WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify major areas

  1. spatially identifying vulnerable areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model structure is aimed at understanding the critical vulnerable factors that ... This paper incorporates multiple criteria and rank risk factors. ..... In terms of quantifying vulnerable areas within the country, the analysis is done based on 9 ...

  2. An abbreviated MLVA identifies Escherichia coli ST131 as the major extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing lineage in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Albayati, A; Jørgensen, Rikke Lind

    2013-01-01

    with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for typing cefpodoxime-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Further, we identified the causative resistance mechanisms and epidemiological type of infection for isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). A collection of E. coli resistant to cefpodoxime...... community-onset infections (COI), regardless of the ST. Patients with COI were significantly more often of female gender and younger age compared to healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) and hospital-onset infections (HOI). In conclusion, the modified MLVA is a useful tool for the rapid typing of E. coli...

  3. Identifying national freshwater ecosystem priority areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation highlights the use of systematic conservation planning to identify priority areas for managing the health of freshwater ecosystems and their associated biodiversity and ecosystem services....

  4. Psychology Baccalaureates at Work: Major Area Subspecializations, Earnings, and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    A Census Bureau national survey identified baccalaureates aged up to 64 years having major area subspecializations labeled "psychology," "industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology," and "counseling psychology." Median 2009 earnings of all such types of baccalaureate psychology alumni were well below the distribution mean of the 153 fields in the…

  5. A tripartite approach identifies the major sunflower seed albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Achala S; Franke, Bastian; Rosengren, Johan; Mylne, Joshua S

    2016-03-01

    We have used a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches to identify the napin-type albumin genes in sunflower and define their contributions to the seed albumin pool. Seed protein content is determined by the expression of what are typically large gene families. A major class of seed storage proteins is the napin-type, water soluble albumins. In this work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the napin-type albumin content of the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by analyzing a draft genome, a transcriptome and performing a proteomic analysis of the seed albumin fraction. We show that although sunflower contains at least 26 genes for napin-type albumins, only 15 of these are present at the mRNA level. We found protein evidence for 11 of these but the albumin content of mature seeds is dominated by the encoded products of just three genes. So despite high genetic redundancy for albumins, only a small sub-set of this gene family contributes to total seed albumin content. The three genes identified as producing the majority of sunflower seed albumin are potential future candidates for manipulation through genetics and breeding.

  6. The NASA role in major areas of human concern: Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    After introducing some of the general factors that have affected progress in the area of communication, NASA program elements are examined to illustrate relevant points of contact. Interpretive steps are taken throughout the report to show a few of the more important ways people's lives have been affected as a result of the work of NASA and other organizations functioning in this area. The principal documents used and interviews conducted are identified.

  7. Radiation analysis in the major areas of marine fisheries research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, A.V.S.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation analysis has been a proven technique to solve, relatively easily and quickly, some of the pressing problems in marine fisheries to the utmost satisfaction. Major areas of marine fisheries research - namely, the determination of sea water characteristics, the productivity studies, the pollution effects, the population dynamics and the preservation of sea foods - wherein the radiation treatment is fully helpful are discussed in detail. The problems encountered in the marine fisheries in India in this context are also outlined. (author)

  8. Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies, morbidity (25 studies, mortality (7 studies, and birth outcome (7 studies. Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  9. Identifying individual fires from satellite-derived burned area data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for identifying individual fires from the Modis burned area data product is introduced for southern Africa. This algorithm gives the date of burning, size of fire, and location of the centroid for all fires identified over 8 years...

  10. Can subsyndromal manifestations of major depression be identified in children at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, M; Fitzgerald, M; Lin, K; Carrellas, N; Woodworth, H; Biederman, J

    2017-02-01

    Children of parents with major depression are at significantly increased risk for developing major depression themselves; however, not all children at genetic risk will develop major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated the utility of subsyndromal scores on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Anxiety/Depression scale in identifying children at the highest risk for pediatric MDD from among the pool of children of parents with MDD or bipolar disorder. The sample was derived from two previously conducted longitudinal case-control family studies of psychiatrically and pediatrically referred youth and their families. For this study, probands were stratified based on the presence or absence of a parental mood disorder. Subsyndromal scores on the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale significantly separated the children at high risk for pediatric MDD from those at low risk in a variety of functional areas, including social and academic functioning. Additionally, children at genetic risk without elevated CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale scores were largely indistinguishable from controls. These results suggest that the CBCL Anxiety/Depression scale can help identify children at highest risk for pediatric MDD. If implemented clinically, this scale would cost-effectively screen children and identify those most in need of early intervention resources to impede the progression of depression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Travis Belote

    Full Text Available Conservation scientists emphasize the importance of maintaining a connected network of protected areas to prevent ecosystems and populations from becoming isolated, reduce the risk of extinction, and ultimately sustain biodiversity. Keeping protected areas connected in a network is increasingly recognized as a conservation priority in the current era of rapid climate change. Models that identify suitable linkages between core areas have been used to prioritize potentially important corridors for maintaining functional connectivity. Here, we identify the most "natural" (i.e., least human-modified corridors between large protected areas in the contiguous Unites States. We aggregated results from multiple connectivity models to develop a composite map of corridors reflecting agreement of models run under different assumptions about how human modification of land may influence connectivity. To identify which land units are most important for sustaining structural connectivity, we used the composite map of corridors to evaluate connectivity priorities in two ways: (1 among land units outside of our pool of large core protected areas and (2 among units administratively protected as Inventoried Roadless (IRAs or Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs. Corridor values varied substantially among classes of "unprotected" non-core land units, and land units of high connectivity value and priority represent diverse ownerships and existing levels of protections. We provide a ranking of IRAs and WSAs that should be prioritized for additional protection to maintain minimal human modification. Our results provide a coarse-scale assessment of connectivity priorities for maintaining a connected network of protected areas.

  12. Demographic Data - URBAN_AREAS_TIGER00_IN: Indiana Major Urban Areas (U.S. Census Bureau, 1:100,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — URBAN_AREAS_TIGER00_IN contains major urban areas in Indiana identified by the US Bureau of the Census. Data is from U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau,...

  13. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important

  14. Identifying Areas of Primary Care Shortage in Urban Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Liao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study considers both spatial and a-spatial variables in examining accessibility to primary healthcare in the three largest urban areas of Ohio (Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. Spatial access emphasizes the importance of geographic barriers between individuals and primary care physicians, while a-spatial variables include non-geographic barriers or facilitators such as age, sex, race, income, social class, education, living conditions and language skills. Population and socioeconomic data were obtained from the 2000 Census, and primary care physician data for 2008 was provided by the Ohio Medical Board. We first implemented a two-step method based on a floating catchment area using Geographic Information Systems to measure spatial accessibility in terms of 30-minute travel times. We then used principal component analysis to group various socio-demographic variables into three groups: (1 socioeconomic disadvantages, (2 living conditions, and (3 healthcare needs. Finally, spatial and a-spatial variables were integrated to identify areas with poor access to primary care in Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati. KEYWORDS: Geographic information systems, healthcare access, spatial accessibility, primary care shortage areas

  15. Risk analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought disaster in the major grain-producing areas, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zongtang Xie; Jiuping Xu; Yanfei Deng

    2016-01-01

    The analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought risk can assist in reducing regional disasters and agricultural drought losses. Because of the uncertainties and incomplete agricultural drought information, this paper employed an information diffusion technology and information matrix to identify a drought disaster risk distribution and to quantify the relationship between the annual drought-affected rate and the grain production losses in China's major grain-producing areas. From the asse...

  16. Identifying areas at risk of low birth weight using spatial epidemiology: A small area surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insaf, Tabassum Z; Talbot, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    To assess the geographic distribution of Low Birth Weight (LBW) in New York State among singleton births using a spatial regression approach in order to identify priority areas for public health actions. LBW was defined as birth weight less than 2500g. Geocoded data from 562,586 birth certificates in New York State (years 2008-2012) were merged with 2010 census data at the tract level. To provide stable estimates and maintain confidentiality, data were aggregated to yield 1268 areas of analysis. LBW prevalence among singleton births was related with area-level behavioral, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using a Poisson mixed effects spatial error regression model. Observed low birth weight showed statistically significant auto-correlation in our study area (Moran's I 0.16 p value 0.0005). After over-dispersion correction and accounting for fixed effects for selected social determinants, spatial autocorrelation was fully accounted for (Moran's I-0.007 p value 0.241). The proportion of LBW was higher in areas with larger Hispanic or Black populations and high smoking prevalence. Smoothed maps with predicted prevalence were developed to identify areas at high risk of LBW. Spatial patterns of residual variation were analyzed to identify unique risk factors. Neighborhood racial composition contributes to disparities in LBW prevalence beyond differences in behavioral and socioeconomic factors. Small-area analyses of LBW can identify areas for targeted interventions and display unique local patterns that should be accounted for in prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying environmentally sensitive areas under the Oil Pollution Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively-Diebold, B.; Pease, A.L.; Watson, S.N.; Wasel, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    Section 4202(a)(6) of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) requires the President to issue regulations that require owners or operators of tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities that could impact environmentally sensitive areas, drinking water intakes, and other economically sensitive areas to prepare and submit plans for responding to a worst case discharge of oil and to a substantial threat of such a discharge. The authority to implement the response plan regulations has been delegated to various agencies, including the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Transportation. In addition, Area Committees designated under the OPA are responsible for assuring preplanning of response efforts, including procedures for protecting environmentally sensitive areas, and protection, rescue and rehabilitation of fisheries and wildlife. Area Contingency Plans for each of the designated areas will describe the areas of special economic and environmental importance that might be damaged by discharges. This paper will discuss and compare the identification of environmentally sensitive areas and vulnerability analyses required as elements of response plans for agencies implementing regulations under the OPA authority. This paper will also describe the progress of the Area Committees with respect to contingency planning development for protection of environmentally sensitive areas

  18. Identifying Major Dietary Patterns Among the Elderly in Tehran Health Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies on diet have primarily focused on individual nutrients or foods. Recently, the analysis of dietary patterns has emerged as a possible approach for examining food consumption. A literature review revealed no studies of dietary patterns in elderly Iranians. Objectives Our objective was to identify the major dietary intake patterns among the elderly in the health homes located in Zone 5 of Tehran city, Iran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study (descriptive, 368 elderly people (≥ 60 years old were randomly selected. Their usual dietary intake during the past year was assessed using a 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Major food patterns were derived using factor analysis after the classification of food items into 26 groups. Results Four major dietary patterns were identified in the studied population: 1 healthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of vegetables, tomato and tomato sauce, vegetable oil, olive, and fruits; 2 unhealthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of red meat, fast food, snacks, sugar, honey and jam, soft drinks, and high-fat dairy products; 3. traditional pattern characterized by intake of whole grains, hydrogenated oil and animal fat, beans, salt, and pickles; and 4 protein-rich pattern, characterized by intake of chicken and poultry, fish, grains, and organ meats. These four major dietary patterns explained 16.3%, 7.5%, 6.7%, and 5.7% of the total variance, respectively. Conclusions Four major dietary patterns were identified in the present studied population that can be used to provide tangible dietary advice for the elderly.

  19. Identifying Important Atlantic Areas for the conservation of Balearic shearwaters: Spatial overlap with conservation areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Roda, Amparo; Delord, Karine; Boué, Amélie; Arcos, José Manuel; García, David; Micol, Thierry; Weimerskirch, Henri; Pinaud, David; Louzao, Maite

    2017-07-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered one of the main tools in both fisheries and conservation management to protect threatened species and their habitats around the globe. However, MPAs are underrepresented in marine environments compared to terrestrial environments. Within this context, we studied the Atlantic non-breeding distribution of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus) breeding in Eivissa during the 2011-2012 period based on global location sensing (GLS) devices. Our objectives were (1) to identify overall Important Atlantic Areas (IAAs) from a southern population, (2) to describe spatio-temporal patterns of oceanographic habitat use, and (3) to assess whether existing conservation areas (Natura 2000 sites and marine Important Bird Areas (IBAs)) cover the main IAAs of Balearic shearwaters. Our results highlighted that the Atlantic staging (from June to October in 2011) dynamic of the southern population was driven by individual segregation at both spatial and temporal scales. Individuals ranged in the North-East Atlantic over four main IAAs (Bay of Biscay: BoB, Western Iberian shelf: WIS, Gulf of Cadiz: GoC, West of Morocco: WoM). While most individuals spent more time on the WIS or in the GoC, a small number of birds visited IAAs at the extremes of their Atlantic distribution range (i.e., BoB and WoM). The chronology of the arrivals to the IAAs showed a latitudinal gradient with northern areas reached earlier during the Atlantic staging. The IAAs coincided with the most productive areas (higher chlorophyll a values) in the NE Atlantic between July and October. The spatial overlap between IAAs and conservation areas was higher for Natura 2000 sites than marine IBAs (areas with and without legal protection, respectively). Concerning the use of these areas, a slightly higher proportion of estimated positions fell within marine IBAs compared to designated Natura 2000 sites, with Spanish and Portuguese conservation

  20. Identifying desertification risk areas using fuzzy membership and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An integrated model with fuzzy membership analysis, fuzzy rule- ... major sources of desertification in Kota are, namely Gully and Ravine erosion, inappropriate ... plant production, soil health and water quantity ..... fied for implementing preventive methods to check ...... Determination and management in soil physical proper-.

  1. Identifying sensitive areas on intercultural contacts: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ramos-Vidal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the negative influence that cultural friction areas can promote on intercultural contacts. First, we expose the critical incident method like cross-cultural training model (Arthur, 2001. Then we show the negative effects that sensitive cultural zones can exert on the formation of prejudices and stereotypes about culturally diverse groups, analyzing 77 critical incidents collected in two different formative contexts. The main cultural shock areas detected are a intercultural communication barriers, b gender roles, and c the cultural expressions statement. Strategies to improve the method validity are proposed.

  2. Identifying spatially integrated floodplains/riparian areas and wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floodplain delineation may play an important role in managing wetlands and riparian areas at multiple scales - local, state, and federal. This poster demonstrates multiple GIS-based approaches to delimiting floodplains and contrasts these with observed flooding events from a majo...

  3. A general method for identifying major hybrid male sterility genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L W; Singh, R S

    1995-10-01

    The genes responsible for hybrid male sterility in species crosses are usually identified by introgressing chromosome segments, monitored by visible markers, between closely related species by continuous backcrosses. This commonly used method, however, suffers from two problems. First, it relies on the availability of markers to monitor the introgressed regions and so the portion of the genome examined is limited to the marked regions. Secondly, the introgressed regions are usually large and it is impossible to tell if the effects of the introgressed regions are the result of single (or few) major genes or many minor genes (polygenes). Here we introduce a simple and general method for identifying putative major hybrid male sterility genes which is free of these problems. In this method, the actual hybrid male sterility genes (rather than markers), or tightly linked gene complexes with large effects, are selectively introgressed from one species into the background of another species by repeated backcrosses. This is performed by selectively backcrossing heterozygous (for hybrid male sterility gene or genes) females producing fertile and sterile sons in roughly equal proportions to males of either parental species. As no marker gene is required for this procedure, this method can be used with any species pairs that produce unisexual sterility. With the application of this method, a small X chromosome region of Drosophila mauritiana which produces complete hybrid male sterility (aspermic testes) in the background of D. simulans was identified. Recombination analysis reveals that this region contains a second major hybrid male sterility gene linked to the forked locus located at either 62.7 +/- 0.66 map units or at the centromere region of the X chromosome of D. mauritiana.

  4. Risk analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought disaster in the major grain-producing areas, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongtang Xie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and evaluation of agricultural drought risk can assist in reducing regional disasters and agricultural drought losses. Because of the uncertainties and incomplete agricultural drought information, this paper employed an information diffusion technology and information matrix to identify a drought disaster risk distribution and to quantify the relationship between the annual drought-affected rate and the grain production losses in China's major grain-producing areas. From the assessment results, provincial drought disaster risk spatial distribution maps for each major grain-producing area in China were obtained. These risk patterns showed that the probability of drought fell when the annual drought-covered rate and the annual drought-affected rate increased, and that the high risk areas were located primarily in China's northern and central provinces. These results can provide the basis for the development of effective drought mitigation strategies which would be able to inform possible drought situations and allow for easier decision-making on drought resistance strategies. The fuzzy relationship between the annual drought-affected rate and the drought-caused grain production losses provides vital information for the development of disaster compensation plans. Furthermore, the results of this study indicated that the proposed methods had superior detection stability and higher precision. We hope that by conducting such agricultural drought risk analysis, the results are able to provide the basis for the development of drought mitigation strategies to reduce future losses.

  5. Identifying predictors, moderators, and mediators of antidepressant response in major depressive disorder: neuroimaging approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Chase, Henry W; Sheline, Yvette I; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R C; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes.

  6. Identifying Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L.; Chase, Henry W.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R.C.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. Method In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. Results The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Conclusions Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:25640931

  7. Conditional analysis identifies three novel major histocompatibility complex loci associated with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jo; Spain, Sarah L; Capon, Francesca; Hayday, Adrian; Nestle, Frank O; Clop, Alex; Barker, Jonathan N; Weale, Michael E; Trembath, Richard C

    2012-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory skin disorder. A number of genetic loci have been shown to confer risk for psoriasis. Collectively, these offer an integrated model for the inherited basis for susceptibility to psoriasis that combines altered skin barrier function together with the dysregulation of innate immune pathogen sensing and adap-tive immunity. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) harbours the psoriasis susceptibility region which exhibits the largest effect size, driven in part by variation contained on the HLA-Cw*0602 allele. However, the resolution of the number and genomic location of potential independent risk loci are hampered by extensive linkage disequilibrium across the region. We leveraged the power of large psoriasis case and control data sets and the statistical approach of conditional analysis to identify potential further association signals distributed across the MHC. In addition to the major loci at HLA-C (P = 2.20 × 10(-236)), we observed and replicated four additional independent signals for disease association, three of which are novel. We detected evidence for association at SNPs rs2507971 (P = 6.73 × 10(-14)), rs9260313 (P = 7.93 × 10(-09)), rs66609536 (P = 3.54 × 10(-07)) and rs380924 (P = 6.24 × 10(-06)), located within the class I region of the MHC, with each observation replicated in an independent sample (P ≤ 0.01). The previously identified locus is close to MICA, the other three lie near MICB, HLA-A and HCG9 (a non-coding RNA gene). The identification of disease associations with both MICA and MICB is particularly intriguing, since each encodes an MHC class I-related protein with potent immunological function.

  8. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9 Section 600.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil survey offices. The United States is divide...

  9. Extended exome sequencing identifies BACH2 as a novel major risk locus for Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, D; Bianchi, M; Landegren, N; Nordin, J; Dalin, F; Mathioudaki, A; Eriksson, G N; Hultin-Rosenberg, L; Dahlqvist, J; Zetterqvist, H; Karlsson, Å; Hallgren, Å; Farias, F H G; Murén, E; Ahlgren, K M; Lobell, A; Andersson, G; Tandre, K; Dahlqvist, S R; Söderkvist, P; Rönnblom, L; Hulting, A-L; Wahlberg, J; Ekwall, O; Dahlqvist, P; Meadows, J R S; Bensing, S; Lindblad-Toh, K; Kämpe, O; Pielberg, G R

    2016-12-01

    Autoimmune disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Addison's disease, the adrenal glands are targeted by destructive autoimmunity. Despite being the most common cause of primary adrenal failure, little is known about its aetiology. To understand the genetic background of Addison's disease, we utilized the extensively characterized patients of the Swedish Addison Registry. We developed an extended exome capture array comprising a selected set of 1853 genes and their potential regulatory elements, for the purpose of sequencing 479 patients with Addison's disease and 1394 controls. We identified BACH2 (rs62408233-A, OR = 2.01 (1.71-2.37), P = 1.66 × 10 -15 , MAF 0.46/0.29 in cases/controls) as a novel gene associated with Addison's disease development. We also confirmed the previously known associations with the HLA complex. Whilst BACH2 has been previously reported to associate with organ-specific autoimmune diseases co-inherited with Addison's disease, we have identified BACH2 as a major risk locus in Addison's disease, independent of concomitant autoimmune diseases. Our results may enable future research towards preventive disease treatment. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Enriched pathways for major depressive disorder identified from a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Feng; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2012-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has caused a substantial burden of disease worldwide with moderate heritability. Despite efforts through conducting numerous association studies and now, genome-wide association (GWA) studies, the success of identifying susceptibility loci for MDD has been limited, which is partially attributed to the complex nature of depression pathogenesis. A pathway-based analytic strategy to investigate the joint effects of various genes within specific biological pathways has emerged as a powerful tool for complex traits. The present study aimed to identify enriched pathways for depression using a GWA dataset for MDD. For each gene, we estimated its gene-wise p value using combined and minimum p value, separately. Canonical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and BioCarta were used. We employed four pathway-based analytic approaches (gene set enrichment analysis, hypergeometric test, sum-square statistic, sum-statistic). We adjusted for multiple testing using Benjamini & Hochberg's method to report significant pathways. We found 17 significantly enriched pathways for depression, which presented low-to-intermediate crosstalk. The top four pathways were long-term depression (p⩽1×10-5), calcium signalling (p⩽6×10-5), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (p⩽1.6×10-4) and cell adhesion molecules (p⩽2.2×10-4). In conclusion, our comprehensive pathway analyses identified promising pathways for depression that are related to neurotransmitter and neuronal systems, immune system and inflammatory response, which may be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying depression. We demonstrated that pathway enrichment analysis is promising to facilitate our understanding of complex traits through a deeper interpretation of GWA data. Application of this comprehensive analytic strategy in upcoming GWA data for depression could validate the findings reported in this study.

  11. Dissemination of electric vehicles in urban areas: Major factors for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela; Haas, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Problems of transport become more pressing with increasing urbanisation. Although EVs (electric vehicles) are considered to contribute to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollution caused by passenger car transport, their use is still very modest. The core objective of this paper is to identify the major impact factors for the broader dissemination of EVs in urban areas. We compare and analyse cities selected in nine different countries which are active in dissemination of EVs. The most important recommendation for policy makers is that all monetary and non-monetary promotion measures implemented should depend on the environmental benignity of the electricity generation mix. From society's point of view the promotion of EVs make sense only if it is ensured that a major share of electricity they use is generated from renewables. Since the final goal is not just to increase the number of EVs but to reduce emissions, cities also have to consider other e-mobility options such as trolleybuses, metros, trams and electro buses, as well as promote walking and biking, especially for short distances. - Highlights: • Oslo is a good example in use of EVs (electric vehicles) in urban areas. • Monetary and non-monetary measures could increase the attractiveness of EVs. • Most of the policies implemented will be abolished with the increasing number of EVs. • All environmental benefits of EVs could be reached only in combination with renewable energy. • Cities have to consider also e-mobility options for public transport.

  12. 25 CFR 170.501 - What happens when the review process identifies areas for improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identifies areas for improvement? When the review process identifies areas for improvement: (a) The regional... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens when the review process identifies areas for improvement? 170.501 Section 170.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND...

  13. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  14. Identifying the Prospective Area of Sulfide Groundwater within the Area of Palvantash Oil and Gas Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zhurayev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology of prospecting for sulfide groundwater in the area of Palvantash oil fields. In result of study allowed determining the favorable conditions for the sulfide waters formation, and mapping the areas of different sulfide water concentration. The relatively permeable areas were established and the water borehole positions were recommended.

  15. Integrated genomic and gene expression profiling identifies two major genomic circuits in urothelial carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lindgren

    Full Text Available Similar to other malignancies, urothelial carcinoma (UC is characterized by specific recurrent chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations. However, the interconnection between specific genomic alterations, and how patterns of chromosomal alterations adhere to different molecular subgroups of UC, is less clear. We applied tiling resolution array CGH to 146 cases of UC and identified a number of regions harboring recurrent focal genomic amplifications and deletions. Several potential oncogenes were included in the amplified regions, including known oncogenes like E2F3, CCND1, and CCNE1, as well as new candidate genes, such as SETDB1 (1q21, and BCL2L1 (20q11. We next combined genome profiling with global gene expression, gene mutation, and protein expression data and identified two major genomic circuits operating in urothelial carcinoma. The first circuit was characterized by FGFR3 alterations, overexpression of CCND1, and 9q and CDKN2A deletions. The second circuit was defined by E3F3 amplifications and RB1 deletions, as well as gains of 5p, deletions at PTEN and 2q36, 16q, 20q, and elevated CDKN2A levels. TP53/MDM2 alterations were common for advanced tumors within the two circuits. Our data also suggest a possible RAS/RAF circuit. The tumors with worst prognosis showed a gene expression profile that indicated a keratinized phenotype. Taken together, our integrative approach revealed at least two separate networks of genomic alterations linked to the molecular diversity seen in UC, and that these circuits may reflect distinct pathways of tumor development.

  16. Beyond BLASTing: Tertiary and Quaternary Structure Analysis Helps Identify Major Vault Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and then quaternary structure (docking) of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein (MVP) that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. We used the iterative threading assembly refinement server (I-TASSER) to predict whether putative MVP sequences identified by BLASTp and PSI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool are structurally similar to the experimentally determined rodent MVP tertiary structures. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat (Rattus norvegicus) vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults. These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. As the negative control, I-TASSER did not predict an MVP-like structure from a randomized rat MVP sequence, even when constrained to the rat MVP crystal structure (PDB:2ZUO), thus further validating the method. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of 300 residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via

  17. A Spatial Approach to Identify Slum Areas in East Wara Sub-Districts, South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anurogo, W.; Lubis, M. Z.; Pamungkas, D. S.; Hartono; Ibrahim, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial approach is one of the main approaches of geography, its analysis emphasizes the existence of space that serves to accommodate human activities. The dynamic development of the city area brings many impacts to the urban community’s own life patterns. The development of the city center which is the center of economic activity becomes the attraction for the community that can bring influence to the high flow of labor both from within the city itself and from outside the city area, thus causing the high flow of urbanization. Urbanization has caused an explosion in urban population and one implication is the occurrence of labor-clumping in major cities in Indonesia. Another impact of the high urbanization flow of cities is the problem of urban settlements. The more populations that come in the city, the worse the quality of the existing settlements in the city if not managed properly. This study aims to determine the location of slum areas in East Wara Sub-Districts using remote sensing technology tools and Geographic Information System (GIS). Parameters used to identify slum areas partially extracted using remote sensing data and for parameters that cannot be extracted using remote sensing data, information obtained from field surveys with information retrieval based on reference data. Analysis results for slum settlements taken from the parameters indicate that the East Wara Sub-District has the largest slum areas located in Pontap village. The village of Pontap has two classes of slums that are very shabby and slums. Slum classes are also in Surutangga Village. The result of the analysis shows that the slum settlement area has 46,324 Ha, which is only located in Pontap Village, whereas for the slum class are found in some villages of Pontap and Surutangga Urban Village, there are 37.797 Ha area. The class of slum settlement areas has the largest proportion of the area among other classes in East Wara Subdistrict. The class of slum settlement areas has an

  18. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important sectors and industries responsible for emissions at a national level; however, to be useful for air transport modelling, more precise information on the locations of emission is required. This paper describes the methodology applied, and the results of work that was conducted to assign anthropogenic mercury emissions to point sources as part of geospatial mapping of the 2010 global anthropogenic mercury emissions inventory prepared by AMAP/UNEP. Major point-source emission sectors addressed in this work account for about 850 tonnes of the emissions included in the 2010 inventory. This work allocated more than 90% of these emissions to some 4600 identified point source locations, including significantly more point source locations in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America than had been identified during previous work to geospatially-distribute the 2005 global inventory. The results demonstrate the utility and the limitations of using existing, mainly public domain resources to accomplish this work. Assumptions necessary to make use of selected online resources are discussed, as are artefacts that can arise when these assumptions are applied to assign (national-sector) emissions estimates to point sources in various countries and regions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the available information, the value of this procedure over alternative methods commonly used to geo-spatially distribute emissions, such as use of 'proxy' datasets to represent emissions patterns, is illustrated. Improvements in information that would facilitate greater use of these methods in future work to assign emissions to point-sources are discussed. These include improvements to both national

  19. Tissue plasminogen activator; identifying major barriers related to intravenous injection in ischemic acute cerebral infraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to previous publications, in patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction, thrombolytic therapy using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA necessitates precise documentation of symptoms' onset. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers related to the IV-tPA injection in such patients. Materials and Methods: Between the year 2014-2015, patients with definitive diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction (n = 180 who attended the neurology ward located at the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital were studied. To investigate barriers related to door to IV-tPA needle time, personal reasons, and criteria for inclusion or exclusion of patients, three questionnaire forms were designed based on the Food and Drug Administration-approved indications or contraindications. Results: The mean age of males versus females was 60 versus 77.5 years (ranged 23–93 vs. 29–70 years, respectively. Out of total population, only 10.7% transferred to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms. Regarding to eligibility for IV-tPA, 68.9% of total population have had criteria for such treatment. Concerning to both items such as transferring to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms and eligibility for IV-tPA, only 6.6% of total population met the criteria for such management. There was ignorance or inattention to symptoms in 75% of population studied. There was a mean of 195.92 ± 6.65 min (182.8–209.04 min for door to IV-tPA needle time. Conclusion: Despite the international guidelines for IV-tPA injection within 3–4.5 h of ischemic stroke symptoms' onset, the results of this study revealed that falling time due to ignorance of symptoms, literacy, and living alone might need further attention. As a result, to decrease death and disability, educational programs related to the symptoms' onset by consultant neurologist in Isfahan/Iran seem to be advantageous.

  20. Identifying desertification risk areas using fuzzy membership and geospatial technique - A case study, Kota District, Rajasthan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arunima; Sastry, K. L. N.; Dhinwa, P. S.; Rathore, V. S.; Nathawat, M. S.

    2013-08-01

    Desertification risk assessment is important in order to take proper measures for its prevention. Present research intends to identify the areas under risk of desertification along with their severity in terms of degradation in natural parameters. An integrated model with fuzzy membership analysis, fuzzy rule-based inference system and geospatial techniques was adopted, including five specific natural parameters namely slope, soil pH, soil depth, soil texture and NDVI. Individual parameters were classified according to their deviation from mean. Membership of each individual values to be in a certain class was derived using the normal probability density function of that class. Thus if a single class of a single parameter is with mean μ and standard deviation σ, the values falling beyond μ + 2 σ and μ - 2 σ are not representing that class, but a transitional zone between two subsequent classes. These are the most important areas in terms of degradation, as they have the lowest probability to be in a certain class, hence highest probability to be extended or narrowed down in next or previous class respectively. Eventually, these are the values which can be easily altered, under extrogenic influences, hence are identified as risk areas. The overall desertification risk is derived by incorporating the different risk severity of each parameter using fuzzy rule-based interference system in GIS environment. Multicriteria based geo-statistics are applied to locate the areas under different severity of desertification risk. The study revealed that in Kota, various anthropogenic pressures are accelerating land deterioration, coupled with natural erosive forces. Four major sources of desertification in Kota are, namely Gully and Ravine erosion, inappropriate mining practices, growing urbanization and random deforestation.

  1. Use of demand for and spatial flow of ecosystem services to identify priority areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Willem; Kukkala, Aija S.; Moilanen, Atte; van Teeffelen, Astrid J.A.; Verburg, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Policies and research increasingly focus on the protection of ecosystem services (ESs) through priority-area conservation. Priority areas for ESs should be identified based on ES capacity and ES demand and account for the connections between areas of ES capacity and demand (flow) resulting in areas

  2. Identifying settlements on the SIR-B images of Rimbobujang and the surrounding areas, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto .

    2013-07-01

    SIR-B image proves to be a reasonably good tool to identify rural settlement in an open area, especially for that with high density of houses. Its use to identify towns and cities is more recommended.

  3. Optimal anthropometric measures and thresholds to identify undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in three major Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Lim, Wei-Yen; Mok-Kwee Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-10-01

    To identify optimal anthropometric measures and cutoffs to identify undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDM) in three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indians). Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 14,815 ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian participants of the Singapore National Health Surveys, which included anthropometric measures and an oral glucose tolerance test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) for the identification of UDM. BMI performed significantly worse (AUCMEN  = 0.70; AUCWOMEN  = 0.75) than abdominal measures, whereas WHTR (AUCMEN  = 0.76; AUCWOMEN  = 0.79) was among the best performing measures in both sexes and all ethnic groups. Anthropometric measures performed better in Chinese than in Asian-Indian participants for the identification of UDM. A WHTR cutoff of 0.52 appeared optimal with a sensitivity of 76% in men and 73% in women and a specificity of 63% in men and 70% in women. Although ethnic differences were observed in the performance of anthropometric measures for the identification of UDM, abdominal adiposity measures generally performed better than BMI, and WHTR performed best in all Asian ethnic groups. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  4. 49 CFR 520.5 - Guidelines for identifying major actions significantly affecting the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... significantly affecting the environment. 520.5 Section 520.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... significantly affecting the environment. (a) General guidelines. The phrase, “major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment,” as used in this part, shall be construed with a...

  5. Galleria mellonella model identifies highly virulent strains among all major molecular types of Cryptococcus gattii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. However, the number of cases due to C. gattii is increasing, affecting mainly immunocompetent hosts. C. gattii is divided into four major molecular types, VGI to VGIV, which differ in their host range, epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. Besides studies on the Vancouver Island outbreak strains, which showed that the subtype VGIIa is highly virulent compared to the subtype VGIIb, little is known about the virulence of the other major molecular types. To elucidate the virulence potential of the major molecular types of C. gattii, Galleria mellonella larvae were inoculated with ten globally selected strains per molecular type. Survival rates were recorded and known virulence factors were studied. One VGII, one VGIII and one VGIV strain were more virulent (p 0.05, 21 (five VGI, five VGII, four VGIII and seven VGIV were less virulent (p <0.05 while one strain of each molecular type were avirulent. Cell and capsule size of all strains increased markedly during larvae infection (p <0.001. No differences in growth rate at 37°C were observed. Melanin synthesis was directly related with the level of virulence: more virulent strains produced more melanin than less virulent strains (p <0.05. The results indicate that all C. gattii major molecular types exhibit a range of virulence, with some strains having the potential to be more virulent. The study highlights the necessity to further investigate the genetic background of more and less virulent strains in order to recognize critical features, other than the known virulence factors (capsule, melanin and growth at mammalian body temperature, that maybe crucial for the development and progression of cryptococcosis.

  6. Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Naomi R; Ripke, Stephan; Mattheisen, Manuel; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Byrne, Enda M; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Adams, Mark J; Agerbo, Esben; Air, Tracy M; Andlauer, Till M F; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Beekman, Aartjan F T; Bigdeli, Tim B; Binder, Elisabeth B; Blackwood, Douglas R H; Bryois, Julien; Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas; Cai, Na; Castelao, Enrique; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Coleman, Jonathan I R; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Craddock, Nick; Crawford, Gregory E; Crowley, Cheynna A; Dashti, Hassan S; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J; Degenhardt, Franziska; Derks, Eske M; Direk, Nese; Dolan, Conor V; Dunn, Erin C; Eley, Thalia C; Eriksson, Nicholas; Escott-Price, Valentina; Kiadeh, Farnush Hassan Farhadi; Finucane, Hilary K; Forstner, Andreas J; Frank, Josef; Gaspar, Héléna A; Gill, Michael; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Goes, Fernando S; Gordon, Scott D; Grove, Jakob; Hall, Lynsey S; Hannon, Eilis; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Hansen, Thomas F; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B; Hoffmann, Per; Homuth, Georg; Horn, Carsten; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hougaard, David M; Hu, Ming; Hyde, Craig L; Ising, Marcus; Jansen, Rick; Jin, Fulai; Jorgenson, Eric; Knowles, James A; Kohane, Isaac S; Kraft, Julia; Kretzschmar, Warren W; Krogh, Jesper; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lane, Jacqueline M; Li, Yihan; Li, Yun; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Leina; MacIntyre, Donald J; MacKinnon, Dean F; Maier, Robert M; Maier, Wolfgang; Marchini, Jonathan; Mbarek, Hamdi; McGrath, Patrick; McGuffin, Peter; Medland, Sarah E; Mehta, Divya; Middeldorp, Christel M; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Milani, Lili; Mill, Jonathan; Mondimore, Francis M; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostafavi, Sara; Mullins, Niamh; Nauck, Matthias; Ng, Bernard; Nivard, Michel G; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Reilly, Paul F; Oskarsson, Hogni; Owen, Michael J; Painter, Jodie N; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz; Peterson, Roseann E; Pettersson, Erik; Peyrot, Wouter J; Pistis, Giorgio; Posthuma, Danielle; Purcell, Shaun M; Quiroz, Jorge A; Qvist, Per; Rice, John P; Riley, Brien P; Rivera, Margarita; Saeed Mirza, Saira; Saxena, Richa; Schoevers, Robert; Schulte, Eva C; Shen, Ling; Shi, Jianxin; Shyn, Stanley I; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Sinnamon, Grant B C; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Daniel J; Stefansson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockmeier, Craig A; Streit, Fabian; Strohmaier, Jana; Tansey, Katherine E; Teismann, Henning; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, Wesley; Thomson, Pippa A; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Tian, Chao; Traylor, Matthew; Treutlein, Jens; Trubetskoy, Vassily; Uitterlinden, André G; Umbricht, Daniel; Van der Auwera, Sandra; van Hemert, Albert M; Viktorin, Alexander; Visscher, Peter M; Wang, Yunpeng; Webb, Bradley T; Weinsheimer, Shantel Marie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witt, Stephanie H; Wu, Yang; Xi, Hualin S; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Futao; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Berger, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cichon, Sven; Dannlowski, Udo; de Geus, E C J; DePaulo, J Raymond; Domenici, Enrico; Domschke, Katharina; Esko, Tõnu; Grabe, Hans J; Hamilton, Steven P; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Kloiber, Stefan; Lewis, Glyn; Li, Qingqin S; Lucae, Susanne; Madden, Pamela F A; Magnusson, Patrik K; Martin, Nicholas G; McIntosh, Andrew M; Metspalu, Andres; Mors, Ole; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nordentoft, Merete; Nöthen, Markus M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Paciga, Sara A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perlis, Roy H; Porteous, David J; Potash, James B; Preisig, Martin; Rietschel, Marcella; Schaefer, Catherine; Schulze, Thomas G; Smoller, Jordan W; Stefansson, Kari; Tiemeier, Henning; Uher, Rudolf; Völzke, Henry; Weissman, Myrna M; Werge, Thomas; Winslow, Ashley R; Lewis, Cathryn M; Levinson, Douglas F; Breen, Gerome; Børglum, Anders D; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2018-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.

  7. Patterns of Seismicity Associated with USGS Identified Areas of Potentially Induced Seismicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Caitlin; Halihan, Todd

    2018-03-13

    A systematic review across U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) identified potentially induced seismic locations was conducted to discover seismic distance patterns and trends over time away from injection disposal wells. Previous research indicates a 10 km (6 miles) average where the majority of induced seismicity is expected to occur within individual locations, with some areas reporting a larger radius of 35 km (22 miles) to over 70 km (43 miles). This research analyzed earthquake occurrences within nine USGS locations where specified wells were identified as contributors to induced seismicity to determine distance patterns from disposal wells or outward seismic migration over time using established principles of hydrogeology. Results indicate a radius of 31.6 km (20 miles) where 90% of felt earthquakes occur among locations, with the closest proximal felt seismic events, on average, occurring 3 km (1.9 miles) away from injection disposal wells. The results of this research found distance trends across multiple locations of potentially induced seismicity. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  8. Effects of Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings Identified in Midlatitude Mesospheric Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sox, L.; Wickwar, V. B.; Fish, C. S.; Herron, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions. However, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The very dense 11-year data set, collected between 1993-2004, with the Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) at the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU), has been carefully examined for such anomalies. The temperatures derived from these data extend over the mesosphere, from 45 to 90 km. During this period extensive data were acquired during seven major SSW events. In this work we aim to determine the characteristics of the midlatitude mesospheric temperatures during these seven major SSWs. To do this, comparisons were made between the temperature profiles on individual nights before, during, and after the SSW events and the corresponding derived climatological temperature profiles (31-day by 11-year average) for those nights. A consistent disturbance pattern was observed in the mesospheric temperatures during these SSWs. A distinct shift from the nominal winter temperature pattern to a pattern more characteristic of summer temperatures was seen in the midlatitude mesosphere close to when the zonal winds in the polar stratosphere (at 10 hPa, 60° N) reversed from eastward to westward. This shift lasted for several days. This change in pattern included coolings in the upper mesosphere, comparable to those seen in the polar regions, and warmings in the lower mesosphere.

  9. Whole genome population genetics analysis of Sudanese goats identifies regions harboring genes associated with major traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatalla, Siham A; Arends, Danny; Reissmann, Monika; Said Ahmed, Ammar; Wimmers, Klaus; Reyer, Henry; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2017-10-23

    Sudan is endowed with a variety of indigenous goat breeds which are used for meat and milk production and which are well adapted to the local environment. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity and relationship within and between the four main Sudanese breeds of Nubian, Desert, Taggar and Nilotic goats. Using the 50 K SNP chip, 24 animals of each breed were genotyped. More than 96% of high quality SNPs were polymorphic with an average minor allele frequency of 0.3. In all breeds, no significant difference between observed (0.4) and expected (0.4) heterozygosity was found and the inbreeding coefficients (F IS ) did not differ from zero. F st coefficients for the genetic distance between breeds also did not significantly deviate from zero. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance revealed that 93% of the total variance in the examined population can be explained by differences among individuals, while only 7% result from differences between the breeds. These findings provide evidence for high genetic diversity and little inbreeding within breeds on one hand, and low diversity between breeds on the other hand. Further examinations using Nei's genetic distance and STRUCTURE analysis clustered Taggar goats distinct from the other breeds. In a principal component (PC) analysis, PC1 could separate Taggar, Nilotic and a mix of Nubian and Desert goats into three groups. The SNPs that contributed strongly to PC1 showed high F st values in Taggar goat versus the other goat breeds. PCA allowed us to identify target genomic regions which contain genes known to influence growth, development, bone formation and the immune system. The information on the genetic variability and diversity in this study confirmed that Taggar goat is genetically different from the other goat breeds in Sudan. The SNPs identified by the first principal components show high F st values in Taggar goat and allowed to identify candidate genes which can be used in the

  10. Shakespearean tragedies dynamics: identifying a generic structure in Shakespeare's four major tragedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma; Mrotzek, Maximilian

    2012-10-01

    Many interpretations of Shakespearean tragedy have been conducted, mostly following the principles of interpretation in literary study. In our paper, four tragedies by William Shakespeare - Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth - were analysed systemically to find out whether they inhabit a common structure. Using the plot structure as the basis for our analysis, we identified the most important system elements, their connections, and interactive behaviour using causal loop diagrams (CLDs). Our results revealed that all four tragedies basically conform to Senge's archetypal structure 'shifting the burden', adding the action of the heroine or villain and the characters' boundaries of perception. The results suggest that, even though characters and settings vary highly, these tragedies have similar structures and archetypal solutions exist to overcome the problem. Furthermore, we propose that CLDs and systems archetypes are a reasonable hermeneutic tool to analyse not only Shakespearean tragedies but also other literary works.

  11. Identifying Major Transitions in the Evolution of Lithic Cutting Edge Production Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Muller

    Full Text Available The notion that the evolution of core reduction strategies involved increasing efficiency in cutting edge production is prevalent in narratives of hominin technological evolution. Yet a number of studies comparing two different knapping technologies have found no significant differences in edge production. Using digital analysis methods we present an investigation of raw material efficiency in eight core technologies broadly representative of the long-term evolution of lithic technology. These are bipolar, multiplatform, discoidal, biface, Levallois, prismatic blade, punch blade and pressure blade production. Raw material efficiency is assessed by the ratio of cutting edge length to original core mass. We also examine which flake attributes contribute to maximising raw material efficiency, as well as compare the difference between expert and intermediate knappers in terms of cutting edge produced per gram of core. We identify a gradual increase in raw material efficiency over the broad sweep of lithic technological evolution. The results indicate that the most significant transition in efficiency likely took place with the introduction of small foliate biface, Levallois and prismatic blade knapping, all introduced in the Middle Stone Age / Middle Palaeolithic among early Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. This suggests that no difference in raw material efficiency existed between these species. With prismatic blade technology securely dated to the Middle Palaeolithic, by including the more recent punch and pressure blade technology our results dispel the notion that the transition to the Upper Palaeolithic was accompanied by an increase in efficiency. However, further increases in cutting edge efficiency are evident, with pressure blades possessing the highest efficiency in this study, indicating that late/epi-Palaeolithic and Neolithic blade technologies further increased efficiency.

  12. Polycentric Structures in Latin American Metropolitan Areas : Identifying Employment Sub-centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Romein, Arie; Verkoren, Otto|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073181773; Parente Paula Pessoa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Fernández-Maldonado A. M., Romein A., Verkoren O. and Parente Paula Pessoa R. Polycentric structures in Latin American metropolitan areas: identifying employment sub-centres, Regional Studies. The significant spatial transformations that have occurred within Latin American metropolitan areas since

  13. [Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, G E; Vieira, J B; Garcia-Zapata, M T; Schuertz, J C

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

  14. In or Out When Out & About?: Identifying the Professional Support Needs of LGBT Preservice Social Work & Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.; Giesler, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore how preservice social work and teacher education majors navigate field practicums (e.g., student teaching) as self-identified gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals. In-depth interviews with 26 preservice candidates, representative of two public, comprehensive…

  15. Using Landsat 5 TM Data to Identify and Map Areas of Mangrove in Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meachum, Samuel Standish

    Mangroves are recognized worldwide as a major ecosystem that provides significant ecosystem services. They are threatened due to rising pressures from human overpopulation and economic development. The Caribbean Coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula contains mangrove habitat that have been negatively impacted by the development of the region's tourist industry. However, little research has been done to map and quantify the extent of mangrove in the region. This study used remote sensing techniques to identify mangrove in the Municipality of Tulum located in Quintana Roo, and to produce an accurate vector based thematic map that inventories these areas. Anatomical differences were analyzed and related to high-resolution field spectral data for each mangrove species. A vector map of mangrove habitat, including areas of inland mangrove, was produced with an overall accuracy of 88%. The 19,262 ha. of mangrove identified by this study represents a 140% increase in area over previous studies.

  16. Using lot quality-assurance sampling and area sampling to identify priority areas for trachoma control: Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Mark; Mai, Nguyen Phuong; Quynh, Nguyen Quang; Nga, Nguyen Huy; Tai, Ha Huy; Long, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tran Hung; Limburg, Hans

    2005-10-01

    To report on the use of lot quality-assurance sampling (LQAS) surveys undertaken within an area-sampling framework to identify priority areas for intervention with trachoma control activities in Viet Nam. The LQAS survey method for the rapid assessment of the prevalence of active trachoma was adapted for use in Viet Nam with the aim of classifying individual communes by the prevalence of active trachoma among children in primary school. School-based sampling was used; school sites to be sampled were selected using an area-sampling approach. A total of 719 communes in 41 districts in 18 provinces were surveyed. Survey staff found the LQAS survey method both simple and rapid to use after initial problems with area-sampling methods were identified and remedied. The method yielded a finer spatial resolution of prevalence than had been previously achieved in Viet Nam using semiquantitative rapid assessment surveys and multistage cluster-sampled surveys. When used with area-sampling techniques, the LQAS survey method has the potential to form the basis of survey instruments that can be used to efficiently target resources for interventions against active trachoma. With additional work, such methods could provide a generally applicable tool for effective programme planning and for the certification of the elimination of trachoma as a blinding disease.

