have co-moved since 1997. Regional panel tests also show that there are apparently differences in the emergence of energy price co-movement. This suggests that regional energy markets have emerged in China. One of the important lessons of the research is that an energy market has, to some extent, already emerged in China and, as a consequence, energy prices are much less distorted than previously. If correct, this fact is of major global significance both in terms of future environmental effects and future trade and investment negotiations as China is seen internationally as a 'market driven economy'. (author)

  6. Air pollutant emissions from Chinese households: A major and underappreciated ambient pollution source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Yu; Peng, Wei; Klimont, Zbigniew; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Hu, Min; Lin, Weili; Smith, Kirk R.; Zhu, Tong

    2016-01-01

    As part of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government has developed air pollution prevention and control plans for key regions with a focus on the power, transport, and industrial sectors. Here, we investigate the contribution of residential emissions to regional air pollution in highly polluted eastern China during the heating season, and find that dramatic improvements in air quality would also result from reduction in residential emissions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry to evaluate potential residential emission controls in Beijing and in the Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei (BTH) region. In January and February 2010, relative to the base case, eliminating residential emissions in Beijing reduced daily average surface PM2.5 (particulate mater with aerodynamic diameter equal or smaller than 2.5 micrometer) concentrations by 14 ± 7 μg⋅m−3 (22 ± 6% of a baseline concentration of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3; mean ± SD). Eliminating residential emissions in the BTH region reduced concentrations by 28 ± 19 μg⋅m−3 (40 ± 9% of 67 ± 41 μg⋅m−3), 44 ± 27 μg⋅m−3 (43 ± 10% of 99 ± 54 μg⋅m−3), and 25 ± 14 μg⋅m−3 (35 ± 8% of 70 ± 35 μg⋅m−3) in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei provinces, respectively. Annually, elimination of residential sources in the BTH region reduced emissions of primary PM2.5 by 32%, compared with 5%, 6%, and 58% achieved by eliminating emissions from the transportation, power, and industry sectors, respectively. We also find air quality in Beijing would benefit substantially from reductions in residential emissions from regional controls in Tianjin and Hebei, indicating the value of policies at the regional level. PMID:27354524

  7. Reactive trace gas emissions from stressed plants: a poorly characterized major source of atmospheric volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation constitutes the greatest source of reactive volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. The current emission estimates primarily rely on constitutive emissions that are present only in some plant species. However, all plant species can be induced to emit reactive volatiles by different abiotic and biotic stresses, but the stress-dependent emissions have been largely neglected in emission measurements and models. This presentation provides an overview of systematic screening of stress-dependent volatile emissions from a broad range of structurally and physiologically divergent plant species from temperate to tropical ecosystems. Ozone, heat, drought and wounding stress were the abiotic stresses considered in the screening, while biotic stress included herbivory, chemical elicitors simulating herbivory and fungal infections. The data suggest that any moderate to severe stress leads to significant emissions of a rich blend of volatiles, including methanol, green leaf volatiles (the lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, dominated by C6 aldehydes, alcohols and derivatives), different mono- and sesquiterpenes and benzenoids. The release of volatiles occurs in stress severity-dependent manner, although the emission responses are often non-linear with more severe stresses resulting in disproportionately greater emissions. Stress volatile release is induced in both non-constitutive and constitutive volatile emitters, whereas the rate of constitutive volatile emissions in constitutive emitters is often reduced under environmental and biotic stresses. Given that plants in natural conditions often experience stress, this analysis suggests that global volatile emissions have been significantly underestimated. Furthermore, in globally changing hotter climates, the frequency and severity of both abiotic and biotic stresses is expected to increase. Thus, the stress-induced volatile emissions are predicted to play a dominant role in plant-atmosphere interactions in near

  8. Identification of major backscattering sources in trees and shrubs at 10 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoughi, R.; Wu, L. K.; Moore, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    A short-range very-fine-resolution FM-CW radar scatterometer has been used to identify the primary contributors to 10-GHz radar backscatter from pine, pin oak, American sycamore and sugar maple trees, and from creeping juniper shrubs. This system provided a range resolution of 11 cm and gave a 16-cm diameter illumination area at the target range of about 4 m. For a pine tree, the needles caused the strongest backscatter as well as the strongest attenuation in the radar signal. Cones, although insignificant contributors to the total backscatter, were more important for backscattering than for attenuation. For the rest of the trees, leaves were the strongest cause of backscattering and attenuation. However, in the absence of leaves, the petioles, small twigs, and branches gave relatively strong backscatter. For American sycamore and sugar maple trees, the fruits did not affect the total backscatter unless they were packed in clusters. For creeping juniper the backscattered energy and attenuation in the radar signal were mainly due to the top two layers of the evergreen scales. The contribution of the tree trunks was not determined.

  9. Euphotic zone bacterioplankton sources major sedimentary bacteriohopanepolyols in the Holocene Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenberg, Martin; Seifert, Richard; Kasten, Sabine; Bahlmann, Enno; Michaelis, Walter

    2009-02-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are lipid constituents of many bacterial groups. Geohopanoids, the diagenetic products, are therefore ubiquitous in organic matter of the geosphere. To examine the potential of BHPs as environmental markers in marine sediments, we investigated a Holocene sediment core from the Black Sea. The concentrations of BHPs mirror the environmental shift from a well-mixed lake to a stratified marine environment by a strong and gradual increase from low values (˜30 μg g -1 TOC) in the oldest sediments to ˜170 μg g -1 TOC in sediments representing the onset of a permanently anoxic water body at about 7500 years before present (BP). This increase in BHP concentrations was most likely caused by a strong increase in bacterioplanktonic paleoproductivity brought about by several ingressions of Mediterranean Sea waters at the end of the lacustrine stage (˜9500 years BP). δ 15N values coevally decreasing with increasing BHP concentrations may indicate a shift from a phosphorus- to a nitrogen-limited setting supporting growth of N 2-fixing, BHP-producing bacteria. In sediments of the last ˜3000 years BHP concentrations have remained relatively stable at about 50 μg g -1 TOC. The distributions of major BHPs did not change significantly during the shift from lacustrine (or oligohaline) to marine conditions. Tetrafunctionalized BHPs prevailed throughout the entire sediment core, with the common bacteriohopanetetrol and 35-aminobacteriohopanetriol and the rare 35-aminobacteriohopenetriol, so far only known from a purple non-sulfur α-proteobacterium, being the main components. Other BHPs specific to cyanobacteria and pelagic methanotrophic bacteria were also found but only in much smaller amounts. Our results demonstrate that BHPs from microorganisms living in deeper biogeochemical zones of marine water columns are underrepresented or even absent in the sediment compared to the BHPs of bacteria present in the euphotic zone. Obviously, the assemblage of

  10. Twitter as Information Source for Rapid Damage Estimation after Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Silke; Fohringer, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Natural disasters like earthquakes require a fast response from local authorities. Well trained rescue teams have to be available, equipment and technology has to be ready set up, information have to be directed to the right positions so the head quarter can manage the operation precisely. The main goal is to reach the most affected areas in a minimum of time. But even with the best preparation for these cases, there will always be the uncertainty of what really happened in the affected area. Modern geophysical sensor networks provide high quality data. These measurements, however, are only mapping disjoint values from their respective locations for a limited amount of parameters. Using observations of witnesses represents one approach to enhance measured values from sensors ("humans as sensors"). These observations are increasingly disseminated via social media platforms. These "social sensors" offer several advantages over common sensors, e.g. high mobility, high versatility of captured parameters as well as rapid distribution of information. Moreover, the amount of data offered by social media platforms is quite extensive. We analyze messages distributed via Twitter after major earthquakes to get rapid information on what eye-witnesses report from the epicentral area. We use this information to (a) quickly learn about damage and losses to support fast disaster response and to (b) densify geophysical networks in areas where there is sparse information to gain a more detailed insight on felt intensities. We present a case study from the Mw 7.1 Philippines (Bohol) earthquake that happened on Oct. 15 2013. We extract Twitter messages, so called tweets containing one or more specified keywords from the semantic field of "earthquake" and use them for further analysis. For the time frame of Oct. 15 to Oct 18 we get a data base of in total 50.000 tweets whereof 2900 tweets are geo-localized and 470 have a photo attached. Analyses for both national level and locally for

  11. Identifying Sources of Clinical Conflict: A Tool for Practice and Training in Bioethics Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Bioethics mediators manage a wide range of clinical conflict emanating from diverse sources. Parties to clinical conflict are often not fully aware of, nor willing to express, the true nature and scope of their conflict. As such, a significant task of the bioethics mediator is to help define that conflict. The ability to assess and apply the tools necessary for an effective mediation process can be facilitated by each mediator's creation of a personal compendium of sources that generate clinical conflict, to provide an orientation for the successful management of complex dilemmatic cases. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  12. Part 2. Development of Enhanced Statistical Methods for Assessing Health Effects Associated with an Unknown Number of Major Sources of Multiple Air Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sug; Symanski, Elaine; Han, Daikwon; Spiegelman, Clifford

    2015-06-01

    A major difficulty with assessing source-specific health effects is that source-specific exposures cannot be measured directly; rather, they need to be estimated by a source-apportionment method such as multivariate receptor modeling. The uncertainty in source apportionment (uncertainty in source-specific exposure estimates and model uncertainty due to the unknown number of sources and identifiability conditions) has been largely ignored in previous studies. Also, spatial dependence of multipollutant data collected from multiple monitoring sites has not yet been incorporated into multivariate receptor modeling. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop a multipollutant approach that incorporates both sources of uncertainty in source-apportionment into the assessment of source-specific health effects and (2) to develop enhanced multivariate receptor models that can account for spatial correlations in the multipollutant data collected from multiple sites. We employed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework consisting of multivariate receptor models, health-effects models, and a hierarchical model on latent source contributions. For the health model, we focused on the time-series design in this project. Each combination of number of sources and identifiability conditions (additional constraints on model parameters) defines a different model. We built a set of plausible models with extensive exploratory data analyses and with information from previous studies, and then computed posterior model probability to estimate model uncertainty. Parameter estimation and model uncertainty estimation were implemented simultaneously by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC*) methods. We validated the methods using simulated data. We illustrated the methods using PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) speciation data and mortality data from Phoenix, Arizona, and Houston, Texas. The Phoenix data included counts of cardiovascular deaths and daily PM2

  13. Reframing a Problem: Identifying the Sources of Conflict in a Teacher Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quebec Fuentes, Sarah; Bloom, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This article exemplifies the critical initial phase of action research, problem identification, in the context of a teacher education course. After frustration arose between preservice elementary teachers (PSTs) and their instructor over classwork quality, the instructor employed reflective journaling and discussions to examine the source of the…

  14. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deasy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.

  15. Identifying Sources of Fecal Contamination in Streams Associated with Chicken Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry is responsible for 44% of the total feces production in the U.S., followed by cattle and swine. The large U.S. production of feces poses a contamination risk for affected watersheds across the country. To aid in the identification of the sources of contamination, many D...

  16. Discovering Software License Constraints : Identifying a Binary’s Sources by Tracing Build Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, S.; Davies, J.; Dolstra, E.; German, D.M.; Hemel, A.

    2012-01-01

    With the current proliferation of open source software components, intellectual property in general, and copyright law in particular, has become a critical non-functional requirement for software systems. A key problem in license compliance engineering is that the legal constraints on a product

  17. Identifying potential sources of variability between vegetation carbon storage estimates for urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Dallimer, Martin; Edmondson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    Although urbanisation is a major cause of land-use change worldwide, towns and cities remain relatively understudied ecosystems. Research into urban ecosystem service provision is still an emerging field, yet evidence is accumulating rapidly to suggest that the biological carbon stores in cities ...

  18. Investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Su Ping; Gu Dang Chang; Gong-Jian; Hao Fan Hua; Hu Guang Chun

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fingerprints sometimes can be used to label and identify the radiation resources. For instance, in a future nuclear reduction treaty that requires verification of irreversible dismantling of reduced nuclear warheads, the radiation fingerprints of nuclear warheads are expected to play a key role in labelling and identifying the reduced warheads. It would promote the development of nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification technologies if authors start right now some investigations on the issues related to the radiation fingerprints. The author dedicated to the investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation resources. The purpose of the identifying mechanism investigation is to find a credible way to tell whether any two gamma-ray spectral fingerprints that are under comparison are radiated from the same resource. The authors created the spectrum pattern comparison (SPC) to study the comparability of the two radiation fingerprints. Guided by the principle of SPC,...

  19. Investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suping; Wu Huailong; Gu Dangchang; Gong Jian; Hao Fanhua; Hu Guangchun

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fingerprints sometimes can be used to label and identify the radiation resources. For instance, in a future nuclear reduction treaty that requires verification of irreversible dismantling of reduced nuclear warheads, the radiation fingerprints of nuclear warheads are expected to play a key role in labelling and identifying the reduced warheads. It would promote the development of nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification technologies if authors start right now some investigations on the issues related to the radiation fingerprints. The author dedicated to the investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation resources. The purpose of the identifying mechanism investigation is to find a credible way to tell whether any two gamma-ray spectral fingerprints that are under comparison are radiated from the same resource. The authors created the spectrum pattern comparison (SPC) to study the comparability of the two radiation fingerprints. Guided by the principle of SPC, the authors programmed a software dedicated to identify the types of radiation resources. The efficiency of the software was tested by a series of experiments with some laboratory gamma-ray resources. The experiments were designed to look into the relations between comparability and radioactive statistics, and the relations between comparability and some measurement conditions such as real time, resource activity and background etc. Two main results can be drawn from the investigation: 1) it is quite feasible to use the concept of spectral comparability to answer the question whether any two gamma-ray fingerprints are identity or not; 2) the identifying mechanism can only identify the types of radiation resources, and cannot identify the individuals with the same type and small differences

  20. Identifying Business Barriers and Enablers for the Adoption of Open Source Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Holm Larsen, Michael; Pedersen, Mogens Kuhn

    2004-01-01

    The main research interest in Open Source Software (OSS) has been in answering the questions of why individuals and organizations without economic compensation contribute to OSS projects and how these projects are organized. In this paper we instead focus on managerial decisions for acquisition...... models for these relationships is an important challenge, which we will deal with in a research project, of which this paper should be seen as a first step....

  1. Identifying the change in atmospheric sulfur sources in China using isotopic ratios in mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    A considerable number of studies on rainwater sulfur isotopic ratios (δ34Srain) have been conducted to trace sulfur sources at a large number of sites in the past. If longitudinal studies on the isotope composition of precipitation sulfate were conducted, it is possible to relate that to changes in sulfur emissions. But direct measurement needs considerable labor and time. So, in this study, sulfur isotopic ratios in rainwater and mosses were analyzed at Guiyang and Nanchang to evaluate the possibility of using mosses as a substitute for rainwater. We found that present moss sulfur isotopic ratios were comparable to those of present rainwater. Additionally, we investigated the changes of atmospheric sulfur sources and sulfur concentrations using an isotopic graphic analysis at five industrial cities, two forested areas, and two remote areas in China. Mosses in industrial cities show a wide range of δ34S values, with the highest occurring at Chongqing (+3.9‰) and the lowest at Guiyang (-3.1‰). But as compared to those in forested and remote areas, δ34S values of mosses in all the five industrial cities are lower. On the basis of isotopic comparisons between past rainwater (reported in the literature) and present mosses, in the plot of δ34Smoss versus δ34Srain, six zones indicating different atmospheric sulfur change are separated by the 1:1 line and δ34S values of potential sulfur sources. Our results indicate that atmospheric sulfur pollution in most of the industrial cities decreased, while at the two forested areas, no significant changes were observed, and a new anxiousness coming from new energy sources (e.g., oil) appeared in some cities. Studies on the change of ambient SO2 concentrations support these results.

  2. Using the Chandra Source-Finding Algorithm to Automatically Identify Solar X-ray Bright Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Tennant, A.; Cirtain, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This poster details a technique of bright point identification that is used to find sources in Chandra X-ray data. The algorithm, part of a program called LEXTRCT, searches for regions of a given size that are above a minimum signal to noise ratio. The algorithm allows selected pixels to be excluded from the source-finding, thus allowing exclusion of saturated pixels (from flares and/or active regions). For Chandra data the noise is determined by photon counting statistics, whereas solar telescopes typically integrate a flux. Thus the calculated signal-to-noise ratio is incorrect, but we find we can scale the number to get reasonable results. For example, Nakakubo and Hara (1998) find 297 bright points in a September 11, 1996 Yohkoh image; with judicious selection of signal-to-noise ratio, our algorithm finds 300 sources. To further assess the efficacy of the algorithm, we analyze a SOHO/EIT image (195 Angstroms) and compare results with those published in the literature (McIntosh and Gurman, 2005). Finally, we analyze three sets of data from Hinode, representing different parts of the decline to minimum of the solar cycle.

  3. Can profiles of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xindi C; Dassuncao, Clifton; Zhang, Xianming; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál; Webster, Glenys M; Nielsen, Flemming; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2018-02-01

    exposure sources in two North American populations, suggesting generalizability of results from the Faroese population. We conclude that PFAS homologue profiles in serum provide valuable information on major exposure sources. It is essential to compare samples collected at similar time periods and to correct for demographic groups that are highly affected by differences in physiological processes (e.g., pregnancy). Information on PFAS homologue profiles is crucial for attributing adverse health effects to the proper mixtures or individual PFASs.

  4. A study on evaluation of public dose for hypothetical exposure from industrial sources in major Indian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, S.; Sivasubramanian, K.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    With expanding industrial establishments in India, the requirements for quality Assurance (QA) have become stringent at every stages of process including selection of raw material, manufacturing process and packing and transport. Radiography, a non-destructive method is widely employed for QA testing. Inadvertent handling or loss of these sources may result in exposure of public/workers to higher levels of ionizing radiation. A well planned emergency preparedness is essential to manage any such untoward incidents. Dose estimation to members of public involved is the major challenge as the time available is very short and eases of availability/labs surrounding the location. This paper determines the dose up to 30m distance as prescribed in AERB safety guidelines and using the population data of four major metropolitan cities in India, public dose is also estimated

  5. Emission of nitrous acid from soil and biological soil crusts as a major source of atmospheric HONO on Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusel, Hannah; Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Kuhn, Uwe; Leifke, Anna-Lena; Weber, Bettina; Su, Hang; Lelieveld, Jos; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2017-04-01

    Elucidation of the sources and atmospheric chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO) is highly relevant, as HONO is an important precursor of OH radicals. Up to 30% of the OH budget are formed by photolysis of HONO, whereas major fractions of HONO measured in the field derive from yet unidentified sources. Heterogeneous conversion of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to HONO on a variety of surfaces (soot, humic acid aerosol) is assumed to be a major HONO source (Stemmler et al., 2007, Ammann et al., 1998). In rural regions, however, NO2 concentrations were found to be too low to explain observed HONO concentrations, as e.g., in the case of a recent field study on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus (Meusel et al., 2016). In this study a good correlation between missing sources of HONO and nitrogen oxide (NO) was found indicating a common origin of both reactive nitrogen compounds. Simultaneous emission of HONO and NO from soil was reported earlier (Oswald et al., 2013), and enhanced emission rates were found when soil was covered by biological soil crusts in arid and semi-arid ecosystems (Weber et al., 2015). In the present study we measured HONO and NO emissions of 43 soil and soil crust samples from Cyprus during full wetting and drying cycles under controlled laboratory conditions by means of a dynamic chamber system. The observed range of HONO and NO emissions was in agreement with earlier studies, but unlike the study of Weber et al. (2015), we found highest emission from bare soil, followed by soil covered by light and dark cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crusts. Emission rates correlated well with the nitrite and nitrate contents of soil and biological soil crust samples, and higher nutrient contents of bare soil samples, as compared to the previous biological soil crust study, explain the higher bare soil emissions. Integrating the emission rates of bare soil and the different types of biological soil crusts, based on their local relative abundance, the calculated

  6. An Iterative Regularization Method for Identifying the Source Term in a Second Order Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Zouyed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the inverse problem of determining an unknown source in a second order differential equation from measured final data. This problem is ill-posed; that is, the solution (if it exists does not depend continuously on the data. In order to solve the considered problem, an iterative method is proposed. Using this method a regularized solution is constructed and an a priori error estimate between the exact solution and its regularized approximation is obtained. Moreover, numerical results are presented to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of this method.

  7. Identifying sources of metal exposure in organic and conventional dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, M; Rey-Crespo, F; Herrero-Latorre, C; Miranda, M

    2017-10-01

    In humans the main route of exposure to toxic metals is through the diet, and there is therefore a clear need for this source of contamination to be minimized, particularly in food of animal origin. For this purpose, the various sources of toxic metals in livestock farming (which vary depending on the production system) must be taken into account. The objectives of the present study were to establish the profile of metal exposure in dairy cattle in Spain and to determine, by chemometric (multivariate statistical) analysis, any differences between organic and conventional systems. Blood samples from 522 cows (341 from organic farms and 181 from conventional farms) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of 14 elements: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. In conventional systems the generally high and balanced trace element concentrations in the mineral-supplemented concentrate feed strongly determined the metal status of the cattle. However, in organic systems, soil ingestion was an important contributing factor. Our results demonstrate that general information about the effects of mineral supplementation in conventional farming cannot be directly extrapolated to organic farming and special attention should be given to the contribution of ingestion of soil during grazing and/or ingestion of soil contaminated forage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa. In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.

  9. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Fishbone diagram to identify, systematize and analyze the sources of general purpose technologies

    OpenAIRE

    COCCIA, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. This study suggests the fishbone diagram for technological analysis. Fishbone diagram (also called Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams) is a graphical technique to show the several causes of a specific event or phenomenon. In particular, a fishbone diagram (the shape is similar to a fish skeleton) is a common tool used for a cause and effect analysis to identify a complex interplay of causes for a specific problem or event. The fishbone diagram can be a comprehensive theo...

  11. Methodology for Identifying and Quantifying Metal Pollutant Sources in Storm Water Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    sanitary sewer are not viable options. In addition, visual inspections of the drainage areas have been insufficient in identifying and quantifying the...diverting the runoff into the sanitary sewer system, but the cost could exceed millions of dollars. Instead of capturing and treating all stormwater...Unknown Appears only if Building Siding is “metal” Roof Material roof_mat_d Built Up, Metal Panel, Asphalt, Fabric, Clay , Slate, Wood, Other

  12. Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: identifying sources and environmental redox conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David Z.; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived biogenous detritus and hydrogenous metal oxides. The REE of ancient sediments support their partitioning into these same fractions and further contribute to the identification of the redox geochemistry of the sea water in which the sediments accumulated. The normalized curves of the REE that have been examined in several South American wine varietals can be interpreted to reflect the lithology of the bedrock on which the vines may have been grown, suggesting limited fractionation during soil development.

  13. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Kyu [Department of Marine Science, College of Natural Sciences, Incheon National University, Incheon, 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: jeoh@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 16 PFAAs in 397 samples of 66 food types and 34 tap water samples were analyzed. • Dietary exposure to PFAAs was estimated by using the PFAAs measured concentrations. • The major contributors of PFAAs dietary exposure were confirmed. - Abstract: We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3 ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60–3.03 and 0.17–1.68 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1} for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}; PFOA: 1500 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water)

  14. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 16 PFAAs in 397 samples of 66 food types and 34 tap water samples were analyzed. • Dietary exposure to PFAAs was estimated by using the PFAAs measured concentrations. • The major contributors of PFAAs dietary exposure were confirmed. - Abstract: We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3 ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60–3.03 and 0.17–1.68 ng kg −1 bw d −1 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150 ng kg −1 bw d −1 ; PFOA: 1500 ng kg −1 bw d −1 ). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water)

  15. New sources of soybean seed meal and oil composition traits identified through TILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilyeu Kristin D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several techniques are available to study gene function, but many are less than ideal for soybean. Reverse genetics, a relatively new approach, can be utilized to identify novel mutations in candidate genes; this technique has not produced an allelic variant with a confirmed phenotype in soybean. Soybean raffinose synthase genes and microsomal omega-6 fatty acid desaturase genes were screened for novel alleles in mutagenized soybean populations. Results Four mutations in independent lines were identified in the raffinose synthase gene RS2; two mutations resulted in amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed oligosaccharide phenotype. The resulting phenotype was an increase in seed sucrose levels as well as a decrease in both raffinose and stachyose seed oligosaccharide levels. Three mutations in independent lines were identified in the omega-6 fatty acid desaturase gene FAD2-1A; all three mutations resulted in missense amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed fatty acid profile that led to an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid in the seed oil. Conclusion The oligosaccharide phenotype controlled by the novel RS2 allele is similar to previously observed seed oligosaccharide phenotypes in RS2 mutant (PI 200508 allele-containing lines. Due to the anti-nutritional characteristics of raffinose and stachyose, this represents a positive change in seed composition. The fatty acid phenotype controlled by the novel FAD2-1A allele controls an increase in oleic acid in the seed oil, a phenotype also observed in a line previously characterized to have a null allele of the FAD2-1A gene. Molecular marker assays were developed to reliably detect the inheritance of the mutant alleles and can be used in efficient breeding for these desired seed phenotypes. Our results serve as the first demonstration of the identification of soybean mutants controlling seed phenotypes discovered through the

  16. Identifying sources of methane sampled in the Arctic using δ13C in CH4 and Lagrangian particle dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Michelle; France, James; Pyle, John; Warwick, Nicola; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, Dave; Allen, Grant; O'Shea, Sebastian; Illingworth, Samuel; Jones, Ben; Gallagher, Martin; Welpott, Axel; Muller, Jennifer; Bauguitte, Stephane; George, Charles; Hayman, Garry; Manning, Alistair; Myhre, Catherine Lund; Lanoisellé, Mathias; Nisbet, Euan

    2016-04-01

    An airmass of enhanced methane was sampled during a research flight at ~600 m to ~2000 m altitude between the North coast of Norway and Svalbard on 21 July 2012. The largest source of methane in the summertime Arctic is wetland emissions. Did this enhancement in methane come from wetland emissions? The airmass was identified through continuous methane measurements using a Los Gatos fast greenhouse gas analyser on board the UK's BAe-146 Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) as part of the MAMM (Methane in the Arctic: Measurements and Modelling) campaign. A Lagrangian particle dispersion model (the UK Met Office's NAME model) was run backwards to identify potential methane source regions. This was combined with a methane emission inventory to create "pseudo observations" to compare with the aircraft observations. This modelling was used to constrain the δ13C CH4 wetland source signature (where δ13C CH4 is the ratio of 13C to 12C in methane), resulting in a most likely signature of -73‰ (±4‰7‰). The NAME back trajectories suggest a methane source region of north-western Russian wetlands, and -73‰ is consistent with in situ measurements of wetland methane at similar latitudes in Scandinavia. This analysis has allowed us to study emissions from remote regions for which we do not have in situ observations, giving us an extra tool in the determination of the isotopic source variation of global methane emissions.

  17. Historical sources of black carbon identified by PAHs and δ13C in Sanjiang Plain of Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuanyu; Liu, Hanxiang; Cong, Jinxin; Han, Dongxue; Zhao, Winston; Lin, Qianxin; Wang, Guoping

    2018-05-01

    Black carbon (BC), the byproduct of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass can be stored in soil for a long time and potentially archive changes in natural and human activities. Increasing amounts of BC has been produced from human activities during the past 150 years and has influenced global climate change and carbon cycle. Identifying historical BC sources is important in knowing how historical human activities influenced BC and BC transportation processes in the atmosphere. In this study, PAH components and δ13C-BC in peatland in the Sanjiang Plain were used for identifying and verifying regional BC sources during the last 150 years. Results showed that environment-unfriendly industry developed at the end of the 1950s produced a great amount of BC and contributed the most BC in this period. In other periods, however, BC in the Sanjiang Plain was mainly produced from incomplete biomass burning before the 1990s; particularly, slash-and-burn of pastures and forests during regional reclamation periods between the 1960s and 1980s produced a huge amount of biomass burning BC, which then deposited into the surrounding ecosystems. With the regional reclamation decreasing and environment-friendly industry developing, the proportion of BC emitted and deposited from transportation sources increased and transportation source became an important BC source in the Sanjiang Plain after the 1990s.

  18. [Research advances in identifying nitrate pollution sources of water environment by using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Liang, Zhi-wei; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yao; Yanng, Mu-yi; Jia, Chao-jie

    2013-04-01

    Water body' s nitrate pollution has become a common and severe environmental problem. In order to ensure human health and water environment benign evolution, it is of great importance to effectively identify the nitrate pollution sources of water body. Because of the discrepant composition of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in different sources of nitrate in water body, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes can be used to identify the nitrate pollution sources of water environment. This paper introduced the fractionation factors of nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the main processes of nitrogen cycling and the composition of these stable isotopes in main nitrate sources, compared the advantages and disadvantages of five pre-treatment methods for analyzing the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in nitrate, and summarized the research advances in this aspect into three stages, i. e. , using nitrogen stable isotope alone, using nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes simultaneously, and combining with mathematical models. The future research directions regarding the nitrate pollution sources identification of water environment were also discussed.

  19. [Anticholinergic syndrome caused by contaminated herbal tea; acting swiftly to identify the source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerlemans, C; de Vries, I; van Riel, A J H P

    2017-01-01

    Despite good manufacturing practice and quality control, consumer products can become contaminated. In some cases, this can result in severe and life-threatening intoxication with potentially fatal consequences. A 27-year-old man and a 28-year-old pregnant woman presented to the Emergency Department with severe anticholinergic syndrome after using a marshmallow root (Althaea officinalis) herbal remedy, mixed into hot chocolate drink, to reduce symptoms of common cold. After a short stay in Intensive Care, the symptoms diminished and the patients could be released from hospital. The herbs were found to be contaminated with atropine, most probably derived from deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). Analyses of the contaminated product indicated that the patients were exposed to 20-200 mg atropine, while a dose of 2 mg is already considered mildly toxic. Consultation of the Dutch National Poisons Information Center resulted in rapid detection of the contamination; close collaboration with the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority and the manufacturer of the product allowed rapid identification of the source of contamination and facilitated the prevention of an epidemic.

  20. The Effect of Gamma-ray Detector Energy Resolution on the Ability to Identify Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, K.E.; Gosnell, T.B.; Knapp, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the results of an initial study on radiation detector spectral resolution, along with the underlying methodology used. The study was done as part of an ongoing effort in Detection Modeling and Operational Analysis (DMOA) for the DNDO System Architecture Directorate. The study objective was to assess the impact of energy resolution on radionuclide identification capability, measured by the ability to reliably discriminate between spectra associated with 'threats' (defined as fissile materials) and radioactive 'non-threats' that might be present in the normal stream of commerce. Although numerous factors must be considered in deciding which detector technology is appropriate for a specific application, spectral resolution is a critical one for homeland security applications in which a broad range of non-threat sources are present and very low false-alarm rates are required. In this study, we have proposed a metric for quantifying discrimination capability, and have shown how this metric depends on resolution. In future work we will consider other important factors, such as efficiency and volume, and the relative frequency of spectra known to be discrimination challenges in practical applications

  1. Identifying Sustainable Wood Sources for the Construction Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood is generally considered as a sustainable construction material. However, there are not sufficient wood resources in many countries or regions, especially those short of land resources. These countries and regions have to import wood from overseas. Therefore, it is imperative to determine how to choose sustainable importing sources in order to improve the sustainability performance of using wood in construction. This study compares the sustainability performance of wood imported from different regions by considering wood harvesting, manufacture, and transportation. A framework accounting energy consumption and CO2 emissions is developed for sustainability assessment. The results show that importing wood from Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to Taiwan demands a relatively lower amount of energy than from other regions. Specifically, importing wood from Canada (West demands the lowest amount of energy (2095 MJ/m3, while importing wood form Brazil consumes the highest amount of energy (5356 MJ/m3. In addition, findings showed that the CO2 emissions generated from importing wood from Sweden are significant lower than those from other regions, although the energy consumed during the importing process is relatively high. The study also revealed that the wood manufacturing process and marine transportation contribute to the most energy consumption and CO2 emissions among all importing processes analysed from most of studied regions.

