WorldWideScience

Sample records for identify key technology

  1. Risk and Performance Technologies: Identifying the Keys to Successful Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, Lynn; Smith, Art; O'Regan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has been utilizing risk and performance based technologies for over thirty years. Applications of these technologies have included risk assessment (e.g. Individual Plant Examinations), burden reduction (e.g. Risk-Informed Inservice Inspection, RI-ISI) and risk management (Maintenance Rule, 10CFR50.65). Over the last five to ten years the number of risk-informed (RI) burden reduction initiatives has increased. Unfortunately, the efficiencies of some of these applications have been questionable. This paper investigates those attributes necessary to support successful, cost-effective RI-applications. The premise to this paper is that by understanding the key attributes that support one successful application, insights can be gleaned that will streamline/coordinate future RI-applications. This paper is an extension to a paper presented at the Pressure Vessel and Piping (PVP-2001) Conference. In that paper, a number issues and opportunities were identified that needed to be assessed in order to support future (and efficient) RI-applications. It was noted in the paper that a proper understanding and resolution of these issues will facilitate implementation of risk and performance technology in the operation, maintenance and design disciplines. In addition, it will provide the foundation necessary to support regulatory review and approval. (authors)

  2. Identifying key performance indicators in food technology contract R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipse, S.M.; Sanden, van der M.C.A.; Velden, van der T.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.; Osseweijer, P.

    2013-01-01

    Innovating companies increasingly rely on outsourcing to Contract Research Organisations (CROs) for their Research and Development (R&D), which are largely understudied. This paper presents the outcome of a case study in the field of food technology contract research, identifying context

  3. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  4. Key technologies book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this book can be found all the useful information on the French industry key technologies of the years 2000-2005. 136 technologies at the junction of the science advances and of the markets expectations are divided into 9 sectors. Among them, only 4 are interesting here: the environment, the transports, the materials and the energy. In 1995, the secretary's office of State for industry has published a first synthesis book on these key technologies. This 1997 new key technologies book extends and completes the initial study. For each key technology, an encyclopedic sheet is given. Each sheet combines thus some exact and practical information on: advance state of the technology, market characteristics, development forecasts, occupation and involved sectors, technology acquisition cost, research programs but also contacts of the main concerned efficiency poles. (O.M.)

  5. Identifying the key processes for technology transfer through spin-offs in academic institutions : a case study in Flanders and The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Meysman, Jasmine; Cleyn, De, Sven H.; Braet, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The position and role of technology transfer offices within universities and academic institutions have changed under influence of todays society, with diminishing government subsidies and technology transfer related policies having their impact on the technology transfer processes. In order to find out what the effect of this impact is, we performed a multiple-case study on six technology transfer offices in Flanders and The Netherlands. As a result of the study, we identified two ...

  6. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  7. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...... contributed by Scientific Officer Edgar Thielmann, DG TREN, Head of Department Hans Larsen, RisøNational Laboratory, Senior Asset Manager Aksel Hauge Pedersen, DONG VE, Consultant Timon Wehnert, IZT-Berlin, and Senior Scientist Martine Uyterlinde, ECN...

  8. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  9. Paving the Way to Successful Implementation: Identifying Key Barriers to Use of Technology-Based Therapeutic Tools for Behavioral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex; Lord, Sarah; Torrey, John; Marsch, Lisa; Lardiere, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify barriers to use of technology for behavioral health care from the perspective of care decision makers at community behavioral health organizations. As part of a larger survey of technology readiness, 260 care decision makers completed an open-ended question about perceived barriers to use of technology. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), qualitative analyses yielded barrier themes related to characteristics of technology (e.g., cost and privacy), potential end users (e.g., technology literacy and attitudes about technology), organization structure and climate (e.g., budget and infrastructure), and factors external to organizations (e.g., broadband accessibility and reimbursement policies). Number of reported barriers was higher among respondents representing agencies with lower annual budgets and smaller client bases relative to higher budget, larger clientele organizations. Individual barriers were differentially associated with budget, size of client base, and geographic location. Results are discussed in light of implementation science frameworks and proactive strategies to address perceived obstacles to adoption and use of technology-based behavioral health tools.

  10. BENCHMARKING - PRACTICAL TOOLS IDENTIFY KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ju. Malinina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a practical example of the application of benchmarking techniques. The object of study selected fashion store Company «HLB & M Hennes & Mauritz», located in the shopping center «Gallery», Krasnodar. Hennes & Mauritz. The purpose of this article is to identify the best ways to develop a fashionable brand clothing store Hennes & Mauritz on the basis of benchmarking techniques. On the basis of conducted market research is a comparative analysis of the data from different perspectives. The result of the author’s study is a generalization of the ndings, the development of the key success factors that will allow to plan a successful trading activities in the future, based on the best experience of competitors.

  11. Identifying Key Attributes for Protein Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Lopetcharat, K; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2015-06-01

    This study identified key attributes of protein beverages and evaluated effects of priming on liking of protein beverages. An adaptive choice-based conjoint study was conducted along with Kano analysis to gain insight on protein beverage consumers (n = 432). Attributes evaluated included label claim, protein type, amount of protein, carbohydrates, sweeteners, and metabolic benefits. Utility scores for levels and importance scores for attributes were determined. Subsequently, two pairs of clear acidic whey protein beverages were manufactured that differed by age of protein source or the amount of whey protein per serving. Beverages were evaluated by 151 consumers on two occasions with or without priming statements. One priming statement declared "great flavor," the other priming statement declared 20 g protein per serving. A two way analysis of variance was applied to discern the role of each priming statement. The most important attribute for protein beverages was sweetener type, followed by amount of protein, followed by type of protein followed by label claim. Beverages with whey protein, naturally sweetened, reduced sugar and ≥15 g protein per serving were most desired. Three consumer clusters were identified, differentiated by their preferences for protein type, sweetener and amount of protein. Priming statements positively impacted concept liking (P 0.05). Consistent with trained panel profiles of increased cardboard flavor with higher protein content, consumers liked beverages with 10 g protein more than beverages with 20 g protein (6.8 compared with 5.7, P appeal. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Maglev trains key underlying technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhigang; Li, Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    The motion of the train depends on the traction of linear motors in the vehicle. This book describes a number of essential technologies that can ensure the safe operation of Maglev trains, such as suspension and orientation technologies, network control and diagnosis technologies. This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and graduate students involved in the rail transit industry, train control and diagnosis, and Maglev technology.

  13. Key Technologies in Massive MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of wireless data traffic in the future fifth generation mobile communication system (5G has led researchers to develop new disruptive technologies. As an extension of traditional MIMO technology, massive MIMO can greatly improve the throughput rate and energy efficiency, and can effectively improve the link reliability and data transmission rate, which is an important research direction of 5G wireless communication. Massive MIMO technology is nearly three years to get a new technology of rapid development and it through a lot of increasing the number of antenna communication, using very duplex communication mode, make the system spectrum efficiency to an unprecedented height.

  14. Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in the veld condition of Lambert's Bay Strandveld, South Africa. ... from which a minimum number of species necessary to monitor trends in the condition of the veld were determined, making it user-friendly for land-users, extension officers and others. The key ...

  15. Key enabling technologies (Kets) observatory. Second report December 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Velde, Els van de; Pieterjan, Debergh; Wydra, Sven; Som, Oliver; Heide, Marcel de

    2015-01-01

    Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) provide the basis for innovation in a wide range of products and processes across all industrial sectors (emerging and traditional) and are essential to solve Europe’s major societal challenges. Six KETs have been identified as important for Europe’s future competitiveness: Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Advanced Materials, Nanotechnology, Micro- and Nanoelectronics, Industrial Biotechnology, and Photonics.

  16. Key Emerging Technologies for Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laurence F.; Levine, Alan; Smith, Rachel S.; Haywood, Keene

    2010-01-01

    The annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. This…

  17. Key Issues in Global Technological Innovation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sbragia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to identify those issues that were present in global technological innovation projects carried out by Brazilian multinational companies and which performance criterions these undertakings met. We investigated 36 global technological innovation projects from Brazilian multinational enterprises through a web-survey. Findings show that these companies went beyond the traditional iron triangle to evaluate their technological efforts and considered additional performance dimensions such as customer satisfaction, business results, and preparation for the future. Results also show high degree of presence for issues emerging from the industry, moderate degree of presence for issues emerging from both the project and R&D activities, and low degree of presence for issues emerging from the headquarters, the subsidiaries, and the external environment. Further research is needed to find out if and how these issues influenced the performance of the global technological innovation projects studied.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i1.72

  18. RFID: A key technology for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duroc, Yvan; Tedjini, Smail

    2018-01-01

    The RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) technology is a well-known wireless application for traceability, logistics, and access control. It became ubiquitous in industry and our daily life (ticketing, payment, passports, car keys, etc.). RFID is nowadays a standardized technology; its inherent advantages, which are unitary, identification, wireless communication, and low cost of tags, provide it with decisive practical benefits that drive new developments in terms of concepts and applications. This trend is largely confirmed by the market forecast, but also by its implementation in the area of health (smart hospital), assistance to persons, anti-counterfeiting, as well as by its perspective in terms of new paradigms for distributed ambient intelligence and the Internet of Things. The first part of this paper briefly reviews the fundamental concepts of the RFID technology, and shows its link with the radio science. A state of the art including the presentation of current performance and developments is also summarized. The second part illustrates the impact of RFID to the service of our society with a focus of applications in the field of autonomy and handicap. Finally, the last part highlights a panorama of perspectives and the future directions of RFID applications dedicated to the service of Humanity. xml:lang="fr"

  19. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  20. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  1. Social Network Analysis Identifies Key Participants in Conservation Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Cooper M; Reed, Sarah E; Pejchar, Liba

    2018-05-01

    Understanding patterns of participation in private lands conservation, which is often implemented voluntarily by individual citizens and private organizations, could improve its effectiveness at combating biodiversity loss. We used social network analysis (SNA) to examine participation in conservation development (CD), a private land conservation strategy that clusters houses in a small portion of a property while preserving the remaining land as protected open space. Using data from public records for six counties in Colorado, USA, we compared CD participation patterns among counties and identified actors that most often work with others to implement CDs. We found that social network characteristics differed among counties. The network density, or proportion of connections in the network, varied from fewer than 2 to nearly 15%, and was higher in counties with smaller populations and fewer CDs. Centralization, or the degree to which connections are held disproportionately by a few key actors, was not correlated strongly with any county characteristics. Network characteristics were not correlated with the prevalence of wildlife-friendly design features in CDs. The most highly connected actors were biological and geological consultants, surveyors, and engineers. Our work demonstrates a new application of SNA to land-use planning, in which CD network patterns are examined and key actors are identified. For better conservation outcomes of CD, we recommend using network patterns to guide strategies for outreach and information dissemination, and engaging with highly connected actor types to encourage widespread adoption of best practices for CD design and stewardship.

  2. Identifying key hospital service quality factors in online health communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain; Kim, Minki

    2015-04-07

    The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. We defined social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea's two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is 78% on average. Extraction and

  3. Research on Key Technologies of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shufen; Yan, Hongcan; Chen, Xuebin

    With the development of multi-core processors, virtualization, distributed storage, broadband Internet and automatic management, a new type of computing mode named cloud computing is produced. It distributes computation task on the resource pool which consists of massive computers, so the application systems can obtain the computing power, the storage space and software service according to its demand. It can concentrate all the computing resources and manage them automatically by the software without intervene. This makes application offers not to annoy for tedious details and more absorbed in his business. It will be advantageous to innovation and reduce cost. It's the ultimate goal of cloud computing to provide calculation, services and applications as a public facility for the public, So that people can use the computer resources just like using water, electricity, gas and telephone. Currently, the understanding of cloud computing is developing and changing constantly, cloud computing still has no unanimous definition. This paper describes three main service forms of cloud computing: SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, compared the definition of cloud computing which is given by Google, Amazon, IBM and other companies, summarized the basic characteristics of cloud computing, and emphasized on the key technologies such as data storage, data management, virtualization and programming model.

  4. Key clinical features to identify girls with CDKL5 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothée; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlène; Héron, Delphine; N'guyen Morel, Marie Ange; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2008-10-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of CDKL5-associated encephalopathy. We screened the entire coding region of CDKL5 for mutations in 183 females with encephalopathy with early seizures by denaturing high liquid performance chromatography and direct sequencing, and we identified in 20 unrelated girls, 18 different mutations including 7 novel mutations. These mutations were identified in eight patients with encephalopathy with RTT-like features, five with infantile spasms and seven with encephalopathy with refractory epilepsy. Early epilepsy with normal interictal EEG and severe hypotonia are the key clinical features in identifying patients likely to have CDKL5 mutations. Our study also indicates that these patients clearly exhibit some RTT features such as deceleration of head growth, stereotypies and hand apraxia and that these RTT features become more evident in older and ambulatory patients. However, some RTT signs are clearly absent such as the so called RTT disease profile (period of nearly normal development followed by regression with loss of acquired fine finger skill in early childhood and characteristic intensive eye communication) and the characteristic evolution of the RTT electroencephalogram. Interestingly, in addition to the overall stereotypical symptomatology (age of onset and evolution of the disease) resulting from CDKL5 mutations, atypical forms of CDKL5-related conditions have also been observed. Our data suggest that phenotypic heterogeneity does not correlate with the nature or the position of the mutations or with the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation, but most probably with the functional transcriptional and/or translational consequences of CDKL5

  5. Identifying key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming; An, Shoukuan; Li, Junquan

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by reanalyzing microarray data. Three gene expression profile datasets GSE66360, GSE34198, and GSE48060 were downloaded from GEO database. After data preprocessing, genes without heterogeneity across different platforms were subjected to differential expression analysis between the AMI group and the control group using metaDE package. P FI) network. Then, DEGs in each module were subjected to pathway enrichment analysis using DAVID. MiRNAs and transcription factors predicted to regulate target DEGs were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to verify the expression of genes. A total of 913 upregulated genes and 1060 downregulated genes were identified in the AMI group. A FI network consists of 21 modules and DEGs in 12 modules were significantly enriched in pathways. The transcription factor-miRNA-gene network contains 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p. RT-PCR validations showed that expression levels of FOXO3 and MYBL2 were significantly increased in AMI, and expression levels of hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p were obviously decreased in AMI. A total of 41 DEGs, such as SOCS3, VAPA, and COL5A2, are speculated to have roles in the pathogenesis of AMI; 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p may be involved in the regulation of the expression of these DEGs.

  6. Identifying the key concerns of Irish persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; Wolfe, Marie; O'Doherty, Siobhain

    2014-11-01

    Internationally, people with intellectual disability are socially marginalized, and their rights under the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) are often ignored. This paper aims to define the key concerns of adults with an intellectual disability in relation to their participation in society using an inclusive research strategy for both data gathering and data analysis. A national study involving 23 focus groups and 168 persons was conducted on the island of Ireland with people with intellectual disability as co-facilitators. A thematic content analysis was undertaken of the verbatim transcripts initially by university co-researchers, and 19 themes were identified. Co-researchers with intellectual disability joined in identifying the eight core themes. These were as follows: living options, employment, relationships, citizenship, leisure time, money management, self-advocacy, and communication. The concerns are discussed within the framework of the CRPD, and implications for transforming service policy are drawn. Why we did the research In many countries, people with intellectual disability have difficulties doing things other people without disabilities do, for example to study, to get a job or to live independently. They also find that their rights are not respected under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (the Convention). We did this study to Learn what are the main issues for adults with intellectual disability in Ireland. Do research with people with intellectual disability. How we did the research People with intellectual disability and their supporters worked with university researchers to plan and do the research. We met with people in groups and 168 people told us about things important to them. What we found out We found that there were very important things that people talked about in the groups. We chose the most important: living options, employment, relationships, rights, leisure, money

  7. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  8. Identifying and overcoming barriers to technology implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.; Warren, S.; McCune, M.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent General Accounting Office report, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management was found to be ineffective in integrating their environmental technology development efforts with the cleanup actions. As a result of these findings, a study of remediation documents was performed by the Technology Applications Team within DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) to validate this finding and to understand why it was occurring. A second initiative built on the foundation of the remediation document study and evaluated solutions to the ineffective implementation of improved technologies. The Technology Applications Team examined over 50 remediation documents (17 projects) which included nearly 600 proposed remediation technologies. It was determined that very few technologies are reaching the Records of Decision documents. In fact, most are eliminated in the early stages of consideration. These observations stem from regulators' and stakeholders' uncertainties in cost and performance of the technology and the inability of the technology to meet site specific conditions. The Technology Applications Team also set out to identify and evaluate solutions to barriers to implementing innovative technology into the DOE's environmental management activities. Through the combined efforts of DOE and the Hazardous Waste Action Coalition (HWAC), a full day workshop was conducted at the annual HWAC meeting in June 1995 to solve barriers to innovative technology implementation. Three barriers were identified as widespread throughout the DOE complex and industry. Identified barriers included a lack of verified or certified cost and performance data for innovative technologies; risk of failure to reach cleanup goals using innovative technologies; and communication barriers that are present at virtually every stage of the characterization/remediation process from development through implementation

  9. Technology transfer: the key to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    The paper brings to light some of the reasons why technology transfer is difficult in fusion, examines some of the impediments to the process, and finally looks at a successful example of technology transfer. The paper considers some subjective features of fusion - one might call them the sociology of fusion - that are none the less real and that serve as impediments to technology transfer

  10. A User Centered Innovation Approach Identifying Key User Values for the E-Newspaper

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Ihlström Eriksson; Jesper Svensson

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the pre-adoption phase of the e-newspaper, i.e. a newspaper published with e-paper technology. The research question of this article is: In what way can a user centered innovation process contribute to identifying key values in mobile innovations? The aim of this article is threefold: firstly, to identify key values for the e-newspaper, secondly, to examine the intention to adopt a new possible innovation and thirdly, to explore user centered design processes ability to captur...

  11. Academic Primer Series: Key Papers About Teaching with Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen-Osborn, Megan; Cooney, Robert; Gottlieb, Michael; Chan, Teresa M; Brown, Aaron; King, Andrew; Tobias, Adam; Thoma, Brent

    2017-06-01

    Modern learners have immediate, unlimited access to a wide variety of online resources . To appeal to this current generation of learners, educators must embrace the use of technology. However, educators must balance newer, novel technologies with traditional methods to achieve the best learning outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to review several papers useful for faculty members wishing to incorporate technology into instructional design. We identified a broad list of papers relevant to teaching and learning with technology within the online discussions of the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Faculty Incubator. This list was augmented with suggestions by a guest expert (BT) and an open call on Twitter (tagged with the #meded and #FOAMed hashtags) yielding 24 papers. We then conducted a modified three-round Delphi process within the authorship group, including junior and senior faculty members, to identify the most impactful papers. We pared the list of 24 papers to five that were most highly rated. Two were research papers and three were commentaries or editorials. The authorship group reviewed and summarized these papers with specific consideration to their value to junior educators and faculty developers. This is a key reading list for junior faculty members and faculty developers interested in teaching with technology. The commentary contextualizes the importance of these papers for medical educators, to optimize use of technology in their teaching or incorporate into faculty development.

  12. Academic Primer Series: Key Papers About Teaching with Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern learners have immediate, unlimited access to a wide variety of online resources . To appeal to this current generation of learners, educators must embrace the use of technology. However, educators must balance newer, novel technologies with traditional methods to achieve the best learning outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to review several papers useful for faculty members wishing to incorporate technology into instructional design. Methods: We identified a broad list of papers relevant to teaching and learning with technology within the online discussions of the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM Faculty Incubator. This list was augmented with suggestions by a guest expert (BT and an open call on Twitter (tagged with the #meded and #FOAMed hashtags yielding 24 papers. We then conducted a modified three-round Delphi process within the authorship group, including junior and senior faculty members, to identify the most impactful papers. Results: We pared the list of 24 papers to five that were most highly rated. Two were research papers and three were commentaries or editorials. The authorship group reviewed and summarized these papers with specific consideration to their value to junior educators and faculty developers. Conclusion: This is a key reading list for junior faculty members and faculty developers interested in teaching with technology. The commentary contextualizes the importance of these papers for medical educators, to optimize use of technology in their teaching or incorporate into faculty development.

  13. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI), Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems. PMID:21569633

  14. Implementing recovery: an analysis of the key technologies in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturdy Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past ten years the promotion of recovery has become a stated aim of mental health policies within a number of English speaking countries, including Scotland. Implementation of a recovery approach involves a significant reorientation of mental health services and practices, which often poses significant challenges for reformers. This article examines how four key technologies of recovery have assisted in the move towards the creation of a recovery-oriented mental health system in Scotland. Methods Drawing on documentary analysis and a series of interviews we examine the construction and implementation of four key recovery 'technologies' as they have been put to use in Scotland: recovery narratives, the Scottish Recovery Indicator (SRI, Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP and peer support. Results Our findings illuminate how each of these technologies works to instantiate, exemplify and disseminate a 'recovery orientation' at different sites within the mental health system in order to bring about a 'recovery oriented' mental health system. They also enable us to identify some of the factors that facilitate or hinder the effectiveness of those technologies in bringing about a change in how mental health services are delivered in Scotland. These finding provide a basis for some general reflections on the utility of 'recovery technologies' to implement a shift towards recovery in mental health services in Scotland and elsewhere. Conclusions Our analysis of this process within the Scottish context will be valuable for policy makers and service coordinators wishing to implement recovery values within their own national mental health systems.

  15. Key technologies for expeditions to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J. R., Jr.

    A round-trip manned Mars landing mission, while difficult, is within the realm of today's technology. However, better understood and more practical advanced technologies offer promising improvements in mass performance, and some also enhance certain aspects of self-reliance for manned missions.

  16. Scientometric methods for identifying emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Schlicher, Bob G; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2015-11-03

    Provided is a method of generating a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, worldwide patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain.

  17. Key technological challenges for JSFR development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki; Nakai, Ryodai; Aoto, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    JSFR is a sodium cooled loop type fast reactor on which a conceptual design study is now underway in the framework of 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT project)' of Japan. Achieving economic competitiveness with future light water reactors, along with assuring high level of safety and reliability, is among the most crucial development targets. A number of innovative technologies are pursued for these purposes. A two loop primary heat transfer system (PHTS) design, integration of a main circulation pump and an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) into one single component, and adoption of high chrome ferritic steel as a structural material are typical technologies mainly for economic purposes. A passive shutdown system, decay heat removal by natural convection, and re-criticality free core configuration are those for mainly safety enhancement purposes. Technically challenging issues inevitably accompany these innovative technologies, and a systematic research and development program is undertaken for resolving these issues and realization of the plant design. An overall picture will be given in this paper on the design concept of JSFR that will be followed by descriptions on the major innovative technologies and their relevant research and development activities. (author)

  18. Key Clinical Features to Identify Girls with "CDKL5" Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothee; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlene; Heron, Delphine; Morel, Marie Ange N'Guyen; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 ("CDKL5") gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of…

  19. Human-automation collaboration in manufacturing: identifying key implementation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambous, George; Fletcher, Sarah; Webb, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Human-automation collaboration refers to the concept of human operators and intelligent automation working together interactively within the same workspace without conventional physical separation. This concept has commanded significant attention in manufacturing because of the potential applications, such as the installation of large sub-assemblies. However, the key human factors relevant to human-automation collaboration have not yet been fully investigated. To maximise effective implement...

  20. Infrared: A Key Technology for Security Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Infrared science and technology has been, since the first applications, mainly dedicated to security and surveillance especially in military field, besides specialized techniques in thermal imaging for medical diagnostic and building structures and recently in energy savings and aerospace context. Till recently the security applications were mainly based on thermal imaging as surveillance and warning military systems. In all these applications the advent of room temperature, more reliable due...

  1. Managing Technological Change: The Process is Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    performance suggestive of an electronic sweatshop or informa- and the quality of their work lives has been significantly im- tion assembly line than a...changc the rescrvations system, but without docu- systems, databases, and software applications that comprise mentation or access to the person who...and task HAS BEEN SEEN that instead of trying to minimize change. level, the technology’s inherent flexibili- AS A ITATI particularly with respect to

  2. Identifying the Key Weaknesses in Network Security at Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Florence

    2000-01-01

    A new study identifies and ranks the 10 security gaps responsible for most outsider attacks on college computer networks. The list is intended to help campus system administrators establish priorities as they work to increase security. One network security expert urges that institutions utilize multiple security layers. (DB)

  3. Identifying key nodes in multilayer networks based on tensor decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingjie; Wang, Haitao; Zou, Xiufen

    2017-06-01

    The identification of essential agents in multilayer networks characterized by different types of interactions is a crucial and challenging topic, one that is essential for understanding the topological structure and dynamic processes of multilayer networks. In this paper, we use the fourth-order tensor to represent multilayer networks and propose a novel method to identify essential nodes based on CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor decomposition, referred to as the EDCPTD centrality. This method is based on the perspective of multilayer networked structures, which integrate the information of edges among nodes and links between different layers to quantify the importance of nodes in multilayer networks. Three real-world multilayer biological networks are used to evaluate the performance of the EDCPTD centrality. The bar chart and ROC curves of these multilayer networks indicate that the proposed approach is a good alternative index to identify real important nodes. Meanwhile, by comparing the behavior of both the proposed method and the aggregated single-layer methods, we demonstrate that neglecting the multiple relationships between nodes may lead to incorrect identification of the most versatile nodes. Furthermore, the Gene Ontology functional annotation demonstrates that the identified top nodes based on the proposed approach play a significant role in many vital biological processes. Finally, we have implemented many centrality methods of multilayer networks (including our method and the published methods) and created a visual software based on the MATLAB GUI, called ENMNFinder, which can be used by other researchers.

  4. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community. PMID:26966659

  5. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan E. Chamberlain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds. For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community.

  6. Research on Key Technology and Applications for Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Yi; Jin, Zhi-Gang

    The Internet of Things (IOT) has been paid more and more attention by the academe, industry, and government all over the world. The concept of IOT and the architecture of IOT are discussed. The key technologies of IOT, including Radio Frequency Identification technology, Electronic Product Code technology, and ZigBee technology are analyzed. The framework of digital agriculture application based on IOT is proposed.

  7. Review of Key Technologies of 5G Wireless Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Sha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 5th generation mobile communication system (5G is oriented towards a new generation of mobile communication system to the year of 2020 and beyond, and its development is still at the exploratory stage. Combining the latest trends in mobile communication development at home and abroad, in this article, we describe the key technologies of driving the 5G research direction. Furthermore, the technical innovation of 5G comes from both wireless and network technologies. In the field of wireless technologies, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO, ultra-wideband spectral, ultra-dense heterogeneous networks, have already become the focus of global industry. In the field of network technologies, a new network architecture based on software-defined networking (SDN becomes the prevailing view worldwide. Additionally, there are some other potential technologies for 5G, such as NOMA, FBMC, mm Waves, and Multi-carrier technology aggregation.

  8. Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects- Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Sharon; Previsic, Mirko; Nelson, Peter; Woo, Sheri

    2010-06-17

    Marine wave and tidal energy technology could interact with marine resources in ways that are not well understood. As wave and tidal energy conversion projects are planned, tested, and deployed, a wide range of stakeholders will be engaged; these include developers, state and federal regulatory agencies, environmental groups, tribal governments, recreational and commercial fishermen, and local communities. Identifying stakeholders’ environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development will help developers address and minimize potential environmental effects. Identifying important concerns will also assist with streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles by the industry in the U.S. today. In September 2008, RE Vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to conduct a scenario-based evaluation of emerging hydrokinetic technologies. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify and characterize environmental impacts that are likely to occur, demonstrate a process for analyzing these impacts, identify the “key” environmental concerns for each scenario, identify areas of uncertainty, and describe studies that could address that uncertainty. This process is intended to provide an objective and transparent tool to assist in decision-making for siting and selection of technology for wave and tidal energy development. RE Vision worked with H. T. Harvey & Associates, to develop a framework for identifying key environmental concerns with marine renewable technology. This report describes the results of this study. This framework was applied to varying wave and tidal power conversion technologies, scales, and locations. The following wave and tidal energy scenarios were considered: 4 wave energy generation technologies 3 tidal energy generation technologies 3 sites: Humboldt coast, California (wave); Makapu’u Point, Oahu, Hawaii (wave); and the Tacoma Narrows, Washington (tidal

  9. The Use of Technology in Identifying Hospital Malnutrition: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtovac, Dino; Lee, Joon

    2018-01-19

    Malnutrition is a condition most commonly arising from the inadequate consumption of nutrients necessary to maintain physiological health and is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and sarcopenia. Malnutrition occurring in the hospital setting is caused by insufficient monitoring, identification, and assessment efforts. Furthermore, the ability of health care workers to identify and recognize malnourished patients is suboptimal. Therefore, interventions focusing on the identification and treatment of malnutrition are valuable, as they reduce the risks and rates of malnutrition within hospitals. Technology may be a particularly useful ally in identifying malnutrition due to scalability, timeliness, and effectiveness. In an effort to explore the issue, this scoping review synthesized the availability of technological tools to detect and identify hospital malnutrition. Our objective was to conduct a scoping review of the different forms of technology used in addressing malnutrition among adults admitted to hospital to (1) identify the extent of the published literature on this topic, (2) describe key findings, and (3) identify outcomes. We designed and implemented a search strategy in 3 databases (PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL). We completed a descriptive numerical summary and analyzed study characteristics. One reviewer independently extracted data from the databases. We retrieved and reviewed a total of 21 articles. We categorized articles by the computerized tool or app type: malnutrition assessment (n=15), food intake monitoring (n=5), or both (n=1). Within those categories, we subcategorized the different technologies as either hardware (n=4), software (n=13), or both (n=4). An additional subcategory under software was cloud-based apps (n=1). Malnutrition in the acute hospital setting was largely an unrecognized problem, owing to insufficient monitoring, identification, and initial assessments of identifying both patients who are

  10. Key Emerging Technologies for Elementary and Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laurence F.; Levine, Alan; Smith, Rachel S.; Haywood, Keene

    2010-01-01

    The Horizon Report series is the most visible outcome of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, an ongoing research effort that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within education around the globe. The report examines emerging technologies for…

  11. Identifying and weighting of key performance indicators of knowledge management2.0 in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khalilazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this research is identifying and weighting of key performance indicators of knowledge management2.0 in organizations. According to widespread permeation of technology, especially social media in different organizational dimensions and functional view to this phenomenon in knowledge management, performance measurement of this kind of media in order to meet organizational goals seems necessary. KM2.0 key performance indicators in this article has been identified and weighted through Delphi methodology, via questionnaire in three rounds. KM2.0 KPIs which are identified and weighted in this article are applicable in organizations that are eager to implement KM2.0 initiative and they can measure the performance of KM2.0 activities therefore this research is applicable in goal oriented approach. According to the results, KM2.0 participation process consists of 3 stages and 8 steps as mentioned below: First stage which is presence, consists of 3 steps which are registration, visit and download. Second stage which is feedback consists of 3 steps which are conversation, applause and amplification. Finally, third stage which is creation consists of 2 steps which are codification and personalization. Ultimate contribution of this research is identifying and weighting KPIs of KM2.0 in conceptual framework of KM2.0. Based on developing a conceptual framework and participation process in KM2.0 and listing related KPIs as an applicable solution in order to measure and improve the performance of organizational social media, this research has unique innovation among related and other articles.

  12. Tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheated secret keys and shared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Liu, Chong-An

    2013-01-01

    A (t,n) secret image-sharing scheme shares a secret image to n participants, and the t users recover the image. During the recovery procedure of a conventional secret image-sharing scheme, cheaters may use counterfeit secret keys or modified shared images to cheat other users' secret keys and shared images. A cheated secret key or shared image leads to an incorrect secret image. Unfortunately, the cheater cannot be identified. We present an exponent and modulus-based scheme to provide a tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheaters on secret keys or shared images. The proposed scheme allows users to securely select their secret key. This assignment can be performed over networks. Modulus results of each shared image is calculated to recognize cheaters of a shared image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is excellent at identifying cheated secret keys and shared images.

  13. Key Technologies of Phone Storage Forensics Based on ARM Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianghan; Che, Shengbing

    2018-03-01

    Smart phones are mainly running Android, IOS and Windows Phone three mobile platform operating systems. The android smart phone has the best market shares and its processor chips are almost ARM software architecture. The chips memory address mapping mechanism of ARM software architecture is different with x86 software architecture. To forensics to android mart phone, we need to understand three key technologies: memory data acquisition, the conversion mechanism from virtual address to the physical address, and find the system’s key data. This article presents a viable solution which does not rely on the operating system API for a complete solution to these three issues.

  14. Key Health Information Technologies and Related Issues for Iran: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Morteza; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Saghafi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Planning for the future of Health Information Technology (HIT) requires applying a systematic approach when conducting foresight studies. The aim of this study was to identify key health information technologies and related issues for Iran until 2025. This was a qualitative study and the participants included experts and policy makers in the field of health information technology. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed by using framework analysis and MAXQDA software. The findings revealed that the development of national health information network, electronic health records, patient health records, a cloud-based service center, interoperability standards, patient monitoring technologies, telehealth, mhealth, clinical decision support systems, health information technology and mhealth infrastructure were found to be the key technologies for the future. These technologies could influence the economic, organizational and individual levels. To achieve them, the economic and organizational obstacles need to be overcome. In this study, a number of key technologies and related issues were identified. This approach can help to focus on the most important technologies in the future and to priorities these technologies for better resource allocation and policy making.

  15. [Key effect genes responding to nerve injury identified by gene ontology and computer pattern recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qian; Peng, Jin; Zhou, Xue; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2012-07-01

    In order to screen out important genes from large gene data of gene microarray after nerve injury, we combine gene ontology (GO) method and computer pattern recognition technology to find key genes responding to nerve injury, and then verify one of these screened-out genes. Data mining and gene ontology analysis of gene chip data GSE26350 was carried out through MATLAB software. Cd44 was selected from screened-out key gene molecular spectrum by comparing genes' different GO terms and positions on score map of principal component. Function interferences were employed to influence the normal binding of Cd44 and one of its ligands, chondroitin sulfate C (CSC), to observe neurite extension. Gene ontology analysis showed that the first genes on score map (marked by red *) mainly distributed in molecular transducer activity, receptor activity, protein binding et al molecular function GO terms. Cd44 is one of six effector protein genes, and attracted us with its function diversity. After adding different reagents into the medium to interfere the normal binding of CSC and Cd44, varying-degree remissions of CSC's inhibition on neurite extension were observed. CSC can inhibit neurite extension through binding Cd44 on the neuron membrane. This verifies that important genes in given physiological processes can be identified by gene ontology analysis of gene chip data.

  16. Identifying Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration in Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity is defined as communication and collaboration across academic disciplines. The instructional technology (IT) field has claimed to have an interdisciplinary nature influenced by neighboring fields such as psychology, communication, and management. However, it has been difficult to find outstanding evidence of the field's…

  17. Research on Digital Product Modeling Key Technologies of Digital Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Guoping; ZHOU Zude; HU Yefa; ZHAO Liang

    2006-01-01

    With the globalization and diversification of the market and the rapid development of Information Technology (IT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), the digital revolution of manufacturing is coming. One of the key technologies in digital manufacturing is product digital modeling. This paper firstly analyzes the information and features of the product digital model during each stage in the product whole lifecycle, then researches on the three critical technologies of digital modeling in digital manufacturing-product modeling, standard for the exchange of product model data and digital product data management. And the potential signification of the product digital model during the process of digital manufacturing is concluded-product digital model integrates primary features of each stage during the product whole lifecycle based on graphic features, applies STEP as data exchange mechanism, and establishes PDM system to manage the large amount, complicated and dynamic product data to implement the product digital model data exchange, sharing and integration.

  18. Identification of key oil refining technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haiyan; Yu Jianning; Xu Jian; Fan Yu; Bao Xiaojun

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the project 'Vision of the Key Petroleum Refining Technologies for China National Petroleum Co. (CNPC) in the Early 21st Century' undertaken by the Department of R and D Administration, CNPC, and its affiliate key laboratory, The Key Laboratory of Catalysis operated by China University of Petroleum, Beijing. The objective of the project was to identify the challenges and opportunities of CNPC's petroleum refining business given increasing economy globalization and stricter environmental regulations. Using the modified Delphi method, four key technologies for CNPC's oil refining industry were identified. They are: integrated fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydroprocessing, residue hydrocracking, and high-grade lubricant production. The most significant technology will be the integrated FCC technology that can economically increase the yield of light fractions as well as upgrade transportation fuels. In China, FCC units produce about 80% and 30% commercial gasoline and diesel, respectively. To ensure compliance with future environmental legislation, hydroprocessing technologies, including those related to petroleum product hydrorefining and distillate hydrocracking, should be developed. By combining residue hydrocracking and FCC technologies, poorer quality residua can be processed. Supplying high-grade lube oils is one of the main tasks for CNPC's oil refining industry. Development of hydrodewaxing technologies to manufacture API group II/III base oil is the main direction for CNPC's lubricant production business

  19. Technical Education--The Key to Sustainable Technological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odo, J. U.; Okafor, W. C.; Odo, A. L.; Ejikeugwu, L. N.; Ugwuoke, C. N.

    2017-01-01

    Technical education has been identified as one of the most effective human resource development that needs to be embraced for rapid industrialization and sustainable technological development of any nation. Technical education has been an integral part of national development in many societies because of its impact on productivity and economic…

  20. Key identifiers and spelling conventions in MXit-lingo as found in conversations with Dr Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Butgereit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Different human languages look different from other human languages. To use a term from the computer industry, each human language has its own “look and feel”. European English speakers can easily recognise a phrase such as “Comment allez-vous?” as being written in French while the phrase “¿Habla usted español?” is written in Spanish. Each language has its own letter frequencies, word frequencies and other identifiers. This paper describes key identifiers in MXit lingo as found in Dr Math conversations. MXit is a mobile instant messaging system which originated in South Africa and is expanding to other countries. Dr Math is a mobile tutoring system which uses MXit as a communication protocol. Primary and secondary school pupils can receive help with the mathematics homework using the Dr Math tutoring system. The pupils use MXit on their cell phones and the tutors use traditional Internet workstations. After exploring how MXit lingo is written, this paper will briefly explore why MXit lingo is written the way it is. By identifying and describing the orthographic conventions visible in the spelling of MXit lingo, although with some theoretical support, insight into the purposeful and functional nature of written, mobile communication will be revealed. In highlighting spelling that is influenced by Black South African English, an attempt will be made to contribute to the empirical development of a field of study that explores the construction of words used in South African mobile communication. Keywords: MXit, Math, letters, writing, orthography Disciplines: Linguistics, mathematics, information technology

  1. A Survey of Key Technology of Network Public Opinion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Su Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet has become an important base for internet users to make comments because of its interactivity and fast dissemination. The outbreak of internet public opinion has become a major risk for network information security. Domestic and foreign researchers had carried out extensive and in-depth study on public opinion. Fruitful results have achieved in the basic theory research and emergency handling and other aspects of public opinion. But research on the public opinion in China is still in the initial stage, the key technology of the public opinion analysis is still as a starting point for in-depth study and discussion.

  2. Identify and rank key factors influencing the adoption of cloud computing for a healthy Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shukuhy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing as a new technology with Internet infrastructure and new approaches can be significant benefits in providing medical services electronically. Aplying this technology in E-Health requires consideration of various factors. The main objective of this study is to identify and rank the factors influencing the adoption of e-health cloud. Based on the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE framework and Human-Organization-Technology fit (HOT-fit model, 16 sub-factors were identified in four major factors. With survey of 60 experts, academics and experts in health information technology and with the help of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process had ranked these sub-factors and factors. In the literature, considering newness this study, no internal or external study, have not alluded these number of criteria. The results show that when deciding to adopt cloud computing in E-Health, respectively, must be considered technological, human, organizational and environmental factors.

  3. Technology transfer: The key to successful space engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, L. S.; Page, R. H.

    The 1990s are the threshold of the space revolution for the next century. This space revolution was initiated by space pioneers like Tsiolkovsky, Goddard, and Oberth, who contributed a great deal to the evolution of space exploration, and more importantly, to space education. Recently, space engineering education programs for all ages have been advocated around the world, especially in Asia and Europe, as well as the U.S.A. and the Soviet Union. And yet, although space related technologies are developing rapidly, these technologies are not being incorporated successfully into space education programs. Timely technology transfer is essential to assure the continued education of professionals. This paper reviews the evolution of space engineering education and identifies a number of initiatives which could strengthen space engineering education for the next century.

  4. Development of Basic Key Technologies for Gen IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Do Hee; Kim, Young In; Won, Byung Chool

    2008-11-01

    Technical specifications such as power capacity, type of core, clad alloy, clad barrier material, number of loops, type of SG tube have been evaluated and a optimal design concept has been identified to satisfy the technology goals of Generation IV nuclear systems. The concept for breakeven design is featured by the heat capacity of 1,200 MWe, enrichment-separated core, 2-loop, double-walled SG tube, and a long-life sensor system for in-service inspection

  5. Analysis of key technologies for virtual instruments metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guixiong; Xu, Qingui; Gao, Furong; Guan, Qiuju; Fang, Qiang

    2008-12-01

    Virtual instruments (VIs) require metrological verification when applied as measuring instruments. Owing to the software-centered architecture, metrological evaluation of VIs includes two aspects: measurement functions and software characteristics. Complexity of software imposes difficulties on metrological testing of VIs. Key approaches and technologies for metrology evaluation of virtual instruments are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The principal issue is evaluation of measurement uncertainty. The nature and regularity of measurement uncertainty caused by software and algorithms can be evaluated by modeling, simulation, analysis, testing and statistics with support of powerful computing capability of PC. Another concern is evaluation of software features like correctness, reliability, stability, security and real-time of VIs. Technologies from software engineering, software testing and computer security domain can be used for these purposes. For example, a variety of black-box testing, white-box testing and modeling approaches can be used to evaluate the reliability of modules, components, applications and the whole VI software. The security of a VI can be assessed by methods like vulnerability scanning and penetration analysis. In order to facilitate metrology institutions to perform metrological verification of VIs efficiently, an automatic metrological tool for the above validation is essential. Based on technologies of numerical simulation, software testing and system benchmarking, a framework for the automatic tool is proposed in this paper. Investigation on implementation of existing automatic tools that perform calculation of measurement uncertainty, software testing and security assessment demonstrates the feasibility of the automatic framework advanced.

  6. Reliable LED Lighting Technologies: Key Factors and Procurement Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Arquit Niederberger, Anne

    2015-10-08

    Abstract— Lighting systems have the ability to transform the economic and educational infrastructure of disadvantaged communities, and eradicating “light poverty” has become one of the primary goals of the International Year of Light 2015. Solid-state lighting (SSL) technology, based on light-emitting diode (LED) light sources, has emerged as the next generation of lighting technology, with a current global market penetration of roughly 5%. This paper will report on recent research on understanding SSL lighting system reliability (failure modes, environmental stressors, electrical power quality); discuss the implications of SSL technology reliability for providing lighting services; and suggest practical approaches to ensure SSL reliability to benefit humanity. Among the key findings from this work is that LED sources can be extremely reliable, withstanding a broad range of environmental stresses without failure. Nonetheless, SSL lighting systems can have a negative impact on electrical power reliability, as well as on the affordability of lighting services, without attention to the quality of the accompanying power infrastructure. It is therefore critical to ensure that the performance of the power supply electronics used in lighting systems is matched to the quality of the power source, when evaluating energy efficient lighting choices.

  7. Overall Design Features and Key Technology Development for KJRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C.; Lee, B. C.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, Y. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The KJRR (Ki-Jang Research Reactor) project was launched on Apr., 2012; 1) to make up the advanced technology related to RRs, 2) to provide the self-sufficiency in terms of medical and industrial radioisotope (RI) supply, and 3) to enlarge the NTD silicon doping services for growing the power device industry. The major facilities to be built through the KJRR project are, • 15 MW Research Reactor and Reactor building • Radioisotopes Production Facility (RIPF) and related R and D Facility • Fission Mo Production Facility (FMPF) with LEU Target • Radio-waste Treatment Facility (RTF) • Neutron Irradiation Facility such as PTS and HTS. This paper describes the overall design features of the KJRR and the key technology development for RRs during the project. The overall design features of the KJRR and RR technology under development have been overviewd. The design of the KJRR will comply with the Korean Nuclear Law, regulatory requirements and guidelines as well as international standards and guidelines. The KJRR is expected to be put into operation in the middle of 2019.

  8. General framework and key technologies of national nuclear emergency system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Feng; Li Xudong; Zhu Guangying; Song Yafeng; Zeng Suotian; Shen Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear emergency is the important safeguard for the sustainable development of nuclear energy, and is the significant part of national public crisis management. The paper gives the definition of nuclear emergency system explicitly based on the analysis of the characteristics of the nuclear emergency, and through the research of the structure and general framework, the general framework of the national nuclear emergency management system (NNEMS) is obtained, which is constructed in four parts, including one integrative platform, six layers, eight applications and two systems, then the paper indicate that the architecture of national emergency system that should be laid out by three-tiers, i.e. national, provincial and organizations with nuclear facilities, and also describe the functions of the NNEMS on the nuclear emergency's workflow. Finally, the paper discuss the key technology that NNIEMS needed, such as WebGIS, auxiliary decision-making, digitalized preplan and the conformity and usage of resources, and analyze the technical principle in details. (authors)

  9. Research of the key technology in satellite communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuan

    2018-02-01

    According to the prediction, in the next 10 years the wireless data traffic will be increased by 500-1000 times. Not only the wireless data traffic will be increased exponentially, and the demand for diversified traffic will be increased. Higher requirements for future mobile wireless communication system had brought huge market space for satellite communication system. At the same time, the space information networks had been greatly developed with the depth of human exploration of space activities, the development of space application, the expansion of military and civilian application. The core of spatial information networks is the satellite communication. The dissertation presented the communication system architecture, the communication protocol, the routing strategy, switch scheduling algorithm and the handoff strategy based on the satellite communication system. We built the simulation platform of the LEO satellites networks and simulated the key technology using OPNET.

  10. Key Issues in Empirically Identifying Chronically Low-Performing and Turnaround Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    One of the US Department of Education's key priorities is turning around the nation's persistently low-achieving schools, yet exactly how to identify low-performing schools is a task left to state policy makers, and a myriad of definitions have been utilized. In addition, exactly how to recognize when a school begins to turn around is not well…

  11. Integrated systems approach identifies risk regulatory pathways and key regulators in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dianming; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Shuyuan; Yu, Xuexin; Dai, Enyu; Liu, Xinyi; Luo, Shanshun; Jiang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. However, the molecular mechanisms of CAD remain elusive. Regulatory pathways are known to play crucial roles in many pathogenic processes. Thus, inferring risk regulatory pathways is an important step toward elucidating the mechanisms underlying CAD. With advances in high-throughput data, we developed an integrated systems approach to identify CAD risk regulatory pathways and key regulators. Firstly, a CAD-related core subnetwork was identified from a curated transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) regulatory network based on a random walk algorithm. Secondly, candidate risk regulatory pathways were extracted from the subnetwork by applying a breadth-first search (BFS) algorithm. Then, risk regulatory pathways were prioritized based on multiple CAD-associated data sources. Finally, we also proposed a new measure to prioritize upstream regulators. We inferred that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) may be a key regulator in the dysregulation of risk regulatory pathways. This study takes a closer step than the identification of disease subnetworks or modules. From the risk regulatory pathways, we could understand the flow of regulatory information in the initiation and progression of the disease. Our approach helps to uncover its potential etiology. We developed an integrated systems approach to identify risk regulatory pathways. We proposed a new measure to prioritize the key regulators in CAD. PTEN may be a key regulator in dysregulation of the risk regulatory pathways.

  12. Development of key technology for the medical isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Soo Youl; Kim, I. S.; Kim, W. W.; Rhee, C. K.; Park, K. B.; Park, S. J.; Shin, H. S.; Shin, Y. J.