  17. Use of demand for and spatial flow of ecosystem services to identify priority areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Willem; Kukkala, Aija S; Moilanen, Atte; van Teeffelen, Astrid J A; Verburg, Peter H

    2017-08-01

    Policies and research increasingly focus on the protection of ecosystem services (ESs) through priority-area conservation. Priority areas for ESs should be identified based on ES capacity and ES demand and account for the connections between areas of ES capacity and demand (flow) resulting in areas of unique demand-supply connections (flow zones). We tested ways to account for ES demand and flow zones to identify priority areas in the European Union. We mapped the capacity and demand of a global (carbon sequestration), a regional (flood regulation), and 3 local ESs (air quality, pollination, and urban leisure). We used Zonation software to identify priority areas for ESs based on 6 tests: with and without accounting for ES demand and 4 tests that accounted for the effect of ES flow zone. There was only 37.1% overlap between the 25% of priority areas that encompassed the most ESs with and without accounting for ES demand. The level of ESs maintained in the priority areas increased from 23.2% to 57.9% after accounting for ES demand, especially for ESs with a small flow zone. Accounting for flow zone had a small effect on the location of priority areas and level of ESs maintained but resulted in fewer flow zones without ES maintained relative to ignoring flow zones. Accounting for demand and flow zones enhanced representation and distribution of ESs with local to regional flow zones without large trade-offs relative to the global ES. We found that ignoring ES demand led to the identification of priority areas in remote regions where benefits from ES capacity to society were small. Incorporating ESs in conservation planning should therefore always account for ES demand to identify an effective priority network for ESs. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. An Automated Self-Learning Quantification System to Identify Visible Areas in Capsule Endoscopy Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shinichi; Ogihara, Hiroyuki; Suenaga, Masato; Fujita, Yusuke; Terai, Shuji; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-08-01

    Visibility in capsule endoscopic images is presently evaluated through intermittent analysis of frames selected by a physician. It is thus subjective and not quantitative. A method to automatically quantify the visibility on capsule endoscopic images has not been reported. Generally, when designing automated image recognition programs, physicians must provide a training image; this process is called supervised learning. We aimed to develop a novel automated self-learning quantification system to identify visible areas on capsule endoscopic images. The technique was developed using 200 capsule endoscopic images retrospectively selected from each of three patients. The rate of detection of visible areas on capsule endoscopic images between a supervised learning program, using training images labeled by a physician, and our novel automated self-learning program, using unlabeled training images without intervention by a physician, was compared. The rate of detection of visible areas was equivalent for the supervised learning program and for our automatic self-learning program. The visible areas automatically identified by self-learning program correlated to the areas identified by an experienced physician. We developed a novel self-learning automated program to identify visible areas in capsule endoscopic images.

  19. Major incidents in rural areas: managing a pandemic A/H1N1/2009 cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Cameron; Garman, Elaine; McMenamin, Jim; McCormick, Duncan; Oates, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic Influenza (A/H1N1/2009) caused worldwide concern because of its potential to spread rapidly in human populations. In Scotland, Government policy had been to seek to contain the spread of the virus for as long as possible in order to allow time for service preparations, and for vaccine development and supply. The first major Scottish outbreak of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 was in the rural area of Cowal and Bute. After two initial cases were identified, contact tracing found a cluster of cases associated with a football supporters' bus. Within 3 weeks, 130 cases had been identified in the area. Rapid provision of treatment doses of anti-viral medication to cases and prophylactic treatment of asymptomatic close contacts, advice on self-isolation and, where required, interruption of transmission by temporary school closure, were successful in containing the outbreak. Pre-existing Major Incident and Pandemic Flu plans were used and adapted to the particular circumstances of the outbreak and the area. Supporting operational decision-making as close to the cases as possible allowed for speed and flexibility of response. Contact tracing and tracking of cases and results was performed by specialist public health staff who were geographically removed from the cases. This was possible because of effective use of existing telephone conferencing facilities, clarity of roles, and frequent communication among staff working on all areas of the response. Basing the work on established plans, staff experience of rural areas and rural service provision was successful.

  20. Comparing spatially explicit ecological and social values for natural areas to identify effective conservation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Brett Anthony; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Crossman, Neville David; King, Darran

    2011-02-01

    Consideration of the social values people assign to relatively undisturbed native ecosystems is critical for the success of science-based conservation plans. We used an interview process to identify and map social values assigned to 31 ecosystem services provided by natural areas in an agricultural landscape in southern Australia. We then modeled the spatial distribution of 12 components of ecological value commonly used in setting spatial conservation priorities. We used the analytical hierarchy process to weight these components and used multiattribute utility theory to combine them into a single spatial layer of ecological value. Social values assigned to natural areas were negatively correlated with ecological values overall, but were positively correlated with some components of ecological value. In terms of the spatial distribution of values, people valued protected areas, whereas those natural areas underrepresented in the reserve system were of higher ecological value. The habitats of threatened animal species were assigned both high ecological value and high social value. Only small areas were assigned both high ecological value and high social value in the study area, whereas large areas of high ecological value were of low social value, and vice versa. We used the assigned ecological and social values to identify different conservation strategies (e.g., information sharing, community engagement, incentive payments) that may be effective for specific areas. We suggest that consideration of both ecological and social values in selection of conservation strategies can enhance the success of science-based conservation planning. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Identifying priority areas for ecosystem service management in South African grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egoh, Benis N; Reyers, Belinda; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

    2011-06-01

    Grasslands provide many ecosystem services required to support human well-being and are home to a diverse fauna and flora. Degradation of grasslands due to agriculture and other forms of land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem services. Various efforts are underway around the world to stem these declines. The Grassland Programme in South Africa is one such initiative and is aimed at safeguarding both biodiversity and ecosystem services. As part of this developing programme, we identified spatial priority areas for ecosystem services, tested the effect of different target levels of ecosystem services used to identify priority areas, and evaluated whether biodiversity priority areas can be aligned with those for ecosystem services. We mapped five ecosystem services (below ground carbon storage, surface water supply, water flow regulation, soil accumulation and soil retention) and identified priority areas for individual ecosystem services and for all five services at the scale of quaternary catchments. Planning for individual ecosystem services showed that, depending on the ecosystem service of interest, between 4% and 13% of the grassland biome was required to conserve at least 40% of the soil and water services. Thirty-four percent of the biome was needed to conserve 40% of the carbon service in the grassland. Priority areas identified for five ecosystem services under three target levels (20%, 40%, 60% of the total amount) showed that between 17% and 56% of the grassland biome was needed to conserve these ecosystem services. There was moderate to high overlap between priority areas selected for ecosystem services and already-identified terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity priority areas. This level of overlap coupled with low irreplaceability values obtained when planning for individual ecosystem services makes it possible to combine biodiversity and ecosystem services in one plan using systematic conservation planning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Autofluorescence Lifetimes in Patients With Choroideremia Identify Photoreceptors in Areas With Retinal Pigment Epithelium Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Wolf, Sebastian; Tran, Hoai Viet; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fundus autofluorescence lifetimes in patients with choroideremia and to identify tissue-specific lifetime characteristics and potential prognostic markers. Autofluorescence lifetimes of the retina were measured in two spectral channels (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm) in patients with choroideremia and age-matched healthy controls. Furthermore, autofluorescence intensities and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) data were acquired and compared to fundus autofluorescence lifetime data. Sixteen eyes from 8 patients with advanced choroideremia (mean ± SD age, 55 ± 13 years) were included in this study and compared with 10 age-matched healthy participants. Whereas fundus autofluorescence intensity measurement identified areas of remaining retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), autofluorescence lifetime maps identified areas with remaining photoreceptor layers in OCT but RPE atrophy. In these areas, mean (±SEM) lifetimes were 567 ± 59 ps in the short and 603 ± 49 ps in the long spectral channels (+98% and +88% compared to controls). In areas of combined RPE atrophy and loss of photoreceptors, autofluorescence lifetimes were significantly prolonged by 1116 ± 63 ps (+364%) in the short and by 915 ± 52 ps (+270%) in the long spectral channels compared with controls. Because autofluorescence lifetimes identify areas of remaining photoreceptors in the absence of RPE, this imaging modality may be useful to monitor disease progression in the natural course of disease and in context of potential future therapeutic interventions.

  3. Identifying Non-Volatile Data Storage Areas: Unique Notebook Identification Information as Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikica Budimir

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper introduces new techniques to aid in the identification of recovered notebook computers so they may be returned to the rightful owner. We identify non-volatile data storage areas as a means of facilitating the safe storing of computer identification information. A forensic proof of concept tool has been designed to test the feasibility of several storage locations identified within this work to hold the data needed to uniquely identify a computer. The tool was used to perform the creation and extraction of created information in order to allow the analysis of the non-volatile storage locations as valid storage areas capable of holding and preserving the data created within them.  While the format of the information used to identify the machine itself is important, this research only discusses the insertion, storage and ability to retain such information.

  4. Is Snow Gliding a Major Soil Erosion Agent in Steep Alpine Areas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusburger, K.; Walter, A.; Alewell, C.; Leitinger, G.; Mabit, L.; Mueller, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Snow cover is a key hydrological characteristic of mountain areas. Nevertheless, a majority of studies focused on quantifying rates of soil erosion and sediment transport in steep mountain areas has largely neglected the role of snow cover on soil erosion rates (Stanchi et al., 2014). Soil erosion studies have focused almost exclusively on the snow-free periods even though it is well known that wet avalanches can yield enormous erosive forces (Freppaz et al., 2010; Korup and Rixen, 2014). This raises the question whether annual snow cover and particularly the slow movement of snow packages over the soil surface, termed ‘‘snow gliding’’, contribute significantly to the total soil loss in these areas. Three different approaches to estimate soil erosion rates were used to address this question. These include (1) the anthropogenic soil tracer 137 Cs, (2) the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), and (3) direct sediment yield measurements of snow glide deposits. The fallout radionuclide 137 Cs integrates total soil loss due to all erosion agents involved, the RUSLE model is suitable to estimate soil loss by water erosion and the sediment yield measurements yield represents a direct estimate of soil removal by snow gliding. Moreover, cumulative snow glide distance was measured for 14 sites and modelled for the surrounding area with the Spatial Snow Glide Model (Leitinger et al., 2008)

  5. Transfer, sources and sinks for major and trace elements in urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnetger, B.; Brumsack, H.J.; Heinrichs, H.

    1996-01-01

    Spider webs and air filter samples from 11 German cities were analyzed for major and trace elements to determine the composition of urban particulates. Model calculation was used for the estimation of the sources (fraction of components with decreasing importance): tire abrasion, diesel soot, tar, material from the earth crust and brick abrasion, concrete abrasion, sulfur, gasoline soot, cement production, hard coal ash, lignite fly ash, steel production, waste incineration, sea spray, oil combustion, brake abrasion. Heavy metals in city dust are mostly related to traffic and industrial high temperature processes. The most important sink for the metals and acids of polluted air masses was found to be the forested areas of mountains exposed to the main wind direction. High enrichment of heavy metals and low pH values in the top soils of such areas (Harz Mountain, Germany) were found. From previously (now damaged) forested areas an acid front moves downward. Metals from the top soils were dissolved by this process. In the investigated area precipitation of the released metals takes place in the lakes and a drinking water reservoir. These sinks again become a source when acidification increases. (author)

  6. Major congenital malformations in the high and normal level radiation areas of southwest coast of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheer, K.R.; Jaikrishan, G.; Andrews, V.J.; Koya, P.K.M.; Seshadri, M.; Jagadeesan, C.K.; Madhusoodhanan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital malformations are defects in organogenesis during the fetal periods and its influence on the individual may vary according to the type of malformation. Some congenital malformations are trivial and may not have any significance but for a minimal cosmetic deformity. Major malformations on the contrary may be severe enough to be life-threatening with serious structural, functional or cosmetic disability requiring surgical or medical management and are an important cause of mortality and morbidity all over the world. The present paper analyses the major malformations detected during the monitoring of newborns in selected government hospitals in and around the high level natural radiation areas of Kerala, a narrow strip of land in the southwest coast extending from Purakkad panchayat of Alapuzha district in the north to Neendakara Panchayat of Quilon district in the south. The coastal area has natural deposits of Monazite sand containing Thorium. Thorium together with its daughter products accounts for the elevated levels of natural radiation. The finding in general was in conformity with similar works on malformations

  7. Ventilation design modifications at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory major plutonium operational areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, R.G.; Gallimore, J.C. Jr.; Mitchell, R.N.; Maraman, W.J.; McNeese, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Major ventilation design modifications in plutonium operational areas at Los Alamos have occurred during the past two years. An additional stage of HEPA filters has been added to DP West glove-box process exhaust resulting in significant effluent reductions. The additional stage of HEPA filters is unique in that each filter may be individually DOP tested. Radiological filter efficiencies of each process exhaust stage is presented. DP West room air ventilation systems have been modified to incorporate a single stage of HEPA filters in contrast to a previous American Air Filter PL-24 filtration system. Plutonium effluent reductions of 10 2 to 10 3 have resulted in these new systems. Modified DOP testing procedures for room air filtration systems are discussed. Major plutonium areas of the CMR Building utilizing Aerosolve 95 process exhaust filtration systems have been upgraded with two stages of HEPA filters. Significant reductions in effluent are evident. A unique method of DOP testing each bank of HEPA filters is discussed. Radiological efficiencies of both single and two-stage filters are discussed. (U.S.)

  8. 49 CFR 192.905 - How does an operator identify a high consequence area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.905 How does an operator identify a high consequence area? (a...

  9. Development of Sub-Daily Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves for Major Urban Areas in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events disrupt urban transportation and cause enormous damage to infrastructure. Urban areas are fast responding catchments due to significant impervious surface. Stormwater designs based on daily rainfall data provide inadequate information. We, therefore, develop intensity-duration-frequency curves using sub-daily (1 hour to 12 hour) rainfall data for 57 major urban areas in India. While rain gage stations data from urban areas are most suitable, but stations are unevenly distributed and their data have gaps and inconsistencies. Therefore, we used hourly rainfall data from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), which provides a long term data (1979 onwards). Since reanalysis products have uncertainty associated with them we need to enhance their accuracy before their application. We compared daily rain gage station data obtained from Global Surface Summary of Day Data (GSOD) available for 65 stations for the period of 2000-2010 with gridded daily rainfall data provided by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). 3-hourly data from NOAA/Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) were aggregated to daily for comparison with GSOD station data . TMPA is found to be best correlated with GSOD data. We used TMPA data to correct MERRA's hourly precipitation, which were applied to develop IDF curves. We compared results with IDF curves from empirical methods and found substantial disparities in the existing stormwater designs in India.

  10. Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

  11. Usefulness of Epicardial Area in the Short Axis to Identify Elevated Left Ventricular Mass in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Jesse K; Cohen, Beth E; Rosenblatt, Andrew; Shaw, Richard E; Schiller, Nelson B

    2018-06-15

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The 2-dimensional LV mass algorithms suffer from measurement variability that can lead to misclassification of patients with LV hypertrophy as normal, or vice versa. Among the 4 echocardiographic measurements required by the 2-dimensional LV mass algorithms, epicardial and endocardial area have the lowest interobserver variation and could be used to corroborate LV mass calculations. We sought cut-off values that are able to discriminate between elevated and normal LV mass based on endocardial or epicardial area alone. Using data from 664 men enrolled in the Mind Your Heart Study, we calculated the correlation of LV mass index with epicardial area and endocardial area. We then used receiver operator characteristic curves to identify epicardial and endocardial area cut-points that could discriminate subjects with normal LV mass and LV hypertrophy. LV mass index was more strongly correlated with epicardial area compared with endocardial area, r = 0.70 versus r = 0.27, respectively. Epicardial area had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (p versus 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.71). An epicardial area cut-point of ≥38.0 cm 2 corresponded to a sensitivity of 95.0% and specificity of 54.4% for detecting LV hypertrophy. In conclusion, epicardial area showed promise as a method of rapid screening for LV hypertrophy and could be used to validate formal LV mass calculations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying areas of need relative to liver disease: geographic clustering within a health service district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atem, Nathan; Irvine, Katharine M; Valery, Patricia C; Wojcik, Kyle; Horsfall, Leigh; Johnson, Tracey; Janda, Monika; McPhail, Steven M; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2017-08-01

    Background Many people with chronic liver disease (CLD) are not detected until they present to hospital with advanced disease, when opportunities for intervention are reduced and morbidity is high. In order to build capacity and liver expertise in the community, it is important to focus liver healthcare resources in high-prevalence disease areas and specific populations with an identified need. The aim of the present study was to examine the geographic location of people seen in a tertiary hospital hepatology clinic, as well as ethnic and sociodemographic characteristics of these geographic areas. Methods The geographic locations of hepatology out-patients were identified via the out-patient scheduling database and grouped into statistical area (SA) regions for demographic analysis using data compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Results During the 3-month study period, 943 individuals from 71 SA Level 3 regions attended clinic. Nine SA Level 3 regions accounted for 55% of the entire patient cohort. Geographic clustering was seen especially for people living with chronic hepatitis B virus. There was a wide spectrum of socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage in areas with high liver disease prevalence. Conclusions The geographic area from which people living with CLD travel to access liver health care is extensive. However, the greatest demand for tertiary liver disease speciality care is clustered within specific geographic areas. Outreach programs targeted to these areas may enhance liver disease-specific health service resourcing. What is known about the topic? The demand for tertiary hospital clinical services in CLD is rising. However, there is limited knowledge about the geographic areas from which people living with CLD travel to access liver services, or the ethnic, socioeconomic and education characteristics of these areas. What does this paper add? The present study demonstrates that a substantial proportion of people living with CLD and

  13. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  14. Identifying the Risk Areas and Urban Growth by ArcGIS-Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Hamdy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abouelreesh is one of the most at risk areas in Aswan, Egypt, which suffers from storms, poor drainage, and flash flooding. These phenomena affect the urban areas and cause a lot of damage to buildings and infrastructure. Moreover, the potential for the further realization of dangerous situations increased when the urban areas of Abouelreesh extended towards the risk areas. In an effort to ameliorate the danger, two key issues for urban growth management were studied, namely: (i estimations regarding the pace of urban sprawl, and (ii the identification of urban areas located in regions that would be affected by flash floods. Analyzing these phenomena require a lot of data in order to obtain good results, but in our case, the official data or field data was limited so we tried to obtain it by accessing two kinds of free sources of satellite data. First, we used Arc GIS tools to analyze (digital elevation model (DEM files in order to study the watershed and better identify the risk area. Second, we studied historical imagery in Google Earth to determine the age of each urban block. The urban growth rate in the risk areas had risen to 63.31% in 2001. Urban growth in the case study area had been influenced by house sizes, because most people were looking to live in bigger houses. The aforementioned problem can be observed by considering the increasing average house sizes from 2001 until 2013, where, especially in risky areas, the average of house sizes had grown from 223 m2 in 2001 to 318 m2 in 2013. The findings from this study would be useful to urban planners and government officials in helping them to make informed decisions on urban development to benefit the community, especially those living in areas at risk from flash flooding from heavy rain events.

  15. Identifying key areas for active interprofessional learning partnerships: A facilitated dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Kathryn; Angus, Allyson; Breckenridge, Jenna; Davey, Peter; Tully, Vicki; Muir, Fiona

    2016-11-01

    Student and service user involvement is recognised as an important factor in creating interprofessional education (IPE) opportunities. We used a team-based learning approach to bring together undergraduate health professional students, early career professionals (ECPs), public partners, volunteers, and carers to explore learning partnerships. Influenced by evaluative inquiry, this qualitative study used a free text response to allow participants to give their own opinion. A total of 153 participants (50 public partners and 103 students and professionals representing 11 healthcare professions) took part. Participants were divided into mixed groups of six (n = 25) and asked to identify areas where students, professionals, and public could work together to improve health professional education. Each group documented their discussions by summarising agreed areas and next steps. Responses were collected and transcribed for inductive content analysis. Seven key themes (areas for joint working) were identified: communication, public as partners, standards of conduct, IPE, quality improvement, education, and learning environments. The team-based learning format enabled undergraduate and postgraduate health professionals to achieve consensus with public partners on areas for IPE and collaboration. Some of our results may be context-specific but the approach is generalisable to other areas.

  16. Opuntia in Mexico: identifying priority areas for conserving biodiversity in a multi-use landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Illoldi-Rangel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: México is one of the world's centers of species diversity (richness for Opuntia cacti. Yet, in spite of their economic and ecological importance, Opuntia species remain poorly studied and protected in México. Many of the species are sparsely but widely distributed across the landscape and are subject to a variety of human uses, so devising implementable conservation plans for them presents formidable difficulties. Multi-criteria analysis can be used to design a spatially coherent conservation area network while permitting sustainable human usage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Species distribution models were created for 60 Opuntia species using MaxEnt. Targets of representation within conservation area networks were assigned at 100% for the geographically rarest species and 10% for the most common ones. Three different conservation plans were developed to represent the species within these networks using total area, shape, and connectivity as relevant criteria. Multi-criteria analysis and a metaheuristic adaptive tabu search algorithm were used to search for optimal solutions. The plans were built on the existing protected areas of México and prioritized additional areas for management for the persistence of Opuntia species. All plans required around one-third of México's total area to be prioritized for attention for Opuntia conservation, underscoring the implausibility of Opuntia conservation through traditional land reservation. Tabu search turned out to be both computationally tractable and easily implementable for search problems of this kind. CONCLUSIONS: Opuntia conservation in México require the management of large areas of land for multiple uses. The multi-criteria analyses identified priority areas and organized them in large contiguous blocks that can be effectively managed. A high level of connectivity was established among the prioritized areas resulting in the enhancement of possible modes of plant dispersal as well as

  17. RNAseq Analyses Identify Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Inflammation as a Major Abnormality in ALS Spinal Cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Brohawn

    Full Text Available ALS is a rapidly progressive, devastating neurodegenerative illness of adults that produces disabling weakness and spasticity arising from death of lower and upper motor neurons. No meaningful therapies exist to slow ALS progression, and molecular insights into pathogenesis and progression are sorely needed. In that context, we used high-depth, next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq, Illumina to define gene network abnormalities in RNA samples depleted of rRNA and isolated from cervical spinal cord sections of 7 ALS and 8 CTL samples. We aligned >50 million 2X150 bp paired-end sequences/sample to the hg19 human genome and applied three different algorithms (Cuffdiff2, DEseq2, EdgeR for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEG's. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA identified inflammatory processes as significantly elevated in our ALS samples, with tumor necrosis factor (TNF found to be a major pathway regulator (IPA and TNFα-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2 as a major network "hub" gene (WGCNA. Using the oPOSSUM algorithm, we analyzed transcription factors (TF controlling expression of the nine DEG/hub genes in the ALS samples and identified TF's involved in inflammation (NFkB, REL, NFkB1 and macrophage function (NR1H2::RXRA heterodimer. Transient expression in human iPSC-derived motor neurons of TNFAIP2 (also a DEG identified by all three algorithms reduced cell viability and induced caspase 3/7 activation. Using high-density RNAseq, multiple algorithms for DEG identification, and an unsupervised gene co-expression network approach, we identified significant elevation of inflammatory processes in ALS spinal cord with TNF as a major regulatory molecule. Overexpression of the DEG TNFAIP2 in human motor neurons, the population most vulnerable to die in ALS, increased cell death and caspase 3/7 activation. We propose that therapies targeted to reduce inflammatory TNFα signaling may be

  18. Identifying the Entrepreneurship Characteristics of the Oil Palm Community Plantation Farmers in the Riau Area

    OpenAIRE

    Brilliant Asmit; Deddy P. Koesrindartoto

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm is an essential and strategic commodity in the Riau area because of its considerable role in supporting the peoples’ economy, especially for plantation farmers. Oil palm plantation activities have brought economic impacts to society there, both for the people who are directly involved with the plantations and for their surrounding communities. This regional advantage is a facility for farmers to be able to develop their farms as plantations. The aims of this research are to identify ...

  19. Identifying areas of high risk of human exposure to coccidioidomycosis in Texas using serology data from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Srinath, I; Clavijo, A; Szonyi, B; Bani-Yaghoub, M; Park, S; Ivanek, R

    2013-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever (VF) is an emerging soil-borne fungal zoonosis affecting humans and animals. Most non-human cases of VF are found in dogs, which we hypothesize may serve as sentinels for estimating the human exposure risk. The objective of this study is to use the spatial and temporal distribution and clusters of dogs seropositive for VF to define the geographic area in Texas where VF is endemic, and thus presents a higher risk of exposure to humans. The included specimens were seropositive dogs tested at a major diagnostic laboratory between 1999 and 2009. Data were aggregated by zip code and smoothed by empirical Bayesian estimation to develop an isopleth map of VF seropositive rates using kriging. Clusters of seropositive dogs were identified using the spatial scan test. Both the isopleth map and the scan test identified an area with a high rate of VF-seropositive dogs in the western and southwestern parts of Texas (relative risk = 31). This location overlapped an area that was previously identified as a potential endemic region based on human surveys. Together, these data suggest that dogs may serve as sentinels for estimating the risk of human exposure to VF. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. A systematic method for identifying vital areas at complex nuclear facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Hockert, John

    2005-05-01

    Identifying the areas to be protected is an important part of the development of measures for physical protection against sabotage at complex nuclear facilities. In June 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency published INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities.' This guidance recommends that 'Safety specialists, in close cooperation with physical protection specialists, should evaluate the consequences of malevolent acts, considered in the context of the State's design basis threat, to identify nuclear material, or the minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices to be protected against sabotage.' This report presents a structured, transparent approach for identifying the areas that contain this minimum complement of equipment, systems, and devices to be protected against sabotage that is applicable to complex nuclear facilities. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage fault trees that reflect sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the fault trees are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The fault tree is then transformed (by negation) into its dual, the protection location tree, which reflects the sabotage actions that must be prevented in order to prevent unacceptable radiological consequences. The minimum path sets of this fault tree dual yield, through the area linkage, sets of areas, each of which contains nuclear material, or a minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices that, if protected, will prevent sabotage. This method also provides guidance for the selection of the minimum path set that permits optimization of the trade-offs among physical protection effectiveness, safety impact, cost and operational impact.

  1. Phosphorous as the major yield limiting nutrient for maize in the river basin areas of western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Bhakta Pokharel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is a heavy feeder crop but not always higher quantity of chemical fertilizers leads for higher grain yield. Objective of the study was to identify the major yield limiting macro nutrient for maize in the river basis areas. Field experiments were conducted at four locations viz. Dasharathpur, Ramghat, Mehelkuna, and Gumi VDCs of Surkhet district, under research command areas of Agriculture Research Station, Surkhet. Different doses of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers were applied. Planting was done in the summer season of 2010 and 2011. All field experiments were laid out in randomized complete block designs with three replications at each site and year. Deuti variety of maize was used in the experiment. Days to tasseling, silking, and physiological maturity due to fertilizer application were found significant. One week earlier silking, tasseling, and physiological maturity was observed due to use of 100:100 kg ha-1 nitrogen and phosphorous as compared to the most late maturity with application of 100 kg nitrogen ha-1. The highest grain yield (6802 kg ha-1 was found with application of 100:100 kg nitrogen and phosphorous ha-1 and the lowest grain yield (4174 kg ha-1 was found with the normal recommended fertilizer dose. Phosphorous was observed as the major yield limiting factor in this study.

  2. Identifying and assessing ecotourism visitor impacts at selected protected areas in Costa Rica and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation is an important component of ecotourism, and as such, must be sustainable. However, protected area visitation may degrade natural resources, particularly in areas of concentrated visitor activities like trails and recreation sites. This is an important concern in ecotourism destinations such as Belize and Costa Rica, because they actively promote ecotourism and emphasize the pristine qualities of their natural resources. Research on visitor impacts to protected areas has many potential applications in protected area management, though it has not been widely applied in Central and South America. This study targeted this deficiency through manager interviews and evaluations of alternative impact assessment procedures at eight protected areas in Belize and Costa Rica. Impact assessment procedures included qualitative condition class systems, ratings systems, and measurement-based systems applied to trails and recreation sites. The resulting data characterize manager perceptions of impact problems, document trail and recreation site impacts, and provide examples of inexpensive, efficient and effective rapid impact assessment procedures. Interview subjects reported a variety of impacts affecting trails, recreation sites, wildlife, water, attraction features and other resources. Standardized assessment procedures were developed and applied to record trail and recreation site impacts. Impacts affecting the study areas included trail proliferation, erosion and widening, muddiness on trails, vegetation cover loss, soil and root exposure, and tree damage on recreation sites. The findings also illustrate the types of assessment data yielded by several alternative methods and demonstrate their utility to protected area managers. The need for additional rapid assessment procedures for wildlife, water, attraction feature and other resource impacts was also identified.

  3. Application of spatial methods to identify areas with lime requirement in eastern Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunović, Igor; Kisic, Ivica; Mesic, Milan; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Percin, Aleksandra; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    With more than 50% of acid soils in all agricultural land in Croatia, soil acidity is recognized as a big problem. Low soil pH leads to a series of negative phenomena in plant production and therefore as a compulsory measure for reclamation of acid soils is liming, recommended on the base of soil analysis. The need for liming is often erroneously determined only on the basis of the soil pH, because the determination of cation exchange capacity, the hydrolytic acidity and base saturation is a major cost to producers. Therefore, in Croatia, as well as some other countries, the amount of liming material needed to ameliorate acid soils is calculated by considering their hydrolytic acidity. For this research, several interpolation methods were tested to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity. The purpose of this study was to: test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity; and to determine the possibility of using multivariate geostatistics in order to reduce the number of needed samples for determination the hydrolytic acidity, all with an aim that the accuracy of the spatial distribution of liming requirement is not significantly reduced. Soil pH (in KCl) and hydrolytic acidity (Y1) is determined in the 1004 samples (from 0-30 cm) randomized collected in agricultural fields near Orahovica in eastern Croatia. This study tested 14 univariate interpolation models (part of ArcGIS software package) in order to provide most accurate spatial map of hydrolytic acidity on a base of: all samples (Y1 100%), and the datasets with 15% (Y1 85%), 30% (Y1 70%) and 50% fewer samples (Y1 50%). Parallel to univariate interpolation methods, the precision of the spatial distribution of the Y1 was tested by the co-kriging method with exchangeable acidity (pH in KCl) as a covariate. The soils at studied area had an average pH (KCl) 4,81, while the average Y1 10,52 cmol+ kg-1. These data suggest that liming is necessary

  4. Estimating Major Crop Water Productivity at Neyshabour Basin and Optimize Crop Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavar Pourmohamad

    2017-06-01

    reports, agriculture consumes around 93.5percent of the groundwater withdrawals in Neyshabour basin and mostly in irrigation fields, surface water resources share in total water resource withdrawals is about 4.2percent, which means that groundwater is a primary source of fresh water for different purposes and surface water has a minor role in providing water supply services in the Neyshabour basin. To determine crop cultivation area, major crops divided into two groups. two winter crops (Wheat and Barley and two summer crops (Maize and Tomato. To accomplish land classification by using supervised method, a training area is needed, so different farms for each crop were chosen by consulting with official agricultural organization expert and multiple point read on GPS for each crop. The maximum likelihood (MLC method was selected for the land cover classification. To estimate the amount of precipitation at each 199 sub-basins, 13 station data for precipitation were collected, these stations are including 11 pluviometry stations, one climatology station and one synoptic station. Actual evapotranspiration (ETa is needed to estimate actual yield (Ya. Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL technique were applied on Landsat 8 OLI images. To calculate actual ETa, the following steps in flowchart were modeled as tool in ArcGIS 10.3 and a spreadsheet file. To estimate actual crop yield, the suggested procedure by FAO-33 and FAO-66 were followed. Financial productivity could be defined in differently according to interest. In this study several of these definition was used. These definitions are Income productivity (IP and Profit productivity (PP. To optimize crop area, linear programing technique were used. Results and discussionaverage actual evapotranspiration result for each sub-basin are shown in context. In some sub-basins which there were no evapotranspiration are shown in white. And it happens in those sub-basins which assigned as desert in land classification. In

  5. Attempt to identify the functional areas of the cerebral cortex on CT slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Okuda, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Tsuyoshi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Shiraishi, Junzo

    1982-06-01

    In order to identify the functional brain areas, such as Broca's area, on computed tomography slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line, the numbers of Brodmann's cortical mapping were shown on a diagram of representative brain sections parallel to the orbito-meatal line. Also, we described a method, using cerebral sulci as anatomical landmarks, for projecting lesions shown by CT scan onto the lateral brain diagram. The procedures were as follows. The distribution of lesions on CT slices was determined by the identification of major cerebral sulci and fissures, such as the Sylvian fissure, the central sulcus, and the superior frontal sulcus. Those lesions were then projected onto the lateral diagram by comparing each CT slice with the horizontal diagrams of brain sections. The method was demonstrated in three cases developing neuropsychological symptoms.

  6. Raptor mortality in wind farms of southern Spain: mitigation measures on a major migration bottleneck area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio-Roman Munoz; Lucas, Manuela De; Casado, Eva; Ferrer, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    Full text: To assess and monitor the impact of wind farms on fauna is crucial if we want to achieve ecologically sustainable development of this renewable energy resource. Today there are clear evidences that the probability of raptor collision depends critically on species behaviour and weather conditions, and the topographic factors related to each windmill. In our study area EIA were not able to predict this differential risk and in these circumstances mitigating the causes of bird mortality becomes a task of major importance, especially to those wind farms located in the Strait of Gibraltar, a water crossing of 14 km at its shortest distance acting as a major migration bottleneck for Paleo-African soaring migrants. We collected all available information on raptor collision from 1992, when the first wind farm was installed, and from 2005 until present a total of 262 turbines, grouped into 20 wind farms, were surveyed in a daily basis through a surveillance program with the main goal of register the actual mortality of birds. A total of 1291 raptors of 19 species were found of which 78.5% correspond to two species, the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) and the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). In order to mitigate the impact on raptors, and particularly on the griffon vulture, in 2007 a program based on selective stopping of turbines was imposed, in collaboration with the environmental competent authority, on new approved projects. During 2008 there was a reduction in mortality by 48%, which remained in 2009 with a remarkably lower economic cost. An analysis of the temporal collision patterns will be presented and discussed, with special attention to those species suffering higher mortality rate, and to those who have some degree of threat. (Author)

  7. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  8. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Duncan, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO 3 ) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities

  9. An integrated model to simulate sown area changes for major crops at a global scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIBASAKI; Ryosuke

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of land use systems have attracted much attention from scientists around the world due to their ecological and socio-economic implications. An integrated model to dynamically simulate future changes in sown areas of four major crops (rice, maize, wheat and soybean) on a global scale is pre- sented. To do so, a crop choice model was developed on the basis of Multinomial Logit (Logit) model to model land users’ decisions on crop choices among a set of available alternatives with using a crop utility function. A GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted to simulate the crop yields under a given geophysical environment and farming management conditions, while the International Food Policy and Agricultural Simulation (IFPSIM) model was utilized to estimate crop price in the international market. The crop choice model was linked with the GIS-based EPIC model and the IFPSIM model through data exchange. This integrated model was then validated against the FAO statistical data in 2001-2003 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global land cover product in 2001. Both validation approaches indicated reliability of the model for ad- dressing the dynamics in agricultural land use and its capability for long-term scenario analysis. Finally, the model application was designed to run over a time period of 30 a, taking the year 2000 as baseline. The model outcomes can help understand and explain the causes, locations and consequences of land use changes, and provide support for land use planning and policy making.

  10. Analysis of vehicular traffic flow in the major areas of Kuala Lumpur utilizing open-traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogaran, Saargunawathy; Ali, Muhammad; Yusof, Kamaludin Mohamad; Suhaili, Ramdhan

    2017-09-01

    Vehicular traffic congestion occurs when a large number of drivers are overcrowded on the road and the traffic flow does not run smoothly. Traffic congestion causes chaos on the road and interruption to daily activities of users. Time consumed on road give lots of negative effects on productivity, social behavior, environmental and cost to economy. Congestion is worsens and leads to havoc during the emergency such as flood, accidents, road maintenance and etc., where behavior of traffic flow is always unpredictable and uncontrollable. Real-time and historical traffic data are critical inputs for most traffic flow analysis applications. Researcher attempt to predict traffic using simulations as there is no exact model of traffic flow exists due to its high complexity. Open Traffic is an open source platform available for traffic data analysis linked to Open Street Map (OSM). This research is aimed to study and understand the Open Traffic platform. The real-time traffic flow pattern in Kuala Lumpur area was successfully been extracted and analyzed using Open Traffic. It was observed that the congestion occurs on every major road in Kuala Lumpur and most of it owes to the offices and the economic and commercial centers during rush hours. At some roads the congestion occurs at night due to the tourism activities.

  11. Characterization of decontamination and decommissioning wastes expected from the major processing facilities in the 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, L.C.; Franklin, J.D.; Hyre, R.A.; Lowy, R.M.; Millar, J.S.; Pottmeyer, J.A. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This study was intended to characterize and estimate the amounts of equipment and other materials that are candidates for removal and subsequent processing in a solid waste facility when the major processing and handling facilities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site are decontaminated and decommissioned. The facilities in this study were selected based on processing history and on the magnitude of the estimated decommissioning cost cited in the Surplus Facilities Program Plan; Fiscal Year 1993 (Winship and Hughes 1992). The facilities chosen for this study include B Plant (221-B), T Plant (221-T), U Plant (221-U), the Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Plant (224-U and 224-UA), the Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) or S Plant (202-S), the Plutonium Concentration Facility for B Plant (224-B), and the Concentration Facility for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and REDOX (233-S). This information is required to support planning activities for current and future solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal operations and facilities.

  12. Space-Time Analysis to Identify Areas at Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliany C. O. Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying areas that were at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in residents aged 45 years or older of the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande between 2009 and 2011. We conducted an ecological study of mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. Mortality rates were calculated for each census tract by the Local Empirical Bayes estimator. High- and low-risk clusters were identified by retrospective space-time scans for each year using the Poisson probability model. We defined the year and month as the temporal analysis unit and the census tracts as the spatial analysis units adjusted by age and sex. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the socioeconomic and environmental variables by risk classification. High-risk clusters showed higher income ratios than low-risk clusters, as did temperature range and atmospheric particulate matter. Low-risk clusters showed higher humidity than high-risk clusters. The Eastern region of Várzea Grande and the central region of Cuiabá were identified as areas at risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease in individuals aged 45 years or older. High mortality risk was associated with socioeconomic and environmental factors. More high-risk clusters were observed at the end of the dry season.

  13. Using EVT for Geological Anomaly Design and Its Application in Identifying Anomalies in Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A geological anomaly is the basis of mineral deposit prediction. Through the study of the knowledge and characteristics of geological anomalies, the category of extreme value theory (EVT to which a geological anomaly belongs can be determined. Associating the principle of the EVT and ensuring the methods of the shape parameter and scale parameter for the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD, the methods to select the threshold of the GPD can be studied. This paper designs a new algorithm called the EVT model of geological anomaly. These study data on Cu and Au originate from 26 exploration lines of the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area in Hubei, China. The proposed EVT model of the geological anomaly is applied to identify anomalies in the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area. The results show that the model can effectively identify the geological anomaly region of Cu and Au. The anomaly region of Cu and Au is consistent with the range of ore bodies of actual engineering exploration. Therefore, the EVT model of the geological anomaly can effectively identify anomalies, and it has a high indicating function with respect to ore prospecting.

  14. Assigning dates and identifying areas affected by fires in Portugal based on MODIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESSICA PANISSET

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An automated procedure is here presented that allows identifying and dating burned areas in Portugal using values of daily reflectance from near-infrared and middle-infrared bands, as obtained from the MODIS instrument. The algorithm detects persistent changes in monthly composites of the so-called (V,W Burn-Sensitive Index and the day of maximum change in daily time series of W is in turn identified as the day of the burning event. The procedure is tested for 2005, the second worst fire season ever recorded in Portugal. Comparison between the obtained burned area map and the reference derived from Landsat imagery resulted in a Proportion Correct of 95.6%. Despite being applied only to the months of August and September, the algorithm is able to identify almost two-thirds of all scars that have occurred during the entire year of 2005. An assessment of the temporal accuracy of the dating procedure was also conducted, showing that 75% of estimated dates presented deviations between -5 and 5 days from dates of hotspots derived from the MODIS instrument. Information about location and date of burning events as provided by the proposed procedure may be viewed as complementary to the currently available official maps based on end-of-season Landsat imagery.

  15. Using Hospitalization and Mortality Data to Identify Areas at Risk for Adolescent Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Aseltine, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to use statewide data on inpatient hospitalizations for suicide attempts and suicide mortality to identify communities and school districts at risk for adolescent suicide. Five years of data (2010-2014) from the Office of the Connecticut Medical Examiner and the Connecticut Hospital Inpatient Discharge Database were analyzed. A mixed-effects Poisson regression model was used to assess whether suicide attempt/mortality rates in the state's 119 school districts were significantly better or worse than expected after adjusting for 10 community-level characteristics. Ten districts were at significantly higher risk for suicidal behavior, with suicide mortality/hospitalization rates ranging from 154% to 241% of their expected rates, after accounting for their community characteristics. Four districts were identified as having significantly lower risk for suicide attempts than expected after accounting for community-level advantages and disadvantages. Data capturing hospitalization for suicide attempts and suicide deaths can inform prevention activities by identifying high-risk areas to which resources should be allocated, as well as low-risk areas that may provide insight into the best practices in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies major loci for carcass weight on BTA14 in Hanwoo (Korean cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available This genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted to identify major loci that are significantly associated with carcass weight, and their effects, in order to provide increased understanding of the genetic architecture of carcass weight in Hanwoo. This genome-wide association study identified one major chromosome region ranging from 23 Mb to 25 Mb on chromosome 14 as being associated with carcass weight in Hanwoo. Significant Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide associations (P<1.52×10(-6 were detected for 6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP loci for carcass weight on chromosome 14. The most significant SNP was BTB-01280026 (P = 4.02×10(-11, located in the 25 Mb region on Bos taurus autosome 14 (BTA14. The other 5 significant SNPs were Hapmap27934-BTC-065223 (P = 4.04×10(-11 in 25.2 Mb, BTB-01143580 (P = 6.35×10(-11 in 24.3 Mb, Hapmap30932-BTC-011225 (P = 5.92×10(-10 in 24.8 Mb, Hapmap27112-BTC-063342 (P = 5.18×10(-9 in 25.4 Mb, and Hapmap24414-BTC-073009 (P = 7.38×10(-8 in 25.4 Mb, all on BTA 14. One SNP (BTB-01143580; P = 6.35×10(-11 lies independently from the other 5 SNPs. The 5 SNPs that lie together showed a large Linkage disequilibrium (LD block (block size of 553 kb with LD coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.89 within the block. The most significant SNPs accounted for 6.73% to 10.55% of additive genetic variance, which is quite a large proportion of the total additive genetic variance. The most significant SNP (BTB-01280026; P = 4.02×10(-11 had 16.96 kg of allele substitution effect, and the second most significant SNP (Hapmap27934-BTC-065223; P = 4.04×10(-11 had 18.06 kg of effect on carcass weight, which correspond to 44% and 47%, respectively, of the phenotypic standard deviation for carcass weight in Hanwoo cattle. Our results demonstrated that carcass weight was affected by a major Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL with a large effect and by many SNPs with small effects that are normally

  17. Identifying optimal areas for REDD intervention: East Kalimantan, Indonesia as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Nancy L; Petrova, Silvia; Brown, Sandra; Stolle, Fred

    2008-01-01

    International discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) as a greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement strategy are ongoing under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In the light of these discussions, it behooves countries to be able to determine the relative likelihood of deforestation over a landscape and perform a first order estimation of the potential reduction in GHGs associated with various protection scenarios. This would allow countries to plan their interventions accordingly to maximize carbon benefits, alongside other environmental and socioeconomic benefits, because forest protection programs might be chosen in places where the perceived threat of deforestation is high whereas in reality the threat is low. In this case study, we illustrate a method for creating deforestation threat maps and estimating potential reductions in GHGs from eighteen protected areas in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, that would occur if protection of these areas was well enforced. Results from our analysis indicate that a further 230 720 ha of East Kalimantan's forest area would be lost and approximately 305 million t CO 2 would be emitted from existing protected areas between 2003 and 2013 if the historical rate of deforestation continued unabated. In other words, the emission of 305 million t CO 2 into the atmosphere would be avoided during this period if protection of the existing areas was well enforced. At a price of $4 per ton of CO 2 (approximate price on the Chicago Climate Exchange in August 2008), this represents an estimated gross income stream of about $120 million per year. We also identified additional areas with high carbon stocks under high deforestation threat that would be important to protect if the carbon benefits of avoided deforestation activities are to be maximized in this region

  18. Major ion chemistry and quality assessment of groundwater in Haripur area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, W.; Tariq, J.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2011-07-01

    Study was conducted for investigating chemical composition of groundwater, identifying the compositional types of groundwater, delineating the processes controlling the groundwater chemistry and assessing the groundwater quality for drinking / irrigation uses. Groundwater samples collected from shallow (hand pumps, open well, motor pumps) and deep (tube wells) aquifers were analyzed for major cations (Na/sup +/,K/sup +, Ca/sup 2+/, Mg/sup 2+/) and anions (HCO/sub 3/, Cl/sup '/, SO/sub 4/). The data indicated that Ca/sub 2/ is the dominant cation in most of the samples followed by Mg/sup 2+/ whereas HCO/sub 3/ is the most abundant anion in all samples. Hydrochemistry provides a clear indication of active recharge of shallow and deep aquifers by modern meteoric water. Carbonate dissolution was found to be the prevailing process controlling the groundwater chemistry. Chemical quality was assessed for drinking purpose by comparing with WHO, Indian and national standards, and for irrigation purpose using empirical indices such as SAR and RSC. The results show that groundwater meets the norms of good quality drinking water and can be safely used for irrigation. (author)

  19. Acoustic Impedance Inversion To Identify Oligo-Miocene Carbonate Facies As Reservoir At Kangean Offshore Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuli Purnama, Arif; Ariyani Machmud, Pritta; Eka Nurcahya, Budi; Yusro, Miftahul; Gunawan, Agung; Rahmadi, Dicky

    2018-03-01

    Model based inversion was applied to inversion process of 2D seismic data in Kangean Offshore Area. Integration acoustic impedance from wells and seismic data was expected showing physical property, facies separation and reservoir quality of carbonate rock, particularly in Kangean Offshore Area. Quantitative and qualitative analysis has been conducted on the inversion results to characterize the carbonate reservoir part of Kujung and correlate it to depositional facies type. Main target exploration in Kangean Offshore Area is Kujung Formation (Oligo-Miocene Carbonate). The type of reservoir in this area generate from reef growing on the platform. Carbonate rock is a reservoir which has various type and scale of porosity. Facies determination is required to to predict reservoir quality, because each facies has its own porosity value. Acoustic impedance is used to identify and characterize Kujung carbonate facies, also could be used to predict the distribution of porosity. Low acoustic impedance correlated with packstone facies that has acoustic impedance value below 7400 gr/cc*m/s. In other situation, high acoustic impedance characterized by wackestone facies above 7400 gr/cc*m/s. The interpretation result indicated that Kujung carbonate rock dominated by packstone facies in the upper part of build-up and it has ideal porosity for hydrocarbon reservoir.

  20. The use of load patterns to identify residential customers in a chosen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, G.; Lech, M.; Mielczarski, W. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre for Electrical Power Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Information on customers` categories and energy use patterns is a basis for the development of any Demand Side Management program. This paper presents an application of energy consumption patterns to identification of customers in a chosen area. Customers have been segmented into four main categories with six subgroups in each category. A total pattern of energy use can be achieved by the combination of characteristic patterns for each subgroup with multiplication by the number of customers in each subgroup. The paper proposes to apply characteristic patterns developed and nonlinear programming techniques to identify customers in a chosen area from patterns measured at distribution feeders. The procedure can be applied as an alternative to surveys and measurements at the mains of particular customers but may also be implemented as an accompanying system to verify results from other procedures of customer identification. (author). 1 tab., 6 figs., 4 refs.

  1. Identifying the Entrepreneurship Characteristics of the Oil Palm Community Plantation Farmers in the Riau Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilliant Asmit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is an essential and strategic commodity in the Riau area because of its considerable role in supporting the peoples’ economy, especially for plantation farmers. Oil palm plantation activities have brought economic impacts to society there, both for the people who are directly involved with the plantations and for their surrounding communities. This regional advantage is a facility for farmers to be able to develop their farms as plantations. The aims of this research are to identify the entrepreneurship characteristics of the oil palm farmers, and also to identify the entrepreneurship characteristics that differentiate the farmers, as seen from their business’ achievements. The research used a grounded theory approach to identify the characteristics of oil palm farmers systematically. The sampling method used for the research was theoretical sampling, which is data gathering driven by the concepts derived from the theory of previous entrepreneurship characteristics studies. The research object is the oil palm farmers in Riau, Indonesia. The results of the analysis identified the entrepreneurship characteristics of the oil palm farmers, they are growth oriented, risk-taking, innovative, with a sense of personal control, self confident, and cooperative. But, among the characteristics, only the characteristic of their cooperation did not differentiate the oil palm farmers in the achievement of their business activities.

  2. An integrated model to simulate sown area changes for major crops at a global scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU WenBin; YANG Peng; MENG ChaoYing; SHIBASAKI Ryosuke; ZHOU QingBo; TANG HuaJun; SHI Yun

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of land use systems have attracted much attention from scientists around the world due to their ecological and socio-economic implications. An integrated model to dynamically simulate future changes in sown areas of four major crops (rice, maize, wheat and soybean) on a global scale is presented. To do so, a crop choice model was developed on the basis of Multinomial Logit (Logit) model to model land users' decisions on crop choices among a set of available alternatives with using a crop utility function. A GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted to simulate the crop yields under a given geophysical environment and farming management conditions,while the International Food Policy and Agricultural Simulation (IFPSIM) model was utilized to estimate crop price in the international market. The crop choice model was linked with the GIS-based EPIC model and the IFPSIM model through data exchange. This integrated model was then validated against the FAO statistical data in 2001-2003 and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)global land cover product in 2001. Both validation approaches indicated reliability of the model for addressing the dynamics in agricultural land use and its capability for long-term scenario analysis. Finally,the model application was designed to run over a time period of 30 a, taking the year 2000 as baseline.The model outcomes can help understand and explain the causes, locations and consequences of land use changes, and provide support for land use planning and policy making.