  2. Badlands as a major source of petrogenic particulate Organic Carbon and sediments to the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copard, Y.; Eyrolle-Boyer, F.; Radakovitch, O.; Poirel, A.; Raimbault, P.; Gairoard, S.; Di-Giovanni, C.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers feed the marine environments both in term of sediments and nutrients and consequently, the characterization of their nature, sources and changes over a different spatial and time ranges is a critical for many scientific (e.g. biogeochemical cycles, contaminants transfer, geomorphology, ecology) and societal issues (e.g. food security, catastrophic floods). Specifically, continental sources showing some high erosion rates deserve to be studied since their fingerprint can be significant for the rivers fluxes. These included some sedimentary rocks (e.g. marls) forming badlands and containing a significant amount of petrogenic particulate organic carbon (pPOC) for which its contribution to the Rivers still remains evasive. Our study focuses on the Mediterranean area considered as very sensitive to the Global Change and particularly the Gulf of Lion mainly fed by the Rhône River, one of the major conveyors of sediments to this Sea. Based on radiocarbon data performed on a set of riverine samples and time series analyses from monitoring stations from French CZOs, we (i) update the POC flux of the Rhône River, (ii) determine the pPOC content and flux in suspended sediments and (iii) estimate the badlands contribution from the Durance catchment (a major tributary of the Rhône River) to the pPOC flux and to sediment discharge. Sediment discharge by the Rhône River to the Sea is 6.5 ± 4.3 Tg yr-1 (period 1990-2014) , its POC discharge reaches 0.145 ± 0.095 Tg yr-1 (period 2007-2014) while pPOC (0.44 wt. %) contributes to 30 % of this POC flux. Despite their insignificant surfaces (0.2 %) regarding the Rhône catchment area, badlands presently in erosion from the Durance catchment provide respectively, 16, 5 and 20 % of the pPOC, POC and sediment fluxes to the Rhône River. Consequently, badlands can be considered as a major source of sediments and pPOC for the NW Mediterranean Sea. We suggest that river-dominated ocean margins, such as the Rhône River, with

  3. Solar sources of interplanetary southward B/sub z/ events responsible for major magnetic storms (1978--1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Gonzalez, W.D.; Akasofu, S.I.; Smith, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Tsurutani et al. [1988] analyzed the 10 intense interplanetary southward B/sub z/ events that led to major magnetic storms (Dst 3.0) are associated with prominence eruptions. For three of the five southward B/sub z/ events in which the driver gases are the causes of the intense southward field leading to magnetic storms, the photospheric fields of the solar sources have no dominant southward component, indicating the driver gas fields do not always result from a simple outward convection of solar magnetic fields. Finally we compare the solar events and their resulting interplanetary shocks and find that the standard solar parameters do not correlate with the strengths of the resulting shocks at 1 AU. The implications are discussed. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  4. Identifying Greater Sage-Grouse source and sink habitats for conservation planning in an energy development landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, Christopher P; Beck, Jeffrey L; Huzurbazar, Snehalata V; Holloran, Matthew J; Miller, Scott N

    2015-06-01

    Conserving a declining species that is facing many threats, including overlap of its habitats with energy extraction activities, depends upon identifying and prioritizing the value of the habitats that remain. In addition, habitat quality is often compromised when source habitats are lost or fragmented due to anthropogenic development. Our objective was to build an ecological model to classify and map habitat quality in terms of source or sink dynamics for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), a developing coalbed natural gas field in south-central Wyoming, USA. We used occurrence and survival modeling to evaluate relationships between environmental and anthropogenic variables at multiple spatial scales and for all female summer life stages, including nesting, brood-rearing, and non-brooding females. For each life stage, we created resource selection functions (RSFs). We weighted the RSFs and combined them to form a female summer occurrence map. We modeled survival also as a function of spatial variables for nest, brood, and adult female summer survival. Our survival-models were mapped as survival probability functions individually and then combined with fixed vital rates in a fitness metric model that, when mapped, predicted habitat productivity (productivity map). Our results demonstrate a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables at multiple scales that were predictive of occurrence and survival. We created a source-sink map by overlaying our female summer occurrence map and productivity map to predict habitats contributing to population surpluses (source habitats) or deficits (sink habitat) and low-occurrence habitats on the landscape. The source-sink map predicted that of the Sage-Grouse habitat within the ARPA, 30% was primary source, 29% was secondary source, 4% was primary sink, 6% was secondary sink, and 31% was low occurrence. Our results provide evidence that energy development and avoidance of

  5. Major food sources contributing to energy intake--a nationwide survey of Brazilians aged 10 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichieri, Rosely; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Araújo, Marina Campos; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2015-05-28

    Identification of major sources of energy in the diet helps to implement dietary recommendations to reduce obesity. To determine the food sources of energy consumed by Brazilians, we used the traditional method of ranking energy contribution of selected food groups and also compared days with and without consumption of specific food groups. Analysis was based on two non-consecutive days of dietary record from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, conducted among 34,003 Brazilians (aged 10 years or more), taking into account the complex design of the survey. Comparison of days with and without consumption gave more consistent results, with sweets and cookies as the most important contributors to energy intake, increasing 992 kJ/d (95% CI 883, 1096) for those days when consumption of cakes, cookies and desserts was reported compared to days without their consumption. Savoury snacks, cheese and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) also increase energy intake by about 600 kJ. The only group associated with decreased energy intake was vegetable (-155 kJ; 95% CI -272, -37). Consumption of beans, milk and fruits increased the energy intake by about 210 kJ. In total, the mean energy intake of the group was 8000 kJ. Except for the consumption of vegetables, all of the other ten food groups analysed were associated with increased energy intake. Sweets and cookies may increase the energy intake by 12% and SSB by 7%, indicating that these two groups are major targets for improving healthy eating by reducing energy intake; whereas vegetable intake is associated with the reduction of energy content of the diet.

  6. Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources during the 1999 air campaign in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukmirovic, Z.B.; Unkasevic, M.; Lazic, L.; Tosic, I.; Joksimovich, V.

    2002-01-01

    During NATO's 78 day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Important detection of some POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pancevo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pancevo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 hours. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. In this episode maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border. The most intensive bombing of major industrial sources was in April 1999 in which maximum number of days with precipitation (20-26 a month) was registered in central and south-western Serbia in comparison with the period of 1960-1990. Maximum monthly precipitation sums, higher than 100 mm, appeared in central and north-eastern Serbia, while a deficit, less than 50 mm, was registered in north-western and southern Serbia. (author)

  7. Source apportionment of particulate matter and trace gases near a major refinery near the Houston Ship Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Henry W.; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Flynn, James H.; Erickson, Mathew H.; Lefer, Barry L.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    From February 7 to 27, 2015, a mobile air quality laboratory was deployed to a location proximate to a major refinery, the Port of Houston, and several neighborhoods to conduct measurements of atmospheric trace gases and particulate matter. Two statistical models were utilized to apportion the sources of pollution impacting this site and the denizens of the nearby neighborhoods. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed on the organic signal of the aerosol mass spectra, resulting in five factors totaling an average of 4.1 μg/m3 of the organic aerosol: hydrocarbon-like (0.67 μg/m3), cooking (0.35 μg/m3) biomass burning (1.14 μg/m3), low-volatility oxidized (1.15 μg/m3), and semi-volatile oxidized (0.78 μg/m3). Principal component analysis was performed on daytime and nighttime data, including concentrations from PMF output, of other PM1 components, and of trace gases. This generated five daytime and five nighttime factors that explained 74.5% and 73.0% of the variance, respectively. The most important factors impacting this site were from mobile source exhaust and petrochemical aromatic compound emissions. Together these two factors also constitute most of the observed carcinogens.

  8. The behavioural characteristics of sediment properties and their implications for sediment fingerprinting as an approach for identifying sediment sources in river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiter, A. J.; Owens, P. N.; Petticrew, E. L.; Lobb, D. A.

    2013-10-01

    Sediment fingerprinting is a technique that is increasingly being used to improve the understanding of sediment dynamics within river basins. At present, one of the main limitations of the technique is the ability to link sediment back to their sources due to the non-conservative nature of many of the sediment properties. The processes that occur between the sediment source locations and the point of collection downstream are not well understood or quantified and currently represent a black-box in the sediment fingerprinting approach. The literature on sediment fingerprinting tends to assume that there is a direct connection between sources and sinks, while much of the broader environmental sedimentology literature identifies that numerous chemical, biological and physical transformations and alterations can occur as sediment moves through the landscape. The focus of this paper is on the processes that drive particle size and organic matter selectivity and biological, geochemical and physical transformations and how understanding these processes can be used to guide sampling protocols, fingerprint selection and data interpretation. The application of statistical approaches without consideration of how unique sediment fingerprints have developed and how robust they are within the environment is a major limitation of many recent studies. This review summarises the current information, identifies areas that need further investigation and provides recommendations for sediment fingerprinting that should be considered for adoption in future studies if the full potential and utility of the approach are to be realised.

  9. Synoptic sampling and principal components analysis to identify sources of water and metals to an acid mine drainage stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Runkel, Robert L; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Combining the synoptic mass balance approach with principal components analysis (PCA) can be an effective method for discretising the chemistry of inflows and source areas in watersheds where contamination is diffuse in nature and/or complicated by groundwater interactions. This paper presents a field-scale study in which synoptic sampling and PCA are employed in a mineralized watershed (Lion Creek, Colorado, USA) under low flow conditions to (i) quantify the impacts of mining activity on stream water quality; (ii) quantify the spatial pattern of constituent loading; and (iii) identify inflow sources most responsible for observed changes in stream chemistry and constituent loading. Several of the constituents investigated (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) fail to meet chronic aquatic life standards along most of the study reach. The spatial pattern of constituent loading suggests four primary sources of contamination under low flow conditions. Three of these sources are associated with acidic (pH mine water in the Minnesota Mine shaft located to the north-east of the river channel. In addition, water chemistry data during a rainfall-runoff event suggests the spatial pattern of constituent loading may be modified during rainfall due to dissolution of efflorescent salts or erosion of streamside tailings. These data point to the complexity of contaminant mobilisation processes and constituent loading in mining-affected watersheds but the combined synoptic sampling and PCA approach enables a conceptual model of contaminant dynamics to be developed to inform remediation.

  10. Spatial Variation, Pollution Assessment and Source Identification of Major Nutrients in Surface Sediments of Nansi Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfeng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nansi Lake has been seriously affected by intensive anthropogenic activities in recent years. In this study, an extensive survey on spatial variation, pollution assessment as well as the possible sources identification of major nutrients (Total phosphorus: TP, Total nitrogen: TN, and Total organic carbon: TOC in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake was conducted. Results showed that the mean contents of TP, TN and TOC were 1.13-, 5.40- and 2.50- fold higher than their background values respectively. Most of the TN and TOC contents in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake were four times as high or higher and twice as high or higher than the background values except the Zhaoyang sub-lake, and the spatial distribution of TN and TOC contents were remarkably similar over a large area. Nearly all the TP contents in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake were all higher than its background values except most part of the Zhaoyang sub-lake. Based on the enrichment factor (EF and the organic pollution evaluation index (Org-index, TP, TOC and TN showed minor enrichment (1.13, minor enrichment (2.50 and moderately severe enrichment (5.40, respectively, and most part of the Dushan sub-lake and the vicinity of the Weishan island were in moderate or heavy sediments organic pollution, while the other parts were clean. Moreover, according to the results of multivariate statistical analysis, we deduced that anthropogenic TN and TOC were mainly came from industrial sources including enterprises distributed in Jining, Yanzhou and Zoucheng along with iron and steel industries distributed in the southern of the Weishan sub-lake, whereas TP mainly originated from runoff and soil erosion coming from agricultural lands located in Heze city and Weishan island, the local aquacultural activities as well as the domestic sewage discharge of Jining city.

  11. Characterization of biomass burning from olive grove areas: A major source of organic aerosol in PM10 of Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Salvador, Pedro; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Artiñano, Begoña; Coz, Esther; Márquez, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The inorganic and organic geochemistry of aerosol particulate matter (APM) was studied in a major olive grove area from Southwest Europe (Baena, Spain). The biomass consists of olive tree branches and the solid waste resulting of the olive oil production. Moreover, high PM10 levels were obtained (31.5 μg m- 3), with two days of exceedance of the daily limit of 50 μg m- 3 (2008/50/CE; EU, 2008) during the experimental period. A high mean levoglucosan concentration was obtained representing up 95% of the total mass of the isomers analysed (280 ng m- 3), while galactosan and mannosan mean concentrations were lower (8.64 ng m- 3 and 7.86 ng m- 3, respectively). The contribution of wood smoke in Baena was estimated, representing 19% of OC and 17% of OM total mass. Positive matrix factor (PMF) was applied to the organic and inorganic aerosols data, which has permitted the identification of five source categories: biomass burning, traffic, mineral dust, marine aerosol and SIC (secondary inorganic compounds). The biomass burning category reached the highest mean contribution to the PM10 mass (41%, 17.6 μg m- 3). In light of these results, the use of biomass resulting from the olive oil production for residential heating and industry must be considered the most important aerosol source during the winter months. The results of this paper can be extrapolated to other olive oil producing areas in the Mediterranean basin. Therefore, a fuller understanding of this type of biomass combustion is required in order to be able to establish appropriate polices and reduce the environmental impact on the population.

  12. Laboratory estimate of the regional shortwave refractive index and single scattering albedo of mineral dust from major sources worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, C.; Formenti, P.; Caponi, L.; Cazaunau, M.; Pangui, E.; Journet, E.; Nowak, S.; Caquineau, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Kandler, K.; Saeed, T.; Piketh, S.; Seibert, D.; Williams, E.; Balkanski, Y.; Doussin, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust is one of the most abundant aerosol species in the atmosphere and strongly contributes to the global and regional direct radiative effect. Still large uncertainties persist on the magnitude and overall sign of the dust direct effect, where indeed one of the main unknowns is how much mineral dust absorbs light in the shortwave (SW) spectral range. Aerosol absorption is represented both by the imaginary part (k) of the complex refractive index or the single scattering albedo (SSA, i.e. the ratio of the scattering to extinction coefficient). In this study we present a new dataset of SW complex refractive indices and SSA for mineral dust aerosols obtained from in situ measurements in the 4.2 m3 CESAM simulation chamber at LISA (Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques) in Créteil, France. Investigated dust aerosol samples were issued from major desert sources worldwide, including the African Sahara and Sahel, Eastern Asia, the Middle East, Southern Africa, Australia, and the Americas, with differing iron oxides content. Results from the present study provide a regional mapping of the SW absorption by dust and show that the imaginary part of the refractive index largely varies (by up to a factor 6, 0.003-0.02 at 370 nm and 0.001-0.003 at 950 nm) for the different source areas due to the change in the particle iron oxide content. The SSA for dust varies between 0.75-0.90 at 370 nm and 0.95-0.99 at 950 nm, with the largest absorption observed for Sahelian and Australian dust aerosols. Our range of variability for k and SSA is well bracketed by already published literature estimates, but suggests that regional‒dependent values should be used in models. The possible relationship between k and the dust iron oxides content is investigated with the aim of providing a parameterization of the regional‒dependent dust absorption to include in climate models.

  13. Source of boron in the Palokas gold deposit, northern Finland: evidence from boron isotopes and major element composition of tourmaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Jukka-Pekka; Hanski, Eero; Cook, Nick; Lahaye, Yann

    2017-06-01

    The recently discovered Palokas gold deposit is part of the larger Rompas-Rajapalot gold-mineralized system located in the Paleoproterozoic Peräpohja Belt, northern Finland. Tourmaline is an important gangue mineral in the Palokas gold mineralization. It occurs as tourmalinite veins and as tourmaline crystals in sulfide-rich metasomatized gold-bearing rocks. In order to understand the origin of tourmaline in the gold-mineralized rocks, we have investigated the major element chemistry and boron isotope composition of tourmaline from three areas: (1) the Palokas gold mineralization, (2) a pegmatitic tourmaline granite, and (3) the evaporitic Petäjäskoski Formation. Based on textural evidence, tourmaline in gold mineralization is divided into two different types. Type 1 is located within the host rock and is cut by rock-forming anthophyllite crystals. Type 2 occurs in late veins and/or breccia zones consisting of approximately 80% tourmaline and 20% sulfides, commonly adjacent to quartz veins. All the studied tourmaline samples belong to the alkali-group tourmaline and can be classified as dravite and schorl. The δ11B values of the three localities lie in the same range, from 0 to -4‰. Tourmaline from the Au mineralization and from the Petäjäskoski Formation has similar compositional trends. Mg is the major substituent for Al; inferred low Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios and Na values (molybdenite related to the tourmaline-sulfide-quartz veins, we propose that the tourmaline-forming process is a result of a single magmatic-hydrothermal event related to the extensive granite magmatism at around 1.79-1.77 Ga. Tourmaline was crystallized throughout the hydrothermal process, which resulted in the paragenetic variation between type 1 and type 2. The close association of tourmaline and gold suggests that the gold precipitated from the same boron-rich source as tourmaline.

  14. Modeling Aerobic Carbon Source Degradation Processes using Titrimetric Data and Combined Respirometric-Titrimetric Data: Structural and Practical Identifiability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Petersen, B.; Dochain, D.

    2002-01-01

    The structural and practical identifiability of a model for description of respirometric-titrimetric data derived from aerobic batch substrate degradation experiments of a CxHyOz carbon source with activated sludge was evaluated. The model processes needed to describe titrimetric data included su...... the initial substrate concentration S-S(O) is known. The values found correspond to values reported in literature, but, interestingly, also seem able to reflect the occurrence of storage processes when pulses of acetate and dextrose are added. (C) 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  15. Identifying fecal pollution sources using 3M(™) Petrifilm (™) count plates and antibiotic resistance analysis in the Horse Creek Watershed in Aiken County, SC (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, S Michele; West, Ryan T; Yates, James R

    2014-12-01

    Sources of fecal coliform pollution in a small South Carolina (USA) watershed were identified using inexpensive methods and commonly available equipment. Samples from the upper reaches of the watershed were analyzed with 3M(™) Petrifilm(™) count plates. We were able to narrow down the study's focus to one particular tributary, Sand River, that was the major contributor of the coliform pollution (both fecal and total) to a downstream reservoir that is heavily used for recreation purposes. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 2,400 to 120,333 cfu/100 mL, with sharp increases in coliform counts observed in samples taken after rain events. Positive correlations between turbidity and fecal coliform counts suggested a relationship between fecal pollution and stormwater runoff. Antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) compared antibiotic resistance profiles of fecal coliform isolates from the stream to those of a watershed-specific fecal source library (equine, waterfowl, canines, and untreated sewage). Known fecal source isolates and unknown isolates from the stream were exposed to six antibiotics at three concentrations each. Discriminant analysis grouped known isolates with an overall average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 84.3 %. A total of 401 isolates from the first stream location were classified as equine (45.9 %), sewage (39.4 %), waterfowl (6.2 %), and feline (8.5 %). A similar pattern was observed at the second sampling location, with 42.6 % equine, 45.2 % sewage, 2.8 % waterfowl, 0.6 % canine, and 8.8 % feline. While there were slight weather-dependent differences, the vast majority of the coliform pollution in this stream appeared to be from two sources, equine and sewage. This information will contribute to better land use decisions and further justify implementation of low-impact development practices within this urban watershed.

  16. Religious burning as a potential major source of atmospheric fine aerosols in summertime Lhasa on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu Yan; Liu, Shang; Bai, Zhixuan; Bian, Jianchun; Li, Dan; Fan, Kaiyu; McKeen, Stuart A.; Watts, Laurel A.; Ciciora, Steven J.; Gao, Ru-Shan

    2018-05-01

    We carried out field measurements of aerosols in Lhasa, a major city in the Tibetan Plateau that has been experiencing fast urbanization and industrialization. Aerosol number size distribution was continuously measured using an optical particle size spectrometer near the center of Lhasa city during the Asian summer monsoon season in 2016. The mass concentration of fine particles was modulated by boundary layer dynamics, with an average of 11 μg m-3 and the high values exceeding 50 μg m-3 during religious holidays. Daytime high concentration coincided with the religious burning of biomass and incense in the temples during morning hours, which produced heavy smoke. Factor analysis revealed a factor that likely represented religious burning. The factor contributed 34% of the campaign-average fine particle mass and the contribution reached up to 80% during religious holidays. The mass size distribution of aerosols produced from religious burnings peaked at ∼500 nm, indicating that these particles could efficiently decrease visibility and promote health risk. Because of its significance, our results suggest that further studies of religious burning, a currently under-studied source, are needed in the Tibetan Plateau and in other regions of the world where religious burnings are frequently practiced.

  17. Religious Burning as a Major Source of Atmospheric Fine Aerosols in Lhasa city in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Cui, Y.; Zhixuan, B.; Bian, J.; McKeen, S. A.; Watts, L. A.; Ciciora, S. J.; Gao, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of aerosols in the Tibetan Plateau are scant due to the high altitude and harsh climate. To bridge this gap, we carried out the first field measurements of aerosol size distributions in Lhasa, a major city in the Tibetan Plateau that has been experiencing fast urbanization and reduced air quality. Aerosol number size distribution was continuously measured using an optical particle size spectrometer near the center of Lhasa city during the Asian summer monsoon season in 2016. The mass concentration of fine particles was modulated by boundary layer dynamics, with an average of 11 µg m-3 and the high values exceeding 50 µg m-3 during religious holidays. Daytime high concentration coincided with the religious burning of biomass and incense in the temples during morning hours, which produced heavy smoke. Factor analysis revealed a factor that is likely induced by religious burning. The factor contributed 34% of the campaign-average fine particle mass and the contribution reached up to 80% during religious holidays. The mass size distribution of aerosols produced from religious burnings peaked at 500 nm, indicating that these particles could efficiently decrease visibility and promote health risk. Because of its significance, our results suggest that more attention should be paid to religious burning, a currently under-studied source, in the Tibetan Plateau and in other regions of the world where religious burnings are frequently practiced.

  18. Point Source contamination approach for hydrological risk assessment of a major hypothetical accident from second research reactor at Inshas site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.A.; Tawfik, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The point source contamination mechanism and the deterministic conservative approach have been implemented to demonstrate the hazards of hydrological pollution due to a major hypothetical accident in the second research reactor at Inshas. The radioactive inventory is assumed to be dissolved in 75% of the cooling water (25% are lost) and comes directly into contact with ground water and moved down gradient. Five radioisotopes(I-129, Sr-90, Ru-106, Cs-134 and Cs-137) of the entire inventory are found to be highly durable and represent vulnerability in the environment. Their downstream spread indices; C max : maximum concentration at the focus of the moving ellipse, delta: pollution duration at different distances, A:polluted area at different distances and X min : safety distance from the reactor, were calculated based on analytical solutions of the convection-dispersion partial differential equation for absorbable and decaying species. The largest downstream contamination range was found for Sr-90 and Ru-106 but still no potential. The geochemical and hydrological parameters of the water bearing formations play a great role in buffering and limiting the radiation effects. These reduce the retention time of the radioisotopes several order of magnitudes in the polluted distances. Sensitivity analysis of the computed pollution ranges shows low sensitivity to possible potential for variations activity of nuclide inventory, dispersivity and saturated thickness and high sensitivity for possible variations in groundwater velocity and retention factors

  19. Prey species as possible sources of PBDE exposures for peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) nesting in major California cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Fong, Alison; Chu, Vivian; Holden, Arthur; Linthicum, Janet; Hooper, Kim

    2011-04-01

    Our earlier findings indicate that (1) peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus anatum Bonaparte) nesting in major California cities have among the highest polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels in the world (max ∑PBDEs=100 ppm), and (2) Big City peregrines have higher levels and proportions of the higher-brominated congeners (hepta- to deca-BDEs) than do their Coastal counterparts. In this study we classified the prey species (n =185) from the remains of prey (feathers) at 38 peregrine nest sites over 25 years (1974-1998). We grouped the prey species into 15 categories based on diet and found distinctly different prey patterns for Big City vs. Coastal peregrines. Big City peregrines had a higher (almost three times) weight percentage intake of food waste-eating birds (e.g., rock pigeons, Columba livia) than Coastal peregrines. These differing prey patterns suggest diet as a potential source of the unusually high levels and proportions of higher-brominated PBDEs in Big City peregrines. The relative contributions of diet and dust (e.g., preening) exposure to PBDE patterns in Big City peregrines will be explored in future investigations. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  20. Organic carbon source and salinity shape sediment bacterial composition in two China marginal seas and their major tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zou, Li; Lu, Xinxin; Mou, Xiaozhen

    2018-08-15

    Marginal sea sediments receive organic substrates of different origins, but whether and to what extent sediment microbial communities are reflective of the different sources of organic substrates remain unclear. To address these questions, sediment samples were collected in two connected China marginal seas, i.e., Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, and their two major tributaries (Yellow River and Liao River). Sediment bacterial community composition (BCC) was examined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. In addition, physicochemical variables that describe environmental conditions and sediment features were measured. Our results revealed that BCCs changed with salinity and organic carbon (OC) content. Members of Gaiellaceae and Comamonadaceae showed a rapid decrease as salinity and phytoplankton-derived OC increased, while Piscirickettsiaceae and Desulfobulbaceae exhibited an opposite distribution pattern. Differences of riverine vs. marginal sea sediment BCCs could be mostly explained by salinity. However, within the marginal seas, sediment BCC variations were mainly explained by OC-related variables, including terrestrial-derived fatty acids (Terr_FA), phytoplankton-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids (Phyto_PUFA), stable carbon isotopes (δ 13 C), and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N). In addition to environmental variables, network analysis suggested that interactions among individual bacterial taxa might be important in shaping sediment BCCs in the studied areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Sharma, Monica; Chaudhury, Ashok; Tuli, Rakesh; Roy, Joy

    2014-01-16

    The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study

  2. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  3. Pollen sources in the Bojanów forest complex identified on honeybee pollen load by microscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Stawiarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine sources of pollen for the honeybee in the Bojanów forest complex, Nowa Dęba Forest District (southeastern Poland. Sampling of pollen loads from bees extended from the beginning of May until the end of September 2016 and was carried out at 7-day intervals using pollen traps mounted at the entrance of beehives. A total of 73 pollen load samples were collected from the study area. Fifty-nine taxa from 31 plant families were identified in the analyzed material. From 4 to 21 taxa (average 9.5 were recorded in one sample. The pollen of Brassicaceae (“others”, Taraxacum type, Solidago type, and Rumex had the highest frequency in the pollen loads examined. Apart from these four taxa, pollen grains of Rubus type, Poaceae (“others”, Calluna, Fagopyrum, Trifolium repens s. l., Phacelia, Aster type, Melampyrum, Quercus, Cornus, and Veronica were recorded in the dominant pollen group. The forest habitat taxa that provided pollen rewards to honeybees in the Bojanów forest complex were the following: Rubus, Calluna, Prunus, Tilia, Frangula alnus, Pinus, Quercus, Cornus, Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix, and Vaccinium. Apart from forest vegetation, the species from meadows and wastelands adjacent to this forest complex, represented by Taraxacum, Rumex, Plantago, Poaceae, Trifolium repens, and Solidago, proved to be an important source of pollen. The study indicates that forest communities are a valuable source of pollen for pollinating insects from early spring through to late fall.

  4. Transcriptional Profiling of Hypoxic Neural Stem Cells Identifies Calcineurin-NFATc4 Signaling as a Major Regulator of Neural Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta; Fernández, Virginia; Monllau, Josep M.; Borrell, Víctor; Lerin, Carles; de la Iglesia, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a hypoxic microenvironment within the brain. However, the crucial transcription factors (TFs) that regulate NSC biology under physiologic hypoxia are poorly understood. Here we have performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of microarray datasets from hypoxic versus normoxic NSCs with the aim of identifying pathways and TFs that are activated under oxygen concentrations mimicking normal brain tissue microenvironment. Integration of TF target (TFT) and pathway enrichment analysis identified the calcium-regulated TF NFATc4 as a major candidate to regulate hypoxic NSC functions. Nfatc4 expression was coordinately upregulated by top hypoxia-activated TFs, while NFATc4 target genes were enriched in hypoxic NSCs. Loss-of-function analyses further revealed that the calcineurin-NFATc4 signaling axis acts as a major regulator of NSC self-renewal and proliferation in vitro and in vivo by promoting the expression of TFs, including Id2, that contribute to the maintenance of the NSC state. PMID:26235896

  5. Major and Trace Element Fluxes to the Ganges River: Significance of Small Flood Plain Tributary as Non-Point Pollution Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Sen, I. S.; Mishra, G.

    2017-12-01

    There has been much discussion amongst biologists, ecologists, chemists, geologists, environmental firms, and science policy makers about the impact of human activities on river health. As a result, multiple river restoration projects are on going on many large river basins around the world. In the Indian subcontinent, the Ganges River is the focal point of all restoration actions as it provides food and water security to half a billion people. Serious concerns have been raised about the quality of Ganga water as toxic chemicals and many more enters the river system through point-sources such as direct wastewater discharge to rivers, or non-point-sources. Point source pollution can be easily identified and remedial actions can be taken; however, non-point pollution sources are harder to quantify and mitigate. A large non-point pollution source in the Indo-Gangetic floodplain is the network of small floodplain rivers. However, these rivers are rarely studied since they are small in catchment area ( 1000-10,000 km2) and discharge (knowledge gap we have monitored the Pandu River for one year between February 2015 and April 2016. Pandu river is 242 km long and is a right bank tributary of Ganges with a total catchment area of 1495 km2. Water samples were collected every month for dissolved major and trace elements. Here we show that the concentration of heavy metals in river Pandu is in higher range as compared to the world river average, and all the dissolved elements shows a large spatial-temporal variation. We show that the Pandu river exports 192170, 168517, 57802, 32769, 29663, 1043, 279, 241, 225, 162, 97, 28, 25, 22, 20, 8, 4 Kg/yr of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Si, Sr, Zn, B, Ba, Mn, Al, Li, Rb, Mo, U, Cu, and Sb, respectively, to the Ganga river, and the exported chemical flux effects the water chemistry of the Ganga river downstream of its confluence point. We further speculate that small floodplain rivers is an important source that contributes to the dissolved chemical

  6. Reliability of stable Pb isotopes to identify Pb sources and verifying biological fractionation of Pb isotopes in goats and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Yabe, John; Liazambi, Allan; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) have been recognized as an efficient tool for identifying sources. This study carried out at Kabwe mining area, Zambia, to elucidate the presence or absence of Pb isotope fractionation in goat and chicken, to evaluate the reliability of identifying Pb pollution sources via analysis of Pb-IRs, and to assess whether a threshold for blood Pb levels (Pb-B) for biological fractionation was present. The variation of Pb-IRs in goat decreased with an increase in Pb-B and were fixed at certain values close to those of the dominant source of Pb exposure at Pb-B > 5 μg/dL. However, chickens did not show a clear relationship for Pb-IRs against Pb-B, or a fractionation threshold. Given these, the biological fractionation of Pb isotopes should not occur in chickens but in goats, and the threshold for triggering biological fractionation is at around 5 μg/dL of Pb-B in goats. - Highlights: • Presence of Pb isotope fractionation in goat and chicken was studied. • The variation of Pb-IRs in goat decreased with an increase in Pb-B. • Chickens did not show a clear relationship for Pb-IRs against Pb-B. • The biological fractionation of Pb isotopes should not occur in chickens but in goats. • Threshold for triggering biological fractionation is at 5 μg/dL of Pb-B in goats. - Biological fractionation and its threshold for stable Pb isotope ratio in goats and chickens were examined.

  7. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sources and transport of carbon and nitrogen in the River Sava watershed, a major tributary of the River Danube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrinc, Nives [Department of Environmental Science, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: nives.ogrinc@ijs.si; Markovics, Roland; Kanduc, Tjasa [Department of Environmental Science, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Walter, Lynn M. [Department of Geological Science, University of Michigan, 1018 C. C. Little Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1063 (United States); Hamilton, Stephen K. [Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, 3700 E. Gull Lake Drive, Hickory Corners, MI 49060-9516 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Carbon and nitrogen dynamics were examined throughout the River Sava watershed, a major tributary of the River Danube, in 2005 and 2006. The River Sava exported 2.1 x 10{sup 11} mol C/yr as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and emitted 2.5 x 10{sup 10} mol C/yr as CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Stable carbon isotope ratios indicate that up to 42% of DIC originated from carbonate weathering and {approx}23% from degradation of organic matter. Loads of dissolved and particulate organic carbon increased with discharge and export rates were calculated to be 2.1 x 10{sup 10} mol C/yr and up to 4.1 x 10{sup 9} mol C/yr, respectively. Isotopic compositions ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) and C/N ratios indicated that soil organic matter was the dominant source of particulate organic matter for 59% of the samples. Eighteen percent of the samples were dominated by plankton, 12% by periodic inputs of fresh terrestrial plant detritus with C/N > 15, and about 11% of the samples were dominated by the contribution of aquatic vascular plants. Nitrate inputs were controlled by land use in the River Sava watershed. {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} values <6 per mille were found in predominantly forested watersheds, while values >6 per mille typically represented watersheds with a higher percentage of agricultural and/or urban land use. Elevated {delta}{sup 15}N{sub NO{sub 3}} values (up to +25.5 per mille) at some sites were probably due to the combined effects of low-flow and inputs from sewage and/or animal waste.

  9. Combining MODIS, MISR, CALIOP, OMI, AERONET, and Models to Identify the Spatial and Temporal Distribution, Characterization, and Magnitude of Missing Urban and Wildfire Emissions Sources throughout Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Due to intense and changing levels of emissions as well as highly non-linear chemical processing, the concentrations of aerosols and thus their impacts are not well known. Urban areas consist of the majority of the emissions of these species and their precursors over large periods of time, while wildfires contribute very large spikes, concentrated in space and over a period of weeks to months. Yet due to urban and economic expansion, as well as clouds amd low intensity burning, the spatial and temporal profiles of these species are changing, with both new sources appearing and old sources decreasing. New work incorporates measurements at different spatial andboptical resolutions from MODIS, MISR, and OMI, coupled with new sampling approaches with CALIOP and AERONET to search for, characterize, and spatially and temporally constrain aerosols. An advanced modeling system including aerosol chemistry, physics, optics, and transport, using a multi-modal and both externally mixed and core-shell mixing is used to quantify the magnitudes of these missing sources. Comparisons between the model and additional dozens of ground stations show extreme improvement when these new sources are included. This new approach is shown to identify new source regions of emissions, many of which were previously non-urbanized or were not found to contain any fire hotspots. In addition, the use of new models run under conditions including both missing local sources from regions such as the expanded urban areas in Southeast and East Asia and advanced chemical and aerosol routines, allow for a comprehensive analysis to be performed. The impacts of insitu chemistry, horizontal, and vertical transport of species, both on the Regional and Continental scale are also included. It is shown that for proper identification, especially on intra-annual and inter-annual variations, this approach is a large improvement throughout Asia, ranging from India, to Indonesia, to China and Japan. Results specific

  10. Medicina ToO of the non-identified gamma-ray source AGL J1412-0522

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, Elise; Pilia, Maura; Righini, Simona; Pellizzoni, Alberto; Loru, Sara; Giroletti, Marcello

    2017-09-01

    Following the AGILE detection of a non-identified gamma-ray source AGL J1412-0522 on 5-7 August 2017 (ATel #10623), we performed radio observations with the 32-m Medicina radio telescope at 8.5 GHz (with 680 MHz bandwidth) on 9 August 2017 from 12:40 to 19:00 UTC and on 10 August 2017 from 14:00 to 17:50 UTC. We carried out squared on-the-fly maps of 45.5'x45.5' centered on the gamma-ray position (ra=14:12:06.0, dec=-05:22:14.9) to take into account the 0.4 deg position error from AGILE results.