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this project is to experimentally verify and enhance Mo-99 and Sr-89 recovery/purification processes as the key technologies for the medical isotope production from a solution fuel reactor. A joint experiment was planned between KAERI and Kurchatov Institute (KI), Russia. The kinds of experiments planed are, a series of Mo-99 recovery/purification experiments from the ARGUS reactor which uses High Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel, a series of the same experiments but from the Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) solution target, a demonstration of the mechanism of Sr-89 delivery from the air medium in the reactor vessel. Meanwhile, the survey and legalistic interpretation of relevant patents shows a possibility of infringement of TCI Inc.'s patents in case of exporting medical isotopes produced at the MIP to Japan and the US so far as the MIP adopts the concept of the Russian ARGUS and recovery/purification process. Eliminating, not minor changing, step(s) or condition(s) of patent processes would help to avoid the patent infringement. Because of a difficulty in the KAERI-KI full-time co-experiments at KI labs, a different idea between two parties about the depth of background information to be provided to KAERI, and other reasons, the experiment plan was not executed

  13. Restudy on digital mine: characteristics, framework and key technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.; Yin, Z.; Zhong, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

    2003-02-01

    Based on analysing the problems associated with the promotion of mine digitization in China, the basic characteristics of a digital mine (DM) are described with respect to an intelligent transportation system: high speed intranet as the road-net; modular mining software as the vehicle; mine data and models as the fuel; 3D geoscience modelling (3DGM) and data mining as the filter; data collection and update as the safeguard, and mine GIS (MGIS) as the scheduler. Based on the four-layered structure of C/S and the work processes in a mine, the fundamental constituent diagram and a network framework of DM are designed. The nine key technologies for the implementation of DM strategy are discussed, which includes the data warehouse in mine; the data mining in mine; real 3DGM and visualization; 3D topological modelling and analysis in mine; modular application software and models; underground rapid positioning and automatic navigation; underground multimedia communication and wireless transmission; intelligent mining robot-groups and the integration of 3S (GIS, GPS, RS), office automation (OA) and command dispatch system (CDS). In addition, the recent progress of 'digital Kailuan' is introduced as an example of DM. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Medical technology as a key driver of rising health expenditure: disentangling the relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna; Drummond, Michael; Bhuiyan Khan, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Health care spending has risen steadily in most countries, becoming a concern for decision-makers worldwide. Commentators often point to new medical technology as the key driver for burgeoning expenditures. This paper critically appraises this conjecture, based on an analysis of the existing literature, with the aim of offering a more detailed and considered analysis of this relationship. Several databases were searched to identify relevant literature. Various categories of studies (eg, multivariate and cost-effectiveness analyses) were included to cover different perspectives, methodological approaches, and issues regarding the link between medical technology and costs. Selected articles were reviewed and relevant information was extracted into a standardized template and analyzed for key cross-cutting themes, ie, impact of technology on costs, factors influencing this relationship, and methodological challenges in measuring such linkages. A total of 86 studies were reviewed. The analysis suggests that the relationship between medical technology and spending is complex and often conflicting. Findings were frequently contingent on varying factors, such as the availability of other interventions, patient population, and the methodological approach employed. Moreover, the impact of technology on costs differed across technologies, in that some (eg, cancer drugs, invasive medical devices) had significant financial implications, while others were cost-neutral or cost-saving. In light of these issues, we argue that decision-makers and other commentators should extend their focus beyond costs solely to include consideration of whether medical technology results in better value in health care and broader socioeconomic benefits. PMID:23807855

  15. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, F.; Turton, H.; Hirschberg, S.

    2009-12-01

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO 2 prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a review

  16. Key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in energy technology scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, F.; Turton, H.; Hirschberg, S.

    2009-12-15

    This report presents the findings of a survey of key factors affecting the deployment of electricity generation technologies in selected energy scenarios. The assumptions and results of scenarios, and the different models used in their construction, are compared. Particular attention is given to technology assumptions, such as investment cost or capacity factors, and their impact on technology deployment. We conclude that the deployment of available technologies, i.e. their market shares, can only be explained from a holistic perspective, and that there are strong interactions between driving forces and competing technology options within a certain scenario. Already the design of a scenario analysis has important impacts on the deployment of technologies: the choice of the set of available technologies, the modeling approach and the definition of the storylines determine the outcome. Furthermore, the quantification of these storylines into input parameters and cost assumptions drives technology deployment, even though differences across the scenarios in cost assumptions are not observed to account for many of the observed differences in electricity technology deployment. The deployment can only be understood after a consideration of the interplay of technology options and the scale of technology deployment, which is determined by economic growth, end-use efficiency, and electrification. Some input parameters are of particular importance for certain technologies: CO{sub 2} prices, fuel prices and the availability of carbon capture and storage appear to be crucial for the deployment of fossil-fueled power plants; maximum construction rates and safety concerns determine the market share of nuclear power; the availability of suitable sites represents the most important factor for electricity generation from hydro and wind power plants; and technology breakthroughs are needed for solar photovoltaics to become cost-competitive. Finally, this analysis concludes with a

  17. Iterative key-residues interrogation of a phytase with thermostability increasing substitutions identified in directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivange, Amol V; Roccatano, Danilo; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial phytases have attracted industrial interest as animal feed supplement due to their high activity and sufficient thermostability (required for feed pelleting). We devised an approach named KeySIDE,  an iterative Key-residues interrogation of the wild type with Substitutions Identified in Directed Evolution for improving Yersinia mollaretii phytase (Ymphytase) thermostability by combining key beneficial substitutions and elucidating their individual roles. Directed evolution yielded in a discovery of nine positions in Ymphytase and combined iteratively to identify key positions. The "best" combination (M6: T77K, Q154H, G187S, and K289Q) resulted in significantly improved thermal resistance; the residual activity improved from 35 % (wild type) to 89 % (M6) at 58 °C and 20-min incubation. Melting temperature increased by 3 °C in M6 without a loss of specific activity. Molecular dynamics simulation studies revealed reduced flexibility in the loops located next to helices (B, F, and K) which possess substitutions (Helix-B: T77K, Helix-F: G187S, and Helix-K: K289E/Q). Reduced flexibility in the loops might be caused by strengthened hydrogen bonding network (e.g., G187S and K289E/K289Q) and a salt bridge (T77K). Our results demonstrate a promising approach to design phytases in food research, and we hope that the KeySIDE might become an attractive approach for understanding of structure-function relationships of enzymes.

  18. Identifying technology innovations for marginalized smallholders-A conceptual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Gatzweiler, Franz W; Von Braun, Joachim

    2017-05-01

    This paper adds a contribution in the existing literature in terms of theoretical and conceptual background for the identification of idle potentials of marginal rural areas and people by means of technological and institutional innovations. The approach follows ex-ante assessment for identifying suitable technology and institutional innovations for marginalized smallholders in marginal areas-divided into three main parts (mapping, surveying and evaluating) and several steps. Finally, it contributes to the inclusion of marginalized smallholders by an improved way of understanding the interactions between technology needs, farming systems, ecological resources and poverty characteristics in the different segments of the poor, and to link these insights with productivity enhancing technologies.

  19. Identifying key performance indicators for nursing and midwifery care using a consensus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCance, Tanya; Telford, Lorna; Wilson, Julie; Macleod, Olive; Dowd, Audrey

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain consensus on key performance indicators that are appropriate and relevant for nursing and midwifery practice in the current policy context. There is continuing demand to demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency in health and social care and to communicate this at boardroom level. Whilst there is substantial literature on the use of clinical indicators and nursing metrics, there is less evidence relating to indicators that reflect the patient experience. A consensus approach was used to identify relevant key performance indicators. A nominal group technique was used comprising two stages: a workshop involving all grades of nursing and midwifery staff in two HSC trusts in Northern Ireland (n = 50); followed by a regional Consensus Conference (n = 80). During the workshop, potential key performance indicators were identified. This was used as the basis for the Consensus Conference, which involved two rounds of consensus. Analysis was based on aggregated scores that were then ranked. Stage one identified 38 potential indicators and stage two prioritised the eight top-ranked indicators as a core set for nursing and midwifery. The relevance and appropriateness of these indicators were confirmed with nurses and midwives working in a range of settings and from the perspective of service users. The eight indicators identified do not conform to the majority of other nursing metrics generally reported in the literature. Furthermore, they are strategically aligned to work on the patient experience and are reflective of the fundamentals of nursing and midwifery practice, with the focus on person-centred care. Nurses and midwives have a significant contribution to make in determining the extent to which these indicators are achieved in practice. Furthermore, measurement of such indicators provides an opportunity to evidence of the unique impact of nursing/midwifery care on the patient experience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Postsecondary Students With Psychiatric Disabilities Identify Core Services and Key Ingredients to Supporting Education Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebel, Kathleen; Mizrahi, Raphael; Ringeisen, Heather

    2017-10-26

    Accessing and successfully completing postsecondary educational opportunities may be challenging for those living with psychiatric disabilities. This exploratory study highlights the experiences of individuals with psychiatric disabilities participating in postsecondary educational support initiatives. Investigators conducted case studies with 3 education support initiatives across the United States. Focus groups revealed what concrete supported education services were helpful and key ingredients in delivering education supports. Access to specialists, mindfulness techniques, help with time management and procrastination, and facilitating classroom accommodations were identified as critical. Developing authentic relationships with supported education staff, flexibility in service delivery and access to student peers living with psychiatric disabilities were noted as key ingredients in service delivery. Incorporating the voice of students with psychiatric disabilities into supported education services can increase access, involvement, and retention, therein providing more supports to students with psychiatric disabilities achieving their postsecondary education goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Methods of Developing User-Friendly Keys to Identify Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas L. from Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R. Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying individual animals is important in understanding their ecology and behaviour, as well as providing estimates of population sizes for conservation efforts. We produce identification keys from photographs of green sea turtles to identify them while foraging in Akumal Bay, Mexico. We create three keys, which (a minimise the length of the key, (b present the most obvious differential characteristics first, and (c remove the strict dichotomy from key b. Keys were capable of identifying >99% of turtles in >2500 photographs during the six-month study period. The keys differed significantly in success rate for students to identify individual turtles, with key (c being the best with >70% success and correctly being followed further than other keys before making a mistake. User-friendly keys are, therefore, a suitable method for the photographic identification of turtles and could be used for other large marine vertebrates in conservation or behavioural studies.

  2. Technology transfer and national participation. Key issue paper no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernilin, Y.F.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear technology was developed in industrialized countries and largely remains in a few industrialized countries. Non-nuclear countries today find it necessary to import this technology. Some aspects of technology transfer: legal and institutional structure; different type of agreements; arrangements; and national participation are presented in this paper. (author)

  3. Identifying Disruptive Technologies in Design: Horizon Scanning in the Early Stages of Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Sidsel Katrine; Thuesen, Christian; Larsen, Laurids Rolighed

    Technology development is accelerating, driving disruption. Design is seen as key differentiator in creating innovative offerings but few design methods consider future technologies explicitly. In this article, we explore how a foresight method, namely horizon scanning, may be applied in a design...... context to anticipate disruption of construction. By means of a 3-step horizon scan, we identify 133 potentially disruptive technologies from across industries. We find that when preparing for disruption, design may benefit from the future-oriented and technology-focused features of horizon scanning....

  4. Medical technology as a key driver of rising health expenditure: disentangling the relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorenson C

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corinna Sorenson,1,2 Michael Drummond,2,3 Beena Bhuiyan Khan1 1LSE Health, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK; 2European Health Technology Institute for Socioeconomic Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK Abstract: Health care spending has risen steadily in most countries, becoming a concern for decision-makers worldwide. Commentators often point to new medical technology as the key driver for burgeoning expenditures. This paper critically appraises this conjecture, based on an analysis of the existing literature, with the aim of offering a more detailed and considered analysis of this relationship. Several databases were searched to identify relevant literature. Various categories of studies (eg, multivariate and cost-effectiveness analyses were included to cover different perspectives, methodological approaches, and issues regarding the link between medical technology and costs. Selected articles were reviewed and relevant information was extracted into a standardized template and analyzed for key cross-cutting themes, ie, impact of technology on costs, factors influencing this relationship, and methodological challenges in measuring such linkages. A total of 86 studies were reviewed. The analysis suggests that the relationship between medical technology and spending is complex and often conflicting. Findings were frequently contingent on varying factors, such as the availability of other interventions, patient population, and the methodological approach employed. Moreover, the impact of technology on costs differed across technologies, in that some (eg, cancer drugs, invasive medical devices had significant financial implications, while others were cost-neutral or cost-saving. In light of these issues, we argue that decision-makers and other commentators should extend their focus beyond costs solely to include consideration of whether medical technology results in

  5. A Study of Scientometric Methods to Identify Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Udoeyop, Akaninyene W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This work examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, worldwide patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain we investigated.

  6. GuiaTreeKey, a multi-access electronic key to identify tree genera in French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Brousseau, Louise; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The tropical rainforest of Amazonia is one of the most species-rich ecosystems on earth, with an estimated 16000 tree species. Due to this high diversity, botanical identification of trees in the Amazon is difficult, even to genus, often requiring the assistance of parataxonomists or taxonomic specialists. Advances in informatics tools offer a promising opportunity to develop user-friendly electronic keys to improve Amazonian tree identification. Here, we introduce an original mult...

  7. GuiaTreeKey, a multi-access electronic key to identify tree genera in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Julien; Brousseau, Louise; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The tropical rainforest of Amazonia is one of the most species-rich ecosystems on earth, with an estimated 16000 tree species. Due to this high diversity, botanical identification of trees in the Amazon is difficult, even to genus, often requiring the assistance of parataxonomists or taxonomic specialists. Advances in informatics tools offer a promising opportunity to develop user-friendly electronic keys to improve Amazonian tree identification. Here, we introduce an original multi-access electronic key for the identification of 389 tree genera occurring in French Guiana terra-firme forests, based on a set of 79 morphological characters related to vegetative, floral and fruit characters. Its purpose is to help Amazonian tree identification and to support the dissemination of botanical knowledge to non-specialists, including forest workers, students and researchers from other scientific disciplines. The electronic key is accessible with the free access software Xper ², and the database is publicly available on figshare: https://figshare.com/s/75d890b7d707e0ffc9bf (doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.2682550).

  8. Identifying and characterizing key nodes among communities based on electrical-circuit networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenghui; Wang, Wenxu; Di, Zengru; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks with community structures are ubiquitous in the real world. Despite many approaches developed for detecting communities, we continue to lack tools for identifying overlapping and bridging nodes that play crucial roles in the interactions and communications among communities in complex networks. Here we develop an algorithm based on the local flow conservation to effectively and efficiently identify and distinguish the two types of nodes. Our method is applicable in both undirected and directed networks without a priori knowledge of the community structure. Our method bypasses the extremely challenging problem of partitioning communities in the presence of overlapping nodes that may belong to multiple communities. Due to the fact that overlapping and bridging nodes are of paramount importance in maintaining the function of many social and biological networks, our tools open new avenues towards understanding and controlling real complex networks with communities accompanied with the key nodes.

  9. Identifying Key Drivers of Return Reversal with Dynamical Bayesian Factor Graph.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhao

    Full Text Available In the stock market, return reversal occurs when investors sell overbought stocks and buy oversold stocks, reversing the stocks' price trends. In this paper, we develop a new method to identify key drivers of return reversal by incorporating a comprehensive set of factors derived from different economic theories into one unified dynamical Bayesian factor graph. We then use the model to depict factor relationships and their dynamics, from which we make some interesting discoveries about the mechanism behind return reversals. Through extensive experiments on the US stock market, we conclude that among the various factors, the liquidity factors consistently emerge as key drivers of return reversal, which is in support of the theory of liquidity effect. Specifically, we find that stocks with high turnover rates or high Amihud illiquidity measures have a greater probability of experiencing return reversals. Apart from the consistent drivers, we find other drivers of return reversal that generally change from year to year, and they serve as important characteristics for evaluating the trends of stock returns. Besides, we also identify some seldom discussed yet enlightening inter-factor relationships, one of which shows that stocks in Finance and Insurance industry are more likely to have high Amihud illiquidity measures in comparison with those in other industries. These conclusions are robust for return reversals under different thresholds.

  10. Identifying Key Stakeholder Groups for Implementing a Place Branding Policy in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulibanova V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional brands have become a valuable intangible asset and a crucial competitive resource for forging partnerships. An effective place branding policy is impossible without a precise understanding of the interests of stakeholder groups. It is essential to realize that each region is unique in its own way. Territories differ in the structure of stakeholders, their influence on regional development, and the range of leverages over regional decision-makers. This study aims to give a more precise definition of key groups of stakeholders in Saint Petersburg place branding, and to identify them. The authors employ the method of theoretical and empirical typology of a territory’s stakeholders within a theoretical framework proposed by E. Freeman, P. Kotler, S. Zenker, and E. Brown. The article defines the concept of key regional stakeholders and identifies them. The proposed target audience (stakeholder group model for a place branding policy is tested on the case of Saint Petersburg. The authors show that each target audience of place marketing requires an individual policy. This is explained by the fact that each group enjoys its unique features that should be taken into account when creating and transmitting messages.

  11. The diffusion of renewable energy technology: an analytical framework and key issues for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, S.; Johnson, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been a great deal of research on renewable energy technologies. It is commonly thought that very little has come out of this research in terms of commercially interesting technologies. The first objective of this paper is to demonstrate that this perception is no longer correct; in the 1990s there has been a double-digit growth rate in the market for some renewable energy technologies. The consequent alteration in the energy system, is, however, a slow, painful and highly uncertain process. This process, we argue, needs to be studied using an innovation system perspective where the focus is on networks, institutions and firms' perceptions, competencies and strategies. The second objective of the paper is therefore to present the bare bones of such an analytical framework. A third objective is to identify a set of key issues related to the speed and direction of that transformation process which needs to be studied further. (author)

  12. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule

  13. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  14. Identifying key factors and strategies for reducing industrial CO2 emissions from a non-Kyoto protocol member's (Taiwan) perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sue J.; Lu, I.J.; Lewis, Charles

    2006-01-01

    In this study we use Divisia index approach to identify key factors affecting CO 2 emission changes of industrial sectors in Taiwan. The changes of CO 2 emission are decomposed into emission coefficient, energy intensity, industrial structure and economic growth. Furthermore, comparisons with USA, Japan, Germany, the Netherlands and South Korea are made to have a better understanding of emission tendency in these countries and to help formulate our CO 2 reduction strategies for responding to the international calls for CO 2 cuts. The results show that economic growth and high energy intensity were two key factors for the rapid increase of industrial CO 2 emission in Taiwan, while adjustment of industrial structure was the main component for the decrease. Although economic development is important, Taiwan must keep pace with the international trends for CO 2 reduction. Among the most important strategies are continuous efforts to improve energy intensity, fuel mix toward lower carbon, setting targets for industrial CO 2 cuts, and advancing green technology through technology transfer. Also, the clean development mechanism (CDM) is expected to play an important role in the future

  15. Farmer groups key to boosting technology adoption in Kenya | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-09-20

    Sep 20, 2013 ... ... and semi-arid areas and contribute to more sustainable water and soil management. ... postharvest technologies, socioeconomics, and market analysis ... New animal vaccines could keep more African farmers in business.

  16. Identifying key radiogenomic associations between DCE-MRI and micro-RNA expressions for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A.; Kim, Renaid

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the key radiogenomic associations for breast cancer between DCE-MRI and micro-RNA expressions is the foundation for the discovery of radiomic features as biomarkers for assessing tumor progression and prognosis. We conducted a study to analyze the radiogenomic associations for breast cancer using the TCGA-TCIA data set. The core idea that tumor etiology is a function of the behavior of miRNAs is used to build the regression models. The associations based on regression are analyzed for three study outcomes: diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The diagnosis group consists of miRNAs associated with clinicopathologic features of breast cancer and significant aberration of expression in breast cancer patients. The prognosis group consists of miRNAs which are closely associated with tumor suppression and regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. The treatment group consists of miRNAs that contribute significantly to the regulation of metastasis thereby having the potential to be part of therapeutic mechanisms. As a first step, important miRNA expressions were identified and their ability to classify the clinical phenotypes based on the study outcomes was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) as a figure-of-merit. The key mapping between the selected miRNAs and radiomic features were determined using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis within a two-loop leave-one-out cross-validation strategy. These key associations indicated a number of radiomic features from DCE-MRI to be potential biomarkers for the three study outcomes.

  17. Identifying Regional Key Eco-Space to Maintain Ecological Security Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm2, accounting for 40% of the region’s total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability.

  18. Identifying the key personnel in a nurse-initiated hospital waste reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott-Levy, Ruth; Fazzini, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States generate more than 6600 tons of trash a day and approximately 85% of the waste is nonhazardous solid waste such as food, cardboard, and plastic. Treatment and management of hospital waste can lead to environmental problems for the communities that receive the waste. One health system's shared governance model provided the foundation to develop a nurse-led hospital waste reduction program that focused on point-of-care waste management. Waste reduction program development required working with a variety of departments within and external to the health system. The interdisciplinary approach informed the development of the waste reduction program. This article identifies the key departments that were necessary to include when developing a hospital waste reduction program.

  19. Identifying Determinants of Organizational Development as the Key Developers of Employee Soft Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahjahan Laghari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the determinants of organizational development as the key developers of employee soft skills. Various studies have been taken where determinants of organizational development defining soft skills in employees are discussed. However, the current study is different in Pakistani industry context as the link was missing about the determinants of organizational development which in synchronized way help in developing soft skills in employees of firm. This research uses explanatory approach; incorporating secondary data extracted under the light of existing school of thoughts paired with quantification through data collected from respondents in Pakistani corporate sector. Hypotheses are tested using structural equation model (SEM technique. Results This research showed an affirmative link between determinants of organizational development and development of soft skills in employees. Finally, the study proposes enriching insights on few missing links that can be researched and triggered achieving maximized outcomes.

  20. A mouse model of alcoholic liver fibrosis-associated acute kidney injury identifies key molecular pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Shinji; Chappell, Grace A.; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Takeki; Kato, Yuki; Kono, Hiroshi; Bataller, Ramon; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data strongly indicate that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis, an acute-on-chronic form of liver failure in patients with advanced alcoholic fibrosis. Development of targeted therapies for AKI in this setting is hampered by the lack of an animal model. To enable research into molecular drivers and novel therapies for fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI, we aimed to combine carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced fibrosis with chronic intra-gastric alcohol feeding. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered a low dose of CCl 4 (0.2 ml/kg 2 × week/6 weeks) followed by alcohol intragastrically (up to 25 g/kg/day for 3 weeks) and with continued CCl 4 . We observed that combined treatment with CCl 4 and alcohol resulted in severe liver injury, more pronounced than using each treatment alone. Importantly, severe kidney injury was evident only in the combined treatment group. This mouse model reproduced distinct pathological features consistent with AKI in human alcoholic hepatitis. Transcriptomic analysis of kidneys revealed profound effects in the combined treatment group, with enrichment for damage-associated pathways, such as apoptosis, inflammation, immune-response and hypoxia. Interestingly, Havcr1 and Lcn2, biomarkers of AKI, were markedly up-regulated. Overall, this study established a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI and identified key mechanistic pathways. - Highlights: • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis • We developed a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI • This model reproduces key molecular and pathological features of human AKI • This animal model can help identify new targeted therapies for alcoholic hepatitis

  1. A mouse model of alcoholic liver fibrosis-associated acute kidney injury identifies key molecular pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Shinji; Chappell, Grace A.; Iwata, Yasuhiro [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States); Uehara, Takeki; Kato, Yuki [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka (Japan); Kono, Hiroshi [First Department of Surgery, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi (Japan); Bataller, Ramon [Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: irusyn@tamu.edu [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Clinical data strongly indicate that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis, an acute-on-chronic form of liver failure in patients with advanced alcoholic fibrosis. Development of targeted therapies for AKI in this setting is hampered by the lack of an animal model. To enable research into molecular drivers and novel therapies for fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI, we aimed to combine carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced fibrosis with chronic intra-gastric alcohol feeding. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered a low dose of CCl{sub 4} (0.2 ml/kg 2 × week/6 weeks) followed by alcohol intragastrically (up to 25 g/kg/day for 3 weeks) and with continued CCl{sub 4}. We observed that combined treatment with CCl{sub 4} and alcohol resulted in severe liver injury, more pronounced than using each treatment alone. Importantly, severe kidney injury was evident only in the combined treatment group. This mouse model reproduced distinct pathological features consistent with AKI in human alcoholic hepatitis. Transcriptomic analysis of kidneys revealed profound effects in the combined treatment group, with enrichment for damage-associated pathways, such as apoptosis, inflammation, immune-response and hypoxia. Interestingly, Havcr1 and Lcn2, biomarkers of AKI, were markedly up-regulated. Overall, this study established a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI and identified key mechanistic pathways. - Highlights: • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis • We developed a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI • This model reproduces key molecular and pathological features of human AKI • This animal model can help identify new targeted therapies for alcoholic hepatitis.

  2. Exploring the effects of spatial autocorrelation when identifying key drivers of wildlife crop-raiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songhurst, Anna; Coulson, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Few universal trends in spatial patterns of wildlife crop-raiding have been found. Variations in wildlife ecology and movements, and human spatial use have been identified as causes of this apparent unpredictability. However, varying spatial patterns of spatial autocorrelation (SA) in human-wildlife conflict (HWC) data could also contribute. We explicitly explore the effects of SA on wildlife crop-raiding data in order to facilitate the design of future HWC studies. We conducted a comparative survey of raided and nonraided fields to determine key drivers of crop-raiding. Data were subsampled at different spatial scales to select independent raiding data points. The model derived from all data was fitted to subsample data sets. Model parameters from these models were compared to determine the effect of SA. Most methods used to account for SA in data attempt to correct for the change in P-values; yet, by subsampling data at broader spatial scales, we identified changes in regression estimates. We consequently advocate reporting both model parameters across a range of spatial scales to help biological interpretation. Patterns of SA vary spatially in our crop-raiding data. Spatial distribution of fields should therefore be considered when choosing the spatial scale for analyses of HWC studies. Robust key drivers of elephant crop-raiding included raiding history of a field and distance of field to a main elephant pathway. Understanding spatial patterns and determining reliable socio-ecological drivers of wildlife crop-raiding is paramount for designing mitigation and land-use planning strategies to reduce HWC. Spatial patterns of HWC are complex, determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale; therefore, studies need to be designed with an understanding of the effects of SA. Our methods are accessible to a variety of practitioners to assess the effects of SA, thereby improving the reliability of conservation management actions.

  3. Physical Activity in an Underserved Population: Identifying Technology Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medairos, Robert; Kang, Vicky; Aboubakare, Carissa; Kramer, Matthew; Dugan, Sheila Ann

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify patterns of use and preferences related to technology platforms that could support physical activity (PA) programs in an underserved population. A 29-item questionnaire was administered at 5 health and wellness sites targeting low income communities in Chicago. Frequency tables were generated for Internet, cell phone, and social media use and preferences. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate differences across age and income groups. A total of 291 individuals participated and were predominantly female (69.0%). Majority reported incomes less than $30,000 (72.9%) and identified as African American/Black/Caribbean (49.3%) or Mexican/Mexican American (34.3%). Most participants regularly used smartphones (63.2%) and the Internet (75.9%). Respondents frequently used Facebook (84.8%), and less commonly used Instagram (43.6%), and Twitter (20.0%). Free Internet-based exercise programs were the most preferred method to increase PA levels (31.6%), while some respondents (21.0%) thought none of the surveyed technology applications would help. Cell phone, Internet, and social media use is common among the surveyed underserved population. Technology preferences to increase PA levels varied, with a considerable number of respondents not preferring the surveyed technology platforms. Creating educational opportunities to increase awareness may maximize the effectiveness of technology-based PA interventions.

  4. Mergeomics: a web server for identifying pathological pathways, networks, and key regulators via multidimensional data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Douglas; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Shu, Le; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Yang, Xia

    2016-09-09

    Human diseases are commonly the result of multidimensional changes at molecular, cellular, and systemic levels. Recent advances in genomic technologies have enabled an outpour of omics datasets that capture these changes. However, separate analyses of these various data only provide fragmented understanding and do not capture the holistic view of disease mechanisms. To meet the urgent needs for tools that effectively integrate multiple types of omics data to derive biological insights, we have developed Mergeomics, a computational pipeline that integrates multidimensional disease association data with functional genomics and molecular networks to retrieve biological pathways, gene networks, and central regulators critical for disease development. To make the Mergeomics pipeline available to a wider research community, we have implemented an online, user-friendly web server ( http://mergeomics. idre.ucla.edu/ ). The web server features a modular implementation of the Mergeomics pipeline with detailed tutorials. Additionally, it provides curated genomic resources including tissue-specific expression quantitative trait loci, ENCODE functional annotations, biological pathways, and molecular networks, and offers interactive visualization of analytical results. Multiple computational tools including Marker Dependency Filtering (MDF), Marker Set Enrichment Analysis (MSEA), Meta-MSEA, and Weighted Key Driver Analysis (wKDA) can be used separately or in flexible combinations. User-defined summary-level genomic association datasets (e.g., genetic, transcriptomic, epigenomic) related to a particular disease or phenotype can be uploaded and computed real-time to yield biologically interpretable results, which can be viewed online and downloaded for later use. Our Mergeomics web server offers researchers flexible and user-friendly tools to facilitate integration of multidimensional data into holistic views of disease mechanisms in the form of tissue-specific key regulators

  5. Development of basic key technologies for Gen IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeongil; Kim, Sungoh; Choi, Sukgi

    2012-04-01

    The advanced concepts, for the breakeven reactor(1,200MWe) and TRU burner(600MWe), were defined to satisfy the technology goals of Generation IV nuclear systems. Based on the advanced design concepts, a conceptual design of the demonstration SFR has been developed using the available licensing technology. The conceptual core design has been developed for the TRU burner in which an initial core is fueled with less than 20wt% enriched U235, and finally transformed to a self-recycled TRU core. The passive decay heat removal circuit ensuring reactor safety even in case of loss of emergency power has been developed and minimization of a reactor vessel and simplification of reactor internals have been conducted in the conceptual design. For development of advanced technologies, control logics for various power levels and the optimal design concept of heat exchanger applicable to supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle as an energy conversion system was developed. A novel under-sodium waveguide sensor and a prototype under-sodium inspection system have been developed for under-sodium viewing of in-vessel structures submerged in an opaque liquid sodium. The fabrication technology of fuel slugs using the advanced fuel slug casting system was developed, and U-Zr alloy fuel rods were fabricated and examined. And a HT 9 cladding tube was manufactured using the developed cladding tube fabrication technology. For development of basic technologies, the cross section adjustment code ATCROSS and the MATRA-LMR code with HCFs have been developed to reduce core design uncertainties. The SIE ASME-NH computer program to evaluate high temperature structural design for 60 years design life, and the safety analysis code MARS-LMR with thermal-hydraulic and reactivity feedback models have been developed and validated. In addition, the sodium impurity measurement and control technology, the sodium water reaction event propagation model to predict the sodium leak propagation in a steam generator, and

  6. Study on Global GIS architecture and its key technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chengqi; Guan, Li; Lv, Xuefeng

    2010-11-01

    Global GIS (G2IS) is a system, which supports the huge data process and the global direct manipulation on global grid based on spheroid or ellipsoid surface. Based on global subdivision grid (GSG), Global GIS architecture is presented in this paper, taking advantage of computer cluster theory, the space-time integration technology and the virtual reality technology. Global GIS system architecture is composed of five layers, including data storage layer, data representation layer, network and cluster layer, data management layer and data application layer. Thereinto, it is designed that functions of four-level protocol framework and three-layer data management pattern of Global GIS based on organization, management and publication of spatial information in this architecture. Three kinds of core supportive technologies, which are computer cluster theory, the space-time integration technology and the virtual reality technology, and its application pattern in the Global GIS are introduced in detail. The primary ideas of Global GIS in this paper will be an important development tendency of GIS.

  7. Key Performance Parameter Driven Technology Goals for Electric Machines and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Trudell, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the crucial strategic research thrust and is a driver in the search for alternative propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The feasibility of scaling up various electric drive system technologies to meet the requirements of a large commercial transport is discussed in terms of key parameters. Functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. A breakeven analysis is presented to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  8. Key Findings and Recommendations for Technology Transfer at the ITS JPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    This report provides key findings and recommendations for technology transfer at the Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) based upon an assessment of best practices in technology transfer in other industries, such as nati...

  9. Predictive model identifies key network regulators of cardiomyocyte mechano-signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical strain is a potent stimulus for growth and remodeling in cells. Although many pathways have been implicated in stretch-induced remodeling, the control structures by which signals from distinct mechano-sensors are integrated to modulate hypertrophy and gene expression in cardiomyocytes remain unclear. Here, we constructed and validated a predictive computational model of the cardiac mechano-signaling network in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying signal integration. The model identifies calcium, actin, Ras, Raf1, PI3K, and JAK as key regulators of cardiac mechano-signaling and characterizes crosstalk logic imparting differential control of transcription by AT1R, integrins, and calcium channels. We find that while these regulators maintain mostly independent control over distinct groups of transcription factors, synergy between multiple pathways is necessary to activate all the transcription factors necessary for gene transcription and hypertrophy. We also identify a PKG-dependent mechanism by which valsartan/sacubitril, a combination drug recently approved for treating heart failure, inhibits stretch-induced hypertrophy, and predict further efficacious pairs of drug targets in the network through a network-wide combinatorial search.

  10. Modelling Creativity: Identifying Key Components through a Corpus-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanous, Anna; Keller, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a complex, multi-faceted concept encompassing a variety of related aspects, abilities, properties and behaviours. If we wish to study creativity scientifically, then a tractable and well-articulated model of creativity is required. Such a model would be of great value to researchers investigating the nature of creativity and in particular, those concerned with the evaluation of creative practice. This paper describes a unique approach to developing a suitable model of how creative behaviour emerges that is based on the words people use to describe the concept. Using techniques from the field of statistical natural language processing, we identify a collection of fourteen key components of creativity through an analysis of a corpus of academic papers on the topic. Words are identified which appear significantly often in connection with discussions of the concept. Using a measure of lexical similarity to help cluster these words, a number of distinct themes emerge, which collectively contribute to a comprehensive and multi-perspective model of creativity. The components provide an ontology of creativity: a set of building blocks which can be used to model creative practice in a variety of domains. The components have been employed in two case studies to evaluate the creativity of computational systems and have proven useful in articulating achievements of this work and directions for further research.

  11. Identifying Key Performance Indicators for Holistic Hospital Management with a Modified DEMATEL Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Sheng-Li; You, Xiao-Yue; Liu, Hu-Chen; Huang, Jia

    2017-08-19

    Performance analysis is an important way for hospitals to achieve higher efficiency and effectiveness in providing services to their customers. The performance of the healthcare system can be measured by many indicators, but it is difficult to improve them simultaneously due to the limited resources. A feasible way is to identify the central and influential indicators to improve healthcare performance in a stepwise manner. In this paper, we propose a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to identify key performance indicators (KPIs) for holistic hospital management. First, through integrating evidential reasoning approach and interval 2-tuple linguistic variables, various assessments of performance indicators provided by healthcare experts are modeled. Then, the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique is adopted to build an interactive network and visualize the causal relationships between the performance indicators. Finally, an empirical case study is provided to demonstrate the proposed approach for improving the efficiency of healthcare management. The results show that "accidents/adverse events", "nosocomial infection", ''incidents/errors", "number of operations/procedures" are significant influential indicators. Also, the indicators of "length of stay", "bed occupancy" and "financial measures" play important roles in performance evaluation of the healthcare organization. The proposed decision making approach could be considered as a reference for healthcare administrators to enhance the performance of their healthcare institutions.

  12. Computational modeling identifies key gene regulatory interactions underlying phenobarbital-mediated tumor promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisier, Raphaëlle; Unterberger, Elif B.; Goodman, Jay I.; Schwarz, Michael; Moggs, Jonathan; Terranova, Rémi; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory interactions underlying the early stages of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have identified key candidate regulators of phenobarbital (PB)-mediated mouse liver tumorigenesis, a well-characterized model of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis, by applying a new computational modeling approach to a comprehensive collection of in vivo gene expression studies. We have combined our previously developed motif activity response analysis (MARA), which models gene expression patterns in terms of computationally predicted transcription factor binding sites with singular value decomposition (SVD) of the inferred motif activities, to disentangle the roles that different transcriptional regulators play in specific biological pathways of tumor promotion. Furthermore, transgenic mouse models enabled us to identify which of these regulatory activities was downstream of constitutive androstane receptor and β-catenin signaling, both crucial components of PB-mediated liver tumorigenesis. We propose novel roles for E2F and ZFP161 in PB-mediated hepatocyte proliferation and suggest that PB-mediated suppression of ESR1 activity contributes to the development of a tumor-prone environment. Our study shows that combining MARA with SVD allows for automated identification of independent transcription regulatory programs within a complex in vivo tissue environment and provides novel mechanistic insights into PB-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:24464994

  13. Identifying key areas for active interprofessional learning partnerships: A facilitated dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Kathryn; Angus, Allyson; Breckenridge, Jenna; Davey, Peter; Tully, Vicki; Muir, Fiona

    2016-11-01

    Student and service user involvement is recognised as an important factor in creating interprofessional education (IPE) opportunities. We used a team-based learning approach to bring together undergraduate health professional students, early career professionals (ECPs), public partners, volunteers, and carers to explore learning partnerships. Influenced by evaluative inquiry, this qualitative study used a free text response to allow participants to give their own opinion. A total of 153 participants (50 public partners and 103 students and professionals representing 11 healthcare professions) took part. Participants were divided into mixed groups of six (n = 25) and asked to identify areas where students, professionals, and public could work together to improve health professional education. Each group documented their discussions by summarising agreed areas and next steps. Responses were collected and transcribed for inductive content analysis. Seven key themes (areas for joint working) were identified: communication, public as partners, standards of conduct, IPE, quality improvement, education, and learning environments. The team-based learning format enabled undergraduate and postgraduate health professionals to achieve consensus with public partners on areas for IPE and collaboration. Some of our results may be context-specific but the approach is generalisable to other areas.

  14. Power Electronics as key technology in wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper discuss the development in wind turbines in a two-decade perspective looking at the technology based on track records. Different power electronic topologies for interfacing the wind turbine to the grid are discussed and related to the possibility for the wind turbine to act as a power...

  15. Identifying key drivers of greenhouse gas emissions from biomass feedstocks for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, David R.; Curtright, Aimee E.; Willis, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Production emissions dominate transportation and processing emissions. • Choice of feedstock, geographic location and prior land use drive emissions profile. • Within scenarios, emissions variability is driven by uncertainty in yields. • Favorable scenarios maximize carbon storage from direct land-use change. • Similarly, biomass production should attempt to minimize indirect land-use change. -- Abstract: Many policies in the United States, at both the federal and state levels, encourage the adoption of renewable energy from biomass. Though largely motivated by a desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these policies do not explicitly identify scenarios in which the use of biomass will produce the greatest benefits. We have modeled “farm-to-hopper” emissions associated with seven biomass feedstocks, under a wide variety of scenarios and production choices, to characterize the uncertainty in emissions. We demonstrate that only a handful of factors have a significant impact on life cycle emissions: choice of feedstock, geographic location, prior land use, and time dynamics. Within a given production scenario, the remaining variability in emissions is driven by uncertainty in feedstock yields and the release rate of N 2 O into the atmosphere from nitrogen fertilizers. With few exceptions, transport and processing choices have relatively little impact on total emissions. These results illustrate the key decisions that will determine the success of biomass programs in reducing the emissions profile of energy production, and our publicly available model provides a useful tool for identifying the most beneficial production scenarios. While model data and results are restricted to biomass production in the contiguous United States, we provide qualitative guidance for identifying favorable production scenarios that should be applicable in other regions

  16. Power electronics - The key technology for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng

    2014-01-01

    The energy paradigms in many countries (e.g. Germany and Denmark) have experienced a significant change from fossil-based resources to clean renewables (e.g. wind turbines and photovoltaics) in the past few decades. The scenario of highly penetrated renewables is going to be further enhanced...... - Denmark expects to be 100 % fossil-free by 2050. Consequently, it is required that the production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technologically efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be strengthened. In order to realize the transition smoothly...... and effectively, energy conversion systems, currently based on power electronics technology, will again play an essential role in this energy paradigm shift. Using highly efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application, together with advanced control...

  17. CLIC: Key technology developments for the CLIC accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a future electron-positron collider under study. It foresees e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies ranging from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. The CLIC study is an international collaboration hosted by CERN. The lectures provide a broad overview of the CLIC project, covering the physics potential, the particle detectors and the accelerator. An overview of the CLIC physics opportunities is presented. These are best exploited in a staged construction and operation scenario of the collider. The detector technologies, fulfilling CLIC performance requirements and currently under study, are described. The accelerator design and performance, together with its major technologies, are presented in the light of ongoing component tests and large system tests. The status of the optimisation studies (e.g. for cost and power) of the CLIC complex for the proposed energy staging is included. One lecture is dedicated to the use of CLIC technologies in free electron lasers and other ...

  18. Water chemistry technology. One of the key technologies for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Continuous and collaborative efforts of plant manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been focused on optimal water chemistry control, for which, a trio of requirements for water chemistry should be simultaneously satisfied: (1) better reliability of reactor structures and fuel rods; (2) lower occupational exposure and (3) fewer radwaste sources. Various groups in academia have carried out basic research to support the technical bases of water chemistry in plants. The Research Committee on Water Chemistry of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ), which has now been reorganized as the Division of Water Chemistry (DWC) of AESJ, has played important roles to promote improvements in water chemistry control, to share knowledge about and experiences with water chemistry control among plant operators and manufacturers and to establish common technological bases for plant water chemistry and then to transfer them to the next generation of plant workers engaged in water chemistry. Furthermore, the DWC has tried and succeeded arranging R and D proposals for further improvement in water chemistry control through roadmap planning. In the paper, major achievements in plant technologies and in basic research studies of water chemistry in Japan are reviewed. The contributions of the DWC to the long-term safe management of the damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant until their decommissioning are introduced. (author)

  19. Surface chemistry: Key to control and advance myriad technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field. PMID:21245359

  20. Using sensitivity analysis to identify key factors for the propagation of a plant epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Loup; Bruchou, Claude; Dallot, Sylvie; Pleydell, David R J; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the key factors underlying the spread of a disease is an essential but challenging prerequisite to design management strategies. To tackle this issue, we propose an approach based on sensitivity analyses of a spatiotemporal stochastic model simulating the spread of a plant epidemic. This work is motivated by the spread of sharka, caused by plum pox virus , in a real landscape. We first carried out a broad-range sensitivity analysis, ignoring any prior information on six epidemiological parameters, to assess their intrinsic influence on model behaviour. A second analysis benefited from the available knowledge on sharka epidemiology and was thus restricted to more realistic values. The broad-range analysis revealed that the mean duration of the latent period is the most influential parameter of the model, whereas the sharka-specific analysis uncovered the strong impact of the connectivity of the first infected orchard. In addition to demonstrating the interest of sensitivity analyses for a stochastic model, this study highlights the impact of variation ranges of target parameters on the outcome of a sensitivity analysis. With regard to sharka management, our results suggest that sharka surveillance may benefit from paying closer attention to highly connected patches whose infection could trigger serious epidemics.

  1. Experimental infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae identify key factors involved in host-colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Baranowski

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i the development of a specific antibody response and (ii dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma, with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.

  2. Key Features of Governance in Brazilian Science and Technology Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Correia Sampaio Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The situation of Brazilian Science and Technology Parks (STPs operation led to the field research. Even with the public policy of stimulus and support of associations, nothing has been mapped on the dissemination of results (economic growth and regional development. This scenario instigates the question: What are the governance characteristics of Brazilian Science and Technology Parks? A empirical field research was developed, taking into consideration the possibility of replication trought the registration of the choice criteria in the multiple cases and trought research detalhes and data colection. Eight STPs (TECNOPUC - Porto Alegre, Valetec - Novo Hamburgo, Tecnosinos - Sao Leopoldo, Unicamp, CIATEC and TECHNOPARK - Campinas, Rio Park - Rio de Janeiro and SergipeTec participated in research. The results and considerations about the research question allows to infer the little effectiveness of governance (without qualitative or quantitative performance indicators is possibly caused by tensions characterized by elements such as heterogeneity in characteristics of organizations that are part of STPs, lack of consensus on common goals, pressure forces and influences affecting trusts, nonconformity standards and personal and organizational preferences. Leadership relations championed by the government and / or companies can negatively influence the STP's performance as a whole.

  3. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  4. Power electronics - key technology for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Kerekes, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss trends of the most emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics...... as efficient as possible. Further, the emerging climate changes is arguing to find sustainable future solutions. Of many options, two major technologies will play important roles to solve parts of those future problems. One is to change the electrical power production from conventional, fossil based energy......The electrical energy consumption continues to grow and more applications are based on electricity. We can expect that more 60% of all energy consumption will be converted and used as electricity. Therefore, it is a demand that production, distribution and use of electrical energy are done...

  5. Using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Xueguan; Meng, Zhijun; Zou, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In the process of tomato plants growth, due to the effect of plants genetic factors, poor environment factors, or disoperation of parasites, there will generate a series of unusual symptoms on tomato plants from physiology, organization structure and external form, as a result, they cannot grow normally, and further to influence the tomato yield and economic benefits. Hyperspectral image usually has high spectral resolution, not only contains spectral information, but also contains the image information, so this study adopted hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves, and developed a simple hyperspectral imaging system, including a halogen lamp light source unit, a hyperspectral image acquisition unit and a data processing unit. Spectrometer detection wavelength ranged from 400nm to 1000nm. After hyperspectral images of tomato leaves being captured, it was needed to calibrate hyperspectral images. This research used spectrum angle matching method and spectral red edge parameters discriminant method respectively to identify diseased tomato leaves. Using spectral red edge parameters discriminant method produced higher recognition accuracy, the accuracy was higher than 90%. Research results have shown that using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves is feasible, and provides the discriminant basis for subsequent disease control of tomato plants.

  6. Identifying the impacts of climate change on key pests and diseases of plant and animal industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, Jo; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Finlay, Kyla; Azuloas, Joe; Constable, Fiona; Rijswijk, Bonny Rowles-Van

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major threat to natural and agricultural systems. Understanding these threats will enable government and primary industries to better prepare and adapt to climate change. While observations of climate change are well documented, the potential effects on pests, pathogens and their hosts are not clearly understood. To address this, a review of the potential impacts on plant biosecurity was undertaken to determine the effects of climate change on the behaviour and distribution of emergent plant pests and pathogens. The review identified increasing C02 and temperature, decreasing frost events, heavy and unseasonal rains, increased humidity, drought, cyclones and hurricanes, and warmer winter temperatures as influencing the behaviour of plant pests and pathogens. To study the effects of these changes in detail, three key plant biosecurity threats were analysed in case studies; wheat stripe rust, silver leaf whitefly and citrus canker. The predicted distribution of citrus canker was examined with increasing temperature scenarios using the bioclimatic model CLIMEX. The model predicted a southerly shift in the geographic range of the causal organism which would threaten the major southern citrus growing regions in future climates. A similar study on Bluetongue disease of sheep, spread by the Culicoides midge, also predicted a southerly shift in the vector's geographic range. Significant limitations were identified with bioclimatic modelling when examining the effects of climate change on pests and diseases. The model was unable to assess the plant and animal response to increasing temperature in conjunction with the pest. Also the influence of temperature on the life cycle of the organism, pathogenicity of strains, competition with other species, host coverage and the general effect on the biology of the organism could not be assessed. To begin to address this, a dynamic model was constructed using daily

  7. The role of surgeons in identifying emerging technologies for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafinski, Tania; Topfer, Leigh-Ann; Zakariasen, Ken; Menon, Devidas

    2010-04-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a tool intended to help policy-makers decide which technologies to fund. However, given the proliferation of new technologies, it is not possible to undertake an HTA of each one before it becomes funded. Consequently, "horizon-scanning" processes have been developed to identify emerging technologies that are likely to have a substantial impact on clinical practice. Although the importance of physicians in the adoption of new technologies is well recognized, their role in horizon scanning in Canada has been limited. The purpose of this project was to pilot an approach to engage physicians, specifically surgeons, in provincial horizon-scanning activities. We invited 18 surgeons from Alberta's 2 medical schools to a horizon-scanning workshop to solicit their views on emerging technologies expected to impact surgical practice within the next 5 years and/or the importance of different attributes or characteristics of new technologies. Surgeons, regardless of specialty, identified developments designed to enhance existing minimally invasive surgical techniques, such as endoscopic, robotic and image-guided surgery. Several nonsurgical areas, including molecular genetics and nano technology, were also identified. Of the 13 technology attributes discussed, safety or risk, effectiveness and feasibility were rated as most important. Lastly, participating surgeons expressed an interest in becoming further involved in local HTA initiatives. Surgeons, as adopters and users of health technologies, represent an important and accessible information source for identifying emerging technologies for HTA. A more formal, ongoing relationship between the government, HTA and surgeons may help to optimize the use of HTA resources.