  3. Nominal group technique: a brainstorming tool for identifying areas to improve pain management in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Adolfo; Estrada, Carlos A; Soniat, Debbie; Taylor, Benjamin; Burton, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pain management in hospitalized patients remains a priority area for improvement; effective strategies for consensus development are needed to prioritize interventions. To identify challenges, barriers, and perspectives of healthcare providers in managing pain among hospitalized patients. Qualitative and quantitative group consensus using a brainstorming technique for quality improvement-the nominal group technique (NGT). One medical, 1 medical-surgical, and 1 surgical hospital unit at a large academic medical center. Nurses, resident physicians, patient care technicians, and unit clerks. Responses and ranking to the NGT question: "What causes uncontrolled pain in your unit?" Twenty-seven health workers generated a total of 94 ideas. The ideas perceived contributing to a suboptimal pain control were grouped as system factors (timeliness, n = 18 ideas; communication, n = 11; pain assessment, n = 8), human factors (knowledge and experience, n = 16; provider bias, n = 8; patient factors, n = 19), and interface of system and human factors (standardization, n = 14). Knowledge, timeliness, provider bias, and patient factors were the top ranked themes. Knowledge and timeliness are considered main priorities to improve pain control. NGT is an efficient tool for identifying general and context-specific priority areas for quality improvement; teams of healthcare providers should consider using NGT to address their own challenges and barriers. Copyright © 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  4. A simple and successful sonographic technique to identify the sciatic nerve in the parasacral area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ahmad Muhammad

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe detailed sonographic anatomy of the parasacral area for rapid and successful identification of the sciatic nerve. Fifty patients scheduled for knee surgery were included in this observational study. An ultrasound-guided parasacral sciatic nerve block was performed in all patients. The ultrasound probe was placed on an axial plane 8 cm lateral to the uppermost point of the gluteal cleft. Usually, at this level the posterior border of the ischium (PBI), a characteristically curved hyperechoic line, could be identified. The sciatic nerve appeared as a hyperechoic structure just medial to the PBI. The nerve lies deep to the piriformis muscle lateral to the inferior gluteal vessels, and if followed caudally, it rests directly on the back of the ischium. After confirmation with electrical stimulation, a 20-mL mixture of 1% ropivacaine and 1% lidocaine with epinephrine was injected. The sciatic nerve was identified successfully in 48 patients (96%). In those patients, the median time required for its ultrasonographic identification was ten seconds [interquartile range, 8-13.7 sec], and the block success rate was 100%. The described sonographic details of the parasacral area allowed for rapid and successful identification of the sciatic nerve.

  5. Satellite Earth observation data to identify anthropogenic pressures in selected protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Harini; Mairota, Paola; Marangi, Carmela; Lucas, Richard; Dimopoulos, Panayotis; Honrado, João Pradinho; Niphadkar, Madhura; Mücher, Caspar A.; Tomaselli, Valeria; Panitsa, Maria; Tarantino, Cristina; Manakos, Ioannis; Blonda, Palma

    2015-05-01

    Protected areas are experiencing increased levels of human pressure. To enable appropriate conservation action, it is critical to map and monitor changes in the type and extent of land cover/use and habitat classes, which can be related to human pressures over time. Satellite Earth observation (EO) data and techniques offer the opportunity to detect such changes. Yet association with field information and expert interpretation by ecologists is required to interpret, qualify and link these changes to human pressure. There is thus an urgent need to harmonize the technical background of experts in the field of EO data analysis with the terminology of ecologists, protected area management authorities and policy makers in order to provide meaningful, context-specific value-added EO products. This paper builds on the DPSIR framework, providing a terminology to relate the concepts of state, pressures, and drivers with the application of EO analysis. The type of pressure can be inferred through the detection of changes in state (i.e. changes in land cover and/or habitat type and/or condition). Four broad categories of changes in state are identified, i.e. land cover/habitat conversion, land cover/habitat modification, habitat fragmentation and changes in landscape connectivity, and changes in plant community structure. These categories of change in state can be mapped through EO analyses, with the goal of using expert judgement to relate changes in state to causal direct anthropogenic pressures. Drawing on expert knowledge, a set of protected areas located in diverse socio-ecological contexts and subject to a variety of pressures are analysed to (a) link the four categories of changes in state of land cover/habitats to the drivers (anthropogenic pressure), as relevant to specific target land cover and habitat classes; (b) identify (for pressure mapping) the most appropriate spatial and temporal EO data sources as well as interpretations from ecologists and field data

  6. Transcriptome association analysis identifies miR-375 as a major determinant of variable acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Freytsis, Marina; Court, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    Acetaminophen is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in many countries including the United States. Hepatic glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A subfamily enzymes is the major route of acetaminophen elimination. Reduced glucuronidation may predispose some individuals to acetaminophen-induced ALF, but mechanisms underlying reduced glucuronidation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may reduce UGT1A activity by direct effects on the UGT1A 3'-UTR shared by all UGT1A enzyme transcripts, or by indirect effects on transcription factors regulating UGT1A expression. We performed an unbiased miRNA whole transcriptome association analysis using a bank of human livers with known acetaminophen glucuronidation activities. Of 754 miRNAs evaluated, 9 miRNAs were identified that were significantly overexpressed (p2-fold) in livers with low acetaminophen glucuronidation activities compared with those with high activities. miR-375 showed the highest difference (>10-fold), and was chosen for further mechanistic validation. We demonstrated using in silico analysis and luciferase reporter assays that miR-375 has a unique functional binding site in the 3'-UTR of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene. Furthermore overexpression of miR-375 in LS180 cells demonstrated significant repression of endogenous AhR protein (by 40%) and mRNA (by 10%), as well as enzyme activity and/or mRNA of AhR regulated enzymes including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and CYP1A2, without affecting UGT2B7, which is not regulated by AhR. Thus miR-375 is identified as a novel repressor of UGT1A-mediated hepatic acetaminophen glucuronidation through reduced AhR expression, which could predispose some individuals to increased risk for acetaminophen-induced ALF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Retail tobacco exposure: using geographic analysis to identify areas with excessively high retail density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Carlos, Heather A; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Berke, Ethan M; Sargent, James

    2014-02-01

    There is great disparity in tobacco outlet density (TOD), with density highest in low-income areas and areas with greater proportions of minority residents, and this disparity may affect cancer incidence. We sought to better understand the nature of this disparity by assessing how these socio-demographic factors relate to TOD at the national level. Using mixture regression analysis and all of the nearly 65,000 census tracts in the contiguous United States, we aimed to determine the number of latent disparity classes by modeling the relations of proportions of Blacks, Hispanics, and families living in poverty with TOD, controlling for urban/rural status. We identified six disparity classes. There was considerable heterogeneity in relation to TOD for Hispanics in rural settings. For Blacks, there was no relation to TOD in an urban moderate disparity class, and for rural census tracts, the relation was highest in a moderate disparity class. We demonstrated the utility of classifying census tracts on heterogeneity of tobacco risk exposure. This approach provides a better understanding of the complexity of socio-demographic influences of tobacco retailing and creates opportunities for policy makers to more efficiently target areas in greatest need.

  8. Identifying areas under potential risk of illegal construction and demolition waste dumping using GIS tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Portnov, Boris A

    2018-05-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste, dumped illegally in ravines and open areas, contaminates soil and can cause underground water pollution and forests fires. Yet, effective monitoring of illegal C&D waste dumping and enforcing legislation against the offenders are often a difficult task due to the large size of geographic areas that need to be monitored, and limited human and financial resources available to environmental law enforcement agencies. In this study, we use Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and geo-statistical modelling to identify the areas under potentially elevated risk of illegal C&D waste dumping in the Haifa district of Israel. As our analysis shows, locational factors, significantly associated with the accumulated amount of waste in the existing illegal C&D waste sites, include: distance to the nearest main road, depth of the ravine present at the site (pwaste dumping for future monitoring. As we suggest, the proposed approach may be useful for environmental law enforcement authorities, by helping them to focus on specific sites for inspection, save resources, and act against the offenders more efficiently. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying Potential Area and Financial Prospects of Rooftop Solar Photovoltaics (PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Ninsawat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In an urban area, the roof is the only available surface that can be utilized for installing solar photovoltaics (PV, and the active surface area depends on the type of roof. Shadows on a solar panel can be caused by nearby tall buildings, construction materials such as water tanks, or the roof configuration itself. The azimuth angle of the sun varies, based on the season and the time of day. Therefore, the simulation of shadow for one or two days or using the rule of thumb may not be sufficient to evaluate shadow effects on solar panels throughout the year. In this paper, a methodology for estimating the solar potential of solar PV on rooftops is presented, which is particularly applicable to urban areas. The objective of this method is to assess how roof type and shadow play a role in potentiality and financial benefit. The method starts with roof type extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery, using Object Base Image Analysis (OBIA, the generation of a 3D structure from height data and roof type, the simulation of shadow throughout the year, and the identification of potential and financial prospects. Based on the results obtained, the system seems to be adequate for calculating the financial benefits of solar PV to a very fine scale. The payback period varied from 7–13 years depending on the roof type, direction, and shadow impact. Based on the potentiality, a homeowner can make a profit of up to 200%. This method could help homeowners to identify potential roof area and economic interest.

  10. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ielsch, G.

    2001-01-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  11. Metallogenetic characteristics of major fault in area No.212-318

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong

    1994-01-01

    Based on the distribution characteristics of major fault on the plan and assemblage form of major and subsidiary faults on the section, this paper expounds the relationship between major fault and uranium ore-formation, namely: different orders of fault structure control the spatial distribution of ore fields, ore deposits and ore bodies respectively, regional turning sites of the major fault control the ore fields; local turning sites of the major fault control ore deposits; different types of structural assemblages control ore bodies. Whether the matter compositions of fault structure are simple or not, it plays an absolutely important role in ore-formation. The complicated matter compositions of fault structures are favourable for ore-formation, conversely, simple compositions are unfavourable

  12. Functional genomic analysis identifies indoxyl sulfate as a major, poorly dialyzable uremic toxin in end-stage renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jhawar

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure is characterized by progressive renal scarring and accelerated arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease despite what is considered to be adequate hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In rodents with reduced renal mass, renal scarring has been attributed to poorly filtered, small protein-bound molecules. The best studied of these is indoxyl sulfate (IS.We have attempted to establish whether there are uremic toxins that are not effectively removed by hemodialysis. We examined plasma from patients undergoing hemodialysis, employing global gene expression in normal human renal cortical cells incubated in pre- and post- dialysis plasma as a reporter system. Responses in cells incubated with pre- and post-dialysis uremic plasma (n = 10 were compared with responses elicited by plasma from control subjects (n = 5. The effects of adding IS to control plasma and of adding probenecid to uremic plasma were examined. Plasma concentrations of IS were measured by HPLC (high pressure liquid chromatography.Gene expression in our reporter system revealed dysregulation of 1912 genes in cells incubated with pre-dialysis uremic plasma. In cells incubated in post-dialysis plasma, the expression of 537 of those genes returned to baseline but the majority of them (1375 remained dysregulated. IS concentration was markedly elevated in pre- and post-dialysis plasma. Addition of IS to control plasma simulated more than 80% of the effects of uremic plasma on gene expression; the addition of probenecid, an organic anion transport (OAT inhibitor, to uremic plasma reversed the changes in gene expression.These findings provide evidence that hemodialysis fails to effectively clear one or more solutes that effect gene expression, in our reporter system, from the plasma of patients with uremia. The finding that gene dysregulation was simulated by the addition of IS to control plasma and inhibited by addition of an OAT inhibitor to uremic plasma identifies IS

  13. USING GIS TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOOD. CASE STUDY: SOLONEŢ RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. TIPLEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS to Identify Potential Areas Susceptible to Flood. Case Study: Soloneţ River. In this study, we aim to analyze the impact of different peak flows in territory and also a better understanding of the dynamic of a river flow. The methodology used for flood zone delimitation is based on a quantitative analysis model which requires the use of mathematical, physical and statistical operations in order to emphasize the relations between the different variables that were implied (discharges, grain size, terrain morphology, soil saturation, vegetation etc.. The results cannot be expected to be completely accurate but can provide a good representation of the process. Validation of results will inevitably be difficult and should be measured in the field. The information resulting from this study could be useful for raising awareness about both hazards and possible mitigation measure, a key component of disaster risk reduction planning.

  14. Using geographic information systems to identify prospective marketing areas for a special library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughy, Rozalynd P; Wilson, Steven P

    2006-05-04

    The Center for Disability Resources (CDR) Library is the largest collection of its kind in the Southeastern United States, consisting of over 5,200 books, videos/DVDs, brochures, and audiotapes covering a variety of disability-related topics, from autism to transition resources. The purpose of the library is to support the information needs of families, faculty, students, staff, and other professionals in South Carolina working with individuals with disabilities. The CDR Library is funded on a yearly basis; therefore, maintaining high usage is crucial. A variety of promotional efforts have been used to attract new patrons to the library. Anyone in South Carolina can check out materials from the library, and most of the patrons use the library remotely by requesting materials, which are then mailed to them. The goal of this project was to identify areas of low geographic usage as a means of identifying locations for future library marketing efforts. Nearly four years worth of library statistics were compiled in a spreadsheet that provided information per county on the number of checkouts, the number of renewals, and the population. Five maps were created using ArcView GIS software to create visual representations of patron checkout and renewal behavior per county. Out of the 46 counties in South Carolina, eight counties never checked out materials from the library. As expected urban areas and counties near the library's physical location have high usage totals. The visual representation of the data made identification of low usage regions easier than using a standalone database with no visual-spatial component. The low usage counties will be the focus of future Center for Disability Resources Library marketing efforts. Due to the impressive visual-spatial representations created with Geographic Information Systems, which more efficiently communicate information than stand-alone database information can, librarians may benefit from the software's use as a

  15. Identifying Areas Suitable for the Occurrence of Rift Valley Fever in North Africa: Implications for Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsevska, E; Hellal, J; Mejri, S; Hammami, S; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V

    2016-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has caused widespread outbreaks throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with serious consequences for livestock-based economies and public health. Although there have never been any reports of RVF in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, it is a priority disease in the Maghreb, due to the threat of introduction of the virus through transboundary livestock movements or infected mosquito vectors. However, the implementation of surveillance activities and early warning contingency plans requires better knowledge of the epidemiological situation. We conducted a multicriteria decision analysis, integrating host distribution with a combination of important ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance, to identify hotspots and suitable time periods for RVF enzootic circulation (i.e. stable transmission at a low to moderate level for an extended period of time) and an RVF epizootic event (i.e. a sudden occurrence of a large number of infected animals over a large geographic area) in the Maghreb. We also modelled vector species distribution using available information on vector presence and habitat preference. We found that the northern regions of the Maghreb were moderately suitable for RVF enzootics, but highly suitable for RVF epizootics. The vector species distribution model identified these regions as the most favourable mosquito habitats. Due to the low density of animal hosts and arid conditions, the desert region showed low RVF suitability, except in oases. However, the presence of competent vectors in putative unsuitable areas underlines the need for further assessments of mosquito habitat preference. This study produced monthly RVF suitability maps useful for animal health managers and veterinary services involved in designing risk-based surveillance programmes. The suitability maps can be further enhanced using existing country-specific sources of information and by incorporating knowledge

  16. Where to Go Next? Identifying Target Areas in the North Atlantic for Future Seafloor Mapping Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfl, A. C.; Jencks, J.; Johnston, G.; Varner, J. D.; Devey, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Human activities are rapidly expanding into the oceans, yet detailed bathymetric maps do not exist for most of the seafloor that would permit governments to formulate sensible usage rules. Changing this situation will require an enormous international mapping effort. To ensure that this effort is directed towards the regions most in need of mapping, we need to know which areas have already been mapped and which areas are potentially most interesting. Despite various mapping efforts in recent years, large parts of the Atlantic still lack detailed bathymetric information. To successfully plan for future mapping efforts to fill these gaps, knowledge of current data coverage is imperative to avoid duplication of effort. While certain datasets are publically available online (e.g. NOAA's NCEI, EMODnet, IHO-DCDB, LDEO's GMRT), many are not. However, with the limited information we do have at hand, the question remains, where should we map next? And what criteria should we take into account? In 2016, a study was taken on as part of the efforts of the International Atlantic Seabed Mapping Working Group (ASMIWG). The ASMIWG, established by the Tri-Partite Galway Statement Implementation Committee, was tasked to develop a cohesive seabed mapping strategy for the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of our study was to develop a reproducible process for identifying and evaluating potential target areas within the North Atlantic that represent suitable sites for future bathymetric surveys. The sites were selected by applying a GIS-based suitability analysis that included specific user group-based parameters of the marine environment. Furthermore, information regarding current data coverage were gathered to take into account in the selection process. The results reveal the suitability of sites within the North Atlantic based on the selected criteria. Three potential target sites should be seen as flexible suggestions for future mapping initiatives rather than a rigid, defined set of areas

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for neuroticism and shows polygenic association with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Marleen H.M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppälä, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbara; Giegling, Ina; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heinonen, Kati; Henders, Anjali K.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Karlsson, Robert; Kemp, John P.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Latvala, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Magri, Chiara; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marten, Jonathan; Maschio, Andrea; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nauck, Matthias; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pettersson, Erik; Polasek, Ozren; Qian, Yong; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Pourcain, Beate St; Sutin, Angelina R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trochet, Holly; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Wouda, Jasper; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Scotland, Generation; Porteous, David; Minelli, Alessandra; Palmer, Abraham A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Metspalu, Andres; Kaprio, Jaakko; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Wilson, James F.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Bierut, Laura J.; Hettema, John M.; Grabe, Hans J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Evans, David M.; Schlessinger, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Terracciano, Antonio; McGue, Matt; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Neuroticism is a personality trait that is briefly defined by emotional instability. It is a robust genetic risk factor for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Hence, neuroticism is an important phenotype for psychiatric genetics. The Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) has created a resource for genome-wide association analyses of personality traits in over 63,000 participants (including MDD cases). Objective To identify genetic variants associated with neuroticism by performing a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results based on 1000Genomes imputation, to evaluate if common genetic variants as assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) explain variation in neuroticism by estimating SNP-based heritability, and to examine whether SNPs that predict neuroticism also predict MDD. Setting 30 cohorts with genome-wide genotype, personality and MDD data from the GPC. Participants The study included 63,661 participants from 29 discovery cohorts and 9,786 participants from a replication cohort. Participants came from Europe, the United States or Australia. Main outcome measure(s) Neuroticism scores harmonized across all cohorts by Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis, and clinically assessed MDD case-control status. Results A genome-wide significant SNP was found in the MAGI1 gene (rs35855737; P=9.26 × 10−9 in the discovery meta-analysis, and P=2.38 × 10−8 in the meta-analysis of all 30 cohorts). Common genetic variants explain 15% of the variance in neuroticism. Polygenic scores based on the meta-analysis of neuroticism in 27 of the discovery cohorts significantly predicted neuroticism in 2 independent cohorts. Importantly, polygenic scores also predicted MDD in these cohorts. Conclusions and relevance This study identifies a novel locus for neuroticism. The variant is located in a known gene that has been associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in previous studies. In addition, the study

  18. Cre/lox Studies Identify Resident Macrophages as the Major Source of Circulating Coagulation Factor XIII-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Cora M L; Simpson, Kingsley R; Griffin, Kathryn J; Brown, Jane M; Cheah, Lih T; Smith, Kerrie A; Vacher, Jean; Cordell, Paul A; Kearney, Mark T; Grant, Peter J; Pease, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    To establish the cellular source of plasma factor (F)XIII-A. A novel mouse floxed for the F13a1 gene, FXIII-A flox/flox (Flox), was crossed with myeloid- and platelet-cre-expressing mice, and cellular FXIII-A mRNA expression and plasma and platelet FXIII-A levels were measured. The platelet factor 4-cre.Flox cross abolished platelet FXIII-A and reduced plasma FXIII-A to 23±3% ( P cre on plasma FXIII-A was exerted outside of the megakaryocyte lineage because plasma FXIII-A was not reduced in the Mpl -/- mouse, despite marked thrombocytopenia. In support of this, platelet factor 4-cre depleted FXIII-A mRNA in brain, aorta, and heart of floxed mice, where FXIII-A pos cells were identified as macrophages as they costained with CD163. In the integrin αM-cre.Flox and the double copy lysozyme 2-cre.cre.Flox crosses, plasma FXIII-A was reduced to, respectively, 75±5% ( P =0.003) and 30±7% ( P <0.001), with no change in FXIII-A content per platelet, further consistent with a macrophage origin of plasma FXIII-A. The change in plasma FXIII-A levels across the various mouse genotypes mirrored the change in FXIII-A mRNA expression in aorta. Bone marrow transplantation of FXIII-A +/+ bone marrow into FXIII-A -/- mice both restored plasma FXIII-A to normal levels and replaced aortic and cardiac FXIII-A mRNA, while its transplantation into FXIII-A +/+ mice did not increase plasma FXIII-A levels, suggesting that a limited population of niches exists that support FXIII-A-releasing cells. This work suggests that resident macrophages maintain plasma FXIII-A and exclude the platelet lineage as a major contributor. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Utility of the PHQ-9 to identify major depressive disorder in adult patients in Spanish primary care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Navarro, Roger; Cano-Vindel, Antonio; Medrano, Leonardo Adrián; Schmitz, Florian; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Paloma; Abellán-Maeso, Carmen; Font-Payeras, Maria Antonia; Hermosilla-Pasamar, Ana María

    2017-08-09

    The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Spanish primary care (PC) centres is high. However, MDD is frequently underdiagnosed and consequently only some patients receive the appropriate treatment. The present study aims to determine the utility of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to identify MDD in a subset of PC patients participating in the large PsicAP study. A total of 178 patients completed the full PHQ test, including the depression module (PHQ-9). Also, a Spanish version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was implemented by clinical psychologists that were blinded to the PHQ-9 results. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 as a screening tool as compared to the SCID-I as a reference standard. The psychometric properties of the PHQ-9 for a cut-off value of 10 points were as follows: sensitivity, 0.95; specificity, 0.67. Using a cut-off of 12 points, the values were: sensitivity, 0.84; specificity, 0.78. Finally, using the diagnostic algorithm for depression (DSM-IV criteria), the sensitivity was 0.88 and the specificity 0.80. As a screening instrument, the PHQ-9 performed better with a cut-off value of 12 versus the standard cut-off of 10. However, the best psychometric properties were obtained with the DSM-IV diagnostic algorithm for depression. These findings indicate that the PHQ-9 is a highly satisfactory tool that can be used for screening MDD in the PC setting. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58437086 . Registered 20 May 2013.

  20. Identifying Priority Areas for Conservation: A Global Assessment for Forest-Dependent Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Graeme M.; Donald, Paul F.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000–2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from

  1. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Buchanan

    Full Text Available Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species, we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005 included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing

  2. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Graeme M; Donald, Paul F; Butchart, Stuart H M

    2011-01-01

    Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from

  3. Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Stakeholder Engagement Project identified systematic review priority areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anna Mae; Clark, Justin; Dooley, Liz; Jones, Ann; Jones, Mark; Del Mar, Chris

    2018-05-22

    Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Group conducts systematic reviews of the evidence for treatment and prevention of ARIs. We report the results of a prioritisation project, aiming to identify highest priority systematic review topics. The project consisted of 2 Phases. Phase 1 analysed the gap between existing RCTs and Cochrane Systematic Reviews (reported previously). Phase 2 (reported here) consisted of a two-round survey. In round 1, respondents prioritised 68 topics and suggested up to 10 additional topics; in Round 2, respondents prioritised top 25 topics from Round 1. Respondents included clinicians, researchers, systematic reviewers, allied health, patients, and carers, from 33 different countries. In Round 1, 154 respondents identified 20 priority topics, most commonly selecting topics in non-specific ARIs, influenza, and common cold. 50 respondents also collectively suggested 134 additional topics. In Round 2, 78 respondents prioritised top 25 topics, most commonly in the areas of non-specific ARIs, pneumonia and influenza. We generated a list of priority systematic review topics, to guide the Cochrane ARI Group's systematic review work for the next 24 months. Stakeholder involvement enhanced the transparency of the process, and will increase the usability and relevance of the Group's work to stakeholders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying the Barriers upon Development of Virtual Education in Engineering Majors (Case Study: The University of Isfahan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoonezhad, Sepideh; Nili, Mohammadreza; Esfahani, Ahmadreza Nasr

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating barriers upon development of virtual education in engineering majors at the University of Isfahan. The study has applied a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) and its population consists all of the department members of the technical and engineering majors at the University of Isfahan including 125…

  5. Taxonomic classification of world map units in crop producing areas of Argentina and Brazil with representative US soil series and major land resource areas in which they occur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, H. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The most probable current U.S. taxonomic classification of the soils estimated to dominate world soil map units (WSM)) in selected crop producing states of Argentina and Brazil are presented. Representative U.S. soil series the units are given. The map units occurring in each state are listed with areal extent and major U.S. land resource areas in which similar soils most probably occur. Soil series sampled in LARS Technical Report 111579 and major land resource areas in which they occur with corresponding similar WSM units at the taxonomic subgroup levels are given.

  6. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amram Ofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  7. Identifying knickpoints using elevation breaks and offsets in slope-area scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer Bezerra, Daniel; Persano, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    passive margin river system, the Quadrilátero Ferrífero - Brazil, that exhibits (i) high relief (max. relief is 1400 m, max. elevation is 2080 m); (ii) presence of knickpoints; (iii) an absence of Quaternary glaciation. Therefore, we seek to test the different methods of identification of knickpoints in a mountainous landscape where we had field constraints of knickpoints. There are two main criteria for the identification of knickpoints: (1) elevation/gradient breaks or; (2) offsets in trends of slope-area scaling. Both of those criteria are somehow subjective as the values for the breaks in (1) as well as the regression limits for the slope-area scaling (2) are arbitrary. We show that the use of those different criteria prescribes different results; the knickpoints identified for both methods are not interchangeable. The method (1) define a higher number of knickpoints than (2) that are more easily identified in the field than the knickpoints that stem from (2). Many times the knickpoints identified from (1) are subsequent, meaning that they are a knickzone rather than a knickpoint. The method (2) is more robust for the characterization of knickzones than (1). We suggest a combined approach for the identification of knickpoints as well as arbitrary values for defining it.

  8. Group distribution characteristics of lachrymal duct obstruction diseases in major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Li Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the group distribution characteristics of lachrymal duct obstruction diseases in major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province. METHODS: Totally 5 353 residents were selected and researched by randomized cluster sampling in the major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province. Ocular examination and lachrymal duct flushing were carried out, and questionnaire survey on lachrymal duct obstruction was conducted. The ratio of lachrymal duct obstruction diseases and group distribution characteristics were analyzed based on above research. RESULTS: The prevalence ratios of lachrymal duct obstruction was 4.47% in major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province, with 2.62% in urban area, and 5.93% in rural area respectively. Prevalence ratios of men and women group were 1.69% and 6.39% correspondingly. Difference between the two groups was statistically significant(χ2=67.2821, P=0.0000. The highest prevalence ratio was 40-69 year-old group, second one was 70-79 year-old group, especially for women in these groups. The prevalence ratios of Ledong, Lingshui, Baisha and Changjiang county were higher than those of Baoting, Qiongzhong county and Wuzhishan city. No significant difference was found between both eyes. CONCLUSION: In major Li Miao minority areas of Hainan province, lachrymal duct obstruction mainly occurs in 40-79 year-old patients, with specially higher ratio of women. Statistically, significant difference of the prevalence ratio between urban and rural areas exists. The higher prevalence ratio is attributed to age, gender, geographical location, climate condition, health environment and so on. The prevalence ratio is higher in the dry and windy areas than in the humid and less windy areas.

  9. Development and usage of sportsturf: a survey of major utility areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... Several major sports fields within Nairobi city offering playing grounds for soccer, golf, cricket, rugby and hockey were surveyed through direct interviews and ... There is a general lack of schedule of maintenance activities to match demand of expected sports events.

  10. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Abernethy, Rebecca; Brauer, Michael; Davies, Hugh; Allen, Ryan W

    2011-12-21

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances roads as the zone of primary interest. Census data at the city and neighborhood levels were used to evaluate relationships between school proximity to major roads, urban density, and indicators of socioeconomic status. Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00), while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km²: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16). Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of

  11. Long-term plasticity in identified hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in the CA1 area in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Petrina Yau-Pok; Katona, Linda; Saghy, Peter; Newton, Kathryn; Somogyi, Peter; Lamsa, Karri P

    2017-05-01

    Long-term plasticity is well documented in synapses between glutamatergic principal cells in the cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and -depression (LTD) have also been reported in glutamatergic connections to hippocampal GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV+) or nitric oxide synthase (NOS+) in brain slices, but plasticity in these cells has not been tested in vivo. We investigated synaptically-evoked suprathreshold excitation of identified hippocampal neurons in the CA1 area of urethane-anaesthetized rats. Neurons were recorded extracellularly with glass microelectrodes, and labelled with neurobiotin for anatomical analyses. Single-shock electrical stimulation of afferents from the contralateral CA1 elicited postsynaptic action potentials with monosynaptic features showing short delay (9.95 ± 0.41 ms) and small jitter in 13 neurons through the commissural pathway. Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) generated LTP of the synaptically-evoked spike probability in pyramidal cells, and in a bistratified cell and two unidentified fast-spiking interneurons. On the contrary, PV+ basket cells and NOS+ ivy cells exhibited either LTD or LTP. An identified axo-axonic cell failed to show long-term change in its response to stimulation. Discharge of the cells did not explain whether LTP or LTD was generated. For the fast-spiking interneurons, as a group, no correlation was found between plasticity and local field potential oscillations (1-3 or 3-6 Hz components) recorded immediately prior to TBS. The results demonstrate activity-induced long-term plasticity in synaptic excitation of hippocampal PV+ and NOS+ interneurons in vivo. Physiological and pathological activity patterns in vivo may generate similar plasticity in these interneurons.

  12. Spatial Accessibility to Health Care Services: Identifying under-Serviced Neighbourhoods in Canadian Urban Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Ikram Shah

    Full Text Available Urban environments can influence many aspects of health and well-being and access to health care is one of them. Access to primary health care (PHC in urban settings is a pressing research and policy issue in Canada. Most research on access to healthcare is focused on national and provincial levels in Canada; there is a need to advance current understanding to local scales such as neighbourhoods.This study examines spatial accessibility to family physicians using the Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA method to identify neighbourhoods with poor geographical access to PHC services and their spatial patterning across 14 Canadian urban settings. An index of spatial access to PHC services, representing an accessibility score (physicians-per-1000 population, was calculated for neighborhoods using a 3km road network distance. Information about primary health care providers (this definition does not include mobile services such as health buses or nurse practitioners or less distributed services such as emergency rooms used in this research was gathered from publicly available and routinely updated sources (i.e. provincial colleges of physicians and surgeons. An integrated geocoding approach was used to establish PHC locations.The results found that the three methods, Simple Ratio, Neighbourhood Simple Ratio, and 3SFCA that produce City level access scores are positively correlated with each other. Comparative analyses were performed both within and across urban settings to examine disparities in distributions of PHC services. It is found that neighbourhoods with poor accessibility scores in the main urban settings across Canada have further disadvantages in relation to population high health care needs.The results of this study show substantial variations in geographical accessibility to PHC services both within and among urban areas. This research enhances our understanding of spatial accessibility to health care services at the neighbourhood

  13. Tools to identify linear combination of prognostic factors which maximizes area under receiver operator curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Nicolae; Todor, Irina; Săplăcan, Gavril

    2014-01-01

    The linear combination of variables is an attractive method in many medical analyses targeting a score to classify patients. In the case of ROC curves the most popular problem is to identify the linear combination which maximizes area under curve (AUC). This problem is complete closed when normality assumptions are met. With no assumption of normality search algorithm are avoided because it is accepted that we have to evaluate AUC n(d) times where n is the number of distinct observation and d is the number of variables. For d = 2, using particularities of AUC formula, we described an algorithm which lowered the number of evaluations of AUC from n(2) to n(n-1) + 1. For d > 2 our proposed solution is an approximate method by considering equidistant points on the unit sphere in R(d) where we evaluate AUC. The algorithms were applied to data from our lab to predict response of treatment by a set of molecular markers in cervical cancers patients. In order to evaluate the strength of our algorithms a simulation was added. In the case of no normality presented algorithms are feasible. For many variables computation time could be increased but acceptable.

  14. A simple method to identify areas of environmental risk due to manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Héctor; Arumí, José Luis; Rivera, Diego; Lagos, L Octavio

    2012-06-01

    The management of swine manure is becoming an important environmental issue in Chile. One option for the final disposal of manure is to use it as a biofertilizer, but this practice could impact the surrounding environment. To assess the potential environmental impacts of the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer, we propose a method to identify zones of environmental risk through indices. The method considers two processes: nutrient runoff and solute leaching, and uses available information about soils, crops and management practices (irrigation, fertilization, and rotation). We applied the method to qualitatively assess the environmental risk associated with the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer in an 8,000-pig farm located in Central Chile. Results showed that the farm has a moderate environmental risk, but some specific locations have high environmental risks, especially those associated with impacts on areas surrounding water resources. This information could assist the definition of better farm-level management practices, as well as the preservation of riparian vegetation acting as buffer strips. The main advantage of our approach is that it combines qualitative and quantitative information, including particular situations or field features based on expert knowledge. The method is flexible, simple, and can be easily extended or adapted to other processes.

  15. Effects of Climate Change on the Yield and Cropping Area of Major Food Crops: A Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ruhul Amin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The crops that we grow for food need specific climatic conditions to show better performance in view of economic yield. A changing climate could have both beneficial and harmful effects on crops. Keeping the above view in mind, this study is undertaken to investigate the impacts of climate change (viz. changes in maximum temperature, minimum temperature, rainfall, humidity and sunshine on the yield and cropping area of four major food crops (viz. Aus rice, Aman rice, Boro rice and wheat in Bangladesh. Heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent standard error (HAC and feasible generalized least square (FGLS methods were used to determine the climate-crop interrelations using national level time series data for the period of 1972–2010. Findings revealed that the effects of all the climate variables have had significant contributions to the yield and cropping area of major food crops with distinct variation among them. Maximum temperature statistically significantly affected all the food crops’ yield except Aus rice. Maximum temperature also insignificantly affected cropping area of all the crops. Minimum temperature insignificantly affected Aman rice but benefited other three crops’ yield and cropping area. Rainfall significantly benefitted cropping area of Aus rice, but significantly affected both yield and cropping area of Aman rice. Humidity statistically positively contributed to the yield of Aus and Aman rice but, statistically, negatively influenced the cropping area of Aus rice. Sunshine statistically significantly benefitted only Boro rice yield. Overall, maximum temperature adversely affected yield and cropping area of all the major food crops and rainfall severely affected Aman rice only. Concerning the issue of climate change and ensuring food security, the respective authorities thus should give considerable attention to the generation, development and extension of drought (all major food crops and flood (particularly Aman

  16. Ministry of Finance: Discharge Reduction Funds to Provide Supports in Six Major Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Zhu Guangyao, assistant Minister of the Ministry of Finance, said at the climate summit in Copenhagen on December 16, 2009 that, the government budget would increase the investment in the areas of energy conservation, discharge reduction and renewable energy sources in 2010 and during the period of Twelfth Five-Year Plan.

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies a single major locus contributing to survival into old age; the APOE locus revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deelen, Joris; Beekman, Marian; Uh, Hae-Won

    2011-01-01

    By studying the loci which contribute to human longevity, we aim to identify mechanisms that contribute to healthy aging. To identify such loci, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) comparing 403 unrelated nonagenarians from long-living families included in the Leiden Longevity Stu...

  18. Laser speckle contrast imaging identifies ischemic areas on gastric tube reconstructions following esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, Dan M J; Ince, Can; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; Boateng, Kofi B; Geerts, Bart F; Hollmann, Markus W; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Veelo, Denise P

    2016-06-01

    Gastric tube reconstruction (GTR) is a high-risk surgical procedure with substantial perioperative morbidity. Compromised arterial blood supply and venous congestion are believed to be the main etiologic factors associated with early and late anastomotic complications. Identifying low blood perfusion areas may provide information on the risks of future anastomotic leakage and could be essential for improving surgical techniques. The aim of this study was to generate a method for gastric microvascular perfusion analysis using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and to test the hypothesis that LSCI is able to identify ischemic regions on GTRs.Patients requiring elective laparoscopy-assisted GTR participated in this single-center observational investigation. A method for intraoperative evaluation of blood perfusion and postoperative analysis was generated and validated for reproducibility. Laser speckle measurements were performed at 3 different time pointes, baseline (devascularized) stomach (T0), after GTR (T1), and GTR at 20° reverse Trendelenburg (T2).Blood perfusion analysis inter-rater reliability was high, with intraclass correlation coefficients for each time point approximating 1 (P < 0.0001). Baseline (T0) and GTR (T1) mean blood perfusion profiles were highest at the base of the stomach and then progressively declined towards significant ischemia at the most cranial point or anastomotic tip (P < 0.01). After GTR, a statistically significant improvement in mean blood perfusion was observed in the cranial gastric regions of interest (P < 0.05). A generalized significant decrease in mean blood perfusion was observed across all GTR regions of interest during 20° reverse Trendelenburg (P < 0.05).It was feasible to implement LSCI intraoperatively to produce blood perfusion assessments on intact and reconstructed whole stomachs. The analytical design presented in this study resulted in good reproducibility of gastric perfusion measurements

  19. Proteomic analysis identifies mitochondrial metabolic enzymes as major discriminators between different stages of the failing human myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Wiggers, Henrik; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM).......Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM)....

  20. Regional consensus opinion for the management of Beta thalassemia major in the Arabian Gulf area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Thalassemia syndrome has diverse clinical presentations and a global spread that has far exceeded the classical Mediterranean basin where the mutations arose. The mutations that give rise to either alpha or beta thalassemia are numerous, resulting in a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from carrier state to life-threatening, inherited hemolytic anemia that requires regular blood transfusion. Beta thalassemia major constitutes a remarkable challenge to health care providers. The complications arising due to the anemia, transfusional iron overload, as well as other therapy-related complications add to the complexity of this condition. To produce this consensus opinion manuscript, a PubMed search was performed to gather evidence-based original articles, review articles, as well as published work reflecting the experience of physicians and scientists in the Arabian Gulf region in an effort to standardize the management protocol. PMID:24044606

  1. [Problems resulting from the absorption of small towns into urban areas in major Third World cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, D L

    1985-01-01

    The tendency toward hypertrophy of large metropolitan areas in the Third World has been a subject of concern to economists and other social scientists for some time. Inability to absorb vast waves of migrants into the organized labor force or to provide adequate infrastructure and services are serious problems in many growing cities of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A different phenomenon created by perpetual urban expansion has been relatively neglected: the problems caused when preexisting urban areas are absorbed into the metropolis. The tendency of squatter settlements to constrict normal urban growth and expansion and to impede rational provision of services has been recognized, but the absorption of small cities does not necessarily produce identical problems. Small cities absorbed into a metropolis lose their identity in the successive waves of suburban proliferation. Los Angeles in the US may be considered the prototype of the phenomenon in which multiple preexisting urban zones are absorbed into the same metropolis without formation of any visible center of gravity. In some cases, small cities may be completely engulfed by the encroaching metropolis, if transit routes or availability of land makes them interesting to developers. The livelihood of residents may be threatened if they are no longer able to cultivate gardens or raise small animals. Local services may deteriorate. The youngest and most able residents are likely to abandon such places for the greater opportunities of the city, leaving the aged and less qualified to fend for themselves. Jobs may disappear and traditional commercial relations may be destroyed without being replaced. The future wellbeing of residents depends on their ability to maneuver in the new metropolitan environment, but many will be unable to adjust for lack of training, the weight of immovable property, or diverse personal considerations. Planning could help to reduce the problems that occasional survival of some small

  2. Increased atmospheric ammonia over the world's major agricultural areas detected from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. X.; Dickerson, R. R.; Wei, Z.; Strow, L. L.; Wang, Y.; Liang, Q.

    2017-03-01

    This study provides evidence of substantial increases in atmospheric ammonia (NH3) concentrations (14 year) over several of the worlds major agricultural regions, using recently available retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. The main sources of atmospheric NH3 are farming and animal husbandry involving reactive nitrogen ultimately derived from fertilizer use; rates of emission are also sensitive to climate change. Significant increasing trends are seen over the U.S. (2.61% yr-1), the European Union (EU) (1.83% yr-1), and China (2.27% yr-1). Over the EU, the trend results from decreased scavenging by acid aerosols. Over the U.S., the increase results from a combination of decreased chemical loss and increased soil temperatures. Over China, decreased chemical loss, increasing temperatures, and increased fertilizer use all play a role. Over South Asia, increased NH3 emissions are masked by increased SO2 and NOx emissions, leading to increased aerosol loading and adverse health effects.

  3. Progress in the reduction of carbon monoxide levels in major urban areas in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sul, Kyung-Hwa; Szulejko, Jan E.; Chambers, Scott D.; Feng, Xinbin; Lee, Min-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Long-term trends in observed carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were analyzed in seven major South Korean cities from 1989 to 2013. Temporal trends were evident on seasonal and annual timescales, as were spatial gradients between the cities. As CO levels in the most polluted cities decreased significantly until the early 2000s, the data were arbitrarily divided into two time periods (I: 1989–2000 and II: 2001–2013) for analysis. The mean CO concentration of period II was about 50% lower than that of period I. Long-term trends of annual mean CO concentrations, examined using the Mann–Kendall (MK) method, confirm a consistent reduction in CO levels from 1989 to 2000 (period I). The abrupt reduction in CO levels was attributed to a combination of technological improvements and government administrative/regulatory initiatives (e.g., emission mitigation strategies and a gradual shift in the fuel/energy consumption mix away from coal and oil to natural gas and nuclear power). - Highlights: • As one of the criteria pollutants, CO has been extensively studied worldwide. • The concentration of CO in ambient air should be reduced to a more manageable level. • The spatiotemporal characteristics of CO in Korea are analyzed for 1989–2013. • Our efforts will help develop systematic strategies to reduce CO emissions. - The efficacy of CO mitigation strategies adopted throughout Korea is highlighted along with the limitations faced to improving air quality due to cross-boundary pollution transport.

  4. Using Statistical Process Control Charts to Identify the Steroids Era in Major League Baseball: An Educational Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E.; Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an educational exercise in which statistical process control charts are constructed and used to identify the Steroids Era in American professional baseball. During this period (roughly 1993 until the present), numerous baseball players were alleged or proven to have used banned, performance-enhancing drugs. Also observed…

  5. Factor analysis in the Genetics of Asthma International Network family study identifies five major quantitative asthma phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pillai, S. G.; Tang, Y.; van den Oord, E.; Klotsman, M.; Barnes, K.; Carlsen, K.; Gerritsen, J.; Lenney, W.; Silverman, M.; Sly, P.; Sundy, J.; Tsanakas, J.; von Berg, A.; Whyte, M.; Ortega, H. G.; Anderson, W. H.; Helms, P. J.

    Background Asthma is a clinically heterogeneous disease caused by a complex interaction between genetic susceptibility and diverse environmental factors. In common with other complex diseases the lack of a standardized scheme to evaluate the phenotypic variability poses challenges in identifying the

  6. Identifying forest lands in urban areas in the Central Hardwood Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Philip Kern

    1997-01-01

    Forests in urban areas are an important component of urban and suburban environments. They provide places for recreation and environmental education, wildlife habitat for species adapted to living near humans, contribute to general human physical and psychological health. Knowing how much and what type of forest exists in urban areas provides critical baseline data for...

  7. Breeding performance of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tits (Parus major) in a heavy metal polluted area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeva, T., E-mail: tapio.eeva@utu.f [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Ahola, M.; Lehikoinen, E. [Section of Ecology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    We compared heavy metal levels, calcium levels, breeding parameters and condition of nestling and adult Cyanistes caeruleus and Parus major along a heavy metal pollution gradient. Both species started laying earlier and showed inferior nestling growth and smaller fledging probability in the polluted areas, which are phenologically advanced in spring due to sparse forests. The major inter-specific difference in the responses was that the clutch size and hatching success were decreased in the polluted area in P. major, but not in C. caeruleus. Heavy metal profiles in nestling feces were relatively similar in the two species, though Ni and Pb levels were higher in C. caeruleus than in P. major. However, the latter species showed markedly higher fecal calcium concentrations. Lower calcium levels and higher levels of some heavy metals in C. caeruleus suggest that in Ca-deficient environments this species might be more susceptible to negative pollution effects than P. major. - Breeding performance in two Parid species near a Cu smelter.

  8. Breeding performance of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tits (Parus major) in a heavy metal polluted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeva, T.; Ahola, M.; Lehikoinen, E.

    2009-01-01

    We compared heavy metal levels, calcium levels, breeding parameters and condition of nestling and adult Cyanistes caeruleus and Parus major along a heavy metal pollution gradient. Both species started laying earlier and showed inferior nestling growth and smaller fledging probability in the polluted areas, which are phenologically advanced in spring due to sparse forests. The major inter-specific difference in the responses was that the clutch size and hatching success were decreased in the polluted area in P. major, but not in C. caeruleus. Heavy metal profiles in nestling feces were relatively similar in the two species, though Ni and Pb levels were higher in C. caeruleus than in P. major. However, the latter species showed markedly higher fecal calcium concentrations. Lower calcium levels and higher levels of some heavy metals in C. caeruleus suggest that in Ca-deficient environments this species might be more susceptible to negative pollution effects than P. major. - Breeding performance in two Parid species near a Cu smelter.

  9. Risk assessment of major hazards: Hazardous materials transportation in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph; Pages, P

    1988-02-01

    There is no doubt that, thanks to the pioneering studies of the late seventies and the early eighties, a methodology has been made available that allows risk management of hazardous transportation in urban areas. This approach can easily be extended to the management of other similar risks (storages and to some extent natural hazards). The methodology is both technically available and affordable. The insertion within the decision making processes deserves still some efforts. It has be seen that the applications are broad and numerous. They range from route selection to emergency preparedness, with some insights into acceptability considerations. One limit to the use of such studies, aiming to an objective assessment of the risk, is the complexity of the decision problems, where many factors are to be considered, the most subtle being the one linked to acceptability. However, as such studies develop, those factors start to be clarified, and decision makers learn how to use risk indices in this context. So at the present time it can be said that risk analyses are a valuable input into the decision making process in most cases. And, as more experience is acquired the uses are broader. As any technical innovation risk assessment modifies the approaches to the questions it is dealing with. It seems impossible now to treat those kinds of risks as was done ten years ago.

  10. Activities related to the prevention of climatic change in some major urban areas of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.

    1990-12-01

    After a perspective on the need for action to prevent and prepare for global warming, and the potential consequences of inaction on North American communities, local and regional government perspectives are presented on the response to global warming in Chicago, Los Angeles, Montreal, New York, and Toronto. It is seen that local government and its agencies in these urban areas are little touched by the profound dangers to human existence posed by the continued release into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases. Explanations are offered for the apparent unwillingness to act, including ignorance and confusion about the greenhouse effect and global warming, unpalatable socio-economic and political costs of remedial action, a perception that global warming is not the responsibility of local governments, and a perception that cities are sources of environmental degradation rather than solutions to it. It is suggested that city living results in less overall atmospheric degradation than a suburban sprawl scenario, notably with regard to transportation. 25 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Risk assessment of major hazards: Hazardous materials transportation in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Pages, P.