  11. Isolation of cDNA encoding a newly identified major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen: intracellular targeting to the amyloplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M B; Hough, T; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Smith, P M; Taylor, P; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D; McCluskey, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major allergenic protein from rye-grass pollen, tentatively designated Lol pIb of 31kDa and with pI 9.0. A cDNA clone encoding Lol pIb has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Lol pIb is located mainly in the starch granules. This is a distinct allergen from Lol pI, which is located in the cytosol. Lol pIb is synthesized in pollen as a pre-allergen with a transit peptide targeting the allergen to amyloplasts. Epitope mapping of the fusion protein localized the IgE binding determinant in the C-terminal domain. Images PMID:1671715

  12. Identifying the sources driving observed PM2.5 temporal variability over Halifax, Nova Scotia, during BORTAS-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Gibson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The source attribution of observed variability of total PM2.5 concentrations over Halifax, Nova Scotia, was investigated between 11 July and 26 August 2011 using measurements of PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 chemical composition (black carbon, organic matter, anions, cations and 33 elements. This was part of the BORTAS-B (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants using Aircraft and Satellites experiment, which investigated the atmospheric chemistry and transport of seasonal boreal wildfire emissions over eastern Canada in 2011. The US EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF receptor model was used to determine the average mass (percentage source contribution over the 45 days, which was estimated to be as follows: long-range transport (LRT pollution: 1.75 μg m−3 (47%; LRT pollution marine mixture: 1.0 μg m−3 (27.9%; vehicles: 0.49 μg m−3 (13.2%; fugitive dust: 0.23 μg m−3 (6.3%; ship emissions: 0.13 μg m−3 (3.4%; and refinery: 0.081 μg m−3 (2.2%. The PMF model describes 87% of the observed variability in total PM2.5 mass (bias = 0.17 and RSME = 1.5 μg m−3. The factor identifications are based on chemical markers, and they are supported by air mass back trajectory analysis and local wind direction. Biomass burning plumes, found by other surface and aircraft measurements, were not significant enough to be identified in this analysis. This paper presents the results of the PMF receptor modelling, providing valuable insight into the local and upwind sources impacting surface PM2.5 in Halifax and a vital comparative data set for the other collocated ground-based observations of atmospheric composition made during BORTAS-B.

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Penicillium citrinum Cultured with Different Carbon Sources Identifies Genes Involved in Citrinin Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin is a toxic secondary metabolite of Penicillium citrinum and its contamination in many food items has been widely reported. However, research on the citrinin biosynthesis pathway and its regulation mechanism in P. citrinum is rarely reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of different carbon sources on citrinin production by P. citrinum and used transcriptome analysis to study the underlying molecular mechanism. Our results indicated that glucose, used as the sole carbon source, could significantly promote citrinin production by P. citrinum in Czapek’s broth medium compared with sucrose. A total of 19,967 unigenes were annotated by BLAST in Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. Transcriptome comparison between P. citrinum cultured with sucrose and glucose revealed 1085 differentially expressed unigenes. Among them, 610 were upregulated while 475 were downregulated under glucose as compared to sucrose. KEGG pathway and Gene ontology (GO analysis indicated that many metabolic processes (e.g., carbohydrate, secondary metabolism, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism were affected, and potentially interesting genes that encoded putative components of signal transduction, stress response and transcription factor were identified. These genes obviously had important impacts on their regulation in citrinin biosynthesis, which provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of citrinin biosynthesis by P. citrinum.

  14. Waste disposal and households' heterogeneity. Identifying factors shaping attitudes towards source-separated recycling in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Padilla, Alcides; Trujillo, Juan C

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management in many cities of developing countries is not environmentally sustainable. People traditionally dispose of their solid waste in unsuitable urban areas like sidewalks and satellite dumpsites. This situation nowadays has become a serious public health problem in big Latin American conurbations. Among these densely-populated urban spaces, the Colombia's capital and main city stands out as a special case. In this study, we aim to identify the factors that shape the attitudes towards source-separated recycling among households in Bogotá. Using data from the Colombian Department of Statistics and Bogotá's multi-purpose survey, we estimated a multivariate Probit model. In general, our results show that the higher the household's socioeconomic class, the greater its effort for separating solid wastes. Likewise, our findings also allowed us to characterize household profiles regarding solid waste separation and considering each socioeconomic class. Among these profiles, we found that at lower socioeconomic classes, the attitudes towards solid waste separation are influenced by the use of Internet, the membership to an environmentalist organization, the level of education of the head of household and the homeownership. Hence, increasing the education levels within the poorest segment of the population, promoting affordable housing policies and facilitating Internet access for the vulnerable population could reinforce households' attitudes towards a greater source-separated recycling effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies HLA 8.1 ancestral haplotype alleles as major genetic risk factors for myositis phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F W; Chen, W; O'Hanlon, T P; Cooper, R G; Vencovsky, J; Rider, L G; Danko, K; Wedderburn, L R; Lundberg, I E; Pachman, L M; Reed, A M; Ytterberg, S R; Padyukov, L; Selva-O'Callaghan, A; Radstake, T R; Isenberg, D A; Chinoy, H; Ollier, W E R; Scheet, P; Peng, B; Lee, A; Byun, J; Lamb, J A; Gregersen, P K; Amos, C I

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune muscle diseases (myositis) comprise a group of complex phenotypes influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify genetic risk factors in patients of European ancestry, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the major myositis phenotypes in a total of 1710 cases, which included 705 adult dermatomyositis, 473 juvenile dermatomyositis, 532 polymyositis and 202 adult dermatomyositis, juvenile dermatomyositis or polymyositis patients with anti-histidyl-tRNA synthetase (anti-Jo-1) autoantibodies, and compared them with 4724 controls. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms showing strong associations (Pmyositis phenotypes together, as well as for the four clinical and autoantibody phenotypes studied separately. Imputation and regression analyses found that alleles comprising the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) 8.1 ancestral haplotype (AH8.1) defined essentially all the genetic risk in the phenotypes studied. Although the HLA DRB1*03:01 allele showed slightly stronger associations with adult and juvenile dermatomyositis, and HLA B*08:01 with polymyositis and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody-positive myositis, multiple alleles of AH8.1 were required for the full risk effects. Our findings establish that alleles of the AH8.1 comprise the primary genetic risk factors associated with the major myositis phenotypes in geographically diverse Caucasian populations.

  16. Silencing of omega-5 gliadins in transgenic wheat eliminates a major source of environmental variability and improves dough mixing properties of flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Seabourn, Bradford W

    2014-12-24

    The end-use quality of wheat flour varies as a result of the growth conditions of the plant. Among the wheat gluten proteins, the omega-5 gliadins have been identified as a major source of environmental variability, increasing in proportion in grain from plants that receive fertilizer or are subjected to high temperatures during grain development. The omega-5 gliadins also have been associated with the food allergy wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Recently, transgenic lines with reduced levels of omega-5 gliadins were developed using RNA interference (RNAi). These lines make it possible to determine whether changes in the levels of omega-5 gliadins in response to environmental conditions and agronomic inputs may be responsible for changes in flour end-use quality. Two transgenic wheat lines and a non-transgenic control were grown under a controlled temperature regimen with or without post-anthesis fertilizer and the protein composition of the resulting flour was analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In one transgenic line, all 2-DE spots identified as omega-5 gliadins were substantially reduced without effects on other proteins. In the other transgenic line, the omega-5 gliadins were absent and there was a partial reduction in the levels of the omega-1,2 gliadins and the omega-1,2 chain-terminating gliadins as well as small changes in several other proteins. With the exception of the omega gliadins, the non-transgenic control and the transgenic plants showed similar responses to the fertilizer treatment. Protein contents of flour were determined by the fertilizer regimen and were similar in control and transgenic samples produced under each regimen while both mixing time and mixing tolerance were improved in flour from transgenic lines when plants received post-anthesis fertilizer. The data indicate that omega-5 gliadins have a negative effect on flour quality and suggest that changes in quality with the growth

  17. A Multi-Breed Genome-Wide Association Analysis for Canine Hypothyroidism Identifies a Shared Major Risk Locus on CFA12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bianchi

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a complex clinical condition found in both humans and dogs, thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In this study we present a multi-breed analysis of predisposing genetic risk factors for hypothyroidism in dogs using three high-risk breeds--the Gordon Setter, Hovawart and the Rhodesian Ridgeback. Using a genome-wide association approach and meta-analysis, we identified a major hypothyroidism risk locus shared by these breeds on chromosome 12 (p = 2.1x10(-11. Further characterisation of the candidate region revealed a shared ~167 kb risk haplotype (4,915,018-5,081,823 bp, tagged by two SNPs in almost complete linkage disequilibrium. This breed-shared risk haplotype includes three genes (LHFPL5, SRPK1 and SLC26A8 and does not extend to the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA class II gene cluster located in the vicinity. These three genes have not been identified as candidate genes for hypothyroid disease previously, but have functions that could potentially contribute to the development of the disease. Our results implicate the potential involvement of novel genes and pathways for the development of canine hypothyroidism, raising new possibilities for screening, breeding programmes and treatments in dogs. This study may also contribute to our understanding of the genetic etiology of human hypothyroid disease, which is one of the most common endocrine disorders in humans.

  18. Deep sequencing of Salmonella RNA associated with heterologous Hfq proteins in vivo reveals small RNAs as a major target class and identifies RNA processing phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittka, Alexandra; Sharma, Cynthia M; Rolle, Katarzyna; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial Sm-like protein, Hfq, is a key factor for the stability and function of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in Escherichia coli. Homologues of this protein have been predicted in many distantly related organisms yet their functional conservation as sRNA-binding proteins has not entirely been clear. To address this, we expressed in Salmonella the Hfq proteins of two eubacteria (Neisseria meningitides, Aquifex aeolicus) and an archaeon (Methanocaldococcus jannaschii), and analyzed the associated RNA by deep sequencing. This in vivo approach identified endogenous Salmonella sRNAs as a major target of the foreign Hfq proteins. New Salmonella sRNA species were also identified, and some of these accumulated specifically in the presence of a foreign Hfq protein. In addition, we observed specific RNA processing defects, e.g., suppression of precursor processing of SraH sRNA by Methanocaldococcus Hfq, or aberrant accumulation of extracytoplasmic target mRNAs of the Salmonella GcvB, MicA or RybB sRNAs. Taken together, our study provides evidence of a conserved inherent sRNA-binding property of Hfq, which may facilitate the lateral transmission of regulatory sRNAs among distantly related species. It also suggests that the expression of heterologous RNA-binding proteins combined with deep sequencing analysis of RNA ligands can be used as a molecular tool to dissect individual steps of RNA metabolism in vivo.

  19. An in-depth characterization of the major psoriasis susceptibility locus identifies candidate susceptibility alleles within an HLA-C enhancer element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Clop

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder that is inherited as a complex genetic trait. Although genome-wide association scans (GWAS have identified 36 disease susceptibility regions, more than 50% of the genetic variance can be attributed to a single Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC locus, known as PSORS1. Genetic studies indicate that HLA-C is the strongest PSORS1 candidate gene, since markers tagging HLA-Cw*0602 consistently generate the most significant association signals in GWAS. However, it is unclear whether HLA-Cw*0602 is itself the causal PSORS1 allele, especially as the role of SNPs that may affect its expression has not been investigated. Here, we have undertaken an in-depth molecular characterization of the PSORS1 interval, with a view to identifying regulatory variants that may contribute to disease susceptibility. By analysing high-density SNP data, we refined PSORS1 to a 179 kb region encompassing HLA-C and the neighbouring HCG27 pseudogene. We compared multiple MHC sequences spanning this refined locus and identified 144 candidate susceptibility variants, which are unique to chromosomes bearing HLA-Cw*0602. In parallel, we investigated the epigenetic profile of the critical PSORS1 interval and uncovered three enhancer elements likely to be active in T lymphocytes. Finally we showed that nine candidate susceptibility SNPs map within a HLA-C enhancer and that three of these variants co-localise with binding sites for immune-related transcription factors. These data indicate that SNPs affecting HLA-Cw*0602 expression are likely to contribute to psoriasis susceptibility and highlight the importance of integrating multiple experimental approaches in the investigation of complex genomic regions such as the MHC.

  20. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

    2006-01-01

    population are identified (TreeStats test). Analysis of sequence data for 120 L. monocytogenes isolates revealed evidence of clustering between isolates from the same source, based on the phylogenies inferred from actA and inlA (P = 0.02 and P = 0.07, respectively; SourceCluster test). Overall, the Tree...... are biologically valid. Overall, our data show that (i) the SourceCluster and TreeStats tests can identify biologically meaningful source-associated phylogenetic clusters and (ii) L. monocytogenes includes clonal groups that have adapted to infect specific host species or colonize nonhost environments......., including humans, animals, and food. If the null hypothesis that the genetic distances for isolates within and between source populations are identical can be rejected (SourceCluster test), then particular clades in the phylogenetic tree with significant overrepresentation of sequences from a given source...

  1. Can profiles of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xindi C; Dassuncao, Clifton; Zhang, Xianming

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS......) and their precursors are ubiquitous in multiple exposure sources. However, their composition varies among sources, which may impact associated adverse health effects. METHODS: We use available PFAS concentrations from several demographic groups in a North Atlantic seafood consuming population (Faroe Islands...... sulfonamidoacetate (N-EtFOSAA), which are directly used or metabolized from fluorochemicals in consumer products such as carpet and food packaging. We find that the same compounds are associated with the same exposure sources in two North American populations, suggesting generalizability of results from the Faroese...

  2. Identify and Quantify the Mechanistic Sources of Sensor Performance Variation Between Individual Sensors SN1 and SN2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baldwin, David L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cinson, Anthony D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larche, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mathews, Royce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullen, Crystal A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Posakony, Gerald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Prowant, Matthew S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-08-06

    This Technical Letter Report satisfies the M3AR-14PN2301022 milestone, and is focused on identifying and quantifying the mechanistic sources of sensor performance variation between individual 22-element, linear phased-array sensor prototypes, SN1 and SN2. This effort constitutes an iterative evolution that supports the longer term goal of producing and demonstrating a pre-manufacturing prototype ultrasonic probe that possesses the fundamental performance characteristics necessary to enable the development of a high-temperature sodium-cooled fast reactor inspection system. The scope of the work for this portion of the PNNL effort conducted in FY14 includes performing a comparative evaluation and assessment of the performance characteristics of the SN1 and SN2 22 element PA-UT probes manufactured at PNNL. Key transducer performance parameters, such as sound field dimensions, resolution capabilities, frequency response, and bandwidth are used as a metric for the comparative evaluation and assessment of the SN1 and SN2 engineering test units.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Okuba, Tomoaki; Takada, Hideshige

    2001-01-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and offshore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analysed for hopanes and polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east cost seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photo-oxidation. (Author)

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and hopanes in stranded tar-balls on the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia: applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M P; Okuda, T; Takada, H

    2001-12-01

    Malaysian coasts are subjected to various threats of petroleum pollution including routine and accidental oil spill from tankers, spillage of crude oils from inland and off-shore oil fields, and run-off from land-based human activities. Due to its strategic location, the Straits of Malacca serves as a major shipping lane. This paper expands the utility of biomarker compounds, hopanes, in identifying the source of tar-balls stranded on Malaysian coasts. 20 tar-ball samples collected from the east and west coast were analyzed for hopanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four of the 13 tar-ball samples collected from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were identified as the Middle East crude oil (MECO) based on their biomarker signatures, suggesting tanker-derived sources significantly contributing the petroleum pollution in the Straits of Malacca. The tar-balls found on the east coast seem to originate from the offshore oil platforms in the South China Sea. The presence of South East Asian crude oil (SEACO) tar-balls on the west coast carry several plausible explanations. Some of the tar-balls could have been transported via sea currents from the east coast. The tankers carrying SEACO to other countries could have accidentally spilt the oil as well. Furthermore, discharge of tank washings and ballast water from the tankers were suggested based on the abundance in higher molecular weight n-alkanes and the absence of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the tar-ball samples. The other possibilities are that the tar-balls may have been originated from the Sumatran oil fields and spillage of domestic oil from oil refineries in Port Dickson and Malacca. The results of PAHs analysis suggest that all the tar-ball samples have undergone various extent of weathering through evaporation, dissolution and photooxidation.

  5. Methods to identify and locate spent radiation sources; Metodos para la identificacion y localizacion de fuentes radiactivas gastadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide essential guidance to Member States with nuclear applications involving the use of a wide range of sealed radiation sources on the practical task of physically locating spent radiation sources not properly accounted for. Advice is also provided to render the located source safe on location. Refs, figs, tabs.

  6. Spatial distribution of trace elements in the surface sediments of a major European estuary (Loire Estuary, France): Source identification and evaluation of anthropogenic contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coynel, Alexandra; Gorse, Laureline; Curti, Cécile; Schafer, Jörg; Grosbois, Cécile; Morelli, Guia; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Blanc, Gérard; Maillet, Grégoire M.; Mojtahid, Meryem

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the extent of metal contamination in estuarine surface sediments is hampered by the high heterogeneity of sediment characteristics, the spatial variability of trace element sources, sedimentary dynamics and geochemical processes in addition to the need of accurate reference values for deciphering natural to anthropogenic contribution. Based on 285 surface sediment samples from the Loire Estuary, the first high-resolution spatial distributions are presented for grain-size, particulate organic carbon (POC) and the eight metals/metalloids identified as priority contaminants (Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, As, Cr, Ni, Hg) plus Ag (an urban tracer). Grain-size and/or POC are major factors controlling the spatial distribution of trace element concentrations. The V-normalized trace metal concentrations divided by the V-normalized concentrations in the basin geochemical background showed the highest Enrichment Factors for Ag and Hg (EF; up to 34 and 140, respectively). These results suggest a severe contamination in the Loire Estuary for both elements. Intra-estuarine Ag and Hg anomalies were identified by comparison between respective normalized concentrations in the Loire Estuary surface sediments and those measured in the surface sediments at the outlet of the Loire River System (watershed-derived). Anthropogenic intra-estuarine Ag and Hg stocks in the uppermost centimetre of the sediment compared with rough annual fluvial flux estimates suggest that the overall strong Enrichment Factors for Ag (EFAg) and and Hg (EFHg) in the Loire Estuary sediments are mainly due to watershed-derived inputs, highlighting the need of high temporal hydro-geochemical monitoring to establish reliable incoming fluxes. Significant correlations obtained between EFCd and EFAg, EFCu and POC and EFHg and POC revealed common behavior and/or sources. Comparison of trace element concentrations with ecotoxicological indices (Sediment Quality Guidelines) provides first standardized information on the

  7. Groundwater and porewater as major sources of alkalinity to a fringing coral reef lagoon (Muri Lagoon, Cook Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cyronak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To better predict how ocean acidification will affect coral reefs, it is important to understand how biogeochemical cycles on reefs alter carbonate chemistry over various temporal and spatial scales. This study quantifies the contribution of shallow porewater exchange (as quantified from advective chamber incubations and fresh groundwater discharge (as traced by 222Rn to total alkalinity (TA dynamics on a fringing coral reef lagoon along the southern Pacific island of Rarotonga over a tidal and diel cycle. Benthic alkalinity fluxes were affected by the advective circulation of water through permeable sediments, with net daily flux rates of carbonate alkalinity ranging from −1.55 to 7.76 mmol m−2 d−1, depending on the advection rate. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD was a source of TA to the lagoon, with the highest flux rates measured at low tide, and an average daily TA flux of 1080 mmol m−2 d−1 at the sampling site. Both sources of TA were important on a reef-wide basis, although SGD acted solely as a delivery mechanism of TA to the lagoon, while porewater advection was either a sink or source of TA dependent on the time of day. This study describes overlooked sources of TA to coral reef ecosystems that can potentially alter water column carbonate chemistry. We suggest that porewater and groundwater fluxes of TA should be taken into account in ocean acidification models in order to properly address changing carbonate chemistry within coral reef ecosystems.

  8. Source apportionment of size-segregated atmospheric particles based on the major water-soluble components in Lecce (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contini, D.; Cesari, D.; Genga, A.; Siciliano, M.; Ielpo, P.; Guascito, M.R.; Conte, M.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have potential effects on human health, on the radiation balance, on climate, and on visibility. The understanding of these effects requires detailed knowledge of aerosol composition and size distributions and of how the different sources contribute to particles of different sizes. In this work, aerosol samples were collected using a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI). Measurements were taken between February and October 2011 in an urban background site near Lecce (Apulia region, southeast of Italy). Samples were analysed to evaluate the concentrations of water-soluble ions (SO 4 2− , NO 3 − , NH 4 + , Cl − , Na + , K + , Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ) and of water-soluble organic and inorganic carbon. The aerosols were characterised by two modes, an accumulation mode having a mass median diameter (MMD) of 0.35 ± 0.02 μm, representing 51 ± 4% of the aerosols and a coarse mode (MMD = 4.5 ± 0.4 μm), representing 49 ± 4% of the aerosols. The data were used to estimate the losses in the impactor by comparison with a low-volume sampler. The average loss in the MOUDI-collected aerosol was 19 ± 2%, and the largest loss was observed for NO 3 − (35 ± 10%). Significant losses were observed for Ca 2+ (16 ± 5%), SO 4 2− (19 ± 5%) and K + (10 ± 4%), whereas the losses for Na + and Mg 2+ were negligible. Size-segregated source apportionment was performed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), which was applied separately to the coarse (size interval 1–18 μm) and accumulation (size interval 0.056–1 μm) modes. The PMF model was able to reasonably reconstruct the concentration in each size-range. The uncertainties in the source apportionment due to impactor losses were evaluated. In the accumulation mode, it was not possible to distinguish the traffic contribution from other combustion sources. In the coarse mode, it was not possible to efficiently separate nitrate from the contribution of crustal/resuspension origin

  9. Source apportionment of size-segregated atmospheric particles based on the major water-soluble components in Lecce (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, D., E-mail: d.contini@isac.cnr.it [Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, Lecce (Italy); Cesari, D. [Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, Lecce (Italy); Genga, A.; Siciliano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Ielpo, P. [Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, Lecce (Italy); Istituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque, IRSA-CNR, Bari (Italy); Guascito, M.R. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Conte, M. [Istituto di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, ISAC-CNR, Lecce (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have potential effects on human health, on the radiation balance, on climate, and on visibility. The understanding of these effects requires detailed knowledge of aerosol composition and size distributions and of how the different sources contribute to particles of different sizes. In this work, aerosol samples were collected using a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI). Measurements were taken between February and October 2011 in an urban background site near Lecce (Apulia region, southeast of Italy). Samples were analysed to evaluate the concentrations of water-soluble ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup −}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}) and of water-soluble organic and inorganic carbon. The aerosols were characterised by two modes, an accumulation mode having a mass median diameter (MMD) of 0.35 ± 0.02 μm, representing 51 ± 4% of the aerosols and a coarse mode (MMD = 4.5 ± 0.4 μm), representing 49 ± 4% of the aerosols. The data were used to estimate the losses in the impactor by comparison with a low-volume sampler. The average loss in the MOUDI-collected aerosol was 19 ± 2%, and the largest loss was observed for NO{sub 3}{sup −} (35 ± 10%). Significant losses were observed for Ca{sup 2+} (16 ± 5%), SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} (19 ± 5%) and K{sup +} (10 ± 4%), whereas the losses for Na{sup +} and Mg{sup 2+} were negligible. Size-segregated source apportionment was performed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), which was applied separately to the coarse (size interval 1–18 μm) and accumulation (size interval 0.056–1 μm) modes. The PMF model was able to reasonably reconstruct the concentration in each size-range. The uncertainties in the source apportionment due to impactor losses were evaluated. In the accumulation mode, it was not possible to distinguish the traffic contribution from other combustion sources. In the coarse mode, it was not possible to

  10. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in major urban Greek agglomerations using a hybrid source-receptor modeling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, G; Samara, C; Diapouli, E; Eleftheriadis, K; Papaoikonomou, K; Kungolos, A

    2017-12-01

    A hybrid source-receptor modeling process was assembled, to apportion and infer source locations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in three heavily-impacted urban areas of Greece, during the warm period of 2011, and the cold period of 2012. The assembled process involved application of an advanced computational procedure, the so-called Robotic Chemical Mass Balance (RCMB) model. Source locations were inferred using two well-established probability functions: (a) the Conditional Probability Function (CPF), to correlate the output of RCMB with local wind directional data, and (b) the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF), to correlate the output of RCMB with 72h air-mass back-trajectories, arriving at the receptor sites, during sampling. Regarding CPF, a higher-level conditional probability function was defined as well, from the common locus of CPF sectors derived for neighboring receptor sites. With respect to PSCF, a non-parametric bootstrapping method was applied to discriminate the statistically significant values. RCMB modeling showed that resuspended dust is actually one of the main barriers for attaining the European Union (EU) limit values in Mediterranean urban agglomerations, where the drier climate favors build-up. The shift in the energy mix of Greece (caused by the economic recession) was also evidenced, since biomass burning was found to contribute more significantly to the sampling sites belonging to the coldest climatic zone, particularly during the cold period. The CPF analysis showed that short-range transport of anthropogenic emissions from urban traffic to urban background sites was very likely to have occurred, within all the examined urban agglomerations. The PSCF analysis confirmed that long-range transport of primary and/or secondary aerosols may indeed be possible, even from distances over 1000km away from study areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide analysis in UK Biobank identifies four loci associated with mood instability and genetic correlation with major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joey; Strawbridge, Rona J; Bailey, Mark E S; Graham, Nicholas; Ferguson, Amy; Lyall, Donald M; Cullen, Breda; Pidgeon, Laura M; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P; O'Donovan, Michael; Escott-Price, Valentina; Smith, Daniel J

    2017-11-30

    Mood instability is a core clinical feature of affective and psychotic disorders. In keeping with the Research Domain Criteria approach, it may be a useful construct for identifying biology that cuts across psychiatric categories. We aimed to investigate the biological validity of a simple measure of mood instability and evaluate its genetic relationship with several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mood instability in 53,525 cases and 60,443 controls from UK Biobank, identifying four independently associated loci (on chromosomes 8, 9, 14 and 18), and a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimate of ~8%. We found a strong genetic correlation between mood instability and MDD (r g  = 0.60, SE = 0.07, p = 8.95 × 10 -17 ) and a small but significant genetic correlation with both schizophrenia (r g  = 0.11, SE = 0.04, p = 0.01) and anxiety disorders (r g  = 0.28, SE = 0.14, p = 0.04), although no genetic correlation with BD, ADHD or PTSD was observed. Several genes at the associated loci may have a role in mood instability, including the DCC netrin 1 receptor (DCC) gene, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B subunit beta (eIF2B2), placental growth factor (PGF) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D (PTPRD). Strengths of this study include the very large sample size, but our measure of mood instability may be limited by the use of a single question. Overall, this work suggests a polygenic basis for mood instability. This simple measure can be obtained in very large samples; our findings suggest that doing so may offer the opportunity to illuminate the fundamental biology of mood regulation.

  12. Probabilistic analysis showing that a combination of bacteroides and methanobrevibacter source tracking markers is effective for identifying waters contaminated by human fecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Whitman, Richard L.; Stewart, Jill R.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial source tracking assays to identify sources of waterborne contamination typically target genetic markers of host-specific microorganisms. However, no bacterial marker has been shown to be 100% host-specific, and cross-reactivity has been noted in studies evaluating known source samples. Using 485 challenge samples from 20 different human and animal fecal sources, this study evaluated microbial source tracking markers including the Bacteroides HF183 16S rRNA, M. smithii nifH, and Enterococcus esp gene targets that have been proposed as potential indicators of human fecal contamination. Bayes' Theorem was used to calculate the conditional probability that these markers or a combination of markers can correctly identify human sources of fecal pollution. All three human-associated markers were detected in 100% of the sewage samples analyzed. Bacteroides HF183 was the most effective marker for determining whether contamination was specifically from a human source, and greater than 98% certainty that contamination was from a human source was shown when both Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH markers were present. A high degree of certainty was attained even in cases where the prior probability of human fecal contamination was as low as 8.5%. The combination of Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH source tracking markers can help identify surface waters impacted by human fecal contamination, information useful for prioritizing restoration activities or assessing health risks from exposure to contaminated waters.

  13. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM{sub 2.5} from Sanya, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingzhi [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Ho, Steven Sai Hang [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States); Cao, Junji, E-mail: cao@loess.llqg.ac.cn [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Institute of Global Environmental Change, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Huang, Rujin [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Zhou, Jiamao [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhao, Youzhi [College of Science and Technology, Qiongzhou University, Sanya (China); Xu, Hongmei [Department of Environmntal Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Liu, Suixin; Wang, Gehui [Key Lab of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); State Key Lab of Loess and Quaternary Geology (SKLLQG), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); and others

    2015-10-15

    PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected in Sanya, China in summer and winter in 2012/2013. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and non-polar organic compounds including n-alkanes (n-C{sub 14}-n-C{sub 40}) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified. The concentrations of these carbonaceous matters were generally higher in winter than summer. The estimated secondary organic carbon (OC{sub sec}) accounted for 38% and 54% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in winter and summer, respectively. The higher value of OC{sub sec} in addition to the presences of photochemically-produced PAHs in summer supports that photochemical conversions of organics are much active at the higher air temperatures and with stronger intense solar radiation. Carbon preference index (CPI) and percent contribution of wax n-alkanes suggest that anthropogenic sources were more dominant than derivation from terrestrial plants in Sanya. Diagnostic ratios of atmospheric PAHs further indicate that there was a wide mix of pollution sources in winter while fossil fuel combustion was the most dominant in summer. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis with 18 PAHs in the winter samples found that motor vehicle emissions and biomass burning were the two main pollution sources, contributing 37.5% and 24.6% of the total quantified PAHs, respectively. - Highlights: • The first comprehensive study to investigate carbonaceous PM{sub 2.5} in Sanya, China • Higher carbonaceous levels in winter while more SOC formation in summer • Anthropogenic emission is the dominant sources of n-alkanes • Vehicle emission and biomass burning contributed ≥60% of the total PAHs in winter • The result supports better air quality in Sanya than most megacities in China.

  14. Free troposphere as a major source of CCN for the equatorial pacific boundary layer: long-range transport and teleconnections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Clarke

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Airborne aerosol measurements in the central equatorial Pacific during PASE (Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment revealed that cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activated in marine boundary layer (MBL clouds were strongly influenced by entrainment from the free troposphere (FT. About 65% entered at sizes effective as CCN in MBL clouds, while ~25% entered the MBL too small to activate but subsequently grew via gas to particle conversion. The remaining ~10% were inferred to be sea salt aerosol. FT aerosols at low carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios ( The observed FT transport over thousands of kilometers indicates teleconnections between MBL CCN and cloud-scavenged sources of both natural and/or residual combustion origin. Nonetheless, in spite of its importance, this source of CCN number is not well represented in most current models and is generally not detectable by satellite because of the low aerosol scattering in such layers as a result of cloud scavenging. In addition, our measurements confirm nucleation in the MBL was not evident during PASE and argue against a localized linear relation in the MBL between dimethyl sulfide (DMS and CCN suggested by the CLAW hypothesis. However, when the FT is not impacted by long-range transport, sulfate aerosol derived from DMS pumped aloft in the ITCZ (Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone can provide a source of CCN to the boundary layer via FT teleconnections involving more complex non-linear processes.

  15. Comparison of remote sensing data sources and techniques for identifying and classifying alien invasive vegetation in riparian zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rowlinson, LC

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available yield the most accurate and cost-effective results. The least cost-effective data sources were found to be 1:10 000 colour aerial photographs and digital aerial photographs and the least accurate data sources were aerial videography and Landsat thematic...