  8. A strategy study on the technology development for key nuclear structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jun Hwa; Jeong, Youg Hwan; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize the advanced long-life PWRs and new Generation-IV nuclear systems, it is pre-requisite to establish or ensure the several key materials technology. In this study, we proposed the several key needs and directions for the key materials issues. Each issue is envisioned and described below. 1) Development of innovative nuclear structural materials with extreme environment-resistance for advanced G-IV systems 2) Improvement/development of key reactor materials for advanced and long -life PWRs. 3) Development of technologies against nuclear materials aging degradation

  9. Identifying influential factors on integrated marketing planning using information technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Hamdi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to identify important factors influencing integrated marketing planning using information technology. The proposed study designs a questionnaire for measuring integrated marketing planning, which consists of three categories of structural factors, behavioral factors and background factors. There are 40 questions associated with the proposed study in Likert scale. Cronbach alphas have been calculated for structural factors, behavioral factors and background factors as 0.89, 0.86 and 0.83, respectively. Using some statistical test, the study has confirmed the effects of three factors on integrated marketing. In addition, the implementation of Freedman test has revealed that structural factors were the most important factor followed by background factors and behavioral factors.

  10. Identifying Key Features of Student Performance in Educational Video Games and Simulations through Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Deirdre; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment cycle of "evidence-centered design" (ECD) provides a framework for treating an educational video game or simulation as an assessment. One of the main steps in the assessment cycle of ECD is the identification of the key features of student performance. While this process is relatively simple for multiple choice tests, when…

  11. Identifying Key Stakeholders in Blended Tertiary Environments: Experts' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuapawa, Kimberley

    2017-01-01

    Although key stakeholders in blended tertiary environments (BTEs) fulfil an extraordinary role in higher education, significant gaps in knowledge about their identities may be impeding the provision of stakeholder support, limiting their ability to promote effective learning and teaching. As online growth intensifies, it is critical that tertiary…

  12. Identifying key research objectives to make European forests greener for bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Russo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bats are a biodiverse mammal order providing key ecosystem services such as pest suppression, pollination and seed dispersal. Bats are also very sensitive to human actions, and significant declines in many bat populations have been recorded consequently. Many bat species find crucial roosting and foraging opportunities in European forests. Such forests have historically been exploited by humans and are still influenced by harvesting. One of the consequences of this pressure is the loss of key habitat resources, often making forests inhospitable to bats. Despite the legal protection granted to bats across Europe, the impacts of forestry on bats are still often neglected. Because forest exploitation influences forest structure at several spatial scales, economically viable forestry could become more sustainable and even favour bats. We highlight that a positive future for bat conservation that simultaneously benefits forestry is foreseeable, although more applied research is needed to develop sound management. Key future research topics include the detection of factors influencing the carrying capacity of forests, and determining the impacts of forest management and the economic importance of bats in forests. Predictive tools to inform forest managers are much needed, together with greater synergies between forest managers and bat conservationists.

  13. An Integrated Strategy to Identify Key Genes in Almond Adventitious Shoot Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant genetic transformation usually depends on efficient adventitious regeneration systems. In almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), regeneration of transgenic adventitious shoots was achieved but with low efficiency. Histological studies identified two main stages of organogenesis in almond explants that ...

  14. Identifying Key Flavors in Strawberries Driving Liking via Internal and External Preference Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Penelope; Cicerale, Sara; Pang, Edwin; Keast, Russell

    2018-04-01

    Australian consumers desire the development of a more flavorsome Australian strawberry cultivar. To aid in the development of well-liked strawberries, the attributes driving liking need to be identified. The objective of this research is to apply Preference Mapping (PM) techniques to the descriptive profile of commercial and newly bred strawberry cultivars, together with consumer preference data to determine the flavors contributing to liking. A trained sensory panel (n = 12) used Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA®) methodology to evaluate two appearance, seven aroma, five texture, 10 flavor and 10 aftertaste attributes of three commercial strawberry cultivars and six elite breeding lines grown in Victoria, Australia. Strawberry consumers (n = 150) assessed their liking of the same strawberry cultivars. QDA® significantly discriminated strawberries on 28 of the 34 sensory attributes. There were significant differences in hedonic ratings of strawberries (F(8,714) = 11.5, P = 0.0001), with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) identifying three consumer clusters each displaying differing patterns of preference. Internal and external PM techniques were applied to the data to identify the attributes driving consumer acceptability. Sweet, berry, caramel, fruity and floral attributes were identified as most contributing to liking. Sour, citrus, green, astringent, firm and gritty attributes were conversely associated with a reduction in consumer liking. Elite Lines 2 and 6 have been identified as having the broadest appeal, satisfying between 60% and 70% of consumers in the population assessed, thus the introduction of these cultivars should satisfy the largest group of consumers in the Australian market. The results of this research could be applied to breeding programs, to ensure newly bred cultivars express characteristics that were identified as well-liked amongst consumers. In addition, this research provides evidence for marketing strawberries by

  15. Labont? Identifies Key Issues for Health Promoters in the New World Order

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    For over 35 years Ronald Labonté has been critically analyzing the state of health promotion in Canada and the world. In 1981, he identified the shortcomings of the groundbreaking Lalonde Report by warning of the seductive appeal of so-called lifestyle approaches to health. Since then, he has left a trail of critical work identifying the barriers to — and opportunities for —health promotion work. More recently, he has shown how the rise of economic globalization and acceptance of neo-liberal ...

  16. Omnichannel Customer Behavior: Key Drivers of Technology Acceptance and Use and Their Effects on Purchase Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Mosquera, Ana; Sierra Murillo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The advance of the Internet and new technologies over the last decade has transformed the retailing panorama. More and more channels are emerging, causing consumers to change their habits and shopping behavior. An omnichannel strategy is a form of retailing that, by enabling real interaction, allows customers to shop across channels anywhere and at any time, thereby providing them with a unique, complete, and seamless shopping experience that breaks down the barriers between channels. This paper aims to identify the factors that influence omnichannel consumers' behavior through their acceptance of and intention to use new technologies during the shopping process. To this end, an original model was developed to explain omnichannel shopping behavior based on the variables used in the UTAUT2 model and two additional factors: personal innovativeness and perceived security. The model was tested with a sample of 628 Spanish customers of the store Zara who had used at least two channels during their most recent shopping journey. The results indicate that the key determinants of purchase intention in an omnichannel context are, in order of importance: personal innovativeness, effort expectancy, and performance expectancy. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. PMID:27516749

  17. Omnichannel Customer Behavior: Key Drivers of Technology Acceptance and Use and Their Effects on Purchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mosquera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The advance of the Internet and new technologies over the last decade has transformed the retailing panorama. More and more channels are emerging, causing consumers to change their habits and shopping behavior. An omnichannel strategy is a form of retailing that, by enabling real interaction, allows customers to shop across channels anywhere and at any time, thereby providing them with a unique, complete, and seamless shopping experience that breaks down the barriers between channels. This paper aims to identify the factors that influence omnichannel consumers’ behavior through their acceptance of and intention to use new technologies during the shopping process. To this end, an original model was developed to explain omnichannel shopping behavior based on the variables used in the UTAUT2 model and two additional factors: personal innovativeness and perceived security. The model was tested with a sample of 628 Spanish customers of the store Zara who had used at least two channels during their most recent shopping journey. The results indicate that the key determinants of purchase intention in an omnichannel context are, in order of importance: personal innovativeness, effort expectancy, and performance expectancy. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

  18. Omnichannel Customer Behavior: Key Drivers of Technology Acceptance and Use and Their Effects on Purchase Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Mosquera, Ana; Sierra Murillo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    The advance of the Internet and new technologies over the last decade has transformed the retailing panorama. More and more channels are emerging, causing consumers to change their habits and shopping behavior. An omnichannel strategy is a form of retailing that, by enabling real interaction, allows customers to shop across channels anywhere and at any time, thereby providing them with a unique, complete, and seamless shopping experience that breaks down the barriers between channels. This paper aims to identify the factors that influence omnichannel consumers' behavior through their acceptance of and intention to use new technologies during the shopping process. To this end, an original model was developed to explain omnichannel shopping behavior based on the variables used in the UTAUT2 model and two additional factors: personal innovativeness and perceived security. The model was tested with a sample of 628 Spanish customers of the store Zara who had used at least two channels during their most recent shopping journey. The results indicate that the key determinants of purchase intention in an omnichannel context are, in order of importance: personal innovativeness, effort expectancy, and performance expectancy. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

  19. The Promise of Virtual Teams: Identifying Key Factors in Effectiveness and Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…

  20. [The Key Technology Study on Cloud Computing Platform for ECG Monitoring Based on Regional Internet of Things].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu; Qiu, Yuyan; Shi, Bo

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores the methods of building the internet of things of a regional ECG monitoring, focused on the implementation of ECG monitoring center based on cloud computing platform. It analyzes implementation principles of automatic identifi cation in the types of arrhythmia. It also studies the system architecture and key techniques of cloud computing platform, including server load balancing technology, reliable storage of massive smalfi les and the implications of quick search function.

  1. Evaluating predictive models for solar energy growth in the US states and identifying the key drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Joheen; Banerji, Sugata

    2018-03-01

    Driven by a desire to control climate change and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, governments around the world are increasing the adoption of renewable energy sources. However, among the US states, we observe a wide disparity in renewable penetration. In this study, we have identified and cleaned over a dozen datasets representing solar energy penetration in each US state, and the potentially relevant socioeconomic and other factors that may be driving the growth in solar. We have applied a number of predictive modeling approaches - including machine learning and regression - on these datasets over a 17-year period and evaluated the relative performance of the models. Our goals were: (1) identify the most important factors that are driving the growth in solar, (2) choose the most effective predictive modeling technique for solar growth, and (3) develop a model for predicting next year’s solar growth using this year’s data. We obtained very promising results with random forests (about 90% efficacy) and varying degrees of success with support vector machines and regression techniques (linear, polynomial, ridge). We also identified states with solar growth slower than expected and representing a potential for stronger growth in future.

  2. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    , and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character......Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case...... also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication. The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature...

  3. Predicting suicidal ideation in primary care: An approach to identify easily assessable key variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Pascal; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Löwe, Bernd

    To obtain predictors of suicidal ideation, which can also be used for an indirect assessment of suicidal ideation (SI). To create a classifier for SI based on variables of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and sociodemographic variables, and to obtain an upper bound on the best possible performance of a predictor based on those variables. From a consecutive sample of 9025 primary care patients, 6805 eligible patients (60% female; mean age = 51.5 years) participated. Advanced methods of machine learning were used to derive the prediction equation. Various classifiers were applied and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed as a performance measure. Classifiers based on methods of machine learning outperformed ordinary regression methods and achieved AUCs around 0.87. The key variables in the prediction equation comprised four items - namely feelings of depression/hopelessness, low self-esteem, worrying, and severe sleep disturbances. The generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7) and the somatic symptom subscale (PHQ-15) did not enhance prediction substantially. In predicting suicidal ideation researchers should refrain from using ordinary regression tools. The relevant information is primarily captured by the depression subscale and should be incorporated in a nonlinear model. For clinical practice, a classification tree using only four items of the whole PHQ may be advocated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-extinction in a host-parasite network: identifying key hosts for network stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Tad; Cornelius, Emily

    2015-08-17

    Parasites comprise a substantial portion of total biodiversity. Ultimately, this means that host extinction could result in many secondary extinctions of obligate parasites and potentially alter host-parasite network structure. Here, we examined a highly resolved fish-parasite network to determine key hosts responsible for maintaining parasite diversity and network structure (quantified here as nestedness and modularity). We evaluated four possible host extinction orders and compared the resulting co-extinction dynamics to random extinction simulations; including host removal based on estimated extinction risk, parasite species richness and host level contributions to nestedness and modularity. We found that all extinction orders, except the one based on realistic extinction risk, resulted in faster declines in parasite diversity and network structure relative to random biodiversity loss. Further, we determined species-level contributions to network structure were best predicted by parasite species richness and host family. Taken together, we demonstrate that a small proportion of hosts contribute substantially to network structure and that removal of these hosts results in rapid declines in parasite diversity and network structure. As network stability can potentially be inferred through measures of network structure, our findings may provide insight into species traits that confer stability.

  5. Genomic Landscape Survey Identifies SRSF1 as a Key Oncodriver in Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is an aggressive disease with poor survival. A few sequencing studies performed on limited number of samples have revealed potential disease-driving genes in SCLC, however, much still remains unknown, particularly in the Asian patient population. Here we conducted whole exome sequencing (WES and transcriptomic sequencing of primary tumors from 99 Chinese SCLC patients. Dysregulation of tumor suppressor genes TP53 and RB1 was observed in 82% and 62% of SCLC patients, respectively, and more than half of the SCLC patients (62% harbored TP53 and RB1 mutation and/or copy number loss. Additionally, Serine/Arginine Splicing Factor 1 (SRSF1 DNA copy number gain and mRNA over-expression was strongly associated with poor survival using both discovery and validation patient cohorts. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that SRSF1 is important for tumorigenicity of SCLC and may play a key role in DNA repair and chemo-sensitivity. These results strongly support SRSF1 as a prognostic biomarker in SCLC and provide a rationale for personalized therapy in SCLC.

  6. Identifying Key Features of Effective Active Learning: The Effects of Writing and Peer Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Wiline M.; Wyatt, Kevin H.; Powell, Karli N.; Sherwood, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. PMID:25185230

  7. A matter of definition--key elements identified in a discourse analysis of definitions of palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana, T; Jünger, S; Ostgathe, C; Elsner, F; Radbruch, L

    2008-04-01

    For more than 30 years, the term "palliative care" has been used. From the outset, the term has undergone a series of transformations in its definitions and consequently in its tasks and goals. There remains a lack of consensus on a definition. The aim of this article is to analyse the definitions of palliative care in the specialist literature and to identify the key elements of palliative care using discourse analysis: a qualitative methodology. The literature search focused on definitions of the term 'palliative medicine' and 'palliative care' in the World Wide Web and medical reference books in English and German. A total of 37 English and 26 German definitions were identified and analysed. Our study confirmed the lack of a consistent meaning concerning the investigated terms, reflecting on-going discussion about the nature of the field among palliative care practitioners. Several common key elements were identified. Four main categories emerged from the discourse analysis of the definition of palliative care: target groups, structure, tasks and expertise. In addition, the theoretical principles and goals of palliative care were discussed and found to be key elements, with relief and prevention of suffering and improvement of quality of life as main goals. The identified key elements can contribute to the definition of the concept 'palliative care'. Our study confirms the importance of semantic and ethical influences on palliative care that should be considered in future research on semantics in different languages.

  8. Identifying key genes in rheumatoid arthritis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunhui; Lv, Qi; Teng, Songsong; Yu, Yinxian; Niu, Kerun; Yi, Chengqin

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify rheumatoid arthritis (RA) related genes based on microarray data using the WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) method. Two gene expression profile datasets GSE55235 (10 RA samples and 10 healthy controls) and GSE77298 (16 RA samples and seven healthy controls) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Characteristic genes were identified using metaDE package. WGCNA was used to find disease-related networks based on gene expression correlation coefficients, and module significance was defined as the average gene significance of all genes used to assess the correlation between the module and RA status. Genes in the disease-related gene co-expression network were subject to functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Characteristic genes were also mapped to the Connectivity Map to screen small molecules. A total of 599 characteristic genes were identified. For each dataset, characteristic genes in the green, red and turquoise modules were most closely associated with RA, with gene numbers of 54, 43 and 79, respectively. These genes were enriched in totally enriched in 17 Gene Ontology terms, mainly related to immune response (CD97, FYB, CXCL1, IKBKE, CCR1, etc.), inflammatory response (CD97, CXCL1, C3AR1, CCR1, LYZ, etc.) and homeostasis (C3AR1, CCR1, PLN, CCL19, PPT1, etc.). Two small-molecule drugs sanguinarine and papaverine were predicted to have a therapeutic effect against RA. Genes related to immune response, inflammatory response and homeostasis presumably have critical roles in RA pathogenesis. Sanguinarine and papaverine have a potential therapeutic effect against RA. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Identifying key topics for a description of sexual behavior among Danish adolescents: A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Olesen, Frede

    . Results: Four major categories of risk behavior were identified: Alcohol consumption is associated with “no condom use”, Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands and often lead to unsafe sex, Low self-esteem increases the risk of pushing one...... one Danish Folk High School, but with different social and educational backgrounds. The interview guide was developed from literature reviews and hypotheses based on years of experience with sexually transmitted infections. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative description...

  10. Identifying Key Proteins in Hg Methylation Pathways of Desulfovibrio by Global Proteomics, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Anne O. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Miller, Susan M. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry; Wall, Judy [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-18

    Elemental mercury, Hg(0) is a contaminant at many DOE sites, especially at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) where the spread of spilled Hg and its effects on microbial populations have been monitored for decades. To explore the microbial interactions with Hg, we have devised a global proteomic approach capable of directly detecting Hg-adducts of proteins. This technique developed in the facultative anaerobe, Escherichia coli, allows us to identify the proteins most vulnerable to acute exposure to organomercurials phenyl- and ethyl-mercury (as surrogates for the highly neurotoxic methyl-Hg) (Polacco, et al, 2011). We have found >300 such proteins in all metabolic functional groups and cellular compartments; most are highly conserved and can serve as markers for acute Hg exposure (Zink, et al. 2016, in preparation). We have also discovered that acute Hg exposure severely disrupts thiol, iron and redox homeostases, and electrolyte balance (LaVoie, et al., 2015) Thus, we proposed to bring these techniques to bear on the central problem of identifying the cellular proteins involved in bacterial uptake and methylation of mercury and its release from the cell.

  11. Identifying key components for an effective case report poster: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Lisa L; Paranjape, Anuradha; Estrada, Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Residents demonstrate scholarly activity by presenting posters at academic meetings. Although recommendations from national organizations are available, evidence identifying which components are most important is not. To develop and test an evaluation tool to measure the quality of case report posters and identify the specific components most in need of improvement. Faculty evaluators reviewed case report posters and provided on-site feedback to presenters at poster sessions of four annual academic general internal medicine meetings. A newly developed ten-item evaluation form measured poster quality for specific components of content, discussion, and format (5-point Likert scale, 1 = lowest, 5 = highest). Evaluation tool performance, including Cronbach alpha and inter-rater reliability, overall poster scores, differences across meetings and evaluators and specific components of the posters most in need of improvement. Forty-five evaluators from 20 medical institutions reviewed 347 posters. Cronbach's alpha of the evaluation form was 0.84 and inter-rater reliability, Spearman's rho 0.49 (p words. Our evaluation tool provides empirical data to guide trainees as they prepare posters for presentation which may improve poster quality and enhance their scholarly productivity.

  12. Identifying key features of effective active learning: the effects of writing and peer discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Debra L; Pangle, Wiline M; Wyatt, Kevin H; Powell, Karli N; Sherwood, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. © 2014 D. L. Linton et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Rubella vaccination in India: identifying broad consequences of vaccine introduction and key knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A K; Pramanik, S; Lessler, J; Ferrari, M; Grenfell, B T; Metcalf, C J E

    2018-01-01

    Rubella virus infection typically presents as a mild illness in children; however, infection during pregnancy may cause the birth of an infant with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). As of February 2017, India began introducing rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into the public-sector childhood vaccination programme. Low-level RCV coverage among children over several years can result in an increase in CRS incidence by increasing the average age of infection without sufficiently reducing rubella incidence. We evaluated the impact of RCV introduction on CRS incidence across India's heterogeneous demographic and epidemiological contexts. We used a deterministic age-structured model that reflects Indian states' rural and urban area-specific demography and vaccination coverage levels to simulate rubella dynamics and estimate CRS incidence with and without RCV introduction to the public sector. Our analysis suggests that current low-level private-sector vaccination has already slightly increased the burden of CRS in India. We additionally found that the effect of public-sector RCV introduction depends on the basic reproductive number, R 0, of rubella. If R 0 is five, a value empirically estimated from an array of settings, CRS incidence post-RCV introduction will likely decrease. However, if R 0 is seven or nine, some states may experience short-term or annual increases in CRS, even if a long-term total reduction in cases (30 years) is expected. Investment in population-based serological surveys and India's fever/rash surveillance system will be key to monitoring the success of the vaccination programme.

  14. Identifying and Assessing Effective Mechanisms for Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    There is a distinct manner in which civilian technology is protected; even though secrecy is one option, as is the case with the Coca - Cola formula...done with the appropriate dedicated resources. They also placed heavy emphasis on acquiring early sponsorship for the technology and be able to set

  15. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kammann, Ulrike [Thünen-Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Hudjetz, Sebastian [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Cofalla, Catrina [Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BFG), Department G3: Biochemistry, Ecotoxicology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Schüttrumpf, Holger [Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Preuss, Thomas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt- Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); and others

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A PBTK model for trout was coupled with a sediment equilibrium partitioning model. • The influence of physical exercise on pollutant uptake was studies using the model. • Physical exercise during flood events can increase the level of biliary metabolites. • Cardiac output and effective respiratory volume were identified as relevant factors. • These confounding factors need to be considered also for bioconcentration studies. - Abstract: As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24 °C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios.

  16. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Kammann, Ulrike; Hudjetz, Sebastian; Cofalla, Catrina; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Preuss, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A PBTK model for trout was coupled with a sediment equilibrium partitioning model. • The influence of physical exercise on pollutant uptake was studies using the model. • Physical exercise during flood events can increase the level of biliary metabolites. • Cardiac output and effective respiratory volume were identified as relevant factors. • These confounding factors need to be considered also for bioconcentration studies. - Abstract: As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24 °C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios

  17. A structured elicitation method to identify key direct risk factors for the management of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high level of uncertainty inherent in natural resource management requires planners to apply comprehensive risk analyses, often in situations where there are few resources. In this paper, we demonstrate a broadly applicable, novel and structured elicitation approach to identify important direct risk factors. This new approach combines expert calibration and fuzzy based mathematics to capture and aggregate subjective expert estimates of the likelihood that a set of direct risk factors will cause management failure. A specific case study is used to demonstrate the approach; however, the described methods are widely applicable in risk analysis. For the case study, the management target was to retain all species that characterise a set of natural biological elements. The analysis was bounded by the spatial distribution of the biological elements under consideration and a 20-year time frame. Fourteen biological elements were expected to be at risk. Eleven important direct risk factors were identified that related to surrounding land use practices, climate change, problem species (e.g., feral predators, fire and hydrological change. In terms of their overall influence, the two most important risk factors were salinisation and a lack of water which together pose a considerable threat to the survival of nine biological elements. The described approach successfully overcame two concerns arising from previous risk analysis work: (1 the lack of an intuitive, yet comprehensive scoring method enabling the detection and clarification of expert agreement and associated levels of uncertainty; and (2 the ease with which results can be interpreted and communicated while preserving a rich level of detail essential for informed decision making.

  18. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Activities of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been performed under an IEA collaboration since 1995. IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron (D{sup +})-lithium (Li) neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field (2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/year for Fe) in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} for testing candidate fusion materials. In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was started to reduce the key technology risk factors. This interim report summarizes the KEP activities until mid 2001 in the major project work-breakdown areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  19. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki

    2002-03-01

    Activities of International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) have been performed under an IEA collaboration since 1995. IFMIF is an accelerator-based deuteron (D + )-lithium (Li) neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field (2 MW/m 2 , 20 dpa/year for Fe) in a volume of 500 cm 3 for testing candidate fusion materials. In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was started to reduce the key technology risk factors. This interim report summarizes the KEP activities until mid 2001 in the major project work-breakdown areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  20. Preparedness for physiotherapy in private practice: Novices identify key factors in an interpretive description study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robyn; McElroy, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    Physiotherapists in Australia deliver services to a diverse range of clients, across many settings, however little research exists examining graduate preparedness for practice, even in the populous field of private practice. To explore novice physiotherapist perspectives on preparedness for work in private practice. The qualitative approach of interpretive description was used to guide in-depth interviews with 8 novice physiotherapists from 3 universities working in 5 private practices in Melbourne. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Four main themes influencing graduate preparedness for work in private practice were identified: 1) non-curricular experiences (e.g. sports training) 2) elective curricular: practicum experiences; 3) curricular: attainment of skills specific to private practice; and 4) the private practice setting: supportive colleagues. This combination of non-curricular, curricular, and practice setting factors offered the necessary scaffolding for the graduates to report feeling prepared for work in private practice. Non-curricular activities, radiological instruction, clinical placements, building supportive colleague relations and professional development in private practice are recommended as potential means of building preparedness in novice therapists. Findings have implications for physiotherapy students, educators and private practice clinics looking to recruit new graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacy patronage: identifying key factors in the decision making process using the determinant attribute approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franic, Duska M; Haddock, Sarah M; Tucker, Leslie Tootle; Wooten, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    To use the determinant attribute approach, a research method commonly used in marketing to identify the wants of various consumer groups, to evaluate consumer pharmacy choice when having a prescription order filled in different pharmacy settings. Cross sectional. Community independent, grocery store, community chain, and discount store pharmacies in Georgia between April 2005 and April 2006. Convenience sample of adult pharmacy consumers (n = 175). Survey measuring consumer preferences on 26 attributes encompassing general pharmacy site features (16 items), pharmacist characteristics (5 items), and pharmacy staff characteristics (5 items). 26 potential determinant attributes for pharmacy selection. 175 consumers were surveyed at community independent (n = 81), grocery store (n = 44), community chain (n = 27), or discount store (n = 23) pharmacy settings. The attributes of pharmacists and staff at all four pharmacy settings were shown to affect pharmacy patronage motives, although consumers frequenting non-community independent pharmacies were also motivated by secondary convenience factors, e.g., hours of operation, and prescription coverage. Most consumers do not perceive pharmacies as merely prescription-distribution centers that vary only by convenience. Prescriptions are not just another economic good. Pharmacy personnel influence pharmacy selection; therefore, optimal staff selection and training is likely the greatest asset and most important investment for ensuring pharmacy success.

  2. Using the Delphi Technique to Identify Key Elements for Effective and Sustainable Visitor Use Planning Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P. Fefer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas around the world receive nearly 800 billion visits/year, with international tourism continuing to increase. While protected areas provide necessary benefits to communities and visitors, the increased visitation may negatively impact the resource and the recreational experience, hence the need to manage visitor use in protected areas around the world. This research focused on obtaining information from experts to document their experiences utilizing one visitor use planning framework: Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP. Using the Delphi Technique, 31 experts from seven regions around the world were asked to identify elements necessary for effective visitor management, as well as elements that facilitated or limited success when using VERP. Elements were categorized and rated in terms of importance. Scoring of the final categories was analyzed using Wilcoxon and Median non-parametric statistical tests. Results suggest that planning challenges stem from limitations in organizational capacity to support a long-term, adaptive management process, inferring that VERP may be sufficiently developed, but implementation capacity may not. The results can be used to refine existing frameworks, and to aid in the development of new recreation frameworks.

  3. Gene expression profiling in Entamoeba histolytica identifies key components in iron uptake and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Adriana Hernández-Cuevas

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is an ameboid parasite that causes colonic dysentery and liver abscesses in humans. The parasite encounters dramatic changes in iron concentration during its invasion of the host, with relatively low levels in the intestinal lumen and then relatively high levels in the blood and liver. The liver notably contains sources of iron; therefore, the parasite's ability to use these sources might be relevant to its survival in the liver and thus the pathogenesis of liver abscesses. The objective of the present study was to identify factors involved in iron uptake, use and storage in E. histolytica. We compared the respective transcriptomes of E. histolytica trophozoites grown in normal medium (containing around 169 µM iron, low-iron medium (around 123 µM iron, iron-deficient medium (around 91 µM iron, and iron-deficient medium replenished with hemoglobin. The differentially expressed genes included those coding for the ATP-binding cassette transporters and major facilitator transporters (which share homology with bacterial siderophores and heme transporters and genes involved in heme biosynthesis and degradation. Iron deficiency was associated with increased transcription of genes encoding a subset of cell signaling molecules, some of which have previously been linked to adaptation to the intestinal environment and virulence. The present study is the first to have assessed the transcriptome of E. histolytica grown under various iron concentrations. Our results provide insights into the pathways involved in iron uptake and metabolism in this parasite.

  4. Gene expression profiling in Entamoeba histolytica identifies key components in iron uptake and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cuevas, Nora Adriana; Weber, Christian; Hon, Chung-Chau; Guillen, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an ameboid parasite that causes colonic dysentery and liver abscesses in humans. The parasite encounters dramatic changes in iron concentration during its invasion of the host, with relatively low levels in the intestinal lumen and then relatively high levels in the blood and liver. The liver notably contains sources of iron; therefore, the parasite's ability to use these sources might be relevant to its survival in the liver and thus the pathogenesis of liver abscesses. The objective of the present study was to identify factors involved in iron uptake, use and storage in E. histolytica. We compared the respective transcriptomes of E. histolytica trophozoites grown in normal medium (containing around 169 µM iron), low-iron medium (around 123 µM iron), iron-deficient medium (around 91 µM iron), and iron-deficient medium replenished with hemoglobin. The differentially expressed genes included those coding for the ATP-binding cassette transporters and major facilitator transporters (which share homology with bacterial siderophores and heme transporters) and genes involved in heme biosynthesis and degradation. Iron deficiency was associated with increased transcription of genes encoding a subset of cell signaling molecules, some of which have previously been linked to adaptation to the intestinal environment and virulence. The present study is the first to have assessed the transcriptome of E. histolytica grown under various iron concentrations. Our results provide insights into the pathways involved in iron uptake and metabolism in this parasite.

  5. Identifying key soil cyanobacteria easy to isolate and culture for arid soil restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Beatriz; Ángeles Muñoz-Martín, M.; Chamizo, Sonia; Román, Raúl; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Mateo, Pilar; Cantón, Yolanda

    2017-04-01

    Drylands represent an important fraction of the Earth land's surface. Low cover of vascular plants characterizes these regions, and the large open areas among plants are often colonized by cyanobacteria, mosses, lichens, algae, bryophytes, bacteria and fungi, known as biocrusts. Because these communities are on or within the soil surface, they contribute to improve physicochemical properties of the uppermost soil layers and have important effects on soil fertility and stability, so they could play an important role on soil restoration. Cyanobacteria appear to be a cross component of biocrusts and they have been demonstrated to enhance water availability, soil fertility (fixing atmospheric C and N), and soil aggregation (thanks to their filamentous morphology and the exopolysaccharides they excrete), and significantly reduce water and wind erosion. Besides, they are able to tolerate high temperatures and UV radiation. All these features convert cyanobacteria in pioneer organisms capable of colonizing degraded soils and may be crucial in facilitating the succession of more developed organisms such as vascular plants. Therefore, the use of native cyanobacteria, already adapted to site environmental conditions, could guarantee a successful restoration approach of degraded soils. However, previous to their application for soil restoration, the most representative species inhabiting these soils should be identified. The objective of this study was to identify (morphologically and genetically) and isolate representative native cyanobacteria species from arid soils in SE Spain, characterized for being easily isolated and cultured with the aim of using them to inoculate degraded arid soil. We selected two study areas in Almería, SE Spain, where biocrust cover most of the open spaces between plants: El Cautivo experimental site located in the Tabernas desert and a limestone quarry located at the southeastern edge of the Gádor massif. The first site is characterized by

  6. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia: identifying key spatial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Lima Santos, José; Plieninger, Tobias; Seixas, Júlia

    2014-01-15

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in relation to their surrounding landscape matrix, and to characterize and quantify woodland boundaries and edges. The present study aims to fill this gap by analyzing fragmentation patterns of oak woodlands over a 50-year period (1958-2007) in three landscapes. Using archived aerial imagery from 1958, 1995 and 2007, for two consecutive periods (1958-1995 and 1995-2007), we calculated a set of landscape metrics to compare woodland fragmentation over time. Our results indicated a continuous woodland fragmentation characterized by their edge dynamics. From 1958 to 2007, the replacement of open farmland by shrubland and by new afforestation areas in the oak woodland landscape surrounding matrix, led to the highest values for edge contrast length trends of 5.0 and 12.3, respectively. Linear discriminant analysis was performed to delineate fragmented woodland structures and identify metric variables that characterize woodland spatial configuration. The edge contrast length with open farmland showed a strong correlation with F1 (correlations ranging between 0.55 and 0.98) and may be used as a proxy for oak woodland mixedness in landscape matrix. The edge dynamics of oak woodlands may result in different patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Probing molecular mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone: biophysical modeling identifies key regulators of functional dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Dixit

    Full Text Available Deciphering functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is an important objective in cancer biology aiming to facilitate discovery of targeted anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, organizing molecular principles that control the relationship between conformational diversity and functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 activity lack a sufficient quantitative characterization. We combined molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, the energy landscape model and structure-functional analysis of Hsp90 regulatory interactions to systematically investigate functional dynamics of the molecular chaperone. This approach has identified a network of conserved regions common to the Hsp90 chaperones that could play a universal role in coordinating functional dynamics, principal collective motions and allosteric signaling of Hsp90. We have found that these functional motifs may be utilized by the molecular chaperone machinery to act collectively as central regulators of Hsp90 dynamics and activity, including the inter-domain communications, control of ATP hydrolysis, and protein client binding. These findings have provided support to a long-standing assertion that allosteric regulation and catalysis may have emerged via common evolutionary routes. The interaction networks regulating functional motions of Hsp90 may be determined by the inherent structural architecture of the molecular chaperone. At the same time, the thermodynamics-based "conformational selection" of functional states is likely to be activated based on the nature of the binding partner. This mechanistic model of Hsp90 dynamics and function is consistent with the notion that allosteric networks orchestrating cooperative protein motions can be formed by evolutionary conserved and sparsely connected residue clusters. Hence, allosteric signaling through a small network of distantly connected

  8. Identifying plant traits: a key aspect for suitable species selection in ecological restoration of semiarid slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    In the context of ecological restoration, one of the greatest challenges for practitioners and scientists is to select suitable species for revegetation purposes. In semiarid environments where restoration projects often fail, little attention has been paid so far to the contribution of plant traits to species success. The objective of this study was to (1) identify plant traits associated with species success on four roadside situations along an erosion-productivity gradient, and (2) to provide an ecological framework for selecting suitable species on the basis of their morphological and functional traits, applied to semiarid environments. We analyzed the association of 10 different plant traits with species success of 296 species surveyed on the four roadside situations in a semiarid region (Valencia, Spain). Plant traits included general plant traits (longevity, woodiness) and more specific root-, seed- and leaf-related traits (root type, sprouting ability, seed mucilage, seed mass, seed susceptibility to removal, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content). All of them were selected according to the prevailing limiting ecogeomorphological processes acting along the erosion-productivity gradient. We observed strong shifts along the erosion-productivity gradient in the traits associated to species success. At the harshest end of the gradient, the most intensely eroded and driest one, species success was mainly associated to seed resistance to removal by runoff and to resistance to drought. At the opposite end of the gradient, the most productive one, species success was associated to a competitive-ruderal plant strategy (herbaceous successful species with high specific leaf area and low leaf dry matter content). Our study provides an ecologically-based approach for selecting suitable native species on the basis or their morphological and functional traits and supports a differential trait-based selection of species as regards roadslope type and aspect. In

  9. Simulation-based Assessment to Reliably Identify Key Resident Performance Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Richard H; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L; Boulet, John R; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Petrusa, Emil R; Baker, Keith H; Davidyuk, Galina; Dearden, Jennifer L; Feinstein, David M; Jones, Stephanie B; Kimball, William R; Mitchell, John D; Nadelberg, Robert L; Wiser, Sarah H; Albrecht, Meredith A; Anastasi, Amanda K; Bose, Ruma R; Chang, Laura Y; Culley, Deborah J; Fisher, Lauren J; Grover, Meera; Klainer, Suzanne B; Kveraga, Rikante; Martel, Jeffrey P; McKenna, Shannon S; Minehart, Rebecca D; Mitchell, John D; Mountjoy, Jeremi R; Pawlowski, John B; Pilon, Robert N; Shook, Douglas C; Silver, David A; Warfield, Carol A; Zaleski, Katherine L

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining reliable and valid information on resident performance is critical to patient safety and training program improvement. The goals were to characterize important anesthesia resident performance gaps that are not typically evaluated, and to further validate scores from a multiscenario simulation-based assessment. Seven high-fidelity scenarios reflecting core anesthesiology skills were administered to 51 first-year residents (CA-1s) and 16 third-year residents (CA-3s) from three residency programs. Twenty trained attending anesthesiologists rated resident performances using a seven-point behaviorally anchored rating scale for five domains: (1) formulate a clear plan, (2) modify the plan under changing conditions, (3) communicate effectively, (4) identify performance improvement opportunities, and (5) recognize limits. A second rater assessed 10% of encounters. Scores and variances for each domain, each scenario, and the total were compared. Low domain ratings (1, 2) were examined in detail. Interrater agreement was 0.76; reliability of the seven-scenario assessment was r = 0.70. CA-3s had a significantly higher average total score (4.9 ± 1.1 vs. 4.6 ± 1.1, P = 0.01, effect size = 0.33). CA-3s significantly outscored CA-1s for five of seven scenarios and domains 1, 2, and 3. CA-1s had a significantly higher proportion of worrisome ratings than CA-3s (chi-square = 24.1, P < 0.01, effect size = 1.50). Ninety-eight percent of residents rated the simulations more educational than an average day in the operating room. Sensitivity of the assessment to CA-1 versus CA-3 performance differences for most scenarios and domains supports validity. No differences, by experience level, were detected for two domains associated with reflective practice. Smaller score variances for CA-3s likely reflect a training effect; however, worrisome performance scores for both CA-1s and CA-3s suggest room for improvement.

  10. A multivariate and stochastic approach to identify key variables to rank dairy farms on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, A S; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A

    2013-05-01

    The economic efficiency of dairy farms is the main goal of farmers. The objective of this work was to use routinely available information at the dairy farm level to develop an index of profitability to rank dairy farms and to assist the decision-making process of farmers to increase the economic efficiency of the entire system. A stochastic modeling approach was used to study the relationships between inputs and profitability (i.e., income over feed cost; IOFC) of dairy cattle farms. The IOFC was calculated as: milk revenue + value of male calves + culling revenue - herd feed costs. Two databases were created. The first one was a development database, which was created from technical and economic variables collected in 135 dairy farms. The second one was a synthetic database (sDB) created from 5,000 synthetic dairy farms using the Monte Carlo technique and based on the characteristics of the development database data. The sDB was used to develop a ranking index as follows: (1) principal component analysis (PCA), excluding IOFC, was used to identify principal components (sPC); and (2) coefficient estimates of a multiple regression of the IOFC on the sPC were obtained. Then, the eigenvectors of the sPC were used to compute the principal component values for the original 135 dairy farms that were used with the multiple regression coefficient estimates to predict IOFC (dRI; ranking index from development database). The dRI was used to rank the original 135 dairy farms. The PCA explained 77.6% of the sDB variability and 4 sPC were selected. The sPC were associated with herd profile, milk quality and payment, poor management, and reproduction based on the significant variables of the sPC. The mean IOFC in the sDB was 0.1377 ± 0.0162 euros per liter of milk (€/L). The dRI explained 81% of the variability of the IOFC calculated for the 135 original farms. When the number of farms below and above 1 standard deviation (SD) of the dRI were calculated, we found that 21

  11. A Simple Key for Identifying the Sibling Species of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae (Giles Complex by Polytene Chromosome Cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Music Temitope OBEMBE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that Anopheles gambiae complex sibling species are the major Plasmodium malaria vectors in Africa; however, not all the sibling species transmit the infection. Easier molecular methods, PCR-based assays, have been developed to distinguish the several members of the A. gambiae complex. However, malaria vector research in less developed countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, is being hampered by the lack of PCR facilities in laboratories and the cost of carrying out the assay within lack of funding. Hence, the present study was designed to develop a simple identification key, based on an affordable method of polytene chromosome cytotaxonomy, for identifying the major P. falciparum vectors. The Identification Key was successfully used to identify two members of the A. gambiae complex, A. gambiae sensu stricto and A. arabiensis, which are the most potent malaria vectors in Africa; even so, it could not be used to establish the infective and the refractory strains.

  12. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqi Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to assembly connection strength to depict the assembling difficulty level. The transmissibility based on trust relationship was applied on the assembly connection strength. Assembly unit partition based on assembly connection strength was conducted, and interferential assembly units were identified and revised. The assembly sequence planning and optimization of parts in each assembly unit and between assembly units was conducted using genetic algorithm. With certain type of high speed CNC turning center, as an example, this paper explored into the assembly modeling, assembly unit partition, and assembly sequence planning and optimization and realized the optimized assembly sequence of headstock of CNC machine tool.

  13. A brief review on key technologies in the battery management system of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Peng, Qiao; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Batteries have been widely applied in many high-power applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles, where a suitable battery management system (BMS) is vital in ensuring safe and reliable operation of batteries. This paper aims to give a brief review on several key technologies of BMS, including battery modelling, state estimation and battery charging. First, popular battery types used in EVs are surveyed, followed by the introduction of key technologies used in BMS. Various battery models, including the electric model, thermal model and coupled electro-thermal model are reviewed. Then, battery state estimations for the state of charge, state of health and internal temperature are comprehensively surveyed. Finally, several key and traditional battery charging approaches with associated optimization methods are discussed.

  14. A genetic screen identifies BRCA2 and PALB2 as key regulators of G2 checkpoint maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Tobias; Nähse-Kumpf, Viola; Kousholt, Arne Nedergaard

    2011-01-01

    To identify key connections between DNA-damage repair and checkpoint pathways, we performed RNA interference screens for regulators of the ionizing radiation-induced G2 checkpoint, and we identified the breast cancer gene BRCA2. The checkpoint was also abrogated following depletion of PALB2......, an interaction partner of BRCA2. BRCA2 and PALB2 depletion led to premature checkpoint abrogation and earlier activation of the AURORA A-PLK1 checkpoint-recovery pathway. These results indicate that the breast cancer tumour suppressors and homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 and PALB2 are main...

  15. Protocol for a thematic synthesis to identify key themes and messages from a palliative care research network.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholson, Emma

    2016-10-21

    Research networks that facilitate collaborative research are increasing both regionally and globally and such collaborations contribute greatly to knowledge transfer particularly in health research. The Palliative Care Research Network is an Irish-based network that seeks to create opportunities and engender a collaborative environment to encourage innovative research that is relevant for policy and practice. The current review outlines a methodology to identify cross-cutting messages to identify how dissemination outputs can be optimized to ensure that key messages from this research reaches all knowledge users.

  16. Key policy considerations for facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockwell, David G.; Watson, Jim; MacKerron, Gordon; Pal, Prosanto; Yamin, Farhana

    2008-01-01

    Based on Phase I of a UK-India collaborative study, this paper analyses two case studies of low carbon technologies-hybrid vehicles and coal-fired power generation via integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The analysis highlights the following six key considerations for the development of policy aimed at facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries: (1) technology transfer needs to be seen as part of a broader process of sustained, low carbon technological capacity development in recipient countries; (2) the fact that low carbon technologies are at different stages of development means that low carbon technology transfer involves both vertical transfer (the transfer of technologies from the R and D stage through to commercialisation) and horizontal transfer (the transfer from one geographical location to another). Barriers to transfer and appropriate policy responses often vary according to the stage of technology development as well as the specific source and recipient country contexts; (3) less integrated technology transfer arrangements, involving, for example, acquisition of different items of plant from a range of host country equipment manufacturers, are more likely to involve knowledge exchange and diffusion through recipient country economies; (4) recipient firms that, as part of the transfer process, strategically aim to obtain technological know-how and knowledge necessary for innovation during the transfer process are more likely to be able to develop their capacity as a result; (5) whilst access to Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) may sometimes be a necessary part of facilitating technology transfer, it is not likely to be sufficient in itself. Other factors such as absorptive capacity and risks associated with new technologies must also be addressed; (6) there is a central role for both national and international policy interventions in achieving low carbon technology transfer. The lack of available empirical analysis

  17. The Platform Architecture and Key Technology of Cloud Service that Support Wisdom City Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the new requirement of constructing “resource sharing and service on demand” wisdom city system, this paper put forward the platform architecture of cloud service for wisdom city management which support IaaS, PaaS and SaaS three types of service model on the basis of researching the operation mode of the wisdom city which under cloud computing environment and through the research of mass storing technology of cloud data, building technology of cloud resource pool, scheduling management methods and monitoring technology of cloud resource, security management and control technology of cloud platform and other key technologies. The platform supports wisdom city system to achieve business or resource scheduling management optimization and the unified and efficient management of large-scale hardware and software, which has the characteristics of cross-domain resource scheduling, cross-domain data sharing, cross-domain facilities integration and cross-domain service integration.

  18. The key physics and technology issues in the intense-beam proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Shinian; Fang Shouxian

    2002-01-01

    Beam power is required to raise one order in the next generation spallation neutron source. There are still some physics and technology difficulties need to be overcome, even though no fatal obstacle exists due to the rapid development of the technology in intense-beam accelerator in recent years. Therefore, it is highly demanded to clarify the key issues and to lunch an R and D program to break through the technological barriers before author start to build the expansive machine. The new technological challenge arises from the high beam current, the high accelerator power and the high demand on the reliability and stability of the accelerator operation. The author will discuss these issues and the means to resolve them, as well as the state of the art in a few of major technological disciplines. Finally, the choice the framework of intense-beam accelerator is discussed

  19. Key technologies for the current and future challenges of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Sancho, Lou; Roulleaux Dugage, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The current challenges of the nuclear industry are the result of too many uncertainties: low GDP growth of OECD countries, booming state debts, deregulated electricity markets, growing safety regulation and diminishing public support. As a result, nuclear technology companies tend to entrench in their current installed base, while attempting to develop global partnerships to market their products to new nuclear countries, along with viable financing schemes. But new opportunities are lying ahead. In a future context of effective and global climate policies, nuclear energy will have to play a key role in a new energy ecosystem aside the two other clean air energy production technologies: renewable energies and electricity storage. And still, the perspective of long-term sustainability of nuclear energy is still high. This paper explores the opportunity for key innovative technologies to shift the way we think about nuclear in the future energy system while addressing these major challenges. (author)

  20. Future costs of key low-carbon energy technologies: Harmonization and aggregation of energy technology expert elicitation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Erin; Bosetti, Valentina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Henrion, Max; Aleluia Reis, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we standardize, compare, and aggregate results from thirteen surveys of technology experts, performed over a period of five years using a range of different methodologies, but all aiming at eliciting expert judgment on the future cost of five key energy technologies and how future costs might be influenced by public R&D investments. To enable researchers and policy makers to use the wealth of collective knowledge obtained through these expert elicitations we develop and present a set of assumptions to harmonize them. We also aggregate expert estimates within each study and across studies to facilitate the comparison. The analysis showed that, as expected, technology costs are expected to go down by 2030 with increasing levels of R&D investments, but that there is not a high level of agreement between individual experts or between studies regarding the technology areas that would benefit the most from R&D investments. This indicates that further study of prospective cost data may be useful to further inform R&D investments. We also found that the contributions of additional studies to the variance of costs in one technology area differed by technology area, suggesting that (barring new information about the downsides of particular forms of elicitations) there may be value in not only including a diverse and relatively large group of experts, but also in using different methods to collect estimates. - Highlights: • Harmonization of unique dataset on probabilistic evolution of key energy technologies. • Expectations about the impact of public R&D investments on future costs. • Highlighting the key uncertainties and a lack of consensus on cost evolution

  1. GHG emission scenarios in Asia and the world: The key technologies for significant reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Osamu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kainuma, Mikiko

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world as part of the Asian Modeling Exercise and assess technology options for meeting a 2.6 W/m 2 radiative forcing target using AIM/Enduse[Global] and AIM/Impact[Policy]. Global GHG emissions in 2050 are required to be reduced by 72% relative to a reference scenario, which corresponds to a 57% reduction from the 2005 level, in order to meet the above target. Energy intensity improvement contributes a lot to curbing CO 2 emission in the short-term. Meanwhile, carbon intensity reduction and CO 2 capture play a large role for further emission reduction in the mid to long-term. The top five key technologies in terms of reduction amount are CCS, solar power generation, wind power generation, biomass power generation and biofuel, which, in total, account for about 60% of global GHG emissions reduction in 2050. We implement additional model runs, each of which enforced limited availability of one of the key technology. The result shows that the 2.6 W/m 2 target up to 2050 is achievable even if availability of any one of the key technologies is limited to half the level achieved in the default simulation. However, if the use of CCS or biomass is limited, the cumulative GHG abatement cost until 2050 increases considerably. Therefore CCS and biomass have a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions. - Highlights: ► We explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world. ► Significant GHG emission reduction is required to limit radiative forcing at low level. ► We assess technology options for achieving significant GHG emission reduction. ► CCS, solar power, wind power, and biomass are the key technologies for reduction. ► Especially, CCS and biomass play a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions.