    1988-02-01

    There is no doubt that, thanks to the pioneering studies of the late seventies and the early eighties, a methodology has been made available that allows risk management of hazardous transportation in urban areas. This approach can easily be extended to the management of other similar risks (storages and to some extent natural hazards). The methodology is both technically available and affordable. The insertion within the decision making processes deserves still some efforts. It has be seen that the applications are broad and numerous. They range from route selection to emergency preparedness, with some insights into acceptability considerations. One limit to the use of such studies, aiming to an objective assessment of the risk, is the complexity of the decision problems, where many factors are to be considered, the most subtle being the one linked to acceptability. However, as such studies develop, those factors start to be clarified, and decision makers learn how to use risk indices in this context. So at the present time it can be said that risk analyses are a valuable input into the decision making process in most cases. And, as more experience is acquired the uses are broader. As any technical innovation risk assessment modifies the approaches to the questions it is dealing with. It seems impossible now to treat those kinds of risks as was done ten years ago

  12. Infectious bursal disease: seroprevalence and associated risk factors in major poultry rearing areas of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenbreie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas; Kebede, Fekadu; Lynch, Stacey E; Negussie, Haileleul

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in eight districts of Ethiopia with the objectives of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of infectious bursal disease (IBD). From the total of 2,597 chicken serum samples examined using ELISA, 83.1 % were found positive. The highest seroprevalence was found at Mekele (90.3 %) while the lowest was recorded at Gondar district (69.8 %). These differences among the study areas were statistically significant (p 0.05). The seroprevalence of the disease was found high in young (≤ 8 weeks) age group (86.6 %) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in adults (>8 weeks) (72 %). This is also statistically significant (p < 0.05) between young and adult age groups. The prevalence of IBD in different production system indicated that higher seroprevalence was recorded in intensive production system (85.9 %) while the lowest was recorded in extensive production system (81.6 %). This difference is also statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  13. Micro-relief distribution of major mosses in ice-free areas along the Soya Coast, the Syowa Station area, East Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Okitsu,Susumu; Imura,Satoshi; Ayukawa,Eri

    2004-01-01

    Micro-relief distribution of five major mosses, Pottia heimii, Ceratodon purpureus, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Grimmia lawiana and Bryum argenteum, in the ice-free areas along the Soya Coast, continental part of East Antarctica have been compared. Those five mosses showed three different types of micro-relief distribution, at three different types of sites: mounds, slopes and hollows. Pottia heimii and Ceratodon purpureus prevailed on mound sites mixed with cyanobacteria. In dryer mound environm...

  14. Improved methods for irrigation and planting of major crops in waterlogged areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Iqbal, M.; Raoof, A.

    2002-01-01

    The improved irrigation methods for wheat and cotton were evaluated in the fordwah Eastern Sadigia (South) Irrigation and Drainage Project area, during 1996-97 and 1997-98 cropping seasons, under three water table depths. Irrigation methods for wheat included 70, 95 and 120 cm Beds, with Flat Basin, as a check for comparative evaluation. Cotton had Ridge-planting on the top and side, Bed and Furrow, and Flat Basin as control. These irrigation methods were compared at water table depths of < 1 m, 1-2 and 2-3 m. The wheat variety inqalab-91, and cotton cultivar, CIM-109, were planted during the 3rd week of November and May every year. All the inputs and management practices, such as seed-rate, fertilizer, seeding method, weed control, plant-protection measures, etc. were kept common. The results on cotton indicated maximum water-use efficiency with the Bed and Furrow Method of irrigation Followed by ridge planting. The traditional Flat-planting had the lowest yield and the highest water-consumption, resulting in the minimum water-use efficiency. In harmony with cotton, the Flat Method of planting had maximum water-consumption. For wheat crop, the water-use efficiency was in descending order, with 120, 95 and 70 cm for Bed and Flat Methods. Bed planting of 95 cm had a fairly high water-use efficiency and yields were more were more comparable than Flat planting. This method had a high level of adaptabilities, especially when the groundwater was close to the root-zone and higher possibilities, especially when the groundwater was close to the root-zone and higher possibility of crop-submergence are existent during rainy spells. The results of the investigation strongly favoured the Bed and furrow methods to irrigate cotton and wheat. However, under well-drained soil conditions, Bed planting of wheat is not recommended. (author)

  15. Performance of the lot quality assurance sampling method compared to surveillance for identifying inadequately-performing areas in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S M A; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P Kim

    2007-03-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers in ICDDR,B-served areas in Matlab during July-September 2002. The performance of the LQAS method in identifying work-areas with adequate and inadequate coverage of various health services was compared with those of the HDSS. The health service-coverage indicators included coverage of DPT, measles, BCG vaccination, and contraceptive use. It was observed that the difference in the proportion of work-areas identified to be inadequately performing using the LQAS method with less than 30 respondents, and the HDSS was not statistically significant. The consistency between the LQAS method and the HDSS in identifying work-areas was greater for adequately-performing areas than inadequately-performing areas. It was also observed that the field managers could be trained to apply the LQAS method in monitoring their performance in reaching the target population.

  16. Use of strontium isotopes to identify buried water main leakage into groundwater in a highly urbanized coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Man; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the local aquifer systems in the Mid-Levels, a highly urbanized coastal area in Hong Kong, have commonly been affected by leakage from water mains. The identification of leakage locations was done by conventional water quality parameters including major and trace elements. However, these parameters may lead to ambiguous results and fail to identify leakage locations especially where the leakage is from drinking water mains because the chemical composition of drinking water is similar to that of natural groundwater. In this study, natural groundwater, seepage in the developed spaces, leakage from water mains, and parent aquifer materials were measured for strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) compositions to explore the feasibility of using these ratios to better constrain the seepage sources. The results show that the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of natural groundwater and leakage from water mains are distinctly different and thus, they can provide additional information on the sources of seepage in developed spaces. A classification system based on the aqueous 87Sr/86Sr ratio is proposed for seepage source identification.

  17. Identifying grain-size dependent errors on global forest area estimates and carbon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    Satellite-derived coarse-resolution data are typically used for conducting global analyses. But the forest areas estimated from coarse-resolution maps (e.g., 1 km) inevitably differ from a corresponding fine-resolution map (such as a 30-m map) that would be closer to ground truth. A better understanding of changes in grain size on area estimation will improve our...

  18. Identifying potential sources of variability between vegetation carbon storage estimates for urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Dallimer, Martin; Edmondson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    Although urbanisation is a major cause of land-use change worldwide, towns and cities remain relatively understudied ecosystems. Research into urban ecosystem service provision is still an emerging field, yet evidence is accumulating rapidly to suggest that the biological carbon stores in cities ...

  19. Laser speckle contrast imaging identifies ischemic areas on gastric tube reconstructions following esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milstein, D.M.J.; Ince, C.; Gisbertz, S.S.; Boateng, K.B.; Geerts, B.F.; Hollmann, M.W.; van Berge Henegouwen, M.I.; Veelo, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric tube reconstruction (GTR) is a high-risk surgical procedure with substantial perioperative morbidity. Compromised arterial blood supply and venous congestion are believed to be the main etiologic factors associated with early and late anastomotic complications. Identifying low blood

  20. Differentiation of specific ripple patterns helps to identify epileptogenic areas for surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Karolin; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Schelter, Björn; Le Van, Pierre; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Jacobs, Julia

    2014-07-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs) at 80-500 Hz are promising markers of epileptic areas. Several retrospective studies reported that surgical removal of areas generating HFOs was associated with a good seizure outcome. Recent reports suggested that ripple (80-200 Hz) HFO patterns co-existed with different background EEG activities. We hypothesized that the coexisting background EEG pattern may distinguish physiological from epileptic ripples. Rates of HFOs were analyzed in intracranial EEG recordings of 22 patients. Additionally, ripple patterns were classified for each channel depending either as coexisting with a flat or oscillatory background activity. A multi-variate analysis was performed to determine whether removal of areas showing the above EEG markers correlated with seizure outcome. Removal of areas generating high rates of 'fast ripples (>200 Hz)' and 'ripples on a flat background activity' showed a significant correlation with a seizure-free outcome. In contrast, removal of high rates of 'ripples' or 'ripple patterns in a continuously oscillating background' was not significantly associated with seizure outcome. Ripples occurring in an oscillatory background activity may be suggestive of physiological activity, while those on a flat background reflect epileptic activity. Consideration of coexisting background patterns may improve the delineation of the epileptogenic areas using ripple oscillations. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of the epidemiological methods used to investigate the health impacts of air pollution around major industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Mathilde; Pascal, Laurence; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Cochet, Amandine; Sarter, Hélène; Stempfelet, Morgane; Wagner, Vérène

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  2. Does taxonomic diversity in indicator groups influence their effectiveness in identifying priority areas for species conservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Larsen, Frank Wugt; Rahbek, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    The identification of priority areas for biodiversity conservation is a cornerstone of systematic conservation planning. However, biodiversity, or even the distribution of all species, cannot be directly quantified, due to the inherent complexity of natural systems. Species indicator groups may...... serve as important tools for the identification of priority areas for conservation. Yet, it is unclear which factors make certain indicator groups perform better than others. In this study, using data on the Danish distribution of 847 species of plants, vertebrates and insects, we assessed whether...... the taxonomic diversity in species indicator groups influence their effectiveness in the identification of priority areas for species conservation. We tested whether indicator groups comprising a higher taxonomic diversity (i.e. indicator groups consisting of species from many different taxonomic groups...

  3. The ARIPAR project: analysis of the major accident risks connected with industrial and transportation activities in the Ravenna area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, Demetrio; Foraboschi, Franco P.; Spadoni, Gigliola; Amendola, Aniello

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the ARIPAR project aimed at the assessment of the major accident risks connected with storage, process and transportation of dangerous substances in the densely populated Ravenna area in Italy, which includes a large complex of chemical and petrochemical plants and minor industries, essentially distributed around an important commercial port. Large quantities of dangerous goods are involved in various transportation forms connected with the industrial and commercial activity of the port. The project started by making a complete inventory of fixed installations and transportation activities capable of provoking major fire, explosion and toxic release events; then relevant accident scenarios were developed for the single hazard sources; probabilities were assigned to the events and consequences were evaluated; finally iso-risk contours and F-N diagrams were evaluated both for the single sources and for the overall area. This required the development of a particular methodology for analysis of area risk and of associated software packages which allowed examination of the relative importance of the different activities and typologies of materials involved. The methodological approach and the results have proved to be very useful for the priority-ranking of risk mitigating interventions and physical planning in a complex area

  4. Expanding protected areas beyond their terrestrial comfort zone: identifying spatial options for river conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available and processes in both new and existing protected areas. Data to address these objectives were collated in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a conservation planning algorithm was used as a means of integrating the multiple objectives in a spatially...

  5. Use of rare earth oxides as tracers to identify sediment source areas for agricultural hillslopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deasy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding sediment sources is essential to enable more effective targeting of in-field mitigation approaches to reduce diffuse pollution from agricultural land. In this paper we report on the application of rare earth element oxides to arable soils at hillslope scale in order to determine sediment source areas and their relative importance, using a non-intrusive method of surface spraying. Runoff, sediments and rare earth elements lost from four arable hillslope lengths at a site in the UK with clay soils were monitored from three rainfall events after tracer application. Measured erosion rates were low, reflecting the typical event conditions occurring at the site, and less than 1% of the applied REO tracers were recovered, which is consistent with the results of comparable studies. Tracer recovery at the base of the hillslope was able to indicate the relative importance of different hillslope sediment source areas, which were found to be consistent between events. The principal source of eroded sediments was the upslope area, implying that the wheel tracks were principally conduits for sediment transport, and not highly active sites of erosion. Mitigation treatments for sediment losses from arable hillslopes should therefore focus on methodologies for trapping mobile sediments within wheel track areas through increasing surface roughness or reducing the connectivity of sediment transport processes.

  6. Urban Forest Health: Identifying Issues and Needs within the Northeastern Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    1998-01-01

    Street trees and forested areas in cities, towns and communities are more than amenities. Besides beauty, trees provide many practical benefits such as shade from summer sun, protection from winter wind, habitat for wildlife, reduced water, air and noise pollution, increased property values, and revitalized tourism and local business trade. But perhaps the greatest...

  7. Next Generation Sequencing Identifies Five Major Classes of Potentially Therapeutic Enzymes Secreted by Lucilia sericata Medical Maggots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, Zdeněk; Vogel, Heiko; Lehmann, Rüdiger; Rupp, Oliver; Goesmann, Alexander; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Lucilia sericata larvae are used as an alternative treatment for recalcitrant and chronic wounds. Their excretions/secretions contain molecules that facilitate tissue debridement, disinfect, or accelerate wound healing and have therefore been recognized as a potential source of novel therapeutic compounds. Among the substances present in excretions/secretions various peptidase activities promoting the wound healing processes have been detected but the peptidases responsible for these activities remain mostly unidentified. To explore these enzymes we applied next generation sequencing to analyze the transcriptomes of different maggot tissues (salivary glands, gut, and crop) associated with the production of excretions/secretions and/or with digestion as well as the rest of the larval body. As a result we obtained more than 123.8 million paired-end reads, which were assembled de novo using Trinity and Oases assemblers, yielding 41,421 contigs with an N50 contig length of 2.22 kb and a total length of 67.79 Mb. BLASTp analysis against the MEROPS database identified 1729 contigs in 577 clusters encoding five peptidase classes (serine, cysteine, aspartic, threonine, and metallopeptidases), which were assigned to 26 clans, 48 families, and 185 peptidase species. The individual enzymes were differentially expressed among maggot tissues and included peptidase activities related to the therapeutic effects of maggot excretions/secretions.

  8. Changing Climate, Challenging Choices: Identifying and Evaluating Climate Change Adaptation Options for Protected Areas Management in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Christopher J.; Scott, Daniel J.

    2011-10-01

    Climate change will pose increasingly significant challenges to managers of parks and other forms of protected areas around the world. Over the past two decades, numerous scientific publications have identified potential adaptations, but their suitability from legal, policy, financial, internal capacity, and other management perspectives has not been evaluated for any protected area agency or organization. In this study, a panel of protected area experts applied a Policy Delphi methodology to identify and evaluate climate change adaptation options across the primary management areas of a protected area agency in Canada. The panel identified and evaluated one hundred and sixty five (165) adaptation options for their perceived desirability and feasibility. While the results revealed a high level of agreement with respect to the desirability of adaptation options and a moderate level of capacity pertaining to policy formulation and management direction, a perception of low capacity for implementation in most other program areas was identified. A separate panel of senior park agency decision-makers used a multiple criterion decision-facilitation matrix to further evaluate the institutional feasibility of the 56 most desirable adaptation options identified by the initial expert panel and to prioritize them for consideration in a climate change action plan. Critically, only two of the 56 adaptation options evaluated by senior decision-makers were deemed definitely implementable, due largely to fiscal and internal capacity limitations. These challenges are common to protected area agencies in developed countries and pervade those in developing countries, revealing that limited adaptive capacity represents a substantive barrier to biodiversity conservation and other protected area management objectives in an era of rapid climate change.

  9. Calibration of Local Area Weather Radar-Identifying significant factors affecting the calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth; Jensen, Niels Einar; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    A Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is an X-band weather radar developed to meet the needs of high resolution rainfall data for hydrological applications. The LAWR system and data processing methods are reviewed in the first part of this paper, while the second part of the paper focuses...... cases when the calibration is based on a factorized 3 parameter linear model instead of a single parameter linear model....

  10. Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: identifying low-impact areas for wind development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fargione

    Full Text Available Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP is home both to some of the world's best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas.

  11. An alternative method for identifying booms and busts in the euro area housing market

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdesmeier, Dieter; Roffia, Barbara; Lenarcic, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to apply a method based on fundamentals ─ which has already been applied in the stock market analysis ─ to detect boom/bust in the housing market, with a focus on the euro area. In this context, an underlying model is developed and tested. It turns out that the user cost rate, a demographic variable, the unemployment rate, disposable income (or disposable income per capita), the debt-to-income ratio and, finally, the housing stock are fundamental variables which ...

  12. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa. In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.

  13. Identifying the Areas Benefitting from the Prevention of Wind Erosion by the Key Ecological Function Area for the Protection of Desertification in Hunshandake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the spatial flow of ecosystem services can help to identify the spatial relationships between service-providing areas (SPAs and service-benefitting areas (SBAs. In this study, we used the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model to stimulate the flow paths of the wind erosion prevented by ecosystems in Hunshandake, China. By interpolating these paths, the SBAs were identified, and their benefits in terms of land cover, population, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP were determined. The results indicated that the flow paths mostly extended to the eastern part of the study area, and the estimated cover of the SBAs was 39.21% of the total area of China. The grid cells through which many (≥10% of the trajectories passed were mainly located in the western part of north-eastern China and the eastern part of northern China. The benefitting population accounted for 74.51% of the total population of China, and the GDP was 67.11% of the total in 2010. Based on this research, we described a quantitative relationship between the SPAs and the SBAs and identified the actual beneficiaries. This work may provide scientific knowledge that can be used by decision makers to develop management strategies, such as ecological compensation to mitigate damage from sandstorms in the study area.

  14. An exploratory study of services marketing in global markets: major areas of inquiry for the health care services industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S; Erdem, S A

    1996-01-01

    It has been stated that one of the major challenges for the international marketer is the design of an efficient strategy for marketing services to international markets. This paper reviews some of the issues associated with services marketing in global markets along with the basic variables of service industries. An exploratory assessment of the health care services industry results in a list composed of several inquiry areas which should be examined by multinational companies. It is hoped that the review of the issues raised in this paper provides a basis for decision making and further research.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of contaminated areas by trace elements: mechanisms and major benefits of their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Lucélia; Soares, Claúdio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Giachini, Admir José; Siqueira, José Oswaldo

    2015-11-01

    In recent decades, the concentration of trace elements has increased in soil and water, mainly by industrialization and urbanization. Recovery of contaminated areas is generally complex. In that respect, microorganisms can be of vital importance by making significant contributions towards the establishment of plants and the stabilization of impacted areas. Among the available strategies for environmental recovery, bioremediation and phytoremediation outstand. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered the most important type of mycorrhizae for phytoremediation. AMF have broad occurrence in contaminated soils, and evidences suggest they improve plant tolerance to excess of certain trace elements. In this review, the use of AMF in phytoremediation and mechanisms involved in their trace element tolerance are discussed. Additionally, we present some techniques used to study the retention of trace elements by AMF, as well as a summary of studies showing major benefits of AMF for phytoremediation.

  16. Identifying Hot Spots of Critical Forage Supply in Dryland Nomadic Pastoralist Areas: A Case Study for the Afar Region, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; van Wesenbeeck, C.F.A.; Georgis, Kidane; Beyene, Fekadu; Urbano, Ferdinando; Meroni, Michele; Leo, Olivier; Yimer, Merkebu; Abdullatif, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    This study develops a methodology to identify hot spots of critical forage supply in nomadic pastoralist areas, using the Afar Region, Ethiopia, as a special case. It addresses two main problems. First, it makes a spatially explicit assessment of fodder supply and demand extracted from a data poor

  17. [Utility of chromosome banding with ALU I enzyme for identifying methylated areas in breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Atencio, Alicia; Yamarte, Leonard; Urdaneta, Karelis; Soto-Alvarez, Marisol; Alvarez Nava, Francisco; Cañizalez, Jenny; Quintero, Maribel; Atencio, Raquel; González, Richard

    2012-12-01

    Cancer is a group of disorders characterized by uncontrolled cell growth which is produced by two successive events: increased cell proliferation (tumor or neoplasia) and the invasive capacity of these cells (metastasis). DNA methylation is an epigenetic process which has been involved as an important pathogenic factor of cancer. DNA methylation participates in the regulation of gene expression, directly, by preventing the union of transcription factors, and indirectly, by promoting the "closed" structure of the chromatine. The objectives of this study were to identify hypermethyled chromosomal regions through the use of restriction Alu I endonuclease, and to relate cytogenetically these regions with tumor suppressive gene loci. Sixty peripheral blood samples of females with breast cancer were analyzed. Cell cultures were performed and cytogenetic spreads, previously digested with Alu I enzyme, were stained with Giemsa. Chromosomal centromeric and not centromeric regions were stained in 37% of cases. About 96% of stained hypermethyled chromosomal regions (1q, 2q, 6q) were linked with methylated genes associated with breast cancer. In addition, centromeric regions in chromosomes 3, 4, 8, 13, 14, 15 and 17, usually unstained, were found positive to digestion with Alu I enzime and Giemsa staining. We suggest the importance of this technique for the global visualization of the genome which can find methylated genes related to breast cancer, and thus lead to a specific therapy, and therefore a better therapeutic response.

  18. Wastewater Reuse: An Economic Perspective to Identify Suitable Areas for Poplar Vegetation Filter Systems for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Viccaro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interest towards climate change, water and energy saving, and soil protection has led the research community to consider non-conventional water as a sustainable source for irrigation of energy crops. Vegetation filter systems are considered a reliable technique for sustainable biomass cultivation, enabling the use of reclaimed wastewater as water and nutrients sources during irrigation periods. In this study, a geographic information system (GIS-based spatial model was developed to identify areas potentially suitable for creating vegetation filter systems with poplars to size the plants of energy production. An economic assessment allowed us to identify the cost-effectiveness areas for biomass production that can be fertigated by reclaimed wastewater. Considering the Basilicata region as the test region, a surface area of 258,512 ha was investigated, identifying 73,331 ha of SRF soils sited downstream of 45 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. However, considering only areas that have positive net present value and are economically attractive, results indicate 1606 ha of SRF falling within the areas of influence of 39 WWTPs. The results show that the sector of dedicated crops, adjacent and linked with WWTPs, expresses a total capacity of 50.56 MW for thermal, 8.25 MW for electricity, and 31 MW for cogeneration (25.07 MWt and 5.94 MWe plants.

  19. Isotope techniques to identify recharge areas of springs for rainwater harvesting in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli district, Uttarakhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivanna, K.; Tirumalesh, K.; Noble, J.; Joseph, T.B.; Singh, Gursharan; Joshi, A.P.; Khati, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been employed to identify the recharge areas of springs in India, in order to construct artificial recharge structures for rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation for their rejuvenation. A model project was taken up in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand for this purpose. The springs in this regions are seasonal and are derived from seepage waters flowing through the shallow weathered and fractured zone. The chemistry of high-altitude springs is similar to that of precipitation, whereas water-rock interactions contributes to increased mineralization in low-altitude springs. The stable isotopic variation in precipitation suggests that the altitude effect for Gaucher area is -0.55% for δ 18 O and -3.8% for δ 2 H per 100 m rise in altitude. Based on local geology, geomorphology, hydrochemistry and isotope information, the possible recharge areas inferred for valleys 1, 2 and 3 are located at altitudes of 1250, 1330 and 1020 m amsl respectively. Water conservation and recharge structures such as subsurface dykes, check bunds and contour trenches were constructed at the identified recharge areas in the respective valleys for controlling the subsurface flow, rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation respectively. As a result, during and after the following monsoon, the discharge rates of the springs not only increased significantly, but also did not dry up even during the dry period. The study shows that the isotope techniques can be effectively used in identifying recharge areas of springs in the Himalayan region. It also demonstrates the advantage of isotope techniques over conventional methods. (author)

  20. Scale-dependent complementarity of climatic velocity and environmental diversity for identifying priority areas for conservation under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Roberts, David R; Michalak, Julia L; Lawler, Joshua J; Nielsen, Scott E; Stralberg, Diana; Hamann, Andreas; Mcrae, Brad H; Wang, Tongli

    2017-11-01

    As most regions of the earth transition to altered climatic conditions, new methods are needed to identify refugia and other areas whose conservation would facilitate persistence of biodiversity under climate change. We compared several common approaches to conservation planning focused on climate resilience over a broad range of ecological settings across North America and evaluated how commonalities in the priority areas identified by different methods varied with regional context and spatial scale. Our results indicate that priority areas based on different environmental diversity metrics differed substantially from each other and from priorities based on spatiotemporal metrics such as climatic velocity. Refugia identified by diversity or velocity metrics were not strongly associated with the current protected area system, suggesting the need for additional conservation measures including protection of refugia. Despite the inherent uncertainties in predicting future climate, we found that variation among climatic velocities derived from different general circulation models and emissions pathways was less than the variation among the suite of environmental diversity metrics. To address uncertainty created by this variation, planners can combine priorities identified by alternative metrics at a single resolution and downweight areas of high variation between metrics. Alternately, coarse-resolution velocity metrics can be combined with fine-resolution diversity metrics in order to leverage the respective strengths of the two groups of metrics as tools for identification of potential macro- and microrefugia that in combination maximize both transient and long-term resilience to climate change. Planners should compare and integrate approaches that span a range of model complexity and spatial scale to match the range of ecological and physical processes influencing persistence of biodiversity and identify a conservation network resilient to threats operating at

  1. Biotic and Climatic Velocity Identify Contrasting Areas of Vulnerability to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Lawler, Joshua J.; Roberts, David R.; Hamann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Metrics that synthesize the complex effects of climate change are essential tools for mapping future threats to biodiversity and predicting which species are likely to adapt in place to new climatic conditions, disperse and establish in areas with newly suitable climate, or face the prospect of extirpation. The most commonly used of such metrics is the velocity of climate change, which estimates the speed at which species must migrate over the earth’s surface to maintain constant climatic conditions. However, “analog-based” velocities, which represent the actual distance to where analogous climates will be found in the future, may provide contrasting results to the more common form of velocity based on local climate gradients. Additionally, whereas climatic velocity reflects the exposure of organisms to climate change, resultant biotic effects are dependent on the sensitivity of individual species as reflected in part by their climatic niche width. This has motivated development of biotic velocity, a metric which uses data on projected species range shifts to estimate the velocity at which species must move to track their climatic niche. We calculated climatic and biotic velocity for the Western Hemisphere for 1961–2100, and applied the results to example ecological and conservation planning questions, to demonstrate the potential of such analog-based metrics to provide information on broad-scale patterns of exposure and sensitivity. Geographic patterns of biotic velocity for 2954 species of birds, mammals, and amphibians differed from climatic velocity in north temperate and boreal regions. However, both biotic and climatic velocities were greatest at low latitudes, implying that threats to equatorial species arise from both the future magnitude of climatic velocities and the narrow climatic tolerances of species in these regions, which currently experience low seasonal and interannual climatic variability. Biotic and climatic velocity, by approximating

  2. Performance of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Method Compared to Surveillance for Identifying Inadequately-performing Areas in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S.M.A.; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2007-01-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers i...

  3. Springtime major pollution events by aerosol over Paris Area: From a case study to a multiannual analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    A study of the intense spring pollution events occurring between 2007 and 2016 on the Paris Area is presented using ground-based and spaceborne measurements. Emphasis is placed on 2011 where data included ground-based lidar measurements. This last period corresponds with the highest regional pollution levels of the past decade. The information threshold (daily average of (mass concentration of particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) PM10 > 50 μg m-3) was exceeded 16 times, while the alert threshold (daily average of PM10 > 80 μg m-3) was exceeded twice. The information (alert) threshold exists to protect the most fragile people (the entire population). Ground-based and spaceborne measurements demonstrate the benefit of their synergy as each is representative of specific space and time scales. The operational products of the spaceborne instruments Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer are used. For 2011, CALIOP vertical profiles are inversed to assess the backscatter to extinction ratio, which is then successfully compared with similar results derived from the CALIOP operational products, a ground-based lidar and Sun photometers. The aerosols are identified to be polluted continental and polluted dust aerosols following the criteria used for the inversion of the CALIOP profiles. Aerosol typing is consistent between the ground-based and spaceborne lidars, demonstrating the importance of CALIOP for other years where the ground-based lidar was not in operation. The main pollution sources responsible for the spring aerosol pollution, occurring during anticyclonic meteorological conditions, are identified as coming from Western Europe: Benelux, Rhine-Ruhr area, and the Lorraine area.

  4. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya A Ureña-Aranda

    Full Text Available A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species.

  5. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zou; Xiaolu Jiang; Xiaoli Duan; Xiuge Zhao; Jing Zhang; Jingwen Tang; Guoqing Sun

    2017-01-01

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewabl...

  6. Possible Impact of Climate Change on the Quality of Apples from the Major Producing Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjiang Qu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological conditions are important environmental factors affecting apple quality. To understand the possible impact of climate change on the apple quality of the major producing areas in China and assess the quality of major apple species (e.g., Fuji, Ralls, and Golden Delicious, we studied the variation trends and abrupt change characteristics of six major climate factors affecting seven physicochemical indices of apple quality across five apple regions, including the Loess Plateau, Bohai Bay, the Old Course of the Yellow River, Southwest Highlands, and Xinjiang, using statistical methods, meteorological indices, and the ArcGIS analysis tool based on the meteorological observational data from 1961 to 2013. The results show that the spatial and temporal distributions of annual average temperature, annual sunshine duration, average summer temperature, summer diurnal temperature range, and average summer relative humidity all significantly changed (except annual precipitation and that abrupt changes occurred. The annual temperatures and average summer temperatures in the Loess Plateau apple region and the Liaoning producing region of Bohai Bay increased within optimal ranges. In addition, for high-value regions, the hours of sunshine decreased, helping to improve the fruit shape index, sugar-acid ratio, and vitamin C (VC content. Relatively high temperatures continued to increase to high values which remained lower than the optimal upper limit; the diurnal temperature range continued to decrease; and the sunshine hours significantly decreased within the optimal range, which might have worsened fruit hardness, soluble sugar, and peel anthocyanin in the producing regions of Southwest Shandong of Bohai Bay, Southeast Hebei of the Old Course of the Yellow River, Northern Anhui, and Jiangsu. In the production regions of the Yun-Gui plateau in the Southwest highlands, increased summer temperature and the diurnal temperature range were both within

  7. An attempt to identify the functional areas of the cerebral cortex on CT slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hirotaka; Okuda, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Tsuyoshi; Shiraishi, Junzo.

    1982-01-01

    In order to identify the functional brain areas, such as Broca's area, on computed tomography slices parallel to the orbito-meatal line, the numbers of Brodmann's cortical mapping were shown on a diagram of representative brain sections parallel to the orbito-meatal line. Also, we described a method, using cerebral sulci as anatomical landmarks, for projecting lesions shown by CT scan onto the lateral brain diagram. The procedures were as follows. The distribution of lesions on CT slices was determined by the identification of major cerebral sulci and fissures, such as the Sylvian fissure, the central sulcus, and the superior frontal sulcus. Those lesions were then projected onto the lateral diagram by comparing each CT slice with the horizontal diagrams of brain sections. The method was demonstrated in three cases developing neuropsychological symptoms. (author)

  8. Assessment of daily intake of major and trace elements by inhabitants of potential radiation protection of greater Cairo area, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cr were determined in vegetables, common foodstuffs and some animal products consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Generally, highest contributions for the intake of micro nutrients (Cu, Mn and Ni) arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb. The medium daily intake for the adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area was found to be 1.98 g of K, 0.54 mg of Ca, 1.14 fig of U, 0.8 μg of Th, 5.2μg of Cs, 1.3 mg of Sr, 105 μg of 1, 3.2 mg of Mn, 0.9 mg of Cu, 5.7 mg of Al, 5, 2 x 10 -2 mg of Pb, 2.1x10 -3 mg of Cd, 7.7x10 -2 mg of Ni and 2.1 x 10 -2 mg of Cr. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area could be due to the significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products, which are rich in these elements. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in higher internal radiation dose. The use of highly sensitive and reliable analytical methods resulted in accurate assessment of the values recorded for thorium and uranium suggested that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than those included in ICRP data. Concerning micro nutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by the common diet; however for Cr is lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations

  9. Sex and gender differences in autism spectrum disorder: summarizing evidence gaps and identifying emerging areas of priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Alycia K; Bishop, Somer; Constantino, John N; Daniels, Amy M; Koenig, Katheen; Palmer, Kate; Messinger, Daniel; Pelphrey, Kevin; Sanders, Stephan J; Singer, Alison Tepper; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Szatmari, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research is a higher rate of ASD diagnosis in males than females. Despite this, remarkably little research has focused on the reasons for this disparity. Better understanding of this sex difference could lead to major advancements in the prevention or treatment of ASD in both males and females. In October of 2014, Autism Speaks and the Autism Science Foundation co-organized a meeting that brought together almost 60 clinicians, researchers, parents, and self-identified autistic individuals. Discussion at the meeting is summarized here with recommendations on directions of future research endeavors.

  10. Failure mode effects and criticality analysis: innovative risk assessment to identify critical areas for improvement in emergency department sepsis resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Emilie S; O'Connor, Lanty M; Nannicelli, Anna P; Barker, Lisa T; Khare, Rahul K; Seivert, Nicholas P; Holl, Jane L; Vozenilek, John A

    2014-06-01

    Sepsis is an increasing problem in the practice of emergency medicine as the prevalence is increasing and optimal care to reduce mortality requires significant resources and time. Evidence-based septic shock resuscitation strategies exist, and rely on appropriate recognition and diagnosis, but variation in adherence to the recommendations and therefore outcomes remains. Our objective was to perform a multi-institutional prospective risk-assessment, using failure mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA), to identify high-risk failures in ED sepsis resuscitation. We conducted a FMECA, which prospectively identifies critical areas for improvement in systems and processes of care, across three diverse hospitals. A multidisciplinary group of participants described the process of emergency department (ED) sepsis resuscitation to then create a comprehensive map and table listing all process steps and identified process failures. High-risk failures in sepsis resuscitation from each of the institutions were compiled to identify common high-risk failures. Common high-risk failures included limited availability of equipment to place the central venous catheter and conduct invasive monitoring, and cognitive overload leading to errors in decision-making. Additionally, we identified great variability in care processes across institutions. Several common high-risk failures in sepsis care exist: a disparity in resources available across hospitals, a lack of adherence to the invasive components of care, and cognitive barriers that affect expert clinicians' decision-making capabilities. Future work may concentrate on dissemination of non-invasive alternatives and overcoming cognitive barriers in diagnosis and knowledge translation.

  11. Characterization of biomass burning from olive grove areas: A major source of organic aerosol in PM10 of Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Salvador, Pedro; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Artiñano, Begoña; Coz, Esther; Márquez, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel; de la Rosa, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The inorganic and organic geochemistry of aerosol particulate matter (APM) was studied in a major olive grove area from Southwest Europe (Baena, Spain). The biomass consists of olive tree branches and the solid waste resulting of the olive oil production. Moreover, high PM10 levels were obtained (31.5 μg m- 3), with two days of exceedance of the daily limit of 50 μg m- 3 (2008/50/CE; EU, 2008) during the experimental period. A high mean levoglucosan concentration was obtained representing up 95% of the total mass of the isomers analysed (280 ng m- 3), while galactosan and mannosan mean concentrations were lower (8.64 ng m- 3 and 7.86 ng m- 3, respectively). The contribution of wood smoke in Baena was estimated, representing 19% of OC and 17% of OM total mass. Positive matrix factor (PMF) was applied to the organic and inorganic aerosols data, which has permitted the identification of five source categories: biomass burning, traffic, mineral dust, marine aerosol and SIC (secondary inorganic compounds). The biomass burning category reached the highest mean contribution to the PM10 mass (41%, 17.6 μg m- 3). In light of these results, the use of biomass resulting from the olive oil production for residential heating and industry must be considered the most important aerosol source during the winter months. The results of this paper can be extrapolated to other olive oil producing areas in the Mediterranean basin. Therefore, a fuller understanding of this type of biomass combustion is required in order to be able to establish appropriate polices and reduce the environmental impact on the population.

  12. Integrating environmental and self-report data to refine cannabis prevalence estimates in a major urban area of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Schneider, Christian; Zobel, Frank; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Cannabis consumption is a topical subject because of discussions about reviewing current regulations. In this context, having a more comprehensive approach to assess and monitor prevalence and consumption is highly relevant. The objective of this work was to refine current estimates about prevalence of cannabis use by combining self-report data and results derived from wastewater analysis. Self-report data was retrieved from surveys conducted in Switzerland and Europe. Wastewater samples were collected at the wastewater treatment plant of Lausanne, western Switzerland, over a 15 months period. The occurrence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), a specific metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was monitored. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate consumption, prevalence and number of cannabis users in the investigated area. According to survey data, 12-months prevalence in western Switzerland was estimated to 6.2% of the population aged 15 or older, with an estimated daily cannabis consumption of 8.1gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1) (at 11.2% purity). The integrative model comprising self-report and wastewater data substantially reduced the uncertainty in the estimates and suggested a last-year prevalence of 9.4%, with a daily cannabis consumption of 14.0gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1). Although in the same order of magnitude, consumption and prevalence estimates obtained with the integrative model were 78% and 52% higher compared to self-report figures, respectively. Interestingly, these figures are similar to discrepancies observed when comparing self-reported alcohol consumption and sales or tax data. The suggested integrative model allowed to account for known sources of uncertainty and provided refined estimates of cannabis prevalence in a major urban area of Switzerland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas - United States, 2006-2007 and 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    Firearm homicides and suicides are a continuing public health concern in the United States. During 2009-2010, a total of 22,571 firearm homicides and 38,126 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. This includes 3,397 firearm homicides and 1,548 firearm suicides among persons aged 10-19 years; the firearm homicide rate for this age group was slightly above the all-ages rate. This report updates an earlier report that provided statistics on firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas for 2006-2007, with special emphasis on persons aged 10-19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. Firearm homicide and suicide rates were calculated for the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 2009-2010 using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Comparison statistics were recalculated for 2006-2007 to reflect revisions to MSA delineations and population estimates subsequent to the earlier report. Although the firearm homicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained above the national rate during 2009-2010, more than 75% of these MSAs showed a decreased rate from 2006-2007, largely accounting for a national decrease. The firearm homicide rate for persons aged 10-19 years exceeded the all-ages rate in many of these MSAs during 2009-2010, similar to the earlier reporting period. Conversely, although the firearm suicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained below the national rate during 2009-2010, nearly 75% of these MSAs showed an increased rate from 2006-2007, paralleling the national trend. Firearm suicide rates among persons aged 10-19 years were low compared with all-ages rates during both periods. These patterns can inform the development and monitoring of strategies directed at reducing firearm-related violence.

  14. Identifying Potential Areas of Human Zika Infection in the City of Los Angeles, California by Use of Remote Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    As of April 2017, California is the third most prevalent state on the United States for Zika Infection and Southern California has an ever growing population of Aedes mosquitos. Zika is a disease which poses a significant risk to humans and other mammals due to its effects on pregnancy. This emerging disease is highly contagious due to its spread of infection primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitos. Aedes mosquitos are able to breed in small rain collecting containers which allow the species to persevere in urban and semi urban environments. We hope to identify potential areas with risk of human infection within Los Angeles and its surrounding areas. This study integrates remote sensing, GIS, statistical, and environmental techniques to study favorable habitats for this particular species of mosquitos and their larvae. The study of the geographic and landscape factors which promote the larvae development allow for the disease spread to be analyzed and modeled. There are several goals in the development of this study. These include the coordination of statistical data with local epidemiology departments, identify workflows to improve efficiency, create models which can be utilized for disease prevention, and identify geographic risk factors for the spread of Zika.

  15. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Sharma, Monica; Chaudhury, Ashok; Tuli, Rakesh; Roy, Joy

    2014-01-16

    The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study

  16. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  17. Identifying the Optimal Offshore Areas for Wave Energy Converter Deployments in Taiwanese Waters Based on 12-Year Model Hindcasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Ju Shih

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year sea-state hindcast for Taiwanese waters, covering the period from 2005 to 2016, was conducted using a fully coupled tide-surge-wave model. The hindcasts of significant wave height and peak period were employed to estimate the wave power resources in the waters surrounding Taiwan. Numerical simulations based on unstructured grids were converted to structured grids with a resolution of 25 × 25 km. The spatial distribution maps of offshore annual mean wave power were created for each year and for the 12-year period. Waters with higher wave power density were observed off the northern, northeastern, southeastern (south of Green Island and southeast of Lanyu and southern coasts of Taiwan. Five energetic sea areas with spatial average annual total wave energy density of 60–90 MWh/m were selected for further analysis. The 25 × 25 km square grids were then downscaled to resolutions of 5 × 5 km, and five 5 × 5 km optimal areas were identified for wave energy converter deployments. The spatial average annual total wave energy yields at the five optimal areas (S1–(S5 were estimated to be 64.3, 84.1, 84.5, 111.0 and 99.3 MWh/m, respectively. The prevailing wave directions for these five areas lie between east and northeast.

  18. Estimating Demand for and Supply of Pediatric Preventive Dental Care for Children and Identifying Dental Care Shortage Areas, Georgia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shanshan; Gentili, Monica; Griffin, Paul M; Griffin, Susan O; Harati, Pravara; Johnson, Ben; Serban, Nicoleta; Tomar, Scott

    Demand for dental care is expected to outpace supply through 2025. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of pediatric dental care shortages in Georgia and to develop a general method for estimation that can be applied to other states. We estimated supply and demand for pediatric preventive dental care for the 159 counties in Georgia in 2015. We compared pediatric preventive dental care shortage areas (where demand exceeded twice the supply) designated by our methods with dental health professional shortage areas designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. We estimated caries risk from a multivariate analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data and national census data. We estimated county-level demand based on the time needed to perform preventive dental care services and the proportion of time that dentists spend on pediatric preventive dental care services from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Pediatric preventive dental care supply exceeded demand in Georgia in 75 counties: the average annual county-level pediatric preventive dental care demand was 16 866 hours, and the supply was 32 969 hours. We identified 41 counties as pediatric dental care shortage areas, 14 of which had not been designated by the Health Resources & Services Administration. Age- and service-specific information on dental care shortage areas could result in more efficient provider staffing and geographic targeting.

  19. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Majorowicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the Grenville (Canadian Shield is exposed or at shallow depths with sedimentary cover where temperatures are 30 °C or less. The city of Drummondville will be the exception, as the basement deepens sharply southwest, and higher temperatures reaching >120 °C are expected in the deep Cambrian sedimentary aquifers near a 4–5-km depth. Deep under the area where such sediments could be occurring under Appalachian nappes, temperatures significantly higher than 140 °C are predicted. In parts of the deep basin, temperatures as high as 80 °C–120 °C exist at depths of 3–4 km, mainly southeast of the major geological boundary: the Logan line. There is a large amount of heat resource at such depths to be considered in this area for district heating.

  20. Transcriptional Profiling of Hypoxic Neural Stem Cells Identifies Calcineurin-NFATc4 Signaling as a Major Regulator of Neural Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta; Fernández, Virginia; Monllau, Josep M.; Borrell, Víctor; Lerin, Carles; de la Iglesia, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in a hypoxic microenvironment within the brain. However, the crucial transcription factors (TFs) that regulate NSC biology under physiologic hypoxia are poorly understood. Here we have performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of microarray datasets from hypoxic versus normoxic NSCs with the aim of identifying pathways and TFs that are activated under oxygen concentrations mimicking normal brain tissue microenvironment. Integration of TF target (TFT) and pathway enrichment analysis identified the calcium-regulated TF NFATc4 as a major candidate to regulate hypoxic NSC functions. Nfatc4 expression was coordinately upregulated by top hypoxia-activated TFs, while NFATc4 target genes were enriched in hypoxic NSCs. Loss-of-function analyses further revealed that the calcineurin-NFATc4 signaling axis acts as a major regulator of NSC self-renewal and proliferation in vitro and in vivo by promoting the expression of TFs, including Id2, that contribute to the maintenance of the NSC state. PMID:26235896

  1. Molecular analysis of faecal samples from birds to identify potential crop pests and useful biocontrol agents in natural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R A; Symondson, W O C; Thomas, R J

    2015-06-01

    Wild habitats adjoining farmland are potentially valuable sources of natural enemies, but also of pests. Here we tested the utility of birds as 'sampling devices', to identify the diversity of prey available to predators and particularly to screen for pests and natural enemies using natural ecosystems as refugia. Here we used PCR to amplify prey DNA from three sympatric songbirds foraging on small invertebrates in Phragmites reedbed ecosystems, namely the Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) and Cetti's Warbler (Cettia cetti). A recently described general invertebrate primer pair was used for the first time to analyse diets. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced, then identified by reference to the Barcoding of Life Database and to our own sequences obtained from fresh invertebrates. Forty-five distinct prey DNA sequences were obtained from 11 faecal samples, of which 39 could be identified to species or genus. Targeting three warbler species ensured that species-specific differences in prey choice broadened the range of prey taken. Amongst the prey found in reedbeds were major pests (including the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea) as well as many potentially valuable natural enemies including aphidophagous hoverflies and braconid wasps. Given the mobility of birds, this approach provides a practical way of sampling a whole habitat at once, providing growers with information on possible invasion by locally resident pests and the colonization potential of natural enemies from local natural habitats.

  2. An Integrated H-G Scheme Identifying Areas for Soil Remediation and Primary Heavy Metal Contributors: A Risk Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Jiang, Xiaolu; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Jingwen; Sun, Guoqing

    2017-03-23

    Traditional sampling for soil pollution evaluation is cost intensive and has limited representativeness. Therefore, developing methods that can accurately and rapidly identify at-risk areas and the contributing pollutants is imperative for soil remediation. In this study, we propose an innovative integrated H-G scheme combining human health risk assessment and geographical detector methods that was based on geographical information system technology and validated its feasibility in a renewable resource industrial park in mainland China. With a discrete site investigation of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and zinc (Zn) concentrations, the continuous surfaces of carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk caused by these heavy metals were estimated and mapped. Source apportionment analysis using geographical detector methods further revealed that these risks were primarily attributed to As, according to the power of the determinant and its associated synergic actions with other heavy metals. Concentrations of critical As and Cd, and the associated exposed CRs are closed to the safe thresholds after remediating the risk areas identified by the integrated H-G scheme. Therefore, the integrated H-G scheme provides an effective approach to support decision-making for regional contaminated soil remediation at fine spatial resolution with limited sampling data over a large geographical extent.

  3. Multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data to identify archaeological remains in the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the cultural landscape of the archaeological area of Tiwanaku (Bolivia) using multiscale, multispectral and multitemporal satellite data. Geospatial analysis techniques were applied to the satellite data sets in order to enhance and map traces of past human activities and perform a spatial characterization of environmental and cultural patterns. In particular, in the Tiwanaku area, the approach based on local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) applied to ASTER data allowed us to identify traces of a possible ancient hydrographic network with a clear spatial relation with the well-known moat surrounding the core of the monumental area. The same approach applied to QuickBird data, allowed us to identify numerous traces of archaeological interest, in Mollo Kontu mound, less investigated than the monumental area. Some of these traces were in perfect accordance with the results of independent studies, other were completely unknown. As a whole, the detected features, composing a geometric pattern with roughly North-South orientation, closely match those of the other residential contexts at Tiwanaku. These new insights, captured from multitemporal ASTER and QuickBird data processing, suggested new questions on the ancient landscape and provided important information for planning future field surveys and archaeogeophyical investigations. Reference [1] Lasaponara R., Masini N. 2014. Beyond modern landscape features: New insights in thearchaeological area of Tiwanaku in Bolivia from satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 26, 464-471, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2013.09.00. [2] Tapete D., Cigna F., Masini N., Lasaponara R. 2013. Prospection and monitoring of the archaeological heritage of Nasca, Peru, with ENVISAT ASAR, Archaeological Prospection, 20, 133-147, doi: 10.1002/arp.1449. [3] Lasaponara R, N Masini, 2012 Satellite Remote Sensing, A New Tool for Archaeology (Series

  4. Exposure assessment of organochlorine pesticides, arsenic, and lead in children from the major agricultural areas in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Balderas-Cortés, José J; Yañez-Estrada, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Coronado, Maria L; Cuevas-Robles, Alberto; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of children to different OCP, As, and Pb in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys of Sonora to generate population baseline levels of these toxins. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 165 children (age 6-12 years old) from 10 communities from both valleys during 2009. Blood samples were analyzed for OCP and Pb and first morning void urine for inorganic As (InAs). All of the blood samples had detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) ranging from 0.25 to 10.3 μg/L. However lindane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), aldrin, and endosulfan were detected in far less of the population (36.4, 23.6, 9.1, and 3 %, respectively). Methoxychlor and endrin were not found in any sample. The average value of Pb in this population was 3.2 μg Pb/dL (range 0.17-9.0) with 8.5 % of the samples having levels 50 μg/L were observed in 12.7 % of the samples. Our results show that is important to start a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to these toxins in Mexican communities. In addition, the results can be used to establish the baseline levels of exposure to these toxins in this agricultural region and may be used as a reference point for regulatory agencies.

  5. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  6. Sex differences in the prediction of the effectiveness of paroxetine for patients with major depressive disorder identified using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for early response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Norio, Yasui-Furukori; Sato, Yasushi; Nakagami, Taku; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Kaneda, Ayako; Kaneko, Sunao

    2014-01-01

    We investigated cutoff values for the early response of patients with major depressive disorder to paroxetine and their sex differences by using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to predict the effectiveness of paroxetine. In total, 120 patients with major depressive disorder were enrolled and treated with 10-40 mg/day paroxetine for 6 weeks; 89 patients completed the protocol. A clinical evaluation using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was performed at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6. In male subjects, the cutoff values for MADRS improvement rating in week 1, week 2, and week 4 were 20.9%, 34.9%, and 33.3%, respectively. The sensitivities and the specificities were 83.3% and 80.0%, 83.3% and 80.0%, and 100% and 90%, respectively. The areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.908, 0.821, and 0.979, respectively. In female subjects, the cutoff values for the MADRS improvement rating in week 1, week 2, and week 4 were 21.4%, 35.7%, and 32.3%, respectively. The sensitivities and the specificities were 71.4% and 84.6%, 73.8% and 76.9%, and 90.5% and 76.9%, respectively. The AUCs were 0.781, 0.735, and 0.904, respectively. Early improvement with paroxetine may predict the long-term response. The accuracy of the prediction for the response is higher in male subjects.