  16. Alluvial and riparian soils as major sources of lead exposure in young children in the Philippines: the role of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrea, Enrique M; Ostrea, Angelo M; Villanueva-Uy, Ma Esterlita; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence and sources of high lead (Pb) exposure among children in Bulacan, Philippines. A total of 150 children (6-7 years old) and their caregivers were studied. Lead was analyzed in children hair and deciduous teeth. Sources of lead exposure were determined by caregiver interview and Pb analysis of house soil, drinking faucet water, air, and water from seven Bulacan rivers. Lead was positive in 91.3% of children's hair (MC or median concentration = 8.9 μg/g; range = 0-38.29), in 46.2% of the teeth (MC = 0.000 μg/mg in positive samples; range = 0.00-0.020), in 100% of soil (MC = 27.06 mg/kg; range = 3.05-1155.80), in 21.1% of air (MC = 0 μg/Ncm; range = 0-0.10), in 4% of house, faucet water (MC = 0.0 ppm; range = 0-40). There was a significant correlation (Spearman's rho) between Pb in children's hair and soil (r = 0.195; p = 0.017) and between Pb in house water and outdoor air (r = 0.616; p = 0.005). There is no significant correlation between Pb in children's hair and teeth. None of the potential sources of Pb from interview were related to lead exposure in the children. Water from seven Bulacan rivers was 100% positive for lead (MC = 70.00 ppb; range = 30-90). Widespread flooding with river overflow occurred in Bulacan in 2009 which likely caused lead contamination of the soil. There was no significant difference in the lead concentration of the soil whether near or far from the river (p = 0.205, Mann-Whitney U test). High lead exposure in children in Bulacan is likely from soil contaminated by lead-polluted rivers during flooding. In areas where flooding is common, alluvial and riparian soils from polluted rivers are important sources of lead exposure in children.

  17. Reassessment of source parameters for three major earthquakes in the East African rift system from historical seismograms and bulletins

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele, A.; Kulhánek, O.

    2000-01-01

    Source parameters for three majo earthquakes in the East African rift are re-computed from historical seismograms and bulletins. The main shock and the largest foreshock of the August 25, 1906 earthquake sequence in the main Ethiopian rift are re-located on the eastern shoulder of the rift segment.The magnitude of the main shock is estimated to be 6.5 (Mw) from spectral analysis. The December 13, 1910 earthquake in the Rukwa rift (Western Tanzania) indicated a significant strike-slip componen...

  18. [Composition characteristics and source analysis of major ions in four small lake-watersheds on the Tibetan Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiao-Long; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jie; Niu, Ying-Quan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the ionic compositions of small lake-watersheds on the Tibetan Plateau, water samples from the brackish lakes (Pung Co (lake), Angrenjin Co and Dajia Co), the freshwater lake (Daggyaima Co), their inflowing rivers and the hot spring (Dagejia Geothermal Field), were collected during July-August 2013. The results showed that the major anions and cations of the brackish lakes were HCO3-, SO4(2-) and Na+, respectively, and the hydrochemical types were HCO3-SO4-Na and HCO3-Na. The major anions and cations of the inflowing rivers and the freshwater lake were HCO3-, SO4(2-) and Ca2+, Mg2+, respectively, and the hydrochemical types were HCO3-Ca, HCO3-Ca-Mg, HCO3-Mg-Ca, HCO3-SO4-Ca and SO4-HCO3- Ca. The major anions and cations of the hot spring were HCO3- and Na+, respectively, and the hydrochemical type was HCO3-Na. Water chemistry in the brackish lakes was primarily dominated by evaporation-crystallization processes, while the inflowing rivers and the freshwater lake were mainly influenced by carbonate weathering, and the hot spring was mainly controlled by hot water-granite interaction. Ca2+ was preferentially removed over Mg2+ from the water when carbonate minerals precipitation occured, which resulted in the high Mg2+/Ca2+ molar ratios of the brackish lakes. In the contribution of cation compositions, the largest contribution was carbonate weathering (54% - 79%), followed by silicate weathering (13% -29%) and evaperite dissolution (4% -23%), and the smallest was atmospheric input (3% - 7%).

  19. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities.

  20. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  1. Sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in a coastal lagoon adjacent to a major metropolitan area, Miami Florida (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swart, Peter K.; Anderson, William T.; Altabet, Mark A.; Drayer, Courtney; Bellmund, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A range of biota (algae and sea grasses) shows enriched δ 15 N close to the coast. • Enriched signals are evident in the particulate and sedimentary organic material. • δ 15 N signals are correlated with high inputs of dissolved inorganic matter. • The enriched values support the presence of a sewage related component. • The δ 15 N could arise from the local landfill, injected wastewater, or septic systems. - Abstract: Between 2006 and 2007, a study was carried out to determine the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic input of nitrogen into Biscayne Bay (South Florida, USA) using δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of algae, seagrasses, and particulate organic material, δ 18 O and δ 15 N of the NO 3 - and δ 13 C of the dissolved inorganic carbon. The δ 15 N values of all components showed a strong east to west gradient approaching more positive values (+7 to +10‰) close to the land-sea interface. The nitrogen could have emanated from the local waste water treatment plant, septic systems within the region, or nitrogen which had been affected by denitrification and leached from the local landfill, wastewater which had been injected into the Floridan aquifer and leaked back to the surface, and/or some other as yet unidentified source. The measured NO 3 - δ 15 N and δ 18 O values indicated that the dissolved nitrate originated from anthropogenic sources and was fractionated during assimilation

  2. Source apportionment of major and trace elements in aerosols during smog episodes in large cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furger, Markus; Rai, Pragati; Visser, Suzanne; Elser, Miriam; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution in Chinese cities is one of the environmental problems China has to address to mitigate the impacts on human health, air quality and climate. Average concentrations of particulate matter exceed 100 μg m-3 in many places in China, and the government is developing and implementing strategies to reduce the load of pollutants by various measures. A characterization of airborne particulate matter (PM), especially its composition and sources, will help in optimizing reduction and mitigation strategies for air pollution. We collected PM10 aerosols with a rotating drum impactor (RDI) in Xi'an in December 2013 and in Beijing in January 2014 with 30-min time resolution and for three size ranges (cut-off sizes 10, 2.5 and 1 μm). Each campaign encompassed one or more high pollution episodes in the respective city. Elements from Na to Pb were analyzed with synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF), and the resulting time series were used for source apportionment performed with the Multilinear-Engine 2 (ME-2) implementation of the Positive Matrix Factorization algorithm. The preliminary computations yielded 5 factors for Beijing, namely road dust, sea salt, traffic-related, industrial, coal combustion. For Xi'an an additional desert dust factor was found. Further refinement could be expected from including the smaller size fractions, e.g. a sulfur-rich factor for secondary sulfate or a reacted chlorine factor in the fine mode fraction.

  3. Use of GSR particle analysis program on an analytical SEM to identify sources of emission of airborne particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.C.; Trumper, J.; Bostrom, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High concentrations of airborne particles, in particular PM 10 (particulate matter 10 , but has been little used in Australia for airborne particulates. Two sets of 15 mm PM 10 samples were collected in March and April 2000 from two sites in Brisbane, one within a suburb and one next to an arterial road. The particles were collected directly onto double-sided carbon tapes with a cascade impactor attached to a high-volume PM 10 sampler. The carbon tapes were analysed in a JEOL 840 SEM equipped with a Be-window energy-dispersive X-ray detector and Moran Scientific microanalysis system. An automated Gun Shot Residue (GSR) program was used together with backscattered electron imaging to characterise and analyse individual particulates. About 6,000 particles in total were analysed for each set of impactor samples. Due to limitations of useful pixel size, only particles larger than about 0.5 μm could be analysed. The size, shape and estimated elemental composition (from Na to Pb) of the particles were subjected to non-hierarchical cluster analysis and the characteristics of the clusters were related to their possible sources of emission. Both samples resulted in similar particle clusters. The particles could be classified into three main categories non-spherical (58% of the total number of analysed particles, shape factor >1 1), spherical (15%) and 'carbonaceous' (27%, ie with unexplained % of elemental mass >75%). Non-spherical particles were mainly sea salt and soil particles, and a small amount of iron, lead and mineral dust. The spherical particles were mainly sea salt particles and flyash, and a small amount of iron, lead and secondary sulphate dust. The carbonaceous particles included carbon material mixed with secondary aerosols, roadside dust, sea salt or industrial dust. The arterial road sample also contained more roadside dust and less secondary aerosols than the suburb sample. Current limitations with this method are the minimum particle size

  4. A Method for Identifying Pollution Sources of Heavy Metals and PAH for a Risk-Based Management of a Mediterranean Harbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Paladino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for assessing harbour pollution by heavy metals and PAH and the possible sources of contamination is proposed. The procedure is based on a ratio-matching method applied to the results of principal component analysis (PCA, and it allows discrimination between point and nonpoint sources. The approach can be adopted when many sources of pollution can contribute in a very narrow coastal ecosystem, both internal and outside but close to the harbour, and was used to identify the possible point sources of contamination in a Mediterranean Harbour (Port of Vado, Savona, Italy. 235 sediment samples were collected in 81 sampling points during four monitoring campaigns and 28 chemicals were searched for within the collected samples. PCA of total samples allowed the assessment of 8 main possible point sources, while the refining ratio-matching identified 1 sampling point as a possible PAH source, 2 sampling points as Cd point sources, and 3 sampling points as C > 12 point sources. By a map analysis it was possible to assess two internal sources of pollution directly related to terminals activity. The study is the prosecution of a previous work aimed at assessing Savona-Vado Harbour pollution levels and suggested strategies to regulate the harbour activities.

  5. Leasing as a Source of Finance by the Major US Airlines: Hidden Debt and its Changes Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritta, Richard D.; Lippman, Ellen J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper updates prior research on aircraft leasing and contrasts the findings of current data with prior results. Usage of leases by air carriers is a means to lessen the impact of financial obligations from fleet purchases. The study revisits two previous studies, one in 1969 and one in 1991, which is analyzed the incidence of leases by major air carriers. The current study updates these past studies to consider air carriers current usage of leases. Additionally, since operating leases are not reflected in the balance sheets of airlines, operating lease information was capitalized using a present value of future operating lease payments. Then, financial debt burden ratios were computed to determine the impact from the capitalization of lease information. The usage of operating leases increased, significantly from the first study to the 1991 study, and this trend continues. The incidence of leasing, the classification of leases as operating, and the percentage of operating leases to total fleet have all increased for the majority of the airlines reviewed. When operating lease data were capitalized, debt ratios weakened, providing further evidence of deterioration in the financial health of air carriers.

  6. Estimation of Source Parameters of Historical Major Earthquakes from 1900 to 1970 around Asia and Analysis of Their Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Zhou, S.

    2017-12-01

    Asia, located in the conjoined areas of Eurasian, Pacific, and Indo-Australian plates, is the continent with highest seismicity. Earthquake catalogue on the bases of modern seismic network recordings has been established since around 1970 in Asia and the earthquake catalogue before 1970 was much more inaccurate because of few stations. With a history of less than 50 years of modern earthquake catalogue, researches in seismology are quite limited. After the appearance of improved Earth velocity structure model, modified locating method and high-accuracy Optical Character Recognition technique, travel time data of earthquakes from 1900 to 1970 can be included in research and more accurate locations can be determined for historical earthquakes. Hence, parameters of these historical earthquakes can be obtained more precisely and some research method such as ETAS model can be used in a much longer time scale. This work focuses on the following three aspects: (1) Relocating more than 300 historical major earthquakes (M≥7.0) in Asia based on the Shide Circulars, International Seismological Summary and EHB Bulletin instrumental records between 1900 and 1970. (2) Calculating the focal mechanisms of more than 50 events by first motion records of P wave of ISS. (3) Based on the geological data, tectonic stress field and the result of relocation, inferring focal mechanisms of historical major earthquakes.

  7. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  8. Simultaneous assessments of occurrence, ecological, human health, and organoleptic hazards for 77 VOCs in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQtotals ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10(-7) ≤ RQtotals ≤ 4.24 × 10(-4)) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reassessment of source parameters for three major earthquakes in the East African rift system from historical seismograms and bulletins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kulhánek

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Source parameters for three majo earthquakes in the East African rift are re-computed from historical seismograms and bulletins. The main shock and the largest foreshock of the August 25, 1906 earthquake sequence in the main Ethiopian rift are re-located on the eastern shoulder of the rift segment.The magnitude of the main shock is estimated to be 6.5 (Mw from spectral analysis. The December 13, 1910 earthquake in the Rukwa rift (Western Tanzania indicated a significant strike-slip component from teleseismcs body-waveform inversion for fault mechanism and seismic moment. The January 6, 1928 earthquake in the Gregory rift (Kenya showed a multiple rupture process and unusually long duration for a size of 6.6(Mw. The May 20, 1990 earthquake in Southern Sudan, mentioned merely for the sake of comparison, is the largest of all instrumentally recorded events in the East African rift system. Despite the fact that the mode of deformation in the continental rift is predominantly of extensional nature, the three largest earthquakes known to occur in the circum-Tanzanian craton have shallow focal depths and significant strike-slip component in their fault mechanisms. This and similar works will enrich the database for seismic hazard assessment in East Africa.

  10. Major Source of Error in QSPR Prediction of Intrinsic Thermodynamic Solubility of Drugs: Solid vs Nonsolid State Contributions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Yuriy A

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this study is to define the major limiting factor in the accuracy of the quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models of the thermodynamic intrinsic aqueous solubility of the drug-like compounds. For doing this, the thermodynamic intrinsic aqueous solubility property was suggested to be indirectly "measured" from the contributions of solid state, ΔGfus, and nonsolid state, ΔGmix, properties, which are estimated by the corresponding QSPR models. The QSPR models of ΔGfus and ΔGmix properties were built based on a set of drug-like compounds with available accurate measurements of fusion and thermodynamic solubility properties. For consistency ΔGfus and ΔGmix models were developed using similar algorithms and descriptor sets, and validated against the similar test compounds. Analysis of the relative performances of these two QSPR models clearly demonstrates that it is the solid state contribution which is the limiting factor in the accuracy and predictive power of the QSPR models of the thermodynamic intrinsic solubility. The performed analysis outlines a necessity of development of new descriptor sets for an accurate description of the long-range order (periodicity) phenomenon in the crystalline state. The proposed approach to the analysis of limitations and suggestions for improvement of QSPR-type models may be generalized to other applications in the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Reassessment of the hydrocarbons in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska : identifying the source using partial least squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Since the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska there has been much discussion regarding the clean-up and long term fate of the oil. There has also been debate regarding the origin of the background hydrocarbons present within Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Gulf of Alaska (GoA). There is evidence that background (pre-spill) hydrocarbons may come from either nearby coal deposits or from natural oil seeps and eroding source rocks in the region. This paper presented a study in which the multivariate statistical methodology of the Partial Least Squares (PLS) was used to reassess the percentage contribution of coal, seep oil, shales and rivers to the hydrocarbon loading in the GoA. Data was provided by researchers at the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Bowdoin College, for Exxon. The data was analysed using selected sites as sources in order to develop signatures. The signatures were based on 40 and 136 compounds respectively, including the polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and terpane biomarkers from the Exxon data. The key components describing the sources were fitted to the data for other sites around the GoA to determine the proportion of the variability described by each source. The large complex datasets can be used to develop complex fingerprints for sources rather than using relatively simplistic ratios between selected compounds. The results indicate that 30 per cent of the signature is common between each source and that the small PAHs are the best diagnostic compounds in the model for the oil signature and the large PAHs are good for coal. Naphthalene, methyl and dimethyl naphthalene are the best markers for the seep oil signature. For the pre-spill background, coals and shales are best defined by the larger PAHs such as perylene and benzo(ghi)perylene. In general, the average partitioning between the two sources across all the sampling sites within the region indicated that 53 per cent is attributable to the

  12. Zoonotic disease in a peripheral population: persistence and transmission of Leishmania major in a putative sink-source system in the Negev Highlands, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ruti; Wasserberg, Gideon; Warburg, Alon; Orshan, Laor; Kotler, Burt P

    2014-08-01

    Populations at the edge of their geographic distributions are referred to as peripheral populations. Very little attention has been given to this topic in the context of persistence of infectious disease in natural populations. In this study, we examined this question using zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) caused by Leishmania major in the Negev Desert of Israel as a model system. Here, we suggest that the regional persistence of Phlebotomus papatasi populations and L. major transmission in the Sede Boqer region could be explained through processes akin to sink-source and/or mainland-island metapopulation dynamics. Given its potentially enzootically superior ecological conditions, we hypothesize that the Zin Valley ecotope constitutes the "mainland" or the "source" patch for the Sede Boqer area where L. major transmission is persistent and resistant to local extinctions (die-outs) whereas the local sand fly populations on the Zin Plateau ("island patch" or "sink patch") are more prone to local extinctions. Between 2007 and 2008, we trapped sand flies and sand rats in the two areas and compared sand fly abundance and L. major infection prevalence in both. In both 2007 and 2008, sand fly abundance was high and continuous in the Zin Wadi but low and discontinuous in the Zin Plateau. Infection prevalence of sand rats was significantly higher in the Wadi (13%) compared with the Zin Plateau (3%). Minimum infection rate in sand flies did not differ significantly between the two areas. Overall, our results are consistent with the premise that the Zin Valley population is relatively robust in terms of L. major transmission, whereas transmission is potentially more tenuous in the plateau. Understanding the biotic and abiotic processes enabling the persistence of L. major and other vector-borne diseases in peripheral disease foci is important for predicting the effect of anthropogenic land use and climate change.

  13. Characterization of secondary organic aerosol from photo-oxidation of gasoline exhaust and specific sources of major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pengkun; Zhang, Peng; Shu, Jinian; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Haixu

    2018-01-01

    To further explore the composition and distribution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) components from the photo-oxidation of light aromatic precursors (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB)) and idling gasoline exhaust, a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometer (VUV-PIMS) was employed. Peaks of the molecular ions of the SOA components with minimum molecular fragmentation were clearly observed from the mass spectra of SOA, through the application of soft ionization methods in VUV-PIMS. The experiments comparing the exhaust-SOA and light aromatic mixture-SOA showed that the observed distributions of almost all the predominant cluster ions in the exhaust-SOA were similar to that of the mixture-SOA. Based on the characterization experiments of SOA formed from individual light aromatic precursors, the SOA components with molecular weights of 98 and 110 amu observed in the exhaust-SOA resulted from the photo-oxidation of toluene and m-xylene; the components with a molecular weight of 124 amu were derived mainly from m-xylene; and the components with molecular weights of 100, 112, 128, 138, and 156 amu were mainly derived from 1,3,5-TMB. These results suggest that C 7 -C 9 light aromatic hydrocarbons are significant SOA precursors and that major SOA components originate from gasoline exhaust. Additionally, some new light aromatic hydrocarbon-SOA components were observed for the first time using VUV-PIMS. The corresponding reaction mechanisms were also proposed in this study to enrich the knowledge base of the formation mechanisms of light aromatic hydrocarbon-SOA compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Objectives and Design of BLEEDS: A Cohort Study to Identify New Risk Factors and Predictors for Major Bleeding during Treatment with Vitamin K Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rein, Nienke; Lijfering, Willem M; Bos, Mettine H A; Herruer, Martien H; Vermaas, Helga W; van der Meer, Felix J M; Reitsma, Pieter H

    2016-01-01

    Risk scores for patients who are at high risk for major bleeding complications during treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) do not perform that well. BLEEDS was initiated to search for new biomarkers that predict bleeding in these patients. To describe the outline and objectives of BLEEDS and to examine whether the study population is generalizable to other VKA treated populations. A cohort was created consisting of all patients starting VKA treatment at three Dutch anticoagulation clinics between January-2012 and July-2014. We stored leftover plasma and DNA following analysis of the INR. Of 16,706 eligible patients, 16,570 (99%) were included in BLEEDS and plasma was stored from 13,779 patients (83%). Patients had a mean age of 70 years (SD 14), 8713 were male (53%). The most common VKA indications were atrial fibrillation (10,876 patients, 66%) and venous thrombosis (3920 patients, 24%). 326 Major bleeds occurred during 17,613 years of follow-up (incidence rate 1.85/100 person years, 95%CI 1.66-2.06). The risk for major bleeding was highest in the initial three months of VKA treatment and increased when the international normalized ratio increased. These results and characteristics are in concordance with results from other VKA treated populations. BLEEDS is generalizable to other VKA treated populations and will permit innovative and unbiased research of biomarkers that may predict major bleeding during VKA treatment.

  15. Econometric Mediation Analyses: Identifying the Sources of Treatment Effects from Experimentally Estimated Production Technologies with Unmeasured and Mismeasured Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an econometric mediation analysis. It considers identification of production functions and the sources of output effects (treatment effects) from experimental interventions when some inputs are mismeasured and others are entirely omitted. JEL Code: D24, C21, C43, C38.

  16. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  17. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  18. LIQUID: an-open source software for identifying lipids in LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E.; Crowell, Kevin L.; Casey, Cameron P.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Kim, Sangtae; Dautel, Sydney E.; Smith, Richard D.; Payne, Samuel H.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2017-01-31

    We introduce an open-source software, LIQUID, for semi-automated processing and visualization of LC-MS/MS based lipidomics data. LIQUID provides users with the capability to process high throughput data and contains a customizable target library and scoring model per project needs. The graphical user interface provides visualization of multiple lines of spectral evidence for each lipid identification, allowing rapid examination of data for making confident identifications of lipid molecular species.

  19. Synoptic sampling and principal components analysis to identify sources of water and metals to an acid mine drainage stream

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Patrick; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Combining the synoptic mass balance approach with principal components analysis (PCA) can be an effective method for discretising the chemistry of inflows and source areas in watersheds where contamination is diffuse in nature and/or complicated by groundwater interactions. This paper presents a field-scale study in which synoptic sampling and PCA are employed in a mineralized watershed (Lion Creek, Colorado, USA) under low flow conditions to (i) quantify the impacts of mining activity on str...

  20. Using hydrogeology to identify the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in central Arizona: part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Arnold, L. Rick

    2012-01-01

    Montezuma Well is a natural spring located within a “sinkhole” in the desert environment of the Verde Valley in Central Arizona. It is managed by the National Park Service as part of Montezuma Castle National Monument. Because of increasing development of groundwater in the area, this research was undertaken to better understand the sources of groundwater to Montezuma Well. The use of well logs and geophysics provides details on the geology in the area around Montezuma Well. This includes characterizing the extent and position of a basalt dike that intruded a deep fracture zone. This low permeability barrier forces groundwater to the surface at the Montezuma Well “pool” with sufficient velocity to entrain sand-sized particles from underlying bedrock. Permeable fractures along and above the basalt dike provide conduits that carry deep sourced carbon dioxide to the surface, which can dissolve carbonate minerals along the transport path in response to the added carbon dioxide. At the ground surface, CO2 degasses, depositing travertine. Geologic cross sections, rock geochemistry, and semi-quantitative groundwater flow modeling provide a hydrogeologic framework that indicates groundwater flow through a karstic limestone at depth (Redwall Limestone) as the most significant source of groundwater to Montezuma Well. Additional groundwater flow from the overlying formations (Verde Formation and Permian Sandstones) is a possibility, but significant flow from these units is not indicated.

  1. Identifying sources of acidity and spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils in the Anglesea River catchment, southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vanessa; Yau, Chin; Kennedy, David

    2015-04-01

    Globally, coastal and estuarine floodplains are frequently underlain by sulfidic sediments. When exposed to oxygen, sulfidic sediments oxidise to form acid sulfate soils, adversely impacting on floodplain health and adjacent aquatic ecoystems. In eastern Australia, our understanding of the formation of these coastal and estuarine floodplains, and hence, spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils, is relatively well established. These soils have largely formed as a result of sedimentation of coastal river valleys approximately 6000 years BP when sea levels were one to two metres higher. However, our understanding of the evolution of estuarine systems and acid sulfate soil formation, and hence, distribution, in southern Australia remains limited. The Anglesea River, in southern Australia, is subjected to frequent episodes of poor water quality and low pH resulting in closure of the river and, in extreme cases, large fish kill events. This region is heavily reliant on tourism and host to a number of iconic features, including the Great Ocean Road and Twelve Apostles. Poor water quality has been linked to acid leakage from mining activities and Tertiary-aged coal seams, peat swamps and acid sulfate soils in the region. However, our understanding of the sources of acidity and distribution of acid sulfate soils in this region remains poor. In this study, four sites on the Anglesea River floodplain were sampled, representative of the main vegetation communities. Peat swamps and intertidal marshes were both significant sources of acidity on the floodplain in the lower catchment. However, acid neutralising capacity provided by carbonate sands suggests that there are additional sources of acidity higher in the catchment. This pilot study has highlighted the complexity in the links between the floodplain, upper catchment and waterways with further research required to understand these links for targeted acid management strategies.

  2. Identifying effective components of alcohol abuse prevention programs: effects of fear appeals, message style, and source expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainback, R D; Rogers, R W

    1983-04-01

    Despite the importance of alcohol abuse prevention programs, the effectiveness of many components of these programs has not been demonstrated empirically. An experiment tested the efficacy of three components of many prevention programs: fear appeals, one- versus two-sided message style, and the expertise of the source. The persuasive impact of this information was examined on 113 ninth-grade students' intentions to abstain from drinking alcohol while they are teenagers. The results reveal that fear appeals are successful in strengthening students' intentions to refrain from drinking. Implications are discussed for implementing these principles and for designing future investigations of alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  3. Using geochemistry to identify the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in Central Arizona, USA: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; DeWitt, Ed; Wirt, Laurie; Manning, Andrew H.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Montezuma Well is a unique natural spring located in a sinkhole surrounded by travertine. Montezuma Well is managed by the National Park Service, and groundwater development in the area is a potential threat to the water source for Montezuma Well. This research was undertaken to better understand the sources of groundwater to Montezuma Well. Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) indicate that groundwater in the recharge area has flowed through surficial basalts with subsequent contact with the underlying Permian aged sandstones and the deeper, karstic, Mississippian Redwall Limestone. The distinctive geochemistry in Montezuma Well and nearby Soda Springs (higher concentrations of alkalinity, As, B, Cl, and Li) is coincident with added carbon dioxide and mantle-sourced He. The geochemistry and isotopic data from Montezuma Well and Soda Springs allow for the separation of groundwater samples into four categories: (1) upgradient, (2) deep groundwater with carbon dioxide, (3) shallow Verde Formation, and (4) mixing zone. δ18O and δD values, along with noble gas recharge elevation data, indicate that the higher elevation areas to the north and east of Montezuma Well are the groundwater recharge zones for Montezuma Well and most of the groundwater in this portion of the Verde Valley. Adjusted groundwater age dating using likely 14C and δ13C sources indicate an age for Montezuma Well and Soda Springs groundwaters at 5,400–13,300 years, while shallow groundwater in the Verde Formation appears to be older (18,900). Based on water chemistry and isotopic evidence, groundwater flow to Montezuma Well is consistent with a hydrogeologic framework that indicates groundwater flow by (1) recharge in higher elevation basalts to the north and east of Montezuma Well, (2) movement through the upgradient Permian and Mississippian units, especially the Redwall Limestone, and (3) contact with a basalt dike/fracture system that provides a mechanism for groundwater to flow to the surface

  4. 41 CFR 102-2.125 - What source of information can my agency use to identify materials that describe how to do...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What source of information can my agency use to identify materials that describe how to do business with GSA? 102-2.125 Section 102-2.125 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  5. Sex differences in the prediction of the effectiveness of paroxetine for patients with major depressive disorder identified using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for early response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Norio, Yasui-Furukori; Sato, Yasushi; Nakagami, Taku; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Kaneda, Ayako; Kaneko, Sunao

    2014-01-01

    We investigated cutoff values for the early response of patients with major depressive disorder to paroxetine and their sex differences by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to predict the effectiveness of paroxetine. In total, 120 patients with major depressive disorder were enrolled and treated with 10-40 mg/day paroxetine for 6 weeks; 89 patients completed the protocol. A clinical evaluation using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was performed at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6. In male subjects, the cutoff values for MADRS improvement rating in week 1, week 2, and week 4 were 20.9%, 34.9%, and 33.3%, respectively. The sensitivities and the specificities were 83.3% and 80.0%, 83.3% and 80.0%, and 100% and 90%, respectively. The areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.908, 0.821, and 0.979, respectively. In female subjects, the cutoff values for the MADRS improvement rating in week 1, week 2, and week 4 were 21.4%, 35.7%, and 32.3%, respectively. The sensitivities and the specificities were 71.4% and 84.6%, 73.8% and 76.9%, and 90.5% and 76.9%, respectively. The AUCs were 0.781, 0.735, and 0.904, respectively. Early improvement with paroxetine may predict the long-term response. The accuracy of the prediction for the response is higher in male subjects.

  6. Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Analysis Identifies Major Gene Loci for Guttural Pouch Tympany in Arabian and German Warmblood Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16–26 Mb and 34–55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64–65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT. PMID:22848553

  7. Higher 5-HT1A autoreceptor binding as an endophenotype for major depressive disorder identified in high risk offspring - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milak, Matthew S; Pantazatos, Spiro; Rashid, Rain; Zanderigo, Francesca; DeLorenzo, Christine; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ogden, R Todd; Oquendo, Maria A; Mulhern, Stephanie T; Miller, Jeffrey M; Burke, Ainsley K; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John

    2018-04-13

    Higher serotonin-1A (5-HT 1A ) receptor binding potential (BP F ) has been found in major depressive disorder (MDD) during and between major depressive episodes. We investigated whether higher 5-HT 1A binding is a biologic trait transmitted to healthy high risk (HR) offspring of MDD probands. Data were collected contemporaneously from: nine HR, 30 depressed not-recently medicated (NRM) MDD, 18 remitted NRM MDD, 51 healthy volunteer (HV) subjects. Subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) using [ 11 C]WAY100635 to quantify 5-HT 1A BP F , estimated using metabolite, free fraction-corrected arterial input function and cerebellar white matter as reference region. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) of PET data evaluated group status classification of individuals. When tested across 13 regions of interest, an effect of diagnosis is found on BP F which remains significant after correction for sex, age, injected mass and dose: HR have higher BP F than HV (84.3% higher in midbrain raphe, 40.8% higher in hippocampus, mean BP F across all 13 brain regions is 49.9% ± 11.8% higher). Voxel-level BP F maps distinguish HR vs. HV. Elevated 5-HT 1A BP F appears to be a familially transmitted trait abnormality. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding in a larger cohort and demonstrate the link to the familial transmission of mood disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identifying the source of farmed escaped Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Bayesian clustering analysis increases accuracy of assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, Kevin A.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Skaala, Oystein

    2009-01-01

    44 cages located on 26 farms in the Hardangerfjord, western Norway. This fjord represents one of the major salmon farming areas in Norway, with a production of 57,000 t in 2007. Based upon genetic data from 17 microsatellite markers, significant but highly variable differentiation was observed among....... Accuracy of assignment varied greatly among the individual samples. For the Bayesian clustered data set consisting of five genetic groups, overall accuracy of self-assignment was 99%, demonstrating the effectiveness of this strategy to significantly increase accuracy of assignment, albeit at the expense...

  9. Using trace element concentrations in Corbicula fluminea to identify potential sources of contamination in an urban river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler Peltier, Gretchen; Meyer, Judith L.; Jagoe, Charles H.; Hopkins, William A.

    2008-01-01

    We used the biomonitor, Corbicula fluminea, to investigate the contributions of trace elements associated with different point sources and land uses in a large river. Trace elements were analyzed in tissues of clams collected from 15 tributary streams draining five land use or point source types: agriculture, forest, urban, coal-fired power plant (CFPP), and wastewater (WWTP). Clams from forested catchments had elevated Hg concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic and selenium were highest (5.0 ± 0.2 and 13.6 ± 0.9 μg g -1 dry mass (DM), respectively) in clams from CFPP sites. Cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in clams from urban and CFPP sites (4.1 ± 0.2 and 3.6 ± 0.9 μg g -1 DM, respectively). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) of tissue concentrations in clams clustered at CFPP and forest/agriculture sites at opposite ends of the ordination space, and the distribution of sites was driven by Cu, Zn, Cd, and Hg. - C. fluminea collected downstream of CFPPs had elevated tissue concentrations of trace elements

  10. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overview of major hazards. Part 2: Source term; dispersion; combustion; blast, missiles, venting; fire; radiation; runaway reactions; toxic substances; dust explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, J.

    Approaches to major hazard assessment and prediction are reviewed. Source term: (phenomenology/modeling of release, influence on early stages of dispersion); dispersion (atmospheric advection, diffusion and deposition, emphasis on dense/cold gases); combustion (flammable clouds and mists covering flash fires, deflagration, transition to detonation; mostly unconfined/partly confined situations); blast formation, propagation, interaction with structures; catastrophic fires (pool fires, torches and fireballs; highly reactive substances) runaway reactions; features of more general interest; toxic substances, excluding toxicology; and dust explosions (phenomenology and protective measures) are discussed.

  12. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. Results: We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. Availability and implementation: The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. Contact: sarala@ebi.ac.uk PMID:25638809

  13. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-06-01

    On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Sources of Research on Ranganathan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Mohinder Partap

    1987-01-01

    Identifies and describes major sources of information on the life and work of Ranganathan, the leader of the Indian library movement and a major contributor to the fields of library and information science. (CLB)

  15. Source-identifying biomarker ions between environmental and clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei using whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyompanich, Suthamat; Jaresitthikunchai, Janthima; Srisanga, Kitima; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, which is an endemic disease in Northeast Thailand and Northern Australia. Environmental reservoirs, including wet soils and muddy water, serve as the major sources for contributing bacterial infection to both humans and animals. The whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been applied as a rapid, accurate, and high-throughput tool for clinical diagnosis and microbiological research. In this present study, we employed a whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS approach for assessing its potency in clustering a total of 11 different B. pseudomallei isolates (consisting of 5 environmental and 6 clinical isolates) with respect to their origins and to further investigate the source-identifying biomarker ions belonging to each bacterial group. The cluster analysis demonstrated that six out of eleven isolates were grouped correctly to their sources. Our results revealed a total of ten source-identifying biomarker ions, which exhibited statistically significant differences in peak intensity between average environmental and clinical mass spectra using ClinProTools software. Six out of ten mass ions were assigned as environmental-identifying biomarker ions (EIBIs), including, m/z 4,056, 4,214, 5,814, 7,545, 7,895, and 8,112, whereas the remaining four mass ions were defined as clinical-identifying biomarker ions (CIBIs) consisting of m/z 3,658, 6,322, 7,035, and 7,984. Hence, our findings represented, for the first time, the source-specific biomarkers of environmental and clinical B. pseudomallei.