  2. Summary of Key Issues Raised in the Technology for Early Awareness of Addiction and Mental Illness (TEAAM-I) Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumel, Amit; Baker, Justin; Birnbaum, Michael L; Christensen, Helen; De Choudhury, Munmun; Mohr, David C; Muench, Fred; Schlosser, Danielle; Titov, Nick; Kane, John M

    2018-05-01

    Technology provides an unparalleled opportunity to remove barriers to earlier identification and engagement in services for mental and addictive disorders by reaching people earlier in the course of illness and providing links to just-in-time, cost-effective interventions. Achieving this opportunity, however, requires stakeholders to challenge underlying assumptions about traditional pathways to mental health care. In this Open Forum, the authors highlight key issues discussed in the Technology for Early Awareness of Addiction and Mental Illness (TEAAM-I) meeting-held October 13-14, 2016, in New York City-that are related to three identified areas in which technology provides important and unique opportunities to advance early identification, increase service engagement, and decrease the duration of untreated mental and addictive disorders.

  3. Key technologies of the server monitor and control system based on GSM short messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Taiwei; Zhou Zhenliu; Liu Baoxu

    2007-01-01

    The network management based on SNMP protocol cannot effectively monitor and control application-system states and key-process states on the computer server. Furthermore, it needs the administrator's longtime surveillance. When the administrator leaves the computer, he can't receive the malfunction message in time. In this paper we present a server monitor and control system based on monitor agents and GSM short messages, introduce the key technology to realize it, and implement a model system in the real network environment. (authors)

  4. A Research Review on the Key Technologies of Intelligent Design for Customized Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyou Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of technologies such as big data and cyber-physical systems (CPSs has increased the demand for product design. Product digital design involves completing the product design process using advanced digital technologies such as geometry modeling, kinematic and dynamic simulation, multi-disciplinary coupling, virtual assembly, virtual reality (VR, multi-objective optimization (MOO, and human-computer interaction. The key technologies of intelligent design for customized products include: a description and analysis of customer requirements (CRs, product family design (PFD for the customer base, configuration and modular design for customized products, variant design for customized products, and a knowledge push for product intelligent design. The development trends in intelligent design for customized products include big-data-driven intelligent design technology for customized products and customized design tools and applications. The proposed method is verified by the design of precision computer numerical control (CNC machine tools.

  5. Identifying, Licensing, and Commercializing Technology: An Entrepreneur's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Kris

    2013-03-01

    A linguist by trade, Kris Appel left government service to pursue entrepreneurship. She knew she wanted to start a company, but she did not have a business idea. After researching various technologies available for commercialization, she began to focus on a prototype medical device at the University of Maryland Medical School, which had been developed to help stroke survivors recover their arm movement. The device was based upon emerging science into brain re-training, and was backed by very convincing clinical trials. Working closely with University researchers, she licensed the rights to the device, developed a commercial version, and launched it in 2009. Today the device is used around the globe, and has helped thousands of stroke and brain injury survivors improve their arm function and way of life. Kris will tell the story of the device, and how it got from idea to prototype to successful rehabilitation product.

  6. Measuring Consumer Innovativeness: Identifying Innovators among Consumers of Modern Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Filová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods currently used in innovation marketing research are focused on the late phases of the innovation process and are usually methodologically complex. This limits their practical impact. The presented work aims to create a simple self-report scale applicable in the initial and late phases of the innovation process, highly modular and suitable for a wide range of research. The main battery of questions was inspired by the adopter categorization by Rogers. The questions determine both (1 general characteristics of innovation adopters and (2 their relationship to a specific innovation. The scale was tested during robust longitudinal online research, thematically focused on users of modern technologies. A representative sample of 4,000 Internet users in the Czech Republic took part in the survey from 2013 to 2015. The result is a new self-report scale measuring consumer innovativeness applicable for prototyping, strategic decisions and effective communication of innovations to consumers.

  7. Modified Principal Component Analysis for Identifying Key Environmental Indicators and Application to a Large-Scale Tidal Flat Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the key environmental indicators (KEIs from a large number of environmental variables is important for environmental management in tidal flat reclamation areas. In this study, a modified principal component analysis approach (MPCA has been developed for determining the KEIs. The MPCA accounts for the two important attributes of the environmental variables: pollution status and temporal variation, in addition to the commonly considered numerical divergence attribute. It also incorporates the distance correlation (dCor to replace the Pearson’s correlation to measure the nonlinear interrelationship between the variables. The proposed method was applied to the Tiaozini sand shoal, a large-scale tidal flat reclamation region in China. Five KEIs were identified as dissolved inorganic nitrogen, Cd, petroleum in the water column, Hg, and total organic carbon in the sediment. The identified KEIs were shown to respond well to the biodiversity of phytoplankton. This demonstrated that the identified KEIs adequately represent the environmental condition in the coastal marine system. Therefore, the MPCA is a practicable method for extracting effective indicators that have key roles in the coastal and marine environment.

  8. Awareness of technology-induced errors and processes for identifying and preventing such errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellwood, Paule; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    There is a need to determine if organizations working with health information technology are aware of technology-induced errors and how they are addressing and preventing them. The purpose of this study was to: a) determine the degree of technology-induced error awareness in various Canadian healthcare organizations, and b) identify those processes and procedures that are currently in place to help address, manage, and prevent technology-induced errors. We identified a lack of technology-induced error awareness among participants. Participants identified there was a lack of well-defined procedures in place for reporting technology-induced errors, addressing them when they arise, and preventing them.

  9. Research and Implementation of Key Technologies in Multi-Agent System to Support Distributed Workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianheng

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the combination of workflow management system and Multi-agent technology is a hot research field. The problem of lack of flexibility in workflow management system can be improved by introducing multi-agent collaborative management. The workflow management system adopts distributed structure. It solves the problem that the traditional centralized workflow structure is fragile. In this paper, the agent of Distributed workflow management system is divided according to its function. The execution process of each type of agent is analyzed. The key technologies such as process execution and resource management are analyzed.

  10. Research on key technology of planning and design for AC/DC hybrid distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Wu, Guilian; Zheng, Huan; Deng, Junpeng; Shi, Pengjia

    2018-04-01

    With the increasing demand of DC generation and DC load, the development of DC technology, AC and DC distribution network integrating will become an important form of future distribution network. In this paper, the key technology of planning and design for AC/DC hybrid distribution network is proposed, including the selection of AC and DC voltage series, the design of typical grid structure and the comprehensive evaluation method of planning scheme. The research results provide some ideas and directions for the future development of AC/DC hybrid distribution network.

  11. Research on key technologies for data-interoperability-based metadata, data compression and encryption, and their application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xu; Shao, Quanqin; Zhu, Yunhai; Deng, Yuejin; Yang, Haijun

    2006-10-01

    With the development of informationization and the separation between data management departments and application departments, spatial data sharing becomes one of the most important objectives for the spatial information infrastructure construction, and spatial metadata management system, data transmission security and data compression are the key technologies to realize spatial data sharing. This paper discusses the key technologies for metadata based on data interoperability, deeply researches the data compression algorithms such as adaptive Huffman algorithm, LZ77 and LZ78 algorithm, studies to apply digital signature technique to encrypt spatial data, which can not only identify the transmitter of spatial data, but also find timely whether the spatial data are sophisticated during the course of network transmission, and based on the analysis of symmetric encryption algorithms including 3DES,AES and asymmetric encryption algorithm - RAS, combining with HASH algorithm, presents a improved mix encryption method for spatial data. Digital signature technology and digital watermarking technology are also discussed. Then, a new solution of spatial data network distribution is put forward, which adopts three-layer architecture. Based on the framework, we give a spatial data network distribution system, which is efficient and safe, and also prove the feasibility and validity of the proposed solution.

  12. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m{sup 2}, 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm{sup 3} and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  13. Key Technologies of the Hydraulic Structures of the Three Gorges Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqiang Niu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Three Gorges Project is the largest hydro junction in the world. It is the key project for the integrated water resource management and development of the Changjiang River. The technology of the project, with its huge scale and comprehensive benefits, is extremely complicated, and the design difficulty is greater than that of any other hydro project in the world. A series of new design theories and methods have been proposed and applied in the design and research process. Many key technological problems regarding hydraulic structures have been overcome, such as a gravity dam with multi-layer large discharge orifices, a hydropower station of giant generating units, and a giant continual multi-step ship lock with a high water head.

  14. IFMIF-KEP. International fusion materials irradiation facility key element technology phase report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source designed to produce an intense neutron field that will simulate the neutron environment of a D-T fusion reactor. IFMIF will provide a neutron flux equivalent to 2 MW/m 2 , 20 dpa/y in Fe, in a volume of 500 cm 3 and will be used in the development and qualification of materials for fusion systems. The design activities of IFMIF are performed under an IEA collaboration which began in 1995. In 2000, a three-year Key Element Technology Phase (KEP) of IFMIF was undertaken to reduce the key technology risk factors. This KEP report describes the results of the three-year KEP activities in the major project areas of accelerator, target, test facilities and design integration. (author)

  15. [Discussion on appraisal methods and key technologies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and medicinal plant symbiosis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilan; Guo, Lanping; Yang, Guang; Chen, Min; Yang, Li; Huang, Luqi

    2011-11-01

    Applications of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in research of medicinal plant cultivation are increased in recent years. Medicinal plants habitat is complicated and many inclusions are in root, however crop habitat is simple and few inclusions in root. So appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of crop and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can't completely suitable for the symbiotic system of medicinal plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This article discuss the appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of medicinal plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from the isolation and identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza, and the appraisal of colonization intensity. This article provides guidance for application research of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in cultivation of medicinal plants.

  16. Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit (3D IC) Key Technology: Through-Silicon Via (TSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Neng

    2017-12-01

    3D integration with through-silicon via (TSV) is a promising candidate to perform system-level integration with smaller package size, higher interconnection density, and better performance. TSV fabrication is the key technology to permit communications between various strata of the 3D integration system. TSV fabrication steps, such as etching, isolation, metallization processes, and related failure modes, as well as other characterizations are discussed in this invited review paper.

  17. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqi Sheng; Lei Zhang; Hualong Xie; Changchun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to as...

  18. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya A Ureña-Aranda

    Full Text Available A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species.

  19. Identifying and Assessing Life-Cycle-Related Critical Technology Elements (CTEs) for Technology Readiness Assessments (TRAs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mandelbaum, Jay

    2006-01-01

    .... Because these technologies are not emphasized in the current Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) process this document is intended to improve the focus on life-cycle-related technologies in TRAs...

  20. The Use of Key Informant Method for Identifying Children with Blindness and Severe Visual Impairment in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Rènée; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 19 million children are visually impaired; of these, 1.4 million are irreversibly blind. A key challenge is to identify them early in life to benefit maximally from visual rehabilitation, and/or treatment. This aggregative review and structured literature analysis summarizes evidence of what it is about the key informant (KI) approach that works to identify children with blindness or severe visual impairment (B/SVI) in the community (for whom, to what extent, in what circumstances, in what respect, how and why). Peer-reviewed (PubMed, hand search) and grey literature (Google, World Health Organization website, academic theses, direct requests) were included, and methods and criteria used for identification, productivity (number of children referred per KI), accuracy of referrals (positive predictive value, PPV), age of children with B/SVI, KI definition, sex, information about cost and comparisons aggregated. We included 31 documents describing 22 unique KI programs. Mostly KIs identified children with B/SVI in 1-3 weeks, i.e. "campaign mode." In 60%, KIs were community volunteers, others formal health sector workers (FHSW). Around 0.02-1.56 children per KI (median = 0.25) were successfully recruited. PPV ranged from 12 to 66%. In two studies comparing FHSWs and community KIs, the latter were 8 and 10 times more productive. KIs working in campaign mode may provide an effective approach to identifying children with B/SVI in communities. Including identification of ocular problems and/or other impairments has been recommended. Research on factors that influence effectiveness and on whether KIs continue to contribute could inform programs.

  1. Research and application of key technology of electric submersible plunger pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K.; Sun, Y. N.; Zheng, S.; Du, W. S.; Li, J. N.; Pei, G. Z.; Gao, Y.; Wu, N.

    2018-06-01

    Electric submersible plunger pump is a new generation of rodless oil production equipment, whose improvements and upgrades of key technologies are conducive to its large-scale application and reduce the cost and improve the efficiency. In this paper, the operating mechanism of the unit in-depth study, aimed at the problems existing in oilfield production, to propose an optimization method creatively, including the optimal design of a linear motor for submersible oil, development of new double-acting load-relief pump, embedded flexible closed-loop control technology, research and development of low-cost power cables. 90 oil wells were used on field application, the average pump inspection cycle is 608 days, the longest pump check cycle has exceeded 1037 days, the average power saving rate is 45.6%. Application results show that the new technology of optimization and upgrading can further improve the reliability and adaptability of electric submersible plunger pump, reduce the cost of investment.

  2. Uncertainties in key low carbon power generation technologies - Implication for UK decarbonisation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.

    2009-01-01

    The UK government's economy-wide 60% carbon dioxide reduction target by 2050 requires a paradigm shift in the whole energy system. Numerous analytical studies have concluded that the power sector is a critical contributor to a low carbon energy system, and electricity generation has dominated the policy discussion on UK decarbonisation scenarios. However, range of technical, social and market challenges, combined with alternate market investment strategies mean that large scale deployment of key classes of low carbon electricity technologies is fraught with uncertainty. The UK MARKAL energy systems model has been used to investigate these long-term uncertainties in key electricity generation options. A range of power sector specific parametric sensitivities have been performed under a 'what-if' framework to provide a systematic exploration of least-cost energy system configurations under a broad, integrated set of input assumptions. In this paper results of six sensitivities, via restricted investments in key low carbon technologies to reflect their technical and political uncertainties, and an alternate investment strategies from perceived risk and other barriers, have been presented. (author)

  3. Research on a Novel Parallel Engraving Machine and its Key Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shi-hui

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to compensate the disadvantages of conventional engraving machine and exert the advantages of parallel mechanism, a novel parallel engraving machine is presented and some key technologies are studied in this paper. Mechanism performances are analyzed in terms of the first and the second order influence coefficient matrix firstly. So the sizes of mechanism, which are better for all the performance indices of both kinematics and dynamics, can be confirmed and the restriction due to considering only the first order influence coefficient matrix in the past is broken through. Therefore, the theory basis for designing the mechanism size of novel engraving machine with better performances is provided. In addition, method for tool path planning and control technology for engraving force is also studied in the paper. The proposed algorithm for tool path planning on curved surface can be applied to arbitrary spacial curved surface in theory, control technology for engraving force based on fuzzy neural network(FNN has well adaptability to the changing environment. Research on teleoperation for parallel engraving machine based on B/S architecture resolves the key problems such as control mode, sharing mechanism for multiuser, real-time control for engraving job and real-time transmission for video information. Simulation results further show the feasibility and validity of the proposed methods.

  4. Research on a Novel Parallel Engraving Machine and its Key Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Ling-fu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to compensate the disadvantages of conventional engraving machine and exert the advantages of parallel mechanism, a novel parallel engraving machine is presented and some key technologies are studied in this paper. Mechanism performances are analyzed in terms of the first and the second order influence coefficient matrix firstly. So the sizes of mechanism, which are better for all the performance indices of both kinematics and dynamics, can be confirmed and the restriction due to considering only the first order influence coefficient matrix in the past is broken through. Therefore, the theory basis for designing the mechanism size of novel engraving machine with better performances is provided. In addition, method for tool path planning and control technology for engraving force is also studied in the paper. The proposed algorithm for tool path planning on curved surface can be applied to arbitrary spacial curved surface in theory, control technology for engraving force based on fuzzy neural network(FNN has well adaptability to the changing environment. Research on teleoperation for parallel engraving machine based on B/S architecture resolves the key problems such as control mode, sharing mechanism for multiuser, real-time control for engraving job and real-time transmission for video information. Simulation results further show the feasibility and validity of the proposed methods.

  5. Key Performance Indicator (KPI) for Research and Technology Development Program: Achievements of 2006 to 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Fairuz Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Conducting research and development (R&D) is one of the four main functions of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as stated in the Federal Government Gazette (No.2) 2013 (PU (A) 184) under the Ministerial Functions Act 1969 (Act 2), gazetted in the Warta Kerajaan dated 26 June 2013.The achievement of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) for Research and Technological Development Program (PPT) indicates the role of Nuclear Malaysia as a research institution . This paper discusses the achievements of the project, fundsand research outputfrom 2005 to 2015. (author)

  6. Identifying Ghanaian Pre-Service Teachers' Readiness for Computer Use: A Technology Acceptance Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamfi, Stephen Adu

    2016-01-01

    This study extends the technology acceptance model to identify factors that influence technology acceptance among pre-service teachers in Ghana. Data from 380 usable questionnaires were tested against the research model. Utilising the extended technology acceptance model (TAM) as a research framework, the study found that: pre-service teachers'…

  7. Research on key technology of prognostic and health management for autonomous underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi

    2017-12-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are non-cable and autonomous motional underwater robotics. With a wide range of activities, it can reach thousands of kilometers. Because it has the advantages of wide range, good maneuverability, safety and intellectualization, it becomes an important tool for various underwater tasks. How to improve diagnosis accuracy of the AUVs electrical system faults, and how to repair AUVs by the information are the focus of navy in the world. In turn, ensuring safe and reliable operation of the system has very important significance to improve AUVs sailing performance. To solve these problems, in the paper the prognostic and health management(PHM) technology is researched and used to AUV, and the overall framework and key technology are proposed, such as data acquisition, feature extraction, fault diagnosis, failure prediction and so on.

  8. Research on the framework and key technologies of panoramic visualization for smart distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Sheng, Wanxing; Lin, Tao; Lv, Guangxian

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the smart distribution network has made tremendous progress, and the business visualization becomes even more significant and indispensable. Based on the summarization of traditional visualization technologies and demands of smart distribution network, a panoramic visualization application is proposed in this paper. The overall architecture, integrated architecture and service architecture of panoramic visualization application is firstly presented. Then, the architecture design and main functions of panoramic visualization system are elaborated in depth. In addition, the key technologies related to the application is discussed briefly. At last, two typical visualization scenarios in smart distribution network, which are risk warning and fault self-healing, proves that the panoramic visualization application is valuable for the operation and maintenance of the distribution network.

  9. Water chemistry - one of the key technologies for safe and reliable nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Otoha, K.; Ishigure, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Water chemistry control is one of the key technologies to establish safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Continuous and collaborative efforts of plant manufacturers and plant operator utilities have been focused on optimal water chemistry control, for which, a trio of requirements for water chemistry, a) better reliability of reactor structures and fuels, b) lower occupational exposure, and c) fewer radwaste sources, should be simultaneously satisfied. The research committee related to water chemistry of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has played important roles to enhance improvement in water chemistry control, to share knowledge and experience with water chemistry among plant operators and manufacturers, to establish common technological bases for plant water chemistry and then to transfer them to the next generation related to water chemistry. Furthermore, the committee has tried to contribute to arranging R and D proposals for further improvement in water chemistry control through road map planning

  10. RNA sequencing of Populus x canadensis roots identifies key molecular mechanisms underlying physiological adaption to excess zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariani

    Full Text Available Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1 probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees.

  11. In-Silico Integration Approach to Identify a Key miRNA Regulating a Gene Network in Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaprico, Antonio; Bontempi, Gianluca; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2018-01-01

    Like other cancer diseases, prostate cancer (PC) is caused by the accumulation of genetic alterations in the cells that drives malignant growth. These alterations are revealed by gene profiling and copy number alteration (CNA) analysis. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that also microRNAs have an important role in PC development. Despite efforts to profile PC, the alterations (gene, CNA, and miRNA) and biological processes that correlate with disease development and progression remain partially elusive. Many gene signatures proposed as diagnostic or prognostic tools in cancer poorly overlap. The identification of co-expressed genes, that are functionally related, can identify a core network of genes associated with PC with a better reproducibility. By combining different approaches, including the integration of mRNA expression profiles, CNAs, and miRNA expression levels, we identified a gene signature of four genes overlapping with other published gene signatures and able to distinguish, in silico, high Gleason-scored PC from normal human tissue, which was further enriched to 19 genes by gene co-expression analysis. From the analysis of miRNAs possibly regulating this network, we found that hsa-miR-153 was highly connected to the genes in the network. Our results identify a four-gene signature with diagnostic and prognostic value in PC and suggest an interesting gene network that could play a key regulatory role in PC development and progression. Furthermore, hsa-miR-153, controlling this network, could be a potential biomarker for theranostics in high Gleason-scored PC. PMID:29562723

  12. Hillslope characterization: Identifying key controls on local-scale plant communities' distribution using remote sensing and subsurface data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, N.; Wainwright, H. M.; Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Peterson, J.; Steltzer, H.; Wilmer, C.; Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous watershed systems are characterized by extreme heterogeneity in hydrological and pedological properties that influence biotic activities, plant communities and their dynamics. To gain predictive understanding of how ecosystem and watershed system evolve under climate change, it is critical to capture such heterogeneity and to quantify the effect of key environmental variables such as topography, and soil properties. In this study, we exploit advanced geophysical and remote sensing techniques - coupled with machine learning - to better characterize and quantify the interactions between plant communities' distribution and subsurface properties. First, we have developed a remote sensing data fusion framework based on the random forest (RF) classification algorithm to estimate the spatial distribution of plant communities. The framework allows the integration of both plant spectral and structural information, which are derived from multispectral satellite images and airborne LiDAR data. We then use the RF method to evaluate the estimated plant community map, exploiting the subsurface properties (such as bedrock depth, soil moisture and other properties) and geomorphological parameters (such as slope, curvature) as predictors. Datasets include high-resolution geophysical data (electrical resistivity tomography) and LiDAR digital elevation maps. We demonstrate our approach on a mountain hillslope and meadow within the East River watershed in Colorado, which is considered to be a representative headwater catchment in the Upper Colorado Basin. The obtained results show the existence of co-evolution between above and below-ground processes; in particular, dominant shrub communities in wet and flat areas. We show that successful integration of remote sensing data with geophysical measurements allows identifying and quantifying the key environmental controls on plant communities' distribution, and provides insights into their potential changes in the future

  13. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) key element technology phase task description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, M.; Nakamura, H.; Sugimoto, M.; Yutani, T.; Takeuchi, H. [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai Research Establishment, Fusion Neutron Laboratory, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    In 2000, a 3 year Key Element technology Phase (KEP) of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) has been initiated to reduce the key technology risk factors needed to achieve continuous wave (CW) beam with the desired current and energy and to reach the corresponding power handling capabilities in the liquid lithium target system. In the KEP, the IFMIF team (EU, Japan, Russian Federation, US) will perform required tasks. The contents of the tasks are described in the task description sheet. As the KEP tasks, the IFMIF team have proposed 27 tasks for Test Facilities, 12 tasks for Target, 26 tasks for Accelerator and 18 tasks for Design Integration. The task description by RF is not yet available. The task items and task descriptions may be added or revised with the progress of KEP activities. These task description sheets have been compiled in this report. After 3 years KEP, the results of the KEP tasks will be reviewed. Following the KEP, 3 years Engineering Validation Phase (EVP) will continue for IFMIF construction. (author)

  14. Fundamental Theories and Key Technologies for Smart and Optimal Manufacturing in the Process Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the significant requirements for transforming and promoting the process industry, we present the major limitations of current petrochemical enterprises, including limitations in decision-making, production operation, efficiency and security, information integration, and so forth. To promote a vision of the process industry with efficient, green, and smart production, modern information technology should be utilized throughout the entire optimization process for production, management, and marketing. To focus on smart equipment in manufacturing processes, as well as on the adaptive intelligent optimization of the manufacturing process, operating mode, and supply chain management, we put forward several key scientific problems in engineering in a demand-driven and application-oriented manner, namely: ① intelligent sensing and integration of all process information, including production and management information; ② collaborative decision-making in the supply chain, industry chain, and value chain, driven by knowledge; ③ cooperative control and optimization of plant-wide production processes via human-cyber-physical interaction; and ④ life-cycle assessments for safety and environmental footprint monitoring, in addition to tracing analysis and risk control. In order to solve these limitations and core scientific problems, we further present fundamental theories and key technologies for smart and optimal manufacturing in the process industry. Although this paper discusses the process industry in China, the conclusions in this paper can be extended to the process industry around the world.

  15. Review of production status of heavy steel castings and key technologies for their manufacture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Baicheng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper expatiates on domestic status of heavy steel casting production, with a special focus on hydraulic turbine castings for Three Gorges Project. In China, there is magnificent demand for heavy castings with the rapid growth of the national economy in recent years and the expected high growth in the coming 10 to 20 years. Some heavy and large castings such as mill housing and hydraulic turbine runner crown, blade and band for Three Gorges Project have been successfully made. However, the domestic production capability is still far from meeting the gigantic requirements. The domestic capability still lags behind the world class level, and a lot of heavy castings still depend on import. The paper also gives a particular introduction of the key technologies in the manufacturing of heavy steel castings like metal melting, foundry technology, heat treatment technology and numerical simulation technique, etc. In addition, several case studies on the application of numerical simulation in the production of heavy steel castings are presented.

  16. Materials in world perspective. Assessment of resources, technologies and trends for key materials industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenpohl, D G

    1980-01-01

    This book deals with the entire materials cycle - from extraction or harvesting to processing, manufacture, use, and reuse or disposal. It covers the present status and ongoing developments in six key materials industries in both industrialized and developing countries. Techno-economics trends, which are recognizable today, as well as important changes taking place from the mine through the refining stage on to finished products, are outlined. The 'problem triangle' of the materials industry - basic or raw materials, ecology and energy - is discussed. Of specific importance are the impacts which a given material or technology can have on the environment. Methods of assessing these impacts, which should be integrated into overall technology planning by the materials industry, are described. This book discusses resources, industry's social responsibilities and limits-to-growth. An explanation is given for opposing views on constraints and growth, not only for the materials industry, but also for the automotive and packaging industries. Thus, this book spotlights the interaction between different fields of technology and their interrelationship with and between different regions on Earth.

  17. Translational health economics: The key to accountable adoption of in vitro diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Christopher P; Wolstenholme, Jane; McGinley, Patrick; St John, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Adoption of new technologies, including diagnostic tests, is often considered not to deliver the expected return on investment. The reasons for this poor link between expectation and outcome include lack of evidence, variation in use of the technology, and an inability of the health system to manage the balance between investment and disinvestment associated with the change in care pathway. The challenges lie in the complex nature of healthcare provision where the investment is likely to be made in the jurisdiction of one stakeholder while the benefits (as well as dis-benefits) accrue to the other stakeholders. A prime example is found in the field of laboratory medicine and the use of diagnostic tests. The current economic tools employed in healthcare are primarily used to make policy and strategic decisions, particularly across health systems, and in purchaser and provider domains. These tools primarily involve cost effectiveness and budget impact analyses, both of which have been applied in health technology assessment of diagnostic technologies. However, they lack the granularity to translate findings down to the financial management and operational decision making at the provider department level. We propose an approach to translational health economics based on information derived from service line management and time-driven activity-based costing, identifying the resource utilisation for each of the units involved in the delivery of a care pathway, before and after adoption of new technology. This will inform investment and disinvestment decisions, along with identifying where the benefits, and dis-benefits, can be achieved for all stakeholders.

  18. The NASA research and technology program on space power: A key element of the Space Exploration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Atkins, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    In July 1989, President Bush announced his space exploration initiative of going back to the Moon to stay and then going to Mars. Building upon its ongoing research and technology base, NASA has established an exploration technology program to develop the technologies needed for piloted missions to the Moon and Mars. A key element for the flights and for the planned bases is power. The NASA research and technology program on space power encompasses power sources, energy storage, and power management.

  19. Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring key technology in coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    The coastal wetland, a transitional zone between terrestrial ecosystems and marine ecosystems, is the type of great value to ecosystem services. For the recent 3 decades, area of the coastal wetland is decreasing and the ecological function is gradually degraded with the rapid development of economy, which restricts the sustainable development of economy and society in the coastal areas of China in turn. It is a major demand of the national reality to carry out the monitoring of coastal wetlands, to master the distribution and dynamic change. UAV, namely unmanned aerial vehicle, is a new platform for remote sensing. Compared with the traditional satellite and manned aerial remote sensing, it has the advantage of flexible implementation, no cloud cover, strong initiative and low cost. Image-spectrum merging is one character of high spectral remote sensing. At the same time of imaging, the spectral curve of each pixel is obtained, which is suitable for quantitative remote sensing, fine classification and target detection. Aimed at the frontier and hotspot of remote sensing monitoring technology, and faced the demand of the coastal wetland monitoring, this paper used UAV and the new remote sensor of high spectral imaging instrument to carry out the analysis of the key technologies of monitoring coastal wetlands by UAV on the basis of the current situation in overseas and domestic and the analysis of developing trend. According to the characteristic of airborne hyperspectral data on UAV, that is "three high and one many", the key technology research that should develop are promoted as follows: 1) the atmosphere correction of the UAV hyperspectral in coastal wetlands under the circumstance of complex underlying surface and variable geometry, 2) the best observation scale and scale transformation method of the UAV platform while monitoring the coastal wetland features, 3) the classification and detection method of typical features with high precision from multi scale

  20. Key technology studies of GY-20 and GY-40 High-capacity cobalt-60 transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huifang; Zhang Xin

    2012-01-01

    GY-20 and GY-40 high-capacity cobalt-60 transport casks are used to transport cobalt-60 industrial irradiators and cobalt-60 bundles. The radioactive contents have special features of high-activity and high residual heat, so only a few countries such as Canada, England and Russia have design capacity. The key technologies and corresponding solutions were studied for the design and manufacture of the cask taking into account the structural, thermal, mechanics and shield requests. A series of tests prove that the cask structure design, design criteria for lead coating structure and quality control measurements are reasonable and effective, and the cask shield integrity can be ensured for all conditions. The casks have ability to transport high-activity sealed sources safely, and the design of cask satisfies the requirement of design code and standard. It can provide reference for other B type package. (authors)

  1. Key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design - the US perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to review the key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design, particularly as they relate to cost reduction; and (2) to provide an overview of activities sponsored by the US Department of Energy to resolve the issues and to establish stable, standardized, and defensible structural design methods and criteria. Specific areas of discussion include: weldments, structural validation tests, simplified design analysis procedures, design procedures for piping, validation of the methodology for notch-like geometries, improved life assessment procedures, thermal striping, extension of the methodology to new materials, and ASME high-temperature Code reform needs. The perceived problems and needs in each area are discussed, and the current status of related US activities is given

  2. Oncology Modeling for Fun and Profit! Key Steps for Busy Analysts in Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beca, Jaclyn; Husereau, Don; Chan, Kelvin K W; Hawkins, Neil; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2018-01-01

    In evaluating new oncology medicines, two common modeling approaches are state transition (e.g., Markov and semi-Markov) and partitioned survival. Partitioned survival models have become more prominent in oncology health technology assessment processes in recent years. Our experience in conducting and evaluating models for economic evaluation has highlighted many important and practical pitfalls. As there is little guidance available on best practices for those who wish to conduct them, we provide guidance in the form of 'Key steps for busy analysts,' who may have very little time and require highly favorable results. Our guidance highlights the continued need for rigorous conduct and transparent reporting of economic evaluations regardless of the modeling approach taken, and the importance of modeling that better reflects reality, which includes better approaches to considering plausibility, estimating relative treatment effects, dealing with post-progression effects, and appropriate characterization of the uncertainty from modeling itself.

  3. Study on the key technologies of the Transfer Equipment Cask for Tokamak Equator Port Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Buyun, E-mail: ayun@iim.ac.cn [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Gao, Lifu [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Cao, Huibin; Sun, Jian [Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, Yuxiang; Song, Quanjun; Ma, Chengxue; Chang, Li; Shuang, Feng [Department of Automation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Robot Sensors and Human-Machine Interaction Laboratory, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Design on Intelligent Air Transfer System (IATS) for Transfer Equipment Cask (TECA). • A rhombic-like parallel robot for docking with minimum misalignment. • Design on electro-hydraulic servo system of the TECA for Tokamak Equator Port Plug (TEPP) manipulation. • A control architecture with several algorithms and information acquired from sensors could be used by the TECA for Remote Handling (RH). - Abstract: The Transfer Equipment Cask (TECA) is a key solution for Remote Handling (RH) in Tokamak Equator Port Plug (TEPP) operations. From the perspectives of both engineering and technical designs of effective experiments on the TEPP, key technologies on these topics covering the TECA are required. According to conditions in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and features of the TEPP, this paper introduces the design of an Intelligent Air Transfer System (IATS) with an adaptive attitude and high precision positioning that transports a cask system of more than 30 tons from the Tokamak Building (TB) to the Hot Cell Building (HCB). Additionally, different actuators are discussed, and the hydraulic power drive is eventually selected and designed. A rhombic-like parallel robot is capable of being used for docking with minimum misalignment. Practical mechanisms of the cask system are presented for hostile environments. A control architecture with several algorithms and information acquired from sensors could be used by the TECA. These designs yield realistic and extended applications for the RH of ITER.

  4. A systems toxicology approach identifies Lyn as a key signaling phosphoprotein modulated by mercury in a B lymphocyte cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Joseph A.; Stemmer, Paul M. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Dombkowski, Alan [Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Caruthers, Nicholas J. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Gill, Randall [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Rosenspire, Allen J., E-mail: arosenspire@wayne.edu [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Network and protein–protein interaction analyses of proteins undergoing Hg{sup 2+}-induced phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in Hg{sup 2+}-intoxicated mouse WEHI-231 B cells identified Lyn as the most interconnected node. Lyn is a Src family protein tyrosine kinase known to be intimately involved in the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. Under normal signaling conditions the tyrosine kinase activity of Lyn is controlled by phosphorylation, primarily of two well known canonical regulatory tyrosine sites, Y-397 and Y-508. However, Lyn has several tyrosine residues that have not yet been determined to play a major role under normal signaling conditions, but are potentially important sites for phosphorylation following mercury exposure. In order to determine how Hg{sup 2+} exposure modulates the phosphorylation of additional residues in Lyn, a targeted MS assay was developed. Initial mass spectrometric surveys of purified Lyn identified 7 phosphorylated tyrosine residues. A quantitative assay was developed from these results using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) strategy. WEHI-231 cells were treated with Hg{sup 2+}, pervanadate (a phosphatase inhibitor), or anti-Ig antibody (to stimulate the BCR). Results from these studies showed that the phosphoproteomic profile of Lyn after exposure of the WEHI-231 cells to a low concentration of Hg{sup 2+} closely resembled that of anti-Ig antibody stimulation, whereas exposure to higher concentrations of Hg{sup 2+} led to increases in the phosphorylation of Y-193/Y-194, Y-501 and Y-508 residues. These data indicate that mercury can disrupt a key regulatory signal transduction pathway in B cells and point to phospho-Lyn as a potential biomarker for mercury exposure. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) induces changes in the WEHI-231 B cell phosphoproteome. • The B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway was the pathway most affected by Hg{sup 2+}. • The Src family phosphoprotein kinase Lyn was the

  5. 76 FR 10360 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Guident Technologies Inc. and Its Identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Business Information by Guident Technologies Inc. and Its Identified Subcontractors AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Guident Technologies... information may be claimed or determined to be Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES: Access to the...

  6. Identifying Disruptive Technologies in Design: Horizon Scanning in the Early Stages of Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Sidsel Katrine; Thuesen, Christian; Larsen, Laurids Rolighed

    context to anticipate disruption of construction. By means of a 3-step horizon scan, we identify 133 potentially disruptive technologies from across industries. We find that when preparing for disruption, design may benefit from the future-oriented and technology-focused features of horizon scanning....

  7. Key Technologies in the Context of Future Networks: Operational and Management Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Isabel Barona López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Future Networks is based on the premise that current infrastructures require enhanced control, service customization, self-organization and self-management capabilities to meet the new needs in a connected society, especially of mobile users. In order to provide a high-performance mobile system, three main fields must be improved: radio, network, and operation and management. In particular, operation and management capabilities are intended to enable business agility and operational sustainability, where the addition of new services does not imply an excessive increase in capital or operational expenditures. In this context, a set of key-enabled technologies have emerged in order to aid in this field. Concepts such as Software Defined Network (SDN, Network Function Virtualization (NFV and Self-Organized Networks (SON are pushing traditional systems towards the next 5G network generation.This paper presents an overview of the current status of these promising technologies and ongoing works to fulfill the operational and management requirements of mobile infrastructures. This work also details the use cases and the challenges, taking into account not only SDN, NFV, cloud computing and SON but also other paradigms.

  8. Analysis of the key issues in establishing the Russian-based high technological companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Zinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the reasons that prevent a competitive export-oriented Russian domestic development of the robot surgical complex from being industrially prototyped and serially released for the domestic and global market. The development is completed within the framework of a «priority project» which was also highlighted as of significant importance in the Forecast analysis of the scientific-technological development of Russia for the period of up until 2030 and in the road maps of the National technological initiative and other strategic documents. The project was financed by nearly all development funds and institutes in Russia. A conclusion is drawn that the key reason behind the significant increase in a life span of a high-tech market product is the absence of a target setting and a programme of coordinated actions from committed ministries and governmental agencies, as well as the lack of a large high tech company in Russia, capable of producing in industrial volumes the export-oriented products and ensure their global sales.

  9. Key Technologies and Applications of Gas Drainage in Underground Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Xue, Sheng; Cheng, Jiansheng; Li, Wenquan; Xiao, Jiaping

    2018-02-01

    It is the basis for the long-drilling directional drilling, precise control of the drilling trajectory and ensuring the effective extension of the drilling trajectory in the target layer. The technology can be used to complete the multi-branch hole construction and increase the effective extraction distance of the coal seam. The gas drainage and the bottom grouting reinforcement in the advanced area are realized, and the geological structure of the coal seam can be proved accurately. It is the main technical scheme for the efficient drainage of gas at home and abroad, and it is applied to the field of geological structure exploration and water exploration and other areas. At present, the data transmission method is relatively mature in the technology and application, including the mud pulse and the electromagnetic wave. Compared with the mud pulse transmission mode, the electromagnetic wave transmission mode has obvious potential in the data transmission rate and drilling fluid, and it is suitable for the coal mine. In this paper, the key technologies of the electromagnetic wave transmission mode are analyzed, including the attenuation characteristics of the electromagnetic transmission channel, the digital modulation scheme, the channel coding method and the weak signal processing technology. A coal mine under the electromagnetic wave drilling prototype is developed, and the ground transmission experiments and down hole transmission test are carried out. The main work includes the following aspects. First, the equivalent transmission line method is used to establish the electromagnetic transmission channel model of coal mine drilling while drilling, and the attenuation of the electromagnetic signal is measured when the electromagnetic channel measured. Second, the coal mine EM-MWD digital modulation method is developed. Third, the optimal linear block code which suitable for EM-MWD communication channel in coal mine is proposed. Fourth, the noise characteristics

  10. Particle-scale Analysis of Key Technologies on Cut-and-over Tunnel in Slope Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Yang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When the shallow tunnel is constructed on the slope terrain in the mountains, there are the potential risks such as landslide induced by cutting the slope and the non-compacted backfill material during the construction of the cut-andcover tunnel. In order to solve these problems, based on a practical engineering, the optimized construction plans of the cut-and-cover tunnel were analyzed by particle flow code (PFC, the key parts of the open-cut construction were identified, and the anti-slide piles countermeasures were proposed. Furthermore, the grouting reinforcement process for the non-compacted backfill material around the shallow tunnel was simulated by PFC, and the variation characteristics of the porosity and grouting pressure were revealed as well. The results are of great value to the similar engineering.

  11. Bi-directional gene set enrichment and canonical correlation analysis identify key diet-sensitive pathways and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaora Peadar Ó

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, a number of bioinformatics methods are available to generate appropriate lists of genes from a microarray experiment. While these lists represent an accurate primary analysis of the data, fewer options exist to contextualise those lists. The development and validation of such methods is crucial to the wider application of microarray technology in the clinical setting. Two key challenges in clinical bioinformatics involve appropriate statistical modelling of dynamic transcriptomic changes, and extraction of clinically relevant meaning from very large datasets. Results Here, we apply an approach to gene set enrichment analysis that allows for detection of bi-directional enrichment within a gene set. Furthermore, we apply canonical correlation analysis and Fisher's exact test, using plasma marker data with known clinical relevance to aid identification of the most important gene and pathway changes in our transcriptomic dataset. After a 28-day dietary intervention with high-CLA beef, a range of plasma markers indicated a marked improvement in the metabolic health of genetically obese mice. Tissue transcriptomic profiles indicated that the effects were most dramatic in liver (1270 genes significantly changed; p Conclusion Bi-directional gene set enrichment analysis more accurately reflects dynamic regulatory behaviour in biochemical pathways, and as such highlighted biologically relevant changes that were not detected using a traditional approach. In such cases where transcriptomic response to treatment is exceptionally large, canonical correlation analysis in conjunction with Fisher's exact test highlights the subset of pathways showing strongest correlation with the clinical markers of interest. In this case, we have identified selenoamino acid metabolism and steroid biosynthesis as key pathways mediating the observed relationship between metabolic health and high-CLA beef. These results indicate that this type of

  12. Innovative new technologies to identify and treat traumatic brain injuries: crossover technologies and approaches between military and civilian applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R; McVeigh, Francis; Poropatich, Ronald

    2010-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become the signature injury of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. The use of improvised explosive devices has seen an exponential increase in both Iraq and Afghanistan. In previous conflicts prior to Iraq, survivability of such an injury was far less. Today, technological improvements in trauma care have increased an injured warfighter's chance of survival. A reduction in severe TBI has been achieved but an increase in mild or moderate TBI has been observed. The consequences of this kind of injury can be both physical and mental and can often be hidden or even misdiagnosed. The U.S. Army is interested in pursuing technological solutions for early detection and treatment of TBI to reduce its lasting impact on the warfighter. Such technological breakthroughs have benefit beyond the military, as TBI is a high probable event in nonmilitary settings as well. To gauge what technologies or methods are currently available, the U.S. Army's Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center partnered with the American Telemedicine Association to organize and conduct a discipline-specific symposium entitled "Innovative New Technologies to Identify and Treat Traumatic Brain Injuries: Crossover Technologies and Approaches Between Military and Civilian Applications." This symposium was held in Palm Springs, CA, in September 2009. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a unique opportunity for leaders from disparate organizations involved in telemedicine and related other activities to meet and explore opportunities to collaborate in new partnership models. The meeting was designed to help Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center identify opportunities to expand strategic operations and form new alliances. This report summarizes this symposium while raising awareness for collaboration into better ways of adapting and adopting technologies to address this growing health issue.

  13. Identifying key factors for mobilising under-utilised low carbon land resources : A case study on Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Junginger, Martin; Potter, Lesley; Faaij, André; Wicke, Birka

    2018-01-01

    Mobilising under-utilised low carbon (ULC) land for future agricultural expansion helps minimising further carbon stock loss. This study examined the regency cases in Kalimantan, a carbon loss hotspot, to understand the key factors for mobilising ULC land via narrative interviews with a range of

  14. Application of modern information technologies for monitoring of 600 RP key component performance and lifetime assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, S.N.; Korotkih, Yu.G.; Levin, A.A.; Sankov, E.I.; Pobedonostzev, A.B.; Shashkin, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    Safety and reliability of NPP operation in the first turn depend on reliability and quality of the main technological equipment. Diagnostics systems are envisaged for the equipment state inspection to determine its serviceability in NPP designs. An assessment of the equipment residual lifetime at operating plants is calculated as a difference between specified (according to the operation model accepted in the design phase) lifetime and actual time in operation. Real influence of operating modes on the main equipment lifetime, in this case, is not taken into account. Within a design of NPP with VPBER-600 passive safety RP a system for lifetime assessment of RP key component is provided as a part of a process control system. Specialists from OKBM and Scientific Research Institute of Mechanics participate in development of this system. Now the first stage of the work on creation of this system is completed. This paper describes the purpose, the basic configuration principles of the system, its position among other NPP systems, organization of user-system interaction. (author). 5 refs, 1 figs

  15. Fiscal 1994 report. Liquefaction key technology subcommittee; 1994 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The subcommittee held the 1st meeting in August 1994 and the 2nd in March 1995, when preceding fiscal year's research results, fiscal 1994 research plans, fiscal 1994 research results, etc., were introduced, and deliberated. In the study of hydrorefining of naphtha, kerosene, and light oil fractions, a nitrogen concentration level of not more than 5 ppm was achieved by refining oils from Indonesian coal. Studies were also made about the two-step hydrorefining system, the relationship between the coal oil refining level and sludge formation, etc. In the research for the development of novel catalysts for upgrading coal oil, the active life of a nickel-supporting catalyst for hydrogenation at the 1st step was somewhat prolonged with an increase in the amount of nickel. In the study of coal liquefaction conditions, an AWIP method was deliberated, wherein liquefaction process waste water was utilized as one of catalytic component adjusting materials. For upgrading liquefaction key technologies, studies were made for catalyst improvement and pretreatment method development, and about the behavior of liquefaction reaction in a high boiling solvent-aided process. (NEDO)

  16. Application of modern information technologies for monitoring of 600 RP key component performance and lifetime assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpenko, S N; Korotkih, Yu G; Levin, A A; Sankov, E I [Research Inst. of Mechanics of Lobachevski State Univ., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Pobedonostzev, A B; Shashkin, S L [OKB Mechanical Engineering, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1997-07-01

    Safety and reliability of NPP operation in the first turn depend on reliability and quality of the main technological equipment. Diagnostics systems are envisaged for the equipment state inspection to determine its serviceability in NPP designs. An assessment of the equipment residual lifetime at operating plants is calculated as a difference between specified (according to the operation model accepted in the design phase) lifetime and actual time in operation. Real influence of operating modes on the main equipment lifetime, in this case, is not taken into account. Within a design of NPP with VPBER-600 passive safety RP a system for lifetime assessment of RP key component is provided as a part of a process control system. Specialists from OKBM and Scientific Research Institute of Mechanics participate in development of this system. Now the first stage of the work on creation of this system is completed. This paper describes the purpose, the basic configuration principles of the system, its position among other NPP systems, organization of user-system interaction. (author). 5 refs, 1 figs.