  7. The lived experience of rescuing people who have driven into floodwater: Understanding challenges and identifying areas for providing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keech, Jacob J; Smith, Stephanie R; Peden, Amy E; Hagger, Martin S; Hamilton, Kyra

    2018-06-11

    Drowning is a major public health issue, with risk increasing during times of flood. Driving though floodwater is a major risk factor for flood-related drowning and injury, and despite widespread public health campaigns, many people continue to undertake this risky behaviour and require rescue. We aimed to identify key challenges faced by emergency services personnel when rescuing those who have driven into floodwater, and to identify strategies for supporting rescuers in this important role. Australian flood rescue operators (N=8) who had previously rescued a driver who had driven through floodwater, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Four challenges emerged from their experiences: Involvement of untrained personnel, varying information provided by emergency telephone operators, behaviour of drivers complicating the rescue, people sightseeing floods or flood rescues, or ignoring closed roads providing sources of distraction and frustration. We propose five strategies for translating these results into practice, including: training and protocol development for (1) emergency personnel and (2) telephone operators, (3) training for rescuers regarding non-compliant rescuees, (4) educating the public, and (5) increasing compliance with closed roads. Current findings provide valuable insights into how rescuers can be supported in performing their roles, and implementation of these strategies has the potential to reduce fatalities occurring due to driving through floodwater. SO WHAT?: The strategies presented have the potential to reduce the frequency and improve the outcomes of floodwater rescues, aiding in the prevention of injury and death. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomic Surveillance Elucidates Persistent Wild Poliovirus Transmission During 2013-2015 in Major Reservoir Areas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Sharif, Salmaan; Shaukat, Shahzad; Angez, Mehar; Khurshid, Adnan; Rehman, Lubna; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2016-01-15

    Despite tremendous efforts in the fight against polio, Pakistan bears the highest proportion of poliomyelitis cases among the 3 endemic countries including Afghanistan and Nigeria. Apart from insecurity and inaccessibility challenges, the substantial shift of unimmunized children from North Waziristan due to recent military operations was presumed to favor the widespread poliovirus infection in Pakistan. To better understand the current epidemiological situation, we analyzed the virologic data of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) strains detected in Pakistan during 2013-2015. Five genetic clusters (A-E) were identified with at least 5% nucleotide divergence in the viral protein 1 (VP1) coding region. Peshawar, Quetta, and Karachi were found to be the major endemic foci where multiple discrete genetic lineages of WPV1 were detected. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that wild poliovirus strains from endemic regions were genetically distant (with 5%-15% VP1 nucleotide divergence) from those detected in North Waziristan cases, excluding the possibility of a recent progenitor of WPV1 instigating single-source transmission across the country. Orphan lineages detected in Rawalpindi, Lahore, Hyderabad, Sukkur, and Jacobabad revealed silent transmission and the need for vigilant surveillance. Sustenance of analogous genetic lineages over a period of 3 years highlights multiple unimmunized foci present to maintain viral genetic diversity. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that impoverished populations from North Waziristan serve as a possible determinant of widespread poliomyelitis infection in Pakistan and further emphasize the need to scale-up clinical and environmental surveillance as well as immunization activities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Identifying Distribution of Chlorophyll-a Concentration Using Landsat 8 OLI on Marine Waters Area of Cirebon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buditama, Gilang; Damayanti, Astrid; Giok Pin, Tjiong

    2017-12-01

    Phytoplankton is a microscopic plant that has a function to produces oxygen and organic substances. It also plays a role as a main producer in the food chain of a marine ecosystem. Chlorophyll-a is a colour pigment most common in phytoplankton species, so that the concentration level of chlorophyll-a can be used as an indicator of the abundance of phytoplankton cells, and as a reference for predicting organic potency in the aquatic area. This research discusses about the spatial and temporal distribution of chlorophyll-a and its correlation with salinity and total suspended solid (TSS), in the seawaters of Cirebon, West Java. The goal of this research is to be a source of information for fishermen, and other stakeholders whose related subjects in the field of marine and fisheries to predict fertile water regions and can also be used as an indicator in discovering potential areas to catch pelagic fish in Cirebon seawaters. Chlorophyll-a concentration, salinity, and TSS are identified using remote sensing data such as Landsat-8 OLI multi temporal images according to dry and wet month parameters in the 2014-2015. The results of the processed image are then validated between in-situ measurements in the field and remote sensing imagery at the same time. This research utilizes descriptive analysis, and statistics with spatial approach. The results of the research show that temporally, chlorophyll-a levels have a tendency to be higher in wet months compared to dry months, while chlorophyll-a is higher in areas near the coastline compared to open sea areas. The distribution of chlorophyll-a concentration is affected by salinity and TSS distribution, where salinity has the negative relationship and TSS has the positive relationship with chlorophyll-a distribution.

  10. Isolation of cDNA encoding a newly identified major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen: intracellular targeting to the amyloplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M B; Hough, T; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Smith, P M; Taylor, P; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D; McCluskey, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major allergenic protein from rye-grass pollen, tentatively designated Lol pIb of 31kDa and with pI 9.0. A cDNA clone encoding Lol pIb has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Lol pIb is located mainly in the starch granules. This is a distinct allergen from Lol pI, which is located in the cytosol. Lol pIb is synthesized in pollen as a pre-allergen with a transit peptide targeting the allergen to amyloplasts. Epitope mapping of the fusion protein localized the IgE binding determinant in the C-terminal domain. Images PMID:1671715

  11. Genome-wide association study identifies HLA 8.1 ancestral haplotype alleles as major genetic risk factors for myositis phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F W; Chen, W; O'Hanlon, T P; Cooper, R G; Vencovsky, J; Rider, L G; Danko, K; Wedderburn, L R; Lundberg, I E; Pachman, L M; Reed, A M; Ytterberg, S R; Padyukov, L; Selva-O'Callaghan, A; Radstake, T R; Isenberg, D A; Chinoy, H; Ollier, W E R; Scheet, P; Peng, B; Lee, A; Byun, J; Lamb, J A; Gregersen, P K; Amos, C I

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune muscle diseases (myositis) comprise a group of complex phenotypes influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify genetic risk factors in patients of European ancestry, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the major myositis phenotypes in a total of 1710 cases, which included 705 adult dermatomyositis, 473 juvenile dermatomyositis, 532 polymyositis and 202 adult dermatomyositis, juvenile dermatomyositis or polymyositis patients with anti-histidyl-tRNA synthetase (anti-Jo-1) autoantibodies, and compared them with 4724 controls. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms showing strong associations (Pmyositis phenotypes together, as well as for the four clinical and autoantibody phenotypes studied separately. Imputation and regression analyses found that alleles comprising the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) 8.1 ancestral haplotype (AH8.1) defined essentially all the genetic risk in the phenotypes studied. Although the HLA DRB1*03:01 allele showed slightly stronger associations with adult and juvenile dermatomyositis, and HLA B*08:01 with polymyositis and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody-positive myositis, multiple alleles of AH8.1 were required for the full risk effects. Our findings establish that alleles of the AH8.1 comprise the primary genetic risk factors associated with the major myositis phenotypes in geographically diverse Caucasian populations.

  12. A Multi-Breed Genome-Wide Association Analysis for Canine Hypothyroidism Identifies a Shared Major Risk Locus on CFA12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bianchi

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a complex clinical condition found in both humans and dogs, thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In this study we present a multi-breed analysis of predisposing genetic risk factors for hypothyroidism in dogs using three high-risk breeds--the Gordon Setter, Hovawart and the Rhodesian Ridgeback. Using a genome-wide association approach and meta-analysis, we identified a major hypothyroidism risk locus shared by these breeds on chromosome 12 (p = 2.1x10(-11. Further characterisation of the candidate region revealed a shared ~167 kb risk haplotype (4,915,018-5,081,823 bp, tagged by two SNPs in almost complete linkage disequilibrium. This breed-shared risk haplotype includes three genes (LHFPL5, SRPK1 and SLC26A8 and does not extend to the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA class II gene cluster located in the vicinity. These three genes have not been identified as candidate genes for hypothyroid disease previously, but have functions that could potentially contribute to the development of the disease. Our results implicate the potential involvement of novel genes and pathways for the development of canine hypothyroidism, raising new possibilities for screening, breeding programmes and treatments in dogs. This study may also contribute to our understanding of the genetic etiology of human hypothyroid disease, which is one of the most common endocrine disorders in humans.

  13. Deep sequencing of Salmonella RNA associated with heterologous Hfq proteins in vivo reveals small RNAs as a major target class and identifies RNA processing phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittka, Alexandra; Sharma, Cynthia M; Rolle, Katarzyna; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial Sm-like protein, Hfq, is a key factor for the stability and function of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) in Escherichia coli. Homologues of this protein have been predicted in many distantly related organisms yet their functional conservation as sRNA-binding proteins has not entirely been clear. To address this, we expressed in Salmonella the Hfq proteins of two eubacteria (Neisseria meningitides, Aquifex aeolicus) and an archaeon (Methanocaldococcus jannaschii), and analyzed the associated RNA by deep sequencing. This in vivo approach identified endogenous Salmonella sRNAs as a major target of the foreign Hfq proteins. New Salmonella sRNA species were also identified, and some of these accumulated specifically in the presence of a foreign Hfq protein. In addition, we observed specific RNA processing defects, e.g., suppression of precursor processing of SraH sRNA by Methanocaldococcus Hfq, or aberrant accumulation of extracytoplasmic target mRNAs of the Salmonella GcvB, MicA or RybB sRNAs. Taken together, our study provides evidence of a conserved inherent sRNA-binding property of Hfq, which may facilitate the lateral transmission of regulatory sRNAs among distantly related species. It also suggests that the expression of heterologous RNA-binding proteins combined with deep sequencing analysis of RNA ligands can be used as a molecular tool to dissect individual steps of RNA metabolism in vivo.

  14. Using Workflow Modeling to Identify Areas to Improve Genetic Test Processes in the University of Maryland Translational Pharmacogenomics Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Elizabeth M; Overby, Casey L; Banchero, Meghan; Pollin, Toni; Kelemen, Mark; Shuldiner, Alan R; Beitelshees, Amber L

    Delivering genetic test results to clinicians is a complex process. It involves many actors and multiple steps, requiring all of these to work together in order to create an optimal course of treatment for the patient. We used information gained from focus groups in order to illustrate the current process of delivering genetic test results to clinicians. We propose a business process model and notation (BPMN) representation of this process for a Translational Pharmacogenomics Project being implemented at the University of Maryland Medical Center, so that personalized medicine program implementers can identify areas to improve genetic testing processes. We found that the current process could be improved to reduce input errors, better inform and notify clinicians about the implications of certain genetic tests, and make results more easily understood. We demonstrate our use of BPMN to improve this important clinical process for CYP2C19 genetic testing in patients undergoing invasive treatment of coronary heart disease.

  15. An in-depth characterization of the major psoriasis susceptibility locus identifies candidate susceptibility alleles within an HLA-C enhancer element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Clop

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder that is inherited as a complex genetic trait. Although genome-wide association scans (GWAS have identified 36 disease susceptibility regions, more than 50% of the genetic variance can be attributed to a single Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC locus, known as PSORS1. Genetic studies indicate that HLA-C is the strongest PSORS1 candidate gene, since markers tagging HLA-Cw*0602 consistently generate the most significant association signals in GWAS. However, it is unclear whether HLA-Cw*0602 is itself the causal PSORS1 allele, especially as the role of SNPs that may affect its expression has not been investigated. Here, we have undertaken an in-depth molecular characterization of the PSORS1 interval, with a view to identifying regulatory variants that may contribute to disease susceptibility. By analysing high-density SNP data, we refined PSORS1 to a 179 kb region encompassing HLA-C and the neighbouring HCG27 pseudogene. We compared multiple MHC sequences spanning this refined locus and identified 144 candidate susceptibility variants, which are unique to chromosomes bearing HLA-Cw*0602. In parallel, we investigated the epigenetic profile of the critical PSORS1 interval and uncovered three enhancer elements likely to be active in T lymphocytes. Finally we showed that nine candidate susceptibility SNPs map within a HLA-C enhancer and that three of these variants co-localise with binding sites for immune-related transcription factors. These data indicate that SNPs affecting HLA-Cw*0602 expression are likely to contribute to psoriasis susceptibility and highlight the importance of integrating multiple experimental approaches in the investigation of complex genomic regions such as the MHC.

  16. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care- lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  17. Maternal and child health care in an underprivileged area of Bangalore city: Identifying the gaps in the continuum of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avita R Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background With over 100 million Indians living in urban slums and high child mortality among low-­‐income groups, focusing on maternal and child health (MCH among urban underprivileged is vital, if India is to achieve the fourth and fifth Millennium Development goals. Objectives To identify the gaps in the MCH Continuum of care, by assessing coverage and quality of Maternal and Child Health Services in an urban underprivileged area of Bangalore City. Methods A survey was conducted in an urban slum of Bangalore City, using systematic random sampling. A total of 178 subjects were interviewed with a pre-­‐tested questionnaire. 88 were mothers who delivered in the last one year (to assess maternal care services, and 90 were mothers of a child aged 12-­‐23 months (to assess immunization coverage. Breastfeeding practices and care during childhood illness were documented in both groups. Results Though institutional delivery rate was 97.7%, only 34.1% mothers had received full antenatal care. The quality of antenatal and postnatal services was poor, practices like prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding were common. Less than 40 % of children were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. Only 53% of children aged 12-­‐23 months were fully immunised. Primary immunisation drop-­‐out rates were high. Mothers’ knowledge regarding vaccines was poor. Children with diarrhea received less fluids and food and only 61% received ORS. Conclusion This study identified the following gaps in the MCH Continuum of Care-­‐ lack of IFA consumption, poor quality of antenatal and postnatal care, high immunisation dropout rates, erroneous breastfeeding practices and inadequate care during diarrhoea. Further research may identify potential solutions to bridging these gaps in MCH care.

  18. A retrospective population-based cohort study identifying target areas for prevention of acute lower respiratory infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richmond Peter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI are a major cause of hospitalisation in young children. Many factors can lead to increased risk of ALRI in children and predispose a child to hospitalisation, but population attributable fractions for different risk factors and how these fractions differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children is unknown. This study investigates population attributable fractions of known infant and maternal risk factors for ALRI to inform prevention strategies that target high-risk groups or particular risk factors. Methods A retrospective population-based data linkage study of 245,249 singleton births in Western Australia. Population attributable fractions of known maternal and infant risk factors for hospitalisation with ALRI between 1996 and 2005 were calculated using multiple logistic regression. Results The overall ALRI hospitalisation rate was 16.1/1,000 person-years for non-Aboriginal children and 93.0/1,000 for Aboriginal children. Male gender, being born in autumn, gestational age Conclusions The population attributable fractions estimated in this study should help in guiding public health interventions to prevent ALRI. A key risk factor for all children is maternal smoking during pregnancy, and multiple previous pregnancies and autumnal births are important high-risk groups. Specific key target areas are reducing elective caesareans in non-Aboriginal women and reducing teenage pregnancies and improving access to services and living conditions for the Aboriginal population.

  19. Variability of the groundwater sulfate concentration in fractured rock slopes: a tool to identify active unstable areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Binet

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Water chemical analysis of 100 springs from the Orco and the Tinée valleys (Western Italy and Southern France and a 7 year groundwater chemistry monitoring of the 5 main springs were performed. All these springs drain from crystalline rock slopes. Some of these drain from currently active gravitational slope deformations.

    All groundwaters flowing through presently unstable slopes show anomalies in the sulfate concentrations compared to stable aquifers. Particularly, an increase of sulfate concentrations was observed repeatedly after each of five consecutive landslides on the La Clapière slope, thus attesting to the mechanical deformations are at the origin of this concentration change. Significant changes in the water chemistry are produced even from slow (mm/year and low magnitude deformations of the geological settings.

    Pyrite nuclei in open fractures were found to be coated by iron oxides. This suggests that the increase of dissolved sulfate relates to oxidative dissolution of Pyrite. Speciation calculations of Pyrite versus Gypsum confirmed that observed changes in the sulfate concentrations is predominantly provided from Pyrite. Calculated amounts of dissolved minerals in the springs water was obtained through inverse modelling of the major ion water analysis data. It is shown that the concentration ratio of calculated dissolved Pyrite versus calculated dissolved gneiss rock allows us to unambiguously distinguish water from stable and unstable areas. This result opens an interesting perspective for the follow-up of sliding or friction dynamic in landslides or in (a seismic faults.

  20. Symptoms of major depressive disorder subsequent to child maltreatment: Examining change across multiple levels of analysis to identify transdiagnostic risk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Griffin, Amanda M; O'Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: neuroendocrine, autonomic, affective, and emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N = 110; age range = 14-19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed 18 months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed.

  1. Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder Subsequent to Child Maltreatment: Examining Change across Multiple Levels of Analysis to Identify Transdiagnostic Risk Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Griffin, Amanda M.; O’Donnell, Kieran J.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: 1) neuroendocrine, 2) autonomic, 3) affective, and 4) emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N=110; Age range: 14–19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed eighteen months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed. PMID:26535940

  2. Identifying core habitat and connectivity for focal species in the interior cedar-hemlock forest of North America to complete a conservation area design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance Craighead; Baden Cross

    2007-01-01

    To identify the remaining areas of the Interior Cedar- Hemlock Forest of North America and prioritize them for conservation planning, the Craighead Environmental Research Institute has developed a 2-scale method for mapping critical habitat utilizing 1) a broad-scale model to identify important regional locations as the basis for a Conservation Area Design (CAD), and 2...

  3. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  4. Genome-wide analysis in UK Biobank identifies four loci associated with mood instability and genetic correlation with major depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joey; Strawbridge, Rona J; Bailey, Mark E S; Graham, Nicholas; Ferguson, Amy; Lyall, Donald M; Cullen, Breda; Pidgeon, Laura M; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P; O'Donovan, Michael; Escott-Price, Valentina; Smith, Daniel J

    2017-11-30

    Mood instability is a core clinical feature of affective and psychotic disorders. In keeping with the Research Domain Criteria approach, it may be a useful construct for identifying biology that cuts across psychiatric categories. We aimed to investigate the biological validity of a simple measure of mood instability and evaluate its genetic relationship with several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mood instability in 53,525 cases and 60,443 controls from UK Biobank, identifying four independently associated loci (on chromosomes 8, 9, 14 and 18), and a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimate of ~8%. We found a strong genetic correlation between mood instability and MDD (r g  = 0.60, SE = 0.07, p = 8.95 × 10 -17 ) and a small but significant genetic correlation with both schizophrenia (r g  = 0.11, SE = 0.04, p = 0.01) and anxiety disorders (r g  = 0.28, SE = 0.14, p = 0.04), although no genetic correlation with BD, ADHD or PTSD was observed. Several genes at the associated loci may have a role in mood instability, including the DCC netrin 1 receptor (DCC) gene, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B subunit beta (eIF2B2), placental growth factor (PGF) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D (PTPRD). Strengths of this study include the very large sample size, but our measure of mood instability may be limited by the use of a single question. Overall, this work suggests a polygenic basis for mood instability. This simple measure can be obtained in very large samples; our findings suggest that doing so may offer the opportunity to illuminate the fundamental biology of mood regulation.

  5. Extending the baseline of tropical dry forest loss in Ghana (1984–2015) reveals drivers of major deforestation inside a protected area

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, T; Ametsisi, G; Collins, M; Adu-Bredu, S; Oliveras-Menor, I; Mitchard, ETA; Veenendaal, EM

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tropical dry forests experience the highest deforestation rates on Earth, with major implications for the biodiversity of these ecosystems, as well as for its human occupants. Global remote sensing based forest cover data (2000 − 2012) point to the rapid loss of tropical dry forest in South America and Africa, also, if not foremost, inside formally protected areas. Here, we significantly extend the baseline of tropical dry forest loss inside a protected area in Ghana using a generali...

  6. Identifying areas of high economic-potential copper mineralization using ASTER data in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Volcanic Belt, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Hashim, Mazlan

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates the application of spectral image processing methods to ASTER data for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones associated with porphyry copper mineralization and related host rock. The study area is located in the southeastern segment of the Urumieh-Dokhtar Volcanic Belt of Iran. This area has been selected because it is a potential zone for exploration of new porphyry copper deposits. Spectral transform approaches, namely principal component analysis, band ratio and minimum noise fraction were used for mapping hydrothermally altered rocks and lithological units at regional scale. Spectral mapping methods, including spectral angle mapper, linear spectral unmixing, matched filtering and mixture tuned matched filtering were applied to differentiate hydrothermal alteration zones associated with porphyry copper mineralization such as phyllic, argillic and propylitic mineral assemblages.Spectral transform methods enhanced hydrothermally altered rocks associated with the known porphyry copper deposits and new identified prospects using shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands of ASTER. These methods showed the discrimination of quartz rich igneous rocks from the magmatic background and the boundary between igneous and sedimentary rocks using the thermal infrared (TIR) bands of ASTER at regional scale. Spectral mapping methods distinguished the sericitically- and argillically-altered rocks (the phyllic and argillic alteration zones) that surrounded by discontinuous to extensive zones of propylitized rocks (the propylitic alteration zone) using SWIR bands of ASTER at both regional and district scales. Linear spectral unmixing method can be best suited for distinguishing specific high economic-potential hydrothermal alteration zone (the phyllic zone) and mineral assemblages using SWIR bands of ASTER. Results have proven to be effective, and in accordance with the results of field surveying, spectral reflectance measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis

  7. Assessment of the Cross-Sectional Areas of the Psoas Major and Multifidus Muscles in Patients With Adult Spinal Deformity: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Tomohiro; Yamato, Yu; Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Kobayashi, Sho; Togawa, Daisuke; Oe, Shin; Mihara, Yuki; Kurosu, Kenta; Yamamoto, Naoto; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2017-08-01

    This is a case-control study. The present study aimed to compare the cross-sectional areas of the psoas major and multifidus muscles between elderly patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) and age-matched and body weight-matched controls, and to evaluate the associations between the cross-sectional areas of these muscles and the severity of spinal deformity. The study included 49 female kyphosis patients with mild scoliosis (Cobb angle muscles were calculated using preoperative L4/L5 axial computed tomography images. In group D, the following spinopelvic parameters were assessed: sagittal vertical axis, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, lumbar lordosis, and thoracic kyphosis. The relationships between the muscle cross-sectional areas and spinopelvic parameters were evaluated. The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle was lower in group D than in group C. However, the cross-sectional area of the psoas major muscle was not different between the 2 groups. In multiple regression analysis, the cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle was significantly associated with all spinopelvic parameters. The cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle might be lower in elderly patients with ASD than in controls. In the elderly population, the severity of sagittal spinal deformity might be correlated with the cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle. Therefore, muscle imbalances between the flexors and extensors of the spine could participate in the pathology of ASD.

  8. Temporal constraints on future accumulation-area loss of a major Arctic ice cap due to climate change (Vestfonna, Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Marco; Schneider, Christoph

    2015-01-28

    Arctic glaciers and ice caps are major contributors to past, present and future sea-level fluctuations. Continued global warming may eventually lead to the equilibrium line altitudes of these ice masses rising above their highest points, triggering unstoppable downwasting. This may feed future sea-level rise considerably. We here present projections for the timing of equilibrium-line loss at the major Arctic ice cap Vestfonna, Svalbard. The projections are based on spatially distributed climatic mass balance modelling driven by the outputs of multiple climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) forced by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5. Results indicate strongly decreasing climatic mass balances over the 21(st) century for all RCPs considered. Glacier-wide mass-balance rates will drop down to -4 m a(-1) w.e. (water equivalent) at a maximum. The date at which the equilibrium line rises above the summit of Vestfonna (630 m above sea level) is calculated to range between 2040 and 2150, depending on scenario.

  9. Identifying Areas of Potential Wetland Hydrology in Irrigated Croplands Using Aerial Image Interpretation and Analysis of Rainfall Normality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    water/saturation, 3) shifts in vegetation , 4) areas of crop stress , and 5) other discolored areas located within the approximate footprint of...of crop/ vegetation stresses . These areas were either lacking vegetation or showed vegetation with a lighter coloration than surrounding vegetation ...for public release ; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest

  10. High school and college introductory science education experiences: A study regarding perceptions of university students persisting in science as a major area of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, L. Denise

    The focus of this study was to investigate college students' perception of high school and college introductory science learning experiences related to persistence in science as a major area of study in college. The study included students' perceptions of the following areas of science education: (1) teacher interpersonal relationship with students, (2) teacher personality styles, (3) teacher knowledge of the content, (4) instructional methods, and (5) science course content. A survey research design was employed in the investigative study to collect and analyze data. One hundred ninety two students participated in the research study. A survey instrument entitled Science Education Perception Survey was used to collect data. The researcher sought to reject or support three null hypotheses as related to participants' perceptions of high school and college introductory science education experiences. Using binomial regression analysis, this study analyzed differences between students persisting in science and students not persisting in science as a major. The quantitative research indicated that significant differences exist between persistence in science as a major and high school science teacher traits and college introductory science instructional methods. Although these variables were found to be significant predictors, the percent variance was low and should be considered closely before concluded these as strong predictors of persistence. Major findings of the qualitative component indicated that students perceived that: (a) interest in high school science course content and high school science teacher personality and interpersonal relationships had the greatest effect on students' choice of major area of study; (b) interest in college introductory science course content had the greatest effect on students' choice of major area of study; (c) students recalled laboratory activities and overall good teaching as most meaningful to their high school science

  11. Assessment of the Olea pollen and its major allergen Ole e 1 concentrations in the bioearosol of two biogeographical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Grau, S.; Aira, M. J.; Elvira-Rendueles, B.; Fernández-González, M.; Fernández-González, D.; García-Sánchez, A.; Martínez-García, M. J.; Moreno, J. M.; Negral, L.; Vara, A.; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Olea pollen is currently an important allergy source. In some regions of Southern Spain, olive pollen is the main cause of allergic sensitization exceeding 40% of the sensitized individuals. Due to the scarce presence of olive trees in Northern Spain, limited to some cultivated fields in the South of the Galicia region where they also grow wild, only 8% of the sensitized individuals showed positive results for Olea pollen. The aim of the paper was to assess the behaviour pattern of the Olea pollen and its aeroallergens in the atmosphere, as this information could help us to improve the understanding and prevention of clinical symptoms. Airborne Olea pollen and Ole e 1 allergens were quantified in Cartagena (South-eastern Spain) and Ourense (North-western Spain). A volumetric pollen trap and a Burkard Cyclone sampler were used for pollen and allergen quantification. The Olea flowering took place in April or May in both biometeorological sampling areas. The higher concentrations were registered in the Southern area of Spain, for both pollen and Ole e 1, with values 8 times higher for pollen concentrations and 40 times higher for allergens. An alternate bearing pattern could be observed, characterized by years with high pollen values and low allergen concentrations and vice versa. Moreover, during some flowering seasons the allergen concentrations did not correspond to the atmospheric pollen values. Variations in weather conditions or Long Distance Transport (LDT) processes could explain the discordance. The back trajectory analysis shows that the most important contributions of pollen and allergens in the atmosphere are coincident with air masses passing through potential source areas. The exposure to olive pollen may not be synonym of antigen exposure.

  12. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  13. A corporative ALARA engineering support for all EDF sites a major improvement: the generic work areas optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiot, A.; Lebeau, J.

    2005-01-01

    ALARA studies performed by EDF plants are quite simple and empirical. Most often, feedback experience and common sense, with the help of simple calculations allow reaching useful and efficient decisions. This is particularly the case when the exposure situations are not complex, within a simple environment and with a single source, or one major source. However, in more complex cases this is not enough to guarantee that actual ALARA solutions are implemented. EDF has then decided to use its national corporate engineering as a support for its sites. That engineering support is in charge of using very efficient tools such as PANTHER-RP. The objective of the presentation is to describe the engineering process and tools now available at EDF, to illustrate them with a few case studies and to describe the goals and procedures set up by EDF. (authors)

  14. A corporate ALARA engineering support for all EDF sites. A major improvement: the generic work areas optimisation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiot, Alain [EDF, SPT, UTO, Le Central, Bat. 420, BP 129, 93162 Noisy-le-Grand Cedex (France); Lebeau, Jacques [Electricite de France, ALARA Project, Site Cap Ampere, 1, place Pleyel, 93282 Saint Denis Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    ALARA studies performed by EDF plants are quite simple and empirical. Most often, feedback experience and common sense, with the help of simple calculations allow reaching useful and efficient decisions. This is particularly the case when the exposure situations are not complex, within a simple environment and with a single source, or one major source. However, in more complex cases this is not enough to guarantee that actual ALARA solutions are implemented. EDF has then decided to use its national corporate engineering as a support for its sites. That engineering support is in charge of using very efficient tools such as PANTHER-RP. The objective of the presentation is to describe the engineering process and tools now available at EDF, to illustrate them with a few case studies and to describe the goals and procedures set up by EDF. (authors)

  15. Chemical composition of meat (kernel) and nut water of major coconut (cocos nucifera l.) cultivars at coastal area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, A.; Ahmad, S.S.; Butt, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Three varieties of the coconut (Tall, Dwarf and Hybrid) were subjected to analyse for physicochemical properties of meat and nut water, Sodium (Na), Moisture %, Ash %, Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co), Potassium (K), pH, Volatile matters, Caloric value (CV) and Total dissolved solids (TDS). The chemical analysis of Meat (mature and immature stage) showed high percentage of Mg and Na in study varieties. However, it was apparent that major portion of stored Ca, Mg, and Na were lodged in the nut water. The nutrients Na, K and Ca were high or less evenly distributed in the Kernel and Water, whereas there was nutrient a comparatively greater concentration of P and Mg in the Water. The K (56% to 81%) was higher in nut water as compared to other ones. The results showed Mg 45% to 70% and Na 1% to 53% in mature and immature meat, respectively. (author)

  16. The pyloric caeca area is a major site for IgM(+ and IgT(+ B cell recruitment in response to oral vaccination in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Ballesteros

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have characterized some aspects of the immune response of the teleost gut in response to diverse pathogens or stimuli, most studies have focused on the posterior segments exclusively. However, there are still many details of how teleost intestinal immunity is regulated that remain unsolved, including the location of IgM(+ and IgT(+ B cells along the digestive tract and their role during the course of a local stimulus. Thus, in the current work, we have studied the B cell response in five different segments of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss digestive tract in both naïve fish and fish orally vaccinated with an alginate-encapsulated DNA vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV. IgM(+ and IgT(+ cells were identified all along the tract with the exception of the stomach in naïve fish. While IgM(+ cells were mostly located in the lamina propria (LP, IgT(+ cells were primarily localized as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs. Scattered IgM(+ IELs were only detected in the pyloric caeca. In response to oral vaccination, the pyloric caeca region was the area of the digestive tract in which a major recruitment of B cells was demonstrated through both real time PCR and immunohistochemistry, observing a significant increase in the number of both IgM(+ and IgT(+ IELs. Our findings demonstrate that both IgM(+ and IgT(+ respond to oral stimulation and challenge the paradigm that teleost IELs are exclusively T cells. Unexpectedly, we have also detected B cells in the fat tissue associated to the digestive tract that respond to vaccination, suggesting that these cells surrounded by adipocytes also play a role in mucosal defense.

  17. Geophysical surveys combined with laboratory soil column experiments to identify and explore risk areas for soil and water pollution in feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Pérez, Antonio Jesus; Sainato, Claudia Mabel; Jairo Márquez-Molina, John; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2014-05-01

    pattern of moisture, although the absolute values were far from the real values obtained by gravimetric method due to the effect of the high OM. The lower zone in one of the pens showed greater values of ECa and soil moisture, in agreement with a major water retention and a lower Ks. The water retention was higher in the other corral with higher variability in Ks. A general decrease of soil moisture was found near 0.2 m soil depth. Leaching experiments detected greater volumes with higher electrical conductivity in low lying areas of the pen. Although differences were not observed as clearly as before, the low and intermediate low areas of the pen showed a faster rate of leaching. In summary geophysical surveys allowed identifying risk areas of high ECa and moisture which in fact had higher volumes of leachate with elevated electrical conductivities. This may be a good approach to control and reduce soil and groundwater contamination and to model in future works the process in order to establish management decisions.

  18. Estimating forest biomass and identifying low-intensity logging areas using airborne scanning lidar in Antimary State Forest, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V.N. d' Oliveira; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik. Andersen

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate above ground forest biomass and identify areas disturbed by selective logging in a 1000 ha Brazilian tropical forest in the Antimary State Forest using airborne lidar data. The study area consisted of three management units, two of which were unlogged, while the third unit was selectively logged at a low intensity. A...

  19. Lithology and uranium potential of Jurassic formations in the San Ysidro--Cuba and majors ranch areas, northwestern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.S.

    1975-01-01

    The aggregate thickness of sedimentary rocks of Jurassic age near the eastern and southeastern margin of the San Juan Basin in Sandoval County, N. Mex., is about 1150 feet (350 metres). The Entrada Sandstone is the base. The Entrada Sandstone, 97 to 227 feet (30 to 69 m) thick, consists of red and brown siltstone and fine-grained sandstone and brown and white sandstone. The Todilto Formation, 5 to 125 feet (1.5 to 38 m) thick, consists of a limestone unit and a massive white gypsum unit. The Summerville Formation, 0 to 50 feet (0 to 15 m) thick, consists of variegated, interstratified mudstone, claystone, siltstone, and sandstone. The Morrison Formation, 750 to 870 feet (229 to 265 m) thick, is divided into three members. The Recapture Member consists mainly of red and white color-banded fine-grained sandstone. The Westwater Canyon and Brushy Basin Members consist mainly of red and green mudstone interstratified with grayish-orange arkosic sandstone. The upper unit of the Brushy Basin Member is called the Jackpile sandstone, a name of economic usage. Most of the sandstone in the Morrison Formation above the Recapture Member in the area studied is considered to be a potential host for uranium ore deposits. (auth)

  20. Application of hydrochemistry and isotopic hydrology to identify recharge areas and characterize nitrate contamination in the Santiago Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tore, C; Grilli D-F, A; Aguirre, E.; Moya, P

    2001-01-01

    This work is the result of a joint effort of the Empresa Metropolitana de Obras Sanitarias (EMOS S. A. - Chile), the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN - Chile) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA - Austria). It has been carried out in the framework of the project ARCAL XXXI-RLA/8/023-9004 and under the auspice of the IAEA. This kind of project aims to provide technical knowledge in order to promote a sustainable use of groundwater resources for water supply in urban areas. The main goal of the ARCAL was to characterize the Santiago aquifer, specially those areas currently intensively exploited (or expected to be in the next future) and determine EMOS S. A. production wells capture zones to define protection areas. Among the specific objectives pursued it can be mentioned: -Determination of recharge areas and main hydrochemical features of groundwater in Santiago -Characterization of nitrate pollution and its most probable source (au)

  1. Objectives and Design of BLEEDS: A Cohort Study to Identify New Risk Factors and Predictors for Major Bleeding during Treatment with Vitamin K Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rein, Nienke; Lijfering, Willem M; Bos, Mettine H A; Herruer, Martien H; Vermaas, Helga W; van der Meer, Felix J M; Reitsma, Pieter H

    2016-01-01

    Risk scores for patients who are at high risk for major bleeding complications during treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) do not perform that well. BLEEDS was initiated to search for new biomarkers that predict bleeding in these patients. To describe the outline and objectives of BLEEDS and to examine whether the study population is generalizable to other VKA treated populations. A cohort was created consisting of all patients starting VKA treatment at three Dutch anticoagulation clinics between January-2012 and July-2014. We stored leftover plasma and DNA following analysis of the INR. Of 16,706 eligible patients, 16,570 (99%) were included in BLEEDS and plasma was stored from 13,779 patients (83%). Patients had a mean age of 70 years (SD 14), 8713 were male (53%). The most common VKA indications were atrial fibrillation (10,876 patients, 66%) and venous thrombosis (3920 patients, 24%). 326 Major bleeds occurred during 17,613 years of follow-up (incidence rate 1.85/100 person years, 95%CI 1.66-2.06). The risk for major bleeding was highest in the initial three months of VKA treatment and increased when the international normalized ratio increased. These results and characteristics are in concordance with results from other VKA treated populations. BLEEDS is generalizable to other VKA treated populations and will permit innovative and unbiased research of biomarkers that may predict major bleeding during VKA treatment.

  2. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  3. Spatial products available for identifying areas of likely wildfire ignitions using lightning location data-Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Sopko; Larry Bradshaw; Matt Jolly

    2016-01-01

    The Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS, www.wfas.net) is a one-stop-shop giving wildland fire managers the ability to assess fire potential ranging in scale from national to regional and temporally from 1 to 5 days. Each day, broad-area maps are produced from fire weather station and lightning location networks. Three products are created using 24 hour...

  4. Identifying eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds using hydrodynamic modelling: knowledge for the design of Marine Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Kraus, Gerd; Böttcher, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of juvenile cod is essential to closing the life cycle in population dynamic models, and it is a prerequisite for the design of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) aiming at the protection of juveniles. In this study, we use a hydrodynamic model to exa...

  5. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  6. Identifying and evaluating high risk areas and challenges on marine drilling riser system in relation to deepwater problems

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology The main concerns during drilling operations are riser integrity and maintaining well control. This thesis has mainly been focusing on the problems and challenges faced with the marine riser system to illuminate high risk areas related to riser integrity. A marine riser system consists generally of four main elements; the upper marine riser package, riser joints, lower marine riser package, and the blowout preventer, each playing an important par...

  7. [The organization of the work of military forensic medical experts in identifying the dead in an area of armed conflict].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosedko, Iu I; Lavrentiuk, G P

    1995-06-01

    The authors summarize the experience of work of legal physicians in identification of servicemen who have perished on the territory of Chechnya. The article contains data concerning the methods of classification of non-identified cadavers in three identification groups and gives a scientifically substantiated system of pre-identification preparation of cadavers. A number of problematic questions which need its further solution are raised.

  8. Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Analysis Identifies Major Gene Loci for Guttural Pouch Tympany in Arabian and German Warmblood Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16–26 Mb and 34–55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64–65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT. PMID:22848553

  9. Higher 5-HT1A autoreceptor binding as an endophenotype for major depressive disorder identified in high risk offspring - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milak, Matthew S; Pantazatos, Spiro; Rashid, Rain; Zanderigo, Francesca; DeLorenzo, Christine; Hesselgrave, Natalie; Ogden, R Todd; Oquendo, Maria A; Mulhern, Stephanie T; Miller, Jeffrey M; Burke, Ainsley K; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John

    2018-04-13

    Higher serotonin-1A (5-HT 1A ) receptor binding potential (BP F ) has been found in major depressive disorder (MDD) during and between major depressive episodes. We investigated whether higher 5-HT 1A binding is a biologic trait transmitted to healthy high risk (HR) offspring of MDD probands. Data were collected contemporaneously from: nine HR, 30 depressed not-recently medicated (NRM) MDD, 18 remitted NRM MDD, 51 healthy volunteer (HV) subjects. Subjects underwent positron emission tomography (PET) using [ 11 C]WAY100635 to quantify 5-HT 1A BP F , estimated using metabolite, free fraction-corrected arterial input function and cerebellar white matter as reference region. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) of PET data evaluated group status classification of individuals. When tested across 13 regions of interest, an effect of diagnosis is found on BP F which remains significant after correction for sex, age, injected mass and dose: HR have higher BP F than HV (84.3% higher in midbrain raphe, 40.8% higher in hippocampus, mean BP F across all 13 brain regions is 49.9% ± 11.8% higher). Voxel-level BP F maps distinguish HR vs. HV. Elevated 5-HT 1A BP F appears to be a familially transmitted trait abnormality. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding in a larger cohort and demonstrate the link to the familial transmission of mood disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ST-T isointegral analysis of exercise stress body surface mapping for identifying ischemic areas in patients with angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, T.; Kawakubo, K.; Toda, I.; Mashima, S.; Ohtake, T.; Iio, M.; Sugimoto, T.

    1988-01-01

    ST-T isointegral analysis of body surface mapping was used in an attempt to localize ischemic areas on exercise tests. In 28 patients with angina pectoris and 10 healthy subjects, body surface potential was recorded with 87 leads, and ST isopotential and ST-T isointegral maps were constructed. In all 10 healthy subjects, the basic pattern of the ST-T isointegral map showed no significant change after exercise. In 23 of 28 patients with angina pectoris (82%), alterations in the ST-T isointegral map after exercise were observed. They were divided into four types (anterior, inferoposterior, lateral, and global) according to the distribution of negative values, which were well correlated with the extent of ischemic area determined by thallium myocardial scintigraphy and coronary angiography. The postexercise ST-T isointegral map was normalized after administration of nitroglycerin in four of five patients. In five patients (18%) who did not show abnormalities on the postexercise ST-T isointegral map, the magnitude of maximal ST depression was significantly smaller than that observed in the other 23 patients with angina pectoris (0.14 vs 0.23 mV on the average, p less than 0.05). It was concluded that the exercise test with ST-T isointegral mapping is a new method for noninvasive detection of location and severity of ischemic regions

  12. Identifying Pre-Seismic TIR Anomalies: A Long Term (2004-2015) Of RST Analysis Over Turkish Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, A.; Tramutoli, V.; Corrado, A.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

    2017-12-01

    Since eighties, fluctuations of Earth's thermally emitted radiation, measured by satellite sensors operating in the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral range (i.e. 10-12 µm), have been associated with the complex process of preparation of earthquakes. Several theories have been proposed to explain their origin and their space-time evolution. In this paper, the Earth's emitted radiation in the Thermal Infra-Red spectral region is considered for its possible correlation with M≥4 earthquakes occurred in Turkey in between 2004 and 2015. Robust Satellite Technique (RST) and RETIRA (Robust Estimator of TIR Anomalies) index were used to preliminarily define, and then to identify, Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) in the period 1 April 2004- 31 October 2015 (12 years) of daily TIR images acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. The performed analysis shows that more than 67% of all identified SSTAs occur in the pre-fixed space-time window around the occurrence time and location of earthquakes (M≥4), with a false positive rate smaller than 33%. Moreover, Molchan error diagram analysis gave a clear indication of non-casualty of such a correlation, in comparison with the random guess function. Notwithstanding the huge amount of missed events due to frequent space/time data gaps produced by the presence of clouds over the scene the achieved results, and particularly the low rate of false positives registered on a so long testing period, seems sufficient (at least) to qualify TIR anomalies (identified by RST approach and RETIRA index) among the parameters to be considered in the framework of a multi-parametric approach to time-Dependent Assessment of Seismic Hazard (t-DASH).

  13. SPI-Based Analyses of Drought Changes over the Past 60 Years in China’s Major Crop-Growing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the changes in drought patterns in China’s major crop-growing areas over the past 60 years. The analysis was done using both weather station data and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI rainfall data to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. The results showed that the occurrences of extreme drought were the most serious in recent years in the Southwest China and Sichuan crop-growing areas. The Yangtze River (MLRY and South China crop-growing areas experienced extreme droughts during 1960–1980, whereas the Northeast China and Huang–Huai–Hai crop-growing areas experienced extreme droughts around 2003. The analysis showed that the SPIs calculated by TRMM data at time scales of one, three, and six months were reliable for monitoring drought in the study regions, but for 12 months, the SPIs calculated by gauge and TRMM data showed less consistency. The analysis of the spatial distribution of droughts over the past 15 years using TMI rainfall data revealed that more than 60% of the area experienced extreme drought in 2011 over the MLRY region and in 1998 over the Huang–Huai–Hai region. The frequency of different intensity droughts presented significant spatial heterogeneity in each crop-growing region.

  14. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables

  16. Classifying neighbourhoods by level of access to stores selling fresh fruit and vegetables and groceries: identifying problematic areas in the city of Gatineau, Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Adrian C; Apparicio, Philippe; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil

    2012-11-06

    Physical access to stores selling groceries, fresh fruit and vegetables (FV) is essential for urban dwellers. In Canadian cities where low-density development practices are common, social and material deprivation may be compounded by poor geographic access to healthy food. This case study examines access to food stores selling fresh FV in Gatineau, Quebec, to identify areas where poor access is coincident with high deprivation. Food retailers were identified using two secondary sources and each store was visited to establish the total surface area devoted to the sale of fresh FV. Four population-weighted accessibility measures were then calculated for each dissemination area (DA) using road network distances. A deprivation index was created using variables from the 2006 Statistics Canada census, also at the scale of the DA. Finally, six classes of accessibility to a healthy diet were constructed using a k-means classification procedure. These were mapped and superimposed over high deprivation areas. Overall, deprivation is positively correlated with better accessibility. However, more than 18,000 residents (7.5% of the population) live in high deprivation areas characterized by large distances to the nearest retail food store (means of 1.4 km or greater) and virtually no access to fresh FV within walking distance (radius of 1 km). In this research, we identified areas where poor geographic access may introduce an additional constraint for residents already dealing with the challenges of limited financial and social resources. Our results may help guide local food security policies and initiatives.

  17. Environmental isotope and geophysical techniques to identify groundwater potential zones in drought prone areas of Amravati District, Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble

    2017-01-01

    The groundwater potential of Anjangaon village in Amaravati district of Maharashtra is generally poor and the water quality is saline in most of the places. Farmers dig open wells (up to 30 m depth) and drill bore wells (100-150 m depth) for domestic and irrigation purposes. Most of the wells failed and farmers are struggling for fresh water in this region. To evaluate the groundwater recharge and to identify the groundwater potential zones an environmental isotope and geophysical study was carried out. Water samples were collected from rain, springs, open wells, bore wells and detention tanks and measured for environmental isotopes such as "1"8O, "2H and "3H. Isotope results indicate that the groundwater is getting modern component of recharge from the rain as well as from the detention tanks. The percentage contributions from the detention tanks were estimated to be about 40 to 90 %. In the southern part of the Anjagaon village, an electrical resistivity survey of the geological formation was carried out and a groundwater potential zone was delineated at 45m depth. The farmers were asked to drill bore wells at the identified depth. The drilled five bore wells yielded perennial source of good quality water

  18. Integrated network analysis identifies fight-club nodes as a class of hubs encompassing key putative switch genes that induce major transcriptome reprogramming during grapevine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-12-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named "fight-club hubs" characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named "switch genes" was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying areas of weakness in thoracic surgery residency training: a comparison of the perceptions of residents and program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Janet P; Schofield, Adam; Paolucci, Elizabeth Oddone; Schieman, Colin; Kelly, Elizabeth; Servatyari, Ramin; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G; Grondin, Sean C

    2014-01-01

    To identify core thoracic surgery procedures that require increased emphasis during thoracic surgery residency for residents to achieve operative independence and to compare the perspectives of residents and program directors in this regard. A modified Delphi process was used to create a survey that was distributed electronically to all Canadian thoracic surgery residents (12) and program directors (8) addressing the residents' ability to perform 19 core thoracic surgery procedures independently after the completion of residency. Residents were also questioned about the adequacy of their operative exposure to these 19 procedures during their residency training. A descriptive summary including calculations of frequencies and proportions was conducted. The perceptions of the 2 groups were then compared using the Fisher exact test employing a Bonferroni correction. The relationship between residents' operative exposure and their perceived operative ability was explored in the same fashion. The response rate was 100% for residents and program directors. No statistical differences were found between residents' and program directors' perceptions of residents' ability to perform the 19 core procedures independently. Both groups identified lung transplantation, first rib resection, and extrapleural pneumonectomy as procedures for which residents were not adequately prepared to perform independently. Residents' subjective ratings of operative exposure were in good agreement with their reported operative ability for 13 of 19 procedures. This study provides new insight into the perceptions of thoracic surgery residents and their program directors regarding operative ability. This study points to good agreement between residents and program directors regarding residents' surgical capabilities. This study provides information regarding potential weaknesses in thoracic surgery training, which may warrant an examination of the curricula of existing programs as well as a

  20. Identifying latent profiles of posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms in Canadian veterans: Exploring differences across profiles in health related functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Contractor, Ateka; Elhai, Jon D; Stringer, Maurice; Lyle, Gary; Forbes, David; Richardson, J Don

    2015-07-30

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently reported as being highly comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD) and as being associated with health related functional impairment (HRF). We used archival data from 283 previously war-zone deployed Canadian veterans. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to uncover patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity as measured via the PTSD Checklist-Military version (PCL-M) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Individual membership of latent classes was used in a series of one-way ANOVAs to ascertain group differences related to HRF as measured via the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). LPA resulted in three discrete patterns of PTSD and MDD comorbidity which were characterized by high symptoms of PTSD and MDD, moderate symptoms, and low symptoms. All ANOVAs comparing class membership on the SF-36 subscales were statistically significant demonstrating group differences across levels of HRF. The group with the highest symptoms reported the worst HRF followed by the medium and low symptom groups. These findings are clinically relevant as they demonstrate the need for continual assessment and targeted treatment of co-occurring PTSD and MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Perceptions on healthcare in people with self-identified mental health problems in the rural areas of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Javier E; Uchofen-Herrera, Verousckha

    2016-01-01

    Person-centered health and community health perspectives on its needs and resources are mandatory in healthcare policies in highly cultural diverse contexts. From this point of view, epidemiology needs to be centered not only on the disease, but also on the health diagnosis and its context, including the points of view of people and the community about their problems and needs. This article describes and qualitatively analyzes the views of adults with self-identified mental health disorders (MHD) in rural regions on the coast, highlands, and jungle of Peru, as causal factors, personal resources, and healthcare expectations from health facilities, using the narrative approach of ideographic formulation proposed by the World Psychiatric Association. The database of mental health epidemiological studies from the National Mental Health Institute was used. The qualitative analysis on answers from 235 people reveals that a large part of MHD is linked to the dynamics of troubled families and to the loss of loved ones. The presence of scarce community resources that help overcome these problems is noted. Counseling is stressed among the expectations of healthcare at facilities; nevertheless, many people do not know what to expect from such healthcare. We believe that the narrative approach is an important tool as regards to community- and person-centered medicine and intervention strategy planning.