  16. Using Remote Sensing to Identify Changes in Land Use and Sources of Fecal Bacteria to Support a Watershed Transport Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Butler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of shellfish harvesting areas by fecal bacteria in the Annapolis Basin of Nova Scotia, Canada, is a recurring problem which has consequences for industry, government, and local communities. This study contributes to the development of an integrated water quality forecasting system to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of industry management. The proposed integrated forecasting framework is composed of a database containing contamination sources, hydrodynamics of the Annapolis Basin, Escherichia coli (E. coli loadings and watershed hydrology scenarios, coupled with environmental conditions of the region (e.g., temperature, precipitation, evaporation, and ultraviolet light. For integration into this framework, this study presents a viable methodology for assessing the contribution of fecal bacteria originating from a watershed. The proposed methodology investigated the application of high resolution remote sensing, coupled with the commercially available product, MIKE 11, to monitor watershed land use and its impact on water quality. Remote sensing proved to be an extremely useful tool in the identification of sources of fecal bacteria contamination, as well as the detection of land use change over time. Validation of the MIKE 11 model produced very good agreement (R2 = 0.88, E = 0.85 between predicted and observed river flows, while model calibration of E. coli concentrations showed fair agreement (R2 = 0.51 and E = 0.38 between predicted and observed values. A proper evaluation of the MIKE 11 model was constrained due to limited water sampling. However, the model was very effective in predicting times of high contamination for use in the integrated forecasting framework, especially during substantial precipitation events.

  17. An abbreviated MLVA identifies Escherichia coli ST131 as the major extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing lineage in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Albayati, A; Jørgensen, Rikke Lind

    2013-01-01

    with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for typing cefpodoxime-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Further, we identified the causative resistance mechanisms and epidemiological type of infection for isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). A collection of E. coli resistant to cefpodoxime...... community-onset infections (COI), regardless of the ST. Patients with COI were significantly more often of female gender and younger age compared to healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) and hospital-onset infections (HOI). In conclusion, the modified MLVA is a useful tool for the rapid typing of E. coli...

  18. Integrated network analysis identifies fight-club nodes as a class of hubs encompassing key putative switch genes that induce major transcriptome reprogramming during grapevine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-12-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named "fight-club hubs" characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named "switch genes" was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Crowd-sourced Ontology for Photoleukocoria: Identifying Common Internet Search Terms for a Potentially Important Pediatric Ophthalmic Sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffieri, Sandra E; Kearns, Lisa S; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W

    2018-02-01

    Leukocoria is the most common presenting sign for pediatric eye disease including retinoblastoma and cataract, with worse outcomes if diagnosis is delayed. We investigated whether individuals could identify leukocoria in photographs (photoleukocoria) and examined their subsequent Internet search behavior. Using a web-based questionnaire, in this cross-sectional study we invited adults aged over 18 years to view two photographs of a child with photoleukocoria, and then search the Internet to determine a possible diagnosis and action plan. The most commonly used search terms and websites accessed were recorded. The questionnaire was completed by 1639 individuals. Facebook advertisement was the most effective recruitment strategy. The mean age of all respondents was 38.95 ± 14.59 years (range, 18-83), 94% were female, and 59.3% had children. An abnormality in the images presented was identified by 1613 (98.4%) participants. The most commonly used search terms were: "white," "pupil," "photo," and "eye" reaching a variety of appropriate websites or links to print or social media articles. Different words or phrases were used to describe the same observation of photoleukocoria leading to a range of websites. Variations in the description of observed signs and search words influenced the sites reached, information obtained, and subsequent help-seeking intentions. Identifying the most commonly used search terms for photoleukocoria is an important step for search engine optimization. Being directed to the most appropriate websites informing of the significance of photoleukocoria and the appropriate actions to take could improve delays in diagnosis of important pediatric eye disease such as retinoblastoma or cataract.

  20. Identifying advanced glycation end products as a major source of oxidants in aging: implications for the management and/or prevention of reduced renal function in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassara, Helen; Uribarri, Jaime; Ferrucci, Luigi; Cai, Weijing; Torreggiani, Massimo; Post, James B; Zheng, Feng; Striker, Gary E

    2009-11-01

    Aging is characterized by increasing inflammation and oxidant stress (OS). Reduced renal function was present in more than 20% of normal-aged individuals sampled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional study of the US population. Longitudinal studies in the United States and Italy showed that renal function does not decline in some individuals, suggesting that a search for causes of the loss of renal function in some persons might be indicated and interventions to reduce this outcome should be sought. Because advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induce both inflammation and OS, accumulate with age, and primarily are excreted by the kidney, one outcome of reduced renal function in aging could be decreased AGE disposal. The build-up of AGEs with reduced renal function could contribute to inflammation, increased oxidant stress, and accumulation of AGEs in aging. In fact, results from a longitudinal study of normal aging adults in Italy showed that the most significant correlation with mortality was the level of renal function. A clear link between inflammation, OS, AGEs, and chronic disease was shown in studies of mice that showed that reduction of AGE levels by drugs or decreased intake of AGEs reduces chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease of aging. The data support a role for AGEs in the development of renal lesions in aging mice and reveal that AGEs in the diet are very important contributors to renal and cardiovascular lesions. AGEs signal through two receptors, one of which is anti-inflammatory (AGER1) and the other is proinflammatory (RAGE). Overexpression of AGER1 protects against OS and acute vascular injury. The reduction of AGEs in the diet is as efficient in preventing aging-related cardiovascular and renal lesions in mice as that seen with calorie restriction. Studies in normal adults of all ages and those with CKD suggest that the findings in mice may be directly applicable to both aging and CKD. Namely, the dietary content of AGEs determines the serum levels of AGEs and inflammatory mediators and urine AGE levels in both normal subjects and CKD patients. Importantly, reduction of AGEs controls these changes in both normal subjects and CKD patients, and the phenotypic changes in AGER1 are reduced in CKD patients by decreasing the amount of AGEs consumed with the diet. These data suggest that the changes in renal function in normal aging may be subject to control and this subject deserves renewed attention.

  1. Identifying latent profiles of posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms in Canadian veterans: Exploring differences across profiles in health related functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Contractor, Ateka; Elhai, Jon D; Stringer, Maurice; Lyle, Gary; Forbes, David; Richardson, J Don

    2015-07-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently reported as being highly comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD) and as being associated with health related functional impairment (HRF). We used archival data from 283 previously war-zone deployed Canadian veterans. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to uncover patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity as measured via the PTSD Checklist-Military version (PCL-M) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Individual membership of latent classes was used in a series of one-way ANOVAs to ascertain group differences related to HRF as measured via the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). LPA resulted in three discrete patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity which were characterized by high symptoms of PTSD and MDD, moderate symptoms, and low symptoms. All ANOVAs comparing class membership on the SF-36 subscales were statistically significant demonstrating group differences across levels of HRF. The group with the highest symptoms reported the worst HRF followed by the medium and low symptom groups. These findings are clinically relevant as they demonstrate the need for continual assessment and targeted treatment of co-occurring PTSD and MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Symptoms of major depressive disorder subsequent to child maltreatment: Examining change across multiple levels of analysis to identify transdiagnostic risk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Griffin, Amanda M; O'Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: neuroendocrine, autonomic, affective, and emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N = 110; age range = 14-19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed 18 months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed.

  3. Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder Subsequent to Child Maltreatment: Examining Change across Multiple Levels of Analysis to Identify Transdiagnostic Risk Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Griffin, Amanda M.; O’Donnell, Kieran J.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: 1) neuroendocrine, 2) autonomic, 3) affective, and 4) emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N=110; Age range: 14–19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed eighteen months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed. PMID:26535940

  4. Identifying source populations for the reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber L. 1758, into Britain: evidence from ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Melissa M; Brace, Selina; Schreve, Danielle C; Barnes, Ian

    2018-02-09

    Establishing true phylogenetic relationships between populations is a critical consideration when sourcing individuals for translocation. This presents huge difficulties with threatened and endangered species that have become extirpated from large areas of their former range. We utilise ancient DNA (aDNA) to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of a keystone species which has become extinct in Britain, the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber. We sequenced seventeen 492 bp partial tRNAPro and control region sequences from Late Pleistocene and Holocene age beavers and included these in network, demographic and genealogy analyses. The mode of postglacial population expansion from refugia was investigated by employing tests of neutrality and a pairwise mismatch distribution analysis. We found evidence of a pre-Late Glacial Maximum ancestor for the Western C. fiber clade which experienced a rapid demographic expansion during the terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene period. Ancient British beavers were found to originate from the Western phylogroup but showed no phylogenetic affinity to any one modern relict population over another. Instead, we find that they formed part of a large, continuous, pan-Western European clade that harbored little internal substructure. Our study highlights the utility of aDNA in reconstructing population histories of extirpated species which has real-world implications for conservation planning.

  5. A Space Experiment to Measure the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Demonstrate a Technique to Identify Sources of Silicone Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Baney-Barton, Elyse; Sechkar, Edward A.; Hunt, Patricia K.; Willoughby, Alan; Bemer, Meagan; Hope, Stephanie; Koo, Julie; Kaminski, Carolyn; hide

    1999-01-01

    A low Earth orbital space experiment entitled, "Polymers Erosion And Contamination Experiment", (PEACE) has been designed as a Get-Away Special (GAS Can) experiment to be accommodated as a Shuttle in-bay environmental exposure experiment. The first objective is to measure the atomic oxygen erosion yields of approximately 40 different polymeric materials by mass loss and erosion measurements using atomic force microscopy. The second objective is to evaluate the capability of identifying sources of silicone contamination through the use of a pin-hole contamination camera which utilizes environmental atomic oxygen to produce a contaminant source image on an optical substrate.

  6. Exome sequencing identifies DYNC2H1 mutations as a common cause of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Jeune syndrome) without major polydactyly, renal or retinal involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidts, Miriam; Arts, Heleen H; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Yap, Zhimin; Oud, Machteld M; Antony, Dinu; Duijkers, Lonneke; Emes, Richard D; Stalker, Jim; Yntema, Jan-Bart L; Plagnol, Vincent; Hoischen, Alexander; Gilissen, Christian; Forsythe, Elisabeth; Lausch, Ekkehart; Veltman, Joris A; Roeleveld, Nel; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Kutkowska-Kazmierczak, Anna; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Elçioğlu, Nursel; van Maarle, Merel C; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M; Devriendt, Koenraad; Smithson, Sarah F; Wellesley, Diana; Verbeek, Nienke E; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Kayserili, Hulya; Scambler, Peter J; Beales, Philip L; Knoers, Nine VAM; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M

    2013-01-01

    Background Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) is a rare, often lethal, recessively inherited chondrodysplasia characterised by shortened ribs and long bones, sometimes accompanied by polydactyly, and renal, liver and retinal disease. Mutations in intraflagellar transport (IFT) genes cause JATD, including the IFT dynein-2 motor subunit gene DYNC2H1. Genetic heterogeneity and the large DYNC2H1 gene size have hindered JATD genetic diagnosis. Aims and methods To determine the contribution to JATD we screened DYNC2H1 in 71 JATD patients JATD patients combining SNP mapping, Sanger sequencing and exome sequencing. Results and conclusions We detected 34 DYNC2H1 mutations in 29/71 (41%) patients from 19/57 families (33%), showing it as a major cause of JATD especially in Northern European patients. This included 13 early protein termination mutations (nonsense/frameshift, deletion, splice site) but no patients carried these in combination, suggesting the human phenotype is at least partly hypomorphic. In addition, 21 missense mutations were distributed across DYNC2H1 and these showed some clustering to functional domains, especially the ATP motor domain. DYNC2H1 patients largely lacked significant extra-skeletal involvement, demonstrating an important genotype–phenotype correlation in JATD. Significant variability exists in the course and severity of the thoracic phenotype, both between affected siblings with identical DYNC2H1 alleles and among individuals with different alleles, which suggests the DYNC2H1 phenotype might be subject to modifier alleles, non-genetic or epigenetic factors. Assessment of fibroblasts from patients showed accumulation of anterograde IFT proteins in the ciliary tips, confirming defects similar to patients with other retrograde IFT machinery mutations, which may be of undervalued potential for diagnostic purposes. PMID:23456818

  7. Identifying sources of children's consumption of junk food in Boston after-school programs, April-May 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Austin, S Bryn; Cradock, Angie L; Giles, Catherine M; Lee, Rebekka M; Davison, Kirsten K; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2014-11-20

    Little is known about how the nutrition environment in after-school settings may affect children's dietary intake. We measured the nutritional quality of after-school snacks provided by programs participating in the National School Lunch Program or the Child and Adult Care Food Program and compared them with snacks brought from home or purchased elsewhere (nonprogram snacks). We quantified the effect of nonprogram snacks on the dietary intake of children who also received program-provided snacks during after-school time. Our study objective was to determine how different sources of snacks affect children's snack consumption in after-school settings. We recorded snacks served to and brought in by 298 children in 18 after-school programs in Boston, Massachusetts, on 5 program days in April and May 2011. We measured children's snack consumption on 2 program days using a validated observation protocol. We then calculated within-child change-in-change models to estimate the effect of nonprogram snacks on children's dietary intake after school. Nonprogram snacks contained more sugary beverages and candy than program-provided snacks. Having a nonprogram snack was associated with significantly higher consumption of total calories (+114.7 kcal, P < .001), sugar-sweetened beverages (+0.5 oz, P = .01), desserts (+0.3 servings, P < .001), and foods with added sugars (+0.5 servings; P < .001) during the snack period. On days when children brought their own after-school snack, they consumed more salty and sugary foods and nearly twice as many calories than on days when they consumed only program-provided snacks. Policy strategies limiting nonprogram snacks or setting nutritional standards for them in after-school settings should be explored further as a way to promote child health.

  8. Identifying Sources of Children’s Consumption of Junk Food in Boston After-School Programs, April–May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. Bryn; Cradock, Angie L.; Giles, Catherine M.; Lee, Rebekka M.; Davison, Kirsten K.; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about how the nutrition environment in after-school settings may affect children’s dietary intake. We measured the nutritional quality of after-school snacks provided by programs participating in the National School Lunch Program or the Child and Adult Care Food Program and compared them with snacks brought from home or purchased elsewhere (nonprogram snacks). We quantified the effect of nonprogram snacks on the dietary intake of children who also received program-provided snacks during after-school time. Our study objective was to determine how different sources of snacks affect children’s snack consumption in after-school settings. Methods We recorded snacks served to and brought in by 298 children in 18 after-school programs in Boston, Massachusetts, on 5 program days in April and May 2011. We measured children’s snack consumption on 2 program days using a validated observation protocol. We then calculated within-child change-in-change models to estimate the effect of nonprogram snacks on children’s dietary intake after school. Results Nonprogram snacks contained more sugary beverages and candy than program-provided snacks. Having a nonprogram snack was associated with significantly higher consumption of total calories (+114.7 kcal, P snack period. Conclusion On days when children brought their own after-school snack, they consumed more salty and sugary foods and nearly twice as many calories than on days when they consumed only program-provided snacks. Policy strategies limiting nonprogram snacks or setting nutritional standards for them in after-school settings should be explored further as a way to promote child health. PMID:25412028

  9. Potential sources of Triatoma infestans reinfesting peridomiciles identified by morphological characterization in Los Llanos, La Rioja, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Hernández

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Triatoma infestans in habitats treated with insecticides constitutes a frequent problem in endemic areas. Basing our study on the hypothesis that descendants of a residual population should be more similar to the pre-treatment population than to any other, we compared the indications of two quantitative morphological approaches. This study seeks to find the origin of 247 T. infestans from three populations found in two chicken coops and a goat corral after treatment with insecticides. The results obtained by quantitative morphology suggest that the T. infestans found between three-34 months after the application of insecticides formed mixed populations with insects derived from residual foci and neighbouring habitats. Our analyses also showed the presence of a phenotype which does not resemble neither the pre-treatment phenotype nor the one from neighbouring populations, suggesting the presence of a particular post-treatment phenotype. The heads size showed some variations in males from different populations and remained unchanged in females, which reinforces the hypothesis of an intraspecific competition for food with priority for females. This article presents, for the first time, the combined analysis of geometric morphometry of heads and antennal phenotypes to identify the composition of reinfesting populations.

  10. Identifying sources, pathways and risk drivers in ecosystems of Japanese Encephalitis in an epidemic-prone north Indian district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kakkar

    Full Text Available Japanese Encephalitis (JE has caused repeated outbreaks in endemic pockets of India. This study was conducted in Kushinagar, a highly endemic district, to understand the human-animal-ecosystem interactions, and the drivers that influence disease transmission. Utilizing the ecosystems approach, a cross-sectional, descriptive study, employing mixed methods design was employed. Four villages (two with pig-rearing and two without were randomly selected from a high, a medium and a low burden (based on case counts block of Kushinagar. Children, pigs and vectors were sampled from these villages. A qualitative arm was incorporated to explain the findings from the quantitative surveys. All human serum samples were screened for JE-specific IgM using MAC ELISA and negative samples for JE RNA by rRT-PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In pigs, IgG ELISA and rRT-PCR for viral RNA were used. Of the 242 children tested, 24 tested positive by either rRT-PCR or MAC ELISA; in pigs, 38 out of the 51 pigs were positive. Of the known vectors, Culex vishnui was most commonly isolated across all biotopes. Analysis of 15 blood meals revealed human blood in 10 samples. Univariable analysis showed that gender, religion, lack of indoor residual spraying of insecticides in the past year, indoor vector density (all species, and not being vaccinated against JE in children were significantly associated with JE positivity. In multivariate analysis, only male gender remained as a significant risk factor. Based on previous estimates of symptomatic: asymptomatic cases of JE, we estimate that there should have been 618 cases from Kushinagar, although only 139 were reported. Vaccination of children and vector control measures emerged as major control activities; they had very poor coverage in the studied villages. In addition, lack of awareness about the cause of JE, lack of faith in the conventional medical healthcare system and multiple referral levels causing delay in

  11. Disentangling the major source areas for an intense aerosol advection in the Central Mediterranean on the basis of Potential Source Contribution Function modeling of chemical and size distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Chiara; Crocchianti, Stefano; Moroni, Beatrice; Castellini, Silvia; Selvaggi, Roberta; Nava, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Lucarelli, Franco; Cappelletti, David

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we combined a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis of daily chemical aerosol composition data with hourly aerosol size distributions with the aim to disentangle the major source areas during a complex and fast modulating advection event impacting on Central Italy in 2013. Chemical data include an ample set of metals obtained by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), main soluble ions from ionic chromatography and elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) obtained by thermo-optical measurements. Size distributions have been recorded with an optical particle counter for eight calibrated size classes in the 0.27-10 μm range. We demonstrated the usefulness of the approach by the positive identification of two very different source areas impacting during the transport event. In particular, biomass burning from Eastern Europe and desert dust from Sahara sources have been discriminated based on both chemistry and size distribution time evolution. Hourly BT provided the best results in comparison to 6 h or 24 h based calculations.

  12. Using delta15N- and delta18O-values to identify nitrate sources in karst ground water, Guiyang, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong-Qiang; Li, Si-Liang; Lang, Yun-Chao; Xiao, Hua-Yun

    2006-11-15

    Nitrate pollution of the karstic groundwater is an increasingly serious problem with the development of Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou Province, southwest China. The higher content of NO3- in groundwater compared to surface water during both summer and winter seasons indicates that the karstic groundwater system cannot easily recover once contaminated with nitrate. In order to assess the sources and conversion of nitrate in the groundwater of Guiyang, we analyzed the major ions, delta(15)N-NH4+, delta(15)N-NO3-, and delta(18)O-NO3- in surface and groundwater samples collected during both summer and winter seasons. The results show that nitrate is the major dominant species of nitrogen in most water samples and there is a big variation of nitrate sources in groundwater between winter and summer season, due to fast response of groundwater to rain or surface water in the karst area. Combined with information on NO3- /Cl-, the variations of the isotope values of nitrate in the groundwater show a mixing process of multiple sources of nitrate, especially in the summer season. Chemical fertilizer and nitrification of nitrogen-containing organic materials contribute nitrate to suburban groundwater, while the sewage effluents and denitrification mainly control the nitrate distribution in urban groundwater.

  13. Integration of Remote Sensing and other public GIS data source to identify suitable zones for groundwater exploitation by manual drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussi, Fabio; Fava, Francesco; Di Mauro, Biagio; Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia; DI Leo, Margherita; Hamidou Kane, Cheik; Faye, Gayane; Niang, Magatte; Wade, Souleye; Hamidou, Barry; Colombo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    In several countries of the world the situation of water supply is still critical, far from the international target defined by United Nations for 2015 (Millenium Development Goals) and producing a huge impact on health and living condition of the population. Manual drilling (it means techniques to drill boreholes for water using human or animal power) is well known and practiced for centuries in many countries. In recent years, it has been considered a potential strategy to increase water access in poor countries and has raised the attention of national governments and international organizations. Manual drilling is applicable only where hydrogeological context is suitable, according to the following conditions: thick layers of unconsolidated sediments and shallow water table. Mapping of zones with suitable hydrogeological context has been carried out in several countries in Africa, but the results have evident limitations; previous methods are based on existing direct data and qualitative experience, leading to unreliable interpretation when direct data are limited. This research aims to develop a methodology to estimate shallow hydrogeological features and asses the distribution of suitable zones for manual drilling through the integration of indirect information obtained from remote sensing and other existing source of data. The research is carried out in two different study areas, in Senegal and Guinea (Western Africa), with semi-arid climate, moderate vegetation cover, unconsolidated sandy and clay deposits overlaying sedimentary and igneous rocks A set of variables have been obtained through processing of three categories of data, listed below: - geology, geomorphology, soil and land cover, obtained from existing thematic maps; - vegetation phenology, apparent thermal inertia, and soil moisture, obtained from analysis of multitemporal optical (MOD13Q1), thermal (MOD11A1), and radar (ASAR) remotely sensed data: -morphometric parameters, obtained from public

  14. A modification of the Regional Nutrient Management model (ReNuMa) to identify long-term changes in riverine nitrogen sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Minpeng; Liu, Yanmei; Wang, Jiahui; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Chen, Dingjiang

    2018-06-01

    Source apportionment is critical for guiding development of efficient watershed nitrogen (N) pollution control measures. The ReNuMa (Regional Nutrient Management) model, a semi-empirical, semi-process-oriented model with modest data requirements, has been widely used for riverine N source apportionment. However, the ReNuMa model contains limitations for addressing long-term N dynamics by ignoring temporal changes in atmospheric N deposition rates and N-leaching lag effects. This work modified the ReNuMa model by revising the source code to allow yearly changes in atmospheric N deposition and incorporation of N-leaching lag effects into N transport processes. The appropriate N-leaching lag time was determined from cross-correlation analysis between annual watershed individual N source inputs and riverine N export. Accuracy of the modified ReNuMa model was demonstrated through analysis of a 31-year water quality record (1980-2010) from the Yongan watershed in eastern China. The revisions considerably improved the accuracy (Nash-Sutcliff coefficient increased by ∼0.2) of the modified ReNuMa model for predicting riverine N loads. The modified model explicitly identified annual and seasonal changes in contributions of various N sources (i.e., point vs. nonpoint source, surface runoff vs. groundwater) to riverine N loads as well as the fate of watershed anthropogenic N inputs. Model results were consistent with previously modeled or observed lag time length as well as changes in riverine chloride and nitrate concentrations during the low-flow regime and available N levels in agricultural soils of this watershed. The modified ReNuMa model is applicable for addressing long-term changes in riverine N sources, providing decision-makers with critical information for guiding watershed N pollution control strategies.

  15. Identifying the source of fluvial terrace deposits using XRF scanning and Canonical Discriminant Analysis: A case study of the Chihshang terraces, eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Queenie; Lee, Jian-Cheng; Hunag, Jyh-Jaan; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Chen, Yue-Gau; Byrne, Timothy B.

    2018-05-01

    The source of fluvial deposits in terraces provides important information about the catchment fluvial processes and landform evolution. In this study, we propose a novel approach that combines high-resolution Itrax-XRF scanning and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) to identify the source of fine-grained fluvial terrace deposits. We apply this approach to a group of terraces that are located on the hanging wall of the Chihshang Fault in eastern Taiwan with two possible sources, the Coastal Range on the east and the Central Range on the west. Our results of standard samples from the two potential sources show distinct ranges of canonical variables, which provided a better separation ability than individual chemical elements. We then tested the possibility of using this approach by applying it to several samples with known sediment sources and obtain positive results. Applying this same approach to the fine-grained sediments in Chihshang terraces indicates that they are mostly composed of Coastal Range material but also contain some inputs from the Central Range. In two lowest terraces T1 and T2, the fine-grained deposits show significant Central Range component. For terrace T4, the results show less Central Range input and a trend of decreasing Central Range influences up section. The Coastal Range material becomes dominant in the two highest terraces T7 and T10. Sediments in terrace T5 appear to have been potentially altered by post-deposition chemical alteration processes and are not included in the analysis. Our results show that the change in source material in the terraces deposits was relatively gradual rather than the sharp changes suggested by the composition of the gravels and conglomerates. We suggest that this change in sources is related to the change in dominant fluvial processes that controlled by the tectonic activity.

  16. On the methane paradox: Transport from shallow water zones rather than in situ methanogenesis is the major source of CH4 in the open surface water of lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas Fernández, Jorge; Peeters, Frank; Hofmann, Hilmar

    2016-10-01

    Estimates of global methane (CH4) emissions from lakes and the contributions of different pathways are currently under debate. In situ methanogenesis linked to algae growth was recently suggested to be the major source of CH4 fluxes from aquatic systems. However, based on our very large data set on CH4 distributions within lakes, we demonstrate here that methane-enriched water from shallow water zones is the most likely source of the basin-wide mean CH4 concentrations in the surface water of lakes. Consistently, the mean surface CH4 concentrations are significantly correlated with the ratio between the surface area of the shallow water zone and the entire lake, fA,s/t, but not with the total surface area. The categorization of CH4 fluxes according to fA,s/t may therefore improve global estimates of CH4 emissions from lakes. Furthermore, CH4 concentrations increase substantially with water temperature, indicating that seasonally resolved data are required to accurately estimate annual CH4 emissions.

  17. Enhancing the water management schemes of H08 global hydrological model to attribute human water use to six major water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, S.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Kanae, S.

    2017-12-01

    Humans abstract water from various sources to sustain their livelihood and society. Some global hydrological models (GHMs) include explicit schemes of human water management, but the representation and performance of these schemes remain limited. We substantially enhanced the human water management schemes of the H08 GHM by incorporating the latest data and techniques. The model enables us to estimate water abstraction from six major water sources, namely, river flow regulated by global reservoirs (i.e., reservoirs regulating the flow of the world's major rivers), aqueduct water transfer, local reservoirs, seawater desalination, renewable groundwater, and nonrenewable groundwater. All the interactions were simulated in a single computer program and the water balance was always strictly closed at any place and time during the simulation period. Using this model, we first conducted a historical global hydrological simulation at a spatial resolution of 0.5 x 0.5 degree to specify the sources of water for humanity. The results indicated that, in 2000, of the 3628 km3yr-1 global freshwater requirement, 2839 km3yr-1 was taken from surface water and 789 km3yr-1 from groundwater. Streamflow, aqueduct water transfer, local reservoirs, and seawater desalination accounted for 1786, 199, 106, and 1.8 km3yr-1 of the surface water, respectively. The remaining 747 km3yr-1 freshwater requirement was unmet, or surface water was not available when and where it was needed in our simulation. Renewable and nonrenewable groundwater accounted for 607 and 182 km3yr-1 of the groundwater total, respectively. Second, we evaluated the water stress using our simulations and contrasted it with earlier global assessments based on empirical water scarcity indicators, namely, the Withdrawal to Availability ratio and the Falkenmark index (annual renewable water resources per capita). We found that inclusion of water infrastructures in our model diminished water stress in some parts of the world, on

  18. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: Could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb and 204 Pb/ 206 Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. - Highlights: • Pb isotopes of environmental media and children's blood and urine were analyzed. • Pb exposure and pollution source were studied in lead-acid battery and coking areas. • Pb isotope ratios in blood and urine were similar to those of food, water and PM. • Urine Pb level may not be used as a proxy for indicating the lead levels in blood. • Urine Pb isotope ratios is an alternative to identify source and exposure pathways. - Urinary lead is not a preferable proxy to estimate blood lead level, but urinary lead isotope ratios could be an alternative for identifying the sources of lead exposure in children

  19. The interprocess NIR sampling as an alternative approach to multivariate statistical process control for identifying sources of product-quality variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Snežana; Kerč, Janez; Horvat, Matej

    2017-03-01

    We are presenting a new approach of identifying sources of variability within a manufacturing process by NIR measurements of samples of intermediate material after each consecutive unit operation (interprocess NIR sampling technique). In addition, we summarize the development of a multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model for the production of enteric-coated pellet product of the proton-pump inhibitor class. By developing provisional NIR calibration models, the identification of critical process points yields comparable results to the established MSPC modeling procedure. Both approaches are shown to lead to the same conclusion, identifying parameters of extrusion/spheronization and characteristics of lactose that have the greatest influence on the end-product's enteric coating performance. The proposed approach enables quicker and easier identification of variability sources during manufacturing process, especially in cases when historical process data is not straightforwardly available. In the presented case the changes of lactose characteristics are influencing the performance of the extrusion/spheronization process step. The pellet cores produced by using one (considered as less suitable) lactose source were on average larger and more fragile, leading to consequent breakage of the cores during subsequent fluid bed operations. These results were confirmed by additional experimental analyses illuminating the underlying mechanism of fracture of oblong pellets during the pellet coating process leading to compromised film coating.

  20. Multivariate statistical and GIS-based approach to identify source of anthropogenic impacts on metallic elements in sediments from the mid Guangdong coasts, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yangguang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Lu Songhui; Jiang Shijun; Mu Dehai; Shu Yonghong

    2012-01-01

    Growing concerns surround the mid Guangdong coasts, one of China’s fastest and developing economical regions. To study the environmental impacts of economic and industrial development, we measured ten metallic elements (Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Al, Ni, Sr, Li, and Co) in surface sediments from nineteen stations in three bays. All these metals showed concentrations substantially higher than their background values, suggesting possible anthropogenic pollution. Highest metal levels were close to the nuclear power plants likely as a result of nuclear waste discharges. Results revealed that Hg, Pb, and Sr largely originated from human activities, while Cu, Ni, Co, Al, and Fe mainly from natural rock weathering. Two types of anthropogenic sources were identified through a principal component analysis, one from shipping industry, port transport service and nuclear power plants, and the other from municipal sewage and coal power plant. - Highlights: ► Ten metallic elements in surface sediments from mid Guangdong coasts were measured. ► High metal levels occurred close to the nuclear power plants. ► Hg, Pb and Sr mainly originated from human activities. ► Two types of anthropogenic metallic sources were identified in this region. - Hot spots of metallic elements were close to the nuclear power plants. Industrial and municipal discharges were the main anthropogenic metallic source.

  1. Identifying Sources of Marine Litter

    OpenAIRE

    VEIGA Joana Mira; FLEET David; KINSEY Sue; NILSSON Per; VLACHOGIANNI Thomais; WERNER Stefanie; GALGANI Francois; THOMPSON Richard; DAGEVOS Jeroen; GAGO Jesus; SOBRAL Paula; CRONIN Richard

    2016-01-01

    Marine litter is a global problem causing harm to marine wildlife, coastal communities and maritime activities. It also embodies an emerging concern for human health and safety. The reduction of marine litter pollution poses a complex challenge for humankind, requiring adjustments in human behaviour as well as in the different phases of the life-cycle of products and across multiple economic sectors. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires European Member States to monitor...

  2. Identifying sources of soil inorganic pollutants on a regional scale using a multivariate statistical approach: Role of pollutant migration and soil physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Changbo; Wu Longhua; Luo Yongming; Zhang Haibo; Christie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were used to estimate the contribution of four components related to pollutant sources on the total variation in concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Se, Hg, Fe and Mn in surface soil samples from a valley in east China with numerous copper and zinc smelters. Results indicate that when carrying out source identification of inorganic pollutants their tendency to migrate in soils may result in differences between the pollutant composition of the source and the receptor soil, potentially leading to errors in the characterization of pollutants using multivariate statistics. The stability and potential migration or movement of pollutants in soils must therefore be taken into account. Soil physicochemical properties may offer additional useful information. Two different mechanisms have been hypothesized for correlations between soil heavy metal concentrations and soil organic matter content and these may be helpful in interpreting the statistical analysis. - Principal components analysis with Varimax rotation can help identify sources of soil inorganic pollutants but pollutant migration and soil properties can exert important effects

  3. The representation of dust transport and missing urban sources as major issues for the simulation of PM episodes in a Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Flaounas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its adverse effects on human health, atmospheric particulate matter (PM constitutes a growing challenge for air quality management. It is also a complex subject of study. The understanding of its atmospheric evolution is indeed made difficult by the wide number of sources and the numerous processes that govern its evolution in the troposphere. As a consequence, the representation of particulate matter in chemistry-transport models needs to be permanently evaluated and enhanced in order to refine our comprehension of PM pollution events and to propose consistent environmental policies. The study presented here focuses on two successive summer particulate pollution episodes that occurred on the French Mediterranean coast. We identify and analyze the constitutive elements of the first and more massive episode and we discuss their representation within a eulerian model.