  17. The Development of Key Technologies in Applications of Vessels Connected to the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Tian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of science and technology, traffic perception, communication, information processing, artificial intelligence and the shipping information system have become important in supporting the realization of intelligent shipping transportation. Against this background, the Internet of Vessels (IoV is proposed to integrate all these advanced technologies into a platform to meet the requirements of international and regional transportations. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how to benefit from the Internet of Vessels to improve the efficiency and safety of shipping, and promote the development of world transportation. In this paper, the IoV is introduced and its main architectures are outlined. Furthermore, the characteristics of the Internet of Vessels are described. Several important applications that illustrate the interaction of the Internet of Vessels’ components are proposed. Due to the development of the Internet of Vessels still being in its primary stage, challenges and prospects are identified and addressed. Finally, the main conclusions are drawn and future research priorities are provided for reference and as professional suggestions for future researchers in this field.

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF KEY PROCESSES THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF VALUE ADDED IN TECHNOLOGY- BASED COMPANIES A SINGLE PROJECT PRODUCTIONS OF THE WATER SECTOR IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina Maylín, Hernández Oro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the main results of research designed to improve key business processes, using a procedure designed for this purpose, and which includes among its main stages, the analysis of value added by activity, adapting to technology based companies’ productions by one of the water sector project in Cuba. The procedure consistently combines different techniques such as multi-criteria decision analysis for selection of the key processes and analysis of value added by activity to identify key processes to improve and identify opportunities for improvement. The main results are able to identify, classify and relate the processes taking place in the organization, and represent them in a process map, and then determine the key processes for improvement, based on the analysis of value added at each process of each of the activities in it. Derived from the results obtained are proposed and implemented a set of organizational improvements had a positive economic impact for the company under study, allowing a positive conclusion on the feasibility of implementation, flexibility and robustness of the procedure developed in technology-based companies single project productions of the water sector in Cuba to support their business management.

  19. A Study of Scientometric Methods to Identify Emerging Technologies via Modeling of Milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Udoeyop, Akaninyene W [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This work examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, patents, news archives, and online mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain we investigated.

  20. Integrated RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq Analysis Identifies Chilling and Freezing Responsive Key Molecular Players and Pathways in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yu; Shen, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yinfei; Jia, Sisi; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang

    2015-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants’ growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃) and freezing (-5℃) stress. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., ‘Photosynthesis’), GO terms (e.g., ‘response to karrikin’) and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1) which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR), a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology. PMID:25901577

  1. Identifying the Ethical Challenges Encountered by Information Technology Professionals Working within the Nevada Casino Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A thematic analysis qualitative study was used to identify the unethical challenges encountered by Information Technology (IT) professionals working within the Nevada casino industry. Fourteen current and former IT leaders working or who worked in the Nevada casino industry were interviewed. Using thematic analysis, nine themes regarding ethical…

  2. USING THE PARETO DIAGRAM AND FMEA (FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY KEY DEFECTS IN A PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał ZASADZIEŃ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies conducted in a company manufacturing aluminium forgings for the automotive industry. The aim of the research was to identify the defects which form during the production process as well as the locations and causes of their occurrence. Selected quality management tools were used in the process. Based on the FMEA and the costs generated by the identified defects, a hierarchy of them was created for the company along with a proposal of improvements in case of the most significant ones in order to reduce their number and increase the detection efficiency.

  3. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  4. Development of Key Performance Indicators for the Engineering Technology Education Programs in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2004-01-01

    In comparison with engineering, engineering technology is more practical and purposeful. The engineering technology education programs in Taiwan have been mainly offered in 56 universities/colleges of technology (UTs/CTs) and are anticipated to continuously improve their performance to prepare quality engineering technologists. However, it is…

  5. Technological Proficiency as a Key to Job Security. Trends and Issues Alert No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    Although not all current jobs require basic computer skills, technological advances in society have created new jobs and changed the ways many existing jobs are performed. Clearly, workers who are proficient in technology have a greater advantage in the current workplace and the need for technologically proficient workers will only continue to…

  6. Genome-wide association studies of autoimmune vitiligo identify 23 new risk loci and highlight key pathways and regulatory variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Ying; Andersen, Genevieve; Yorgov, Daniel; Ferrara, Tracey M.; Ben, Songtao; Brownson, Kelly M.; Holland, Paulene J.; Birlea, Stanca A.; Siebert, Janet; Hartmann, Anke; Lienert, Anne; van Geel, Nanja; Lambert, Jo; Luiten, Rosalie M.; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Wietze van der Veen, J. P.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Taïeb, Alain; Ezzedine, Khaled; Kemp, E. Helen; Gawkrodger, David J.; Weetman, Anthony P.; Kõks, Sulev; Prans, Ele; Kingo, Külli; Karelson, Maire; Wallace, Margaret R.; McCormack, Wayne T.; Overbeck, Andreas; Moretti, Silvia; Colucci, Roberta; Picardo, Mauro; Silverberg, Nanette B.; Olsson, Mats; Valle, Yan; Korobko, Igor; Böhm, Markus; Lim, Henry W.; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Fain, Pamela R.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Spritz, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease in which depigmented skin results from the destruction of melanocytes, with epidemiological association with other autoimmune diseases. In previous linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS1 and GWAS2), we identified 27 vitiligo susceptibility loci in

  7. A Large-Scale RNAi Screen Identifies SGK1 as a Key Survival Kinase for GBM Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shreya; Goel-Bhattacharya, Surbhi; Sengupta, Sejuti; Cochran, Brent H

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of primary malignant brain cancer and has a very poor prognosis. A subpopulation of cells known as GBM stem-like cells (GBM-SC) have the capacity to initiate and sustain tumor growth and possess molecular characteristics similar to the parental tumor. GBM-SCs are known to be enriched in hypoxic niches and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. Therefore, to identify genetic determinants important for the proliferation and survival of GBM stem cells, an unbiased pooled shRNA screen of 10,000 genes was conducted under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions. A number of essential genes were identified that are required for GBM-SC growth, under either or both oxygen conditions, in two different GBM-SC lines. Interestingly, only about a third of the essential genes were common to both cell lines. The oxygen environment significantly impacts the cellular genetic dependencies as 30% of the genes required under hypoxia were not required under normoxic conditions. In addition to identifying essential genes already implicated in GBM such as CDK4, KIF11 , and RAN , the screen also identified new genes that have not been previously implicated in GBM stem cell biology. The importance of the serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) for cellular survival was validated in multiple patient-derived GBM stem cell lines using shRNA, CRISPR, and pharmacologic inhibitors. However, SGK1 depletion and inhibition has little effect on traditional serum grown glioma lines and on differentiated GBM-SCs indicating its specific importance in GBM stem cell survival. Implications: This study identifies genes required for the growth and survival of GBM stem cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and finds SGK1 as a novel potential drug target for GBM. Mol Cancer Res; 16(1); 103-14. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Dry storage technologies: keys to choosing among metal casks, concrete shielded steel canister modules and vaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Solignac, Y.; Chiguer, M.; Guenon, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The current international trend towards expanding Spent Fuel Interim Dry Storage capabilities goes with an improvement of the performance of the proposed systems which have to accommodate Spent fuel Assemblies characterized by ever increasing burn-up, fissile isotopes contents, thermal releases, and total inventory. Due to heterogeneous worldwide reactor pools and specific local constraints the proposed solutions have also to cope with a wide fuel design variety. Moreover, the Spent fuel Assemblies stored temporarily for cooling may have to be transported either to reprocessing facilities or to interim storage facilities before direct disposal; it is the reason why the retrievability, including or not transportability of the proposed systems, is often specified by the Utilities for the design of their Storage systems and sometimes by law. This paper shows on examples developed within companies of AREVA Group the key parameters and elements that can direct toward the selection of a technology in a user specific context. Some of the constraints are ability to dry store at once a large number of spent fuel assemblies, readily available, on a given site. No urgent need for further move of the fuel is foreseen. Then clearly a Vault Type Storage system developed and implemented by SGN is an excellent solution: It combines passive safety with immediate large capacity, which allows quick amortization of fuel receiving equipment. In addition the versatile storage position can easily accept in the same facility different fuel types, and also intermediate and High Level Waste. This is the reason why a vault system is often a preferred solution for a long-term dry interim centralized storage, for a multiplicity of spent fuel. It can be also a choice solution when the ISFSI stands on a site that is dedicated permanently to many different nuclear activities.In most cases, the producers of spent fuel require a large capacity that is cumulated over many years, each reload at a

  9. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traichel, Anke [NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services GmbH, Alzenau (Germany). Dept. of Safety Engineering and Assessment / Proposals Engineering

    2017-04-15

    Summary report on the Key Topic ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' Technical Session ''Safety, IT, Hazards and PSA'' of the 47th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016.

  10. 48{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT). Key topic / Outstanding know-how and sustainable innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR - Consulting on Nuclear Law, Licensing and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Summary report on the Key Topic Outstanding Know-How and Sustainable Innovations, Focus Session: International Regulation: Leveraging the Experience of Established Nuclear Countries for Regulations and Projects in Newcomer Countries, of the 48th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2017) held in Berlin, 16 to 17 May 2017.

  11. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topics / Enhanced safety and operation excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, Angelika [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Programm Nukleare Entsorgung, Sicherheit und Strahlenforschung (NUSAFE); Baumann, Erik [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). Radiation Protection

    2016-12-15

    Summary report on the Key Topic 'Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence' Focus Session 'Radiation Protection' of the 47{sup th} Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 have been and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  12. Global metabolic analyses identify key differences in metabolite levels between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maifiah, Mohd Hafidz Mahamad; Cheah, Soon-Ee; Johnson, Matthew D; Han, Mei-Ling; Boyce, John D; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Forrest, Alan; Kaye, Keith S; Hertzog, Paul; Purcell, Anthony W; Song, Jiangning; Velkov, Tony; Creek, Darren J; Li, Jian

    2016-02-29

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii presents a global medical crisis and polymyxins are used as the last-line therapy. This study aimed to identify metabolic differences between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant A. baumannii using untargeted metabolomics. The metabolome of each A. baumannii strain was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate and univariate statistics and pathway analyses were employed to elucidate metabolic differences between the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. Significant differences were identified between the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) deficient, polymyxin-resistant 19606R showed perturbation in specific amino acid and carbohydrate metabolites, particularly pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Levels of nucleotides were lower in the LPS-deficient 19606R. Furthermore, 19606R exhibited a shift in its glycerophospholipid profile towards increased abundance of short-chain lipids compared to the parent polymyxin-susceptible ATCC 19606. In contrast, in a pair of clinical isolates 03-149.1 (polymyxin-susceptible) and 03-149.2 (polymyxin-resistant, due to modification of lipid A), minor metabolic differences were identified. Notably, peptidoglycan biosynthesis metabolites were significantly depleted in both of the aforementioned polymyxin-resistant strains. This is the first comparative untargeted metabolomics study to show substantial differences in the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii.

  13. Genome-wide association studies of autoimmune vitiligo identify 23 new risk loci and highlight key pathways and regulatory variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Andersen, Genevieve; Yorgov, Daniel; Ferrara, Tracey M; Ben, Songtao; Brownson, Kelly M; Holland, Paulene J; Birlea, Stanca A; Siebert, Janet; Hartmann, Anke; Lienert, Anne; van Geel, Nanja; Lambert, Jo; Luiten, Rosalie M; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Wietze van der Veen, J P; Bennett, Dorothy C; Taïeb, Alain; Ezzedine, Khaled; Kemp, E Helen; Gawkrodger, David J; Weetman, Anthony P; Kõks, Sulev; Prans, Ele; Kingo, Külli; Karelson, Maire; Wallace, Margaret R; McCormack, Wayne T; Overbeck, Andreas; Moretti, Silvia; Colucci, Roberta; Picardo, Mauro; Silverberg, Nanette B; Olsson, Mats; Valle, Yan; Korobko, Igor; Böhm, Markus; Lim, Henry W; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Fain, Pamela R; Santorico, Stephanie A; Spritz, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease in which depigmented skin results from the destruction of melanocytes, with epidemiological association with other autoimmune diseases. In previous linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS1 and GWAS2), we identified 27 vitiligo susceptibility loci in patients of European ancestry. We carried out a third GWAS (GWAS3) in European-ancestry subjects, with augmented GWAS1 and GWAS2 controls, genome-wide imputation, and meta-analysis of all three GWAS, followed by an independent replication. The combined analyses, with 4,680 cases and 39,586 controls, identified 23 new significantly associated loci and 7 suggestive loci. Most encode immune and apoptotic regulators, with some also associated with other autoimmune diseases, as well as several melanocyte regulators. Bioinformatic analyses indicate a predominance of causal regulatory variation, some of which corresponds to expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) at these loci. Together, the identified genes provide a framework for the genetic architecture and pathobiology of vitiligo, highlight relationships with other autoimmune diseases and melanoma, and offer potential targets for treatment.

  14. Genome-wide association studies of autoimmune vitiligo identify 23 new risk loci and highlight key pathways and regulatory variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Andersen, Genevieve; Yorgov, Daniel; Ferrara, Tracey M; Ben, Songtao; Brownson, Kelly M; Holland, Paulene J; Birlea, Stanca A; Siebert, Janet; Hartmann, Anke; Lienert, Anne; van Geel, Nanja; Lambert, Jo; Luiten, Rosalie M; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; van der Veen, JP Wietze; Bennett, Dorothy C; Taïeb, Alain; Ezzedine, Khaled; Kemp, E Helen; Gawkrodger, David J; Weetman, Anthony P; Kõks, Sulev; Prans, Ele; Kingo, Külli; Karelson, Maire; Wallace, Margaret R; McCormack, Wayne T; Overbeck, Andreas; Moretti, Silvia; Colucci, Roberta; Picardo, Mauro; Silverberg, Nanette B; Olsson, Mats; Valle, Yan; Korobko, Igor; Böhm, Markus; Lim, Henry W.; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Fain, Pamela R.; Santorico, Stephanie A; Spritz, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease in which depigmented skin results from destruction of melanocytes1, with epidemiologic association with other autoimmune diseases2. In previous linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS1, GWAS2), we identified 27 vitiligo susceptibility loci in patients of European (EUR) ancestry. We carried out a third GWAS (GWAS3) in EUR subjects, with augmented GWAS1 and GWAS2 controls, genome-wide imputation, and meta-analysis of all three GWAS, followed by an independent replication. The combined analyses, with 4,680 cases and 39,586 controls, identified 23 new loci and 7 suggestive loci, most encoding immune and apoptotic regulators, some also associated with other autoimmune diseases, as well as several melanocyte regulators. Bioinformatic analyses indicate a predominance of causal regulatory variation, some corresponding to eQTL at these loci. Together, the identified genes provide a framework for vitiligo genetic architecture and pathobiology, highlight relationships to other autoimmune diseases and melanoma, and offer potential targets for treatment. PMID:27723757

  15. Key beliefs influencing young drivers' engagement with social interactive technology on their smartphones: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Cassandra S; Lewis, Ioni M; White, Katherine M; Watson, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify young drivers' underlying beliefs (i.e., behavioral, normative, and control) regarding initiating, monitoring/reading, and responding to social interactive technology (i.e., functions on a Smartphone that allow the user to communicate with other people). This qualitative study was a beliefs elicitation study in accordance with the theory of planned behavior and sought to elicit young drivers' behavioral (i.e., advantages, disadvantages), normative (i.e., who approves, who disapproves), and control beliefs (i.e., barriers, facilitators) that underpin social interactive technology use while driving. Young drivers (N = 26) aged 17 to 25 years took part in an interview or focus group discussion. Though differences emerged between the 3 behaviors of initiating, monitoring/reading, and responding for each of the behavioral, normative, and control belief categories, the strongest distinction was within the behavioral beliefs category (e.g., communicating with the person that they were on the way to meet was an advantage of initiating; being able to determine whether to respond was an advantage of monitoring/reading; and communicating with important people was an advantage of responding). Normative beliefs were similar for initiating and responding behaviors (e.g., friends and peers more likely to approve than other groups) and differences emerged for monitoring/reading (e.g., parents were more likely to approve of this behavior than initiating and responding). For control beliefs, there were differences between the beliefs regarding facilitators of these behaviors (e.g., familiar roads and conditions facilitated initiating; having audible notifications of an incoming communication facilitated monitoring/reading; and receiving a communication of immediate importance facilitated responding); however, the control beliefs that presented barriers were consistent across the 3 behaviors (e.g., difficult traffic/road conditions). The

  16. Structural characterization of POM6 Fab and mouse prion protein complex identifies key regions for prions conformational conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Pravas Kumar; Swayampakula, Mridula; Aguzzi, Adriano; James, Michael N G

    2018-05-01

    Conversion of the cellular prion protein PrP C into its pathogenic isoform PrP S c is the hallmark of prion diseases, fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting many mammalian species including humans. Anti-prion monoclonal antibodies can arrest the progression of prion diseases by stabilizing the cellular form of the prion protein. Here, we present the crystal structure of the POM6 Fab fragment, in complex with the mouse prion protein (moPrP). The prion epitope of POM6 is in close proximity to the epitope recognized by the purportedly toxic antibody fragment, POM1 Fab also complexed with moPrP. The POM6 Fab recognizes a larger binding interface indicating a likely stronger binding compared to POM1. POM6 and POM1 exhibit distinct biological responses. Structural comparisons of the bound mouse prion proteins from the POM6 Fab:moPrP and POM1 Fab:moPrP complexes reveal several key regions of the prion protein that might be involved in initiating mis-folding events. The structural data of moPrP:POM6 Fab complex are available in the PDB under the accession number www.rcsb.org/pdb/search/structidSearch.do?structureId=6AQ7. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. Community landscapes: an integrative approach to determine overlapping network module hierarchy, identify key nodes and predict network dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István A Kovács

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Network communities help the functional organization and evolution of complex networks. However, the development of a method, which is both fast and accurate, provides modular overlaps and partitions of a heterogeneous network, has proven to be rather difficult. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we introduce the novel concept of ModuLand, an integrative method family determining overlapping network modules as hills of an influence function-based, centrality-type community landscape, and including several widely used modularization methods as special cases. As various adaptations of the method family, we developed several algorithms, which provide an efficient analysis of weighted and directed networks, and (1 determine persvasively overlapping modules with high resolution; (2 uncover a detailed hierarchical network structure allowing an efficient, zoom-in analysis of large networks; (3 allow the determination of key network nodes and (4 help to predict network dynamics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The concept opens a wide range of possibilities to develop new approaches and applications including network routing, classification, comparison and prediction.

  18. Identifying a key physical factor sensitive to the performance of Madden-Julian oscillation simulation in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Go-Un; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    A key physical factor in regulating the performance of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) simulation is examined by using 26 climate model simulations from the World Meteorological Organization's Working Group for Numerical Experimentation/Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Atmospheric System Study (WGNE and MJO-Task Force/GASS) global model comparison project. For this, intraseasonal moisture budget equation is analyzed and a simple, efficient physical quantity is developed. The result shows that MJO skill is most sensitive to vertically integrated intraseasonal zonal wind convergence (ZC). In particular, a specific threshold value of the strength of the ZC can be used as distinguishing between good and poor models. An additional finding is that good models exhibit the correct simultaneous convection and large-scale circulation phase relationship. In poor models, however, the peak circulation response appears 3 days after peak rainfall, suggesting unfavorable coupling between convection and circulation. For an improving simulation of the MJO in climate models, we propose that this delay of circulation in response to convection needs to be corrected in the cumulus parameterization scheme.

  19. Perceived Usefulness as Key Stimulus to the Behavioral Intention to Use 3G Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Susilo Lukito Budi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new technology usually faces the challenge to be accepted by consumers. Because of the unique features of new technology, it needs certain approaches to enhance its acceptance. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM is widely used to study the behavior of organizations and consumers in ac-cepting a new technology. A modified TAM model is applied in the current study to test the impact of advertising appeals of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and social factors on behavioral intention to use 3G technology. Experimental method is utilized on four groups (30 people each of undergraduate students of Atma Jaya Catholic Univesity. The result shows significant impact of the advertising multimedia exposed to the subjects, specifically perceived usefulness. It is concluded that perceived usefulness is the most salient reason among Atma Jaya Catholic University’s students in consuming 3G technology.

  20. RNA-Seq analysis identifies key genes associated with haustorial development in the root hemiparasite Santalum album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Santalum album (sandalwood is one of the economically important plant species in the Santalaceae for its production of highly valued perfume oils. Sandalwood is also a hemiparasitic tree that obtains some of its water and simple nutrients by tapping into other plants through haustoria which are highly specialized organs in parasitic angiosperms. However, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in haustorium development is limited. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analyses were performed to identify changes in gene expression and metabolic pathways associated with the development of the S. album haustorium. A total of 56,011 non-redundant contigs with a mean contig size of 618 bp were obtained by de novo assembly of the transcriptome of haustoria and non-haustorial seedling roots. A substantial number of the identified differentially expressed genes were involved in cell wall metabolism and protein metabolism, as well as mitochondrial electron transport functions. Phytohormone-mediated regulation might play an important role during haustorial development. Especially, auxin signaling is likely to be essential for haustorial initiation, and genes related to cytokinin and gibberellin biosynthesis and metabolism are involved in haustorial development. Our results suggest that genes encoding nodulin-like proteins may be important for haustorial morphogenesis in S. album. The obtained sequence data will become a rich resource for future research in this interesting species. This information improves our understanding of haustorium development in root hemiparasitic species and will allow further exploration of the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying plant parasitism.

  1. Genomics and relative expression analysis identifies key genes associated with high female to male flower ratio in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Manali; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-04-01

    Jatropha curcas, has been projected as a major source of biodiesel due to high seed oil content (42 %). A major roadblock for commercialization of Jatropha-based biodiesel is low seed yield per inflorescence, which is affected by low female to male flower ratio (1:25-30). Molecular dissection of female flower development by analyzing genes involved in phase transitions and floral organ development is, therefore, crucial for increasing seed yield. Expression analysis of 42 genes implicated in floral organ development and sex determination was done at six floral developmental stages of a J. curcas genotype (IC561235) with inherently higher female to male flower ratio (1:8-10). Relative expression analysis of these genes was done on low ratio genotype. Genes TFL1, SUP, AP1, CRY2, CUC2, CKX1, TAA1 and PIN1 were associated with reproductive phase transition. Further, genes CUC2, TAA1, CKX1 and PIN1 were associated with female flowering while SUP and CRY2 in female flower transition. Relative expression of these genes with respect to low female flower ratio genotype showed up to ~7 folds increase in transcript abundance of SUP, TAA1, CRY2 and CKX1 genes in intermediate buds but not a significant increase (~1.25 folds) in female flowers, thereby suggesting that these genes possibly play a significant role in increased transition towards female flowering by promoting abortion of male flower primordia. The outcome of study has implications in feedstock improvement of J. curcas through functional validation and eventual utilization of key genes associated with female flowering.

  2. Key technologies for well drilling and completion in ultra-deep sour gas reservoirs, Yuanba Gasfield, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Yuanba Gasfield is a large gas field discovered by Sinopec in the Sichuan Basin in recent years, and another main exploration area for natural gas reserves and production increase after the Puguang Gasfield. The ultra-deep sour gas reservoir in the Yuanba Gasfield is characterized by complicated geologic structure, deep reservoirs and complex drilled formation, especially in the continental deep strata which are highly abrasive with low ROP (rate of penetration and long drilling period. After many years of drilling practice and technical research, the following six key drilling and completion technologies for this type reservoir are established by introducing new tools and technologies, developing specialized drill bits and optimizing drilling design. They are: casing program optimization technology for ROP increasing and safe well completion; gas drilling technology for shallow continental strata and high-efficiency drilling technology for deep high-abrasion continental strata; drilling fluid support technologies of gas–liquid conversion, ultra-deep highly-deviated wells and horizontal-well lubrication and drag reduction, hole stability control and sour gas contamination prevention; well cementing technologies for gas medium, deep-well long cementing intervals and ultra-high pressure small space; horizontal-well trajectory control technologies for measuring instrument, downhole motor optimization and bottom hole assembly design; and liner completion modes and completion string optimization technologies suitable for this gas reservoir. Field application shows that these key technologies are contributive to ROP increase and efficiency improvement of 7000 m deep horizontal wells and to significant operational cycle shortening.

  3. Xeroradiography: A key to the nature of technological change in ancient ceramic production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanzman, W D; Fleming, S J

    1986-01-15

    Over the last two decades Industry and Medicine have developed and fully exploited various X-ray techniques, especially xeroradiography. It is only recently, however, that the latter has found significant use in museum-related disciplines, the appeal being that it is nondestructive in its usual mode of application. Though the production of xeroradiographic images has been largely constrained to situations where the X-ray beam incidence is normal to the object's surface - we will illustrate that information recovery is not optimized in that configuration - some valuable data has been gleaned about certain characteristic features of ceramic structure. For example, the frequency, grain structure and gross aspects of rock and mineral inclusions are often radiographically distinct, when their effective atomic number is significantly different from the surrounding clay matrix. (Haematite, muscovite and calcite show up particularly clearly). Similarly, remnants of organic matter, such as any rice or straw temper that the potter may have added, produce quite distinct images. We have now adapted routine xeroradiographic methods to accurately reconstruct the method of manufacture of individual pottery vessel types from a wide range of past cultural horizons. Adjustments in X-ray exposure settings and angles of incidence, coupled to an internal study of certain vessel forms (using a 'thick section' technique that we will describe in detail), has allowed us to identify subtle changes with time in ancient pottery production methods, and has prompted much reassessment of current ideas about technological innovation within several cultures, including those of Bronze Age Jordan and prehistoric Thailand. This paper will summarize the technical aspects of these changes, and consider the past social conditions which may have stimulated them.

  4. Keys to successful D and D technology deployments at the INEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.M.; Meservey, R. H.; Shoemaker, H.

    2000-01-01

    Seven improved decontamination and decommissioning (DandD) technologies were successfully deployed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) during the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning (IDandD) project. The use of these improved technologies saved the INEEL $462K in fiscal year 1999, and is projected to save about $14M over the next ten years. Since deploying new technologies on DandD projects shows great potential for cost-savings, factors that led to successful deployment have been documented. These factors are described here as they apply to the seven deployments at the INEEL to assist with deployments at other DOE sites

  5. Solution scanning as a key policy tool: identifying management interventions to help maintain and enhance regulating ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Sutherland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major task of policy makers and practitioners when confronted with a resource management problem is to decide on the potential solution(s to adopt from a range of available options. However, this process is unlikely to be successful and cost effective without access to an independently verified and comprehensive available list of options. There is currently burgeoning interest in ecosystem services and quantitative assessments of their importance and value. Recognition of the value of ecosystem services to human well-being represents an increasingly important argument for protecting and restoring the natural environment, alongside the moral and ethical justifications for conservation. As well as understanding the benefits of ecosystem services, it is also important to synthesize the practical interventions that are capable of maintaining and/or enhancing these services. Apart from pest regulation, pollination, and global climate regulation, this type of exercise has attracted relatively little attention. Through a systematic consultation exercise, we identify a candidate list of 296 possible interventions across the main regulating services of air quality regulation, climate regulation, water flow regulation, erosion regulation, water purification and waste treatment, disease regulation, pest regulation, pollination and natural hazard regulation. The range of interventions differs greatly between habitats and services depending upon the ease of manipulation and the level of research intensity. Some interventions have the potential to deliver benefits across a range of regulating services, especially those that reduce soil loss and maintain forest cover. Synthesis and applications: Solution scanning is important for questioning existing knowledge and identifying the range of options available to researchers and practitioners, as well as serving as the necessary basis for assessing cost effectiveness and guiding implementation strategies. We

  6. Positioning Technology and Engineering Education as a Key Force in STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Greg; Grubbs, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    As the presence of engineering content and practices increases in science education, the distinction between the two fields of science and technology education becomes even more vague than previously theorized. Furthermore, the addition of engineering to the title of the profession raises the question of the true aim of technology education. As a…

  7. Developing Technology Needs Assessments for Educational Programs: An Analysis of Eight Key Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Erin N.

    2016-01-01

    As access to information and communication technology grows, educators have increasing opportunities to experiment with and to adapt both hardware and software to their current practice. Technology's integration, however, can vary widely between teachers within the same program for numerous reasons. Understanding the challenges practitioners face…

  8. A Video Analysis of Intra- and Interprofessional Leadership Behaviors Within "The Burns Suite": Identifying Key Leadership Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Saadeddin, Munir; Loon, Mark; Kneebone, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is particularly important in complex highly interprofessional health care contexts involving a number of staff, some from the same specialty (intraprofessional), and others from different specialties (interprofessional). The authors recently published the concept of "The Burns Suite" (TBS) as a novel simulation tool to deliver interprofessional and teamwork training. It is unclear which leadership behaviors are the most important in an interprofessional burns resuscitation scenario, and whether they can be modeled on to current leadership theory. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive video analysis of leadership behaviors within TBS. A total of 3 burns resuscitation simulations within TBS were recorded. The video analysis was grounded-theory inspired. Using predefined criteria, actions/interactions deemed as leadership behaviors were identified. Using an inductive iterative process, 8 main leadership behaviors were identified. Cohen's κ coefficient was used to measure inter-rater agreement and calculated as κ = 0.7 (substantial agreement). Each video was watched 4 times, focusing on 1 of the 4 team members per viewing (senior surgeon, senior nurse, trainee surgeon, and trainee nurse). The frequency and types of leadership behavior of each of the 4 team members were recorded. Statistical significance to assess any differences was assessed using analysis of variance, whereby a p Leadership behaviors were triangulated with verbal cues and actions from the videos. All 3 scenarios were successfully completed. The mean scenario length was 22 minutes. A total of 362 leadership behaviors were recorded from the 12 participants. The most evident leadership behaviors of all team members were adhering to guidelines (which effectively equates to following Advanced Trauma and Life Support/Emergency Management of Severe Burns resuscitation guidelines and hence "maintaining standards"), followed by making decisions. Although in terms of total

  9. Metabolic profiles of triple-negative and luminal A breast cancer subtypes in African-American identify key metabolic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyari, Fariba; Gowda, G A Nagana; Olopade, Olufunmilayo F; Berg, Richard; Yang, Howard H; Lee, Maxwell P; Ngwa, Wilfred F; Mittal, Suresh K; Raftery, Daniel; Mohammed, Sulma I

    2018-02-20

    Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease with variable pathophysiology and biology, is classified into four major subtypes. While hormonal- and antibody-targeted therapies are effective in the patients with luminal and HER-2 subtypes, the patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype do not benefit from these therapies. The incidence rates of TNBC subtype are higher in African-American women, and the evidence indicates that these women have worse prognosis compared to women of European descent. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear but are often attributed to TNBC biology. In this study, we performed metabolic analysis of breast tissues to identify how TNBC differs from luminal A breast cancer (LABC) subtypes within the African-American and Caucasian breast cancer patients, respectively. We used High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) 1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to perform the metabolomic analysis of breast cancer and adjacent normal tissues (total n=82 samples). TNBC and LABC subtypes in African American women exhibited different metabolic profiles. Metabolic profiles of these subtypes were also distinct from those revealed in Caucasian women. TNBC in African-American women expressed higher levels of glutathione, choline, and glutamine as well as profound metabolic alterations characterized by decreased mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis concomitant with decreased levels of ATP. TNBC in Caucasian women was associated with increased pyrimidine synthesis. These metabolic alterations could potentially be exploited as novel treatment targets for TNBC.

  10. Comparative and functional genomics of Legionella identified eukaryotic like proteins as key players in host-pathogen interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eGomez-Valero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although best known for its ability to cause severe pneumonia in people whose immune defenses are weakened, Legionella pneumophila and Legionella longbeachae are two species of a large genus of bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature, where they parasitize protozoa. Adaptation to the host environment and exploitation of host cell functions are critical for the success of these intracellular pathogens. The establishment and publication of the complete genome sequences of L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae isolates paved the way for major breakthroughs in understanding the biology of these organisms. In this review we present the knowledge gained from the analyses and comparison of the complete genome sequences of different L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae strains. Emphasis is given on putative virulence and Legionella life cycle related functions, such as the identification of an extended array of eukaryotic-like proteins, many of which have been shown to modulate host cell functions to the pathogen's advantage. Surprisingly, many of the eukaryotic domain proteins identified in L. pneumophila as well as many substrates of the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system essential for intracellular replication are different between these two species, although they cause the same disease. Finally, evolutionary aspects regarding the eukaryotic like proteins in Legionella are discussed.

  11. Identifying and Prioritizing the Key Factors Influencing Customer Decision Making in Buying Organizational Software (A survey about HAMKARAN Co.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahryar Azizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of adopting information systems, specially packed software, facilitate managing the organizational process, hence, identification the factors influence customer buying decision is vital for software providers. This mixed method study tried to identify the factors affecting decision making of buying new organizational software, classify and rank them beside. In-depth interviews with 10 customers of Hamkaran system that had the potential of buying new software have been done and content analysis of these interviews revealed some factors in five categories that became the base of questionnaire design. This study is applied in view of aim, and is descriptive-survey in view of entity. Sample of 177 customers of System Group Co. have been chosen for the study. Kruskal-Wallis test and T test of normality showed all factors to be effective. Then the factors have been prioritized using Frideman test which are as follows: buyer`s internal organizational factors, product feature, factors related to sellers organization, factors related to process and selling promotion, market and environmental factors.

  12. Applying deep learning technology to automatically identify metaphase chromosomes using scanning microscopic images: an initial investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Lu, Xianglan; Yan, Shiju; Tan, Maxine; Cheng, Samuel; Li, Shibo; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Automated high throughput scanning microscopy is a fast developing screening technology used in cytogenetic laboratories for the diagnosis of leukemia or other genetic diseases. However, one of the major challenges of using this new technology is how to efficiently detect the analyzable metaphase chromosomes during the scanning process. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a computer aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning technology, which can identify the metaphase chromosomes with high accuracy. The CAD scheme includes an eight layer neural network. The first six layers compose of an automatic feature extraction module, which has an architecture of three convolution-max-pooling layer pairs. The 1st, 2nd and 3rd pair contains 30, 20, 20 feature maps, respectively. The seventh and eighth layers compose of a multiple layer perception (MLP) based classifier, which is used to identify the analyzable metaphase chromosomes. The performance of new CAD scheme was assessed by receiver operation characteristic (ROC) method. A number of 150 regions of interest (ROIs) were selected to test the performance of our new CAD scheme. Each ROI contains either interphase cell or metaphase chromosomes. The results indicate that new scheme is able to achieve an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.886+/-0.043. This investigation demonstrates that applying a deep learning technique may enable to significantly improve the accuracy of the metaphase chromosome detection using a scanning microscopic imaging technology in the future.

  13. The Fishbone diagram to identify, systematize and analyze the sources of general purpose technologies

    OpenAIRE

    COCCIA, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. This study suggests the fishbone diagram for technological analysis. Fishbone diagram (also called Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams) is a graphical technique to show the several causes of a specific event or phenomenon. In particular, a fishbone diagram (the shape is similar to a fish skeleton) is a common tool used for a cause and effect analysis to identify a complex interplay of causes for a specific problem or event. The fishbone diagram can be a comprehensive theo...

  14. Amygdala-enriched genes identified by microarray technology are restricted to specific amygdaloid subnuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Zirlinger, M.; Kreiman, Gabriel; Anderson, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    Microarray technology represents a potentially powerful method for identifying cell type- and regionally restricted genes expressed in the brain. Here we have combined a microarray analysis of differential gene expression among five selected brain regions, including the amygdala, cerebellum, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and periaqueductal gray, with in situ hybridization. On average, 0.3% of the 34,000 genes interrogated were highly enriched in each of the five regions...

  15. A molecular key for building hyphae aggregates: the role of the newly identified Streptomyces protein HyaS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Ilona; Overbeck, Jens; Piepmeyer, Sophie; Meschke, Holger; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2009-05-01

    Streptomycetes produce many metabolites with medical and biotechnological applications. During fermentations, their hyphae build aggregates, a process in which the newly identified protein HyaS plays an important role. The corresponding hyaS gene is present within all investigated Streptomyces species. Reporter fusions indicate that transcription of hyaS occurs within substrate hyphae of the Streptomyces lividans wild type (WT). The HyaS protein is dominantly associated with the substrate hyphae. The WT strain forms cylindrically shaped clumps of densely packed substrate hyphae, often fusing to higher aggregates (pellets), which remain stably associated during shaking. Investigations by electron microscopy suggest that HyaS induces tight fusion-like contacts among substrate hyphae. In contrast, the pellets of the designed hyaS disruption mutant ΔH are irregular in shape, contain frequently outgrowing bunches of hyphae, and fuse less frequently. ΔH complemented with a plasmid carrying hyaS resembles the WT phenotype. Biochemical studies indicate that the C-terminal region of HyaS has amine oxidase activity. Investigations of ΔH transformants, each carrying a specifically mutated gene, lead to the conclusion that the in situ oxidase activity correlates with the pellet-inducing role of HyaS, and depends on the presence of certain histidine residues. Furthermore, the level of undecylprodigiosin, a red pigment with antibiotic activity, is influenced by the engineered hyaS subtype within a strain. These data present the first molecular basis for future manipulation of pellets, and concomitant production of secondary metabolites during biotechnological processes. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The key network communication technology in large radiation image cooperative process system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng; Kang Kejun; Gao Wenhuan; Wang Jingjin

    1998-01-01

    Large container inspection system (LCIS) based on radiation imaging technology is a powerful tool for the customs to check the contents inside a large container without opening it. An image distributed network system is composed of operation manager station, image acquisition station, environment control station, inspection processing station, check-in station, check-out station, database station by using advanced network technology. Mass data, such as container image data, container general information, manifest scanning data, commands and status, must be on-line transferred between different stations. Advanced network communication technology is presented

  17. Creation of Micro Products in the future - joining of materials as a key technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    jet printers, reading caps for hard disks etc.) as well as medical and biomedical products (pacemakers, analysis equipment, sensors etc.). Furthermore motion sensors for the automotive industry represent an industrial application of micro systems. On the technological side the development has moved...... very fast, primarily driven by the need of the electronics industry to create still smaller chips with still larger capacity. Therefore the manufacturing technologies connected with micro/nano products in silicon are relatively highly developed compared to the technologies used for manufacturing...

  18. Emerging technology: A key enabler for modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing and advancing product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas F; Yu, Lawrence X; Lee, Sau L

    2016-07-25

    Issues in product quality have produced recalls and caused drug shortages in United States (U.S.) in the past few years. These quality issues were often due to outdated manufacturing technologies and equipment as well as lack of an effective quality management system. To ensure consistent supply of safe, effective and high-quality drug products available to the patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) supports modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing for improvements in product quality. Specifically, five new initiatives are proposed here to achieve this goal. They include: (i) advancing regulatory science for pharmaceutical manufacturing; (ii) establishing a public-private institute for pharmaceutical manufacturing innovation; (iii) creating incentives for investment in the technological upgrade of manufacturing processes and facilities; (iv) leveraging external expertise for regulatory quality assessment of emerging technologies; and (v) promoting the international harmonization of approaches for expediting the global adoption of emerging technologies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Towards precision prevention: Technologies for identifying healthy individuals with high risk of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Zachary D; Engelward, Bevin P; Brenner, David J; Begley, Thomas J; Sobol, Robert W; Bielas, Jason H; Stambrook, Peter J; Wei, Qingyi; Hu, Jennifer J; Terry, Mary Beth; Dilworth, Caroline; McAllister, Kimberly A; Reinlib, Les; Worth, Leroy; Shaughnessy, Daniel T

    2017-08-01

    The rise of advanced technologies for characterizing human populations at the molecular level, from sequence to function, is shifting disease prevention paradigms toward personalized strategies. Because minimization of adverse outcomes is a key driver for treatment decisions for diseased populations, developing personalized therapy strategies represent an important dimension of both precision medicine and personalized prevention. In this commentary, we highlight recently developed enabling technologies in the field of DNA damage, DNA repair, and mutagenesis. We propose that omics approaches and functional assays can be integrated into population studies that fuse basic, translational and clinical research with commercial expertise in order to accelerate personalized prevention and treatment of cancer and other diseases linked to aberrant responses to DNA damage. This collaborative approach is generally applicable to efforts to develop data-driven, individualized prevention and treatment strategies for other diseases. We also recommend strategies for maximizing the use of biological samples for epidemiological studies, and for applying emerging technologies to clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and Application of the Key Technologies for the Quality Control and Inspection of National Geographical Conditions Survey Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, L.; Ma, W.; Zhang, P.; Zhao, T.

    2018-04-01

    The First National Geographical Condition Survey is a predecessor task to dynamically master basic situations of the nature, ecology and human activities on the earth's surface and it is the brand-new mapping geographic information engineering. In order to ensure comprehensive, real and accurate survey results and achieve the quality management target which the qualified rate is 100 % and the yield is more than 80 %, it is necessary to carry out the quality control and result inspection for national geographical conditions survey on a national scale. To ensure that achievement quality meets quality target requirements, this paper develops the key technology method of "five-in-one" quality control that is constituted by "quality control system of national geographical condition survey, quality inspection technology system, quality evaluation system, quality inspection information management system and national linked quality control institutions" by aiming at large scale, wide coverage range, more undertaking units, more management levels, technical updating, more production process and obvious regional differences in the national geographical condition survey and combining with novel achievement manifestation, complicated dependency, more special reference data, and large data size. This project fully considering the domestic and foreign related research results and production practice experience, combined with the technology development and the needs of the production, it stipulates the inspection methods and technical requirements of each stage in the quality inspection of the geographical condition survey results, and extends the traditional inspection and acceptance technology, and solves the key technologies that are badly needed in the first national geographic survey.

  1. The relationship between the key elements of Donabedian's conceptual model within the field of assistive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Iwarsson, Susanne; Brandt, Åse

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that there is a relationship between the three key components of Donabedian's conceptual model for quality assessments: structure of care, process, and outcome of care. That is, structure predicted both process and outcome of care, and better processes predict better...

  2. Using Active Learning to Identify Health Information Technology Related Patient Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Allan; Howe, Jessica L; Adams, Katharine T; Ratwani, Raj M

    2017-01-18

    The widespread adoption of health information technology (HIT) has led to new patient safety hazards that are often difficult to identify. Patient safety event reports, which are self-reported descriptions of safety hazards, provide one view of potential HIT-related safety events. However, identifying HIT-related reports can be challenging as they are often categorized under other more predominate clinical categories. This challenge of identifying HIT-related reports is exacerbated by the increasing number and complexity of reports which pose challenges to human annotators that must manually review reports. In this paper, we apply active learning techniques to support classification of patient safety event reports as HIT-related. We evaluated different strategies and demonstrated a 30% increase in average precision of a confirmatory sampling strategy over a baseline no active learning approach after 10 learning iterations.

  3. Procedures for identifying reasonably available control technology for stationary sources of PM-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ellefson, R.

    1992-09-01

    The guidance document sets forth procedures and identifies sources of information that will assist State and local air pollution control agencies in determining Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for PM-10 (particulate matter having a nominal aerometric diameter of 10 microns or less) emission from existing stationary sources on a case-by-case basis. It provides an annotated bibliography of documents to aid in identifying the activities that cause PM-10 emissions as well as applicable air pollution control measures and their effectiveness in reducing emissions. The most stringent state total particulate matter (PM) emission limits are identified for several categories of PM-10 sources and compared to available emission test data. Finally, guidance is provided on procedures for estimating total capital investment and total annual cost of the control measures which are generally used to control PM-10 emissions

  4. Key composition optimization of meat processed protein source by vacuum freeze-drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Wu, Xingzhuang; Zhang, Qi; Giovanni, Vigna; Meng, Xianjun

    2018-05-01

    Vacuum freeze-drying technology is a high technology content, a wide range of knowledge of technology in the field of drying technology is involved, it is also a method of the most complex drying equipment, the largest energy consumption, the highest cost of drying method, but due to the particularity of its dry goods: the freeze-drying food has the advantages of complex water performance is good, cooler and luster of freezing and drying food to maintain good products, less nutrient loss, light weight, easy to carry transportation, easy to long-term preservation, and on the quality is far superior to the obvious advantages of other dried food, making it become the forefront of drying technology research and development. The freeze-drying process of Chinese style ham and western Germany fruit tree tenderloin is studied in this paper, their eutectic point, melting point and collapse temperature, freeze-drying curve and its heat and mass transfer characteristics are got, then the precool temperature and the highest limiting temperature of sublimation interface are determined. The effect of system pressure on freeze-dried rate in freeze-drying process is discussed, and the method of regulating pressure circularly is determined.

  5. Key composition optimization of meat processed protein source by vacuum freeze-drying technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum freeze-drying technology is a high technology content, a wide range of knowledge of technology in the field of drying technology is involved, it is also a method of the most complex drying equipment, the largest energy consumption, the highest cost of drying method, but due to the particularity of its dry goods: the freeze-drying food has the advantages of complex water performance is good, cooler and luster of freezing and drying food to maintain good products, less nutrient loss, light weight, easy to carry transportation, easy to long-term preservation, and on the quality is far superior to the obvious advantages of other dried food, making it become the forefront of drying technology research and development. The freeze-drying process of Chinese style ham and western Germany fruit tree tenderloin is studied in this paper, their eutectic point, melting point and collapse temperature, freeze-drying curve and its heat and mass transfer characteristics are got, then the precool temperature and the highest limiting temperature of sublimation interface are determined. The effect of system pressure on freeze-dried rate in freeze-drying process is discussed, and the method of regulating pressure circularly is determined. Keywords: Ham, Tenderloin, Vacuum freeze-dry, Processing, Optimization

  6. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key topic / Outstanding know-how and sustainable innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwermann, Winfried [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany). Forschungszentrum

    2016-11-15

    Summary report on the Key Topic ''Outstanding Know-How and Sustainable Innovations'' Technical Session ''Reactor Physics, Thermo, and Fluid Dynamics'' of the 47th Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 have been and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  7. Status and prospects of exploration and exploitation key technologies of the deep petroleum resources in onshore China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genshun Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, China's deep oil and gas exploration and exploitation have developed rapidly. Technological advancements have played an important role in the rapid exploration and highly efficient development. Aimed at the complex engineering geological environment of deep oil and gas in China, this paper has combined the four technological systems that have made significant progress, mainly including: (1 seismic imaging and reservoir prediction techniques for deep–burial complex structures, includign “2W1S” technique (wide-band, wide azimuth, and small bin, RTM (Reverse Time Migration, integrated modeling technology for complex structures and variable velocity mapping technique, improving structural interpretation accuracy, ensuring high precision ofimaging, and prediction for deep geological bodies; (2 deep speed raising and efficiency drilling technology series, which significantly improved the drilling speed, in turn reduced the drilling cost and drilling risk; (3 development of a deep high-temperature and high-pressure logging technology series, which provided a guarantee for the accurate identification of reservoir properties and fluid properties; (4 the efficient development technology for deep reservoirs, especially the development and maturity of the reconstruction volume technology, improve the production of single well and the benefit of deep oil and gas development. This paper further points out the improvement direction of the four major technology series of deep oil based on the analysis of the current development of the four major technological systems. Moreover, the development of applicability and economy for technical system is the key to realize high efficiency and low-cost exploration and development of deep oil and gas. Keywords: Deep oil & gas, Exploration and exploitation technologies, Seismic, Logging, Drilling, Petroleum reservoir stimulation

  8. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  9. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  10. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  11. Key technology for (V)HTR: laser beam joining of SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knorr, J.; Lippmann, W.; Reinecke, A.M.; Wolf, R.; Rasper, R.; Kerber, A.; Wolter, A.

    2005-01-01

    Laser beam joining has numerous advantages over other methods presently known. After having been developed successful for brazing silicon carbide for high temperature applications, this technology is now also available for silicon nitride. Thus the field of application of SiC and Si 3 N 4 which are very interesting materials for the nuclear sector is considerably extended thanks to this new technology. Ceramic encapsulation of fuel and absorber increases the margins for operation at very high temperatures. Additionally, without ceramic encapsulation of the main core components, it will be difficult to continue claiming non-catastrophic behaviour for the (V)HTR. (orig.)