  2. Exome sequencing identifies DYNC2H1 mutations as a common cause of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Jeune syndrome) without major polydactyly, renal or retinal involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidts, Miriam; Arts, Heleen H; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Yap, Zhimin; Oud, Machteld M; Antony, Dinu; Duijkers, Lonneke; Emes, Richard D; Stalker, Jim; Yntema, Jan-Bart L; Plagnol, Vincent; Hoischen, Alexander; Gilissen, Christian; Forsythe, Elisabeth; Lausch, Ekkehart; Veltman, Joris A; Roeleveld, Nel; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Kutkowska-Kazmierczak, Anna; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Elçioğlu, Nursel; van Maarle, Merel C; Graul-Neumann, Luitgard M; Devriendt, Koenraad; Smithson, Sarah F; Wellesley, Diana; Verbeek, Nienke E; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Kayserili, Hulya; Scambler, Peter J; Beales, Philip L; Knoers, Nine VAM; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M

    2013-01-01

    Background Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) is a rare, often lethal, recessively inherited chondrodysplasia characterised by shortened ribs and long bones, sometimes accompanied by polydactyly, and renal, liver and retinal disease. Mutations in intraflagellar transport (IFT) genes cause JATD, including the IFT dynein-2 motor subunit gene DYNC2H1. Genetic heterogeneity and the large DYNC2H1 gene size have hindered JATD genetic diagnosis. Aims and methods To determine the contribution to JATD we screened DYNC2H1 in 71 JATD patients JATD patients combining SNP mapping, Sanger sequencing and exome sequencing. Results and conclusions We detected 34 DYNC2H1 mutations in 29/71 (41%) patients from 19/57 families (33%), showing it as a major cause of JATD especially in Northern European patients. This included 13 early protein termination mutations (nonsense/frameshift, deletion, splice site) but no patients carried these in combination, suggesting the human phenotype is at least partly hypomorphic. In addition, 21 missense mutations were distributed across DYNC2H1 and these showed some clustering to functional domains, especially the ATP motor domain. DYNC2H1 patients largely lacked significant extra-skeletal involvement, demonstrating an important genotype–phenotype correlation in JATD. Significant variability exists in the course and severity of the thoracic phenotype, both between affected siblings with identical DYNC2H1 alleles and among individuals with different alleles, which suggests the DYNC2H1 phenotype might be subject to modifier alleles, non-genetic or epigenetic factors. Assessment of fibroblasts from patients showed accumulation of anterograde IFT proteins in the ciliary tips, confirming defects similar to patients with other retrograde IFT machinery mutations, which may be of undervalued potential for diagnostic purposes. PMID:23456818

  3. Physiological properties of anatomically identified basket and bistratified cells in the CA1 area of the rat hippocampus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, E H; Szilágyi, T; Halasy, K; Somogyi, P

    1996-01-01

    Basket and bistratified cells form two anatomically distinct classes of GABAergic local-circuit neurons in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. A physiological comparison was made of intracellularly recorded basket (n = 13) and bistratified neurons (n = 6), all of which had been anatomically defined by their efferent target profile (Halasy et al., 1996). Basket cells had an average resting membrane potential of -64.2 +/- 7.2 vs. -69.2 +/- 4.6 mV in bistratified cells. The latter had considerably higher mean input resistances (60.2 +/- 42.1 vs. 31.3 +/- 10.9 M Ohms) and longer membrane time constants (18.6 +/- 8.1 vs. 9.8 +/- 4.5 ms) than basket cells. Differences were also apparent in the duration of action potentials, those of basket cells being 364 +/- 77 and those of bistratified cells being 527 +/- 138 microseconds at half-amplitude. Action potentials were generally followed by prominent, fast after-hyperpolarizing potentials which in basket cells were 13.5 +/- 6.7 mV in amplitude vs. 10.5 +/- 5.1 in bistratified cells. The differences in membrane time constant, resting membrane potential, and action potential duration reached statistical significance (P D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, whereas the remaining slow-rise EPSP could be abolished by an NMDA receptor antagonist. Increasing stimulation intensity elicited biphasic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in both basket and bistratified cells. In conclusion, basket and bistratified cells in the CA1 area show prominent differences in several of their membrane and firing properties. Both cell classes are activated by Schaffer collateral/commissural axons in a feedforward manner and receive inhibitory input from other, as yet unidentified, local-circuit neurons.

  4. The application of isotope techniques to the assessment of aquifer systems in major urban areas. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    Aquifer systems in most urban areas have been impacted to varying degrees by sustained exploitation and the future availability of water is being threatened by depleting aquifers or water quality degradation. Improved methods for the assessment and management of groundwater resources in major urban areas, therefore, are issues of high priority for most countries. The IAEA has, over last four decades, co-ordinated the development, adaptation, and testing of isotope techniques for hydrological applications. A number of techniques and methodologies that are now established for water resources management are potentially useful for characterizing the short and long term changes resulting from the extensive use of aquifers in and near urban areas. The application of isotope techniques in urban hydrology was the focus of this co-ordinated research project (CRP). This report provides the final results of the CRP, and is expected to be of interest to scientists, managers and planners involved in water resources assessment in urban areas. This publication contains seven individual reports, each of them was indexed separately

  5. ISD97, a computer program to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginatto, M.; Shebell, P.; Miller, K.M.

    1997-10-01

    A computer program, ISD97, was developed to analyze data from a series of in situ measurements on a grid and identify potential localized areas of elevated activity. The ISD97 code operates using a two-step process. A deconvolution of the data is carried out using the maximum entropy method, and a map of activity on the ground that fits the data within experimental error is generated. This maximum entropy map is then analyzed to determine the locations and magnitudes of potential areas of elevated activity that are consistent with the data. New deconvolutions are then carried out for each potential area of elevated activity identified by the code. Properties of the algorithm are demonstrated using data from actual field measurements

  6. Using a partial sum method and GPS tracking data to identify area restricted search by artisanal fishers at moored fish aggregating devices in the Commonwealth of Dominica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Alvard

    Full Text Available Foragers must often travel from a central place to exploit aggregations of prey. These patches can be identified behaviorally when a forager shifts from travel to area restricted search, identified by a decrease in speed and an increase in sinuosity of movement. Faster, more directed movement is associated with travel. Differentiating foraging behavior at patches from travel to patches is important for a variety of research questions and has now been made easier by the advent of small, GPS devices that can track forager movement with high resolution. In the summer and fall of 2012, movement data were collected from GPS devices placed on foraging trips originating in the artisanal fishing village of Desa Ikan (pseudonym, on the east coast of the Caribbean island nation of the Commonwealth Dominica. Moored FADs are human-made structures anchored to the ocean floor with fish attraction material on or near the surface designed to effectively create a resource patch. The ultimate goal of the research is to understand how property rights are emerging after the introduction of fish aggregating device (FAD technology at the site in 1999. This paper reports on research to identify area-restricted search foraging behavior at FAD patches. For 22 foraging trips simultaneous behavioral observations were made to ground-truth the GPS movement data. Using a cumulative sum method, area restricted search was identified as negative deviations from the mean travel speed and the method was able to correctly identify FAD patches in every case.

  7. Identifying, monitoring and implementing "sustainable" agricultural practices for smallholder farmers over large geographic areas in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.; Nair, D.; Esteves, T.; Rudek, J.; Thu Ha, T.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small-holder farms (size management variability from farm to farm and also the current inability to ground-truth remote sensing data due to lack of relaible basic parameters (e.g., yields, N use, farm boundaries) which are necessary for calibrating empirical/biogeochemical models. While we continue to learn from new research, we have found that it is crucial to follow some steps if sustainable farming programs are to succeed at small-holder farms Demographic data collection and GPS plot demarcation to establish farm size and ownership Baseline nutrient, water & energy use and crop yield determination via surveys and self-reporting which are verifiable through farmer networks given the importance of peer to peer learning in the dissemination of new techniques in such landscapes "Sustainable" practice determination in consultation with local universities/NGO experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or empirical equations and establish which practices are truly "sustainable" (e.g., GHG emission reduction varies from 0-7 tCO2e/acre for different sustainable practices). Propagation of sustainable practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments after analyzing the replicability of identified farming practices in the light of local financial, cultural or socio-political barriers. We will present results from representative plots (including soil and weather parameters, GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings), farmer surveys and diary data; and discuss our key conclusions based on our approach and the analysis of the collected data which was enabled by use of a commercially available comprehensive agricultural data collection software.

  8. Major variations in malaria exposure of travellers in rural areas: an entomological cohort study in western Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Rogier, Christophe; Koffi, Bernard; Jarjaval, Fanny; Bell, Melissa; Machault, Vanessa; Pons, Christophe; Girod, Romain; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Pagès, Frédéric

    2009-07-28

    Malaria remains a major threat, to both travellers and military personnel deployed to endemic areas. The recommendations for travellers given by the World Health Organization is based on the incidence of malaria in an area and do not take the degree of exposure into account. The aim of this article is to evaluate the exposure of travellers by entomologic methods, which are the commonly used measures of the intensity of malaria transmission. From February 2004 to June 2004, five groups of 30 military personnel were stationed in up to 10 sites in western Côte d'Ivoire, from one week to several months. Adult mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches at each site during the five months and the level of exposure to malaria transmission of each group was estimated. The level of transmission varied from one site to another one from less than one to approximately more than 100 infective bites per month. In the majority of sites, at least two anopheline species were involved in transmission. The cumulative EIR over the study period varied according to the groups from 29 infected bites per person/per mission to 324. The level of malaria transmission and malaria risk varies widely (varying by a factor of eleven) between groups of travellers travelling in the same region and at the same time. Physicians involved in travel medicine or supporting expatriated populations or refugees should consider this heterogeneity and emphasize the importance of combining appropriate measures, such as chemoprophylaxis and protective measures against mosquitoes.

  9. Correlation of maternal age, gravida status, major malformations, stillbirth and sex ratio in high level natural radiation areas of Kerala coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheer, K.R.; Koya, P.K.M.; Jaikrishan, G.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the ongoing study on biological and health effects of chronic low dose and/or dose rate on human population, consecutive births were monitored in selected Govt. hospitals located in normal and high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA) of Kerala coast. This area is unique because of its vast population size and varied range of background radiation level due to natural deposit of monazite containing thorium. The objective is to elucidate the role of chronic low dose radiation, if any, on the adverse pregnancy outcome. Since 1995, ∼1,70,000 newborns were monitored in this area, of which 74,238 singleton first births were monitored. Of these, 634 (0.85%) cases were observed with detectable major congenital malformations (that include serious structural, functional or cosmetic disability requiring surgical or medical management) and 240 (0.32%) cases were stillborn. Sex ratio at first birth was observed in the ratio of 1050 males to 1000 females. The distribution of age at marriage of the mothers was stratified into the following groups: d"18 years (15.5%), 19 20 years (25.9%), 21 22 years (25.6%), 23 24 years (17.2%) and >25 years (15.8%). It was observed that about 78.9% mothers had their first birth within one year of marriage, 13.7% had their first birth within 1.1 2 years and 5.2% within 2.1 4 years. About 2.2% (1613) mothers had their first child after 4 years or more. Individual, combined and interactive effects of age at marriage, first birth interval (first gravida status), background radiation levels and gender of the newborn on major congenital malformation and stillbirth will be discussed. (author)

  10. Using geographic distribution of well-screen depths and hydrogeologic conditions to identify areas of concern for contaminant migration through inactive supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailey, Robert M.

    2018-02-01

    Contaminant migration through inactive supply wells can negatively affect groundwater quality and the combined effects from groups of such wells may cause greater impacts. Because the number of wells in many basins is often large and the geographic areas involved can be vast, approaches are needed to estimate potential impacts and focus limited resources for investigation and corrective measures on the most important areas. One possibility is to evaluate the geographic distribution of well-screen depths relative to hydrogeologic conditions and assess where contaminant migration through wells may be impacting groundwater quality. This approach is demonstrated for a geographically extensive area in the southern Central Valley of California, USA. The conditions that lead to wells acting as conduits for contaminant migration are evaluated and areas where the problem likely occurs are identified. Although only a small fraction of all wells appear to act as conduits, potential impacts may be significant considering needs to control nonpoint-source pollution and improve drinking water quality for rural residents. Addressing a limited number of areas where contaminant migration rates are expected to be high may cost-effectively accomplish the most beneficial groundwater quality protection and improvement. While this work focuses on a specific region, the results indicate that impacts from groups of wells may occur in other areas with similar conditions. Analyses similar to that demonstrated here may guide efficient investigation and corrective action in such areas with benefits occurring for groundwater quality. Potential benefits may justify expenditures to develop the necessary data for performing the analyses.

  11. Major variations in malaria exposure of travellers in rural areas: an entomological cohort study in western Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagès Frédéric

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major threat, to both travellers and military personnel deployed to endemic areas. The recommendations for travellers given by the World Health Organization is based on the incidence of malaria in an area and do not take the degree of exposure into account. The aim of this article is to evaluate the exposure of travellers by entomologic methods, which are the commonly used measures of the intensity of malaria transmission. Methods From February 2004 to June 2004, five groups of 30 military personnel were stationed in up to 10 sites in western Côte d'Ivoire, from one week to several months. Adult mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches at each site during the five months and the level of exposure to malaria transmission of each group was estimated. Results The level of transmission varied from one site to another one from less than one to approximately more than 100 infective bites per month. In the majority of sites, at least two anopheline species were involved in transmission. The cumulative EIR over the study period varied according to the groups from 29 infected bites per person/per mission to 324. Conclusion The level of malaria transmission and malaria risk varies widely (varying by a factor of eleven between groups of travellers travelling in the same region and at the same time. Physicians involved in travel medicine or supporting expatriated populations or refugees should consider this heterogeneity and emphasize the importance of combining appropriate measures, such as chemoprophylaxis and protective measures against mosquitoes.

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Discussion about the use of the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) as criteria to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecloux, André J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU regulation, a material containing particles is considered as nano if, for 50 % or more of the particles in the number size distribution, one or more external dimensions is in the size range 1–100 nm. Due to the difficulty to measure in a reliable way the number particle size distribution, it is suggested to use the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) >60 m 2 /cm 3 as simple screening criterion to identify nanomaterials. This threshold corresponds to monodispersed spherical particles with a size of 100 nm. In this paper, a theoretical study is carried out to identify the effect of the particle shape, polydispersity, agglomeration and aggregation on the VSSA threshold. It appears that the VSSA approach is overprotective because a lot of samples are identified as nanomaterials even if less than 50 % of the particles have a size lower than 100 nm, this 50 % in number criterion being the main identification criterion in the EU definition. Even if the VSSA is leading to many false positive results, it can be used to identify non-nanomaterials as soon as its value is lower than the threshold at the condition to take into account the shape of the particles and their external surface area. This conclusion is true for monomodal distributions of particles but is subject to some restrictions for bimodal distributions

  14. Discussion about the use of the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) as criteria to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecloux, André J., E-mail: alecloux@nanocyl.com, E-mail: envicat@skynet.be [ENVICAT Consulting (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    In the EU regulation, a material containing particles is considered as nano if, for 50 % or more of the particles in the number size distribution, one or more external dimensions is in the size range 1–100 nm. Due to the difficulty to measure in a reliable way the number particle size distribution, it is suggested to use the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) >60 m{sup 2}/cm{sup 3} as simple screening criterion to identify nanomaterials. This threshold corresponds to monodispersed spherical particles with a size of 100 nm. In this paper, a theoretical study is carried out to identify the effect of the particle shape, polydispersity, agglomeration and aggregation on the VSSA threshold. It appears that the VSSA approach is overprotective because a lot of samples are identified as nanomaterials even if less than 50 % of the particles have a size lower than 100 nm, this 50 % in number criterion being the main identification criterion in the EU definition. Even if the VSSA is leading to many false positive results, it can be used to identify non-nanomaterials as soon as its value is lower than the threshold at the condition to take into account the shape of the particles and their external surface area. This conclusion is true for monomodal distributions of particles but is subject to some restrictions for bimodal distributions.

  15. Huerta del Rey: Edafic Characterization of a Historic Area of the Mercury Mining and Study of the Transfer of Mercury from the Soil to Plantago Major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Manero, L.; Sierra, M. J.; Rodriguez-Alonso, M.; Millan, R.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this scientific-technical report is to carry out a characterization of study plot called Huerta del Rey in the mercury (Hg) mining district of Almaden. For this goal, an edaphic characterization has been performed and the Hg behavior in the soil study has been evaluated. Then, total Hg concentration and easily available Hg for plants have been determined and the absorption and distribution of Hg in Plantago major L (typical specie from the study area) have been studied. The results showed that the total Hg concentrations in the soil ranged from 530 ± 32 mg kg - 1 to 4300 ± 339 mg kg - 1 even to 12378 ± 1051mg kg - 1. It is in accordance with the normal values measured in a Hg mining area. Otherwise, the percentage of soluble Hg in soil with respect to the total Hg concentration is low ( - 1 that could mean a potential risk of pollution of groundwater by leaching process. Finally a brief description about different technologies for decreasing Hg concentration in the study soil, including phytoremediation, has been performed. (Author) 96 refs.

  16. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of tap water reveal structure of the San Francisco Bay Area's water system and adjustments during a major drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Brett J; Jameel, Yusuf; Chau, Thuan H; Mancuso, Christy J; Bowen, Gabriel J; Dufour, Alexis; Chesson, Lesley A; Ehleringer, James R

    2017-08-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. Water demands and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between urban centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources. To assess if stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios could increase the understanding of these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters across the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns spanning 21 months during 2013-2015. The San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-characterized water management strategies and the 2012-2105 California Drought dramatically affected its water resources. Consistent with known water management strategies and previously collected isotope data, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap waters within the Bay Area. This is indicative of complex water transport systems and varying municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of the isotope data collected in this study grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Various management responses to the drought, such as

  17. Beyond imperviousness: A statistical approach to identifying functional differences between development morphologies on variable source area-type response in urbanized watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence has shown linkages between urbanization, hydrological regime change, and degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat. Percent imperviousness, has long been suggested as the dominant source of these negative changes. However, recent research identifying alternative pathways of runoff production at the watershed scale have called into question percent impervious surface area's primacy in urban runoff production compared to other aspects of urbanization including change in vegetative cover, imported water and water leakages, and the presence of drainage infrastructure. In this research I show how a robust statistical methodology can detect evidence of variable source area (VSA)-type hydrologic response associated with incremental hydraulic connectivity in watersheds. I then use logistic regression to explore how evidence of VSA-type response relates to the physical and meterological characteristics of the watershed. I find that impervious surface area is highly correlated with development, but does not add significant explanatory power beyond percent developed in predicting VSA-type response. Other aspects of development morphology, including percent developed open space and type of drainage infrastructure also do not add to the explanatory power of undeveloped land in predicting VSA-type response. Within only developed areas, the effect of developed open space was found to be more similar to that of total impervious area than to undeveloped land. These findings were consistent when tested across a national cross-section of urbanized watersheds, a higher resolution dataset of Baltimore Metropolitan Area watersheds, and a subsample of watersheds confirmed not to be served by combined sewer systems. These findings suggest that land development policies that focus on lot coverage should be revisited, and more focus should be placed on preserving native vegetation and soil conditions alongside development.

  18. The availability of hydrogeologic data associated with areas identified by the US Geological Survey as experiencing potentially induced seismicity resulting from subsurface injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Caitlin; Halihan, Todd

    2018-05-01

    A critical need exists for site-specific hydrogeologic data in order to determine potential hazards of induced seismicity and to manage risk. By 2015, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) had identified 17 locations in the USA that are experiencing an increase in seismicity, which may be potentially induced through industrial subsurface injection. These locations span across seven states, which vary in geological setting, industrial exposure and seismic history. Comparing the research across the 17 locations revealed patterns for addressing induced seismicity concerns, despite the differences between geographical locations. Most induced seismicity studies evaluate geologic structure and seismic data from areas experiencing changes in seismic activity levels, but the inherent triggering mechanism is the transmission of hydraulic pressure pulses. This research conducted a systematic review of whether data are available in these locations to generate accurate hydrogeologic predictions, which could aid in managing seismicity. After analyzing peer-reviewed research within the 17 locations, this research confirms a lack of site-specific hydrogeologic data availability for at-risk areas. Commonly, formation geology data are available for these sites, but hydraulic parameters for the seismically active injection and basement zones are not available to researchers conducting peer-reviewed research. Obtaining hydrogeologic data would lead to better risk management for injection areas and provide additional scientific evidential support for determining a potentially induced seismic area.

  19. Feedlot- and Pen-Level Prevalence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Feces of Commercial Feedlot Cattle in Two Major U.S. Cattle Feeding Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Charley A; Renter, David G; Dewsbury, Diana M; Noll, Lance W; Shridhar, Pragathi B; Ives, Samuel E; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Cernicchiaro, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine feedlot- and pen-level fecal prevalence of seven enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) belonging to serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157, or EHEC-7) in feces of feedlot cattle in two feeding areas in the United States. Cattle pens from four commercial feedlots in each of the two major U.S. beef cattle areas were sampled. Up to 16 pen-floor fecal samples were collected from each of 4-6 pens per feedlot, monthly, for a total of three visits per feedlot, from June to August, 2014. Culture procedures including fecal enrichment in E. coli broth, immunomagnetic separation, and plating on selective media, followed by confirmation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, were conducted. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to estimate feedlot-, pen-, and sample-level fecal prevalence of EHEC-7 and to evaluate associations between potential demographic and management risk factors with feedlot and within-pen prevalence of EHEC-7. All study feedlots and 31.0% of the study pens had at least one non-O157 EHEC-positive fecal sample, whereas 62.4% of pens tested positive for EHEC O157; sample-level prevalence estimates ranged from 0.0% for EHEC O121 to 18.7% for EHEC O157. Within-pen prevalence of EHEC O157 varied significantly by sampling month; similarly within-pen prevalence of non-O157 EHEC varied significantly by month and by the sex composition of the pen (heifer, steer, or mixed). Feedlot management factors, however, were not significantly associated with fecal prevalence of EHEC-7. Intraclass correlation coefficients for EHEC-7 models indicated that most of the variation occurred between pens, rather than within pens, or between feedlots. Hence, the potential combination of preharvest interventions and pen-level management strategies may have positive food safety impacts downstream along the beef chain.

  20. Use of a geographic information system to identify differences in automated external defibrillator installation in urban areas with similar incidence of public out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, David; Haas, Jan; Ban, Yifang; Jonsson, Martin; Svensson, Leif; Djarv, Therese; Hollenberg, Jacob; Nordberg, Per; Ringh, Mattias; Claesson, Andreas

    2017-06-02

    Early defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is of importance to improve survival. In many countries the number of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is increasing, but the use is low. Guidelines suggest that AEDs should be installed in densely populated areas and in locations with many visitors. Attempts have been made to identify optimal AED locations based on the incidence of OHCA using geographical information systems (GIS), but often on small datasets and the studies are seldom reproduced. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the distribution of public AEDs follows the incident locations of public OHCAs in urban areas of Stockholm County, Sweden. OHCA data were obtained from the Swedish Register for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and AED data were obtained from the Swedish AED Register. Urban areas in Stockholm County were objectively classified according to the pan-European digital mapping tool, Urban Atlas (UA). Furthermore, we reclassified and divided the UA land cover data into three classes (residential, non-residential and other areas). GIS software was used to spatially join and relate public AED and OHCA data and perform computations on relations and distance. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014 a total of 804 OHCAs occurred in public locations in Stockholm County and by December 2013 there were 1828 AEDs available. The incidence of public OHCAs was similar in residential (47.3%) and non-residential areas (43.4%). Fewer AEDs were present in residential areas than in non-residential areas (29.4% vs 68.8%). In residential areas the median distance between OHCAs and AEDs was significantly greater than in non-residential areas (288 m vs 188 m, p<0.001). The majority of public OHCAs occurred in areas classified in UA as 'residential areas' with limited AED accessibility. These areas need to be targeted for AED installation and international guidelines need to take geographical location into account when suggesting

  1. [Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

    2014-02-01

    According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes.

  2. Environmental factors associated with larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in irrigation and major drainage areas in the middle course of the Rift Valley, central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenea, Oljira; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2011-06-01

    Larval control is an integral part of malaria vector management in Ethiopia and elsewhere. For effective larval control, a sound understanding of the factors responsible for spatio-temporal variation in larval production is essential. A study was thus conducted to characterize larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in irrigation and major drainage areas between Adami Tulu and Meki towns, in the middle course of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Aquatic habitats were sampled for anopheline larvae and the associated environmental variables (water temperature, turbidity, water current, water pH and other variables) were measured, characterized and analyzed. Microscopic identification of the late instars (III and IV) of anopheline larvae collected throughout the study period yielded nearly 47.6% Anopheles pharoensis, 32.1% An. arabiensis, 17.1% An. squamosus and only 3.2% of other species (An. coustani and An. cinereus). Larvae of the local malaria vectors, An. arabiensis and An. pharoensis were most abundantly sampled from sand pools and natural swamps, respectively. Logistic regression analysis detected four best predictor variables associated with larval abundance of malaria vector species. Thus, relative abundance of An. arabiensis larvae was significantly and inversely associated with aquatic vegetation and water current, whereas the relative abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly and positively associated with water temperature and the presence of algae in the water bodies. Dry season anopheline larval habitats such as riverine sand pools that are created and maintained by perennial water bodies and their associated water development projects need to be considered in vector control operations.

  3. Discussion about the use of the volume specific surface area (VSSA) as a criterion to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition. Part two: experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecloux, André J; Atluri, Rambabu; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Deepak, Francis Leonard

    2017-10-12

    The first part of this study was dedicated to the modelling of the influence of particle shape, porosity and particle size distribution on the volume specific surface area (VSSA) values in order to check the applicability of this concept to the identification of nanomaterials according to the European Commission Recommendation. In this second part, experimental VSSA values are obtained for various samples from nitrogen adsorption isotherms and these values were used as a screening tool to identify and classify nanomaterials. These identification results are compared to the identification based on the 50% of particles with a size below 100 nm criterion applied to the experimental particle size distributions obtained by analysis of electron microscopy images on the same materials. It is concluded that the experimental VSSA values are able to identify nanomaterials, without false negative identification, if they have a mono-modal particle size, if the adsorption data cover the relative pressure range from 0.001 to 0.65 and if a simple, qualitative image of the particles by transmission or scanning electron microscopy is available to define their shape. The experimental conditions to obtain reliable adsorption data as well as the way to analyze the adsorption isotherms are described and discussed in some detail in order to help the reader in using the experimental VSSA criterion. To obtain the experimental VSSA values, the BET surface area can be used for non-porous particles, but for porous, nanostructured or coated nanoparticles, only the external surface of the particles, obtained by a modified t-plot approach, should be considered to determine the experimental VSSA and to avoid false positive identification of nanomaterials, only the external surface area being related to the particle size. Finally, the availability of experimental VSSA values together with particle size distributions obtained by electron microscopy gave the opportunity to check the

  4. National assessment of Canadian pandemic preparedness: Employing InFluNet to identify high-risk areas for inter-wave vaccine distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Saunders-Hastings

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza pandemics emerge at irregular and unpredictable intervals to cause substantial health, economic and social burdens. Optimizing health-system response is vital to mitigating the consequences of future pandemics. Methods: We developed a mathematical model to assess the preparedness of Canadian health systems to accommodate pandemic-related increases in patient demand. We identify vulnerable areas, assess the potential of inter-wave vaccination to mitigate impacts and evaluate the association between demographic and health-system characteristics in order to identify predictors of pandemic consequences. Results: Modelled average attack rates were 23.7–37.2% with no intervention and 2.5–6.4% with pre-vaccination. Peak acute-care demand was 7.5–19.5% of capacity with no intervention and 0.6–2.6% with pre-vaccination. The peak ICU demand was 39.3–101.8% with no intervention and 2.9–13.3% with pre-vaccination. Total mortality was 2258–7944 with no intervention and 88–472 with pre-vaccination. Regions of Southern Ontario were identified as most vulnerable to surges in patient demand. The strongest predictors of peak acute-care demand and ICU demand were acute-care bed capacity (R = −0.8697; r2 = 0.7564 and ICU bed capacity (R = −0.8151; r2 = 0.6644, respectively. Demographic characteristics had mild associations with predicted pandemic consequences. Conclusion: Inter-wave vaccination provided adequate acute-care resource protection under all scenarios; ICU resource adequacy was protected under mild disease assumptions, but moderate and severe diseases caused demand to exceed expected availability in 21% and 49% of study areas, respectively. Our study informs priority vaccine distribution strategies for pandemic planning, emphasizing the need for targeted early vaccine distribution to high-risk individuals and areas. Keywords: Pandemic influenza, Vaccination

  5. The cutoff values of visceral fat area and waist circumference for identifying subjects at risk for metabolic syndrome in elderly Korean: Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Young

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Korea, the cutoff values of waist circumference (WC for the identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS were suggested to be 90 cm for men and 85 cm for women based on the analysis mainly in middle-aged adults. As aging is associated with increased fat, especially abdominal visceral fat, the cutoff value of WC may differ according to age. In addition, the usefulness of visceral abdominal fat area (VFA to predict MetS in the elderly has not been studied yet. We aimed to suggest WC and VFA criteria and to compare the predictability of WC and VFA to identify people at risk for MetS. Methods A total of 689 elderly subjects aged ≥63 years (308 men, 381 women were chosen in this cross-sectional study from an ongoing, prospective, population-based study, the Ansan Geriatric (AGE cohort study. VFA was measured by single slice abdominal computed tomography scanning. The metabolic risk factors except WC (plasma glucose, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels were defined using modified NCEP-ATP III criteria. We estimated the accuracy of VFA and WC for identifying at least two of these factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results Two hundred three of 308 men and 280 of 381 women had ≥2 metabolic risk factors. The area under the ROC curve (AUC value for VFA to predict the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors was not significantly different from that for WC (men, 0.735 and 0.750; women, 0.715 and 0.682; AUC values for VFA and WC, respectively. The optimal cutoff points for VFA and WC for predicting the presence of ≥2 metabolic risk factors were 92.6 cm2 and 86.5 cm for men and 88.9 cm2 and 86.5 cm for women. Conclusion WC had comparable power with VFA to identify elderly people who are at risk for MetS. Elderly Korean men and women had very similar cutoff points for both VFA and WC measurements for estimating the risk of MetS. Age-specific cutoff point for WC might be

  6. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  7. Identifying the tundra-forest border in the stomate record: an analysis of lake surface samples from the Yellowknife area, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, B.C.S. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Limnological Research Center; MacDonald, G.M. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Botanical Sciences; Moser, K.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    The relationship between conifer stomata and existing vegetation across tundra, forest-tundra, and closed zones in the Yellowknife area of the Northwest Territories was studied. Conifer stomata were identified in surface samples from lakes in the treeline zone, but were absent in samples from tundra lakes. Stomate analysis was recorded and the results were presented in a concentration diagram plotting stomate concentrations according to vegetation zone. Conifer stomate analysis was not able to resolve differences between forest-tundra and closed forest. Nevertheless, it was suggested that stomate analysis will become an important technique supplementing pollen analysis for reconstructing past tree-line changes since the presence of stomata in lakes make it possible to separate the tundra from forest-tundra and closed forest. The limited dispersal of conifer stomata permitted a better resolution of tree-line boundaries than did pollen. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The lost pedestrian: Identifying determinant factors of no-pedestrian phenomenon in the area of Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, Banda Aceh, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The area of Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh has a deep meaning for people of Aceh because it is a historical site, which has many historical heritages. Recently, it is rarely seen people walk along the corridor of the town. People always drive to move along the road and stop right on their destination. Some are still walking, but only for 20-30 meter. On the other hand, a number of the vehicle significantly increase followed by the needs of parking space. The intensity of the traffic is high in day time; in the morning, at noon, and in the late afternoon. The research will be conducted using qualitative and quantitative methods; investigating the change of the environment caused by development, disaster, and conflict, interviewing government as the decision maker and public figure, questionnaires, and finding information from official documents and literature. It is necessary to identify the determinant factors of no-pedestrian phenomenon in the area of Banda Aceh because it is expected to create atmosphere, which encourage people to walk along the city center, revive walking habits to urban community, and strengthen the role of city center as a center of activities; praying, shopping, and engaging in recreation and leisure.

  9. Predicting survival function and identifying associated factors in patients with renal insufficiency in the metropolitan area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, Thiago G; Nakamura, Luiz R; Righetto, Ana J; Ortega, Edwin M M; Cordeiro, Gauss M

    2018-02-05

    Renal insufficiency is a serious medical and public health problem worldwide. Recently, although many surveys have been developed to identify factors related to the lifetime of patients with renal insufficiency, controversial results from several studies suggest that researches should be conducted by region. Thus, in this study we aim to predict and identify factors associated with the lifetime of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) in the metropolitan area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, based on the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) framework. Data used in this study were collected from the Maringá Kidney Institute and comprehends 177 patients (classified with CRF and mostly being treated under the Brazilian Unified National Health System) enrolled in a hemodialysis program from 1978 up to 2010. By using this approach, we concluded that in other regions, gender, kidney transplant indicator, antibodies to hepatitis B and antibodies to hepatitis C are significant factors that affect the expected lifetime.

  10. Predicting survival function and identifying associated factors in patients with renal insufficiency in the metropolitan area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago G. Ramires

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Renal insufficiency is a serious medical and public health problem worldwide. Recently, although many surveys have been developed to identify factors related to the lifetime of patients with renal insufficiency, controversial results from several studies suggest that researches should be conducted by region. Thus, in this study we aim to predict and identify factors associated with the lifetime of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF in the metropolitan area of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, based on the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS framework. Data used in this study were collected from the Maringá Kidney Institute and comprehends 177 patients (classified with CRF and mostly being treated under the Brazilian Unified National Health System enrolled in a hemodialysis program from 1978 up to 2010. By using this approach, we concluded that in other regions, gender, kidney transplant indicator, antibodies to hepatitis B and antibodies to hepatitis C are significant factors that affect the expected lifetime.

  11. Characterizing Cropland Phenology in Major Grain Production Areas of Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan by the Synergistic Use of Passive Microwave and Visible to Near Infrared Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woubet G. Alemu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the synergistic use of surface air temperature retrieved from AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on Earth observing satellite and two vegetation indices (VIs from the shorter wavelengths of MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer to characterize cropland phenology in the major grain production areas of Northern Eurasia from 2003–2010. We selected 49 AMSR-E pixels across Ukraine, Russia, and Kazakhstan, based on MODIS land cover percentage data. AMSR-E air temperature growing degree-days (GDD captures the weekly, monthly, and seasonal oscillations, and well correlated with station GDD. A convex quadratic (CxQ model that linked thermal time measured as growing degree-days to accumulated growing degree-days (AGDD was fitted to each pixel’s time series yielding high coefficients of determination (0.88 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.98. Deviations of observed GDD from the CxQ model predicted GDD by site corresponded to peak VI for negative residuals (period of higher latent heat flux and low VI at beginning and end of growing season for positive residuals (periods of higher sensible heat flux. Modeled thermal time to peak, i.e., AGDD at peak GDD, showed a strong inverse linear trend with respect to latitude with r2 of 0.92 for Russia and Kazakhstan and 0.81 for Ukraine. MODIS VIs tracked similar seasonal responses in time and space and were highly correlated across the growing season with r2 > 0.95. Sites at lower latitude (≤49°N that grow winter and spring grains showed either a bimodal growing season or a shorter unimodal winter growing season with substantial inter-annual variability, whereas sites at higher latitude (≥56°N where spring grains are cultivated exhibited shorter, unimodal growing seasons. Sites between these extremes exhibited longer unimodal growing seasons. At some sites there were shifts between unimodal and bimodal patterns over the study period. Regional heat waves that devastated grain production

  12. Identifying seawater intrusion in coastal areas by means of 1D and quasi-2D joint inversion of TDEM and VES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Bernardo, I.; Farzamian, M.; Nascimento, C.; Fernandes, J.; Casal, B.; Ribeiro, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Seawater intrusion is an increasingly widespread problem in coastal aquifers caused by climate changes -sea-level rise, extreme phenomena like flooding and droughts- and groundwater depletion near to the coastline. To evaluate and mitigate the environmental risks of this phenomenon it is necessary to characterize the coastal aquifer and the salt intrusion. Geophysical methods are the most appropriate tool to address these researches. Among all geophysical techniques, electrical methods are able to detect seawater intrusions due to the high resistivity contrast between saltwater, freshwater and geological layers. The combination of two or more geophysical methods is recommended and they are more efficient when both data are inverted jointly because the final model encompasses the physical properties measured for each methods. In this investigation, joint inversion of vertical electric and time domain soundings has been performed to examine seawater intrusion in an area within the Ferragudo-Albufeira aquifer system (Algarve, South of Portugal). For this purpose two profiles combining electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) methods were measured and the results were compared with the information obtained from exploration drilling. Three different inversions have been carried out: single inversion of the ERT and TDEM data, 1D joint inversion and quasi-2D joint inversion. Single inversion results identify seawater intrusion, although the sedimentary layers detected in exploration drilling were not well differentiated. The models obtained with 1D joint inversion improve the previous inversion due to better detection of sedimentary layer and the seawater intrusion appear to be better defined. Finally, the quasi-2D joint inversion reveals a more realistic shape of the seawater intrusion and it is able to distinguish more sedimentary layers recognised in the exploration drilling. This study demonstrates that the quasi-2D joint

  13. Using areas of known occupancy to identify sources of variation in detection probability of raptors: taking time lowers replication effort for surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murn, Campbell; Holloway, Graham J

    2016-10-01

    Species occurring at low density can be difficult to detect and if not properly accounted for, imperfect detection will lead to inaccurate estimates of occupancy. Understanding sources of variation in detection probability and how they can be managed is a key part of monitoring. We used sightings data of a low-density and elusive raptor (white-headed vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis ) in areas of known occupancy (breeding territories) in a likelihood-based modelling approach to calculate detection probability and the factors affecting it. Because occupancy was known a priori to be 100%, we fixed the model occupancy parameter to 1.0 and focused on identifying sources of variation in detection probability. Using detection histories from 359 territory visits, we assessed nine covariates in 29 candidate models. The model with the highest support indicated that observer speed during a survey, combined with temporal covariates such as time of year and length of time within a territory, had the highest influence on the detection probability. Averaged detection probability was 0.207 (s.e. 0.033) and based on this the mean number of visits required to determine within 95% confidence that white-headed vultures are absent from a breeding area is 13 (95% CI: 9-20). Topographical and habitat covariates contributed little to the best models and had little effect on detection probability. We highlight that low detection probabilities of some species means that emphasizing habitat covariates could lead to spurious results in occupancy models that do not also incorporate temporal components. While variation in detection probability is complex and influenced by effects at both temporal and spatial scales, temporal covariates can and should be controlled as part of robust survey methods. Our results emphasize the importance of accounting for detection probability in occupancy studies, particularly during presence/absence studies for species such as raptors that are widespread and

  14. Rivers and flooded areas identified by medium-resolution remote sensing improve risk prediction of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerapong Thanapongtharm

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thailand experienced several epidemic waves of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 between 2004 and 2005. This study investigated the role of water in the landscape, which has not been previously assessed because of a lack of high-resolution information on the distribution of flooded land at the time of the epidemic. Nine Landsat 7- Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus scenes covering 174,610 km2 were processed using k-means unsupervised classification to map the distribution of flooded areas as well as permanent lakes and reservoirs at the time of the main epidemic HPAI H5N1 wave of October 2004. These variables, together with other factors previously identified as significantly associated with risk, were entered into an autologistic regression model in order to quantify the gain in risk explanation over previously published models. We found that, in addition to other factors previously identified as associated with risk, the proportion of land covered by flooding along with expansion of rivers and streams, derived from an existing, sub-district level (administrative level no. 3 geographical information system database, was a highly significant risk factor in this 2004 HPAI epidemic. These results suggest that water-borne transmission could have partly contributed to the spread of HPAI H5N1 during the epidemic. Future work stemming from these results should involve studies where the actual distribution of small canals, rivers, ponds, rice paddy fields and farms are mapped and tested against farm-level data with respect to HPAI H5N1.

  15. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heejung [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Kaown, Dugin, E-mail: dugin1@snu.ac.kr [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary T2N 1N4, Alberta (Canada); Lee, Jin-Yong [Department of Geology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200–701 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Yunjung [Planning and Management Group, Korea Environment Institute, Sejong 339-007 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Kun [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK21 SEES), Seoul National University, Seoul 151–747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    } and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use. - Highlights: • Dual isotope analyses identified contaminant sources. • Aquifer contamination was affected by land use. • Microbial community in groundwater reflects land use. • Approach is promising for managing water quality in agricultural areas.

  16. Identifying the sources of nitrate contamination of groundwater in an agricultural area (Haean basin, Korea) using isotope and microbial community analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heejung; Kaown, Dugin; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Jin-Yong; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-01-01

    An integrated study based on hydrogeochemical, microbiological and dual isotopic approaches for nitrate and sulfate was conducted to elucidate sources and biogeochemical reactions governing groundwater contaminants in different seasons and under different land use in a basin of Korea. The land use in the study area is comprised of forests (58.0%), vegetable fields (27.6%), rice paddy fields (11.4%) and others (3.0%). The concentrations of NO 3 –N and SO 4 2− in groundwater in vegetable fields were highest with 4.2–15.2 mg L −1 and 1.6–19.7 mg L −1 respectively, whereas under paddy fields NO 3 –N concentrations ranged from 0 to 10.7 mg L −1 and sulfate concentrations were ~ 15 mg L −1 . Groundwater with high NO 3 –N concentrations of > 10 mg L −1 had δ 15 N–NO 3 − values ranging from 5.2 to 5.9‰ and δ 18 O values of nitrate between 2.7 and 4.6‰ suggesting that the nitrate was mineralized from soil organic matter that was amended by fertilizer additions. Elevated concentrations of SO 4 2− with δ 34 S–SO 4 2− values between 1 and 6‰ in aquifers in vegetable fields indicated that a mixture of sulfate from atmospheric deposition, mineralization of soil organic matter and from synthetic fertilizers is the source of groundwater sulfate. Elevated δ 18 O–NO 3 − and δ 18 O–SO 4 2− values in samples collected from the paddy fields indicated that denitrification and bacterial sulfate reduction are actively occurring removing sulfate and nitrate from the groundwater. This was supported by high occurrences of denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria in groundwater of the paddy fields as evidenced by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing analysis. This study shows that dual isotope techniques combined with microbial data can be a powerful tool for identification of sources and microbial processes affecting NO 3 − and SO 4 2− in groundwater in areas with intensive agricultural land use. - Highlights: • Dual isotope analyses identified

  17. THE METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING THE MOST VULNERABLE AREAS CAUSED BY EXOGENOUS PROCESSES UNDER ARIDIFICATION/HUMIDIFICATION (BASED ON GIS AND RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Chupina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of identifying the most vulnerable territories under exogenous processes caused by aridification/humidification. It is based on the assumption that some forms and types of relief increase resistance of terrestrial ecosystems to external influences, while other kinds of relief make them vulnerable. The relationship between landscape and moistening (ground and climatic is of great importance to plains which have groundwater close to the surface. We have used morphometric analysis to divide the territory into hydromorphic and automorphic landscapes. Hydromorphic territories are those that are affected by additional surface moistening and groundwater, while automorphic landscapes are less dependent on groundwater under normal atmospheric moisture. The territory is ranked according to the degree of vulnerability by expert evaluation method. The developed approach is based entirely on using GIS software (ArcGIS 10.2.1 and processing the DEM SRTM. As a result, two models of vulnerability of natural terrestrial ecosystems to exogenic processes on Baraba Plain (Western Siberia have been created for both aridification and humidification cases. The opportunity to estimate the vulnerability is the novel feature for these models of terrestrial ecosystems, in both regional and local scales. The results obtained confirm the existing ideas about the discrete mosaic character of changes in spatial landscape patterns in the area under consideration. For the southern part of Western Siberia where farming is risky the assessment of the potential degree of vulnerability for ecosystems under conditions of increasing climate aridity and extremes is relevant.

  18. Extending the baseline of tropical dry forest loss in Ghana (1984–2015) reveals drivers of major deforestation inside a protected area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Thomas A.J.; Ametsitsi, George K.D.; Collins, Murray; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Oliveras, Imma; Mitchard, Edward T.A.; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2018-01-01

    Tropical dry forests experience the highest deforestation rates on Earth, with major implications for the biodiversity of these ecosystems, as well as for its human occupants. Global remote sensing based forest cover data (2000 − 2012) point to the rapid loss of tropical dry forest in South America

  19. Extending the baseline of tropical dry forest loss in Ghana (1984–2015) reveals drivers of major deforestation inside a protected area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Thomas A.J.; Ametsitsi, George K.D.; Collins, Murray; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Oliveras, Imma; Mitchard, Edward T.A.; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Tropical dry forests experience the highest deforestation rates on Earth, with major implications for the biodiversity of these ecosystems, as well as for its human occupants. Global remote sensing based forest cover data (2000 − 2012) point to the rapid loss of tropical dry forest in South

  20. An Exploratory Investigation of the Relationship between Turnover Intentions, Work Exhaustion and Disengagement among IT Professionals in a Single Institution of Higher Education in a Major Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Valerie F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that turnover is a major issue in IT environments (Armstrong & Riemenschneider, 2011; Carayon, Schoepke, Hoonakker, Haims, & Brunette, 2006; Moore, 2000a; Rigas, 2009). In fact, the research literature in IT and the popular press suggest that IT professionals are particularly vulnerable to burnout (Armstrong &…

  1. High FDG uptake areas on pre-radiotherapy PET/CT identify preferential sites of local relapse after chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calais, Jeremie; Lemarignier, Charles; Vera, Pierre [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Dubray, Bernard [University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Rouen (France); Nkhali, Lamyaa; Thureau, Sebastien; Modzelewski, Romain; Gardin, Isabelle [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Rouen (France); Di Fiore, Frederic [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Henri Becquerel Cancer Center, IRON, Rouen (France); Michel, Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France)

    2015-05-01

    The high failure rates in the radiotherapy (RT) target volume suggest that patients with locally advanced oesophageal cancer (LAOC) would benefit from increased total RT doses. High 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake (hotspot) on pre-RT FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has been reported to identify intra-tumour sites at increased risk of relapse after RT in non-small cell lung cancer and in rectal cancer. Our aim was to confirm these observations in patients with LAOC and to determine the optimal maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) threshold to delineate smaller RT target volumes that would facilitate RT dose escalation without impaired tolerance. The study included 98 consecutive patients with LAOC treated by chemoradiotherapy (CRT). All patients underwent FDG PET/CT at initial staging and during systematic follow-up in a single institution. FDG PET/CT acquisitions were coregistered on the initial CT scan. Various subvolumes within the initial tumour (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 % SUV{sub max} thresholds) and in the subsequent local recurrence (LR, 40 and 90 % SUV{sub max} thresholds) were pasted on the initial CT scan and compared[Dice, Jaccard, overlap fraction (OF), common volume/baseline volume, common volume/recurrent volume]. Thirty-five patients had LR. The initial metabolic tumour volume was significantly higher in LR tumours than in the locally controlled tumours (mean 25.4 vs 14.2 cc; p = 0.002). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT with a 30-60 % SUV{sub max} threshold were in good agreement with the recurrent volume at 40 % SUV{sub max} (OF = 0.60-0.80). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT with a 30-60 % SUV{sub max} threshold were in good to excellent agreement with the core volume (90 % SUV{sub max}) of the relapse (common volume/recurrent volume and OF indices 0.61-0.89). High FDG uptake on pretreatment PET/CT identifies tumour subvolumes that are at greater risk of recurrence after CRT in

  2. Identifying the Infection Control Areas Requiring Modifications in Thoracic Surgery Units: Results of a Two-Year Surveillance of Surgical Site Infections in Hospitals in Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Grzegorz; Rogoziński, Paweł; Żaloudik, Elżbieta; Bruliński, Krzysztof; Różańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga

    2017-10-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is considered to be a priority in infection control. The objective of this study is the analysis of results of active targeted surveillance conducted over a two-year period in the Department of Thoracic Surgery at the Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Center in Bystra, in southern Poland. The retrospective analysis was carried out on the basis of results of active monitoring of SSI in the 45-bed Department of Thoracic Surgery at the Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery Center in Bystra between April 1, 2014 and April 30, 2016. Surgical site infections were identified based on the definitions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) taking into account the time of symptom onset, specifically, whether the symptoms occurred within 30 d after the surgical procedure. Detection of SSI relied on daily inspection of incisions by a trained nurse, analysis of medical and nursing entries in the computer system, and analysis of all results of microbiologic tests taken in the unit and in the operating room. In the study period, data were collected regarding 1,387 treatment procedures meeting the registration criteria. Forty cases of SSI were detected yielding an incidence rate of 3%. Most cases (55%) were found in the course of hospitalization and 45% were detected after the patient's discharge. The SSIs were classified as follows: superficial, 37.5%; deep infections, 7.5%; and organ/space infection, 55%. Among patients who were diagnosed with SSI, most were male (77.5%). For patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score I-II the incidence rate was 2%; ASA score III or more, 3.7%. The incidence rate varied from 0.3% in clean surgical site to 6.5% in clean-contaminated site. The study validated the usefulness of targeted surveillance in monitoring SSIs in patients hospitalized in thoracic surgery departments. Surgical site infection surveillance identified areas of care requiring modifications, namely

  3. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the north

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Guy; T.M. DeSutter; F.X.M. Casey; R. Kolka; H. Hakk

    2012-01-01

    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements,...