    The results show that the model fails in reproducing the variability and the amplitude of dust import from western Africa, and that it constitutes a strong bias in PM daily forecasts. We then focus on the lack of diurnal variability in the model, which is attributed to missing urban sources in standard emission inventories, and notably the resuspension of particles by urban road traffic. Through a sensitivity study based on PM and NOx measurements, we assess the sensitivity of PM to local emissions and the need to reconsider road traffic PM sources. In parallel, by coupling the CHIMERE-DUST model outputs to our simulation, we show that the representation of transcontinental dust transport allows a much better representation of atmospheric particles in southern France, and that it is needed in the frame of air quality management for the quantification of the anthropogenic part of particulate matter pollution.

  4. A novel two-stage evaluation system based on a Group-G1 approach to identify appropriate emergency treatment technology schemes in sudden water source pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Hu, Qi; You, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Sudden water source pollution resulting from hazardous materials has gradually become a major threat to the safety of the urban water supply. Over the past years, various treatment techniques have been proposed for the removal of the pollutants to minimize the threat of such pollutions. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically select the most desirable alternative for different threat degrees. Therefore, a novel two-stage evaluation system was developed based on a circulation-correction improved Group-G1 method to determine the optimal emergency treatment technology scheme, considering the areas of contaminant elimination in both drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, the threat degree caused by the pollution was predicted using a threat evaluation index system and was subdivided into four levels. Then, a technique evaluation index system containing four sets of criteria weights was constructed in stage 2 to obtain the optimum treatment schemes corresponding to the different threat levels. The applicability of the established evaluation system was tested by a practical cadmium-contaminated accident that occurred in 2012. The results show this system capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency treatment technologies for drinking water source security.

  5. Using Novel Laboratory Incubations and Field Experiments to Identify the Source and Fate of Reactive Organic Carbon in an Arsenic-contaminated Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, M.; Tarek, M. H.; Badruzzaman, B.; Harvey, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) within aquifer systems is key to our understanding of both the broader global carbon cycle as well as the quality of our groundwater resources. The linkage between the subsurface carbon cycle and groundwater quality is perhaps nowhere more apparent than in the aquifer systems of South and Southeast Asia, where the contamination of groundwater with geogenic arsenic (As) is widespread and threatens the health of millions of individuals. OM fuels the biogeochemical processes driving As mobilization within these aquifers, however the source (i.e., modern surface-derived or aged sedimentary OM) of the reactive OM is widely debated. To characterize the sources of OM driving aquifer redox processes we tracked DIC and DOC concentrations and isotopes (stable and radiocarbon) along groundwater flow-paths and beneath an instrumented study pond at a field site in Bangladesh. We also conducted a set of novel groundwater incubation experiments, where we carbon-dated the DOC at the start and end of a experiment in order to determine the age of the OM that was mineralized. Our carbon/isotope balance reveals that aquifer recharge introduces a large quantity of young (i.e. near modern) OM that is efficiently mineralized within the upper few meters of the aquifer, effectively limiting this pool of reactive surface-sourced OM from being transported deeper into the aquifer where significant As mobilization takes place. The OM mineralized past the upper few meters is an aged, sedimentary source. Consistent with our field data, our incubation experiments show that past the upper few meters of the aquifer the reactive DOC is significantly older than the bulk DOC and has an age consistent with sedimentary OM. Combining our novel set of incubation experiments and a carbon/isotope balance along groundwater flow-paths and beneath our study pond we have identified the sources of reactive OM across different aquifer depths in a

  6. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Oroszlany, Balazs; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Yohannes, Yared B; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-01-10

    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown ( Rattus norvegicus , n = 43) and black ( R. rattus , n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.

  7. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneel, V., E-mail: vasimallas@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Vethamony, P., E-mail: mony@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Naik, B.G., E-mail: bgnaik@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Krishna, M.S., E-mail: moturi@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam, 530 017 (India); Jadhav, Lakshmikant, E-mail: lakshya87.0@gmail.com [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. - Highlights: • Multi-marker approach was effective in identifying the source of tar balls. • n-Alkane DRs show weathering effects even within the core of the tar ball. • Tar balls of the west coast of India since 2012 were derived from Bombay High crude. • Tanker-wash is not the only source of tar balls deposited on the beaches of Goa.

  8. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; Naik, B.G.; Krishna, M.S.; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-01-01

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. - Highlights: • Multi-marker approach was effective in identifying the source of tar balls. • n-Alkane DRs show weathering effects even within the core of the tar ball. • Tar balls of the west coast of India since 2012 were derived from Bombay High crude. • Tanker-wash is not the only source of tar balls deposited on the beaches of Goa

  9. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sherry R.; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Radhamani, J.; Parimalan, R.; Sivaswamy, M.; Tyagi, Sandhya; Yadav, Mamata; Kumari, Jyotisna; Deepali; Sharma, Sandeep; Bhagat, Indoo; Meeta, Madhu; Bains, N. S.; Chowdhury, A. K.; Saha, B. C.; Bhattacharya, P. M.; Kumari, Jyoti; Singh, M. C.; Gangwar, O. P.; Prasad, P.; Bharadwaj, S. C.; Gogoi, Robin; Sharma, J. B.; GM, Sandeep Kumar; Saharan, M. S.; Bag, Manas; Roy, Anirban; Prasad, T. V.; Sharma, R. K.; Dutta, M.; Sharma, Indu; Bansal, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat–Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011–14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab), a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal), a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels. PMID:27942031

  10. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sundeep; Archak, Sunil; Tyagi, R K; Kumar, Jagdish; Vk, Vikas; Jacob, Sherry R; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Radhamani, J; Parimalan, R; Sivaswamy, M; Tyagi, Sandhya; Yadav, Mamata; Kumari, Jyotisna; Deepali; Sharma, Sandeep; Bhagat, Indoo; Meeta, Madhu; Bains, N S; Chowdhury, A K; Saha, B C; Bhattacharya, P M; Kumari, Jyoti; Singh, M C; Gangwar, O P; Prasad, P; Bharadwaj, S C; Gogoi, Robin; Sharma, J B; Gm, Sandeep Kumar; Saharan, M S; Bag, Manas; Roy, Anirban; Prasad, T V; Sharma, R K; Dutta, M; Sharma, Indu; Bansal, K C

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab), a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal), a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels.

  11. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Kumar

    Full Text Available A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu, a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab, a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal, a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels.

  12. Identifying sources of respirable quartz and silica dust in underground coal mines in southern West Virginia, western Virginia, and eastern Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatzel, Steven J. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, PO Box 18070, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Prior research has suggested that the source of respirable silica dust in underground coal mines is typically the immediate top or bottom lithology adjacent to the mined seam, not mineral matter bound within the mined coal bed. Geochemical analyses were applied in an effort to identify the specific source rock of respirable quartz dust in coal mines. The analyses also demonstrate the compositional changes that take place in the generation of the respirable dust fraction from parent rock material. All six mine sites were mining coal with relatively low mineral matter content, although two mines were operating in the Fire Clay coal bed which contains a persistent tonstein. Interpretations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, and K concentrations strongly suggest that the top strata above the mined seam is the primary source of mineral dust produced during mining. One site indicates a mixed or bottom source, possibly due to site specific conditions. Respirable dust compositional analyses suggest a direct relationship between the quantity of mineral Si and the quantity of quartz Si. A similar relationship was not found in either the top or bottom rocks adjacent to the mined seam. An apparent loss of elemental Al was noted in the respirable dust fraction when compared to potential parent rock sources. Elemental Al is present in top and bottom rock strata within illite, kaolinite, feldspar, and chlorite. A possible explanation for loss of Al in the respirable dust samples is the removal of clays and possibly chlorite minerals. It is expected that removal of this portion of the Al bearing mineral matter occurs during rock abrasion and dust transport prior to dust capture on the samplers. (author)

  13. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  14. An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate Sources In Lagos, Nigeria. FS Olise, OK Owoade, HB Olaniyi. Abstract. There have been no clear demarcations between industrial and residential areas of Lagos with focus on industry as the major source. There is need to identify potential source types in ...

  15. GMRT DISCOVERY OF PSR J1544+4937: AN ECLIPSING BLACK-WIDOW PULSAR IDENTIFIED WITH A FERMI-LAT SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Roy, J.; Gupta, Y. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune 411 007 (India); Ray, P. S.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, K. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Bhattacharya, D. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411 007 (India); Romani, R. W.; Den Hartog, P. R.; Kerr, M.; Michelson, P. F. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement, LPCE UMR 6115 CNRS, F-45071 Orleans Cedex 02 (France); Johnston, S.; Keith, M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wood, D. L. [Praxis Inc., Alexandria, VA 22303 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, we performed deep observations to search for radio pulsations in the directions of unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope {gamma}-ray sources. We report the discovery of an eclipsing black-widow millisecond pulsar, PSR J1544+4937, identified with the uncataloged {gamma}-ray source FERMI J1544.2+4941. This 2.16 ms pulsar is in a 2.9 hr compact circular orbit with a very low mass companion (M{sub c} > 0.017M{sub Sun }). At 322 MHz this pulsar is found to be eclipsing for 13% of its orbit, whereas at 607 MHz the pulsar is detected throughout the low-frequency eclipse phase. Variations in the eclipse ingress phase are observed, indicating a clumpy and variable eclipsing medium. Moreover, additional short-duration absorption events are observed around the eclipse boundaries. Using the radio timing ephemeris we were able to detect {gamma}-ray pulsations from this pulsar, confirming it as the source powering the {gamma}-ray emission.

  16. Regional air pollution caused by a simultaneous destruction of major industrial sources in a war zone. The case of April Serbia in 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukmirović, Zorka B.; Unkašević, Miroslava; Lazić, Lazar; Tošić, Ivana

    During NATO's 78-day Kosovo war, 24 March-10 June 1999, almost daily attacks on major industrial sources have caused numerous industrial accidents in Serbia. These accidents resulted in releases of many hazardous chemical substances including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Detection of some important POPs in fine aerosol form took place at Xanthi in Greece and reported to the scientific world. The paper focuses on two pollution episodes: (a) 6-8 April; and (b) 18-20 April. Using the Eta model trajectory analysis, the regional pollutant transport from industrial sites in Northern Serbia (Novi Sad) and in the Belgrade vicinity (Pančevo), respectively, almost simultaneously bombed at midnight between 17 and 18 April, corroborated measurements at Xanthi. At the same time the pollutant puff was picked up at about 3000 m and transported to Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldavia and the Black Sea. The low-level trajectories from Pančevo below 1000 m show pollutant transport towards Belgrade area in the first 12 h. The POP washout in central and southern Serbia in the second episode was deemed to have constituted the principal removal mechanism. Maximum POP wet deposition was found in central Serbia and along the 850 hPa trajectory towards south-eastern Serbia and the Bulgarian border.

  17. Identifying preferred format and source of exercise information in persons with multiple sclerosis that can be delivered by health-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel M; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing recognition of the benefits of exercise in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet the MS population does not engage in sufficient amounts of exercise to accrue health benefits. There has been little qualitative inquiry to establish the preferred format and source for receiving exercise information from health-care providers among persons with MS. We sought to identify the desired and preferred format and source of exercise information for persons with MS that can be delivered through health-care providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild or moderate disability and participated in a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, (i) approach for receiving exercise promotion and (ii) ideal person for promoting exercise. Persons with MS want to receive exercise information through in-person consultations with health-care providers, print media and electronic media. Persons with MS want to receive exercise promotion from health-care providers with expertise in MS (ie neurologists) and with expertise in exercise (eg physical therapists). These data support the importance of understanding how to provide exercise information to persons with MS and identifying that health-care providers including neurologists and physical therapists should be involved in exercise promotion. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The use of lead isotope analysis to identify potential sources of lead toxicosis in a juvenile bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with ventricular foreign bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen-Klein, Dana; McRuer, David; Slabe, Vincent; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    A male juvenile bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was admitted to the Wildlife Center of Virginia with a left humeral fracture a large quantity of anthropogenic debris in the ventriculus, a blood lead level of 0.616 ppm, and clinical signs consistent with chronic lead toxicosis. Because of the poor prognosis for recovery and release, the eagle was euthanatized. Lead isotope analysis was performed to identify potential anthropogenic sources of lead in this bird. The lead isotope ratios in the eagle's femur (0.8773), liver (0.8761), and kidneys (0.8686) were most closely related to lead paint (0.8925), leaded gasoline (0.8450), and zinc smelting (0.8240). The lead isotope ratios were dissimilar to lead ammunition (0.8179) and the anthropogenic debris in the ventriculus. This case report documents foreign body ingestion in a free-ranging bald eagle and demonstrates the clinical utility of lead isotope analysis to potentially identify or exclude anthropogenic sources of lead poisoning in wildlife patients.

  19. Exploring innovative techniques for identifying geochemical elements as fingerprints of sediment sources in an agricultural catchment of Argentina affected by soil erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Astorga, Romina; de Los Santos Villalobos, Sergio; Velasco, Hugo; Domínguez-Quintero, Olgioly; Pereira Cardoso, Renan; Meigikos Dos Anjos, Roberto; Diawara, Yacouba; Dercon, Gerd; Mabit, Lionel

    2018-05-15

    Identification of hot spots of land degradation is strongly related with the selection of soil tracers for sediment pathways. This research proposes the complementary and integrated application of two analytical techniques to select the most suitable fingerprint tracers for identifying the main sources of sediments in an agricultural catchment located in Central Argentina with erosive loess soils. Diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed in the mid-infrared range (DRIFT-MIR) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) were used for a suitable fingerprint selection. For using DRIFT-MIR spectroscopy as fingerprinting technique, calibration through quantitative parameters is needed to link and correlate DRIFT-MIR spectra with soil tracers. EDXRF was used in this context for determining the concentrations of geochemical elements in soil samples. The selected tracers were confirmed using two artificial mixtures composed of known proportions of soil collected in different sites with distinctive soil uses. These fingerprint elements were used as parameters to build a predictive model with the whole set of DRIFT-MIR spectra. Fingerprint elements such as phosphorus, iron, calcium, barium, and titanium were identified for obtaining a suitable reconstruction of the source proportions in the artificial mixtures. Mid-infrared spectra produced successful prediction models (R 2  = 0.91) for Fe content and moderate useful prediction (R 2  = 0.72) for Ti content. For Ca, P, and Ba, the R 2 were 0.44, 0.58, and 0.59 respectively.

  20. Fast sequential multi-element determination of major and minor elements in environmental samples and drinking waters by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Nieto, Beatriz; Gismera, Ma Jesús; Sevilla, Ma Teresa; Procopio, Jesús R

    2015-01-07

    The fast sequential multi-element determination of 11 elements present at different concentration levels in environmental samples and drinking waters has been investigated using high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The main lines for Cu (324.754 nm), Zn (213.857 nm), Cd (228.802 nm), Ni (232.003 nm) and Pb (217.001 nm), main and secondary absorption lines for Mn (279.482 and 279.827 nm), Fe (248.327, 248.514 and 302.064 nm) and Ca (422.673 and 239.856 nm), secondary lines with different sensitivities for Na (589.592 and 330.237 nm) and K (769.897 and 404.414 nm) and a secondary line for Mg (202.582 nm) have been chosen to perform the analysis. A flow injection system has been used for sample introduction so sample consumption has been reduced up to less than 1 mL per element, measured in triplicate. Furthermore, the use of multiplets for Fe and the side pixel registration approach for Mg have been studied in order to reduce sensitivity and extend the linear working range. The figures of merit have been calculated and the proposed method was applied to determine these elements in a pine needles reference material (SRM 1575a), drinking and natural waters and soil extracts. Recoveries of analytes added at different concentration levels to water samples and extracts of soils were within 88-115% interval. In this way, the fast sequential multi-element determination of major and minor elements can be carried out, in triplicate, with successful results without requiring additional dilutions of samples or several different strategies for sample preparation using about 8-9 mL of sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EcoIP: An Open Source Image Analysis Toolkit to Identify Different Stages of Plant Phenology for Multiple Species with Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Joel; Bonnet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Because of the increased number of cameras employed in environmental sensing and the tremendous image output they produce, we have created a flexible, open-source software solution called EcoIP to help automatically determine different phenophases for different species from digital image sequences....... Onset and ending dates are calculated through an iterative process: (1) training images are chosen and areas of interest identified, (2) separation of foreground and background is accomplished based on a naive Bayesian method, (3) a signal is created based on the separation model and (4) it is then fit...... to a sigmoid that contains the dates of interest. Results using different phenological events of different species indicate that estimated dates fall within a few days of the observed dates for most cases. Our experiments indicate that color separability and scene illumination are contributing factors...

  2. Genetic variation in total number and locations of GnRH neurons identified using in situ hybridization in a wild-source population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Katherine E; Rivers, Charlotte I; Saha, Margaret S; Heideman, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of brain function in the regulation of physiology may depend in part upon the numbers and locations of neurons. Wild populations of rodents contain natural genetic variation in the inhibition of reproduction by winter-like short photoperiod, and it has been hypothesized that this functional variation might be due in part to heritable variation in the numbers or location of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. A naturally variable wild-source population of white-footed mice was used to develop lines artificially selected for or against mature gonads in short, winter-like photoperiods. We compared a selection line that is reproductively inhibited in short photoperiod (Responsive) to a line that is weakly inhibited by short photoperiod (Nonresponsive) for differences in counts of neurons identified using in situ hybridization for GnRH mRNA. There was no effect of photoperiod, but there were 60% more GnRH neurons in total in the Nonresponsive selection line than the Responsive selection line. The lines differed specifically in numbers of GnRH neurons in more anterior regions, whereas numbers of GnRH neurons in posterior areas were not statistically different between lines. We compare these results to those of an earlier study that used immunohistochemical labeling for GnRH neurons. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the selection lines and natural source population contain significant genetic variation in the number and location of GnRH neurons. The variation in GnRH neurons may contribute to functional variation in fertility that occurs in short photoperiods in the laboratory and in the wild source population in winter. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. On the potential of using peculiarities of the protein intrinsic disorder distribution in mitochondrial cytochrome b to identify the source of animal meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Haitham A.; Sadek, Mahmoud A.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was conducted to identify the source of animal meat based on the peculiarities of protein intrinsic disorder distribution in mitochondrial cytochrome b (mtCyt-b). The analysis revealed that animal and avian species can be discriminated based on the proportions of the two groups of residues, Leu+Ile, and Ser+Pro+Ala, in the amino acid sequences of their mtCyt-b. Although levels of the overall intrinsic disorder in mtCyt-b is not very high, the peculiarities of disorder distribution within the sequences of mtCyt-b from different species varies in a rather specific way. In fact, positions and intensities of disorder/flexibility “signals” in the corresponding disorder profiles are relatively unique for avian and animal species. Therefore, it is possible to devise a set of simple rules based on the peculiarities of disorder profiles of their mtCyt-b proteins to discriminate among species. This intrinsic disorder-based analysis represents a new technique that could be used to provide a promising solution for identification of the source of meats. PMID:28331777

  4. Determination of 2-alkylcyclobutanones in ultraviolet light-irradiated fatty acids, triglycerides, corn oil, and pork samples: Identifying a new source of 2-alkylcyclobutanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangpeng; Chan, Wan

    2017-02-15

    Previous studies have established that 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are unique radiolytic products in lipid-containing foods that could only be formed through exposure to ionizing radiation, but not by any other means of physical/heat treatment methods. Therefore, 2-ACBs are currently the marker molecules required by the European Committee for Standardization to be used to identify foods irradiated with ionizing irradiation. Using a spectrum of state-of-the-art analytical instruments, we present in this study for the first time that the generation of 2-ACBs was also possible when fatty acids and triglycerides are exposed to a non-ionizing, short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light source. An irradiation dosage-dependent formation of 2-ACBs was also observed in UV-C irradiated fatty acids, triglycerides, corn oil, and pork samples. With UV-C irradiation becoming an increasingly common food treatment procedure, it is anticipated that the results from this study will alert food scientists and regulatory officials to a potential new source for 2-ACBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using systematic and comparative GC/MS and GC/FID data to identify the source of an unknown oil on contaminated birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Landriault, M.; Sigouin, L.; Feng, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A method to identify and differentiate spilled oil and petroleum products was developed. In January 1996, four birds covered with an unknown oil were found near Larchipel-de-Mingan National Park in Quebec. Environment Canada wanted to know if the oil came from a leak in a barge which was grounded on Anticosti Island. To do so, it was necessary to determine the nature of the oil, the type of petroleum hydrocarbons, the age, the weathering and degradation extent of the spilled oil, and changes in oil character since the occurrence of any possible spill. The analytical approach to determine the source of the unknown oil was described. The analysis of individual aliphatic, aromatic, and biomarker hydrocarbons were made with the use of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). Pattern recognition plot analysis was also used in determining the source of the oil. It was concluded that the residual oil on the birds was not from the suspected barge oil, and was most probably old, highly weathered, somewhat biodegraded bunker type oil. 23 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs

  6. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient

  7. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Park, Keigan; Auestad, Nancy

    2013-08-08

    The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003-2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to "as consumed" food categorizations. Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended

  8. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heejung [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Kaown, Dugin, E-mail: dugin1@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta (Canada); Lee, Jin-Yong [Department of Geology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200–701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Yunjung [Planning and Management Group, Korea Environment Institute, Sejong 339-007 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Kun [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    } and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use. - Highlights: • Dual isotope analyses identified contaminant sources. • Aquifer contamination was affected by land use. • Microbial community in groundwater reflects land use. • Approach is promising for managing water quality in agricultural areas.

  9. Identifying the sources and sinks of CDOM/FDOM across the Mauritanian Shelf and their potential rolein the decomposition of Superoxide (O2-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Iris Heller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide (O2- is a short lived reactive oxygen species (ROS formed in seawater by photochemical or biological sources, it is important in the redox cycling of trace elements and organic matter in the ocean. The photoproduction of O2- is now thought to involve reactions between O2 and reactive reducing (radical intermediates formed from dissolved organic matter (DOM via intramolecular reactions between excited singlet state donors and ground-state acceptors (Zhang et al., 2012. In seawater the main pathways identified for the decomposition of O2- into H2O2 and O2, involve reactions with Cu, Mn and DOM. In productive regions of the ocean, the reaction between DOM and O2- can be a significant sink for O2-. Thus DOM is a key component of both the formation and decomposition of O2- and formation of H2O2. In the present work we examined the relationships between O2- decay rates and parameters associated with chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM by using the thermal O2- source SOTS-1. Filtered samples (0.2 µm were run both in the presence, and absence, of the metal chelator diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA to determine the contribution from DOM. Samples were collected along a transect across the continental shelf of the Mauritanian continental shelf during a period of upwelling. In this region we found that reactions with DOM, are a significant sink for O2- in the Mauritanian Upwelling, constituting on average 58 ± 13 % of the O2- loss rates. Superoxide reactivity with organic matter showed no clear correlation with bulk CDOM or FDOM properties (as assessed by PARAFAC analysis suggesting that future work should concentrate at the functional group level to clearly elucidate which molecular species are involved as bulk properties represent a wide spread of chemical moieties with different O2- reactivities. Analysis of FDOM parameters indicates that many of the markers used previously for

  10. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heejung; Kaown, Dugin; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Jin-Yong; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-01-01

    An integrated study based on hydrogeochemical, microbiological and dual isotopic approaches for nitrate and sulfate was conducted to elucidate sources and biogeochemical reactions governing groundwater contaminants in different seasons and under different land use in a basin of Korea. The land use in the study area is comprised of forests (58.0%), vegetable fields (27.6%), rice paddy fields (11.4%) and others (3.0%). The concentrations of NO 3 –N and SO 4 2− in groundwater in vegetable fields were highest with 4.2–15.2 mg L −1 and 1.6–19.7 mg L −1 respectively, whereas under paddy fields NO 3 –N concentrations ranged from 0 to 10.7 mg L −1 and sulfate concentrations were ~ 15 mg L −1 . Groundwater with high NO 3 –N concentrations of > 10 mg L −1 had δ 15 N–NO 3 − values ranging from 5.2 to 5.9‰ and δ 18 O values of nitrate between 2.7 and 4.6‰ suggesting that the nitrate was mineralized from soil organic matter that was amended by fertilizer additions. Elevated concentrations of SO 4 2− with δ 34 S–SO 4 2− values between 1 and 6‰ in aquifers in vegetable fields indicated that a mixture of sulfate from atmospheric deposition, mineralization of soil organic matter and from synthetic fertilizers is the source of groundwater sulfate. Elevated δ 18 O–NO 3 − and δ 18 O–SO 4 2− values in samples collected from the paddy fields indicated that denitrification and bacterial sulfate reduction are actively occurring removing sulfate and nitrate from the groundwater. This was supported by high occurrences of denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria in groundwater of the paddy fields as evidenced by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing analysis. This study shows that dual isotope techniques combined with microbial data can be a powerful tool for identification of sources and microbial processes affecting NO 3 − and SO 4 2− in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use. - Highlights: • Dual isotope analyses identified

  11. {sup 37}Cl, {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C isotopic analysis of common agro-chemicals for identifying non-point source agricultural contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annable, W.K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail: wkannabl@uwaterloo.ca; Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shouakar-Stash, O. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shanoff, T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Drimmie, R.J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Harvey, F.E. [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0517 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The isotopic compositions of commercially available herbicides were analyzed to determine their respective {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and {sup 37}Cl signatures for the purposes of developing a discrete tool for tracing and identifying non-point source contaminants in agricultural watersheds. Findings demonstrate that of the agrochemicals evaluated, chlorine stable isotopes signatures range between {delta}{sup 37}Cl = -4.55 per mille and +3.40 per mille , whereas most naturally occurring chlorine stable isotopes signatures, including those of road salt, sewage sludge and fertilizers, vary in a narrow range about the Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC) between -2.00 per mille and +1.00 per mille . Nitrogen stable isotope values varied widely from {delta}{sup 15}N = -10.86 per mille to +1.44 per mille and carbon stable isotope analysis gave an observed range between {delta}{sup 13}C = -37.13 per mille and -21.35 per mille for the entire suite of agro-chemicals analyzed. When nitrogen, carbon and chlorine stable isotope analyses were compared in a cross-correlation analysis, statistically independent isotopic signatures exist suggesting a new potential tracer tool for identifying herbicides in the environment.

  12. Lactate and Pyruvate Are Major Sources of Energy for Stallion Sperm with Dose Effects on Mitochondrial Function, Motility, and ROS Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Christa R; Varner, Dickson D; Teague, Sheila; Cortopassi, Gino A; Datta, Sandipan; Meyers, Stuart A

    2016-08-01

    Stallion sperm rely primarily on oxidative phosphorylation for production of ATP used in sperm motility and metabolism. The objective of the study was to identify which substrates included in Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham (BWW) media are key to optimal mitochondrial function through measurements of sperm motility parameters, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It was expected that mitochondrial substrates, pyruvate and lactate, would support sperm motility and mitochondrial function better than the glycolytic substrate, glucose, due to direct utilization within the mitochondria. Measurements were performed after incubation in modified BWW media with varying concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, and glucose. The effects of media and duration of incubation on sperm motility, ROS production, and oxygen consumption were determined using a linear mixed-effects model. Duplicate ejaculates from four stallions were used in three separate experiments to determine the effects of substrate availability and concentration on sperm motility and mitochondrial function and the relationship of oxygen consumption with cellular ROS production. The present results indicate that lactate and pyruvate are the most important sources of energy for stallion sperm motility and velocity, and elicit a dose-dependent response. Additionally, lactate and pyruvate are ideal for maximal mitochondrial function, as sperm in these media operate at a very high level of their bioenergetic capability due to the high rate of energy metabolism. Moreover, we found that addition of glucose to the media is not necessary for short-term storage of equine sperm, and may even result in reduction of mitochondrial function. Finally, we have confirmed that ROS production can be the result of mitochondrial dysfunction as well as intense mitochondrial activity. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  13. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  14. The paradox of the modern mass media: probably the major source of social cohesion in liberal democracies, even though its content is often socially divisive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    The modern mass media (MM) is often regarded a mixture between a trivial waste of time and resources, and a dangerously subversive system tending to promote social division and community breakdown. But these negative evaluations are difficult to square with the fact that those countries with the largest mass media include the most modernized and powerful nations. It seems more plausible that the MM is serving some useful - perhaps vital - function. I suggest that modern mass media function as the main source of social cohesion in liberal democracies. The paradox is that this cohesive function is sustained in a context of frequently divisive media content. This media function evolved because modern MM produce an excess of media communications in a context of consumer choice which generates competition for public attention both within- and between-media. Competition has led the media to become increasingly specialized at gaining and retaining public attention. Social cohesion is the consequence of the mass media continually drawing public attention to itself, and to the extremely large, internally complex and interconnected nature of the MM system. The means by which attention is attracted are almost arbitrary, encompassing both novelty and familiarity and evoking a wide range of emotions both positive and negative. Driven to seek competitive advantage, modern mass media produce a wide range of material to cater to a vast range of interests; thereby engaging a great variety of individuals and social groupings. The consequence is that media content is typically self-contradictory and includes content which is offensive and potentially divisive; since what grabs the interest of some may offend or repel others. For instance, young men must be socially engaged, since they are potentially the most violent social group, yet the interests of young men include material that the majority of the population would find excessively aggressive, disrespectful, subversive or sexual

  15. Microglia and macrophages are major sources of locally produced transforming growth factor-beta1 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrmann, E; Kiefer, R; Christensen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The potentially neurotrophic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is locally expressed following human stroke and experimental ischemic lesions, but the cellular source(s) and profile of induction have so far not been established in experimental focal cerebral ischemia. This stud...

  16. Beyond imperviousness: A statistical approach to identifying functional differences between development morphologies on variable source area-type response in urbanized watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence has shown linkages between urbanization, hydrological regime change, and degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat. Percent imperviousness, has long been suggested as the dominant source of these negative changes. However, recent research identifying alternative pathways of runoff production at the watershed scale have called into question percent impervious surface area's primacy in urban runoff production compared to other aspects of urbanization including change in vegetative cover, imported water and water leakages, and the presence of drainage infrastructure. In this research I show how a robust statistical methodology can detect evidence of variable source area (VSA)-type hydrologic response associated with incremental hydraulic connectivity in watersheds. I then use logistic regression to explore how evidence of VSA-type response relates to the physical and meterological characteristics of the watershed. I find that impervious surface area is highly correlated with development, but does not add significant explanatory power beyond percent developed in predicting VSA-type response. Other aspects of development morphology, including percent developed open space and type of drainage infrastructure also do not add to the explanatory power of undeveloped land in predicting VSA-type response. Within only developed areas, the effect of developed open space was found to be more similar to that of total impervious area than to undeveloped land. These findings were consistent when tested across a national cross-section of urbanized watersheds, a higher resolution dataset of Baltimore Metropolitan Area watersheds, and a subsample of watersheds confirmed not to be served by combined sewer systems. These findings suggest that land development policies that focus on lot coverage should be revisited, and more focus should be placed on preserving native vegetation and soil conditions alongside development.