  12. Governance and New Technologies: Key Reflections of Informatization on Administrative Management of Judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Correia Da Silva Gomes Caldas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the consequences of new technologies in the administrativeorganization of the Judiciary and has good management practices that combine economic and social outcomes allies sustainability. The objective is to analyze how new technologies help in the governance of the Judiciary, especially regarding the transposition of the traditional support process paper to electronic court case. We opted for the bibliographical and documentary research using the deductive method. Justified the search because of democracy and globalization connect judicial governance computerization where it seeks to reconcile an administration results with sustainable practices.

  13. Mr. Pat McDonald, Director of "Key Business Technologies", Department of Trade and Industry, United Kingdom

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photos 01,02: Mr Pat McDonald, Director of "Key Business Technologies", Department of Trade and Industry, UK (third from left, front) in front of the ATLAS End-Cap Toroid vacuum vessel in the ATLAS assembly hall with, from left to right, Fred Wickens, Chris Jones, Peter Fletcher, Ray Browne, Neil Geddes, Jim Fleming, Anne Trefethen, Jim Wilson, Edwin Towndrow, Sharon Bonfield, Guy Rickett, Ken Smith, Peter Jenni. Photo 03: Mr Pat McDonald, Director of "Key Business Technologies", Department of Trade and Industry, UK (fifth from left) visiting ATLAS assembly hall with, from left to right, Jim Wilson, Peter Jenni, Ken Smith, Edwin Towndrow, Ray Brown, Chris Jones, Neil Geddes, Sharon Bonfield, Anne Trefethen, Jim Fleming, Fred Wickens. Photo 04: Mr Pat McDonald, Director of "Key Business Technologies", Department of Trade and Industry, UK (fourth from right) in front of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid coil casing in the ATLAS assembly hall with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, Jim Wilson, Guy Rickett, Anne Trefethen, ...

  14. Identifying potential disaster zones around the Verkhnekamskoye potash deposit (Russia) using advanced information technology (IT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, J. J.; Filippov, L. O.

    2017-07-01

    This work aims at improving the exploitation of the K, Mg, salts ore of the Verkhnekamskoye deposit using advanced information technology (IT) such as 3D geostatistical modeling techniques together with high performance flotation. It is expected to provide a more profitable exploitation of the actual deposit avoiding the formation of dramatic sinkholes by a better knowledge of the deposit. The GeoChron modelling method for sedimentary formations (Mallet, 2014) was used to improve the knowledge of the Verkhnekamskoye potash deposit, Perm region, Russia. After a short introduction on the modern theory of mathematical modelling applied to mineral resources exploitation and geology, new results are presented on the sedimentary architecture of the ore deposit. They enlighten the structural geology and the fault orientations, a key point for avoiding catastrophic water inflows recharging zone during exploitation. These results are important for avoiding catastrophic sinkholes during exploitation.

  15. Key technologies and applications of laser cooling and trapping "8"7Rb atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, Ning; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yu; Fan, Shangchun

    2016-01-01

    Atom Interferometry is proved to be a potential method for measuring the acceleration of atoms due to Gravity, we are now building a feasible system of cold atom gravimeter. In this paper development and the important applications of laser cooling and trapping atoms are introduced, some key techniques which are used to obtain "8"7Rb cold atoms in our experiments are also discussed.

  16. Steady-state operation of tokamaks: Key physics and technology developments on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquinot, J.

    2005-01-01

    Important technological and physics issues related to long pulse operation required for a reactor are now being addressed in Tore Supra. experimental results in conditions where all the plasma facing components are actively cooled during pulses exceeding six minutes. Important physics issues related to continuous operation are observed in non inductively driven plasmas. (author)

  17. Learning Scientific Reasoning Skills May Be Key to Retention in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie L.; Neeley, Shannon; Hatch, Jordan B.; Piorczynski, Ted

    2017-01-01

    The United States produces too few Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) graduates to meet demand. We investigated scientific reasoning ability as a possible factor in STEM retention. To do this, we classified students in introductory biology courses at a large private university as either declared STEM or non-STEM majors and…

  18. Identifying performance gaps in hydrogen safety sensor technology for automotive and stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon-Brett, L.; Bousek, J.; Black, G.; Moretto, P.; Castello, P.; Huebert, T.; Banach, U.

    2010-01-01

    A market survey has been performed of commercially available hydrogen safety sensors, resulting in a total sample size of 53 sensors from 21 manufacturers. The technical specifications, as provided by the manufacturer, have been collated and are displayed herein as a function of sensor working principle. These specifications comprise measuring range, response and recovery times, ambient temperature, pressure and relative humidity, power consumption and lifetime. These are then compared against known performance targets for both automotive and stationary applications in order to establish in how far current technology satisfies current requirements of sensor end users. Gaps in the performance of hydrogen sensing technologies are thus identified and areas recommended for future research and development. (author)

  19. Realization of a universal patient identifier for electronic medical records through biometric technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, D C; Pons, Alexander P; Asfour, Shihab S

    2009-07-01

    The technology exists for the migration of healthcare data from its archaic paper-based system to an electronic one, and, once in digital form, to be transported anywhere in the world in a matter of seconds. The advent of universally accessible healthcare data has benefited all participants, but one of the outstanding problems that must be addressed is how the creation of a standardized nationwide electronic healthcare record system in the United States would uniquely identify and match a composite of an individual's recorded healthcare information to an identified individual patients out of approximately 300 million people to a 1:1 match. To date, a few solutions to this problem have been proposed that are limited in their effectiveness. We propose the use of biometric technology within our fingerprint, iris, retina scan, and DNA (FIRD) framework, which is a multiphase system whose primary phase is a multilayer consisting of these four types of biometric identifiers: 1) fingerprint; 2) iris; 3) retina scan; and 4) DNA. In addition, it also consists of additional phases of integration, consolidation, and data discrepancy functions to solve the unique association of a patient to their medical data distinctively. This would allow a patient to have real-time access to all of their recorded healthcare information electronically whenever it is necessary, securely with minimal effort, greater effectiveness, and ease.

  20. Key seismic exploration technology for the Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Gaoshiti–Moxi area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangrong Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The dolomite reservoirs of the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm in the Gaoshiti–Moxi area, Sichuan Basin, are deeply buried (generally 4400–4900 m, with high heterogeneity, making reservoir prediction difficult. In this regard, key seismic exploration technologies were developed through researches. Firstly, through in-depth analysis on the existing geologic, drilling, seismic data and available research findings, basic surface and subsurface structures and geologic conditions within the study area were clarified. Secondly, digital seismic data acquisition technologies with wide azimuth, wide frequency band and minor bins were adopted to ensure even distribution of coverage of target formations through optimization of the 3D seismic geometry. In this way, high-accuracy 3D seismic data can be acquired through shallow, middle and deep formations. Thirdly, well-control seismic data processing technologies were applied to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of seismic data for deep formations. Fourthly, a seismic response model was established specifically for the Longwangmiao Fm reservoir. Quantitative prediction of the reservoir was performed through pre-stack geo-statistics. In this way, plan distribution of reservoir thicknesses was mapped. Fifthly, core tests and logging data analysis were conducted to determine gas-sensitive elastic parameters, which were then used in pre-stack hydrocarbon detection to eliminate the multiple solutions in seismic data interpretation. It is concluded that application of the above-mentioned key technologies effectively promote the discovery of largescale marine carbonate gas reservoirs of the Longwangmiao Fm.

  1. Identifying Predictors of Taxane-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Using Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily I Chen

    Full Text Available Major advances in early detection and therapy have significantly increased the survival of breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, most cancer therapies are known to carry a substantial risk of adverse long-term treatment-related effects. Little is known about patient susceptibility to severe side effects after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a common side effect of taxanes. Recent advances in genome-wide genotyping and sequencing technologies have supported the discoveries of a number of pharmacogenetic markers that predict response to chemotherapy. However, effectively implementing these pharmacogenetic markers in the clinic remains a major challenge. On the other hand, recent advances in proteomic technologies incorporating mass spectrometry (MS for biomarker discovery show great promise to provide clinically relevant protein biomarkers. In this study, we evaluated the association between protein content in serum exosomes and severity of CIPN. Women with early stage breast cancer receiving adjuvant taxane chemotherapy were assessed with the FACT-Ntx score and serum was collected before and after the taxane treatment. Based on the change in FACT-Ntx score from baseline to 12 month follow-up, we separated patients into two groups: those who had no change (Group 1, N = 9 and those who had a ≥20% worsening (Group 1, N = 8. MS-based proteomics technology was used to identify proteins present in serum exosomes to determine potential biomarkers. Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon analysis was applied and maximum FDR was controlled at 20%. From the serum exosomes derived from this cohort, we identified over 700 proteins known to be in different subcellular locations and have different functions. Statistical analysis revealed a 12-protein signature that resulted in a distinct separation between baseline serum samples of both groups (q<0.2 suggesting that the baseline samples can predict subsequent neurotoxicity. These toxicity

  2. Power Electronics – The Key Technology for Renewable Energy System Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Ma, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The energy paradigms in many countries (e.g. Germany and Denmark) have experienced a significant change from fossil-based resources to clean renewables (e.g. wind turbines and photovoltaics) in the past few decades. The scenario of highly penetrated renewables is going to be further enhanced...... – Denmark expects to be 100 % fossil-free by 2050. Consequently, it is required that the production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technologically efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be strengthened. In order to realize the transition smoothly...... and effectively, energy conversion systems, currently based on power electronics technology, will again play an essential role in this energy paradigm shift. Using highly efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application, together with advanced control...

  3. Power Electronics – Key Technology for Renewable Energy Systems – Status and Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    play an essential role. Using highly efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/ distribution and end-user application, together with advanced control solutions, can pave the way for renewable energies. In view of this, some of the most emerging renewable energies, e.g. wind......The energy paradigms in many countries (e.g. Germany and Denmark) have experienced a significant change from fossil-based resources to clean renewables in the past few decades. The scenario of highly penetrated renewables is going to be further enhanced. This requires that the production......, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should also be streng-thened. In order to realize the transition smoothly and effectively, energy conversion systems, currently based on power electronics technology, will again...

  4. Simulation technology - A key to effective man-machine integration for future combat rotorcraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Andrew W.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of advanced simulation technology in the development of the non-real-time MANPRINT design tools in the Army/NASA Aircrew-Aircraft Integration (A3I) program is described. A description is then given of the Crew Station Research and Development Facilities, the primary tool for the application of MANPRINT principles. The purpose of the A3I program is to develop a rational, predictive methodology for helicopter cockpit system design that integrates human factors engineering with other principles at an early stage in the development process, avoiding the high cost of previous system design methods. Enabling technologies such as the MIDAS work station are examined, and the potential of low-cost parallel-processing systems is indicated.

  5. Some Key Technologies of Geospatial Information System for China Water Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We have pioneered research on geospatial information system for national water census and its application. Aiming to the main issues such as information obtaining, data management, quality control, and project organization, the overall thought is given. It is based on taking fundamental data as supporting and data model as precursor, and viewing intelligent tool as protective role, and combing the management theory with technical methods. The key techniques developed include the digital basin extraction, data modeling orienting to the object of water resources, data acquisition and processing within certain rules and the application of multidimensional theme.

  6. Luminescence Dating Work From The Heidelberg Group: A Key Technology In Geoarchaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G. A.; Kadereit, A.

    Geoarchaeology is a growing discipline in archaeological science. It aims at the natural environment as context of past human societies and at the interaction between both, the environment and man as part of a joint ecosystem. This topic is also of considerable concern of present societies. Like other historic sciences, geoarchaeology requires accurate chronologies. Since one deals in geoarchaeology predominantly with sediments and rocks, luminescence methods play a key role. This is demonstrated in two case studies from Phlious in southern Greece and Nasca in southern Peru. The results show clearly climatically triggered social developments and feedbacks to the environment.

  7. Energy, technology and climatic policy: the world perspectives at the 2030 prospect. Key messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper comments the different points of the reference scenario described in the WETO study (World energy, technology and climate policy outlook). This scenario describes a world energy situation, assuming a continuation of the present day trends and structural changes. A comment is made for each of the following aspects of the scenario: world energy demand, share of fossil fuels in the world energy supplies, world CO 2 emissions, petroleum reserves, world petroleum, gas and coal productions, petroleum and gas prices trend, end-use energy demand, power production and natural gas share in power generation. Then, the document analyses the impact of changes linked with hydrocarbon resources and technology developments: reduction of hydrocarbon resources, increase of gas resources, acceleration of technological developments in power generation. A third part analyzes the natural gas market of the European Union in a world perspective: market, reserves, demand, supply risks. Finally, the last part presents the impact of environmental policies in the case of a CO 2 tax and in the case of a carbon abatement scenario. (J.S.)

  8. Study on key technologies of optimization of big data for thermal power plant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mingyang; Xiao, Hong

    2018-06-01

    Thermal power generation accounts for 70% of China's power generation, the pollutants accounted for 40% of the same kind of emissions, thermal power efficiency optimization needs to monitor and understand the whole process of coal combustion and pollutant migration, power system performance data show explosive growth trend, The purpose is to study the integration of numerical simulation of big data technology, the development of thermal power plant efficiency data optimization platform and nitrogen oxide emission reduction system for the thermal power plant to improve efficiency, energy saving and emission reduction to provide reliable technical support. The method is big data technology represented by "multi-source heterogeneous data integration", "large data distributed storage" and "high-performance real-time and off-line computing", can greatly enhance the energy consumption capacity of thermal power plants and the level of intelligent decision-making, and then use the data mining algorithm to establish the boiler combustion mathematical model, mining power plant boiler efficiency data, combined with numerical simulation technology to find the boiler combustion and pollutant generation rules and combustion parameters of boiler combustion and pollutant generation Influence. The result is to optimize the boiler combustion parameters, which can achieve energy saving.

  9. Identifying and Synchronizing Health Information Technology (HIT) Events from FDA Medical Device Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Wang, Frank; Zhou, Sicheng; Miao, Qi; Gong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Health information technology (HIT) events, a subtype of patient safety events, pose a major threat and barrier toward a safer healthcare system. It is crucial to gain a better understanding of the nature of the errors and adverse events caused by current HIT systems. The scarcity of HIT event-exclusive databases and event reporting systems indicates the challenge of identifying the HIT events from existing resources. FDA Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database is a potential resource for HIT events. However, the low proportion and the rapid evolvement of HIT-related events present challenges for distinguishing them from other equipment failures and hazards. We proposed a strategy to identify and synchronize HIT events from MAUDE by using a filter based on structured features and classifiers based on unstructured features. The strategy will help us develop and grow an HIT event-exclusive database, keeping pace with updates to MAUDE toward shared learning.

  10. The Challenge of Ensuring Persistency of Identifier Systems in the World of Ever-Changing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Car

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of information objects has always been important with library collections with indexes having been created in the most ancient times. Since the digital age, many specialised and generic persistent identifier (PID systems have been used to identify digital objects. Just as many ancient indexes have died over time, so too PID systems have had a lifecycle from inception to active phase to paralysis, and eventually a fall into oblivion. Where the indexes within the Great Library at Alexandria finally succumbed to fire, technology change has been the destroyer of more recent digital indexes. We distil four PID system design principles from observations over the years that we think should be implemented by PID system architects to ensure that their systems survive change. The principles: describe how to ensure identifiers’ system and organisation independence; codify the delivery of essential PID system functions; mandate a separation of PID functions from data delivery mechanisms; and require generation of policies detailing how change is handled. In addition to suggesting specific items for each principle, we propose that a platform-independent model (PIM be established for persistent identifiers – of any sort and with any resolver technology – in order to enable transition between present and future systems and the preservation of the identifiers’ functioning. We detail our PID system—the PID Service—that implements the proposed principles and a data model to some extent and we describe an implementation case study of an organisation’s implementation of PID systems that implement the Pillars further but still not completely. Penultimately, we describe in a Future Work section, an opportunity for the use of both the Pillars and the PIM; that of the World Wide Web Consortium’s Permanent Identifier Community Group who is seeking to “set up and maintain a secure permanent, URL re-direction service for the web”.

  11. Development of regulatory technologies of key issues of radiation sources in the medical and industrial fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Kim, Byung Soo; Ku, Bon Chul

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this research is to provide with rational bases to address the key issues raising up during the expansion of RI/RG usage in the medical and industrial fields, thus eventually contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of national regulatory systems. Related key issues that are introduced in the medical and industrial fields are analyzed and some outcomes are produced. The following results are attained. - Estimation Methodology Development of Regulatory Effects for the Use of Radioactive Substances, - Survey on Domestic Status of Nuclear Materials and Review on Domestic/Foreign Regulatory System for Nuclear Materials Regulation, - Comparative Analysis of KSTAR and Fusion Facilities of Advanced Countries, - Radiological Characteristics of Proton Therapy and Analysis of Foreign Cases and Systems, - Detection and Safety Analysis of Leak Radiation of High Energy Medical Generators, - Survey and Analysis on Usage and Requirements of Sealed Sources, - Incidents/Accidents Reporting System for RI-related Facilities, - Development of Audio-Visual Education Materials for Radiation Workers, - Development of Major Safety Procedures for Portable RIs, - Expansion of Existing DB for Radiation Devices including New Domestic Ones, - Survey of Foreign Status of Quality Maintenance System for Radiation equipment

  12. Ab initio Thermodynamic Approach to Identify Mixed Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua eDuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Because the current technologies for capturing CO2 are still too energy intensive, new materials must be developed that can capture CO2 reversibly with acceptable energy costs. At a given CO2 pressure, the turnover temperature (Tt of the reaction of an individual solid that can capture CO2 is fixed. Such Tt may be outside the operating temperature range (ΔTo for a practical capture technology. To adjust Tt to fit the practical ΔTo, in this study, three scenarios of mixing schemes are explored by combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations. Our calculated results demonstrate that by mixing different types of solids, it’s possible to shift Tt to the range of practical operating temperature conditions. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO2 capture reactions by the mixed solids of interest, we were able to identify the mixing ratios of two or more solids to form new sorbent materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions.

  13. Key technologies and risk management of deep tunnel construction at Jinping II hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The four diversion tunnels at Jinping II hydropower station represent the deepest underground project yet conducted in China, with an overburden depth of 1500–2000 m and a maximum depth of 2525 m. The tunnel structure was subjected to a maximum external water pressure of 10.22 MPa and the maximum single-point groundwater inflow of 7.3 m3/s. The success of the project construction was related to numerous challenging issues such as the stability of the rock mass surrounding the deep tunnels, strong rockburst prevention and control, and the treatment of high-pressure, large-volume groundwater infiltration. During the construction period, a series of new technologies was developed for the purpose of risk control in the deep tunnel project. Nondestructive sampling and in-situ measurement technologies were employed to fully characterize the formation and development of excavation damaged zones (EDZs, and to evaluate the mechanical behaviors of deep rocks. The time effect of marble fracture propagation, the brittle–ductile–plastic transition of marble, and the temporal development of rock mass fracture and damage induced by high geostress were characterized. The safe construction of deep tunnels was achieved under a high risk of strong rockburst using active measures, a support system comprised of lining, grouting, and external water pressure reduction techniques that addressed the coupled effect of high geostress, high external water pressure, and a comprehensive early-warning system. A complete set of technologies for the treatment of high-pressure and large-volume groundwater infiltration was developed. Monitoring results indicated that the Jinping II hydropower station has been generally stable since it was put into operation in 2014.

  14. Research on key technologies of data processing in internet of things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yangqing; Liang, Peiying

    2017-08-01

    The data of Internet of things (IOT) has the characteristics of polymorphism, heterogeneous, large amount and processing real-time. The traditional structured and static batch processing method has not met the requirements of data processing of IOT. This paper studied a middleware that can integrate heterogeneous data of IOT, and integrated different data formats into a unified format. Designed a data processing model of IOT based on the Storm flow calculation architecture, integrated the existing Internet security technology to build the Internet security system of IOT data processing, which provided reference for the efficient transmission and processing of IOT data.

  15. Overcoming the fear of radiation: the key to the golden age of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Canadian nuclear technology is threatened by radiophobia. It stems from the misuse of the linear dose-response model to label radiation as a carcinogen and to predict the number of excess fatal cancers to be expected from exposures to low-level radiation. Ironically, the actual response seems to be a beneficial effect due to the stimulation of the defense mechanisms that deal with both spontaneous and externally-induced cell damage. The scientific community should act to discourage improper use of the linear model and to inform Canadians of the safety of low-level radiation, to safeguard our nuclear heritage. (author)

  16. Gaining momentum : advanced multilateral technology touted as key to unlocking Manville CBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.

    2006-01-01

    A new technology developed by a Louisiana-based company called Gardes Energy Services Inc. may be used to develop Canada's Manville coalbed methane (CBM) play. Two Canadian companies have recently agreed to test the patented technology in the Manville play, which has a permeability of only 3 to 4 millidarcies in shallower Manville targets and less than 1 millidarcy in deeper targets. The technology entails the drilling of multiple, radial wells with lateral branches. The 2-string dual injection drilling technique allows non-damaging underbalanced drilling of multiple lateral branches in each seam when combined with the patented Upstock process. The Upstock is then lowered to the lowest seam on a carrier string to redirect the drilling assembly into the first coal seam. Drilling fluid is pumped down the drillstring, activating the drilling assembly's mud motor and guidance system. Injection rates are adjusted according to downhole measurement-while drilling pressure sensors to maintain underbalanced drilling. Continuous circulation through the concentric casing system eliminates the potentially damaging surging that occurs in conventional drilling. By reorienting the bent housing on the drilling motor, branch laterals are added in each coal seam. Once completed, the drilling assembly is pulled, the Upstock is lifted on the carrier string to the next seam of interest, and the process is repeated. The dual annulus process lowers the equivalent circulating density below that of the formation pressure, preventing drilling fluid from invading and damaging the formation. Formation water is typically used as the drilling fluid. Once drilling is completed, an electric submersible pump (ESP) is lowered on tubing to the sump area and water is pumped to surface, allowing the methane to desorb and be produced through perforations into and up the inner annulus. The technique reduces the environmental impact of drilling, as 1 area can be used to drain an area the equivalent of 16

  17. 3D printing – a key technology for tailored biomedical cell culture lab ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmieder Florian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Today’s 3D printing technologies offer great possibilities for biomedical researchers to create their own specific laboratory equipment. With respect to the generation of ex vivo vascular perfusion systems this will enable new types of products that will embed complex 3D structures possibly coupled with cell loaded scaffolds closely reflecting the in-vivo environment. Moreover this could lead to microfluidic devices that should be available in small numbers of pieces at moderate prices. Here, we will present first results of such 3D printed cell culture systems made from plastics and show their use for scaffold based applications.

  18. Quality of Goals - a key to the human-oriented technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Begier

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A kind of an essay on some social and ethical impact of new technologies has been given in the first five sections. The next two sections bring a study on quality referred to the software process. Then some ethical issues are presented in the context of IT development and computer applications. The need for a quality of goals has been emphasized. Human objectives should gain the top position, especially in a coming post-computer era. Some conceptual research in the topic of quality of goals has been suggested to safe humanistic values.

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuromodulation: DTI as key technology for deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Volker Arnd; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Allert, Niels; Mädler, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is more than just a useful adjunct to invasive techniques like optogenetics which recently have tremendously influenced our understanding of the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation (DBS). In combination with other technologies, DTI helps us to understand which parts of the brain tissue are connected to others and which ones are truly influenced with neuromodulation. The complex interaction of DBS with the surrounding tissues-scrutinized with DTI-allows to create testable hypotheses that can explain network interactions. Those interactions are vital for our understanding of the net effects of neuromodulation. This work naturally was first done in the field of movement disorder surgery, where a lot of experience regarding therapeutic effects and only a short latency between initiation of neuromodulation and alleviation of symptoms exist. This chapter shows the journey over the past 10 years with first applications in DBS toward current research in affect regulating network balances and their therapeutic alterations with the neuromodulation technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF THE KEY TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE QUALITY CONTROL AND INSPECTION OF NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS SURVEY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The First National Geographical Condition Survey is a predecessor task to dynamically master basic situations of the nature, ecology and human activities on the earth’s surface and it is the brand-new mapping geographic information engineering. In order to ensure comprehensive, real and accurate survey results and achieve the quality management target which the qualified rate is 100 % and the yield is more than 80 %, it is necessary to carry out the quality control and result inspection for national geographical conditions survey on a national scale. To ensure that achievement quality meets quality target requirements, this paper develops the key technology method of “five-in-one” quality control that is constituted by “quality control system of national geographical condition survey, quality inspection technology system, quality evaluation system, quality inspection information management system and national linked quality control institutions” by aiming at large scale, wide coverage range, more undertaking units, more management levels, technical updating, more production process and obvious regional differences in the national geographical condition survey and combining with novel achievement manifestation, complicated dependency, more special reference data, and large data size. This project fully considering the domestic and foreign related research results and production practice experience, combined with the technology development and the needs of the production, it stipulates the inspection methods and technical requirements of each stage in the quality inspection of the geographical condition survey results, and extends the traditional inspection and acceptance technology, and solves the key technologies that are badly needed in the first national geographic survey.

  1. Chamber science and technology key question No.1: liquid walls in MFE and IFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Morley, N.

    1999-01-01

    For some time now people have thought of liquid walls as an attractive solution to the technology problems of high power density plasma configurations for MFE, and as (nearly) essential for the pulsed wall-loading conditions in IFE. A flowing, renewable surface could be eroded, evaporated and even be broken apart with no permanent adverse effects on a structure requiring frequent maintenance and replacement. Alpha particle energy could be removed without conduction through a solid wall and the associated thermal stress and creep failure modes, and the energy could be extracted at high temperatures for efficient energy conversion. If a liquid wall of sufficient depth could be formed, radiation damage and waste disposal issues for solid structures could be significantly ameliorated. All these benefits are indeed possible, if only liquid walls could be made to work. As we will see, there are many issues associated with the successful and attractive implementation of liquid walls

  2. Electronic game: A key effective technology to promote behavioral change in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Safdari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer diagnosis is a very unpleasant and unbelievable experience. Appropriate management and treatment of these diseases require a high degree of patient engagement. Interactive health electronic games are engaging, fun, challenging, and experiential and have the potential to change the attitude and behavior, which can improve the player's health. The use of these digital tools, as one of the most attractive and entertaining modern technologies, canem power patients, provide suitable palliative care, promote health behavior change strategies, increase patient engagement, enhance healthy lifestyle habits, improve self.management, and finally improve the quality of life of the patients. Finally, the aim of this article was to describe electronic games and their effects on the promotion of behavior change in cancer patients. In addition, this article describes categories, characteristic features, and benefits of this digital media in the lifestyle modification of cancer patients.

  3. Technology and economic impacts of mega-sports events: A key issue? Exploratory insights from literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanaron Jean Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mega-sport events such as Olympic Games or Football World Cup are always presented as providing the hosting nation and/or city with huge benefits. Supporters of such events quote economic, social and cultural impacts for the region as well as contributions to scientific and technological progress and innovation. obviously, they need to politically justify the impressive and growing financial investment required by organizing Olympic Games or World Cup. The article aims at looking at a quite abundant academic literature with the objectives of defining the various potential impacts and the methods used for their assessment. It concludes that there is no universal and scientifically valid model for evaluating the benefits of mega-sport events and that organizers should be very cautious when arguing in favor of deciding to host such events.

  4. Research on data collection key technology of smart electric energy meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Mouhailiu; Renheng, Xu

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, smart electric energy meters are demand at 70 million to 90 million with the strong smart grid construction every year in China. However, there are some issues in smart electric energy meters data collection such as the interference of environment, low collection efficiency and inability to work when the power is off. In order to solve these issues above, it uses the RFID communication technology to collect the numbers and electric energy information of smart electric energy meters on the basis of the existing smart electric energy meters, and the related data collection communication experiments were made. The experimental result shows that the electric information and other data batch collection of RFID smart electric energy meters are realized in power and power off. It improves the efficiency and the overall success rate is 99.2% within 2 meters. It provides a new method for smart electric energy meters data collection.

  5. Research on key technology of yacht positioning based on binocular parallax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zengzhi

    2016-10-01

    Yacht has become a fashionable way for entertainment. However, to obtain the precise location of a yacht docked at a port has become one of the concerns of a yacht manager. To deal with this issue, we adopt a positioning method based on the principle of binocular parallax and background difference in this paper. Binocular parallax uses cameras to get multi-dimensional perspective of the yacht based on geometric principle of imaging. In order to simplify the yacht localization problem, we install LED light indicator as the key point on a yacht. And let it flash at a certain frequency during day time and night time. After getting the distance between the LED and the cameras, locating the yacht is easy. Compared with other traditional positioning methods, this method is simpler and easier to implement. In this paper, we study the yacht positioning method using the LED indicator. Simulation experiment is done for a yacht model in the distance of 3 meters. The experimental result shows that our method is feasible and easy to implement with a small 15% positioning error.

  6. Challenges in Optimizing a Prostate Carcinoma Binding Peptide, Identified through the Phage Display Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Debus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of peptides identified through the phage display technology to clinical applications is difficult. Major drawbacks are the metabolic degradation and label instability. The aim of our work is the optimization of DUP-1, a peptide which was identified by phage display to specifically target human prostate carcinoma. To investigate the influence of chelate conjugation, DOTA was coupled to DUP-1 and labeling was performed with 111In. To improve serum stability cyclization of DUP-1 and targeted D-amino acid substitution were carried out. Alanine scanning was performed for identification of the binding site and based on the results peptide fragments were chemically synthesized. The properties of modified ligands were investigated in in vitro binding and competition assays. In vivo biodistribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying human prostate tumors subcutaneously. DOTA conjugation resulted in different cellular binding kinetics, rapid in vivo renal clearance and increased tumor-to-organ ratios. Cyclization and D-amino acid substitution increased the metabolic stability but led to binding affinity decrease. Fragment investigation indicated that the sequence NRAQDY might be significant for target-binding. Our results demonstrate challenges in optimizing peptides, identified through phage display libraries, and show that careful investigation of modified derivatives is necessary in order to improve their characteristics.

  7. The building blocks of a 'Liveable Neighbourhood': Identifying the key performance indicators for walking of an operational planning policy in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-11-01

    Planning policy makers are requesting clearer guidance on the key design features required to build neighbourhoods that promote active living. Using a backwards stepwise elimination procedure (logistic regression with generalised estimating equations adjusting for demographic characteristics, self-selection factors, stage of construction and scale of development) this study identified specific design features (n=16) from an operational planning policy ("Liveable Neighbourhoods") that showed the strongest associations with walking behaviours (measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire). The interacting effects of design features on walking behaviours were also investigated. The urban design features identified were grouped into the "building blocks of a Liveable Neighbourhood", reflecting the scale, importance and sequencing of the design and implementation phases required to create walkable, pedestrian friendly developments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Key Technologies for White Lighting Based on Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner Goetz; Bill Imler; James Kim; Junko Kobayashi; Andrew Kim; Mike Krames; Rick Mann; Gerd Mueller-Mach; Anneli Munkholm; Jonathan Wierer

    2004-03-31

    This program was organized to focus on materials development issues critical to the acceleration of solid-state lighting, and was split into three major thrust areas: (1) study of dislocation density reduction for GaN grown on sapphire using 'cantilever epitaxy', and the impact of dislocation density on the performance of state-of-the-art high-power LEDs; (2) the evaluation of in situ techniques for monitoring gas phase chemistry and the properties of GaN-based layers during metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD), and (3) feasibility for using semiconductor nanoparticles ('quantum dots') for the down-conversion of blue or ultraviolet light to generate white light. The program included a partnership between Lumileds Lighting (epitaxy and device fabrication for high power LEDs) and Sandia National Laboratories (cantilever epitaxy, gas phase chemistry, and quantum dot synthesis). Key findings included: (1) cantilever epitaxy can provide dislocation density reduction comparable to that of more complicated approaches, but all in one epitaxial growth step; however, further improvements are required to realize significant gains in LED performance at high drive currents, (2) in situ tools can provide detailed knowledge about gas phase chemistry, and can be used to monitor and control epitaxial layer composition and temperature to provide improved yields (e.g., a fivefold increase in color targeting is demonstrated for 540nm LEDs), and (3) quantum efficiency for quantum dots is improved and maintained up to 70% in epoxy thin films, but further work is necessary to increase densification (absorption) and robustness before practical application to LEDs.

  9. Noninvasive imaging technologies reveal edema toxin as a key virulence factor in anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumetz, Fabien; Jouvion, Grégory; Khun, Huot; Glomski, Ian Justin; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Rougeaux, Clémence; Tang, Wei-Jen; Mock, Michèle; Huerre, Michel; Goossens, Pierre Louis

    2011-06-01

    Powerful noninvasive imaging technologies enable real-time tracking of pathogen-host interactions in vivo, giving access to previously elusive events. We visualized the interactions between wild-type Bacillus anthracis and its host during a spore infection through bioluminescence imaging coupled with histology. We show that edema toxin plays a central role in virulence in guinea pigs and during inhalational infection in mice. Edema toxin (ET), but not lethal toxin (LT), markedly modified the patterns of bacterial dissemination leading, to apparent direct dissemination to the spleen and provoking apoptosis of lymphoid cells. Each toxin alone provoked particular histological lesions in the spleen. When ET and LT are produced together during infection, a specific temporal pattern of lesion developed, with early lesions typical of LT, followed at a later stage by lesions typical of ET. Our study provides new insights into the complex spatial and temporal effects of B. anthracis toxins in the infected host, suggesting a greater role than previously suspected for ET in anthrax and suggesting that therapeutic targeting of ET contributes to protection. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Key technology research of HILS based on real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fankai; Lu, Huiming; Liu, Che

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problems that the long development cycle of traditional simulation and digital simulation doesn't have the characteristics of real time, this paper designed a HILS(Hardware In the Loop Simulation) system based on the real-time operating platform xPC. This system solved the communication problems between HMI and Simulink models through the MATLAB engine interface, and realized the functions of system setting, offline simulation, model compiling and downloading, etc. Using xPC application interface and integrating the TeeChart ActiveX chart component to realize the monitoring function of real-time target application; Each functional block in the system is encapsulated in the form of DLL, and the data interaction between modules was realized by MySQL database technology. When the HILS system runs, search the address of the online xPC target by means of the Ping command, to establish the Tcp/IP communication between the two machines. The technical effectiveness of the developed system is verified through the typical power station control system.

  11. High-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission - a key technology for our power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, J.

    2016-01-01

    The phasing-out of nuclear power in some countries and the aspirations of reducing carbon dioxide emissions have far-reaching implications for electric power generation in Europe. In the future, renewable electricity generation will account for a considerable share of the energy mix, but this type of production is often far from the load centers. In Germany, for example, large quantities of wind energy are already generated in the north and in the North Sea, but large load centers are located several hundred kilometers south of there. This requires an expansion of the transmission network with innovative solutions. High-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission plays an important role, since it brings a number of advantages over conventional AC technology and makes certain requirements feasible, for example Cable transmission over longer distances. The lecture presents the advantages of HVDC, the semiconductors used as well as the basic functions and typical performance of the used converter topopologies. The plant configurations and main components are illustrated using current projects. (rössner) [de

  12. How Mockups, a Key Engineering Tool, Help to Promote Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    The United States ranking among the world in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is decreasing. To counteract this problem NASA has made it part of its mission to promote STEM education among the nation s youth. Mockups can serve as a great tool when promoting STEM education in America. The Orion Cockpit Working Group has created a new program called Students Shaping America s Next Space Craft (SSANS) to outfit the Medium Fidelity Orion Mockup. SSANS will challenge the students to come up with unique designs to represent the flight design hardware. There are two main types of project packages created by SSANS, those for high school students and those for university students. The high school projects will challenge wood shop, metal shop and pre-engineering classes. The university projects are created mainly for senior design projects and will require the students to perform finite element analysis. These projects will also challenge the undergraduate students in material selection and safety requirements. The SSANS program will help NASA in its mission to promote STEM education, and will help to shape our nations youth into the next generation of STEM leaders.

  13. R and D status of key technologies for the development of KO TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Yu, In-Keun; Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Sang-Jin; Yoon, Han-Ki; Kim, Tae-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    R and D activities currently being undertaken for Korean Helium Cooled Solid Breeder (HCSB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) include joining technologies of structural materials, breeder pebble material development, and measurement of pebble bed characteristics. The joining performance of ferritic-martensitic steel is evaluated. TIG welding for ferritic-martensitic steel is evaluated to find welding conditions with two different current modes. The fabrication methods of lithium silicate powder and lithium titanate pebble are under development using special process. The Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles showing an average diameter of 1.8 mm was fabricated by water-based sol-gel method. The Li 4 SiO 4 powder with the particle size of about 200 nm was synthesized by PVA polymer solution method. The method of silicon carbide coating on the graphite pebble is investigated, and its possibility is verified based on the coating results on the graphite plate. Sputtered SiC coating layer was crystallized by high temperature heat treatment. The measurement method and database of the thermal properties of the pebble and pebble bed are important for the design of TBM as well as breeding blanket. The initial characteristics of the pebbles are assessed measuring the effective thermal diffusivity of graphite pebble by laser flash method.

  14. Fiscal 1995 report. Liquefaction key technology subcommittee; 1995 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The subcommittee held the 1st meeting in September 1955 and the 2nd in March 1996, when fiscal 1995 research plans and research results were introduced and deliberated. In the study for designing a high-dispersion catalyst and the elucidation of the mechanism of activity expression, catalysts of highly dispersed iron supported on the brown coal surface in various ways were compared with each other in terms of liquefaction activity. Furthermore, geometric changes in the iron catalyst during the sulfurizing process were examined using the XRD (X-ray diffraction) and TEM (transient electromagnetic) methods. An improved catalyst was found to achieve a liquefaction yield near the Yallourn coal liquefaction limit in a high boiling solvent system. Concerning the study of coal oil product applications and refining technologies, reports were delivered on research results relating to the problem of blocking to occur during naphtha fraction refining and measures therefor, inhibition of active metal geometric changes during reaction, methods for separating hetero-compounds from coal oil and application thereof, and so forth. (NEDO)

  15. Identifying concepts for studying implementation of information technology in facilities management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Poul; Bonke, Sten

    2014-01-01

    . Background: Experiences from the FM sector indicate that IT systems meant to support FM operations and workflows often do not generate the expected added value neither to the FM department itself nor to the basic organization supported by the FM department. Approach (Theory/Methodology): Based on findings......Purpose: To contribute to identifying a conceptual framework for describing and understanding the processes involved when implementing and using Information Technology (IT) in Facilities Management (FM). This paper discusses how basic concepts from different theories can be applied in parallel when...... from exciting research on IT implementation a range of more generic theoretical concepts applicable to the typical setting or situation of IT implementation in FM has been found. These theoretical concepts all clarify and describe different aspects of the implementation process and they may all...

  16. RAISING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES COMPETENCE OF SCIENTIFIC AND PEDAGOGICAL EMPLOYEES - A KEY REQUIREMENT OF THE QUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia V. Morze

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article it was analyzed one of the basic conditions of providing the quality of higher education according to the system of internal quality assurance standards ESG (European quality assurance standards and guidelines to increase the ICT competence of scientific-pedagogical staff of the University. It was described the modular system of training for scientific and pedagogical staff of the Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Special attention is paid to the description of the system of raising the level of formation the ICT competence as one of the key competences of the modern teacher. The system of professional development, which is based on creating mixed studying and technology of "flipped classroom", formative assessment, innovative educational and ICT technologies according to the specially designed informative module "Informational and communication technologies", which allows scientific-pedagogical staff to use modern ICT and educational technologies effectively for their further applying in the provision of educational services and the development of quality of open educational content and open educational e-environment available to the student at any convenient time, which will significantly improve the quality of the educational process.

  17. Genome-wide expression profiling analysis to identify key genes in the anti-HIV mechanism of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lijie; Wang, Yunqi; Li, Yi; Dong, Ya; Yang, Aimin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Fengying; Zhang, Rongqiang

    2018-07-01

    Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were performed to explore the key biomarkers in response to HIV infection of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. The numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells of HIV infected individuals were analyzed and the GEO database (GSE6740) was screened for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Gene Ontology enrichment, KEGG pathway analyses, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to identify the key pathway and core proteins in anti-HIV virus process of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Finally, we analyzed the expressions of key proteins in HIV-infected T cells (GSE6740 dataset) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs) (GSE511 dataset). 1) CD4 + T cells counts and ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + T cells decreased while CD8 + T cells counts increased in HIV positive individuals; 2) 517 DEGs were found in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at acute and chronic stage with the criterial of P-value T cells. The main biological processes of the DEGs were response to virus and defense response to virus. At chronic stage, ISG15 protein, in conjunction with IFN-1 pathway might play key roles in anti-HIV responses of CD4 + T cells; and 4) The expression of ISG15 increased in both T cells and PBMCs after HIV infection. Gene expression profile of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells changed significantly in HIV infection, in which ISG15 gene may play a central role in activating the natural antiviral process of immune cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of Basic Key Technologies for Gen IV SFR Safety Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Yong; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Tae Woon; Park, Soo Yong; Suk, Soo Dong; Lee, Kwi Lim; Lee, Yong Bum; Chang, Won Pyo; Ha, Kwi Seok; Hahn, Sang Hoon

    2010-07-01

    Safety issues and design requirements on control rod worth were identified through the evaluation of safety design characteristics and the preliminary safety evaluation. This results will be taken into account for the conceptual design studies of the demonstration reactor in the next stage. The Level-1 Pasa has been performed and a quantitative Cdf value was produced for the selected design from the several candidates. The inherent safety characteristics of the selected design were evaluated through the DBE and ATWS analyses. A surrogate material for Tru has been selected which is applicable to the study of liquidus/solidus temperature test for the metallic fuel containing Tru. A methodology for the regression analysis with surrogate material has been developed and valuable data on metal fuel liquidus/solidus temperature have been measured. A simple mechanistic model describing a bending of subassemblies has been formulated based on the foreign test data and existing models. Its applicability has been evaluated for the Phenix design. New criteria of the core damage for the SFR PSA were identified. The list of initiating events, system response event tree, and core response event tree, which constitute a PSA methodology for an SFR, have been introduced. By developing the SFR PIRT, phenomenological model features, which have to be satisfied in a safety code, were defined and the PIRT results were applied to the design of the PDRC test facility. Bases for a safety evaluation methodology for the SFR DBEs have been also prepared. A draft version of the topical report on the code for local fault analysis has been completed. Since 2007, the MARS-LMR code has been developed and assessments for model validation with the test data from EBR-II and Phenix reactor have been continued. The code has been applied to the evaluation of passive safety of a conceptual design of Gen IV SFR

  19. Introductory speech of 2003 annual meeting on nuclear technology 'Acceptance - key to success'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maichel, G.

    2003-01-01

    Acceptance and support are two basic preconditions for a successful implementation of projects. As a necessary prerequisite, the decisions to be taken must be based on established facts which are both transparent and understandable. Especially in technical projects, confidence in technology and in all parties involved is imperative. Nuclear power has lost acceptance when a small group of opponents, deliberately focusing on the improbable, but existing, risk gained support for this attitude in the public, and political circles began to share the same opinion. This makes it indispensable to regain broad-based acceptance by combining the dissemination of facts with instilling confidence. This includes the positive contribution of safe plant operation with a maximum of safety as the top priority, as an acknowledged and practiced approach. It also includes the dissemination of facts and the promotion of confidence on the part of all those engaged in nuclear power. Also energy policy in Germany should make decisions in a transparent, understandable fashion on the basis of proven facts. Opting out of the use of nuclear power, as well as the massive support granted to the expansion of renewable energies, are no adequate response to the challenges we are facing in energy policy. Irrespective of fundamental political opinions, nuclear competence in Germany must be preserved and supported. Moreover, the problems ahead, especially with respect to the management of nuclear waste, need to be addressed. International trends indicate a realistic assessment of nuclear power and interpretation of facts. Nuclear power is seen as an option for the future and either included as such in planning, or else is preserved as a building block in energy supply. (orig.) [de

  20. What are the key contextual factors when preparing for successful implementation of assistive living technology in primary elderly care? A case study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjestsen, Martha Therese; Wiig, Siri; Testad, Ingelin

    2017-09-07

    To identify contextual factors at different organisational levels to guide the implementation of an assistive living technology intervention in Norwegian primary home care. A single embedded case study design was carried out in an urban municipality in Western Norway to get an overview of key contextual factors from the municipality's perspective. The data collection was based on a triangulation of methods involving document analysis, semi-structured individual interviews and focus group interviews to get a broad insight when preparing for an intervention. Data were collected on three levels of the healthcare system: (1) national policy documents and regulations (macro), (2) five individual interviews with senior managers and municipal strategy documents (meso) and (3) two focus group interviews with nurses and nurse managers in direct patient care (micro). The Model for Understanding Success in Quality framework was used as a guide in the data analysis. The main contextual factors identified were external motivators and project sponsorship (macro level); leadership, workforce focus and maturity (meso level);and motivation to change and maturity (micro level). Strategies developed in policy documents affected upper management in the municipality, but healthcare personnel at the micro level were not so familiar with strategies and emphasis on assistive living technologies. Healthcare personnel in our study were motivated to use technological solutions, but lack of data infrastructure and resource availability hindered this. Aligning interests across multiple stakeholders remain a challenge when planning for an assistive living technology intervention in primary care. In the studied municipality, integration of technological solutions into healthcare services was more a vision than a reality because of a low level of organisational readiness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  1. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  2. How Much and What Kind? Identifying an Adequate Technology Infrastructure for Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    To realize the potential benefits of technology use in early childhood education (ECE), and to ensure that technology can help to address the digital divide, providers, families of young children, and young children themselves must have access to an adequate technology infrastructure. The goals for technology use in ECE that a technology…

  3. Glaucomatous patterns in Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) perimetry data identified by unsupervised machine learning classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Lee, Intae; Jang, Giljin; Yousefi, Siamak; Zangwill, Linda M; Medeiros, Felipe A; Girkin, Christopher A; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Goldbaum, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    The variational Bayesian independent component analysis-mixture model (VIM), an unsupervised machine-learning classifier, was used to automatically separate Matrix Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) perimetry data into clusters of healthy and glaucomatous eyes, and to identify axes representing statistically independent patterns of defect in the glaucoma clusters. FDT measurements were obtained from 1,190 eyes with normal FDT results and 786 eyes with abnormal FDT results from the UCSD-based Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study (DIGS) and African Descent and Glaucoma Evaluation Study (ADAGES). For all eyes, VIM input was 52 threshold test points from the 24-2 test pattern, plus age. FDT mean deviation was -1.00 dB (S.D. = 2.80 dB) and -5.57 dB (S.D. = 5.09 dB) in FDT-normal eyes and FDT-abnormal eyes, respectively (p<0.001). VIM identified meaningful clusters of FDT data and positioned a set of statistically independent axes through the mean of each cluster. The optimal VIM model separated the FDT fields into 3 clusters. Cluster N contained primarily normal fields (1109/1190, specificity 93.1%) and clusters G1 and G2 combined, contained primarily abnormal fields (651/786, sensitivity 82.8%). For clusters G1 and G2 the optimal number of axes were 2 and 5, respectively. Patterns automatically generated along axes within the glaucoma clusters were similar to those known to be indicative of glaucoma. Fields located farther from the normal mean on each glaucoma axis showed increasing field defect severity. VIM successfully separated FDT fields from healthy and glaucoma eyes without a priori information about class membership, and identified familiar glaucomatous patterns of loss.