  4. Dust Full Study In The Surrounding Area Of A Cement Factory And Determination Of The Major Elements Of The Dust Fall Using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslmani, Y.; Al-Oudat, M.

    2004-01-01

    Dust fall of the Tartous cement factory and the surrounding area at the Syrian coast were measured. The results show that the dust fall concentrations were higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) Standard in the factory site as well as in the surrounding area within 5 to 6 km in the diameter. The value of the dust fall at the Reference sites was abut 4.5 t/km 2 /month and in the surrounding area of the factory values reached between 18 and 120 t/km 2 /month. This means the values exceed the standard around 3 and 13 times. The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of cement dust showed a percentage of 27.5% ± 1.6 of calcium. By the presence of humidity calcium silicate occurs, which immediately dries and becomes a hard salt crust. Therefore in the regions near by the factory cement dust formed this kind of salt coat on the surface of the leaves. (Authors)

  5. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  6. Making the Invisible of Learning Visible: Pre-Service Teachers Identify Connections between the Use of Literacy Strategies and Their Content Area Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton-Kukner, Jennifer; Orr, Anne Murray

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe four ways secondary pre-service teachers appeared to be developing assessment practices during field experience, after taking a content area literacy course. This paper arises from a multi-year study exploring pre-service and beginning content area teachers' use of literacy strategies in teaching mathematics, science, and…

  7. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  8. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  9. Quantitation of major allergens in dust samples from urban populations collected in different seasons in two climatic areas of the Basque region (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echechipía, S; Ventas, P; Audícana, M; Urrutia, I; Gastaminza, G; Polo, F; Fernández de Corres, L

    1995-06-01

    We present the results of allergen content evaluation in 80 dust samples from 31 homes of atopic patients from two climatic areas (humid and subhumid), collected in two seasons of the year (autumn and winter). Monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays were used to quantify Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, Lep d 1, and Fel d 1. The results were compared according to climate, season, and the type of sensitization (Pyroglyphidae mites, storage mites, or grass pollens). We underline the predominance of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (89% of samples) over D. farinae (16% of samples) in our environment. Der p 1 rates were higher in the humid area (Mann-Whitney P < 0.001), especially in the autumn (Wilcoxon P < 0.05). Lep d 1 was detected in 23% of samples and Lep d 1 levels were higher in the homes of patients sensitized to storage mites (Mann-Whitney P < 0.05), whereas this allergen was not detected in the homes of pollen-allergic patients. Fel d 1 was detected in nine of the 31 homes (16% of samples) although there was a cat in only one home.

  10. Fine mapping of a dominantly inherited powdery mildew resistance major-effect QTL, Pm1.1, in cucumber identifies a 41.1 kb region containing two tandemly arrayed cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuewen; Yu, Ting; Xu, Ruixue; Shi, Yang; Lin, Xiaojian; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Weng, Yiqun; Chen, Xuehao

    2016-03-01

    A dominantly inherited major-effect QTL for powdery mildew resistance in cucumber was fine mapped. Two tandemly arrayed cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase genes were identified as the most possible candidates. Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and other cucurbit crops, but the molecular genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucurbits are still poorly understood. In this study, through marker-assisted backcrossing with an elite cucumber inbred line, D8 (PM susceptible), we developed a single-segment substitution line, SSSL0.7, carrying 95 kb fragment from PM resistance donor, Jin5-508, that was defined by two microsatellite markers, SSR16472 and SSR16881. A segregating population with 3600 F2 plants was developed from the SSSL0.7 × D8 mating; segregation analysis confirmed a dominantly inherited major-effect QTL, Pm1.1 in cucumber chromosome 1 underlying PM resistance in SSSL0.7. New molecular markers were developed through exploring the next generation resequenced genomes of Jin5-508 and D8. Linkage analysis and QTL mapping in a subset of the F2 plants delimited the Pm1.1 locus into a 41.1 kb region, in which eight genes were predicted. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed that two concatenated genes, Csa1M064780 and Csa1M064790 encoding the same function of a cysteine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, were the most likely candidate genes. GFP fusion protein-aided subcellular localization indicated that both candidate genes were located in the plasma membrane, but Csa1M064780 was also found in the nucleus. This is the first report of dominantly inherited PM resistance in cucumber. Results of this study will provide new insights into understanding the phenotypic and genetic mechanisms of PM resistance in cucumber. This work should also facilitate marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding for PM resistance.

  11. Determination of natural radionuclides from 238U and 232Th series, trace and major elements in sediment cores from baixada Santista and evaluation of impacted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Sandra Regina

    2010-01-01

    Baixada Santista is the region of higher population of the coast of Sao Paulo State, where it is located the largest port in Latin America, in the city of Santos, and the most important industrial complex of Latin America, in the city of Cubatao. This region has received in recent years a considerable load of industrial and domestic effluents in its water bodies, as a direct result of the industrial and port activities and the large population growth in recent decades, and is considered nowadays highly impacted. In the present study sediment cores were collected in the estuary of Santos-Cubatao, in the estuary of Sao Vicente, in the channel of Bertioga and Santos Bay, in order to determine the concentration of trace and major elements and natural radionuclides from the 238 U and 232 Th series. The techniques used were neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence and gamma spectrometry, respectively. The obtained values for the elements Cr, Sb, Ta and Zn in some cores, are higher than data from literature, and can indicate a possible anthropic contribution. Comparing the obtained values of Cr and Zn elements determined in the sediment cores with the values of TEL and PEL index for sediment quality, it was verified that the studied region presents Cr levels higher than TEL in Santos-Cubatao estuary and Bertioga channel and Zn element presented values higher than TEL for some core slices of Santos-Cubatao estuary, for one core of Sao Vicente estuary, one core in Bertioga channel and Santos Bay. For the other elements, the values obtained in this study can be considered as reference values for the region. Although the element As presented higher values than the TEL in all the studied environments, the concentrations obtained are of the same order of magnitude as literature data and, therefore, can be considered also as reference values for the region. No enrichment was found for the major elements in all the ecosystems studied, with the exception for the element P

  12. Identifying the spatial and temporal variability of economic opportunity costs to promote the adoption of alternative land uses in grain growing agricultural areas: an Australian example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, G; Bryan, B A; Ostendorf, B

    2015-05-15

    Grain growers face many future challenges requiring them to adapt their land uses to changing economic, social and environmental conditions. To understand where to make on ground changes without significant negative financial repercussions, high resolution information on income generation over time is required. We propose a methodology which utilises high resolution yield data collected with precision agriculture (PA) technology, gross margin financial analysis and a temporal standardisation technique to highlight the spatial and temporal consistency of farm income. On three neighbouring farms in Western Australia, we found non-linear relationships between income and area. Spatio-temporal analysis on one farm over varying seasons found that between 37 and 49% (1082-1433ha) of cropping area consistently produced above the selected income thresholds and 43-32% (936-1257ha) regularly produced below selected thresholds. Around 20% of area showed inconsistent temporal variation in income generation. Income estimated from these areas represents the income forgone if a land use change is undertaken (the economic opportunity cost) and the average costs varied spatially from $190±114/ha to $560±108/ha depending on what scenario was chosen. The interaction over space and time showed the clustering of areas with similar values at a resolution where growers make input decisions. This new evidence suggests that farm area could be managed with two strategies: (a) one that maximises grain output using PA management in temporally stable areas which generate moderate to high income returns and (b) one that proposes land use change in low and inconsistent income returning areas where the financial returns from an alternative land use may be comparable. The adoption of these strategies can help growers meet the demand for agricultural output and offer income diversity and adaptive capacity to deal with the future challenges to agricultural production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Physicochemical properties and the concentration of anions, major and trace elements in groundwater, treated drinking water and bottled drinking water in Najran area, KSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brima, Eid I.

    2017-03-01

    Basic information about major elements in bottled drinking water is provided on product labels. However, more information is needed about trace elements in bottled drinking water and other sources of drinking water to assess its quality and suitability for drinking. This is the first such study to be carried out in Najran city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 48 water samples were collected from different sources comprising wells, stations for drinking water treatment and bottled drinking water (purchased from local supermarkets). The concentrations of 24 elements [aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molydenum (Mo), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)] were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Anions (chlorine (Cl-), fluoride (F-), sulfate (SO4 2-) and nitrate (NO3 -) were determined by ion chromatography (IC). Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total dissolved salts (TDS) and total hardness (TH) were also measured. All parameters of treated drinking water and bottled drinking water samples did not exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA 2009), Gulf Cooperation Council Standardization Organization (GSO) 2008 and Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) 1984 recommended guidelines. It is noteworthy that groundwater samples were not used for drinking purpose. This study is important to raise public knowledge about drinking water, and to promote public health.

  14. The representation of dust transport and missing urban sources as major issues for the simulation of PM episodes in a Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Flaounas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its adverse effects on human health, atmospheric particulate matter (PM constitutes a growing challenge for air quality management. It is also a complex subject of study. The understanding of its atmospheric evolution is indeed made difficult by the wide number of sources and the numerous processes that govern its evolution in the troposphere. As a consequence, the representation of particulate matter in chemistry-transport models needs to be permanently evaluated and enhanced in order to refine our comprehension of PM pollution events and to propose consistent environmental policies. The study presented here focuses on two successive summer particulate pollution episodes that occurred on the French Mediterranean coast. We identify and analyze the constitutive elements of the first and more massive episode and we discuss their representation within a eulerian model.

    The results show that the model fails in reproducing the variability and the amplitude of dust import from western Africa, and that it constitutes a strong bias in PM daily forecasts. We then focus on the lack of diurnal variability in the model, which is attributed to missing urban sources in standard emission inventories, and notably the resuspension of particles by urban road traffic. Through a sensitivity study based on PM and NOx measurements, we assess the sensitivity of PM to local emissions and the need to reconsider road traffic PM sources. In parallel, by coupling the CHIMERE-DUST model outputs to our simulation, we show that the representation of transcontinental dust transport allows a much better representation of atmospheric particles in southern France, and that it is needed in the frame of air quality management for the quantification of the anthropogenic part of particulate matter pollution.

  15. Human cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigens in endemic areas differing in prevalence of Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Kammoun-Rebai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. papatasi salivary gland extracts (SGE in individuals living in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL old or emerging foci (OF, EF. OF was characterized by a higher infection prevalence as assessed by higher proportions of leishmanin skin test (LST positive individuals compared to EF. Subjects were further subdivided into healed, asymptomatic or naïve groups. We showed anti-SGE proliferation in less than 30% of the individuals, regardless of the immune status, in both foci. IFN-γ production was higher in OF and only observed in immune individuals from OF and naïve subjects from EF. Although IL-10 was not detected, addition of anti-human IL-10 antibodies revealed an increase in proliferation and IFN-γ production only in individuals from OF. The percentage of seropositive individuals was similar in immune and naïves groups but was significantly higher in OF. No correlation was observed between anti-saliva immune responses and LST response. High anti-SGE-IgG responses were associated with an increased risk of developing ZCL. No differences were observed for anti-SGE humoral or cellular responses among naïve individuals who converted or not their LST response or developed or not ZCL after the transmission season.These data suggest that individuals living in an old focus characterized by a frequent exposure to sand fly bites and a high prevalence of infection, develop higher anti-saliva IgG responses and IFN-γ levels and a skew towards a Th2-type cellular response, probably in favor of parasite establishment

  16. Inappropriate Dietary and Occupational Patterns: Major Risk Factors Associated With Brucellosis in the Area Covered by Karaj Health Center No. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Khani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is one of the most common diseases among humans and livestock. Using contaminated and unpasteurized dairy products, having contact with infected livestock and, in general, inappropriate dietary patterns, as well as lack of hygiene, can be noted as the most common modes of transmission for such a disease. Objectives: Since the establishment of Alborz province in Iran and, accordingly, Alborz university of medical sciences, Karaj, Iran, there has been no study on the epidemiological situation of the disease. Therefore, the present study examines the epidemiology of Brucellosis at Karaj Health center No. 2, Karaj, Iran, during 2011 - 2012. Patients and Methods: This research was a cross-sectional descriptive study, on patients with Brucellosis, during 2011 - 2012, in the area covered by Karaj health center No. 2, Karaj, Iran. The data about all suspected cases, collected from polyclinic, laboratories and health centers, and confirmed by Wright, combs Wright and 2ME tests were reviewed. After recording the demographic data and laboratory results, they were entered into STATA 11 software and analyzed. Results: The number of patients reported in this study was 67. The incidence of the disease during 2011 - 2012 was, respectively, 3.75 and 4.6 per hundred thousand and the average incidence of the disease was 4.2 per hundred thousand. The highest rate of infection, in terms of occupation, was found among ranchers (40.29%. In 100% of the cases, there was a history of consumption of cottage cheese, fresh cow milk or other unpasteurized dairy products. Considering the incidence season, most cases of the disease (38.80% had occurred in the spring. In terms of gender, 56.71% were male and 43.28% of patients were female. As well, in terms of age, more 50% of the patients were in the age groups of 31 - 40 and 41 - 50 years old. Conclusions: Given the occurrence of more cases of the disease among individuals with risk factors, such as

  17. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetric Method to Identify and Measure the Palatal Surface Area in Children With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Menezes, Marcio; Cerón-Zapata, Ana Maria; López-Palacio, Ana Maria; Mapelli, Andrea; Pisoni, Luca; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-01-01

    To assess a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetric method for area delimitation and evaluation of the dental arches of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Obtained data were also used to assess the 3D changes occurring in the maxillary arch with the use of orthopedic therapy prior to rhinocheiloplasty and before the first year of life. Within the collaboration between the Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy) and the University CES of Medellin (Colombia), 96 palatal cast models obtained from neonatal patients with UCLP were analyzed using a 3D stereophotogrammetric imaging system. The area of the minor and greater cleft segments on the digital dental cast surface were delineated by the visualization tool of the stereophotogrammetric software and then examined. "Trueness" of the measurements, as well as systematic and random errors between operators' tracings ("precision") were calculated. The method gave area measurements close to true values (errors lower than 2%), without systematic measurement errors for tracings by both interoperators and intraoperators (P > .05). Statistically significant differences (P digital dental casts and area measurements by the 3D stereophotogrammetric system revealed an accurate (true and precise) method for evaluating the stone casts of newborn patients with UCLP.

  18. Mapping flood and flooding potential indices: a methodological approach to identifying areas susceptible to flood and flooding risk. Case study: the Prahova catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Given that floods continue to cause yearly significant worldwide human and material damages, flood risk mitigation is a key issue and a permanent challenge in developing policies and strategies at various spatial scales. Therefore, a basic phase is elaborating hazard and flood risk maps, documents which are an essential support for flood risk management. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that allows for the identification of flash-flood and flood-prone susceptible areas based on computing and mapping of two indices: FFPI (Flash-Flood Potential Index) and FPI (Flooding Potential Index). These indices are obtained by integrating in a GIS environment several geographical variables which control runoff (in the case of the FFPI) and favour flooding (in the case of the FPI). The methodology was applied in the upper (mountainous) and middle (hilly) catchment of the Prahova River, a densely populated and socioeconomically well-developed area which has been affected repeatedly by water-related hazards over the past decades. The resulting maps showing the spatialization of the FFPI and FPI allow for the identification of areas with high susceptibility to flashfloods and flooding. This approach can provide useful mapped information, especially for areas (generally large) where there are no flood/hazard risk maps. Moreover, the FFPI and FPI maps can constitute a preliminary step for flood risk and vulnerability assessment.

  19. Numerical simulation analysis as a tool to identify areas of weakness in a turbine wind-blade and solutions for their reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    RAMAN, Venkadesh; DRISSI-HABTI, Monssef; GUILLAUMAT, Laurent; KHADHOUR, Aghihad

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the main sources of renewable energy that can benefit from new generation materials that exhibit good oxidation resistance and mechanical reliability. Composite materials are the best consideration for harsh environment and deep sea wind turbine manufacturing. In this study, a numerical simulation was implemented to predict the stress distribution over a wind turbineblade and to determine areas with high stress concentration. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was us...

  20. Assessing the effects of marine protected area (MPA) on a reef fish assemblage in a northwestern Mediterranean marine reserve: Identifying community-based indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Claudet, Joachim; Pelletier, Dominique; Jouvenel, J.y; Bachet, F; Galzin, R

    2006-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly envisaged as a tool to manage coastal ecosystems and fisheries. Assessment of their performance with respect to management objectives is therefore important. A number of WAS provided conservation benefits for fished species. Observed benefits do not apply to all species at all times, and responses to protection are also highly variable among fish taxa. Among the many empirical studies on marine reserves, only a few designs considered 'before and ...

  1. Insight about Norwegian Millennials and Blood Donation - A qualitative Study on Experiences, Expectations and Perceptions that identify potential Areas of Improvement and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Hilde Vestby

    2017-01-01

    Norway needs more blood donors to increase the preparedness. With the decreasing number of blood donors, the preparedness situation is put in danger if catastrophes or epidemics should occur. Research about how blood donation should be organized exists, but often lack user-centricity when approaching the problem. This thesis offers an exploratory and problem identifying contribution to this problem. A qualitative and user-centred approach was taken, where 18 young adults who both are an...

  2. Identifying Geographic Areas at Risk of Soil-transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems: Boaco, Nicaragua as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Podest, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Several types of intestinal nematodes, that can infect humans and specially school-age children living in poverty, develop part of their life cycle in soil. Presence and survival of these parasites in the soil depend on given environmental characteristics like temperature and moisture that can be inferred with remote sensing (RS) technology. Prevalence of diseases caused by these parasitic worms can be controlled and even eradicated with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Reliable and updated identification of geographic areas at risk is required to implement effective public health programs; to calculate amount of drug required and to distribute funding for sanitation projects. RS technology and geographical information systems (GIS) will be used to analyze for associations between in situ prevalence and remotely sensed data in order to establish RS proxies of environmental parameters that indicate the presence of these parasits. In situ data on helminthisasis will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define clusters and areas at risk. Such information will help to the implementation of time and cost efficient control programs and sanitation efforts.

  3. Identifying spectrometric signatures of phosphate deposits and enclosing sediments in Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria, by the use of statistical factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.

    2007-01-01

    In previous published research, a factor analysis approach has been applied to airborne spectrometric data of Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria. A model of four factors (F1, F2, F3 and F4) has proven to be sufficient to represent the acquired data, where 94% of the total data variance is explained. A powerful tool for direct differentiation of various rocks units is obtained through the mapping of these four factors, where a scored lithological map including 11 radiometric units is established. Ninety nine rock samples have been taken according to the four factors to be analyzed by the gamma spectrometry technique in order to determine their content of e U, e Th and K%. The analysis of 65 samples according to F1 indicates that uranium concentration varies between 2.74 and 123.3 ppm with an average of 58.85 ppm and a standard deviation of 32.53 ppm. The analysis of 18 samples taken according to F2 indicates that K% concentration varies between 0.001 and 0.324 with an average of 0.145 and a standard deviation of 0.122. The analysis of 16 samples taken according to F3 indicates that K% concentration varies between 0.024 and 0.558 with an average of 0.227 and a standard deviation of 0.133. These gamma-results are expected and fit very well with the results obtained by the factor analysis approach. Therefore, the validity and efficacy of the factor analysis approach, to be widely used as a guide in exploration and smart sampling for mining programs, are well demonstrated. The established phosphate maps show a width extension and distribution, and clearly indicate the potential of the research area, and it merits to be followed by economic exploration

  4. Use of a scenario-development procedure to identify potentially disruptive scenarios, Greater Confinement Disposal facility, Area 5, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, R.V.; Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM

    1994-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility includes four boreholes that contain transuranic (TRLT) waste. Presence of the TRU waste means that this facility must comply with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Waste-Final Rule 40 CFR Part 191. To comply with the Containment Requirements of this rule, all potentially disruptive events and processes, and by implication all potentially disruptive combinations of events and processes (scenarios), must be identified for possible inclusion in performance assessments. Screening of the FEPs identified four events for scenario development: exploratory drilling for natural resources, drilling withdrawal wells, irrigation, and subsidence. Recent environmental-isotope analyses of the vadose zone suggest that radionuclide transport from the boreholes to the water table by infiltration is not a feasible transport mechanism within the time frame of regulatory concern. For this reason, the event of drilling withdrawal wells was merged with exploratory drilling for resources. The descriptions of the remaining three events were modified slightly to aid in estimation of event probabilities and consequence analyses. The three events are: exploratory drilling for resources penetrates a TRU borehole, irrigation occurs at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), and subsidence occurs at the RWMS. Use of a logic diagram with these three events resulted in the construction of eight scenarios, including base-case (undisturbed) conditions. Screening these scenarios at this stage of scenario development was beyond the scope of this task. Based on the implementation assumptions, this scenario-development procedure produced a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios that are reproducible and auditable for use in GCD performance assessments

  5. Identifying non-toxic doses of manganese for manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to map brain areas activated by operant behavior in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálosi, Rita; Szalay, Csaba; Aradi, Mihály; Perlaki, Gábor; Pál, József; Steier, Roy; Lénárd, László; Karádi, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) offers unique advantages such as studying brain activation in freely moving rats, but its usefulness has not been previously evaluated during operant behavior training. Manganese in a form of MnCl 2 , at a dose of 20mg/kg, was intraperitoneally infused. The administration was repeated and separated by 24h to reach the dose of 40mg/kg or 60mg/kg, respectively. Hepatotoxicity of the MnCl 2 was evaluated by determining serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin and protein levels. Neurological examination was also carried out. The animals were tested in visual cue discriminated operant task. Imaging was performed using a 3T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were determined before and after MnCl 2 administrations. Manganese-enhanced images of each animal were subtracted from their baseline images to calculate decrease in the T1 value (ΔT1) voxel by voxel. The subtracted T1 maps of trained animals performing visual cue discriminated operant task, and those of naive rats were compared. The dose of 60mg/kg MnCl 2 showed hepatotoxic effect, but even these animals did not exhibit neurological symptoms. The dose of 20 and 40mg/kg MnCl 2 increased the number of omissions and did not affect the accuracy of performing the visual cue discriminated operant task. Using the accumulated dose of 40mg/kg, voxels with a significant enhanced ΔT1 value were detected in the following brain areas of the visual cue discriminated operant behavior performed animals compared to those in the controls: the visual, somatosensory, motor and premotor cortices, the insula, cingulate, ectorhinal, entorhinal, perirhinal and piriform cortices, hippocampus, amygdala with amygdalohippocampal areas, dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens core, substantia nigra, and retrorubral field. In conclusion, the MEMRI proved to be a reliable method to accomplish brain activity mapping in correlation with the operant behavior

  6. Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Li, Zhengpeng

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

  7. Gas hydrate identified in sand-rich inferred sedimentary section using downhole logging and seismic data in Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lee, Myung W.; Collett, Timothy S.; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun; Wu, Shiguo

    2014-01-01

    Downhole wireline log (DWL) data was acquired from eight drill sites during China's first gas hydrate drilling expedition (GMGS-1) in 2007. Initial analyses of the acquired well log data suggested that there were no significant gas hydrate occurrences at Site SH4. However, the re-examination of the DWL data from Site SH4 indicated that there are two intervals of high resistivity, which could be indicative of gas hydrate. One interval of high resistivity at depth of 171–175 m below seafloor (mbsf) is associated with a high compressional- wave (P-wave) velocities and low gamma ray log values, which suggests the presence of gas hydrate in a potentially sand-rich (low clay content) sedimentary section. The second high resistivity interval at depth of 175–180 mbsf is associated with low P-wave velocities and low gamma values, which suggests the presence of free gas in a potentially sand-rich (low clay content) sedimentary section. Because the occurrence of free gas is much shallower than the expected from the regional depth of the bottom simulating reflector (BSR), the free gas could be from the dissociation of gas hydrate during drilling or there may be a local anomaly in the depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. In order to determine whether the low P-wave velocity with high resistivity is caused by in-situ free gas or dissociated free gas from the gas hydrate, the surface seismic data were also used in this analysis. The log analysis incorporating the surface seismic data through the construction of synthetic seismograms using various models indicated the presence of free gas directly in contact with an overlying gas hydrate-bearing section. The occurrence of the anomalous base of gas hydrate stability at Site SH4 could be caused by a local heat flow conditions. This paper documents the first observation of gas hydrate in what is believed to be a sand-rich sediment in Shenhu area of the South China Sea.

  8. Identifying areas suitable for wine tourism through the use of multi-criteria and geographic information system: the method and its application in the countryside around Mount Etna (Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Riguccio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vineyards are among the crops that shape quality landscapes. Many places in the world are famous for their unique wine landscapes which play an important role in the development of tourism in the rural areas. Among these, the wine landscape surrounding mount Etna (Sicily emerges due to its undisputed value, as it is an important component of the territory recognised as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. This work was conducted with that in mind, in order to identify the most suitable areas for wine tourism on the slopes of our volcano. The method used assigns a great importance to the quality of the landscape, an indispensable resource for encouraging wine tourism, and considers it to be of equal importance with the production of the wines themselves. The present work uses multi-criteria analysis in combination with geographic information system (GIS. Numerous indicators describing local resources were weighed and spatialized. The GIS analysis allowed for the development of various intermediate maps, which allowed to draw up the final suitability map for wine tourism, identifying areas larger than those of the actual vineyards. The value of these areas and the quality of their landscapes are closely connected to the production of the wines in the zone. It could be the target for specific plans and projects aimed at using the available resources, to develop wine tourism in rural areas. Although the study only covers a limited geographical area, the methodology used has general validity and could be used in other contexts.

  9. A Functional, Genome-wide Evaluation of Liposensitive Yeast Identifies the “ARE2 Required for Viability” (ARV1) Gene Product as a Major Component of Eukaryotic Fatty Acid Resistance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Garbarino, Jeanne; Liu, Ying; Moon, James; Schneider, Kerry; Henneberry, Annette; Billheimer, Jeff; Millar, John S.; Marchadier, Dawn; Valasek, Mark A.; Joblin-Mills, Aidan; Gulati, Sonia; Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Repa, Joyce J.; Rader, Dan; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    The toxic subcellular accumulation of lipids predisposes several human metabolic syndromes, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of neurodegeneration. To identify pathways that prevent lipid-induced cell death, we performed a genome-wide fatty acid sensitivity screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 167 yeast mutants as sensitive to 0.5 mm palmitoleate, 45% of which define pathways that were conserved in humans. 63 lesions also impacted the status of the lipid droplet; however, this was not correlated to the degree of fatty acid sensitivity. The most liposensitive yeast strain arose due to deletion of the “ARE2 required for viability” (ARV1) gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved, potential lipid transporter that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Down-regulation of mammalian ARV1 in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells or HEK293 cells resulted in decreased neutral lipid synthesis, increased fatty acid sensitivity, and lipoapoptosis. Conversely, elevated expression of human ARV1 in HEK293 cells or mouse liver significantly increased triglyceride mass and lipid droplet number. The ARV1-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was accompanied by up-regulation of DGAT1, a triglyceride synthesis gene, and the fatty acid transporter, CD36. Furthermore, ARV1 was identified as a transcriptional of the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a key regulator of lipid homeostasis whose transcriptional targets include DGAT1 and CD36. These results implicate ARV1 as a protective factor in lipotoxic diseases due to modulation of fatty acid metabolism. In conclusion, a lipotoxicity-based genetic screen in a model microorganism has identified 75 human genes that may play key roles in neutral lipid metabolism and disease. PMID:24273168

  10. A functional, genome-wide evaluation of liposensitive yeast identifies the "ARE2 required for viability" (ARV1) gene product as a major component of eukaryotic fatty acid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Garbarino, Jeanne; Liu, Ying; Moon, James; Schneider, Kerry; Henneberry, Annette; Billheimer, Jeff; Millar, John S; Marchadier, Dawn; Valasek, Mark A; Joblin-Mills, Aidan; Gulati, Sonia; Munkacsi, Andrew B; Repa, Joyce J; Rader, Dan; Sturley, Stephen L

    2014-02-14

    The toxic subcellular accumulation of lipids predisposes several human metabolic syndromes, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of neurodegeneration. To identify pathways that prevent lipid-induced cell death, we performed a genome-wide fatty acid sensitivity screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified 167 yeast mutants as sensitive to 0.5 mm palmitoleate, 45% of which define pathways that were conserved in humans. 63 lesions also impacted the status of the lipid droplet; however, this was not correlated to the degree of fatty acid sensitivity. The most liposensitive yeast strain arose due to deletion of the "ARE2 required for viability" (ARV1) gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved, potential lipid transporter that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Down-regulation of mammalian ARV1 in MIN6 pancreatic β-cells or HEK293 cells resulted in decreased neutral lipid synthesis, increased fatty acid sensitivity, and lipoapoptosis. Conversely, elevated expression of human ARV1 in HEK293 cells or mouse liver significantly increased triglyceride mass and lipid droplet number. The ARV1-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation was accompanied by up-regulation of DGAT1, a triglyceride synthesis gene, and the fatty acid transporter, CD36. Furthermore, ARV1 was identified as a transcriptional of the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a key regulator of lipid homeostasis whose transcriptional targets include DGAT1 and CD36. These results implicate ARV1 as a protective factor in lipotoxic diseases due to modulation of fatty acid metabolism. In conclusion, a lipotoxicity-based genetic screen in a model microorganism has identified 75 human genes that may play key roles in neutral lipid metabolism and disease.

  11. Integrated Network Analysis Identifies Fight-Club Nodes as a Class of Hubs Encompassing Key Putative Switch Genes That Induce Major Transcriptome Reprogramming during Grapevine Development[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named “fight-club hubs” characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named “switch genes” was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. PMID:25490918

  12. Disentangling the major source areas for an intense aerosol advection in the Central Mediterranean on the basis of Potential Source Contribution Function modeling of chemical and size distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Chiara; Crocchianti, Stefano; Moroni, Beatrice; Castellini, Silvia; Selvaggi, Roberta; Nava, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Lucarelli, Franco; Cappelletti, David

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we combined a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis of daily chemical aerosol composition data with hourly aerosol size distributions with the aim to disentangle the major source areas during a complex and fast modulating advection event impacting on Central Italy in 2013. Chemical data include an ample set of metals obtained by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), main soluble ions from ionic chromatography and elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) obtained by thermo-optical measurements. Size distributions have been recorded with an optical particle counter for eight calibrated size classes in the 0.27-10 μm range. We demonstrated the usefulness of the approach by the positive identification of two very different source areas impacting during the transport event. In particular, biomass burning from Eastern Europe and desert dust from Sahara sources have been discriminated based on both chemistry and size distribution time evolution. Hourly BT provided the best results in comparison to 6 h or 24 h based calculations.

  13. An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Application Of Receptor Modeling To Identify Airborne Particulate Sources In Lagos, Nigeria. FS Olise, OK Owoade, HB Olaniyi. Abstract. There have been no clear demarcations between industrial and residential areas of Lagos with focus on industry as the major source. There is need to identify potential source types in ...

  14. Huerta del Rey: Edafic Characterization of a Historic Area of the Mercury Mining and Study of the Transfer of Mercury from the Soil to Plantago Major; Huerta del Rey: Caracterizacion Edafica de una Zona Historica de la Mineria del Mercurio y Estudio de la Transferencia del Mercurio a Plantago Major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C; Manero, L; Sierra, M J; Rodriguez-Alonso, M; Millan, R

    2013-02-01

    The main objective of this scientific-technical report is to carry out a characterization of study plot called Huerta del Rey in the mercury (Hg) mining district of Almaden. For this goal, an edaphic characterization has been performed and the Hg behavior in the soil study has been evaluated. Then, total Hg concentration and easily available Hg for plants have been determined and the absorption and distribution of Hg in Plantago major L (typical specie from the study area) have been studied. The results showed that the total Hg concentrations in the soil ranged from 530 {+-} 32 mg kg{sup -}1 to 4300 {+-} 339 mg kg{sup -}1 even to 12378 {+-} 1051mg kg{sup -}1. It is in accordance with the normal values measured in a Hg mining area. Otherwise, the percentage of soluble Hg in soil with respect to the total Hg concentration is low (< 0.3 %) although if concentration instead of percentage is taking into account, the soluble Hg reached values up to 1.33 {+-}0.14 mg kg{sup -}1 that could mean a potential risk of pollution of groundwater by leaching process. Finally a brief description about different technologies for decreasing Hg concentration in the study soil, including phytoremediation, has been performed. (Author) 96 refs.

  15. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  16. The potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Wind, Gitte; Skinner, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    engagement. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals’ strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education. Methods: The study entails of two components......: 1) Field observations of five different educational settings including 49 persons with diabetes and 13 healthcare professionals, followed by interviews with 5 healthcare professionals and 28 persons with type 2 diabetes. 2) One professional development workshop involving 14 healthcare professionals...

  17. Genomewide association study identifies no major founder variant in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-10

    Dec 10, 2013 ... variant in Caucasian moyamoya disease ... 1Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate ... a low prevalence in European countries (Goto and Yonekawa. 1992; Kuroda and Houkin 2008). We have found that the p.R4810K variant in the ring finger protein 213 (RNF213).

  18. Genomewide association study identifies no major founder variant in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Young onset (<15 year). 14. –. Adult onset (≤15 year). 24. –. Clinical symptoms. Cerebral infarction. 18. –. TIAb. 6. –. Stroke. 3. –. Headache. 4. –. Hemorrhage. 1. –. Epilepsy. 2. –. Asymptomatic. 1. –. Otherc. 3. –. Clinical status. Bilateral. 35. –. Unilateral. 3. –. aSD, standard deviation; bTIA, transient ischemic attack; cother, ...

  19. Major roles for minor bacterial lipids identified by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Teresa A

    2017-11-01

    Mass spectrometry of lipids, especially those isolated from bacteria, has ballooned over the past two decades, affirming in the process the complexity of the lipidome. With this has come the identification of new and interesting lipid structures. Here is an overview of several novel lipids, from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria with roles in health and disease, whose structural identification was facilitated using mass spectrometry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Lipids edited by Russell E. Bishop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro and in vivo toxicities of sediment and surface water in an area near a major steel industry of Korea: endocrine disruption, reproduction, or survival effects combined with instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Liu, Xiaoshan; Seo, Jihyun; Jung, Hyorin; Ji, Kyunghee; Hong, Seongjin; Park, Jinsoon; Khim, Jong Seong; Yoon, Seokmin; Lee, Woojin; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho

    2014-02-01

    The influence of industrial and/or municipal contaminant inputs on the aquatic environment of Pohang, Korea was investigated, with a focus on bioassay combined with instrumental analysis. Pohang is the most heavily populated city in Gyeongsangbuk-do province of Korea, with more than half a million residents, and also hosts the nation's biggest steel manufacturer and related industries. Sediment (n=15) and surface water samples (n=17) were collected from Hyeongsan River which runs across the Pohang city, in two separate events, i.e., June 2010 and February 2011. Sediment samples were first Soxhlet-extracted (raw extract) and were measured for estrogenicity using H295R cell line, and also analyzed for alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA), PAHs, and PCBs. For sediment samples which exhibited greatest effects in the cell line, further fractionation was performed into non-polar, mid-polar, and polar portions. In surface water samples, heavy metals were also analyzed. Among 15 sediment samples, station S2 near the steel industry complex and station M3 near the municipal area showed the greatest sex hormone changes, and these changes were generally explained by the fractions which contained APs and BPA. Principal component analysis (PCA) however suggests that chemicals that were not analyzed in the present study would better explain endocrine disruption capacity of sediments. In water samples, adverse effects on hatchability and growth of Japanese medaka fish, and on Daphnia reproduction were noted following exposure to six water samples collected from stations near industrial and municipal areas. Several heavy metals and nonylphenol (NP) concentrations exceeded surface water quality guidelines, suggesting adverse effects of contamination inputs from both industrial and municipal activities. Observed estrogenicities in stations such as S2 and M3 warrant further investigations on longer term ecosystem impacts near industrial and municipal areas. The levels of major

  1. Interdisciplinary Project Experiences: Collaboration between Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…

  2. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  3. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  4. Experiences that influence a student's choice on majoring in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Donya Rae

    Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an

  5. Research on Algorithms of Identifying Map-sheet Number of Cartographic Area%求解制图区域的地图图幅编号的算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴曜宏; 乔俊军; 胡冯伟

    2017-01-01

    基于地理格网理论,从点、线、面三个方面,提出了归原法、斜率分段-同异侧判别法和投影反算-图廓内外判别法,这些算法可准确映射各种投影后制图区域所对应的基础地理信息数据范围,实现了制图范围内地理信息数据所属地图图幅编号的可视化查询.%This artical provides three methods for identifying the map-sheet number for the drawing area. The methods are returning home position, segementing slope-assessment with the same side, projection inversion-assessment of inside map neat line based on the theoretical geographic grid. The cartographic drawing corresponding to a certain projection can be mapping correctly by these methods. The methods can be used to query the map sheet number of the geographic information data within the drawing area.

  6. Subsurface occurrence and potential source areas of chlorinated ethenes identified using concentrations and concentration ratios, Air Force Plant 4 and Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field, Fort Worth, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center, Environmental Management Directorate, conducted a study during 2003-05 to characterize the subsurface occurrence and identify potential source areas of the volatile organic compounds classified as chlorinated ethenes at U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) and adjacent Naval Air Station-Joint Reserve Base Carswell Field (NAS-JRB) at Fort Worth, Texas. The solubilized chlorinated ethenes detected in the alluvial aquifer originated as either released solvents (tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], and trans-1,2-dichloroethene [trans-DCE]) or degradation products of the released solvents (TCE, cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cis-DCE], and trans-DCE). The combined influences of topographic- and bedrock-surface configurations result in a water table that generally slopes away from a ground-water divide approximately coincident with bedrock highs and the 1-mile-long aircraft assembly building at AFP4. Highest TCE concentrations (10,000 to 920,000 micrograms per liter) occur near Building 181, west of Building 12, and at landfill 3. Highest PCE concentrations (500 to 920 micrograms per liter) occur near Buildings 4 and 5. Highest cis-DCE concentrations (5,000 to 710,000 micrograms per liter) occur at landfill 3. Highest trans-DCE concentrations (1,000 to 1,700 micrograms per liter) occur just south of Building 181 and at landfill 3. Ratios of parent-compound to daughter-product concentrations that increase in relatively short distances (tens to 100s of feet) along downgradient ground-water flow paths can indicate a contributing source in the vicinity of the increase. Largest increases in ratio of PCE to TCE concentrations are three orders of magnitude from 0.01 to 2.7 and 7.1 between nearby wells in the northeastern part of NAS-JRB. In the northern part of NAS-JRB, the largest increases in TCE to total DCE concentration ratios relative to ratios at upgradient wells are from 17 to

  7. The potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Wind, Gitte; Skinner, Timothy; Reventlow, Susanne; Hempler, Nana Folmann

    2017-09-18

    Healthcare professionals' person-centered communication skills are pivotal for successful group-based diabetes education. However, healthcare professionals are often insufficiently equipped to facilitate person-centeredness and many have never received post-graduate training. Currently, assessing professionals' skills in conducting group-based, person-centered diabetes education primarily focus on experts measuring and coding skills on various scales. However, learner-centered approaches such as adequate self-reflective tools have been shown to emphasize professional autonomy and promote engagement. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education. The study entails of two components: 1) Field observations of five different educational settings including 49 persons with diabetes and 13 healthcare professionals, followed by interviews with 5 healthcare professionals and 28 persons with type 2 diabetes. 2) One professional development workshop involving 14 healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals were asked to assess their person-centered communication skills using a self-assessment tool based on challenges and skills related to four educator roles: Embracer, Facilitator, Translator, and Initiator. Data were analyzed by hermeneutic analysis. Theories derived from theoretical model 'The Health Education Juggler' and techniques from 'Motivational Interviewing in Groups' were used as a framework to analyze data. Subsequently, the analysis from the field notes and interview transcript were compared with healthcare professionals' self-assessments of strengths and areas in need to effectively facilitate group-based, person-centered diabetes education. Healthcare professionals self-assessed the Translator and the Embracer to be the two most skilled roles whereas

  8. Paleo-environmental conditions of the Early Cambrian Niutitang Formation in the Fenggang area, the southwestern margin of the Yangtze Platform, southern China: Evidence from major elements, trace elements and other proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tang, Shuheng; Zhang, Songhang; Xi, Zhaodong; Yang, Ning; Yang, Guoqiao; Li, Lei; Li, Yanpeng

    2018-06-01

    The Precambrian/Cambrian transition was a key time in Earth history, especially for marine biological evolution and oceanic chemistry. The redox-stratification with oxic shallow water and anoxic (even euxinic) deeper water in the Early Cambrian Yangtze Sea, which gradually became completely oxygenated, has been suggested as a possible trigger for the "Cambrian explosion" of biological diversity. However, for some areas in northern Guizhou where the exploration and research are lacking, identifying this pattern of redox-stratification by paleo-environmental analysis from borehole data is still in need. Here, we report a remarkable variation range in trace elements (Mo, V, U, Ni, Th, Co, Sc, Zn and Cu), molar Corg:P ratios and pyrite morphology from 27 core samples from one new drill hole (XY1, located in the Fenggang area, northern Guizhou) on the Yangtze Platform, South China. High levels of Ba (from 3242 ppm to 33,800 ppm) and total organic carbon (TOC; from 4% to 9.36%) in 15 core samples in the Lower Member (LM) of the Niutitang Formation indicated elevated primary productivity in the study area. Redox change was recorded based on enrichment factors (EFs) for RSTEs (Mo, U, and V), redox proxies (V/(V + Ni), Ni/Co, V/Sc and Th/U), Corg:P ratios and particle size of framboidal pyrite. These signatures demonstrate that the LM was deposited under anoxic conditions with sulfidic episodes, whereas the Upper Member (UM) of the Niutitang Formation was deposited under suboxic/oxic conditions with intermittently anoxic episodes. Mo/TOC ratios (from 3.72 to 39.86, mean 18.76) suggest weak-moderate water mass restriction. Mo-U covariation patterns (strong but variable enrichment of Mo and U; MoEF ranging from 31.45 to 257.97; UEF ranging from 4.68 to 39.07) in the LM show alternation of particulate shuttling and redox conditions occurred in the Early Cambrian Yangtze Sea, whereas Mo-U covariation patterns (moderate Mo enrichment but depletion or non-enrichment of U; mean Mo

  9. Correlations between the cross-sectional area and moment arm length of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle as measured by MRI and the body mass index in lumbar degenerative kyphosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun; Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Sang Ho

    2006-01-01

    Lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK) is a subgroup of the flatback syndrome, which is a condition caused by spinal degeneration. LDK is reported to be the most frequent cause of lumbar spine deformity in the farming districts of the 'oriental' countries. We investigated the relationship between the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the moment arm length (MAL) of the erector spinae muscle and the thickness of the psoas major muscle (PT) and the body mass index (BMI) by performing statistical analysis, and we tried to show the crucial role of these variables for diagnosing LDK. From July 2004 to April 2005, we retrospectively reviewed 17 LDK patients who had undergone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with posterior stabilization. We measured both the CSA and MAL on the transverse cross-sectional MR image of the trunk at the fourth to fifth vertebrae (L4/5). The MAL was defined as the anterior-posterior distance between the center of the erector spinae muscle and that of the vertebral body. A comparative study was undertaken between the LDK group and the matched (according to age and gender) control group with regard to the CSA, MAL, PT and BMI. The 17 LDK patients were all females [age: 62.5 ± 4.93 years, height: 157 ± 6.19 cm, weight: 55.59 ± 4.7 kg, and BMI: 22.58 ± 2.08 kg/m 2 ]. The control group patients were all female [age: 63.6 ± 2.27 years, height: 156 ± 5.05 cm, weight: 59.65 ± 7.39 kg and BMI: 24.38 ± 2.94 kg/m 2 ]. Spearman's rho indicated a positive association between the CSA and BMI (rho = 0.49, ρ = 0.046), between the MAL and BMI (rho = 0.808, ρ = 0.000) and between the CSA and PT (rho = 0.566, ρ = 0.018) in the LDK patients. In terms of the CSA versus MAL, there was a positive association in both groups (rho = 0.67, ρ = 0.000, MAL = 0.023CSA + 5.454 in the LDK group; rho = 0.564, ρ 0.018, MAL = 0.02CSA + 5.832 in the control group with using linear regression analysis). Independent t-tests revealed that both groups had statistically

  10. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  11. Progress on resolution of major surety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.R.; Boudreau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the major surety issues (safety, environmental protection, sageguards, reliability, quality assurance) that have been identified during Phase I of the SP-100 Program and the progress that has been made in analyzing the most important of these issues in the context of the conceptual design effort. These issues have been identified as inadvertent criticality, toxic material release and dispersion, radiation exposure following end-of-life reentry, potential diversion of special nuclear material, failure to achieve end-of-life neutronic shutdown, and structural predictability for end-of-life re-entry or boost. Because of the complexity of these issues, a simplified conservative approach was taken during Phase I. Progress on these issues has been mainly in the area of increased understanding of the issues, identification of design features to resolve the issues, and quantitative evaluations of the surety characteristics of the various design concepts

  12. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. Results: We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. Availability and implementation: The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. Contact: sarala@ebi.ac.uk PMID:25638809

  13. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-06-01

    On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Urban policies. Changing trends in the area of influence of major projects / Políticas Urbanas. Tendencia de Transformación en el Área de Influencia de Grandes Proyectos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Leal Iga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the trend of transformation in the area of influence, where confined Large Urban Projects (LUP's, and the characterization of urban attributes of the area. This characterization is reviewed in the trend analysis of current land uses, as well as permits and construction licenses for the areas around the projects, real estate values and variables that were relevant in the application of analysis correlation. As a case study presents the central area of the city, where there have been several policies related to LUP's, like; the Macro Plaza Monterrey, held in 1985 and the Paseo Santa Lucia, accomplished in 2007 as well as the area's historical heritage decreed as the city in 1993, called Old Town, among others. In this central area, were evaluated urban attributes of different variables, legal dimensions of space, the dimension of urban accessibility and urban hierarchy. These projects generate large amount of urban green spaces and recreational areas in the central area when they were implemented, and the protection of the historical heritage of this area of the first frame, resulting in a dual situation between the determination of Historical Center and Center Urban (Business District of this area of the city. As land uses and their variability currently relevant factors. With trend analysis and characterization of the areas, there are possible ways you can follow the urban development of this area of the city, helping the planning process in the area. Este artículo analiza la tendencia de transformación en el área de influencia, en donde se circunscriben Grandes Proyectos Urbanos (GPU ́s, y la caracterización de los atributos urbanos de la zona. Esta caracterización se revisa en el análisis de la tendencia de los usos de suelo actual, así como en los permisos y licencias de construcción de las zonas aledañas a los proyectos, los valores inmobiliarios y las variables que fueron relevantes en la aplicación de un an

  15. Panthaleus major /Duges/ of cereals in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maneva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Until recently, Penthaleus major (Dugès has not been recognized as an economically significant pest for the cereal crops. After climatic changes, its population began to grow and inflict damages around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate its distribution in Bulgaria and establish whether it presents a danger to the cereal crops. In the autumn of 2015 and the spring of 2016, a monitoring survey was conducted to establish Penthaleus major (Dugès with the cereal crops in Bulgaria. Over 60 sowed fields were investigated from all around the country. Samples were taken to identify the pest. It was established that Penthaleus major (Dugès inflicted harm to the wheat in north-eastern (12-14 mites per stem and south-eastern Bulgaria (6-8 mites per stem. Its density was under the threshold of economic harm. There was not found infestation of barley, rye, oat and triticale. On the field boundaries bordering the areas attacked by the mite were reported the following weeds: Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic, Descurania sophia (L. Welb. et Berth, Senecio spp., Sisymbrium orientale Torn., Taraxsacum officinale Weber, Anthemis spp., Bromus arvensis L., Eragrostis pilosa (L. P.B. Lolium temulentum L., which can be habitat for Penthaleus major (Dugès.