  17. Using areas of known occupancy to identify sources of variation in detection probability of raptors: taking time lowers replication effort for surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murn, Campbell; Holloway, Graham J

    2016-10-01

    Species occurring at low density can be difficult to detect and if not properly accounted for, imperfect detection will lead to inaccurate estimates of occupancy. Understanding sources of variation in detection probability and how they can be managed is a key part of monitoring. We used sightings data of a low-density and elusive raptor (white-headed vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis ) in areas of known occupancy (breeding territories) in a likelihood-based modelling approach to calculate detection probability and the factors affecting it. Because occupancy was known a priori to be 100%, we fixed the model occupancy parameter to 1.0 and focused on identifying sources of variation in detection probability. Using detection histories from 359 territory visits, we assessed nine covariates in 29 candidate models. The model with the highest support indicated that observer speed during a survey, combined with temporal covariates such as time of year and length of time within a territory, had the highest influence on the detection probability. Averaged detection probability was 0.207 (s.e. 0.033) and based on this the mean number of visits required to determine within 95% confidence that white-headed vultures are absent from a breeding area is 13 (95% CI: 9-20). Topographical and habitat covariates contributed little to the best models and had little effect on detection probability. We highlight that low detection probabilities of some species means that emphasizing habitat covariates could lead to spurious results in occupancy models that do not also incorporate temporal components. While variation in detection probability is complex and influenced by effects at both temporal and spatial scales, temporal covariates can and should be controlled as part of robust survey methods. Our results emphasize the importance of accounting for detection probability in occupancy studies, particularly during presence/absence studies for species such as raptors that are widespread and

  18. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tectonic Storytelling with Open Source and Digital Object Identifiers - a case study about Plate Tectonics and the Geopark Bergstraße-Odenwald

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter; Barmuta, Jan; Klump, Jens; Neumann, Janna; Plank, Margret

    2014-05-01

    The communication of advances in research to the common public for both education and decision making is an important aspect of scientific work. An even more crucial task is to gain recognition within the scientific community, which is judged by impact factor and citation counts. Recently, the latter concepts have been extended from textual publications to include data and software publications. This paper presents a case study for science communication and data citation. For this, tectonic models, Free and Open Source Software (FOSS), best practices for data citation and a multimedia online-portal for scientific content are combined. This approach creates mutual benefits for the stakeholders: Target audiences receive information on the latest research results, while the use of Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) increases the recognition and citation of underlying scientific data. This creates favourable conditions for every researcher as DOI names ensure citeability and long term availability of scientific research. In the developed application, the FOSS tool for tectonic modelling GPlates is used to visualise and manipulate plate-tectonic reconstructions and associated data through geological time. These capabilities are augmented by the Science on a Halfsphere project (SoaH) with a robust and intuitive visualisation hardware environment. The tectonic models used for science communication are provided by the AGH University of Science and Technology. They focus on the Silurian to Early Carboniferous evolution of Central Europe (Bohemian Massif) and were interpreted for the area of the Geopark Bergstraße Odenwald based on the GPlates/SoaH hardware- and software stack. As scientific story-telling is volatile by nature, recordings are a natural means of preservation for further use, reference and analysis. For this, the upcoming portal for audiovisual media of the German National Library of Science and Technology TIB is expected to become a critical service

  20. Selective leaching studies of sediments from a seamount flank in the Central Indian Basin: Resolving hydrothermal, volcanogenic and terrigenous sources using major, trace and rare-earth elements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; Nath, B.N.

    with increasing distance from the initial vent source (Mitra et al., 1994; German et al., 2002; Edmonds and German, 2004). Sherrell et al. 15 (1999) contend that in a time scale of plume advection, adsorption reflects near–instanteous equilibrium...

  1. Identification of nitrate sources in Taihu Lake and its major inflow rivers in China, using δ(15)N-NO(3)(-) and δ(18)O-NO(3)(-) values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Xiang; Liu, Guang; Liu, Wei-Guo; Lam, Michael H W; Liu, Gui-Jian; Yin, Xue-Bin

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, δ(15)N and δ(18)O-NO(3)(-) values, as well as concentrations of some major ion tracers were determined in seasonal water samples from Taihu Lake and major watersheds to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of nitrate sources and assess the underlying nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry process. The results lead to the conclusion that the nitrate concentrations in Taihu Lake are lower in summer than that in winter due to the dilution effect of wet deposition. In winter, sewage and manure were the primary nitrate sources in major inflow rivers and North Taihu Lake (NTL), while nitrate sources in East Taihu Lake (ETL) probably derived from soil organic N. In summer, atmospheric deposition and sewage/manure inputs appear to play an important role in controlling the distribution of nitrates in the whole lake. The δ(18)O-NO(3)(-) values suggest that the nitrate produced from microbial nitrification is another major nitrate source during both winter and summer months. The variations in isotopic values in nitrate suggest denitrification enriched the heavier isotopes of nitrate in NTL in winter and in ETL in summer.

  2. Primary magmas and mantle sources of Emeishan basalts constrained from major element, trace element and Pb isotope compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Le; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Hong, Lu-Bing; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2017-07-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions within lava retain important information regarding the lava's primary magma compositions and mantle sources. Thus, they can be used to infer the nature of the mantle sources of large igneous provinces, which is still not well known and of the subject of debate. We have analysed the chemical compositions and Pb isotopic ratios of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Dali picrites, Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP), SW China. These are the first in-situ Pb isotope data measured for melt inclusions found in the Emeishan picrites and allow new constraints to be placed on the source lithology of the Emeishan LIP. The melt inclusions show chemical compositional variations, spanning low-, intermediate- and high-Ti compositions, while their host whole rocks are restricted to the intermediate-Ti compositions. Together with the relatively constant Pb isotope ratios of the melt inclusions, the compositional variations suggest that the low-, intermediate- and high-Ti melts were derived from compositionally similar sources. The geochemical characteristics of melt inclusions, their host olivines, and whole-rocks from the Emeishan LIP indicate that Ca, Al, Mn, Yb, and Lu behave compatibly, and Ti, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Nb behave incompatibly during partial melting, requiring a pyroxenite source for the Emeishin LIP. The wide range of Ti contents in the melt inclusions and whole-rocks of the Emeishan basalts reflects different degrees of partial melting in the pyroxenite source at different depths in the melting column. The Pb isotope compositions of the melt inclusions and the OIB-like trace element compositions of the Emeishan basalts imply that mixing of a recycled ancient oceanic crust (EM1-like) component with a peridotite component from the lower mantle (FOZO-like component) could have underwent solid-state reaction, producing a secondary pyroxenite source that was subsequently partially melted to form the basalts. This new model of pyroxenite

  3. Utilizing ‘Omic’ technologies to identify and prioritize novel sources of resistance to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans in potato germplasm collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stephanie Marie Van Weymers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biggest threat to potato production world-wide is late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. A screen of 126 wild diploid Solanum accessions from the Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC with P. infestans isolates belonging to the genotype 13-A2 identified resistances in the species S. bulbocastanum, S. capsicibaccatum, S. microdontum, S. mochiquense, S. okadae, S. pinnatisectum, S. polyadenium, S. tarijense and S. verrucosum. Effector-omics, allele mining and diagnostic RenSeq (dRenSeq were utilized to investigate the nature of resistances in S. okadae accessions. dRenSeq in resistant S. okadae accessions 7129, 7625, 3762 and a bulk of 20 resistant progeny confirmed the presence of full-length Rpi-vnt1.1 under stringent mapping conditions and corroborated allele mining results in the accessions 7129 and 7625 as well as Avr-vnt1 recognition in transient expression assays. In contrast, susceptible S. okadae accession 3761 and a bulk of 20 susceptible progeny lacked sequence homology in the 5’ end compared to the functional Rpi-vnt1.1 gene. Further evaluation of S. okadae accessions with late blight isolates that have a broad spectrum of virulence demonstrated that, although S. okadae accessions 7129, 7625 and 7629 contain functional Rpi-vnt1.1, they also carry a novel resistance gene. We provide evidence that existing germplasm collection are important sources of novel resistances and that ‘omic’ technologies such as dRenSeq-based genomics and effector-omics are efficacious tools to rapidly explore the diversity within these collections.

  4. Major Sources of Organic Matter in a Complex Coral Reef Lagoon: Identification from Isotopic Signatures (δ13C and δ15N.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine J Briand

    Full Text Available A wide investigation was conducted into the main organic matter (OM sources supporting coral reef trophic networks in the lagoon of New Caledonia. Sampling included different reef locations (fringing, intermediate and barrier reef, different associated ecosystems (mangroves and seagrass beds and rivers. In total, 30 taxa of macrophytes, plus pools of particulate and sedimentary OM (POM and SOM were sampled. Isotopic signatures (C and N of each OM sources was characterized and the composition of OM pools assessed. In addition, spatial and seasonal variations of reef OM sources were examined. Mangroves isotopic signatures were the most C-depleted (-30.17 ± 0.41 ‰ and seagrass signatures were the most C-enriched (-4.36 ± 0.72 ‰. Trichodesmium spp. had the most N-depleted signatures (-0.14 ± 0.03 ‰ whereas mangroves had the most N-enriched signatures (6.47 ± 0.41 ‰. The composition of POM and SOM varied along a coast-to-barrier reef gradient. River POM and marine POM contributed equally to coastal POM, whereas marine POM represented 90% of the POM on barrier reefs, compared to 10% river POM. The relative importance of river POM, marine POM and mangroves to the SOM pool decreased from fringing to barrier reefs. Conversely, the relative importance of seagrass, Trichodesmium spp. and macroalgae increased along this gradient. Overall, spatial fluctuations in POM and SOM were much greater than in primary producers. Seasonal fluctuations were low for all OM sources. Our results demonstrated that a large variety of OM sources sustain coral reefs, varying in their origin, composition and role and suggest that δ13C was a more useful fingerprint than δ15N in this endeavour. This study also suggested substantial OM exchanges and trophic connections between coral reefs and surrounding ecosystems. Finally, the importance of accounting for environmental characteristics at small temporal and spatial scales before drawing general patterns is

  5. Sources and sinks of branched tetraether lipids and bacteriohopanepolyols in a major river system (Yenisei River – Kara Sea) : Implications for their application as geochemical tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and predicting climate variability is a major scientific challenge, especially as climate-induced environmental change will impact on human society. In order to constrain the magnitude of this impact, models to predict future climates are increasingly complex, and partly based on what

  6. Sources and sinks of branched tetraether lipids and bacteriohopanepolyols in a major river system (Yenisei River – Kara Sea: Implications for their application as geochemical tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and predicting climate variability is a major scientific challenge, especiallyas climate-induced environmental change will impact on human society. In order to constrainthe magnitude of this impact, models to predict future climates are increasingly complex, andpartly based on what is

  7. Identifying the Sources Contributing to PM Exceedances in Ostrava, Czech Republic, Using Passive Aerosol Sampling Coupled with Computer-Controlled Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conducted a multi-pollutant source apportionment study in 2012 to quantify the impact of regional as well as local sources on air quality in the Ostrava metropolitan area...

  8. Long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in Pacific cods from coastal areas in northern Japan: A major source of human dietary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yukiko; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Harada, Kouji H.; Koizumi, Akio; Kimura, Osamu; Endo, Tetsuya; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) contamination of edible fish muscle from Japanese coastal waters. The concentrations of PFCAs with 8–14 carbon atoms (C8–C14) in Pacific cods in Hokkaido, Japan were 51 (median: pg/g-wet weight) for C8, 93 for C9, 99 for C10, 746 for C11, 416 for C12, 404 for C13, and 93 for C14. The levels of C9–C14 PFCAs in fish were strongly correlated to each other, but not to C8 and the other chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, indicating that C9–C14 PFCAs have a different emission source and/or bioaccumulation mechanism. The relative ratios between estimated PFCAs intake through fish consumption and the reported total dietary exposure of PFCAs were less than 1 for C8 to C9, but were more than 1 for C10 to C14. This result strongly suggests that fish consumption is a significant source of human dietary exposure to C10–C14 PFCAs. - Highlights: • Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids were detected in edible cod fish from Japanese coastal waters. • The levels of long-chain PFCAs in fish were independent from those of C8 and other POPs. • Long chain PFCAs intake through fish and the reported total dietary exposure were comparable. • Sea fish such as Pacific cod may be a significant human dietary source of long-chain PFCAs. - Sea fish are a significant source of long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids for the Japanese population

  9. Modeling explicit tropospheric oxidation through identifying volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, their impact on air quality and their signatures in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hairong

    Photochemical smog, characterized by high concentrations of ozone (O 3) and fine particles, is of great concern in the urban areas like the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Ambient O3 and its precursors were simultaneously measured for the first time at a site within the inland PRD region (WQS) and a site in Hong Kong (TC) from 22 October to 01 December 2007, in order to improve our understanding of the interplay of O3 pollution between Hong Kong and the inland PRD region, to explore the relationships between O3 and its precursors, and to identify the key volatile organic compound (VOC) species and emission source categories contributing to the O3 formation. Ratio analyses for trace gases and VOCs and back trajectory calculation revealed that the air masses arriving at WQS were more aged due to regional influence, whereas the air masses at TC were mainly affected by local emissions and/or regional transport. An observation-Based Model (OBM) was employed to determine the O 3-precursor relationship. At both sites, O3 production was found to be VOC-limited. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons played a key role in O 3 production, while reducing NO emissions aided the build up of O 3 concentrations. The contribution of carbonyls to O3 formation was firstly input in the OBM by using measured data, the results showed that the net O3 production derived from the OBM agreed better with the observed O3 increment after hourly carbonyl concentrations were included. A photochemical trajectory model was developed and used for the first time to simulate the formation of photochemical pollutants at WQS, Guangzhou during photochemical pollution episodes between 12 and 17 November, 2007. Calculated photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP) indices indicated that alkanes and oxygenated organic compounds had relatively low reactivity, while alkenes and aromatics presented high reactivity. Analysis of the emission inventory found that the sum of 60 of the 139 VOC species accounted for 91% of the

  10. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 in Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy) from four-year observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara, E-mail: mpc@unife.it [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17/19, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Bacco, Dimitri [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17/19, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Regional Agency for Prevention and Environment—ARPA, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Ferrari, Silvia; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna [Regional Agency for Prevention and Environment—ARPA, Emilia-Romagna (Italy); Visentin, Marco [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 17/19, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    The concentrations of organic and elemental carbon in PM{sub 2.5} aerosol samples were measured in two sites of Emilia Romagna (Po Valley, Northern Italy) in eight campaigns during different seasons from 2011 to 2014. Strong seasonality was observed with the highest OC concentrations during the cold periods (≈ 5.5 μg m{sup −3}) and the lowest in the warm months (≈ 2.7 μg m{sup −3}) as well as with higher EC levels in fall/winter (≈ 1.4 μg m{sup −3}) in comparison with spring/summer (≈ 0.6 μg m{sup −3}). Concerning spatial variability, there were no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between OC concentrations at the two sampling sites in each campaign, while the EC values were nearly twofold higher levels at the urban site than those at the rural one. Specific molecular markers were investigated to attempt the basic apportionment of OC by discriminating between the main emission sources of primary OC, such as fossil fuels burning – including traffic vehicle emission – residential wood burning, and bio-aerosol released from plants and microorganisms, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation processes generating OC{sub sec}. The investigated markers were low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids – to describe the contribution of secondary organic aerosol – anhydrosugars – to quantify primary emissions from biomass burning – bio-sugars – to qualitatively estimate biogenic sources – and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons – to differentiate among different combustion emissions. Using the levoglucosan tracer method, contribution of wood smoke to atmospheric OC concentration was computed. Wood burning accounts for 33% of OC in fall/winter and for 3% in spring/summer. A clear seasonal trend is also observed for the impact of secondary processes with higher contribution in the warm seasons (≈ 63%) in comparison with that in colder months (≈ 33%), that is consistent with enhanced solar radiation in spring/summer. - Highlights:

  11. Response to Letter Regarding the Louisiana Department of Environmental Protection's Position on the PSD Significant Emission Level for ODS at Existing Major Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  13. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  14. Fine mapping of a dominantly inherited powdery mildew resistance major-effect QTL, Pm1.1, in cucumber identifies a 41.1 kb region containing two tandemly arrayed cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuewen; Yu, Ting; Xu, Ruixue; Shi, Yang; Lin, Xiaojian; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Weng, Yiqun; Chen, Xuehao

    2016-03-01

    A dominantly inherited major-effect QTL for powdery mildew resistance in cucumber was fine mapped. Two tandemly arrayed cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase genes were identified as the most possible candidates. Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and other cucurbit crops, but the molecular genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucurbits are still poorly understood. In this study, through marker-assisted backcrossing with an elite cucumber inbred line, D8 (PM susceptible), we developed a single-segment substitution line, SSSL0.7, carrying 95 kb fragment from PM resistance donor, Jin5-508, that was defined by two microsatellite markers, SSR16472 and SSR16881. A segregating population with 3600 F2 plants was developed from the SSSL0.7 × D8 mating; segregation analysis confirmed a dominantly inherited major-effect QTL, Pm1.1 in cucumber chromosome 1 underlying PM resistance in SSSL0.7. New molecular markers were developed through exploring the next generation resequenced genomes of Jin5-508 and D8. Linkage analysis and QTL mapping in a subset of the F2 plants delimited the Pm1.1 locus into a 41.1 kb region, in which eight genes were predicted. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed that two concatenated genes, Csa1M064780 and Csa1M064790 encoding the same function of a cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, were the most likely candidate genes. GFP fusion protein-aided subcellular localization indicated that both candidate genes were located in the plasma membrane, but Csa1M064780 was also found in the nucleus. This is the first report of dominantly inherited PM resistance in cucumber. Results of this study will provide new insights into understanding the phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber. This work should also facilitate marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding for PM resistance.

  15. Identifying the source of petroleum pollution in sediment cores of southwest of the Caspian Sea using chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2017-02-15

    In this study, the concentration and sources of aliphatic and petroleum markers were investigated in 105 samples of Anzali, Rezvanshahr and Astara cores from the southwest of Caspian Sea. Petroleum importation was diagnosed as a main source in most depths of cores by the results of unresolved complex mixture, carbon preference index and hopanes and steranes. From the chemical diagnostic parameters, petroleum inputs in sediment of cores were determined to be different during years and the sources of hydrocarbons in some sections differed than Anzali and Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan oils. Diagenic ratios in most sediments of upper and middle sections in Astara core were determined to be highly similar to those of Azerbaijan oil, while the presence of Turkmenistan and Anzali oils were detected in a few sections of Anzali and Rezvanshahr cores and only five layers of downer section in Anzali core, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of noncoronary sources of left ventricular perfusion to intercoronary collateral-dependent myocardium due to chronic major vessel occlusion: absent contribution of luminal and extracardiac channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal, G.J.; Downey, H.F.; Bashour, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    Liminal contribution to perfusion of collateral-dependent left ventricular (LV) myocardium was evaluated in six dogs. A portion of LV free wall was rendered collateral-dependent by gradual occlusion of left circumflex artery with Ameroid constrictor. Eight to 10 weeks after implantation of constrictor, measurements of LV myocardial flow were made by left atrial injections of 9-10 micro radioactive microspheres. To measure total collateral flow, microspheres were injected under control conditions, and to measure luminal contribution to collateral flow, microspheres were injected after ligation of right coronary artery during extracorporeal perfusion of left common coronary artery (LCCA) with microsphere-free arterial blood, and during stoppage of flow through LCCA. Under control conditions, myocardial blood flow in collateral-dependent region, 1.01 +/- 0.31 ml/min/gm, was not significantly different from that in normal region, 1.06 +/- 0.32 ml/min/gm. Flow from luminal collateral vessels was negligible (less than 0.005 ml/min/gm) in both collateral-dependent and normal myocardium, and was not affected by stoppage of flow through LCCA. These results indicate that luminal collateral vessels, as well as collateral vessels originating from other noncoronary sources, do not contribute significantly to perfusion of normal or collateral-dependent LV myocardium

  17. Research on geochronology and uranium source of sandstone-hosted uranium ore-formation in major uranium-productive basins, Northern-China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Liu Hanbin; Lin Jinrong; Fan Guang; Hou Yanxian

    2004-12-01

    A method is developed for correcting uranium content in uranium ore samples by considering the U-Ra equilibrium coefficient, then a U-Pb isochron is drawn up. By performing the above correction ore-formation ages of sandstone-hosted uranium mineralization which may be more realistic have been obtained. The comparative research on U-Pb isotopic ages of detritic zircon in ore-hosting sandstone and zircon in intermediate-acid igneous rocks in corresponding provenance area indicates that the ore-hosting sandstone is originated from the erosion of intermediate-acid igneous rocks and the latters are the material basis for the formation of the uranium-rich sandstone beds. On the basis of the study on U-Pb isotopic system evolution of the provenance rocks and sandstones from ore-hosting series, it is verified that the uranium sources of the sandstone-hosted uranium deposit are: the intermediate-acid igneous rocks with high content of mobile uranium, and the sandstone bodies pre-concentrated uranium. (authors)

  18. Multipolar spindle pole coalescence is a major source of kinetochore mis-attachment and chromosome mis-segregation in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T Silkworth

    Full Text Available Many cancer cells display a CIN (Chromosome Instability phenotype, by which they exhibit high rates of chromosome loss or gain at each cell cycle. Over the years, a number of different mechanisms, including mitotic spindle multipolarity, cytokinesis failure, and merotelic kinetochore orientation, have been proposed as causes of CIN. However, a comprehensive theory of how CIN is perpetuated is still lacking. We used CIN colorectal cancer cells as a model system to investigate the possible cellular mechanism(s underlying CIN. We found that CIN cells frequently assembled multipolar spindles in early mitosis. However, multipolar anaphase cells were very rare, and live-cell experiments showed that almost all CIN cells divided in a bipolar fashion. Moreover, fixed-cell analysis showed high frequencies of merotelically attached lagging chromosomes in bipolar anaphase CIN cells, and higher frequencies of merotelic attachments in multipolar vs. bipolar prometaphases. Finally, we found that multipolar CIN prometaphases typically possessed gamma-tubulin at all spindle poles, and that a significant fraction of bipolar metaphase/early anaphase CIN cells possessed more than one centrosome at a single spindle pole. Taken together, our data suggest a model by which merotelic kinetochore attachments can easily be established in multipolar prometaphases. Most of these multipolar prometaphase cells would then bi-polarize before anaphase onset, and the residual merotelic attachments would produce chromosome mis-segregation due to anaphase lagging chromosomes. We propose this spindle pole coalescence mechanism as a major contributor to chromosome instability in cancer cells.

  19. Application of the positive matrix factorization approach to identify heavy metal sources in sediments. A case study on the Mexican Pacific Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Macías, C; Sánchez-Reyna, G; Salazar-Coria, L; Schifter, I

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades, sediments collected in different sources of water bodies of the Tehuantepec Basin, located in the southeast of the Mexican Pacific Coast, showed that concentrations of heavy metals may pose a risk to the environment and human health. The extractable organic matter, geoaccumulation index, and enrichment factors were quantified for arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and the fine-grained sediment fraction. The non-parametric SiZer method was applied to assess the statistical significance of the reconstructed metal variation along time. This inference method appears to be particularly natural and well suited to temperature and other environmental reconstructions. In this approach, a collection of smooth of the reconstructed metal concentrations is considered simultaneously, and inferences about the significance of the metal trends can be made with respect to time. Hence, the database represents a consolidated set of available and validated water and sediment data of an urban industrialized area, which is very useful as case study site. The positive matrix factorization approach was used in identification and source apportionment of the anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments. Regionally, metals and organic matter are depleted relative to crustal abundance in a range of 45-55 %, while there is an inorganic enrichment from lithogenous/anthropogenic sources of around 40 %. Only extractable organic matter, Pb, As, and Cd can be related with non-crustal sources, suggesting that additional input cannot be explained by local runoff or erosion processes.

  20. Assessment of sorghum germplasm from Burkina Faso and South Africa to identify new sources of resistance to grain mold and anthracnose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is an important worldwide crop whose yield can be significantly reduced by anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineola) and grain mold diseases (multiple fungi). The identification of new genetic sources of resistance to both diseases is imperative for the development of new sorghum varieties. T...

  1. TOWARD IDENTIFYING THE UNASSOCIATED GAMMA-RAY SOURCE 1FGL J1311.7-3429 WITH X-RAY AND OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Maeda, K. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yatsu, Y.; Kawai, N. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ohokayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Urata, Y.; Tsai, A. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Cheung, C. C. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Totani, T.; Makiya, R. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hanayama, H.; Miyaji, T., E-mail: kataoka.jun@waseda.jp [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 1024-1 Arakawa, Ishigaki, Okinawa, 907-0024 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    We present deep optical and X-ray follow-up observations of the bright unassociated Fermi-LAT gamma-ray source 1FGL J1311.7-3429. The source was already known as an unidentified EGRET source (3EG J1314-3431, EGR J1314-3417), hence its nature has remained uncertain for the past two decades. For the putative counterpart, we detected a quasi-sinusoidal optical modulation of {Delta}m {approx} 2 mag with a period of {approx_equal}1.5 hr in the Rc, r', and g' bands. Moreover, we found that the amplitude of the modulation and peak intensity changed by {approx}>1 mag and {approx}0.5 mag, respectively, over our total six nights of observations from 2012 March to May. Combined with Swift UVOT data, the optical-UV spectrum is consistent with a blackbody temperature, kT {approx_equal} 1 eV and the emission volume radius R{sub bb} {approx_equal} 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} d{sub kpc} km (d{sub kpc} is the distance to the source in units of 1 kpc). In contrast, deep Suzaku observations conducted in 2009 and 2011 revealed strong X-ray flares with a light curve characterized with a power spectrum density of P(f) {proportional_to} f {sup -2.0{+-}0.4}, but the folded X-ray light curves suggest an orbital modulation also in X-rays. Together with the non-detection of a radio counterpart, and significant curved spectrum and non-detection of variability in gamma-rays, the source may be the second 'radio-quiet' gamma-ray emitting millisecond pulsar candidate after 1FGL J2339.7-0531, although the origin of flaring X-ray and optical variability remains an open question.

  2. Oil from transgenic Camelina sativa containing over 25 % n-3 long-chain PUFA as the major lipid source in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, Mónica B; Li, Keshuai; Bucerzan, Valentin S; Sprague, Matthew; Sayanova, Olga; Usher, Sarah; Han, Lihua; Norambuena, Fernando; Torrissen, Ole; Napier, Johnathan A; Tocher, Douglas R; Olsen, Rolf E

    2018-06-01

    Facing a bottleneck in the growth of aquaculture, and a gap in the supply and demand of the highly beneficial n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), sustainable alternatives to traditional marine-based feeds are required. Therefore, in the present trial, a novel oil obtained from a genetically engineered oilseed crop, Camelina sativa, that supplied over 25 % n-3 LC-PUFA was tested as a sole dietary-added lipid source in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed. Three groups of fish were fed three experimental diets for 12 weeks with the same basal composition and containing 20 % added oil supplied by either a blend of fish oil and rapeseed oil (1:3) (COM) reflecting current commercial formulations, wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or the novel transgenic Camelina oil (TCO). There were no negative effects on the growth, survival rate or health of the fish. The whole fish and flesh n-3 LC-PUFA levels were highest in fish fed TCO, with levels more than 2-fold higher compared with those of fish fed the COM and WCO diets, respectively. Diet TCO had no negative impacts on the evaluated immune and physiological parameters of head kidney monocytes. The transcriptomic responses of liver and mid-intestine showed only mild effects on metabolism genes. Overall, the results clearly indicated that the oil from transgenic Camelina was highly efficient in supplying n-3 LC-PUFA providing levels double that obtained with a current commercial standard, and similar to those a decade ago before substantial dietary fishmeal and oil replacement.

  3. Metagenomic evidence for sulfur lithotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria as the major energy source for primary productivity in a sub-aerial arctic glacial deposit, Borup Fiord Pass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katherine E; Williamson, Charles; Grasby, Stephen E; Spear, John R; Templeton, Alexis S

    2013-01-01

    We combined free enenergy calculations and metagenomic analyses of an elemental sulfur (S(0)) deposit on the surface of Borup Fiord Pass Glacier in the Canadian High Arctic to investigate whether the energy available from different redox reactions in an environment predicts microbial metabolism. Many S, C, Fe, As, Mn, and [Formula: see text] oxidation reactions were predicted to be energetically feasible in the deposit, and aerobic oxidation of S(0) was the most abundant chemical energy source. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence data showed that the dominant phylotypes were Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum, both Epsilonproteobacteria known to be capable of sulfur lithotrophy. Sulfur redox genes were abundant in the metagenome, but sox genes were significantly more abundant than reverse dsr (dissimilatory sulfite reductase)genes. Interestingly, there appeared to be habitable niches that were unoccupied at the depth of genome coverage obtained. Photosynthesis and [Formula: see text] oxidation should both be energetically favorable, but we found few or no functional genes for oxygenic or anoxygenic photosynthesis, or for [Formula: see text] oxidation by either oxygen (nitrification) or nitrite (anammox). The free energy, SSU rRNA gene and quantitative functional gene data are all consistent with the hypothesis that sulfur-based chemolithoautotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria (Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum) is the main form of primary productivity at this site, instead of photosynthesis. This is despite the presence of 24-h sunlight, and the fact that photosynthesis is not known to be inhibited by any of the environmental conditions present. This is the first time that Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum have been shown to dominate a sub-aerial environment, rather than anoxic or sulfidic settings. We also found that Flavobacteria dominate the surface of the sulfur deposits. We hypothesize that this aerobic heterotroph uses enough oxygen to create a microoxic

  4. Metagenomic evidence for sulfur lithotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria as the major energy source for primary productivity in a sub-aerial arctic glacial deposit, Borup Fiord Pass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Wright

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We combined free energy calculations and metagenomic analyses of an elemental sulfur (S0 deposit on the surface of Borup Fiord Pass Glacier in the Canadian High Arctic to investigate whether the energy available from different redox reactions in an environment predicts microbial metabolism. Many S, C, Fe, As, Mn and NH4+ oxidation reactions were predicted to be energetically feasible in the deposit, and aerobic oxidation of S0 was the most abundant chemical energy source. Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequence data showed that the dominant phylotypes were Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum, both Epsilonproteobacteria known to be capable of sulfur lithotrophy. Sulfur redox genes were abundant in the metagenome, but sox genes were significantly more abundant than reverse dsr genes. Interestingly, there appeared to be habitable niches that were unoccupied at the depth of genome coverage obtained. Photosynthesis and NH4+ oxidation should both be energetically favorable, but we found few or no functional genes for oxygenic or anoxygenic photosynthesis, or for NH4+ oxidation by either oxygen (nitrification or nitrite (anammox. The free energy, SSU rRNA gene and quantitative functional gene data are all consistent with the hypothesis that sulfur-based chemolithoautotrophy by Epsilonproteobacteria (Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum is the main form of primary productivity at this site, instead of photosynthesis. This is despite the presence of 24-hour sunlight, and the fact that photosynthesis is not known to be inhibited by any of the environmental conditions present. This is the first time that Sulfurovum and Sulfuricurvum have been shown to dominate a sub-aerial environment, rather than anoxic or sulfidic settings. We also found that Flavobacteria dominate the surface of the sulfur deposits. We hypothesize that this aerobic heterotroph uses enough oxygen to create a microoxic environment in the sulfur below, where the Epsilonproteobacteria can

  5. Bacterial indicator occurrence and the use of an F+ specific RNA coliphage assay to identify fecal sources in Homosassa Springs, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Stokes, Rodger; Rose, J.B.; Paul, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    A microbiological water quality study of Homosassa Springs State Wildlife Park (HSSWP) and surrounding areas was undertaken. Samples were collected in November of 1997 (seven sites) and again in November of 1998 (nine sites). Fecal bacterial concentrations (total and fecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and enterococci) were measured as relative indicators of fecal contamination. F+-specific coliphage genotyping was performed to determine the source of fecal contamination at the study sites. Bacterial levels were considerably higher at most sites in the 1997 sampling compared to the 1998 sampling, probably because of the greater rainfall that year. In November of 1997, 2 of the 7 sites were in violation of all indicator standards and guidance levels. In November of 1998, 1 of 9 sites was in violation of all indicator standard and guidance levels. The highest concentrations of all fecal indicators were found at a station downstream of the animal holding pens in HSSWP. The lowest levels of indicators were found at the Homosassa Main Spring vent. Levels of fecal indicators downstream of HSSWP (near the point of confluence with the river) were equivalent to those found in the Southeastern Fork and areas upstream of the park influences. F+ specific RNA coliphage analysis indicated that fecal contamination at all sites that tested positive was from animal sources (mammals and birds). These results suggest that animal (indigenous and those in HSSWP) and not human sources influenced microbial water quality in the area of Homosassa River covered by this study.

  6. Water and rock geochemistry, geologic cross sections, geochemical modeling, and groundwater flow modeling for identifying the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; DeWitt, Ed; Wirt, Laurie; Arnold, L. Rick; Horton, John D.

    2011-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) seeks additional information to better understand the source(s) of groundwater and associated groundwater flow paths to Montezuma Well in Montezuma Castle National Monument, central Arizona. The source of water to Montezuma Well, a flowing sinkhole in a desert setting, is poorly understood. Water emerges from the middle limestone facies of the lacustrine Verde Formation, but the precise origin of the water and its travel path are largely unknown. Some have proposed artesian flow to Montezuma Well through the Supai Formation, which is exposed along the eastern margin of the Verde Valley and underlies the Verde Formation. The groundwater recharge zone likely lies above the floor of the Verde Valley somewhere to the north or east of Montezuma Well, where precipitation is more abundant. Additional data from groundwater, surface water, and bedrock geology are required for Montezuma Well and the surrounding region to test the current conceptual ideas, to provide new details on the groundwater flow in the area, and to assist in future management decisions. The results of this research will provide information for long-term water resource management and the protection of water rights.

  7. Combining litter observations with a regional ocean model to identify sources and sinks of floating debris in a semi-enclosed basin: The Adriatic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel F.; Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Visual ship transect surveys provide crucial information about the density, and spatial distribution of floating anthropogenic litter in a basin. However, such observations provide a 'snapshot' of local conditions at a given time and cannot be used to deduce the provenance of the litter or to pre...... results indicate that anthropogenic macro debris originates largely from coastal sources near population centers and is advected by the cyclonic surface circulation until it strands on the southwest (Italian) coast, exits the Adriatic, or recirculates in the southern gyre....