  4. A Discussion of Oxygen Recovery Definitions and Key Performance Parameters for Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization Life Support Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 55 years, NASA has evolved life support for crewed space exploration vehicles from simple resupply during Project Mercury to the complex and highly integrated system of systems aboard the International Space Station. As NASA targets exploration destinations farther from low Earth orbit and mission durations of 500 to 1000 days, life support systems must evolve to meet new requirements. In addition to having more robust, reliable, and maintainable hardware, limiting resupply becomes critical for managing mission logistics and cost. Supplying a crew with the basics of food, water, and oxygen become more challenging as the destination ventures further from Earth. Aboard ISS the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) supplies the crew's oxygen demand by electrolyzing water. This approach makes water a primary logistics commodity that must be managed carefully. Chemical reduction of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a method of recycling oxygen thereby reducing the net ARS water demand and therefore minimizing logistics needs. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this recovery and have been reported in the literature. However, depending on the architecture and the technology approach, "oxygen recovery" can be defined in various ways. This discontinuity makes it difficult to compare technologies directly. In an effort to clarify community discussions of Oxygen Recovery, we propose specific definitions and describe the methodology used to arrive at those definitions. Additionally, we discuss key performance parameters for Oxygen Recovery technology development including challenges with comparisons to state-of-the-art.

  5. Use of a scenario-neutral approach to identify the key hydro-meteorological attributes that impact runoff from a natural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Danlu; Westra, Seth; Maier, Holger R.

    2017-11-01

    Scenario-neutral approaches are being used increasingly for assessing the potential impact of climate change on water resource systems, as these approaches allow the performance of these systems to be evaluated independently of climate change projections. However, practical implementations of these approaches are still scarce, with a key limitation being the difficulty of generating a range of plausible future time series of hydro-meteorological data. In this study we apply a recently developed inverse stochastic generation approach to support the scenario-neutral analysis, and thus identify the key hydro-meteorological variables to which the system is most sensitive. The stochastic generator simulates synthetic hydro-meteorological time series that represent plausible future changes in (1) the average, extremes and seasonal patterns of rainfall; and (2) the average values of temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH) and wind speed (uz) as variables that drive PET. These hydro-meteorological time series are then fed through a conceptual rainfall-runoff model to simulate the potential changes in runoff as a function of changes in the hydro-meteorological variables, and runoff sensitivity is assessed with both correlation and Sobol' sensitivity analyses. The method was applied to a case study catchment in South Australia, and the results showed that the most important hydro-meteorological attributes for runoff were winter rainfall followed by the annual average rainfall, while the PET-related meteorological variables had comparatively little impact. The high importance of winter rainfall can be related to the winter-dominated nature of both the rainfall and runoff regimes in this catchment. The approach illustrated in this study can greatly enhance our understanding of the key hydro-meteorological attributes and processes that are likely to drive catchment runoff under a changing climate, thus enabling the design of tailored climate impact assessments to specific

  6. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Virtual Reality and Its Potential Use in Special Education. Identifying Emerging Issues and Trends in Technology for Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, John

    As part of a 3-year study to identify emerging issues and trends in technology for special education, this paper addresses the possible contributions of virtual reality technology to educational services for students with disabilities. An example of the use of virtual reality in medical imaging introduces the paper and leads to a brief review of…

  8. [Identifying transcription factors involved in Arabidopsis adventious shoot regeneration by RNA-Seq technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchun; Chen, Zhao; Fan, Juan; He, Miaomiao; Han, Yuanhuai; Yang, Zhirong

    2015-04-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the major regulations in plant adventious shoot regeneration, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. In our study, the RNA-seq technology based on the IlluminaHiSeq 2000 sequencing platform was used to identify differentially expressed transcription factor (TF) encoding genes during callus formation stage and adventious shoot regeneration stage between wild type and adventious shoot formation defective mutant be1-3 and during the transition from dedifferentiation to redifferentiation stage in wildtype WS. Results show that 155 TFs were differentially expressed between be1-3 mutant and wild type during callus formation, of which 97 genes were up-regulated, and 58 genes were down-regulated; and that 68 genes were differentially expressed during redifferentiation stage, with 40 genes up-regulated and 28 genes down-regulated; whereas at the transition stage from dedifferentiation to redifferention in WS wild type explants, a total of 231 differentially expressed TF genes were identified, including 160 up-regualted genes and 71 down-regulated genes. Among these TF genes, the adventious shoot related transcription factor 1 (ART1) gene encoding a MYB-related (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog) TF, was up-regulated 3 217 folds, and was the highest up-regulated gene during be1-3 callus formation. Over expression of the ART1 gene caused defects in callus formation and shoot regeneration and inhibited seedling growth, indicating that the ART1 gene is a negative regulator of callus formation and shoot regeneration. This work not only enriches our knowledge about the transcriptional regulation mechanism of adventious shoot regeneration, but also provides valuable information on candidate TF genes associated with adventious shoot regeneration for future research.

  9. Mobile technology aids law enforcement in identifying forgeries in record management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2010-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, OUT OF THE CLASSROOM Download the paper: Arizona Law Enforcement Mobile Identification Technology for Law Enforcement” As the technology program manager with the Arizona Criminal Justice Commission, Bill Kalaf is using his time at...

  10. Getting on the Same Page: Identifying Goals for Technology Use in Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Technology use among young children is increasingly a fact of life, and establishing a clear set of goals that are broadly accepted by stakeholders is critical to planning for the successful integration of technology into early childhood education (ECE). However, debates about the role of technology in ECE settings are ongoing, with some…

  11. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  12. Identifying and tracking attacks on networks: C3I displays and related technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Gavin W.; Dawkins, J.; Shenoi, Sujeet; Hale, John C.

    2003-09-01

    Converged network security is extremely challenging for several reasons; expanded system and technology perimeters, unexpected feature interaction, and complex interfaces all conspire to provide hackers with greater opportunities for compromising large networks. Preventive security services and architectures are essential, but in and of themselves do not eliminate all threat of compromise. Attack management systems mitigate this residual risk by facilitating incident detection, analysis and response. There are a wealth of attack detection and response tools for IP networks, but a dearth of such tools for wireless and public telephone networks. Moreover, methodologies and formalisms have yet to be identified that can yield a common model for vulnerabilities and attacks in converged networks. A comprehensive attack management system must coordinate detection tools for converged networks, derive fully-integrated attack and network models, perform vulnerability and multi-stage attack analysis, support large-scale attack visualization, and orchestrate strategic responses to cyber attacks that cross network boundaries. We present an architecture that embodies these principles for attack management. The attack management system described engages a suite of detection tools for various networking domains, feeding real-time attack data to a comprehensive modeling, analysis and visualization subsystem. The resulting early warning system not only provides network administrators with a heads-up cockpit display of their entire network, it also supports guided response and predictive capabilities for multi-stage attacks in converged networks.

  13. Key Technologies and Applications of Satellite and Sensor Web-coupled Real-time Dynamic Web Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Nengcheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The geo-spatial information service has failed to reflect the live status of spot and meet the needs of integrated monitoring and real-time information for a long time. To tackle the problems in observation sharing and integrated management of space-borne, air-borne, and ground-based platforms and efficient service of spatio-temporal information, an observation sharing model was proposed. The key technologies in real-time dynamic geographical information system (GIS including maximum spatio-temporal coverage-based optimal layout of earth-observation sensor Web, task-driven and feedback-based control, real-time access of streaming observations, dynamic simulation, warning and decision support were detailed. An real-time dynamic Web geographical information system (WebGIS named GeoSensor and its applications in sensing and management of spatio-temporal information of Yangtze River basin including navigation, flood prevention, and power generation were also introduced.

  14. Integrated network analysis identifies fight-club nodes as a class of hubs encompassing key putative switch genes that induce major transcriptome reprogramming during grapevine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-12-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named "fight-club hubs" characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named "switch genes" was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical Manufacturing and Testing Requirements Identified by the NASA Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Barney, Rich; Bauman, Jill; Feinberg, Lee; Mcleese, Dan; Singh, Upendra

    2011-01-01

    In August 2010, the NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) commissioned an assessment of 15 different technology areas of importance to the future of NASA. Technology assessment #8 (TA8) was Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems (SIOSS). SIOSS assess the needs for optical technology ranging from detectors to lasers, x-ray mirrors to microwave antenna, in-situ spectrographs for on-surface planetary sample characterization to large space telescopes. The needs assessment looked across the entirety of NASA and not just the Science Mission Directorate. This paper reviews the optical manufacturing and testing technologies identified by SIOSS which require development in order to enable future NASA high priority missions.

  16. Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation: Department of Defense Public Key Infrastructure and Key Management Infrastructure Token Protection Profile (Medium Robustness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-22

    may be derived from detailed inspection of the IC itself or from illicit appropriation of design information. Counterfeit smart cards can be mass...Infrastructure (PKI) as the Internet to securely and privately exchange data and money through the use of a public and a private cryptographic key pair...interference devices (SQDIS), electrical testing, and electron beam testing. • Other attacks, such as UV or X-rays or high temperatures, could cause erasure

  17. Gene Network Construction from Microarray Data Identifies a Key Network Module and Several Candidate Hub Genes in Age-Associated Spatial Learning Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Raihan; Singh, Shiva M

    2017-01-01

    As humans age many suffer from a decrease in normal brain functions including spatial learning impairments. This study aimed to better understand the molecular mechanisms in age-associated spatial learning impairment (ASLI). We used a mathematical modeling approach implemented in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to create and compare gene network models of young (learning unimpaired) and aged (predominantly learning impaired) brains from a set of exploratory datasets in rats in the context of ASLI. The major goal was to overcome some of the limitations previously observed in the traditional meta- and pathway analysis using these data, and identify novel ASLI related genes and their networks based on co-expression relationship of genes. This analysis identified a set of network modules in the young, each of which is highly enriched with genes functioning in broad but distinct GO functional categories or biological pathways. Interestingly, the analysis pointed to a single module that was highly enriched with genes functioning in "learning and memory" related functions and pathways. Subsequent differential network analysis of this "learning and memory" module in the aged (predominantly learning impaired) rats compared to the young learning unimpaired rats allowed us to identify a set of novel ASLI candidate hub genes. Some of these genes show significant repeatability in networks generated from independent young and aged validation datasets. These hub genes are highly co-expressed with other genes in the network, which not only show differential expression but also differential co-expression and differential connectivity across age and learning impairment. The known function of these hub genes indicate that they play key roles in critical pathways, including kinase and phosphatase signaling, in functions related to various ion channels, and in maintaining neuronal integrity relating to synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Taken together, they

  18. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): An Experimental Demonstration of Key Technologies for Searching for Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms.

  19. Predictive Accuracy of Sweep Frequency Impedance Technology in Identifying Conductive Conditions in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, Venkatesh; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie; Murakoshi, Michio; Wada, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Diagnosing conductive conditions in newborns is challenging for both audiologists and otolaryngologists. Although high-frequency tympanometry (HFT), acoustic stapedial reflex tests, and wideband absorbance measures are useful diagnostic tools, there is performance measure variability in their detection of middle ear conditions. Additional diagnostic sensitivity and specificity measures gained through new technology such as sweep frequency impedance (SFI) measures may assist in the diagnosis of middle ear dysfunction in newborns. The purpose of this study was to determine the test performance of SFI to predict the status of the outer and middle ear in newborns against commonly used reference standards. Automated auditory brainstem response (AABR), HFT (1000 Hz), transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE), distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), and SFI tests were administered to the study sample. A total of 188 neonates (98 males and 90 females) with a mean gestational age of 39.4 weeks were included in the sample. Mean age at the time of testing was 44.4 hr. Diagnostic accuracy of SFI was assessed in terms of its ability to identify conductive conditions in neonates when compared with nine different reference standards (including four single tests [AABR, HFT, TEOAE, and DPOAE] and five test batteries [HFT + DPOAE, HFT + TEOAE, DPOAE + TEOAE, DPOAE + AABR, and TEOAE + AABR]), using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and traditional test performance measures such as sensitivity and specificity. The test performance of SFI against the test battery reference standard of HFT + DPOAE and single reference standard of HFT was high with an area under the ROC curve (AROC) of 0.87 and 0.82, respectively. Although the HFT + DPOAE test battery reference standard performed better than the HFT reference standard in predicting middle ear conductive conditions in neonates, the difference in AROC was not significant. Further analysis revealed that the

  20. Teaching with Technology: North Carolina Agriculture Teachers' Knowledge Acquisition, Attitudes, and Identified Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maegen R.; Warner, Wendy J.; Flowers, James L.; Croom, D. Barry

    2014-01-01

    In order for agricultural education teachers to adapt to an ever-changing educational environment, they must possess the skills necessary to integrate technology into their classrooms. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence North Carolina agriculture teachers' ability to integrate educational technology. This study…

  1. Identifying Teacher Belief Systems Regarding Classroom Technology Use--Planning for Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Across the United States, millions of taxpayer dollars are spent on the integration of technology into America's classrooms to increase student achievement and preparation for a 21st century global workforce. The problem is teachers are not using available technology to its fullest capacity. While several studies outlined in the literature review…

  2. Identify the Motivational Factors to Affect the Higher Education Students to Learn Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong; Ho, Wing Man

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, engineering students' motivation in using technology for learning in one of Hong Kong universities is investigated. Secondly, new research model about students' perception in using technology for learning is developed. Survey was employed and the questionnaires were distributed to targeted university…

  3. Maximizing Research and Development Resources: Identifying and Testing "Load-Bearing Conditions" for Educational Technology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriti, Jennifer; Bickel, William; Schunn, Christian; Stein, Mary Kay

    2016-01-01

    Education innovations often have a complicated set of assumptions about the contexts in which they are implemented, which may not be explicit. Education technology innovations in particular may have additional technical and cultural assumptions. As a result, education technology research and development efforts as well as scaling efforts can be…

  4. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnosing climate change impacts and identifying adaptation strategies by involving key stakeholder organisations and farmers in Sikkim, India: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhoni, Adani; Goyal, Manish Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Narrowing the gap between research, policy making and implementing adaptation remains a challenge in many parts of the world where climate change is likely to severely impact water security. This research aims to narrow this gap by matching the adaptation strategies being framed by policy makers to that of the perspectives of development agencies, researchers and farmers in the Himalayan state of Sikkim in India. Our case study examined the perspectives of various stakeholders for climate change impacts, current adaptation strategies, knowledge gaps and adaptation barriers, particularly in the context of implementing the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change through semi-structured interviews carried out with decision makers in the Sikkim State Government, researchers, consultants, local academia, development agencies and farmers. Using Stakeholders Network Analysis tools, this research unravels the complexities of perceiving climate change impacts, identifying strategies, and implementing adaptation. While farmers are less aware about the global phenomenon of climate change impacts for water security, their knowledge of the local conditions and their close interaction with the State Government Agriculture Department provides them opportunities. Although important steps are being initiated through the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change it is yet to deliver effective means of adaptation implementation and hence, strengthening the networks of close coordination between the various implementing agencies will pay dividends. Knowledge gaps and the need for capacity building identified in this research, based on the understandings of key stakeholders are highly relevant to both the research community and for informing policy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the EU Power and Industry Sectors. An assessment of key technologies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootzen, Johan

    2012-11-01

    In February 2011, the European Council reconfirmed the goal of reducing EU greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 % by 2050, as compared to the levels in 1990. The power and industrial sectors currently account for almost half of the total GHG emissions in the EU. The overall objective of the work presented in this thesis is to provide a technology-based perspective on the feasibility of significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in the EU power and industrial sectors, with the emphasis on expected turnover in the capital stock of the existing infrastructure. Three sectors of industry are included: petroleum refining; iron and steel production; and cement manufacturing. The analysis is based on a thorough description and characterization of the current industry infrastructure and of the key mitigation technologies and measures in each sector. The analysis comprises investigations of how specific factors, such as the age structure of the capital stock, technology and fuel mix, and spatial distribution of the plant stock, contribute to facilitating or hindering the shift towards less-emission-intensive production processes. The results presented here are the synthesis of the results described in the following three papers: Paper I investigates the potential for CCS in industrial applications in the EU by considering branch- and plant-specific conditions; Paper II assesses strategies for CO{sub 2} abatement in the European petroleum refining industry; and Paper III explores in a scenario analysis the limits for CO{sub 2} emission abatement within current production processes in the power and industrial sectors. Together, the three papers provide a comprehensive assessment of the roles of technologies and measures that are commercially available today, as well as those of emerging technologies that are still in their early phases of development. The results presented in Paper III show that the EU goal for emissions reductions in the sectors covered by the EU ETS, i

  7. Fast reactor cycle technology development. 'FaCT seminar - R and D for key technology of national importance'. Seminar report and collection of documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    An R and D program on the fast breeder reactor cycle commercialization, the FaCT Project, which was selected as one of the Key Technologies of National Importance, has been conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency for the purposes of resolving the issues of long-term sustainable energy supply and the global warming. The first Seminar of the FaCT Project was held at the Osaka Science and Technology Center on November 30, 2007, to present the progress and status of the Project and exchange opinions among the participants from various sectors. In the Seminar, MEXT, METI and JAEA reported the national nuclear policy, the current status and future plan of the FaCT Project. A special panel session was also held on the approach to international collaboration relevant to the project, and the importance was stressed on further promoting the international collaboration and keeping the framework of international partnership in this area, while distinguishing the relationship between 'cooperation' and 'competition'. Over 260 audiences from various sectors including government, universities, research organizations, utilities, nuclear industries participated. This report provides a seminar summary and the presented papers. (author)

  8. Identifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using reactive transport modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, Sergio A; Wainwright, Haruko; Spycher, Nicolas; Faybishenko, Boris; Hubbard, Susan S; Denham, Miles E

    2013-08-01

    Acidic low-level waste radioactive waste solutions were discharged to three unlined seepage basins at the F-Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, from 1955 through 1989. Despite many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic and contaminated with significant levels of U(VI) and other radionuclides. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is a desired closure strategy for the site, based on the premise that regional flow of clean background groundwater will eventually neutralize the groundwater acidity, immobilizing U(VI) through adsorption. An in situ treatment system is currently in place to accelerate this in the downgradient portion of the plume and similar measures could be taken upgradient if necessary. Understanding the long-term pH and U(VI) adsorption behavior at the site is critical to assess feasibility of MNA along with the in-situ remediation treatments. This paper presents a reactive transport (RT) model and uncertainty quantification (UQ) analyses to explore key controls on the U(VI)-plume evolution and long-term mobility at this site. Two-dimensional numerical RT simulations are run including the saturated and unsaturated (vadose) zones, U(VI) and H(+) adsorption (surface complexation) onto sediments, dissolution and precipitation of Al and Fe minerals, and key hydrodynamic processes are considered. UQ techniques are applied using a new open-source tool that is part of the developing ASCEM reactive transport modeling and analysis framework to: (1) identify the complex physical and geochemical processes that control the U(VI) plume migration in the pH range where the plume is highly mobile, (2) evaluate those physical and geochemical parameters that are most controlling, and (3) predict the future plume evolution constrained by historical, chemical and hydrological data. The RT simulation results show a good agreement with the observed historical pH and concentrations of U(VI), nitrates

  9. Narrative text analysis to identify technologies to prevent motor vehicle crashes: examples from military vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Yee, Nathan; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Rossen, Lauren; Bachynski, Kathleen E; Baker, Susan P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to describe the leading circumstances of military vehicle crashes to guide prioritization and implementation of crash avoidance and/or warning technologies. A descriptive study using narrative text analysis on 3,944 military vehicle crash narratives. Crash data on drivers, from 2001 to 2006, were assembled from the U.S. Army Combat Readiness/Safety Center. Reviewers collected information on the circumstances of crashes and determined if vehicle technology could have prevented the crash. Nearly 98% of the crashes were nonfatal; 63% occurred in the U.S. and 24% in Iraq. Among crash events where the direction of the impact was recorded, 32% were to the front of the vehicle and 16% involved a vehicle being rear-ended. Rollovers were mentioned in 20% of the narratives. Technology was determined to have the potential to prevent 26% of the crashes, with the forward collision warning system, rear end collision avoidance, emergency brake assistance, and rollover stability control system likely to have the greatest impacts. Some technologies available for civilian vehicles may prevent certain military crash circumstances. The results of this research are significant in light of ongoing global military operations that rely on military vehicles. Improving the preventive technology featured on military vehicles may be an effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of military crashes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How cannabis causes paranoia: using the intravenous administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to identify key cognitive mechanisms leading to paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Godlewska, Beata; Cornish, Robert; Williams, Jonathan; Di Simplicio, Martina; Igoumenou, Artemis; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Harrison, Paul J; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip; Morrison, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    Paranoia is receiving increasing attention in its own right, since it is a central experience of psychotic disorders and a marker of the health of a society. Paranoia is associated with use of the most commonly taken illicit drug, cannabis. The objective was to determine whether the principal psychoactive ingredient of cannabis-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-causes paranoia and to use the drug as a probe to identify key cognitive mechanisms underlying paranoia. A randomized, placebo-controlled, between-groups test of the effects of intravenous THC was conducted. A total of 121 individuals with paranoid ideation were randomized to receive placebo, THC, or THC preceded by a cognitive awareness condition. Paranoia was assessed extensively via a real social situation, an immersive virtual reality experiment, and standard self-report and interviewer measures. Putative causal factors were assessed. Principal components analysis was used to create a composite paranoia score and composite causal variables to be tested in a mediation analysis. THC significantly increased paranoia, negative affect (anxiety, worry, depression, negative thoughts about the self), and a range of anomalous experiences, and reduced working memory capacity. The increase in negative affect and in anomalous experiences fully accounted for the increase in paranoia. Working memory changes did not lead to paranoia. Making participants aware of the effects of THC had little impact. In this largest study of intravenous THC, it was definitively demonstrated that the drug triggers paranoid thoughts in vulnerable individuals. The most likely mechanism of action causing paranoia was the generation of negative affect and anomalous experiences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  11. Sulfur Denitrosylation by an Engineered Trx-like DsbG Enzyme Identifies Nucleophilic Cysteine Hydrogen Bonds as Key Functional Determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye, Céline; Van Molle, Inge; Tamu Dufe, Veronica; Wahni, Khadija; Boudier, Ariane; Leroy, Pierre; Collet, Jean-François; Messens, Joris

    2016-07-15

    Exposure of bacteria to NO results in the nitrosylation of cysteine thiols in proteins and low molecular weight thiols such as GSH. The cells possess enzymatic systems that catalyze the denitrosylation of these modified sulfurs. An important player in these systems is thioredoxin (Trx), a ubiquitous, cytoplasmic oxidoreductase that can denitrosylate proteins in vivo and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in vitro However, a periplasmic or extracellular denitrosylase has not been identified, raising the question of how extracytoplasmic proteins are repaired after nitrosative damage. In this study, we tested whether DsbG and DsbC, two Trx family proteins that function in reducing pathways in the Escherichia coli periplasm, also possess denitrosylating activity. Both DsbG and DsbC are poorly reactive toward GSNO. Moreover, DsbG is unable to denitrosylate its specific substrate protein, YbiS. Remarkably, by borrowing the CGPC active site of E. coli Trx-1 in combination with a T200M point mutation, we transformed DsbG into an enzyme highly reactive toward GSNO and YbiS. The pKa of the nucleophilic cysteine, as well as the redox and thermodynamic properties of the engineered DsbG are dramatically changed and become similar to those of E. coli Trx-1. X-ray structural insights suggest that this results from a loss of two direct hydrogen bonds to the nucleophilic cysteine sulfur in the DsbG mutant. Our results highlight the plasticity of the Trx structural fold and reveal that the subtle change of the number of hydrogen bonds in the active site of Trx-like proteins is the key factor that thermodynamically controls reactivity toward nitrosylated compounds. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Identifying Key Features, Cutting Edge Cloud Resources, and Artificial Intelligence Tools to Achieve User-Friendly Water Science in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Decision making for groundwater systems is becoming increasingly important, as shifting water demands increasingly impact aquifers. As buffer systems, aquifers provide room for resilient responses and augment the actual timeframe for hydrological response. Yet the pace impacts, climate shifts, and degradation of water resources is accelerating. To meet these new drivers, groundwater science is transitioning toward the emerging field of Integrated Water Resources Management, or IWRM. IWRM incorporates a broad array of dimensions, methods, and tools to address problems that tend to be complex. Computational tools and accessible cyberinfrastructure (CI) are needed to cross the chasm between science and society. Fortunately cloud computing environments, such as the new Jetstream system, are evolving rapidly. While still targeting scientific user groups systems such as, Jetstream, offer configurable cyberinfrastructure to enable interactive computing and data analysis resources on demand. The web-based interfaces allow researchers to rapidly customize virtual machines, modify computing architecture and increase the usability and access for broader audiences to advanced compute environments. The result enables dexterous configurations and opening up opportunities for IWRM modelers to expand the reach of analyses, number of case studies, and quality of engagement with stakeholders and decision makers. The acute need to identify improved IWRM solutions paired with advanced computational resources refocuses the attention of IWRM researchers on applications, workflows, and intelligent systems that are capable of accelerating progress. IWRM must address key drivers of community concern, implement transdisciplinary methodologies, adapt and apply decision support tools in order to effectively support decisions about groundwater resource management. This presentation will provide an overview of advanced computing services in the cloud using integrated groundwater management case

  13. Identifying Future Training Technology Opportunities Using Career Field Models and Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bennett, Jr., Winston; Stone, Brice; Turner, Kathryn; Ruck, Hendrick W

    2002-01-01

    ... itself. This report presents results from a recent application of a career field education and training planning simulation capability to identify cost-effective opportunities for the introduction...

  14. A Classical Delphi Study to Identify the Barriers of Pursuing Green Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotay, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, classical Delphi study served to explore the apparent lack of corporate commitment to prioritized Green Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), which could delay the economic and social benefits for maximizing the use of natural energy resources in a weak economy. The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership…

  15. Identifying consumer preference for beef produced with different levels of growth promotant technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate growth performance and carcass characteristics, and 2) determine environmental and economic impacts of cattle raised with different levels of growth promoting technology. Materials and Methods: Angus' Simmental,and crossbred steer calves (n =...

  16. Usefulness of the SNP microarray technology to identify rare mutations in the case of perinatal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeffding, L. K.; Kock, K. F.; Johnsen, Iben Birgit Gade

    2015-01-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray technology has emerged as a powerful tool to screen the whole genome for sub-microscopic duplications and deletions that are not detectable by traditional cytogenetic analysis. Case: We report a case of a female twin born at 27th week of gestation...

  17. Delineating the scientific footprint in technology: Identifying scientific publications within non-patent references.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, J.; Grouwels, J.; van Looy, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Indicators based on non-patent references (NPRs) are increasingly being used for measuring and assessing science–technology interactions. But NPRs in patent documents contain noise, as not all of them can be considered ‘scientific’. In this article, we introduce the results of a machine-learning

  18. Beyond technology : Identifying local government challenges for using digital platforms for citizen engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, E.; Kleinhans, R.J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has highlighted that there is a lack of advanced technological solutions able to foster government-citizens collaboration. We argue that many examples of digital participatory platforms are already available and also ready to use for governments and citizens. Hence, causes for

  19. Information technology as a key enabler in preparing for competition: ComEd's Kincaid Generating Station, a work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borth, F.C. III; Thompson, J.W.; Mishaga, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Through ComEd Fossil (Generating) Division's Competitive Action Plan (CAP) evaluation changes have been identified which are necessary to improve generating station performance. These changes are intended to improve both station reliability and financial margins, and are essential for stations to be successful in a competitive marketplace. Plant upgrades, advanced equipment stewardship, and personnel reductions have been identified as necessary steps in achieving industry leadership and competitive advantage. To deal effectively with plant systems and contend in the competitive marketplace Information Technology (IT) solutions to business problems are being developed. Data acquisition, storage, and retrieval are being automated through use of state-of-the-art Data Historians. Total plant, high resolution, long term process information will be accessed through Local/Wide Area Networks (LAN/WAN) connections from desktop PC's. Generating unit Thermal Performance Monitors accessing the Data Historian will analyze plant and system performance enabling reductions in operating costs, and improvements in process control. As inputs to proactive maintenance toolsets this data allows anticipation of equipment service needs, advanced service scheduling, and cost/benefit analysis. The ultimate goal is to optimize repair needs with revenue generation. Advanced applications building upon these foundations will bring knowledge of the costs associated with all the products a generating station offers its customer(s). An overall design philosophy along with preliminary results is presented; these results include shortfalls, lessons learned, and future options

  20. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    It is widely recognized that international environmental technological change is key to reduce the rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions of emerging nations. In 2010, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP) agreed to the creation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This new multilateral organization has been created with the collective contributions of COP members, and has been tasked with directing over USD 100 billion per year towards investments that can enhance the development and diffusion of clean energy technologies in both advanced and emerging nations (Helm and Pichler, 2015). The landmark agreement arrived at the COP 21 has reaffirmed the key role that the GCF plays in enabling climate mitigation as it is now necessary to align large scale climate financing efforts with the long-term goals agreed at Paris 2015. This study argues that because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanics of international technological change, the multiplicity of policy options and ultimately the presence of climate and technological change deep uncertainty, climate financing institutions such as the GCF, require new analytical methods for designing long-term robust investment plans. Motivated by these challenges, this dissertation shows that the application of new analytical methods, such as Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Exploratory Modeling (Lempert, Popper and Bankes, 2003) to the study of international technological change and climate policy provides useful insights that can be used for designing a robust architecture of international technological cooperation for climate change mitigation. For this study I developed an exploratory dynamic integrated assessment model (EDIAM) which is used as the scenario generator in a large computational experiment. The scope of the experimental design considers an ample set of climate and technological scenarios. These scenarios combine five sources of uncertainty

  1. Information System Hazard Analysis: A Method for Identifying Technology-induced Latent Errors for Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jens H; Mason-Blakley, Fieran; Price, Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Many health information and communication technologies (ICT) are safety-critical; moreover, reports of technology-induced adverse events related to them are plentiful in the literature. Despite repeated criticism and calls to action, recent data collected by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and other organization do not indicate significant improvements with respect to the safety of health ICT systems. A large part of the industry still operates on a reactive "break & patch" model; the application of pro-active, systematic hazard analysis methods for engineering ICT that produce "safe by design" products is sparse. This paper applies one such method: Information System Hazard Analysis (ISHA). ISHA adapts and combines hazard analysis techniques from other safety-critical domains and customizes them for ICT. We provide an overview of the steps involved in ISHA and describe.

  2. Lost and misplaced items and assistive devices in nursing homes: Identifying problems and technological opportunities through participatory design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Weernink, C E; Sweegers, L; Relou, L; van der Zijpp, T J; van Hoof, J

    2018-02-06

    Modern healthcare, including nursing home care, goes together with the use of technologies to support treatment, the provision of care and daily activities. The challenges concerning the implementation of such technologies are numerous. One of these emerging technologies are location technologies (RTLS or Real-Time Location Systems). that can be utilized in the nursing home for monitoring the use and location of assets. This paper describes a participatory design study of RTLS based on context mapping, conducted in two nursing home organizations. Rather than investigating the technological possibilities, this study investigates the needs and wishes from the perspective of the care professional. The study identified semantic themes that relate to the practicalities of lost and misplaced items in the nursing home, as well as latent themes that cover the wishes regarding technology in the nursing homes. The organizational culture and building typology may play a role in losing items. The participants in this study indicated that RTLS can provide a solution to some of the challenges that they encounter in the workplace. However, the implementation of new technologies should be done with care and should be integrated into existing ICT systems in order to minimize additional training and posing a burden on the workload.

  3. A pilot study using scripted ventilation conditions to identify key factors affecting indoor pollutant concentration and air exchange rate in a residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ted; Myers, Jeffrey; Kelly, Thomas; Wisbith, Anthony; Ollison, Will

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted using an occupied, single-family test house in Columbus, OH, to determine whether a script-based protocol could be used to obtain data useful in identifying the key factors affecting air-exchange rate (AER) and the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of selected traffic-related air pollutants. The test script called for hourly changes to elements of the test house considered likely to influence air flow and AER, including the position (open or closed) of each window and door and the operation (on/off) of the furnace, air conditioner, and ceiling fans. The script was implemented over a 3-day period (January 30-February 1, 2002) during which technicians collected hourly-average data for AER, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations for six pollutants (benzene, formaldehyde (HCHO), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x))), and selected meteorological variables. Consistent with expectations, AER tended to increase with the number of open exterior windows and doors. The 39 AER values measured during the study when all exterior doors and windows were closed varied from 0.36 to 2.29 h(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.77 h(-1) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.435. The 27 AER values measured when at least one exterior door or window was opened varied from 0.50 to 15.8 h(-1) with a GM of 1.98 h(-1) and a GSD of 1.902. AER was also affected by temperature and wind speed, most noticeably when exterior windows and doors were closed. Results of a series of stepwise linear regression analyses suggest that (1) outdoor pollutant concentration and (2) indoor pollutant concentration during the preceding hour were the "variables of choice" for predicting indoor pollutant concentration in the test house under the conditions of this study. Depending on the pollutant and ventilation conditions, one or more of the following variables produced a small, but

  4. Dissemination of health technology assessments: identifying the visions guiding an evolving policy innovation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Denis, Jean-Louis; Tailliez, Stéphanie; Hivon, Myriam

    2005-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) has received increasing support over the past twenty years in both North America and Europe. The justification for this field of policy-oriented research is that evidence about the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of technology should contribute to decision and policy making. However, concerns about the ability of HTA producers to increase the use of their findings by decision makers have been expressed. Although HTA practitioners have recognized that dissemination activities need to be intensified, why and how particular approaches should be adopted is still under debate. Using an institutional theory perspective, this article examines HTA as a means of implementing knowledge-based change within health care systems. It presents the results of a case study on the dissemination strategies of six Canadian HTA agencies. Chief executive officers and executives (n = 11), evaluators (n = 19), and communications staff (n = 10) from these agencies were interviewed. Our results indicate that the target audience of HTA is frequently limited to policy makers, that three conflicting visions of HTA dissemination coexist, that active dissemination strategies have only occasionally been applied, and that little attention has been paid to the management of diverging views about the value of health technology. Our discussion explores the strengths, limitations, and trade-offs associated with the three visions. Further efforts should be deployed within agencies to better articulate a shared vision and to devise dissemination strategies that are consistent with this vision.

  5. Simple indicator to identify the environmental soundness of growth of consumption and technology: "eco-velocity of consumption".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Inaba, Rokuta; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2007-02-15

    Today's material welfare has been achieved at the expense of consumption of finite resources and generation of environmental burdens. Over the past few decades the volume of global consumption has grown dramatically, while at the same time technological advances have enabled products with greater efficiencies. These two directions of change, consumption growth and technological advance, are the foci of the present paper. Using quantitative measures for these two factors, we define a new indicator, "eco-velocity of consumption", analogous to velocity in physics. The indicator not only identifies the environmental soundness of consumption growth and technological advance but also indicates whether and to what extent our society is shifting toward sustainable consumption. This study demonstrates the practicability of the indicator through a case study in which we calculate the eco-velocities of Japanese household consumption in 2 years: 1995 and 2000. The rate of technological advance during the periods concerned is quantified in terms of the embodied carbon dioxide emission per yen of product. The results show that the current growth rate of Japanese household consumption is greater than the rate of technological advance to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. The eco-velocities at the level of individual commodity groups are also examined, and the sources of changes in eco-velocity for each commodity are identified using structural decomposition analysis.

  6. Using a Counterfactual Process to Identify the Applicability of Emerging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    conditions that must exist for the antecedent to happen.129 Crafting a 126 Michael W. Morris and...opportunities of interrupting the sequence of events. For example, if the bombers were identified on Monday then the events that unfold on Tuesday ...www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/10006491/Boston- marathon-bombings-Dzhokhar-Tsarnaev-pictured-behind-eight-year-old- victim.html Morris , Michael

  7. Identifying Basic Factors for Communal Prosperity - Space Technologies are Bridging this Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2006-01-01

    There are many aspects, which are important for maintaining environmentally clean and safe conditions for a healthy and economically self-sufficient community. This problem was somewhat of a lesser concern in earlier days because many communities were small, isolated and solely dependent upon their owners or landlords. Due to an astronomical growth in human population within the last century, extensive use of combustion technologies, and changing environmental conditions has resulted in scarcity of natural resources. In reality, the societal sustainability issues are becoming much more acute and complex. Therefore, the researchers and social scientists are joining forces to address these topics and find solutions to many contentious areas such as public health and diseases, water resources, agriculture production, survivability during and after the natural disasters, energy needs and many others. Forthrightly speaking, there is no canned solution or a methodology to go about solving these issues since the magnitude and complexity of these issues are multi-dimensional and are further inter-locked with other areas. A common sense tells us that we need data, resources and technologies to begin addressing these problems. This is where space observations have provided us with tremendous information and opportunities, which are of great assets to the science, economist, and social scientists. This paper specifically addresses what are critical areas for a successful societal sustainability and growth; and how can we take advantage of multiple sensors and models already in existence. Increasing our knowledge of the home planet, via amplified set of observations, is certainly a right step in a right direction. Furthermore, this is a pre-requisite in understanding multiple hazard phenomena's. This paper further examines various space sensors and observing architectures that can be useful specifically in addressing some of these complex issues. The ultimate goal is to serve

  8. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  9. 47{sup th} Annual conference on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key topics / Outstanding know-how and sustainable innovations - enhanced safety and operation excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian [CONLAR - Consulting on Nuclear Law, Licensing and Regulation, Leipzig (Germany); Fischer, Erwin [PreussenElektra GmbH, Hannover (Germany). Management Board; Mohrbach, Ludger [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany). Competence Center ' ' Nuclear Power Plants' '

    2016-08-15

    Summary report on the Key Topics ''Outstanding Know-How and Sustainable Innovations'' and ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' of the 47{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 will be covered in further issues of atw.

  10. A Selected Review of the Underpinnings of Ethics for Human Performance Technology Professionals--Part One: Key Ethical Theories and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    Provides a review of the key ethical theories and relevant empirical research relating to the practice of human performance technology. Topics addressed include ethics, morals, business ethics, ethics officers, empiricism versus normative ethical theory, consequentialism, utilitarianism, nonconsequentialism, Kohlberg model of cognitive moral…

  11. 48{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2017). Key topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence. Focus session: International operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohrbach, Ludger [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany). Abteilung ' ' N' ' ; Gottschling, Helge

    2017-11-15

    Summary report on the Key Topic Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence: Focus Session: International Operational Experience and the Nuclear Energy Campus of the 48{sup th} Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2017) held in Berlin, 16 to 17 May 2017.

  12. Ingestion of phosphorus-32 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, identified on August 19, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    On Monday, October 16, 1995, the Massachussetts Institue of Technology (MIT, the licensee) notified the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of an incident involving ingestion of phosphorus-32 by a researcher at the MIT Center for Cancer Research. The licensee informed the NRC that a researcher had reported the incident on August 19. The licensee initially estimated the intake as 500 microcuries (19 MBq) and the dose as 4000 millirem (40 mSv) to the individual. On October 12, the licensee informed the researcher that its final intake estimate was 579 microcuries (21 MBq), just under the 600 microcuries (22 MBq) which would represent an overexposure. On October 17, the NRC established an Incident Investigation Team to investigate the case. NRC also contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education to do independent dose assessments of the urine sample data and the whole-body data. The Team concluded that the licensee's final intake and dose estimates were in accordance with accepted scientific references and NRC guidance. However, recognizing the uncertainties involved in the use of models to simulate human characteristics, the Team determined the intake would be better characterized as likely falling within a range of 500 to 750 microcuries (19--28 NMq). An NRC medical consultant concluded that no symptoms or acute effects should be observed from an intake of this level

  13. Ingestion of phosphorus-32 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, identified on August 19, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    On Monday, October 16, 1995, the Massachussetts Institue of Technology (MIT, the licensee) notified the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of an incident involving ingestion of phosphorus-32 by a researcher at the MIT Center for Cancer Research. The licensee informed the NRC that a researcher had reported the incident on August 19. The licensee initially estimated the intake as 500 microcuries (19 MBq) and the dose as 4000 millirem (40 mSv) to the individual. On October 12, the licensee informed the researcher that its final intake estimate was 579 microcuries (21 MBq), just under the 600 microcuries (22 MBq) which would represent an overexposure. On October 17, the NRC established an Incident Investigation Team to investigate the case. NRC also contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education to do independent dose assessments of the urine sample data and the whole-body data. The Team concluded that the licensee`s final intake and dose estimates were in accordance with accepted scientific references and NRC guidance. However, recognizing the uncertainties involved in the use of models to simulate human characteristics, the Team determined the intake would be better characterized as likely falling within a range of 500 to 750 microcuries (19--28 NMq). An NRC medical consultant concluded that no symptoms or acute effects should be observed from an intake of this level.

  14. Full Wafer Redistribution and Wafer Embedding as Key Technologies for a Multi-Scale Neuromorphic Hardware Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Zoschke, Kai; Güttler, Maurice; Böttcher, Lars; Grübl, Andreas; Husmann, Dan; Schemmel, Johannes; Meier, Karlheinz; Ehrmann, Oswin

    2018-01-01

    Together with the Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics(KIP) the Fraunhofer IZM has developed a full wafer redistribution and embedding technology as base for a large-scale neuromorphic hardware system. The paper will give an overview of the neuromorphic computing platform at the KIP and the associated hardware requirements which drove the described technological developments. In the first phase of the project standard redistribution technologies from wafer level packaging were adapted to enable a ...

  15. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  16. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  17. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  18. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Disinvestment policy and the public funding of assisted reproductive technologies: outcomes of deliberative engagements with three key stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Katherine; Hiller, Janet E; Street, Jackie M; Carter, Drew; Braunack-Mayer, Annette J; Watt, Amber M; Moss, John R; Elshaug, Adam G

    2014-05-05

    Measures to improve the quality and sustainability of healthcare practice and provision have become a policy concern. In addition, the involvement of stakeholders in health policy decision-making has been advocated, as complex questions arise around the structure of funding arrangements in a context of limited resources. Using a case study of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), deliberative engagements with a range of stakeholder groups were held on the topic of how best to structure the distribution of Australian public funding in this domain. Deliberative engagements were carried out with groups of ART consumers, clinicians and community members. The forums were informed by a systematic review of ART treatment safety and effectiveness (focusing, in particular, on maternal age and number of treatment cycles), as well as by international policy comparisons, and ethical and cost analyses. Forum discussions were transcribed and subject to thematic analysis. Each forum demonstrated stakeholders' capacity to understand concepts of choice under resource scarcity and disinvestment, and to countenance options for ART funding not always aligned with their interests. Deliberations in each engagement identified concerns around 'equity' and 'patient responsibility', culminating in a broad preference for (potential) ART subsidy restrictions to be based upon individual factors rather than maternal age or number of treatment cycles. Community participants were open to restrictions based upon measures of body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, while consumers and clinicians saw support to improve these factors as part of an ART treatment program, as distinct from a funding criterion. All groups advocated continued patient co-payments, with measures in place to provide treatment access to those unable to pay (namely, equity of access). Deliberations yielded qualitative, socially-negotiated evidence required to inform ethical, accountable policy decisions in the specific

  20. Use of gas chromatography-olfactometry to identify key odorant compounds in dark chocolate. Comparison of samples before and after conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counet, Christine; Callemien, Delphine; Ouwerx, Caroline; Collin, Sonia

    2002-04-10

    After vacuum distillation and liquid-liquid extraction, the volatile fractions of dark chocolates were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed the presence of 33 potent odorants in the neutral/basic fraction. Three of these had a strong chocolate flavor: 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal. Many others were characterized by cocoa/praline-flavored/nutty/coffee notes: 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, 3(or 2),5-dimethyl-2(or 3)-ethylpyrazine, 3,5(or 6)-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine, and furfurylpyrrole. Comparisons carried out before and after conching indicate that although no new key odorant is synthesized during the heating process, levels of 2-phenyl-5-methyl-2-hexenal, Furaneol, and branched pyrazines are significantly increased while most Strecker aldehydes are lost by evaporation.

  1. Identifying and Supporting English Learner Students with Learning Disabilities: Key Issues in the Literature and State Practice. REL 2015-086

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Elizabeth; Haas, Eric; Ferriere, Karen

    2015-01-01

    While the literature on learning disabilities and on second-language acquisition is relatively extensive within the field of education, less is known about the specific characteristics and representation of English learner students with learning disabilities. Because there are no definitive resources and processes for identifying and determining…

  2. Economic and Physical Linkages of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Service Industry to Key Industries of the Economy: An Ad Hoc Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hoffman, Michael G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niemeyer, Jackie M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Samuel, Todd J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-04

    This report examines the information and communications technology (ICT) services industry in response to an inquiry by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis. The report answers several key questions: •How has the reliance on ICT services evolved in recent years for key infrastructure services such as air travel, freight transport, electricity and natural gas distribution, financial services, and critical health care, and for the household sector? •What ICT industry trends explain continued strong linkage to and reliance upon ICT? •What is the ICT industry’s reliance on grid-supplied power, uninterruptible power supplies, emergency generators and back-up energy storage technologies? •What are the observed direct effects of ICT disruptions induced by electrical system failures in recent history and how resilient are the components of the ICT industry?

  3. Identification of miRNA Signatures Associated with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance with Further Biological and Functional Validation of Identified Key miRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    separated on 12% SDS PAGE gels and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. After blocking with 5% non- fat milk (Labscientific, Inc) in TBS-Tween buffer... Raw mass spectrometric data were processed and analyzed for variations in the spectral counts of peptides between sample sets and bioinformatics was...accomplished using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). Results: The total numbers of proteins and peptides identified are listed in the table

  4. Identifying the Areas Benefitting from the Prevention of Wind Erosion by the Key Ecological Function Area for the Protection of Desertification in Hunshandake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the spatial flow of ecosystem services can help to identify the spatial relationships between service-providing areas (SPAs and service-benefitting areas (SBAs. In this study, we used the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model to stimulate the flow paths of the wind erosion prevented by ecosystems in Hunshandake, China. By interpolating these paths, the SBAs were identified, and their benefits in terms of land cover, population, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP were determined. The results indicated that the flow paths mostly extended to the eastern part of the study area, and the estimated cover of the SBAs was 39.21% of the total area of China. The grid cells through which many (≥10% of the trajectories passed were mainly located in the western part of north-eastern China and the eastern part of northern China. The benefitting population accounted for 74.51% of the total population of China, and the GDP was 67.11% of the total in 2010. Based on this research, we described a quantitative relationship between the SPAs and the SBAs and identified the actual beneficiaries. This work may provide scientific knowledge that can be used by decision makers to develop management strategies, such as ecological compensation to mitigate damage from sandstorms in the study area.

  5. Kinome-wide shRNA Screen Identifies the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL as a Key Regulator for Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer for which novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Two distinct subtypes of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs were recently identified: mesenchymal (MES and proneural (PN. To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive MES GSCs, we combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and PN GSCs. In comparison to PN GSCs, we found significant upregulation and phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in MES GSCs. Knockdown of AXL significantly decreased MES GSC self-renewal capacity in vitro and inhibited the growth of glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, inhibition of AXL with shRNA or pharmacologic inhibitors also increased cell death significantly more in MES GSCs. Clinically, AXL expression was elevated in the MES GBM subtype and significantly correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. In conclusion, we identified AXL as a potential molecular target for novel approaches to treat glioblastoma and other solid cancers.