  16. Major KEEP Findings, 1971 - 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI. Kamehameha Early Education Project.

    This report lists the 34 major research findings from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the years 1971-1975. Each finding is accompanied by a listing of KEEP technical reports and working papers which contain information relevant to that finding. Included among areas covered in the findings are: (1) student motivation, (2) teacher…

  17. Internally readable identifying tag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferts, K.B.; Jefferts, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of identifying non-metallic objects by means of X-ray equipment is described in detail. A small metal pin with a number of grooves cut in a pre-determined equi-spaced pattern is implanted into the non-metallic object and by decoding the groove patterns using X-ray equipment, the object is uniquely identified. A specific example of such an application is in studying the migratory habits of fish. The pin inserted into the snout of the fish is 0.010 inch in diameter, 0.040 inch in length with 8 possible positions for grooves if spaced 0.005 inch apart. With 6 of the groove positions available for data, the capacity is 2 6 or 64 combinations; clearly longer pins would increase the data capacity. This method of identification is a major advance over previous techniques which necessitated destruction of the fish in order to recover the identification tag. (UK)

  18. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  19. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  20. An Integrated Approach for Identifying Priority Contaminant in the Great Lakes Basin –Investigations in the Lower Green Bay/Fox River and Milwaukee Estuary Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Prioritization of chemicals was performed on two Areas of Concerns in the Great Lakes An integrated risk surveillance and monitoring approach was applied Bio-effect...

  1. The Lower Danube River-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea: A pivotal area of major interest for the past, present and future of its fish fauna--A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bănăduc, Doru; Rey, Sonia; Trichkova, Teodora; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Curtean-Bănăduc, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The complex Danube-Black Sea geoecosystem, created by a unique combination of integrated biotopes and biocoenoses related forces and counter-forces in time and space, forms a rich "ichthyosystem". The equilibrium among the fish species captured in the Danube Delta reveals its structural and functional roles in the connectivity of the Danube and Black Sea. The key role of the delta is evidenced by the fact that 57.26% of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea fish species use two or three of the subsystems in terms of habitats. Therefore, this convergence area can be considered to be a dynamic and rich "ichthyosystem", with three subsystems. All three evolved interdependently, which permits their flexibility and adaptation in an interdependent way. The habitat heterogeneity, native economic and conservation priority fish species of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea have decreased significantly, and there are no indications that this trend will be halted soon. The Danube "sub-ichtyosystem" seems to be more directly affected than the others. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea "ichthyosystem" exhibits a significant level of flexibility, resilience and adaptation over geological time, but has become much more sensitive to environmental perturbations due to the last century of human impact. This "ichthyosystem" is affected by non-native fish species. The study area represents an interdependent ecological net, without which the specific "ichthyosystem" formed over geological time will disappear. The studied ecological net fish fauna is an accurate indicator of various human pressures. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea geoecosystem, in which the Danube Delta provides the pivotal habitat element, is the matrix for a unique "ichthyosystem." However, human impacts decrease its resilience and can induce its extinction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 31383 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCIES: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... current approach to evaluating and rating major capital investment projects (``New Starts'' and ``Small...'' to address identified transportation needs in the corridor without a major capital investment in new...

  3. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  4. Identifying suitable sites for Florida panther reintroduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2006-01-01

    A major objective of the 1995 Florida Panther (Puma concolor cory) Recovery Plan is the establishment of 2 additional panther populations within the historic range. Our goal was to identify prospective sites for Florida panther reintroduction within the historic range based on quantitative landscape assessments. First, we delineated 86 panther home ranges using telemetry data collected from 1981 to 2001 in south Florida to develop a Mahalanobis distance (D2) habitat model, using 4 anthropogenic variables and 3 landscape variables mapped at a 500-m resolution. From that analysis, we identified 9 potential reintroduction sites of sufficient size to support a panther population. We then developed a similar D2 model at a higher spatial resolution to quantify the area of favorable panther habitat at each site. To address potential for the population to expand, we calculated the amount of favorable habitat adjacent to each prospective reintroduction site within a range of dispersal distances of female panthers. We then added those totals to the contiguous patches to estimate the total amount of effective panther habitat at each site. Finally, we developed an expert-assisted model to rank and incorporate potentially important habitat variables that were not appropriate for our empirical analysis (e.g., area of public lands, livestock density). Anthropogenic factors heavily influenced both the landscape and the expert-assisted models. Of the 9 areas we identified, the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Ozark National Forest, and Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge regions had the highest combination of effective habitat area and expert opinion scores. Sensitivity analyses indicated that variability among key model parameters did not affect the high ranking of those sites. Those sites should be considered as starting points for the field evaluation of potential reintroduction sites.

  5. Global Microbial Identifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielinga, Peter; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    ) will likely also enable a much better understanding of the pathogenesis of the infection and the molecular basis of the host response to infection. But the full potential of these advances will only transpire if the data in this area become transferable and thereby comparable, preferably in open-source...... of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect outbreaks and emerging pathogens. To harness the full potential of WGS, a shared global database of genomes linked to relevant metadata and the necessary software tools needs to be generated, hence the global...... microbial identifier (GMI) initiative. This tool will ideally be used in amongst others in the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and animals, in the identification of microorganisms in food and environment, and to track and trace microbial agents in all arenas globally. This will require...

  6. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  7. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area

  8. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  9. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  10. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  11. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  12. O USO DE SISTEMAS DE INFORMAÇÕES GEOGRÁFICAS NA IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE ÁREAS PRIORITÁRIAS PARA RECUPERAÇÃO E APROVEITAMENTO MINERAL NO LITORAL NORTE DE SÃO PAULO - THE USE OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO IDENTIFY PRIORITY AREAS FOR RECOVERY AND MINERAL EXPLOITATION ON THE NORTH COAST OF SÃO PAULO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tadeu de Carvalho Gamba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O Litoral Norte paulista constitui um dos principais polos turísticos do Estado. A atividade de mineração, principalmente dos materiais de empréstimo (saibro, apesar de ter deixado um legado negativo ao longo dos últimos 30 anos, sempre serviu de suporte para o desenvolvimento urbano, o que possibilitou o incremento da atividade turística na região. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar e quantificar os remanescentes da mineração de saibro, que apresentassem degradação do meio ambiente e risco às comunidades locais, com o intuito de classificar estas áreas quanto ao seu potencial de aproveitamento para exploração de recursos minerais. Para isso lançou-se mão dos sistemas de informações geográficas para gerar um modelo digital de elevação, a partir de redes irregulares triangulares (TIN e se obter o volume das áreas. Posteriormente estas informações foram integradas com os dados de degradação e risco para se chegar ao potencial de aproveitamento das áreas para a mineração. Os resultados alcançados mostram que as 33% das 226 áreas mapeadas apresentam alto potencial para aproveitamento de bens minerais, sendo capazes de sustentar a demanda de suprimentos de baixo valor unitário utilizados na construção civil. O aproveitamento também pode trazer benefícios ambientais uma vez que é capaz de minimizar os riscos ambientais deixados pelas frentes de lavra abandonadas e restringir a ampliação das áreas mineradas. ABSTRACT The North Coast of São Paulo is one of the major tourist centers of the State. The mining activity, especially of borrow materials (saibro, despite having left a negative legacy over the past 30 years, has always been the support for urban development, which enabled the growth of tourism in the region. This study aimed to identify and quantify the remnants of saibro mining, with environmental degradation and risk to local communities in order to classify these areas by their potential

  13. Reduction of radiation area project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This plan deals with the overall reduction of outdoor surface radiation areas under Rockwell's jurisdiction. Four basic alternatives are identified which will reduce and/or stabilize radiation areas until long-term disposal decisions are made: (1) continued routine surveillance and maintenance; (2) reduction or elimination of effluent discharges; (3) improved site stabilization; and (4) site removal. The four major transport mechanisms at Hanford that are the primary forces for contamination spread are identified as wind, animal transport, concentration and dispersal by plants, and transport resulting from human activities

  14. Potential for extending major land resource areas into northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy S. Mann; Philip Heilman; Jeffry. Stone

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant history of cooperative efforts between Mexico and the United States on natural resource management issues. Mexico and the United States have jointly conducted research and developed range management technologies. Bringing these technologies together and improving technical communications are an ongoing process. This paper discusses a potential...

  15. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  16. UTILIDAD DEL BANDEO CROMOSÓMICO CON LA ENZIMA Alu I PARA LA IDENTIFICACIÓN DE ZONAS METILADAS EN LEUCEMIAS AGUDAS I UTILITY OF CHROMOSOME BANDING WITH Alu I ENZYME FOR IDENTIFYING METHYLATED AREAS IN ACUTE LEUKEMIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Quintero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemias are malignant hematopoietic cells of immature proliferations of the blastic type, whose progressive accumulation is accompanied by a decrease in the production of normal myeloid elements. Transcription of inactive tumor suppressor genes by hypermethylation of CpG islands in promoter regions, has been a focus of researchers as a causal factor in hematological malignancies. The purpose of this study was to determine hypermethylated regions of chromosomal spread samples using Alu I and relate these regions with sites of suppressor gene associated to acute leukemia tumors. From an analysis of a 30 bone marrow samples, 18 were diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Acute Lymphoid Leukemia, and 12 underwent cell culture. Chromosomal spreads were stained with Giemsa after being previously digested with the enzyme Alu I. In patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoid leukemia it was observed that 16/18 (88% and 12/12 (100% had abnormally stained regions, single in four and three methylated regions observed in acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoid leukemia, respectively, no association was found in the literature with methylated genes, which was highly significant ( p < 0.01 in both conditions. This shows the usefulness of this technique for the identification of methylated areas, since they have provided the foundation and the molecular basis for a better targeted therapeutic approach with demethylating agents, both in acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes.

  17. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  18. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Morgan, Craig D.; Bon, Roger L.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall production of

  19. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  20. Major planning enquiries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  1. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  2. Unity in Major Themes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  3. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To iden- tify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 ...

  4. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Stegenga, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue that different course patterns of MDD can be identified and that it is essential to examine their relationship to symptoms and function over time. Insight into these course patterns could assist in p...

  5. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  6. Radiograph identifying means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible character-indentable plastics embossing tape is backed by and bonded to a lead strip, not more than 0.025 inches thick, to form a tape suitable for identifying radiographs. The lead strip is itself backed by a relatively thin and flimsy plastics or fabric strip which, when removed, allows the lead plastic tape to be pressure-bonded to the surface to be radiographed. A conventional tape-embossing gun is used to indent the desired characters in succession into the lead-backed tape, without necessarily severing the lead; and then the backing strip is peeled away to expose the layer of adhesive which pressure-bonds the indented tape to the object to be radiographed. X-rays incident on the embossed tape will cause the raised characters to show up dark on the subsequently-developed film, whilst the raised side areas will show up white. Each character will thus stand out on the developed film. (author)

  7. The Ursa Major supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  8. All Conservation Opportunity Areas (ECO.RES.ALL_OP_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The All_OP_Areas GIS layer are all the Conservation Opportunity Areas identified by MoRAP (produced for EPA Region 7). They designate areas with potential for...

  9. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  10. 13 CFR 108.130 - Identified Low Income Geographic Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.130... intends to make Developmental Venture Capital investments and provide Operational Assistance under the...

  11. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  12. Major QTL Conferring Resistance to Rice Bacterial Leaf Streak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) is one of the important limiting factors to rice production in southern China and other tropical and sub-tropical areas in Asia. Resistance to BLS was found to be a quantitative trait and no major resistant gene was located in rice until date. In the present study, a new major quantitative trait locus (QTL) conferring resistance to BLS was identified from a highly resistant variety Dular by the employment of Dular/Balilla (DB) and Dular/IR24 (DI) segregation populations and was designated qBLSR-11-1. This QTL was located between the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers RM120 and RM441 on chromosome 11 and could account for 18.1-21.7% and 36.3% of the variance in DB and DI populations, respectively. The genetic pattern of rice resistance to BLS was discussed.

  13. Wabamun : a major inland spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The 2 largest spills in Canada this century have been in freshwater environments. This paper evaluated remedial actions taken after a spill which occurred on the shore of Lake Wabamun, Alberta. A freight train derailed in the residential area, spilling 750 m 3 of oil into the lake. The initial response was inadequate as the spilled material was not immediately identified as oil. Some containment booms were deployed. By mid-morning, the oil slick had spread 12 km, and was driven by the wind onto the beaches of cottages. The limited amount of response equipment during the early stages of the spill caused anxiety among residents, which was further compounded by a lack of governmental involvement. The experience of Wabamun showed that the methods of operation and skill sets of environmental response organizations that routinely respond to small spills cannot readily be applied to larger spills. Plans by the railway for the Wabamun area were generic and did not focus on any particular response scenario. Limitations in the Transportation of Dangerous Good were noted, as the 2 substances which spilled were not identified as requiring labels. Various data gaps were identified concerning spills involving high density viscous oil; the dynamics of near neutral density oil; the flowing of hot product; interaction of fine sediments; and the cutting of reed beds. It was concluded that new detection technologies and response technologies are required concerning the detection of oil in water, the collection and removal of oil, and tar formation. The development of a new emergency response agency was recommended, as well as the establishment of a new research and technical information institute and incident command structure (ICS). 22 refs., 3 figs

  14. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  15. Leishmania in the Old World: 1. The geographical and hostal distribution of L. major zymodemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blancq, S M; Schnur, L F; Peters, W

    1986-01-01

    135 stocks of Leishmania major from man, reservoir hosts and sandflies were characterized using thin-layer starch-gel electrophoresis of 13 enzymes: MDH, 6PGD, GD, SOD, ASAT, ALAT, PK, PGM, ES, NH, PEPD, MPI, GPI. Homogeneity in this species was demonstrated by identical electrophoretic mobilities in nine enzymes. Polymorphism in four enzymes: 6PGD, GPI, PEPD, ES, gave six zymodemes among the collection. Stocks from sandflies and several species of burrowing rodents were indistinguishable from those from man in the same areas. Stocks of Leishmania from North-West India were identified as L. major. In some foci the distribution of zymodemes has some correlation with the presence of particular rodent reservoir hosts. The enzymic homogeneity of L. major throughout its geographical and host range appears to be correlated with the close association between L. major and sandflies of the subgenus Phlebotomus. The status of L. major as a distinct species is supported.

  16. PM 10 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...

  17. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  18. SO2 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide and have...

  19. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  1. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine year-to-year developments in the operations of 26 major US energy companies on a corporate level and also by major line of energy business and by major functions within each line of business. The period covered is 1977 to 1979. Comparisons of income and investment flow are featured and related to functionally allocated net investment in place. The presentation seeks to identify similarities and dissimilarities in results across lines-of-business activity or by firm size

  2. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.; Morgan, Craig D.; McClure, Kevin; Willis, Grant C.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m 3 ). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m 3 ) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to Arizona. Outcrop analogs are

  3. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  4. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  5. Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanini Evelim Coelho

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemiológicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas.In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

  6. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  7. Neural correlates of treatment outcome in major depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lisiecka, Danuta

    2012-02-01

    There is a need to identify clinically useful biomarkers in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this context the functional connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) to other areas of the affect regulation circuit is of interest. The aim of this study was to identify neural changes during antidepressant treatment and correlates associated with the treatment outcome. In an exploratory analysis it was investigated whether functional connectivity measures moderated a response to mirtazapine and venlafaxine. Twenty-three drug-free patients with MDD were recruited from the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich. The patients were subjected to a 4-wk randomized clinical trial with two common antidepressants, venlafaxine or mirtazapine. Functional connectivity of the OFC, derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging with an emotional face-matching task, was measured before and after the trial. Higher OFC connectivity with the left motor areas and the OFC regions prior to the trial characterized responders (p<0.05, false discovery rate). The treatment non-responders were characterized by higher OFC-cerebellum connectivity. The strength of response was positively correlated with functional coupling between left OFC and the caudate nuclei and thalami. Differences in longitudinal changes were detected between venlafaxine and mirtazapine treatment in the motor areas, cerebellum, cingulate gyrus and angular gyrus. These results indicate that OFC functional connectivity might be useful as a marker for therapy response to mirtazapine and venlafaxine and to reconstruct the differences in their mechanism of action.

  8. Thalassaemia major and the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malcolm Walker

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of haemoglobin synthesis are the commonest monogenetic disorders worldwide. When first described, thalassaemia was universally fatal in childhood, but after the adoption of regular blood transfusion survival until early teenage and adulthood was to be expected. At that stage in the life of these affected individuals organ failure followed, due to accumulated iron, for which the human has no excretory capacity. Principal amongst the tissues affected by iron overload is the heart and even to the present day, heart disease accounts for the overwhelming majority of premature deaths in this population. Managing transfusion derived iron overload was the next hurdle for clinicians and the families of the patients. For nearly four decades the only available treatment was the demanding regime of parenteral chelation therapy, required on a daily basis, to achieve growth, development and survival with limited or no organ damage. Despite the adoption of these treatment strategies the outlook for thalassaemia patients remained poor, with a 30% to 40% mortality occurring between late teenage and 30 years of age, even in well organised health care systems, such as in the UK, where regular transfusion and desferioxamine treatment were readily available. This dreadful early mortality, largely as a consequence of myocardial iron overload, (1,2 is now improving so that in the UK and other developed nations, heart failure in thalassaemic patients has become uncommon and premature death a much rarer tragedy. This editorial reviews, from a personal viewpoint of a cardiologist involved in the care of these patients for the last 20 years, the progress in the management of the cardiovascular complications of thalassaemia major (TM, which has followed better techniques of identifying those thalassaemic individuals at greatest risk, improved chelation strategies making best use of the three chelating agents that are now available and improved co

  9. Complete Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic maps of the Rattlesnake Roadless Area, Missoula County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Dolores M.

    1986-01-01

    The Rattlesnake Roadless Area was identified by the U.S. Forest Service as a possible addition to the Wilderness System.  This 120 square mile area is north of Missoula, Mont. (see index map); Rattlesnake Creek forms the major drainage to the south.

  10. A checklist of the flora of Shanjan protected area, East Azerbaijan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flora of protected Shanjan rangeland in Shabestar district, Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran was studied using a 1 m x 1 m quadrate in spring and summer 2011. The climate of this area is cold and dry. In this area 94 plant species belonging to 25 families were identified as constituting the major part of the vegetation.

  11. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  12. Generalized Anxiety and Major Depressive syndrome measured by the SCL-90-R in Two Manganese (Mn) Exposed Ohio Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause generalized anxiety (GA) and major depression (MD) in residents living in Mn-exposed areas. Marietta and East Liverpool are two Ohio towns identified as having elevated levels of Mn. The objective was to determine if l...

  13. Identifying Depression on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem, Moin

    2016-01-01

    Social media has recently emerged as a premier method to disseminate information online. Through these online networks, tens of millions of individuals communicate their thoughts, personal experiences, and social ideals. We therefore explore the potential of social media to predict, even prior to onset, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in online personas. We employ a crowdsourced method to compile a list of Twitter users who profess to being diagnosed with depression. Using up to a year of pri...

  14. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  15. THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

    IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs

  17. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  18. Dynamics of Major Cereals Productivity in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaya Gairhe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cereal crops have played major roles in addressing food security issues in Nepal. In recent years there have been fluctuations in crop production and demands situations due to various reasons. Thus, the present study aims to analyze the dynamics of major cereals productivity in Nepal from 1995 to 2014. Focus group discussions were done in mid-hills and tarai of Nepal in 2015. Percentage change, compound growth rate, annual rate of change, coefficient of variation, instability index were calculated to analyze results. The result shows that the area, production and productivity of major cereals had an increasing trend over the study period. The major factors contributing on productivity increase in cereal crops were irrigation facilities, use of improved and hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizer and better technical knowhow among the farmers. For effective adoption of research outputs to improve the productivity emphasis should also be given on promotion of public private partnership (PPP in research and development.

  19. Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.

  20. Identifying patient risks during hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Ferreira Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the risks reported at a public institution andto know the main patient risks from the nursing staff point of view.Methods: A retrospective, descriptive and exploratory study. Thesurvey was developed at a hospital in the city of Taboão da Serra, SãoPaulo, Brazil. The study included all nurses working in care areas whoagreed to participate in the study. At the same time, sentinel eventsoccurring in the period from July 2006 to July 2007 were identified.Results: There were 440 sentinel events reported, and the main risksincluded patient falls, medication errors and pressure ulcers. Sixty-fivenurses were interviewed. They also reported patient falls, medicationerrors and pressure ulcers as the main risks. Conclusions: Riskassessment and implementation of effective preventive actions arenecessary to ensure patient’s safety. Involvement of a multidisciplinaryteam is one of the steps for a successful process.

  1. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Rosen, K.; Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L.

    2002-01-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  2. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Rantavaara, A. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland); Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  3. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  4. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  5. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  6. Generalized Anxiety and Major Depressive syndrome ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause generalized anxiety (GA) and major depression (MD) in residents living in Mn-exposed areas. Marietta and East Liverpool are two Ohio towns identified as having elevated levels of Mn. The objective was to determine if levels of Mn exposure were associated with levels of GA and MD.Participants and methods: 186 participants (Mean age: 55.0 ± 10.80) were examined. Levels of air-Mn were assessed over a period of ten years using U.S. EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model. Average air-Mn exposure was 0.53 μg/m3 in the two towns. The GA syndrome was comprised of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and phobic scales from the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). The MD syndrome was comprised of depression, anxiety, and psychoticism scales also from the SCL-90-R. Linear regression models were used to determine the relationship between Mn and GA, MD and the specific components of each.Results: Elevated air-Mn was associated with GA (β= 0.240, p=0.002), and MD (β= 0.202, p=0.011). Air-Mn was associated with specific components of GA anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), phobic anxiety (β= 0.159, p=0.046), and obsessive-compulsive (β= 0.197, p=0.013). Similarly, components of MD syndrome suggested an association as well: depression (β= 0.180, p=0.023), anxiety (β= 0.255, p=0.001), and psychoticism (β= 0.188, p=0.018). Conclusions: The results suggest that residents with elevated exposure to environmental Mn have elevated levels of

  7. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  8. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  9. Identifying city PV roof resource based on Gabor filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhang, Xu; Zhilin, Liu; Yong, Huang; Xiaoyu, Zhang

    2017-06-01

    To identify a city’s PV roof resources, the area and ownership distribution of residential buildings in an urban district should be assessed. To achieve this assessment, remote sensing data analysing is a promising approach. Urban building roof area estimation is a major topic for remote sensing image information extraction. There are normally three ways to solve this problem. The first way is pixel-based analysis, which is based on mathematical morphology or statistical methods; the second way is object-based analysis, which is able to combine semantic information and expert knowledge; the third way is signal-processing view method. This paper presented a Gabor filter based method. This result shows that the method is fast and with proper accuracy.

  10. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    tyrosine kinases with an SH3, SH2 and catalytic domain, it lacks a native myristylation signal shared by most members of this class [14], [38]. The...therapeutics and consequently, improve clinical outcomes. We aim to identify novel drivers of breast oncogenesis. We hypothesize that a kinase gain-of...human mammary epithelial cells. A pBabe-Puro-Myr-Flag kinase open reading frame (ORF) library was screened in immortalized human mammary epithelial

  11. CONSERVATION. Genetic assignment of large seizures of elephant ivory reveals Africa's major poaching hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, S K; Brown, L; Mailand, C; Mondol, S; Clark, W; Laurie, C; Weir, B S

    2015-07-03

    Poaching of elephants is now occurring at rates that threaten African populations with extinction. Identifying the number and location of Africa's major poaching hotspots may assist efforts to end poaching and facilitate recovery of elephant populations. We genetically assign origin to 28 large ivory seizures (≥0.5 metric tons) made between 1996 and 2014, also testing assignment accuracy. Results suggest that the major poaching hotspots in Africa may be currently concentrated in as few as two areas. Increasing law enforcement in these two hotspots could help curtail future elephant losses across Africa and disrupt this organized transnational crime. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. beta-thalassaemia major hos børn og unge i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Anne; Main, Katharina Maria; Scheibel, Elma

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Beta-thalassemia major occurs with increasing frequency among Danish children as a result of immigration. The aim of the study was to estimate the occurrence of beta-thalassemia major in Denmark, analyse the treatment and organ functions, and identify areas for an improved treatment...... strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During 1998-99 all Danish pediatric departments were contacted for identification of children aged 0-18 years with beta-thalassemia major. Blood transfusions and chelation therapy were registered, and for Eastern Denmark clinical, endocrine, cardiac, and serologic parameters...... were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-six children had beta-thalassemia major. Out of these, 20 received blood transfusions, and 17 patients were chelated. Eight patients were not chelated owing to previous bone marrow transplantation, treatment with hydroxyurea or ferritin

  13. Beta-thalassaemia major hos børn og unge i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, A.; Main, K.M.; Scheibel, E.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Beta-thalassemia major occurs with increasing frequency among Danish children as a result of immigration. The aim of the study was to estimate the occurrence of beta-thalassemia major in Denmark, analyse the treatment and organ functions, and identify areas for an improved treatment...... strategy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During 1998-99 all Danish pediatric departments were contacted for identification of children aged 0-18 years with beta-thalassemia major. Blood transfusions and chelation therapy were registered, and for Eastern Denmark clinical, endocrine, cardiac, and serologic parameters...... were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-six children had beta-thalassemia major. Out of these, 20 received blood transfusions, and 17 patients were chelated. Eight patients were not chelated owing to previous bone marrow transplantation, treatment with hydroxyurea or ferritin

  14. Identifying phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the possibility of finding evidence that phenomenal consciousness is independent of access. The suggestion reviewed is that we should look for isomorphisms between phenomenal and neural activation spaces. It is argued that the fact that phenomenal spaces are mapped via verbal report is no problem for this methodology. The fact that activation and phenomenal space are mapped via different means does not mean that they cannot be identified. The paper finishes by examining how data addressing this theoretical question could be obtained.

  15. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management`s (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area`s (IIA) two program elements: RDDT&E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation.

  16. 34 CFR 691.17 - Determination of eligible majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCESS TO RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Application Procedures § 691.17... list of eligible majors identified by CIP code. (d) Designation of an additional eligible major. (1... include— (i) The CIP code and program title of the additional major; (ii) The reason or reasons the...

  17. The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangos, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

  18. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  19. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  20. 77 FR 55221 - Louisiana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Louisiana resulting from Hurricane... following areas of the State of Louisiana have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  1. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. The pectoralis major footprint: An anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio de Figueired

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon to the humerus, through knowledge of its dimensions in the coronal and sagittal planes. Methods: Twenty shoulders from 10 cadavers were dissected and the pectoralis major tendon insertion on the humerus was identified and isolated. The dimensions of its "footprint" (proximal to distal and medial to lateral borders and the distance from the top edge of the pectoralis major tendon to apex of the humeral head structures were measured. Results: The average proximal to distal border length was 80.8 mm (range: 70 -90 and the medial-to-lateral border length was 6.1 mm (5 -7. The average distance (and range from the apex of the pectoralis major tendon to the humeral head was 59.3 mm. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon is laminar, and the pectoralis major tendon has an average footprint height and width of 80.8 mm and 6.1 mm, respectively.

  3. MAJOR TRENDS OF THE INTERNAL AUDIT FUNCTION IN CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Iulia ZINCA (VOICULESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given that the economic landscape becomes more and more complex and dynamic, the internal audit plays an increasing role, being considered a pillar of the corporate governance structure of credit institutions. Failures of risk management have demonstrated the important role of internal audit and the need for it to evolve and to meet the multiple expectations of the stakeholders. Beyond the core assurance provided by internal audit relating to risk and controls, these expectations include providing a deeper insight and value, particularly in the areas of strategy achievement, emerging risks and use of advanced data analysis. This paper aims to identify the major challenges encountered by the internal audit function in credit institutions in the current period and the ways in which internal audit can respond to these challenges, to deliver according to the growing expectations on corporate governance and to actively support the organizations in achieving a steady and sound development.

  4. MAJOR TRENDS OF THE INTERNAL AUDIT FUNCTION IN CREDIT INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Iulia ZINCA (VOICULESCU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that the economic landscape becomes more and more complex and dynamic, the internal audit plays an increasing role, being considered a pillar of the corporate governance structure of credit institutions. Failures of risk management have demonstrated the important role of internal audit and the need for it to evolve and to meet the multiple expectations of the stakeholders. Beyond the core assurance provided by internal audit relating to risk and controls, these expectations include providing a deeper insight and value, particularly in the areas of strategy achievement, emerging risks and use of advanced data analysis. This paper aims to identify the major challenges encountered by the internal audit function in credit institutions in the current period and the ways in which internal audit can respond to these challenges, to deliver according to the growing expectations on corporate governance and to actively support the organizations in achieving a steady and sound development.

  5. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  6. Identifi cation of Sectarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinovich Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available «New religious movements and society» is traditionally one of the most sophisticated topics in the area of new religions studies. Its problem field is so huge that up to now by far not all important research themes where even touched by scientists from all over the world. The problem of the process of the identification of sectarianism by diff erent societal institutions is one of such untouched themes that is taken as the main subject of this article. This process by itself is an inseparable part of the every societal deliberate reaction to the very existence of unconventional religiosity, its unstructured and mainly structured types. The focal point of the article is step-by-step analysis of the general structure elements of the process of the identification of sectarianism without any reference to the specific time and place of its flow. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the subjects of the identification of sectarianism, to the criteria for religious groups to be qualified as new religious movements, and to the specific features of the process of documents filtration. The causes of selective perception of sectarianism are disclosed. Some main consequences and unpredictable outcomes of the process of the identification of sectarianism are described.

  7. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  8. Unconventional Internships for English Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Don H.

    After five years of research, the English department at St. Cloud (Minnesota) State University created an internship program for English majors. The philosophy behind the program is that the typical experience of the English major in college is excellent preparation for what the college graduate will be doing in most careers in business,…

  9. Do You Have Major Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  10. Frequent flyer business travelers: major exposure hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Olga S; Randolph, Susan A; Ostendorf, Judith S

    2005-02-01

    Bagshaw (2004) notes "the modern commercial aircraft cabin is maintained with adequate environmental control for the comfort of most healthy individuals" (p. 417). Occupational health nurses frequently deal with a population that may include unhealthy individuals or those with pre-existing conditions. It is critical for occupational health nurses to stay current with major hazards faced by frequent flyer business travelers to assist in identifying and preventing adverse health effects associated with these exposures.

  11. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Warner Henning

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28 than nonmusic majors (0/35 exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage.

  12. USING DENDROCHRONOLOGY TO IDENTIFY MAJOR ICE STORM EVENTS IN OAK FORESTS OF SOUTHWESTERN VIRGINIA. (R825157)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  14. Extended exome sequencing identifies BACH2 as a novel major risk locus for Addison's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, D.; Bianchi, Matteo; Landegren, Nils; Nordin, Jessika; Dalin, Frida; Mathioudaki, Argyri; Eriksson, G. N.; Hultin-Rosenberg, Lina; Dahlqvist, Johanna; Zetterqvist, H.; Karlsson, Andreas; Hallgren, Anna; Farias, F. H. G.; Murén, Eva; Ahlgren, Kerstin M.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAutoimmune disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Addisons disease, the adrenal glands are targeted by destructive autoimmunity. Despite being the most common cause of primary adrenal failure, little is known about its aetiology. MethodsTo understand the genetic background of Addisons disease, we utilized the extensively characterized patients of the Swedish Addison Registry. We developed an extended exome capture array comprising a selected se...

  15. Gas-fired cogeneration and cooling: new study identifies major benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, G.

    2001-01-01

    A research paper- 'Gas Fired Cogeneration and Cooling: Markets, Technologies and Greenhouse Gas Savings'- launched at last month's Australian Gas Association 2001 Convention, reveals that gas cooling could replace 25 PJ of electricity summer demand, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 58 percent compared with electrical technologies. Commissioned by the AGA's Gas Cooling Task Force and supported by the Sustainable Energy Authority of Victoria and the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of NSW, the study examined market opportunities and environmental outcomes for the combined gas cogeneration and cooling technologies. It shows that the penetration of gas into the distributed cooling and power generation market is being driven by the following developments: the uncertainty and volatility of electricity costs, particularly during summer, electricity market structural changes which encourage distributed generation, high and uncertain world oil prices, the relative stability of Australian gas prices, the encouragement of demand and energy management strategies by regulators, greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, indoor air quality issues, product and productivity improvements in industry and CFC phase-out opportunities

  16. Evaluation of Quality and Readability of Health Information Websites Identified through India's Major Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S; Sharma, V L; Singh, A J; Goel, S

    2016-01-01

    Background. The available health information on websites should be reliable and accurate in order to make informed decisions by community. This study was done to assess the quality and readability of health information websites on World Wide Web in India. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. The key words "Health" and "Information" were used on search engines "Google" and "Yahoo." Out of 50 websites (25 from each search engines), after exclusion, 32 websites were evaluated. LIDA tool was used to assess the quality whereas the readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and SMOG. Results. Forty percent of websites (n = 13) were sponsored by government. Health On the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification was present on 50% (n = 16) of websites. The mean LIDA score (74.31) was average. Only 3 websites scored high on LIDA score. Only five had readability scores at recommended sixth-grade level. Conclusion. Most health information websites had average quality especially in terms of usability and reliability and were written at high readability levels. Efforts are needed to develop the health information websites which can help general population in informed decision making.

  17. Can Pre-Service Physical Education Majors Identify Learning Standards during Authentic Teaching Episodes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Mike; Foley, John; MacDonald, Lynn Couturier; Howarth, Kath

    2014-01-01

    Only a handful of research studies have been conducted to determine whether or not physical educators or pre-service physical education teachers are utilizing learning standards in their teaching. While pre-service teachers are typically required to align lesson objectives and content, their extent of their understanding of how learning standards…

  18. Identifying core, exciting, and hybrid attributes in fans' assessments of major (World Cup) spectator sports events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Li-Shiue

    2013-12-01

    This paper adopts a methodology of asymmetrical analyses to investigate the relevant importance of spectator sport attributes in terms of their non-linear associations with the benefits that fans experience while watching sports. Questionnaires tapping 16 attributes (e.g., teamwork, sportsmanship, level of competition) and 16 benefits (e.g., good mood, exciting experience, support for my favorite team) were distributed to a sample of fans at the outdoor broadcast of the 2010 World Cup final game at the National Stadium in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 427 participants rated the importance and benefit of each attribute experienced from watching the game. Attributes were categorized as core, exciting, or hybrid attributes. The star player was the core attribute; rivalry, popularity, and coach were the exciting attributes; and the other 12 attributes were hybrid. Two-dimensional space analyses showed that attributes "sportsmanship, teamwork, and supporting a team" were both explicitly and implicitly important attributes. The methodology of asymmetrical analyses can help managers prioritize the focus of attributes and allocate resources effectively.

  19. The Adrenal Vein Sampling International Study (AVIS) for identifying the major subtypes of primary aldosteronism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, G.P.; Barisa, M.; Allolio, B.; Auchus, R.J.; Amar, L.; Cohen, D.; Degenhart, C.; Deinum, J.; Fischer, E.; Gordon, R.; Kickuth, R.; Kline, G.; Lacroix, A.; Magill, S.; Miotto, D.; Naruse, M.; Nishikawa, T.; Omura, M.; Pimenta, E.; Plouin, P.F.; Quinkler, M.; Reincke, M.; Rossi, E.; Rump, L.C.; Satoh, F.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Seccia, T.M.; Stowasser, M.; Tanabe, A.; Trerotola, S.; Vonend, O.; Widimsky Jr, J.; Wu, K.D.; Wu, V.C.; Pessina, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: In patients who seek surgical cure of primary aldosteronism (PA), The Endocrine Society Guidelines recommend the use of adrenal vein sampling (AVS), which is invasive, technically challenging, difficult to interpret, and commonly held to be risky. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to

  20. Impact of Industrial Releases on Inshas Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Messiry, A.M.; Aly, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two Egyptian research reactors are located within the nuclear research center at Inshas area, 30 km north east of Cairo. This area are crowded by different industrial plants. The releases from them has a hazardous and economical effects on the research center workers and the surrounding inhabitancy. In the present work we study these effects. A meteorological regional specific data is considered all over the year, including a wind rose characterization. The study considered both normal operating conditions and an accidental releases. The results shows that there are a considerable risk due to normal releases in some areas downwind direction of the major releases, and a highly risk in areas subjected to major exposure. Regional maps of emission distribution, economical damage , pollutant concentration are obtained. The study helps to identify solutions to problems of atmospheric protection. It can be used as a decision support for the environmental, economic, and innovation planning at the national levels taking into consideration the national pollution standards and variety of existing emission sources

  1. Improving the key biodiversity areas approach for effective conservation planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Knight, AT

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The key biodiversity areas (KBA) approach aims to identify globally important areas for species conservation. Although a similar methodology has been used successfully to identify important Bird Areas, the authors have identified five limitations...

  2. Stenting of major airway constriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaomei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures

  3. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  4. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  5. Liquid in the major incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Jaramillo, Diego Alberto; Ortega Jaramillo, Hector

    2003-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with spill pleural extending in the left major incision. In the chest thorax PA, we could observe one of the complex radiographic appearances that take the reconfiguration of fluid in this localization, being this appearance dependent of the patient's position. Some points are also discussed on the anatomy of the major incisions and some of their radiographic characteristics

  6. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  7. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 04 - HUC 08 - Majors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of 81 watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Major Watersheds....

  8. Usage of Major Heuristics in Property Investment Valuation in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Key words: Investment Valuation, Major Heuristics, Nigeria,. Property. ... given, estimated, or implied and then proceeds to use this information as the basis of ..... study areas take into account the effect of costly floor and wall finishes in their ...

  9. Innovation investment area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The mission of Environmental Management's (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Innovation Investment Area is to identify and provide development support for two types of technologies that are developed to characterize, treat and dispose of DOE waste, and to remediate contaminated sites. They are: technologies that show promise to address specific EM needs, but require proof-of-principle experimentation; and (2) already proven technologies in other fields that require critical path experimentation to demonstrate feasibility for adaptation to specific EM needs. The underlying strategy is to ensure that private industry, other Federal Agencies, universities, and DOE National Laboratories are major participants in developing and deploying new and emerging technologies. To this end, about 125 different new and emerging technologies are being developed through Innovation Investment Area's (IIA) two program elements: RDDT ampersand E New Initiatives (RD01) and Interagency Agreements (RD02). Both of these activities are intended to foster research and development partnerships so as to introduce innovative technologies into other OTD program elements for expedited evaluation

  10. Turning Weaknesses into Strengths: Nordic Tourism, Potentials for Growth and Major Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genc

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nordic region is a geographical area which is characterized by a combination of nature, culture, history and technology and regarded as a common entity in political, economical and historical sense. Although rich in its resources, Nordic tourism has not actualized its potential in full. The present paper aims to identify weaknesses of the region, to outline a new set of directions for improving Nordic tourism and to delineate major challenges. Its geographical and natural beauties, cultural characteristics, technological advancement and policy development are identified as assets for tourism advancement in the region. Winter tourism, adventure tourism, nature-based tourism and cultural tourism are demonstrated as potential routes of growth. Marketing strategies and changing trends are discussed as major challenges, with suggestions for implementation.

  11. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  12. Polar marine ecosystems: major threats and future change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, A. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Harris, C.M. [Environmental Research and Assessment, Grantchester (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This review of polar marine ecosystems covers both the Arctic and Antarctic, identifying the major threats and, where possible, predicting their possible state(s) in 2025. Although the two polar regions are similar in their extreme photoperiod, low temperatures, and in being heavily influenced by snow and ice, in almost all other respects they are very different. The Arctic Ocean is a basin surrounded by continental landmasses close to, and influenced by, large populations and industrial activities. In contrast, the Southern Ocean is contiguous with all the other great oceans and surrounds a single land mass; Antarctica is remote from major centres of population and sources of pollution. Marine environments in both Polar Regions have been highly disturbed by fishing activity, but, in terms of pollution, some areas remain among the most pristine in the world. There are, however, both local and global pressures. Over the 2025 time horizon, the greatest concern for the Arctic is probably the ecological implications of climate change, particularly insofar as sea ice extent and duration are likely to be affected. Such changes are not expected to be as pronounced in the Southern Ocean over this time period, and concerns are related more to direct threats from harvesting of marine living resources, and the ability to manage these fisheries sustainably. In both Polar Regions, the capacity of marine ecosystems to withstand the cumulative impact of a number of pressures, including climate change, pollution and overexploitation, acting synergistically is of greatest concern. (author)

  13. A student's guide to Einstein's major papers

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the physical universe underwent a revolution in the early twentieth century - evolving from the classical physics of Newton, Galileo, and Maxwell to the modern physics of relativity and quantum mechanics. The dominant figure in this revolutionary change was Albert Einstein. In a single year, 1905, Einstein produced breakthrough works in three areas of physics: on the size and the effects of atoms; on the quantization of the electromagnetic field; and on the special theory of relativity. In 1916 he produced a fourth breakthrough work, the general theory of relativity. A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers focuses on Einstein's contributions, setting his major works into their historical context, and then takes the reader through the details of each paper, including the mathematics. This book helps the reader appreciate the simplicity and insightfulness of Einstein's ideas and how revolutionary his work was, and locate it in the evolution of scientific thought begun by the ancient...

  14. Personality, academic majors and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...

  15. 76 FR 44029 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    .... FEMA-1986-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1986-DR), dated May 20, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm...

  16. 75 FR 30418 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1914-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1914-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from a severe winter storm on April 2, 2010...

  17. 76 FR 34089 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... FEMA-1981-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-1981-DR), dated May 10, 2011...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota resulting...

  18. 78 FR 67381 - North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    .... FEMA-4154-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] North Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Dakota (FEMA-4154-DR), dated October 31, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of North Dakota...

  19. 75 FR 30420 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    .... FEMA-1915-DR;Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1915-DR), dated May 13, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on March 10, 2010...

  20. 75 FR 47612 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    .... FEMA-1929-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1929-DR), dated July 29, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from...

  1. 75 FR 71453 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    .... FEMA-1947-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2010-0002] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1947-DR), dated November 2, 2010, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota...

  2. 76 FR 36140 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    .... FEMA-1984-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1984-DR), dated May 13, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning on...

  3. 78 FR 72093 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    .... FEMA-4155-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2013-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-4155-DR), dated November 8, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota...

  4. College of Business Majors' Perceptions toward Globalization: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janavaras, Basil; Kuzma, John; Thiewes, Harold

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which business majors' attitudes towards globalization are influenced by the area of selected study. Research has documented that more favorable attitudes towards globalization are found among college students, and specifically, these more favorable attitudes are found in business majors.…

  5. 78 FR 32414 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  6. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  7. Major disruption process in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Tuda, Takashi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Tokuda, Shinji; Itoh, Kimitaka; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-11-01

    The major disruption in a cylindrical tokamak is investigated by using the multi-helicity code, and the destabilization of the 3/2 mode by the mode coupling with the 2/1 mode is confirmed. The evolution of the magnetic field topology caused by the major disruption is studied in detail. The effect of the internal disruption on the 2/1 magnetic island width is also studied. The 2/1 magnetic island is not enhanced by the flattening of the q-profile due to the internal disruption. (author)

  8. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Reed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS and Software Engineering (SE majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic performance, and increased satisfaction for their participants. In this paper, pair programming is studied with Management Information Systems (MIS majors, who (unlike CS and SE majors taking several programming courses typically take only one programming course and often struggle to develop advanced programming skills within that single course. The researchers conducted two pair programming experiments in an introductory software development course for MIS majors over three semesters to determine if pair programming could enhance learning for MIS students. The program results, researchers’ direct observations, and participants’ responses to a survey questionnaire were analyzed after each experiment. The results indicate that pair programming appears to be beneficial to MIS students’ technical productivity and program design quality, specifically the ability to create programs using high-level concepts. Additionally, results confirmed increased student satisfaction and reduced frustration, as the pairs worked collaboratively to produce a program while actively communicating and enjoying the process.

  9. Biotransformation of major ginsenosides into compound K by a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotransformation of major ginsenosides into compound K by a new Penicillium dipodomyicola ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... ginsenoside Rb1 to minor ginsenosides compound K. The transformation products were identified by thin ...

  10. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  11. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  12. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue

  13. Rediscovering Major N. Clark Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Reginald T.

    1985-01-01

    Historians of American music education have yet to recognize a Black music educator as important and worthy of observation. This article discusses a candidate--Major Nathaniel Clark Smith, a little-known Black music educator, composer of more than a hundred works, businessman, humanitarian, and teacher of numerous big-name jazz musicians. (RM)

  14. Endocrinopathies in thalassemia major patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, D. A.; Yunir, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    Advanced in chelation therapy and regular blood transfusion have marked improvements in the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia major, however these patients still have to deal with several complications. We report a 19-year-old male, presented with multiple endocrine complication-related thalassemia; hypogonadism, short stature, osteoporosis with history of fracture, and subclinical hypothyroid.

  15. Physics momentum 'stars' draw majors

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindström, I

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of University of Arizona students declaring physics as their major has doubled, amid a national decline. According to a recent report by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, it is the university's dedication to its undergraduate physics program which draws students in (1 page).

  16. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  17. Dirichlet polynomials, majorization, and trumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Rajesh; Plosker, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Majorization and trumping are two partial orders which have proved useful in quantum information theory. We show some relations between these two partial orders and generalized Dirichlet polynomials, Mellin transforms, and completely monotone functions. These relations are used to prove a succinct generalization of Turgut’s characterization of trumping. (paper)

  18. Managemant of NASA's major projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches used to manage major projects are studied and the existing documents on NASA management are reviewed. The work consists of: (1) the project manager's role, (2) request for proposal, (3) project plan, (4) management information system, (5) project organizational thinking, (6) management disciplines, (7) important decisions, and (8) low cost approach.

  19. Quality of care in the management of major obstetric haemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, S N

    2012-02-01

    Substandard care is reported to occur in a large number of cases of major obstetric haemorrhage (MOH). A prospective audit was carried out by a multidisciplinary team at our hospital over a one year period to assess the quality of care (QOC) delivered to women experiencing MOH. MOH was defined according to criteria outlined in the Scottish Audit of Maternal Morbidity (SAMM). 31 cases were identified yielding an incidence of 3.5\\/1000 deliveries. The predominant causes were uterine atony 11 (35.4%), retained products of conception 6 (19.3%) and placenta praevia\\/accreta 6 (19.3%). Excellent initial resuscitation and monitoring was noted with a high level of senior staff input. Indicators of QOC compared favourably with the SAMM. Areas for improvement were identified. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of detailed prospective data collection in MOH in a busy Dublin obstetric unit with a view to developing a national audit. Standardization of definitions allows for international comparisons.

  20. Geophysical borehole logging in selected areas in the Greater Accra plains and the Densu river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, E. A.

    2009-06-01

    Geophysical borehole logging was complemented by Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method to study fractured bedrock aquifer systems on the compounds of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Water Research Institute (WRI) in the Accra Plains and the Hydrometric Station of the Department of Geology, University of Ghana at Buokrom in the Densu River Basin. Single-point resistance, resistivity and natural gamma logging in a total of nine boreholes were conducted to identify and characterize the various aquifers in the study areas. Results obtained from the single-point resistance and resistivity logs showed clearly the characteristics of water-bearing fracture zones in the various rock formations. The gamma logs obtained for each area were correlated to form hydrostratigraphic units to establish potential zones of high water-bearing fractures. VES modeled curves shows hydrogeological units of the geological formation which compares well with features obtained on the logs. The investigation identified fractured zone thicknesses of <1 m to 2 m at GAEC area, <1 m to 9 m at WRI area and <1 m to 10 m thicknesses at the Buokrom area. The fractured bedrock aquifers identified have been characterized based on their thicknesses as follows. Five minor (thickness < 5 m), two medium (thickness 5 m to 14 m) and three major (thickness ⩾15 m) fractures were identified at the GAEC area. At the WRI area three minor and five medium fractures were identified. Also four minor and five medium fractures were identified for the Buokrom area boreholes. (au)