  8. An Ocean Basin of Dirt? Using Molecular Biomarkers and Radiocarbon to Identify Organic Carbon Sources and their Preservation in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H.; Belicka, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    In the modern Arctic Ocean, primary production in waters over the broad continental shelves and under ice contributes an estimated 250 Mt/yr of POC to Arctic waters. The delivery of terrestrial material from large rivers, ice transport and through coastal erosion adds at least an additional 12 Mt/yr of POC. Although the marine organic carbon signal in Arctic Ocean exceeds that of terrestrial carbon by an order or magnitude or more, recent evidence suggests that this balance is not maintained and significant fractions of terrestrial carbon is preserved in sediments. Using an integrated approach combining lipid biomarkers and radiocarbon dating in particles and sediments, the process of organic carbon recycling and historical changes in its sources and preservation has been examined. A suite of lipid biomarkers in particles and sediments of western Arctic shelves and basins were measured and principle components analysis (PCA) used to allow a robust comparison among the 120+ individual compounds to assign organic sources and relative inputs. Offshore particles from the chlorophyll maximum contained abundant algal markers (e.g. 20:5 and 22:6 FAMEs), low concentrations of terrestrial markers (amyrins and 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3b-ol), and reflected modern 14C values. Particles present in deeper halocline waters also reflect marine production, but a portion of older, terrestrial carbon accompanies the sinking of the spring bloom. Surface and deeper sediments of basins contain older organic carbon and low concentrations of algal biomarkers, suggesting that marine carbon produced in surface waters is rapidly recycled. Taken together, these observations suggest that marine derived organic matter produced in shallow waters fuels carbon cycling, but relatively small amounts are preserved in sediments. As a result, the organic carbon preserved in sediments contrasts sharply to that typically observed in lower latitudes, with an increasing terrestrial signature with distance

  9. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was −254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, −218‰ in the San Joaquin River, −175‰ in the California State Water Project and −152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California’s Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, −204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between −275 and −687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California’s Central Valley.

  10. Identifying source and formation altitudes of nitrates in drinking water from Réunion Island, France, using a multi-isotopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M; Nicolini, Eric; Gauthier, Virginie

    2012-09-01

    Nitrate concentrations, water isotopes (δ(2)H and δ(18)O(water)) and associated nitrate isotopes (δ(15)N(nitrate) and δ(18)O(nitrate)) from 10 drinking water wells, 5 fresh water springs and the discharge from 3 wastewater treatment stations in Réunion Island, located in the Indian Ocean, were analysed. We used a multi isotopic approach to investigate the extent of nitrate contamination, nitrate formation altitude and source of nitrates in Réunion Island's principal aquifer. Water from these study sites contained between 0.1 and 85.3 mg/L nitrate. δ(15)N(nitrate) values between +6 and +14‰ suggested the main sources of contamination were animal and/or human waste, rather than inorganic (synthetic) fertilisers, infiltrating through the subsurface into the saturated zone, due to rainfall leaching of the unsaturated zone at various altitudes of precipitation. Based on δ(15)N(nitrate) values alone, it was not possible to distinguish between animal and human activities responsible for the contamination of each specific catchment. However, using a multi isotope approach (δ(18)O(water) and δ(15)N(nitrate)), it was possible to relate the average altitude of rainfall infiltration (δ(18)O(water)) associated with the nitrate contamination (δ(18)O(nitrate)). This relationship between land use, rainfall recharge altitude and isotopic composition (δ(15)N(nitrate) and δ(18)O(water)) discriminated between the influences of human waste at lower (below 600 m elevation) or animal derived contamination (at elevations between 600 and 1300 m). By further comparing the theoretical altitude of nitrate formation calculated by the δ(18)O(nitrate), it was possible to determine that only 5 out of 15 fresh water wells and springs followed the conservative nitrate formation mechanism of 2/3δ(18)O(water)+1/3δ(18)O(air), to give nitrate formation altitudes which corresponded to land use activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A comprehensive assessment of mercury exposure in penguin populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere: Using trophic calculations to identify sources of population-level variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasso, Rebecka L.; Chiaradia, André; Polito, Michael J.; Raya Rey, Andrea; Emslie, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mercury concentrations documented for 10 species of penguins (26 breeding populations). • Mercury concentrations ⩽2.00 ppm in feathers from 18/26 penguin populations. • Trophic level calculations revealed source of population-level variation in mercury. • First documentation of geographic mercury ‘hotspots’ for penguin populations. - Abstract: The wide geographic distribution of penguins (Order Sphenisciformes) throughout the Southern Hemisphere provided a unique opportunity to use a single taxonomic group as biomonitors of mercury among geographically distinct marine ecosystems. Mercury concentrations were compared among ten species of penguins representing 26 geographically distinct breeding populations. Mercury concentrations were relatively low (⩽2.00 ppm) in feathers from 18/26 populations considered. Population-level differences in trophic level explained variation in mercury concentrations among Little, King, and Gentoo penguin populations. However, Southern Rockhopper and Magellanic penguins breeding on Staten Island, Tierra del Fuego, had the highest mercury concentrations relative to their conspecifics despite foraging at a lower trophic level. The concurrent use of stable isotope and mercury data allowed us to document penguin populations at the greatest risk of exposure to harmful concentrations of mercury as a result of foraging at a high trophic level or in geographic ‘hot spots’ of mercury availability

  12. A Point Source of a Different Color: Identifying a Gap in United States Regulatory Policy for “Green” CSO Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno F. Levy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 850 billion gallons of untreated combined sewer overflow (CSO is discharged into waters of the United States each year. Recent changes in CSO management policy support green infrastructure (GI technologies as “front of the pipe” approaches to discharge mitigation by detention/reduction of urban stormwater runoff. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment have been considered among suites of GI solutions. However, these wetlands differ fundamentally from other GI technologies in that they are “end of the pipe” treatment systems that discharge from a point source, and are therefore regulated in the U.S. under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES. We use a comparative regulatory analysis to examine the U.S. policy framework for CSO treatment wetlands. We find in all cases that permitting authorities have used best professional judgment to determine effluent limits and compliance monitoring requirements, referencing technology and water quality-based standards originally developed for traditional “grey” treatment systems. A qualitative comparison with Europe shows less stringent regulatory requirements, perhaps due to institutionalized design parameters. We recommend that permitting authorities develop technical guidance documents for evaluation of “green” CSO treatment systems that account for their unique operational concerns and benefits with respect to sustainable development.

  13. Collecting Evidence to Inform Salt Reduction Policies in Argentina: Identifying Sources of Sodium Intake in Adults from a Population-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Elorriaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum content of sodium in selected processed foods (PF in Argentina was limited by a law enacted in 2013. Data about intake of these and other foods are necessary for policy planning, implementation, evaluation, and monitoring. We examined data from the CESCAS I population-based cohort study to assess the main dietary sources among PF and frequency of discretionary salt use by sex, age, and education attainment, before full implementation of the regulations in 2015. We used a validated 34-item FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess PF intake and discretional salt use. Among 2127 adults in two Argentinean cities, aged 35–76 years, mean salt intake from selected PFs was 4.7 g/day, higher among male and low education subgroups. Categories of foods with regulated maximum limits provided near half of the sodium intake from PFs. Use of salt (always/often at the table and during cooking was reported by 9% and 73% of the population, respectively, with higher proportions among young people. Reducing salt consumption to the target of 5 g/day may require adjustments to the current regulation (reducing targets, including other food categories, as well as reinforcing strategies such as education campaigns, labeling, and voluntary agreement with bakeries.

  14. Geologic studies to identify the source for high levels of radium and barium in illinois ground-water supplies: a preliminary report. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, K.; Specht, S.A.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Griffin, R.A.; Larson, T.E.

    1978-08-01

    Analyses of water from municipal wells in Illinois by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency showed that more than 300 wells exceeded the upper limit for gross alpha radiation in drinking water. More than 30 wells exceeded the upper limit for barium in drinking water. High levels of radiation in ground water were more extensive in areal distribution than the high levels of barium. All of the affected wells were finished in bedrock, primarily in rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems of northern Illinois. The geologic settings in which the high levels of radiation and barium were documented indicated that the problem was not restricted to Illinoise. The source of the radiation in ground water was thought to be the natural occurrence of the radioactive elements uranium-238 and thorium-232 in the aquifer rocks. Analyses of a limited number of rock samples indicated that uranium and thorium concentrations were highest in fine-grained sediments in the aquifer systems; the highest concentration was in shales that confine the aquifer. Chemical analyses of rock samples indicated that high concentrations of barium were widespread in rocks of the Cambrian and Ordovician Systems. The concentration of barium in ground water was controlled by solubility equilibria reactions with sulfate ion. A map showing sulfate ion concentration in the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer could be used to delimit regions where barium might occur at concentrations exceeding 1 milligram/liter

  15. Development and evaluation of a decision-supporting model for identifying the source location of microbial intrusions in real gravity sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minyoung; Choi, Christopher Y; Gerba, Charles P

    2013-09-01

    Assuming a scenario of a hypothetical pathogenic outbreak, we aimed this study at developing a decision-support model for identifying the location of the pathogenic intrusion as a means of facilitating rapid detection and efficient containment. The developed model was applied to a real sewer system (the Campbell wash basin in Tucson, AZ) in order to validate its feasibility. The basin under investigation was divided into 14 sub-basins. The geometric information associated with the sewer network was digitized using GIS (Geological Information System) and imported into an urban sewer network simulation model to generate microbial breakthrough curves at the outlet. A pre-defined amount of Escherichia coli (E. coli), which is an indicator of fecal coliform bacteria, was hypothetically introduced into 56 manholes (four in each sub-basin, chosen at random), and a total of 56 breakthrough curves of E. coli were generated using the simulation model at the outlet. Transport patterns were classified depending upon the location of the injection site (manhole), various known characteristics (peak concentration and time, pipe length, travel time, etc.) extracted from each E. coli breakthrough curve and the layout of sewer network. Using this information, we back-predicted the injection location once an E. coli intrusion was detected at a monitoring site using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The results showed that ANNs identified the location of the injection sites with 57% accuracy; ANNs correctly recognized eight out of fourteen expressions with relying on data from a single detection sensor. Increasing the available sensors within the basin significantly improved the accuracy of the simulation results (from 57% to 100%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In situ quantification of Br and Cl in minerals and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: a powerful tool to identify fluid sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Rusk, Brian; Spandler, Carl; Emsbo, Poul; Oliver, Nicholas H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bromine and chlorine are important halogens for fluid source identification in the Earth's crust, but until recently we lacked routine analytical techniques to determine the concentration of these elements in situ on a micrometer scale in minerals and fluid inclusions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of in situ Cl and Br measurements by LA-ICP-MS through analysis of a range of scapolite grains with known Cl and Br concentrations. We assess the effects of varying spot sizes, variable plasma energy and resolve the contribution of polyatomic interferences on Br measurements. Using well-characterised natural scapolite standards, we show that LA-ICP-MS analysis allows measurement of Br and Cl concentrations in scapolite, and fluid inclusions as small as 16 μm in diameter and potentially in sodalite and a variety of other minerals, such as apatite, biotite, and amphibole. As a demonstration of the accuracy and potential of Cl and Br analyses by LA-ICP-MS, we analysed natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite and compared them to crush and leach ion chromatography Cl/Br analyses. Limit of detection for Br is ~8 μg g−1, whereas relatively high Cl concentrations (> 500 μg g−1) are required for quantification by LA-ICP-MS. In general, our LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion results agree well with ion chromatography (IC) data. Additionally, combined cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS analyses on natural scapolites within a well-studied regional metamorphic suite in South Australia demonstrate that Cl and Br can be quantified with a ~25 μm resolution in natural minerals. This technique can be applied to resolve a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  17. ChimericSeq: An open-source, user-friendly interface for analyzing NGS data to identify and characterize viral-host chimeric sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Fwu-Shan; Jongeneel, Patrick; Steffen, Jamin D.; Lin, Selena; Jain, Surbhi; Song, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Identification of viral integration sites has been important in understanding the pathogenesis and progression of diseases associated with particular viral infections. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled researchers to understand the impact that viral integration has on the host, such as tumorigenesis. Current computational methods to analyze NGS data of virus-host junction sites have been limited in terms of their accessibility to a broad user base. In this study, we developed a software application (named ChimericSeq), that is the first program of its kind to offer a graphical user interface, compatibility with both Windows and Mac operating systems, and optimized for effectively identifying and annotating virus-host chimeric reads within NGS data. In addition, ChimericSeq’s pipeline implements custom filtering to remove artifacts and detect reads with quantitative analytical reporting to provide functional significance to discovered integration sites. The improved accessibility of ChimericSeq through a GUI interface in both Windows and Mac has potential to expand NGS analytical support to a broader spectrum of the scientific community. PMID:28829778

  18. ChimericSeq: An open-source, user-friendly interface for analyzing NGS data to identify and characterize viral-host chimeric sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fwu-Shan Shieh

    Full Text Available Identification of viral integration sites has been important in understanding the pathogenesis and progression of diseases associated with particular viral infections. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS has enabled researchers to understand the impact that viral integration has on the host, such as tumorigenesis. Current computational methods to analyze NGS data of virus-host junction sites have been limited in terms of their accessibility to a broad user base. In this study, we developed a software application (named ChimericSeq, that is the first program of its kind to offer a graphical user interface, compatibility with both Windows and Mac operating systems, and optimized for effectively identifying and annotating virus-host chimeric reads within NGS data. In addition, ChimericSeq's pipeline implements custom filtering to remove artifacts and detect reads with quantitative analytical reporting to provide functional significance to discovered integration sites. The improved accessibility of ChimericSeq through a GUI interface in both Windows and Mac has potential to expand NGS analytical support to a broader spectrum of the scientific community.

  19. Sequencing of mitochondrial genomes of nine Aspergillus and Penicillium species identifies mobile introns and accessory genes as main sources of genome size variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardar, Vinita; Abrams, Natalie F; Hostetler, Jessica; Paukstelis, Paul J; Pakala, Suchitra; Pakala, Suman B; Zafar, Nikhat; Abolude, Olukemi O; Payne, Gary; Andrianopoulos, Alex; Denning, David W; Nierman, William C

    2012-12-12

    The genera Aspergillus and Penicillium include some of the most beneficial as well as the most harmful fungal species such as the penicillin-producer Penicillium chrysogenum and the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Their mitochondrial genomic sequences may hold vital clues into the mechanisms of their evolution, population genetics, and biology, yet only a handful of these genomes have been fully sequenced and annotated. Here we report the complete sequence and annotation of the mitochondrial genomes of six Aspergillus and three Penicillium species: A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. oryzae, A. flavus, Neosartorya fischeri (A. fischerianus), A. terreus, P. chrysogenum, P. marneffei, and Talaromyces stipitatus (P. stipitatum). The accompanying comparative analysis of these and related publicly available mitochondrial genomes reveals wide variation in size (25-36 Kb) among these closely related fungi. The sources of genome expansion include group I introns and accessory genes encoding putative homing endonucleases, DNA and RNA polymerases (presumed to be of plasmid origin) and hypothetical proteins. The two smallest sequenced genomes (A. terreus and P. chrysogenum) do not contain introns in protein-coding genes, whereas the largest genome (T. stipitatus), contains a total of eleven introns. All of the sequenced genomes have a group I intron in the large ribosomal subunit RNA gene, suggesting that this intron is fixed in these species. Subsequent analysis of several A. fumigatus strains showed low intraspecies variation. This study also includes a phylogenetic analysis based on 14 concatenated core mitochondrial proteins. The phylogenetic tree has a different topology from published multilocus trees, highlighting the challenges still facing the Aspergillus systematics. The study expands the genomic resources available to fungal biologists by providing mitochondrial genomes with consistent annotations for future genetic, evolutionary and population

  20. Benthic Foraminifers identify the source of displaced sediment from a sediment density flow at 1840 m near the Seafloor Instrument Node of the Monterey Coordinated Canyon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Paull, C. K.; Gwiazda, R.; Barry, J.; Carvajal, C.; Clare, M. A.; Cartigny, M.; Chaffey, M. R.; Parsons, D. R.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Wolfson-Schwehr, M.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are found along the slopes of most continental margins and turbidity currents are thought to be the primary mechanism responsible for transporting sediment through them to deep-sea fans. The initiation sites of these flows are difficult to locate with any degree of precision from lithology alone. Fortunately, the presence of allochthonous microscopic remains, such as benthic foraminifers, can aid in the identification of the source of the displaced sediments. In Monterey Canyon, offshore California, a Seafloor Instrument Node (SIN) and adjacent mooring in the Coordinated Canyon Experiment indicate that a February 2017 turbidity current reached 1840 m water depth. In April 2017, one push core was obtained on each of four sides of the SIN just outside its frame and six others from 30-100 m away. Each was cut into 1 cm slices, stained with rose Bengal, washed, and analyzed for their microscopic constituents. Material recovered included terrestrial debris (wood, leaves, seeds, highway safety spheres, and volcanic glass) as well as foraminiferal tests. Dead benthic foraminifers from the estuarine (0-10 m), inner shelf (0-50 m), outer shelf (50-150 m), slope break (150 m), upper bathyal (150-500 m), and middle bathyal (500-2000 m) biofacies were present, suggesting a staged progression of sediment downslope from the continental shelf and slope. Living (rose Bengal stained) foraminifers recovered represent estuarine (Ammonia tepida, Elphidium excavatum), inner shelf (Buccella frigida, B. tenerrima, Buliminella elegantissima, Cibicides fletcheri, Nonionella spp., Rotorbinella turbinata), and upper bathyal (Bolivina pacifica, B. spissa, Epistominella exigua, Uvigerina peregrina) species as well as an in-situ middle bathyal biofacies (Bolivina argentea, B. spissa, Buliminella tenuata, Epistominella pacifica, Globobulimina spp., Uvigerina peregrina, U. hispida). The presence of living allochthonous benthic foraminifers from these shallower biofacies suggests

  1. A Functional, Genome-wide Evaluation of Liposensitive Yeast Identifies the “ARE2 Required for Viability” (ARV1) Gene Product as a Major Component of Eukaryotic Fatty Acid Resistance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Garbarino, Jeanne; Liu, Ying; Moon, James; Schneider, Kerry; Henneberry, Annette; Billheimer, Jeff; Millar, John S.; Marchadier, Dawn; Valasek, Mark A.; Joblin-Mills, Aidan; Gulati, Sonia; Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Repa, Joyce J.; Rader, Dan; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    The toxic subcellular accumulation of lipids predisposes several human metabolic syndromes, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of neurodegeneration. To identify pathways that prevent lipid-induced cell death, we performed a genome-wide fatty acid sensitivity screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 167 yeast mutants as sensitive to 0.5 mm palmitoleate, 45% of which define pathways that were conserved in humans. 63 lesions also impacted the status of the lipid droplet; however, this was not correlated to the degree of fatty acid sensitivity. The most liposensitive yeast strain arose due to deletion of the “ARE2 required for viability” (ARV1) gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved, potential lipid transporter that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Down-regulation of mammalian ARV1 in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells or HEK293 cells resulted in decreased neutral lipid synthesis, increased fatty acid sensitivity, and lipoapoptosis. Conversely, elevated expression of human ARV1 in HEK293 cells or mouse liver significantly increased triglyceride mass and lipid droplet number. The ARV1-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was accompanied by up-regulation of DGAT1, a triglyceride synthesis gene, and the fatty acid transporter, CD36. Furthermore, ARV1 was identified as a transcriptional of the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a key regulator of lipid homeostasis whose transcriptional targets include DGAT1 and CD36. These results implicate ARV1 as a protective factor in lipotoxic diseases due to modulation of fatty acid metabolism. In conclusion, a lipotoxicity-based genetic screen in a model microorganism has identified 75 human genes that may play key roles in neutral lipid metabolism and disease. PMID:24273168

  2. A functional, genome-wide evaluation of liposensitive yeast identifies the "ARE2 required for viability" (ARV1) gene product as a major component of eukaryotic fatty acid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Garbarino, Jeanne; Liu, Ying; Moon, James; Schneider, Kerry; Henneberry, Annette; Billheimer, Jeff; Millar, John S; Marchadier, Dawn; Valasek, Mark A; Joblin-Mills, Aidan; Gulati, Sonia; Munkacsi, Andrew B; Repa, Joyce J; Rader, Dan; Sturley, Stephen L

    2014-02-14

    The toxic subcellular accumulation of lipids predisposes several human metabolic syndromes, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of neurodegeneration. To identify pathways that prevent lipid-induced cell death, we performed a genome-wide fatty acid sensitivity screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 167 yeast mutants as sensitive to 0.5 mm palmitoleate, 45% of which define pathways that were conserved in humans. 63 lesions also impacted the status of the lipid droplet; however, this was not correlated to the degree of fatty acid sensitivity. The most liposensitive yeast strain arose due to deletion of the "ARE2 required for viability" (ARV1) gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved, potential lipid transporter that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Down-regulation of mammalian ARV1 in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells or HEK293 cells resulted in decreased neutral lipid synthesis, increased fatty acid sensitivity, and lipoapoptosis. Conversely, elevated expression of human ARV1 in HEK293 cells or mouse liver significantly increased triglyceride mass and lipid droplet number. The ARV1-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was accompanied by up-regulation of DGAT1, a triglyceride synthesis gene, and the fatty acid transporter, CD36. Furthermore, ARV1 was identified as a transcriptional of the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a key regulator of lipid homeostasis whose transcriptional targets include DGAT1 and CD36. These results implicate ARV1 as a protective factor in lipotoxic diseases due to modulation of fatty acid metabolism. In conclusion, a lipotoxicity-based genetic screen in a model microorganism has identified 75 human genes that may play key roles in neutral lipid metabolism and disease.

  3. Identifying nitrate sources and transformations in surface water by combining dual isotopes of nitrate and stable isotope mixing model in a watershed with different land uses and multi-tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Lu, Baohong

    2017-04-01

    Nitrate is essential for the growth and survival of plants, animals and humans. However, excess nitrate in drinking water is regarded as a health hazard as it is linked to infant methemoglobinemia and esophageal cancer. Revealing nitrate characteristics and identifying its sources are fundamental for making effective water management strategies, but nitrate sources in multi-tributaries and mixed land covered watersheds remain unclear. It is difficult to determine the predominant NO3- sources using conventional water quality monitoring techniques. In our study, based on 20 surface water sampling sites for more than two years' monitoring from April 2012 to December 2014, water chemical and dual isotopic approaches (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) were integrated for the first time to evaluate nitrate characteristics and sources in the Huashan watershed, Jianghuai hilly region, East China. The results demonstrated that nitrate content in surface water was relatively low in the downstream (nitrate was observed at the source of the river in one of the sub-watersheds, which exhibited an exponential decline along the stream due to dilution, absorption by aquatic plants, and high forest cover. Although dramatically decline of nitrate occurred along the stream, denitrification was not found in surface water by analyzing δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- relationship. Proportional contributions of five potential nitrate sources (i.e., precipitation; manure and sewage; soil nitrogen; nitrate fertilizer; nitrate derived from ammonia fertilizer and rainfall) were estimated using a Bayesian isotope mixing model. Model results indicated nitrate sources varied significantly among different rainfall conditions, land use types, as well as anthropologic activities. In summary, coupling dual isotopes of nitrate (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-, simultaneously) with a Bayesian isotope mixing model offers a useful and practical way to qualitatively analyze nitrate sources and transformations as well as

  4. Integrated Network Analysis Identifies Fight-Club Nodes as a Class of Hubs Encompassing Key Putative Switch Genes That Induce Major Transcriptome Reprogramming during Grapevine Development[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named “fight-club hubs” characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named “switch genes” was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. PMID:25490918

  5. Identifying the source region of plasmaspheric hiss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laakso, H.; Santolík, Ondřej; Horne, R.; Kolmašová, Ivana; Escoubet, P.; Masson, A.; Taylor, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 9 (2015), s. 3141-3149 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasmaspheric hiss * plasmaspheric drainage plumes * plasmasphere * equatorial region of plumes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.212, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015GL063755/full

  6. A COMPARISON OF MAJOR ELEMENTS BETWEEN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND IGNEOUS ROCKS: AS A BASIC DETERMINATION OF THE SEDIMENT SOURCE AT UJUNG PENYUSUK WATERS, NORTH BANGKA,BANGKA BELITUNG PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediar Usman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Three igneous rock samples from the coast and five sediments from the marine of Ujung Penyusuk Waters have been used for chemistry analysis as the basic determination of sediment source. The result of chemistry analysis shows that the major element with relatively same pattern. In the igneous rock samples, the result of chemistry analysis shows the SiO2 ranges between 72.3 - 76.8%, Al2O3 (9.64 - 11.64%, and Fe2O3 ( 2.08 - 2.18%. In the marine sediment, the content of SiO2 is between 62.2 and 66.5%, Al2O3 (2.93 - 3.63% and Fe2O3 (21.19 - 24.40%. Other elements such as CaO, MgO, K2O, Na2O and TiO2 are relatively similar values in all samples. The difference of element content in marine sediment and coastal igneous rock occurs in Al2O3 and Fe2O3. The Al2O3 is small in marine sediment while the Fe2O3 is higher compared to igneous rocks. Decreasing of the Al2O3 (kaolinite in the marine sediment is caused by the character of the Al2O3 that was derived from quartz rich of igneous rocks forming kaolinite. It was than deposited in the sea floor. Increasing of the Fe2O3 in marine sediment is caused by addition reaction of the Fe from the sea. Generally, the content of the SiO2 (quartz in igneous rock and marine sediment belongs to the same group source that is acid igneous rock. The SiO2 in the sediment belongs to a group of granitoid.

  7. The Ursa Major supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  9. Genomewide association study identifies no major founder variant in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-10

    Dec 10, 2013 ... variant in Caucasian moyamoya disease ... 1Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate ... a low prevalence in European countries (Goto and Yonekawa. 1992; Kuroda and Houkin 2008). We have found that the p.R4810K variant in the ring finger protein 213 (RNF213).

  10. Genomewide association study identifies no major founder variant in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Young onset (<15 year). 14. –. Adult onset (≤15 year). 24. –. Clinical symptoms. Cerebral infarction. 18. –. TIAb. 6. –. Stroke. 3. –. Headache. 4. –. Hemorrhage. 1. –. Epilepsy. 2. –. Asymptomatic. 1. –. Otherc. 3. –. Clinical status. Bilateral. 35. –. Unilateral. 3. –. aSD, standard deviation; bTIA, transient ischemic attack; cother, ...

  11. Major roles for minor bacterial lipids identified by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Teresa A

    2017-11-01

    Mass spectrometry of lipids, especially those isolated from bacteria, has ballooned over the past two decades, affirming in the process the complexity of the lipidome. With this has come the identification of new and interesting lipid structures. Here is an overview of several novel lipids, from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with roles in health and disease, whose structural identification was facilitated using mass spectrometry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Subsurface occurrence and potential source areas of chlorinated ethenes identified using concentrations and concentration ratios, Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, conducted a study during 2003-05 to characterize the subsurface occurrence and identify potential source areas of the volatile organic compounds classified as chlorinated ethenes at U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Texas. The solubilized chlorinated ethenes detected in the alluvial aquifer originated as either released solvents (tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], and trans-1,2-dichloroethene [trans-DCE]) or degradation products of the released solvents (TCE, cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cis-DCE], and trans-DCE). The combined influences of topographic- and bedrock-surface configurations result in a water table that generally slopes away from a ground-water divide approximately coincident with bedrock highs and the 1-mile-long aircraft assembly building at AFP4. Highest TCE concentrations (10,000 to 920,000 micrograms per liter) occur near Building 181, west of Building 12, and at landfill 3. Highest PCE concentrations (500 to 920 micrograms per liter) occur near Buildings 4 and 5. Highest cis-DCE concentrations (5,000 to 710,000 micrograms per liter) occur at landfill 3. Highest trans-DCE concentrations (1,000 to 1,700 micrograms per liter) occur just south of Building 181 and at landfill 3. Ratios of parent-compound to daughter-product concentrations that increase in relatively short distances (tens to 100s of feet) along downgradient ground-water flow paths can indicate a contributing source in the vicinity of the increase. Largest increases in ratio of PCE to TCE concentrations are three orders of magnitude from 0.01 to 2.7 and 7.1 between nearby wells in the northeastern part of NAS-JRB. In the northern part of NAS-JRB, the largest increases in TCE to total DCE concentration ratios relative to ratios at upgradient wells are from 17 to

  13. Stable carbon (12/13C) and nitrogen (14/15N) isotopes as a tool for identifying the sources of cyanide in wastes and contaminated soils-A method development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weihmann, Jenny; Mansfeldt, Tim; Schulte, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of iron-cyanide complexes in the environment is of concern, since they are potentially hazardous. In order to determine the source of iron-cyanide complexes in contaminated soils and wastes, we developed a method based on the stable isotope ratios 13 C/ 12 C and 15 N/ 14 N of the complexed cyanide-ion (CN - ). The method was tested on three pure chemicals and two industrials wastes: blast-furnace sludge (BFS) and gas-purifier waste (GPW). The iron-cyanide complexes were converted into the solid cupric ferrocyanide, Cu 2 [Fe(China) 6 ].7H 2 O, followed by combustion and determination of the isotope-ratios by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Cupric ferrocyanide was obtained from the materials by (i) an alkaline extraction with 1 M NaOH and (ii) a distillate digestion. The [Fe(China) 6 ] 4- of the alkaline extraction was precipitated after adding Cu 2+ . The CN - of the distillate digestion was at first complexed with Fe 2+ under inert conditions and then precipitated after adding Cu 2+ . The δ 13 C-values obtained by the two methods differed slightly up to 1-3 per mille for standards and BFS. The difference was larger for alkaline-extracted GPW (4-7 per mille ), since non-cyanide C was co-extracted and co-precipitated. Therefore the distillate digestion technique is recommended when determining the C isotope ratios in samples rich in organic carbon. Since the δ 13 C-values of BFS are in the range of -30 to -24 per mille and of -17 to -5 per mille for GPW, carbon seems to be a suitable tracer for identifying the source of cyanide in both wastes. However, the δ 15 N-values overlapped for BFS and GPW, making nitrogen unsuitable as a tracer

  14. Development of a major hydroelectric project in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, Y.; Kwiatkowski, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Developing a major international energy project requires the assembly and close coordination of various factors. Some of the specific factors include identification of the client, specific project identification, establishing the need for the project, identifying the pros and cons of the project, technical and financial feasibility of the project, identifying sources of financing, identifying the competitions, studying possible teaming arrangements, involvement of local firms and representatives, and developing a strategy that will lead to the successful negotiation of the contract. This paper briefly addresses each of the factors

  15. Stable carbon ({sup 12/13}C) and nitrogen ({sup 14/15}N) isotopes as a tool for identifying the sources of cyanide in wastes and contaminated soils-A method development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weihmann, Jenny [Arbeitsgruppe Bodengeographie/Bodenkunde, Geographisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50923 Cologne (Germany); Mansfeldt, Tim [Arbeitsgruppe Bodengeographie/Bodenkunde, Geographisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50923 Cologne (Germany)]. E-mail: tim.mansfeldt@uni-koeln.de; Schulte, Ulrike [Lehrstuhl fuer Sediment- und Isotopengeologie, Institut fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2007-01-23

    The occurrence of iron-cyanide complexes in the environment is of concern, since they are potentially hazardous. In order to determine the source of iron-cyanide complexes in contaminated soils and wastes, we developed a method based on the stable isotope ratios {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C and {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N of the complexed cyanide-ion (CN{sup -}). The method was tested on three pure chemicals and two industrials wastes: blast-furnace sludge (BFS) and gas-purifier waste (GPW). The iron-cyanide complexes were converted into the solid cupric ferrocyanide, Cu{sub 2}[Fe(China){sub 6}].7H{sub 2}O, followed by combustion and determination of the isotope-ratios by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Cupric ferrocyanide was obtained from the materials by (i) an alkaline extraction with 1 M NaOH and (ii) a distillate digestion. The [Fe(China){sub 6}]{sup 4-} of the alkaline extraction was precipitated after adding Cu{sup 2+}. The CN{sup -} of the distillate digestion was at first complexed with Fe{sup 2+} under inert conditions and then precipitated after adding Cu{sup 2+}. The {delta} {sup 13}C-values obtained by the two methods differed slightly up to 1-3 per mille for standards and BFS. The difference was larger for alkaline-extracted GPW (4-7 per mille ), since non-cyanide C was co-extracted and co-precipitated. Therefore the distillate digestion technique is recommended when determining the C isotope ratios in samples rich in organic carbon. Since the {delta} {sup 13}C-values of BFS are in the range of -30 to -24 per mille and of -17 to -5 per mille for GPW, carbon seems to be a suitable tracer for identifying the source of cyanide in both wastes. However, the {delta} {sup 15}N-values overlapped for BFS and GPW, making nitrogen unsuitable as a tracer.

  16. An integrative model of employee responses to major organisational change.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberley, Nellie Anne

    2017-01-01

    One of the enduring issues facing organisations relates to the high number of change initiatives that fail outright or only partially meet expectations (Beer & Nohria, 2000). Although there are many potential causes of failed change, much of the extant change identifies resistance to change as the major source of this problem. In order to bring about successful organisational change, it is important that managers create a change-ready environment, one where employees accept and affectively co...

  17. SU-F-P-37: Implementation of An End-To-End QA Test of the Radiation Therapy Imaging, Planning and Delivery Process to Identify and Correct Possible Sources of Deviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas Aranda, F; Suarez, V; Arbiser, S; Sansogne, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To implement an end-to-end QA test of the radiation therapy imaging, planning and delivery process, aimed to assess the dosimetric agreement accuracy between planned and delivered treatment, in order to identify and correct possible sources of deviation. To establish an internal standard for machine commissioning acceptance. Me