  6. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topics / Enhanced safety and operation excellence and decommissioning experience and Waste management solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salnikova, Tatiana [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Schaffrath, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Summary report on the Key Topics ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' and ''Decommissioning Experience and Waste Management Solutions'' of the 47{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 have been and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  7. Critical and shielding parametric studies with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI to identify the key points to take into account during the transportation of blanket assemblies with high ratio of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosmain, Cecile-Aline

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of French research program on Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor, one possible option consists in burning minor actinides in this kind of Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor. Two types of transmutation mode are studied in the world : the homogeneous mode of transmutation where actinides are scattered with very low enrichment ratio in fissile assemblies and the heterogeneous mode where fissile core is surrounded by blanket assemblies filled with minor actinides with ratio of incorporated actinides up to 20%. Depending on which element is considered to be burnt and on its content, these minor actinides contents imply constraints on assemblies' transportation between Nuclear Power Plants and fuel cycle facilities. In this study, we present some academic studies in order to identify some key constraints linked to the residual power and neutron/gamma load of such kind of blanket assemblies. To simplify the approach, we considered a modeling of a 'model cask' dedicated to the transportation of a unique irradiated blanket assembly loaded with 20% of Americium and basically inspired from an existent cask designed initially for the damaged fissile Superphenix assembly transport. Thermal calculations performed with EDF-SYRTHES code have shown that due to thermal limitations on cladding temperature, the decay time to be considered before transportation is 20 years. This study is based on explicit 3D representations of the cask and the contained blanket assembly with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI/JEFF3.1.1 library and concludes that after such a decay time, the transportation of a unique Americium radial blanket is feasible only if the design of our model cask is modified in order to comply with the dose limitation criterion. (author)

  8. Key Technology Research on the Efficient Exploitation and Comprehensive Utilization of Resources in the Deep Jinchuan Nickel Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the resource features and geology in the deep Jinchuan nickel deposit, difficult geological conditions were systematically analyzed, including high stress, fragmentized ore rock, prevalent deformation, difficult tunnel support, complicated rock mechanics, and low mining recovery. An integrated technology package was built for safe, efficient, and continuous mining in a deep, massive, and complex nickel and cobalt mine. This was done by the invention of a large-area continuous mining method with honeycomb drives; the establishment of ground control theory and a technology package for high-stress and fragmented ore rock; and the development of a new type of backfilling cement material, along with a deep backfilling technology that comprises the pipeline transport of high-density slurry with coarse aggregates. In this way, good solutions to existing problems were found to permit the efficient exploitation and comprehensive utilization of the resources in the deep Jinchuan nickel mine. In addition, a technological demonstration in an underground mine was performed using the cemented undercut-and-fill mining method for stressful, fragmented, and rheological rock.

  9. The Possible Effects of Potential Key Technological Developments on the Force Structure of the Australian Army in 2040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    telecommute to deployments in 2040 apart from the possible need for maintenance. There have been many improvements in communication and are likely to be...geographically separate, theatres. It is entirely plausible that telepresence technologies will become sufficiently advanced by 2040 to allow telecommuting of

  10. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key topic / Outstanding know-how and sustainable innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffrath, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsforschung

    2016-07-15

    Summary report on the Technical Session: ''Reactor Physics, Thermo- and Fluid-Dynamics'' of the 47th Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 will be covered in further issues of atw.

  11. 46{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2015). Key Topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence / Radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Erik [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). Radiation Protection; Bohnsted, Angelika [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Safety Research for Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection

    2015-10-15

    Summary report on the Focus Session 'Radiation Protection' of the 46{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2015) held in Berlin, 5 to 7 May 2015. Other Sessions of AMNT 2015 have been covered in atw 7 and 8 (2015) and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  12. Key Factors that Influence the Diffusion and Infusion of Information and Communication Technologies in Kenyan Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Jimmy K. N.; Pelser, Theunis G.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in the higher education sector, information and communication technology (ICT) provides the impetus for change from the traditional concepts of teaching and learning, as well as prime motivation behind the change in scholarly and professional activities. This underscores the importance of ICT in higher education in…

  13. A primer on brain-machine interfaces, concepts, and technology: a key element in the future of functional neurorestoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2013-01-01

    Conventionally, the practice of neurosurgery has been characterized by the removal of pathology, congenital or acquired. The emerging complement to the removal of pathology is surgery for the specific purpose of restoration of function. Advents in neuroscience, technology, and the understanding of neural circuitry are creating opportunities to intervene in disease processes in a reparative manner, thereby advancing toward the long-sought-after concept of neurorestoration. Approaching the issue of neurorestoration from a biomedical engineering perspective is the rapidly growing arena of implantable devices. Implantable devices are becoming more common in medicine and are making significant advancements to improve a patient's functional outcome. Devices such as deep brain stimulators, vagus nerve stimulators, and spinal cord stimulators are now becoming more commonplace in neurosurgery as we utilize our understanding of the nervous system to interpret neural activity and restore function. One of the most exciting prospects in neurosurgery is the technologically driven field of brain-machine interface, also known as brain-computer interface, or neuroprosthetics. The successful development of this technology will have far-reaching implications for patients suffering from a great number of diseases, including but not limited to spinal cord injury, paralysis, stroke, or loss of limb. This article provides an overview of the issues related to neurorestoration using implantable devices with a specific focus on brain-machine interface technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Research to practice in addiction treatment: key terms and a field-driven model of technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The transfer of new technologies (e.g., evidence-based practices) into substance abuse treatment organizations often occurs long after they have been developed and shown to be effective. Transfer is slowed, in part, due to a lack of clear understanding about all that is needed to achieve full implementation of these technologies. Such misunderstanding is exacerbated by inconsistent terminology and overlapping models of an innovation, including its development and validation, dissemination to the public, and implementation or use in the field. For this reason, a workgroup of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network developed a field-driven conceptual model of the innovation process that more precisely defines relevant terms and concepts and integrates them into a comprehensive taxonomy. The proposed definitions and conceptual framework will allow for improved understanding and consensus regarding the distinct meaning and conceptual relationships between dimensions of the technology transfer process and accelerate the use of evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying and prioritizing the factors influencing the success of science and technology foresight in the field of economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Raieninezhad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting complex global environment, tremendous growth and increase of network communication technology in the world, strategic planning and foresight activities in science and technology have become very important. Gradually, organizations and businesses are realizing the importance of foresight; many organizations attempt to execute such activities. However, this concept is not still well known in our country and among our organizations. Therefore, recognizing the factors influencing the success of this concept is a kind of issues that the organizations and activists are faced. Thus, this research seeks to identify and to rank the factors, particularly in the areas of economy, and it has developed five hypotheses. In this paper, factors affecting the success of foresight are given in four groups of rational, structure, scope, and results. Data collection for this study is a questionnaire and the binomial tests, Pearson correlation and Friedman test have been used to prove the hypothesis. According to the analysis of data obtained from the questionnaire conducted by SPSS software, all research hypotheses were confirmed. It also became clear that the rational component had the greatest impact on the future success of science and technology in the field of economic.

  16. Labonté Identifies Key Issues for Health Promoters in the New World Order Comment on "Health Promotion in an Age of Normative Equity and Rampant Inequality".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis Raphael

    2016-11-02

    For over 35 years Ronald Labonté has been critically analyzing the state of health promotion in Canada and the world. In 1981, he identified the shortcomings of the groundbreaking Lalonde Report by warning of the seductive appeal of so-called lifestyle approaches to health. Since then, he has left a trail of critical work identifying the barriers to - and opportunities for -health promotion work. More recently, he has shown how the rise of economic globalization and acceptance of neo-liberal ideology has come to threaten the health of those in both developed and developing nations. In his recent commentary, Labonté shows how the United Nations' 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can offer a new direction for health promoters in these difficult times. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. Integrated analysis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma identifies key variants and pathways linked to risk habits, HPV, clinical parameters and tumor recurrence [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja Krishnan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC are a homogeneous group of tumors characterized by aggressive behavior, early spread to lymph nodes and a higher rate of regional failure. Additionally, the incidence of OTSCC among younger population (<50yrs is on the rise; many of whom lack the typical associated risk factors of alcohol and/or tobacco exposure. We present data on single nucleotide variations (SNVs, indels, regions with loss of heterozygosity (LOH, and copy number variations (CNVs from fifty-paired oral tongue primary tumors and link the significant somatic variants with clinical parameters, epidemiological factors including human papilloma virus (HPV infection and tumor recurrence. Apart from the frequent somatic variants harbored in TP53, CASP8, RASA1, NOTCH and CDKN2A genes, significant amplifications and/or deletions were detected in chromosomes 6-9, and 11 in the tumors. Variants in CASP8 and CDKN2A were mutually exclusive. CDKN2A, PIK3CA, RASA1 and DMD variants were exclusively linked to smoking, chewing, HPV infection and tumor stage. We also performed a whole-genome gene expression study that identified matrix metalloproteases to be highly expressed in tumors and linked pathways involving arachidonic acid and NF-k-B to habits and distant metastasis, respectively. Functional knockdown studies in cell lines demonstrated the role of CASP8 in a HPV-negative OTSCC cell line. Finally, we identified a 38-gene minimal signature that predicts tumor recurrence using an ensemble machine-learning method. Taken together, this study links molecular signatures to various clinical and epidemiological factors in a homogeneous tumor population with a relatively high HPV prevalence.

  18. Gas process technology for fuel cells. Desulfurization and other key problems; Gasprozesstechnik fuer Brennstoffzellen. Entschwefelung und andere Kernfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, A.; Kalk, T.; Kvasnicka, A.; Roes, J.; Steffen, M.; Witzany, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., (Germany). ZBT Duisburg

    2008-07-01

    Fuel cells as Micro-CHP units for residential energy supply are one important technology option to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Starting from natural gas as energy carrier, hydrogen is generated by catalytic processes. Prototypes are operated in field test in the meanwhile, but there are still important technical and scientific questions to deal with, as there are e.g. the desulfurisation of natural gas, the optimisation of heat integration in order to improve the efficiency of the complete system, the realisation of a closed water loop and last but not least the formation and impact of ammonia. At the same time, cost aspects and production technology have to be considered. (orig.)

  19. Optimization of the silicon subcell for III-V on silicon multijunction solar cells: Key differences with conventional silicon technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tabarés, Elisa; Martín, Diego; García, Iván; Lelièvre, Jean François; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    Dual-junction solar cells formed by a GaAsP or GaInP top cell and a silicon (Si) bottom cell seem to be attractive candidates to materialize the long sought-for integration of III-V materials on Si for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Such integration would offer a cost breakthrough for PV technology, unifying the low cost of Si and the efficiency potential of III-V multijunction solar cells. The optimization of the Si solar cells properties in flat-plate PV technology is well-known; nevertheless, it has been proven that the behavior of Si substrates is different when processed in an MOVPE reactor In this study, we analyze several factors influencing the bottom subcell performance, namely, 1) the emitter formation as a result of phosphorus diffusion; 2) the passivation quality provided by the GaP nucleation layer; and 3) the process impact on the bottom subcell PV properties.

  20. A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV) Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fuad Un-Noor; Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban; Lucian Mihet-Popa; Mohammad Nurunnabi Mollah; Eklas Hossain

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EV), including Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV), are becoming more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in the near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in...

  1. Identifying the key factors in increasing recycling and reducing residual household waste: a case study of the Flemish region of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, X; Jacobsen, R; Verhelst, P

    2011-10-01

    The competent waste authority in the Flemish region of Belgium created the 'Implementation plan household waste 2003-2007' and the 'Implementation plan sustainable management 2010-2015' to comply with EU regulation. It incorporates European and regional requirements and describes strategies, goals, actions and instruments for the collection and treatment of household waste. The central mandatory goal is to reduce and maintain the amount of residual household waste to 150 kg per capita per year between 2010-2015. In literature, a reasonable body of information has been published on the effectiveness and efficiency of a variety of policy instruments, but the information is complex, often contradictory and difficult to interpret. The objective of this paper is to identify, through the development of a binary logistic regression model, those variables of the waste collection scheme that help municipalities to reach the mandatory 150 kg goal. The model covers a number of variables for household characteristics, provision of recycling services, frequency of waste collection and charging for waste services. This paper, however, is not about waste prevention and reuse. The dataset originates from 2003. Four out of 12 variables in the model contributed significantly: income per capita, cost of residual waste collection, collection frequency and separate curbside collection of organic waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Network analysis of patient flow in two UK acute care hospitals identifies key sub-networks for A&E performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Daniel M; Stringer, Clive; Beeknoo, Neeraj; Teo, James; Dobson, Richard J B

    2017-01-01

    The topology of the patient flow network in a hospital is complex, comprising hundreds of overlapping patient journeys, and is a determinant of operational efficiency. To understand the network architecture of patient flow, we performed a data-driven network analysis of patient flow through two acute hospital sites of King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. Administration databases were queried for all intra-hospital patient transfers in an 18-month period and modelled as a dynamic weighted directed graph. A 'core' subnetwork containing only 13-17% of all edges channelled 83-90% of the patient flow, while an 'ephemeral' network constituted the remainder. Unsupervised cluster analysis and differential network analysis identified sub-networks where traffic is most associated with A&E performance. Increased flow to clinical decision units was associated with the best A&E performance in both sites. The component analysis also detected a weekend effect on patient transfers which was not associated with performance. We have performed the first data-driven hypothesis-free analysis of patient flow which can enhance understanding of whole healthcare systems. Such analysis can drive transformation in healthcare as it has in industries such as manufacturing.

  3. Identifying Keys to Success in Innovative Teaching: Student Engagement and Instructional Practices as Predictors of Student Learning in a Course Using a Team-Based Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Alvarez-Bell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When implementing innovative teaching techniques, instructors often seek to gauge the success of their methods. Proposing one approach to assessing classroom innovation, this study examines the ability of students’ ratings of engagement and instructional practices to predict their learning in a cooperative (team-based framework. After identifying the factor structures underlying measures of student engagement and instructional practices, these factors were used as predictors of self-reported student learning in a general chemistry course delivered using a team-based learning approach. Exploratory factor analyses showed a four-factor structure of engagement: teamwork involvement, investment in the learning process, feelings about team-based learning, level of academic challenge; and a three-factor structure of instructional practices: instructional guidance, fostering self-directed learning skills, and cognitive level. Multiple linear regression revealed that feelings about team-based learning and perceptions of instructional guidance had significant effects on learning, beyond other predictors, while controlling gender, GPA, class level, number of credit hours, whether students began college at their current institution, expected highest level of education, racial or ethnic identification, and parental level of education. These results yield insight into student perceptions about team-based learning, and how to measure learning in a team-based learning framework, with implications for how to evaluate innovative instructional methods.

  4. Study on key technologies of vehicle networking system platform for electric automobiles based on micro-service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid increase of electric automobiles and charging piles, the elastic expansion and online rapid upgrade were required for the vehicle networking system platform (system platform for short). At present, it is difficult to meet the operation needs due to the traditional huge rock architecture used by the system platform. This paper studied the system platform technology architecture based on "cloud platform +micro-service" to obtain a new generation of vehicle networking system platform with the combination of elastic expansion and application, thus significantly improving the service operation ability of system.

  5. A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Un-Noor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EV, including Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV, Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV, Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV, are becoming more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles in the near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in the future. EVs can cause significant impacts on the environment, power system, and other related sectors. The present power system could face huge instabilities with enough EV penetration, but with proper management and coordination, EVs can be turned into a major contributor to the successful implementation of the smart grid concept. There are possibilities of immense environmental benefits as well, as the EVs can extensively reduce the greenhouse gas emissions produced by the transportation sector. However, there are some major obstacles for EVs to overcome before totally replacing ICE vehicles. This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on EV configurations, battery energy sources, electrical machines, charging techniques, optimization techniques, impacts, trends, and possible directions of future developments. Its objective is to provide an overall picture of the current EV technology and ways of future development to assist in future researches in this sector.

  6. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy...... production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...

  7. Energy Efficiency of Technological Equipment at the Economic Agent by Identifying the Points with Recoverable Heat Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoiţescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For an energy-efficient future, the EU needs to step up its efforts to maximize energy savings. In this context, the paper addresses the steps needed to establish energy efficiency measures and proposes effective measures to reduce consumption by recovering large amounts of energy lost to industrial consumers. The points with the highest recoverable energy potential have been identified and it is proposed to install the heat recovery systems on the flue gas exhaust circuits and polluted air from Industrial Technological Equipment (ITE such as dyeing/drying cabins (DDC. Therefore, whenever possible and as small as energy saving, energy recovery solutions at any level, but especially at local level, need to be applied. In conclusion, by concentrating all the energy-saving efforts that are still being wasted, Europe can contribute, by saving energy, to ensuring a sustainable energy future

  8. Cloud/Fog Computing System Architecture and Key Technologies for South-North Water Transfer Project Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoling Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the real-time and distributed features of Internet of Things (IoT safety system in water conservancy engineering, this study proposed a new safety system architecture for water conservancy engineering based on cloud/fog computing and put forward a method of data reliability detection for the false alarm caused by false abnormal data from the bottom sensors. Designed for the South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP, the architecture integrated project safety, water quality safety, and human safety. Using IoT devices, fog computing layer was constructed between cloud server and safety detection devices in water conservancy projects. Technologies such as real-time sensing, intelligent processing, and information interconnection were developed. Therefore, accurate forecasting, accurate positioning, and efficient management were implemented as required by safety prevention of the SNWTP, and safety protection of water conservancy projects was effectively improved, and intelligential water conservancy engineering was developed.

  9. 46th Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2015). Key topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence / Sustainable reactor operation management - safe, efficient, valuable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Summary report on the following Topical Session of the 46 th Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2015) held in Berlin, 5 to 7 May 2015: - Sustainable Reactor Operation Management - Safe, Efficient, Valuable (Erwin Fischer) The other Sessions of the Key Topics - ''Outstanding Know-How and Sustainable Innovations'', - ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' and - ''Decommissioning Experience and Waste Management Solutions'' have been covered in atw 7 (2015) and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  10. 46{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2015). Key topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence / Sustainable reactor operation management - safe, efficient, valuable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erwin [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Global Unit Next Generation, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Summary report on the following Topical Session of the 46{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2015) held in Berlin, 5 to 7 May 2015: - Sustainable Reactor Operation Management - Safe, Efficient, Valuable (Erwin Fischer) The other Sessions of the Key Topics - ''Outstanding Know-How and Sustainable Innovations'', - ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' and - ''Decommissioning Experience and Waste Management Solutions'' have been covered in atw 7 (2015) and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  11. Power Beamed Photon Sails: New Capabilities Resulting From Recent Maturation Of Key Solar Sail And High Power Laser Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, Edward E. IV

    2010-01-01

    This paper revisits some content in the First International Symposium on Beamed Energy Propulsion in 2002 related to the concept of propellantless in-space propulsion utilizing an external high energy laser to provide momentum to an ultralightweight (gossamer) spacecraft. The design and construction of the NanoSail-D solar sail demonstration spacecraft has demonstrated in space flight hardware the concept of small, very light--yet capable--spacecraft. The results of the Joint High Power Solid State Laser (JHPSSL) have also increased the effectiveness and reduced the cost of an entry level laser source. This paper identifies the impact from improved system parameters on current mission applications.

  12. Identifying Health Information Technology Needs of Oncologists to Facilitate the Adoption of Genomic Medicine: Recommendations From the 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology Omics and Precision Oncology Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin S; Ambinder, Edward P; Hess, Gregory P; Yu, Peter Paul; Bernstam, Elmer V; Routbort, Mark J; Clemenceau, Jean Rene; Hamm, John T; Febbo, Phillip G; Domchek, Susan M; Chen, James L; Warner, Jeremy L

    2017-09-20

    At the ASCO Data Standards and Interoperability Summit held in May 2016, it was unanimously decided that four areas of current oncology clinical practice have serious, unmet health information technology needs. The following areas of need were identified: 1) omics and precision oncology, 2) advancing interoperability, 3) patient engagement, and 4) value-based oncology. To begin to address these issues, ASCO convened two complementary workshops: the Omics and Precision Oncology Workshop in October 2016 and the Advancing Interoperability Workshop in December 2016. A common goal was to address the complexity, enormity, and rapidly changing nature of genomic information, which existing electronic health records are ill equipped to manage. The subject matter experts invited to the Omics and Precision Oncology Workgroup were tasked with the responsibility of determining a specific, limited need that could be addressed by a software application (app) in the short-term future, using currently available genomic knowledge bases. Hence, the scope of this workshop was to determine the basic functionality of one app that could serve as a test case for app development. The goal of the second workshop, described separately, was to identify the specifications for such an app. This approach was chosen both to facilitate the development of a useful app and to help ASCO and oncologists better understand the mechanics, difficulties, and gaps in genomic clinical decision support tool development. In this article, we discuss the key challenges and recommendations identified by the workshop participants. Our hope is to narrow the gap between the practicing oncologist and ongoing national efforts to provide precision oncology and value-based care to cancer patients.

  13. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topic / Outstanding know-how and sustainable excellence. Workshop: Preserving competence in nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwarz, Wolfgang

    2016-10-15

    On the 18{sup th} workshop Preserving Competence in Nuclear Technology 24 young scientists presented the scientific results from their work covering a broad spectrum of technical areas. This demonstrated again the strong engagement of the younger generation as part of the German nuclear society. Prof.Dr.-Ing. Eckart Laurin, Prof.Dr.-Ing. Marco K. Koch, Dr. Katharina Stummeyer, and Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Steinwarz as members of the jury assessed the written compacts and the oral presentations to award the Siempelkamp Competence Price 2016 to Andreas Wanninger from Technische Universitaet Muenchen.

  14. 47th Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topic / Outstanding know-how and sustainable excellence. Workshop: Preserving competence in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinwarz, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    On the 18 th workshop Preserving Competence in Nuclear Technology 24 young scientists presented the scientific results from their work covering a broad spectrum of technical areas. This demonstrated again the strong engagement of the younger generation as part of the German nuclear society. Prof.Dr.-Ing. Eckart Laurin, Prof.Dr.-Ing. Marco K. Koch, Dr. Katharina Stummeyer, and Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Steinwarz as members of the jury assessed the written compacts and the oral presentations to award the Siempelkamp Competence Price 2016 to Andreas Wanninger from Technische Universitaet Muenchen.

  15. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal – a case study from health science [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Holst Madsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unique identifiers (UID are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI, incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of

  16. Identifying Key Actors in Heterogeneous Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-29

    Department of Defense (DOD) present social situations that are outside the scope and violate the assumptions of existing formal social science models. SNA by...assumptions of these existing social science models. SNA by its very construction focuses on dyadic relations and standard SNA metrics are focused only on...problematic for our purposes of determining relative valuations among vertices, but it is in contrast to the behavior of valuations like the Shapley value

  17. Internationalization, education and technological innovation: three key factors to improve the quality of the environment and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Urbini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment and the health of mankind are subject to strong pressures from pollutants. The ambition of a better quality of life is often frustrated by the increase in emissions as a result of the increasing consumption of resources and energy to satisfy the growth of the world’s population and its expectations for socioeconomic development. At times, problems take on a planetary dimension, the best known example being greenhouse gas emission, with the resulting effects of climate change. Pollution highlights our failure to provide adequate education, which is essential if we are to become fully aware of problems and actively seek sustainable solutions. To this end, it is essential to set up an extended environmental and health education program in all communities that will accompany younger generations from the beginning of their education in order to make them conscious players in protecting the environment and their own health. The size of the problems requires that a joint effort be made at an international level in the political realm and in the scientific-cultural realm in order to share experiences and sensitivity and to seek joint solutions. It is necessary to assign an increasingly important role to scientific and technological innovation which, in the last century, from Marconi to Einstein to Fleming, to the most recent innovations in the fields of genomics and microchips, has allowed humanity to achieve a rate of growth of wellbeing never previously seen in its thousands of years of history. This innovation must rationally be entrusted with our expectations to provide a practical solution to the problems of pollution that threaten our everyday lives and the survival of the planet. This text discusses the types of progress most eagerly awaited in the fields of water supply, wastewater treatment, atmospheric pollution and waste disposal.

  18. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  19. Social Network Analysis and Mining to Monitor and Identify Problems with Large-Scale Information and Communication Technology Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; de Brito, Silvana Rossy; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Rocha, Cláudio Alex Jorge; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    The published literature reveals several arguments concerning the strategic importance of information and communication technology (ICT) interventions for developing countries where the digital divide is a challenge. Large-scale ICT interventions can be an option for countries whose regions, both urban and rural, present a high number of digitally excluded people. Our goal was to monitor and identify problems in interventions aimed at certification for a large number of participants in different geographical regions. Our case study is the training at the Telecentros.BR, a program created in Brazil to install telecenters and certify individuals to use ICT resources. We propose an approach that applies social network analysis and mining techniques to data collected from Telecentros.BR dataset and from the socioeconomics and telecommunications infrastructure indicators of the participants' municipalities. We found that (i) the analysis of interactions in different time periods reflects the objectives of each phase of training, highlighting the increased density in the phase in which participants develop and disseminate their projects; (ii) analysis according to the roles of participants (i.e., tutors or community members) reveals that the interactions were influenced by the center (or region) to which the participant belongs (that is, a community contained mainly members of the same region and always with the presence of tutors, contradicting expectations of the training project, which aimed for intense collaboration of the participants, regardless of the geographic region); (iii) the social network of participants influences the success of the training: that is, given evidence that the degree of the community member is in the highest range, the probability of this individual concluding the training is 0.689; (iv) the North region presented the lowest probability of participant certification, whereas the Northeast, which served municipalities with similar

  20. Study designs for identifying risk compensation behavior among users of biomedical HIV prevention technologies: balancing methodological rigor and research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Kristen

    2013-10-01

    The growing evidence base for biomedical HIV prevention interventions - such as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides, male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and eventually prevention vaccines - has given rise to concerns about the ways in which users of these biomedical products may adjust their HIV risk behaviors based on the perception that they are prevented from infection. Known as risk compensation, this behavioral adjustment draws on the theory of "risk homeostasis," which has previously been applied to phenomena as diverse as Lyme disease vaccination, insurance mandates, and automobile safety. Little rigorous evidence exists to answer risk compensation concerns in the biomedical HIV prevention literature, in part because the field has not systematically evaluated the study designs available for testing these behaviors. The goals of this Commentary are to explain the origins of risk compensation behavior in risk homeostasis theory, to reframe risk compensation as a testable response to the perception of reduced risk, and to assess the methodological rigor and ethical justification of study designs aiming to isolate risk compensation responses. Although the most rigorous methodological designs for assessing risk compensation behavior may be unavailable due to ethical flaws, several strategies can help investigators identify potential risk compensation behavior during Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV testing of new technologies. Where concerns arise regarding risk compensation behavior, empirical evidence about the incidence, types, and extent of these behavioral changes can illuminate opportunities to better support the users of new HIV prevention strategies. This Commentary concludes by suggesting a new way to conceptualize risk compensation behavior in the HIV prevention context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  2. Identifying Multimedia Production Competencies and Skills of Instructional Design and Technology Professionals: An Analysis of Recent Job Postings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William; Hoard, Brent; Brown, Abbie; Daniels, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to document necessary multimedia production competencies of Instructional Design and Technology graduates, a recent analysis of over 7 months' worth of Instructional Design and Technology job advertisements (n = 615) were conducted. Specific job skills from these postings were categorized and analyzed. The data set includes three job…

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on research and development of key technologies for superconducting generator. Research and development of key technologies to increase density, research and development of key technologies to increase capacity, research and development of design technologies, and research of technologies; 2000 nendo chodendo hatsudenki kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Komitsudoka kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu / daiyoryoka kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu / sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu / gijutsu chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been made to increase density of 200,000-kW class generator and to increase capacity of 600,000-kW class generator necessary for putting superconducting generator into practical use. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the study of increasing densities of superconductors and field windings, strands were fabricated, in which aging heat treatment conditions, number of aging, and processing degrees between each aging were varied, to increase the critical current of Nb-Ti strand, wherein as high critical current as corresponding to about 90% of the target was obtained. Possibility of increasing the critical current with the final processing degree in the range of 4 to 5 was verified from the relationship between the final processing degree and the critical current. In the study of increasing capacities of superconductors and field windings, findings were acquired on enhancement of conductor stability and reduction in AC loss, with regard to superconductor strands well balanced in the two elements. Prospects were obtained in achieving the AC loss of 200 kW/m{sup 3} in the targeted superconductor. The residual resistance ratio was found to be 200, showing sufficiently high value, and sufficient function was verified in the stabilized copper. In the research of design technologies, primary basic design was performed. (NEDO)

  4. Contexts of vulnerability and the acceptability of new biomedical HIV prevention technologies among key populations in South Africa: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atujuna, Millicent; Newman, Peter A; Wallace, Melissa; Eluhu, Megan; Rubincam, Clara; Brown, Ben; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2018-01-01

    New biomedical prevention technologies (NPTs) may contribute to substantially reducing incident HIV infections globally. We explored acceptability and preferences for NPTs among key and other vulnerable populations in two South African townships. We conducted six focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews with adolescents, and adult heterosexual men, women, and men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 48), and eight in-depth interviews with key informant healthcare workers. The interview guide described pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), vaginal rings, rectal microbicides and HIV vaccines, and explored acceptability and product preferences. Focus groups and in-depth interviews (45-80 minutes) were conducted in Xhosa, audiotaped, and transcribed and translated into English. Data were coded and reviewed using framework analysis with NVivo software. Overall, initial enthusiasm and willingness to use NPTs evolved into concerns about how particular NPTs might affect or require alterations in one's everyday lifestyle and practices. Different product preferences and motivations emerged by population based on similarity to existing practices and contexts of vulnerability. Adult women and female adolescents preferred a vaginal ring and HIV vaccine, motivated by longer duration of protection to mitigate feared repercussions from male partners, including threats to their marriage and safety, and a context of ubiquitous rape. Male adolescents preferred an HIV vaccine, seen as protection in serodiscordant relationships and convenient in obviating the HIV stigma and cost involved in buying condoms. Adult men preferred PrEP, given familiarity with oral medications and mistrust of injections, seen as enabling serodiscordant couples to have a child. MSM preferred a rectal microbicide given familiarity with gel-based lubricants, with concerns about duration of protection in the context of unplanned consensual sex and rape. Biomedical interventions to prevent HIV transmission, rather than

  5. Space to Space Communication Subsystem Manned Spaceflight and Its Key Technology%载人航天空空通信子系统及其关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石云墀

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the space to space communication subsystem which would realize the transmit the data between Shenzhou spaceship and Tiangong target spacecraft and the functiofi and main performances of the space to space communicator were introduced in this paper. The DS/SS technology which could provide very good performance in anti-jamming and secret communication was applied in the space to space communication subsystem. And the key technologies of sequence synchronization and carrier synchronization in the demodulation of IF DS/SS signal which was the core in DS/SS were analyzed. Using the digital demodulation scheme would reduce the complexity of debugging and increase the reliability of the system.%介绍了实现神舟运输飞船与天宫目标飞行器间数据通信和传输的空空通信子系统的构成,以及空空通信机的功能及其主要性能指标。空空通信子系统采用抗干扰能力强、保密性优的直接序列扩频通信技术。分析了其中的核心中频解扩解调中的伪码同步和载波同步等关键技术,应用数字解调方案降低了子系统调试难度,提高了可靠性。

  6. 智能电网的关键技术与功能实现%Key Technology and Function Realization for Smart Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐德明; 徐健; 姚晓玲

    2011-01-01

    介绍了智能电网的概念、主要特征及其与现有电网的差异;总结了包括先进的电网设备、参数量测、智能电网通信技术、信息管理系统、智能调度、分布式能源接入等智能电网的关键技术,并从智能控制中心、智能变电站、智能线路、智能需求侧管理4个主要方面分析了智能电网的实现;指出具有清洁、安全、灵活、经济、友好等性能的智能电网将成为未来电网的发展方向。%Introduction was made to concepts, main features of smart grid and differences with existing power grid. This paper summarized the key technologies of smart grid, including advanced power grid equipment, parameters measurement, communication technology of smart grid, information management system, smart dispatch, distributed energy connecting-in etc. Analysis was made to the realization of smart grid from four main aspects such as smart control center, smart substation, smart line and management of smart requirements. It is pointed out that smart grid with cleaning, safety, flexibility, economy and friendly performances will be the direction of development for future power grid.

  7. Identifying Effective Design Features of Technology-Infused Inquiry Learning Modules: A Two-Year Study of Students' Inquiry Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Fang, Su-Chi; Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsin-Kai, Wu; Wu, Pai-Hsing; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2016-01-01

    The two-year study aimed to explore how students' development of different inquiry abilities actually benefited from the design of technology-infused learning modules. Three learning modules on the topics of seasons, environmental issues and air pollution were developed to facilitate students' inquiry abilities: questioning, planning, analyzing,…

  8. The Delphi Technique in Identifying Learning Objectives for the Development of Science, Technology and Society Modules for Palestinian Ninth Grade Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualrob, Marwan M. A.; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines how learning objectives based upon science, technology and society (STS) elements for Palestinian ninth grade science textbooks were identified, which was part of a bigger study to establish an STS foundation in the ninth grade science curriculum in Palestine. First, an initial list of STS elements was determined. Second,…

  9. Identifying and Integrating Relevant Educational/Instructional Technology (E/IT) for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students with Disabilities in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monica R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to address the significant void in the literature related to technology integration for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with disabilities living in urban communities. Given that the vast majority of CLD students attend school within urban districts, the focus of this article is to (a) identify and…

  10. Development of the regional EPR and PACS sharing system on the infrastructure of cloud computing technology controlled by patient identifier cross reference manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Hiroshi; Teramoto, Kei; Kawai, Tatsurou; Mochida, Maki; Nishimura, Motohiro

    2013-01-01

    A Newly developed Oshidori-Net2, providing medical professionals with remote access to electronic patient record systems (EPR) and PACSs of four hospitals, of different venders, using cloud computing technology and patient identifier cross reference manager. The operation was started from April 2012. The patients moved to other hospital were applied. Objective is to show the merit and demerit of the new system.

  11. Research on review technology for three key safety factors of periodic safety review (PSR) and its application to Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shoulv; Yao Weida; Dou Yikang; Lin Shaoxuan; Cao Yenan; Zhou Quanfu; Zheng Jiong; Zhang Ming

    2009-04-01

    In 2001, after 10 years' operation, Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (Q1) started to carry out periodic safety review (PSR) based on a nuclear safety guideline, Periodic Safety Review for Operational Nuclear Power Plants (HAF0312), issued by National Nuclear Safety Administration of China (NNSA). Entrusted by the owner of Q1, Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI) implemented reviews of three key safety factors including safety analysis, equipment qualification and ageing. PSR was a challenging work in China at that time and through three years' research and practice, SNERDI summarized a systematic achievement for the review including review methodology, scoping, review contents and implementation steps, etc.. During the process of review for the three safety factors, totally 148 review reports and 341 recommendations for corrections were submitted to Q1. These reports and recommendations have provided guidance for correction actions as follow-up of PSR. This paper focuses on technical aspects to carry out PSR for the above-mentioned three safety factors, including review scoping, contents, methodology and main steps. The review technology and relevant experience can be taken for reference for other NPPs to carry out PSR. (authors)

  12. Integrated Network Analysis Identifies Fight-Club Nodes as a Class of Hubs Encompassing Key Putative Switch Genes That Induce Major Transcriptome Reprogramming during Grapevine Development[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named “fight-club hubs” characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named “switch genes” was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. PMID:25490918

  13. Identifying Qualitative Factors Affecting the Production and Distribution of Information and Knowledge in Science and Technology Parks of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haji Shamsaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to identity Qualitative factors affecting the production and distribution of information and knowledge in science and technology parks of Iran. The research was Applied Research in which, qualitative method was carried out. The population of the study was included of 10 managers of Knowledge-based Companies. The data was collected from the population using semi-structured and in-depth interviews. For data analysis, content analysis was used. Results of the qualitative factors affecting the production and distribution of information and knowledge in science and technology parks of Iran, led to extraction of 39 components which were classified in four categories: I Foreign and domestic policy, II Financial and economic support, III Infrastructure barriers and IV Cultural barriers. Results howed that overcoming the political, financial and economic, infrastructural and cultural barriers has undeniable impact on production and distribution of information and knowledge.

  14. Contexts of vulnerability and the acceptability of new biomedical HIV prevention technologies among key populations in South Africa: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millicent Atujuna

    Full Text Available New biomedical prevention technologies (NPTs may contribute to substantially reducing incident HIV infections globally. We explored acceptability and preferences for NPTs among key and other vulnerable populations in two South African townships.We conducted six focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews with adolescents, and adult heterosexual men, women, and men who have sex with men (MSM (n = 48, and eight in-depth interviews with key informant healthcare workers. The interview guide described pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, vaginal rings, rectal microbicides and HIV vaccines, and explored acceptability and product preferences. Focus groups and in-depth interviews (45-80 minutes were conducted in Xhosa, audiotaped, and transcribed and translated into English. Data were coded and reviewed using framework analysis with NVivo software.Overall, initial enthusiasm and willingness to use NPTs evolved into concerns about how particular NPTs might affect or require alterations in one's everyday lifestyle and practices. Different product preferences and motivations emerged by population based on similarity to existing practices and contexts of vulnerability. Adult women and female adolescents preferred a vaginal ring and HIV vaccine, motivated by longer duration of protection to mitigate feared repercussions from male partners, including threats to their marriage and safety, and a context of ubiquitous rape. Male adolescents preferred an HIV vaccine, seen as protection in serodiscordant relationships and convenient in obviating the HIV stigma and cost involved in buying condoms. Adult men preferred PrEP, given familiarity with oral medications and mistrust of injections, seen as enabling serodiscordant couples to have a child. MSM preferred a rectal microbicide given familiarity with gel-based lubricants, with concerns about duration of protection in the context of unplanned consensual sex and rape.Biomedical interventions to prevent HIV transmission

  15. Key technology for treating slack coal blockage in CBM recovery: A case study from multi-lateral horizontal wells in the Qinshui Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of coal bed, slack coal production is inevitable in gas recovery sby water drainage. When coalbed methane (CBM wells are reentered after low energy exploitation and shut-in, the negative effect of slack coal production on productivity of CBM is irreversible. In this paper, the CBM occurrence characteristics and multi-lateral horizontal well trajectory in the Qinshui Basin, Shanxi Province, were analyzed. In the multi-lateral horizontal wells, the expected gas production rate could not be reached and the production rate after shut-in maintenance could not restore to the level before shut-in. The reason for these issues is that migration pathways in the reservoirs are blocked by slack coal deposits, while formation water and slack coal deposit accumulated at the troughs of horizontal sections enlarge the resistance for gas to flow into the bottom hole. Furthermore, three key technologies to deal with slack coal blockage were proposed. Firstly, CBM horizontal well trajectory should follow the principle of keeping the wellbores smooth and updip instead of being “wavy”, on the premise of guaranteeing CBM drilling rate. Secondly, the cavities of production wells, as an important part of multi-lateral horizontal wells, are capable of settling sand, and can be used for gas–liquid–solid separation. And thirdly, a tree-like horizontal well with its main hole set on stable seam top or floor, provides a stable well flushing passage for coal powder. This research provides a useful attempt in solving the problem of slack coal production in gas recovery by water drainage.

  16. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones. The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new

  17. Key Factors Mediating the Use of a Mobile Technology Tool Designed to Develop Social and Life Skills in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Joseph; Branch, Corinne; March, Caty; Lerman, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of late there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with social and life skills. There has also been a burgeoning interest in the potential use of mobile technology in the classroom and in the use of such technology to support children with ASD. Building on these…

  18. Improving productivity in agriculture. One of the five key areas to sustainable development where progress is possible with the resources and technologies at our disposal today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Despite progress made since the 1996 World Food Summit that set the goal of halving the number of undernourished people by the 2015, serious food insecurity persists in many parts of the world. Although more food is being produced worldwide than ever before, some 800 million people are still chronically malnourished. Improving agricultural productivity is a driving force for both economic and social development. When agriculture falters, income sources are lost, social ties are disrupted, and, as a result, societies become more mobile. Up-to-date technologies, improved plant and animal stock, and better soil and water management practices not only combat food insecurity, they are also important to achieving sustainable agriculture practices essential to maintaining an appropriate balance between conservation and use of all the resources required to grow crops and raise livestock. Through its programme in Food and Agriculture operated with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance capacities at national and international levels for identifying and alleviating constraints to sustainable food security by facilitating development and adoption of nuclear and related biotechnologies. With an annual budget of nearly $10 million, this programme helps Member States to improve productivity in agriculture, particularly through better water and soil management practices, efficient crop nutrition, and control of insect pests

  19. Constructing the informatics and information technology foundations of a medical device evaluation system: a report from the FDA unique device identifier demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Joseph P; Roach, James; Forsyth, Thomas; Helmering, Paul; Dummitt, Benjamin; Tcheng, James E

    2018-02-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recognized the need to improve the tracking of medical device safety and performance, with implementation of Unique Device Identifiers (UDIs) in electronic health information as a key strategy. The FDA funded a demonstration by Mercy Health wherein prototype UDIs were incorporated into its electronic information systems. This report describes the demonstration's informatics architecture. Prototype UDIs for coronary stents were created and implemented across a series of information systems, resulting in UDI-associated data flow from manufacture through point of use to long-term follow-up, with barcode scanning linking clinical data with UDI-associated device attributes. A reference database containing device attributes and the UDI Research and Surveillance Database (UDIR) containing the linked clinical and device information were created, enabling longitudinal assessment of device performance. The demonstration included many stakeholders: multiple Mercy departments, manufacturers, health system partners, the FDA, professional societies, the National Cardiovascular Data Registry, and information system vendors. The resulting system of systems is described in detail, including entities, functions, linkage between the UDIR and proprietary systems using UDIs as the index key, data flow, roles and responsibilities of actors, and the UDIR data model. The demonstration provided proof of concept that UDIs can be incorporated into provider and enterprise electronic information systems and used as the index key to combine device and clinical data in a database useful for device evaluation. Keys to success and challenges to achieving this goal were identified. Fundamental informatics principles were central to accomplishing the system of systems model. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Using information communication technology to identify deficits in rural health care: a mixed-methods evaluation from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahedi, Katharina; Flores, Walter; Beiersmann, Claudia; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Jahn, Albrecht

    2018-01-01

    In August 2014, the Centre for the Studies of Equity and Governance in Health Systems (CEGSS) in Guatemala launched an online platform, which facilitates complaints about health services via text messages. The aim is to collect, systemise and forward such complaints to relevant institutions, and to create a data pool on perceived deficits of health care in rural Guatemala. To evaluate if the online platform is an accepted, user-friendly and efficient medium to engage citizens in the reporting of health care deficiencies in Guatemala. The general study design of this research was a mixed-method approach including a quantitative analysis of complaints received and a qualitative exploration of the attitude of community leaders towards the platform. User statistics showed that a total of N = 228 messages were sent to the platform in the period August 2014-March 2015. The majority of complaints (n = 162, 71%) fell under the 'lack of drugs, equipment or supplies' category. The community leaders welcomed the platform, describing it as modern and progressive. Despite feedback mechanisms and methods to respond to complaints not yet being fully developed, many users showed a high intrinsic motivation to use the new tool. Others, however, were restrained by fear of personal consequences and distrust of the state's judicial system. Access to mobile phones, reception, and phone credit or battery life did not pose major obstacles, but the producing and sending of correctly formatted messages was observed to be difficult. The online platform paired with SMS technology appears to be a viable approach to collect citizens' complaints in health care and connect citizens with relevant institutions. Further studies should be conducted to quantify follow-up activities and the impact on local health care provision.

  1. Fiscal 1998 research achievement report. Development of key technology for high-efficiency semiconductor manufacturing process; 1998 nendo kokoritsu handotai seizo process kiban gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    In the development of large-aperture/high-density plasma technology, research and development was carried out for balanced electron drift plasma technologies for uniform control of plasma density and the like, such as an excited plasma source and plasma drift to enable wide-range plasma generation in a chamber. In the development of high-efficiency exposure technology, studies were made for stable generation and control of short wavelength excimer laser and for higher-speed large-aperture mask writing by use of an electron beam. In the development of higher-speed processing and energy-efficient technologies, research and development was conducted involving probe card technology for increasing the speed of semiconductor inspection, software-aided virtual tester technology, local energy-efficient cleaning technology in wafer processing and transportation, sheet-type flexible manufacturing system, and the like. (NEDO)

  2. Key Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Y Rieger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A few months ago, while I was participating in a conference about open access infrastructures, a delegate from a governmental agency asked, “Why does each library need to maintain a repository for their own scientists?” He was rightfully wondering if a broad collaboration in building a network of archives will provide a durable and extensible technology and service framework for ever-increasing digital scholarly content. The ensuing discussion did not offer a plausible response but accentuated that we do not have in place a plan for building an expandable infrastructure to facilitate communication and exchange of information among rapidly proliferating distinct instances of institutional and subject repositories.

  3. Using a network-based approach to identify interactions structure for innovation in a low-technology intensive sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouinait, C.; Lepori, B.; Christen, D.; Carlen, C.; Foray, D.

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge transfer in the agricultural network is realized through interactions between stakeholders, inducing innovation development and diffusion. The aim of the paper was to trace interactions in the Swiss apricot sector. Identification of collaborations using face-toface interviews of knowledge producers and knowledge users were conducted. The study showed that informal collaborations are exclusively used to transfer knowledge and create innovation. Personal ties have been established between internal actors of the value chain (e.g. professionals like producers, transformers and wholesalers). External partners like public research organizations have created strong ties with agricultural stakeholders. However, the spatial proximity does not guarantee higher rate of collaborations. The links with the Universities of Applied Sciences, closely located, are sparse. Hence, in order to warrant innovation success, spatial proximity has to be balanced with organizational proximity. Despite the educational background of producers, there are a few connections with universities. Human capital formation and education in the agricultural sector should be examined to design innovation policy. Besides, the public research center for agriculture catalyzes knowledge transfer and facilitates innovation adoption. A suitable ecology of actors through the value chain from research to application is necessary. Furthermore, productive interactions should be investigated to identify the efficiency of knowledge and innovation transfer mechanisms and potential gaps in this process. (Author)

  4. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  5. A Methodology for Validating Safety Heuristics Using Clinical Simulations: Identifying and Preventing Possible Technology-Induced Errors Related to Using Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Carvalho, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, health information systems (HIS) safety has emerged as a significant concern for governments. Recently, research has emerged that has documented the ability of HIS to be implicated in the harm and death of patients. Researchers have attempted to develop methods that can be used to prevent or reduce technology-induced errors. Some researchers are developing methods that can be employed prior to systems release. These methods include the development of safety heuristics and clinical simulations. In this paper, we outline our methodology for developing safety heuristics specific to identifying the features or functions of a HIS user interface design that may lead to technology-induced errors. We follow this with a description of a methodological approach to validate these heuristics using clinical simulations. PMID:23606902

  6. Ineffective healthcare technology management in Benin’s public health sector: the perceptions of key actors and their ability to address the main problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houngbo, P.T.; de Cock Buning, J.T.; Bunders- Aelen, J.G.F.; Medenou, D.; Dakpanon, L.Y.; Zweekhorst, M.B.M.; Coleman, H.L.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low-income countries face many contextual challenges to manage healthcare technologies effectively, as the majority are imported and resources are constrained to a greater extent. Previous healthcare technology management (HTM) policies in Benin have failed to produce better quality of

  7. Finding the Needle in the Haystack—the Use of Microfluidic Droplet Technology to Identify Vitamin-Secreting Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient screening technologies aim to reduce both the time and the cost required for identifying rare mutants possessing a phenotype of interest in a mutagenized population. In this study, we combined a mild mutagenesis strategy with high-throughput screening based on microfluidic droplet technology to identify Lactococcus lactis variants secreting vitamin B2 (riboflavin. Initially, we used a roseoflavin-resistant mutant of L. lactis strain MG1363, JC017, which secreted low levels of riboflavin. By using fluorescence-activated droplet sorting, several mutants that secreted riboflavin more efficiently than JC017 were readily isolated from the mutagenesis library. The screening was highly efficient, and candidates with as few as 1.6 mutations per million base pairs (Mbp were isolated. The genetic characterization revealed that riboflavin production was triggered by mutations inhibiting purine biosynthesis, which is surprising since the purine nucleotide GTP is a riboflavin precursor. Purine starvation in the mutants induced overexpression of the riboflavin biosynthesis cluster ribABGH. When the purine starvation was relieved by purine supplementation in the growth medium, the outcome was an immediate downregulation of the riboflavin biosynthesis cluster and a reduction in riboflavin production. Finally, by applying the new isolates in milk fermentation, the riboflavin content of milk (0.99 mg/liter was improved to 2.81 mg/liter, compared with 0.66 mg/liter and 1.51 mg/liter by using the wild-type strain and the original roseoflavin-resistant mutant JC017, respectively. The results obtained demonstrate how powerful classical mutagenesis can be when combined with droplet-based microfluidic screening technology for obtaining microorganisms with useful attributes.

  8. 48{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2017). Key topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence. Technical session: Operation and safety of nuclear installations, fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollands, Thorsten [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsforschung

    2017-12-15

    The sessions Fuel and Materials and Containment and SFP, as part of the Technical Sessions Operation and Safety of Nuclear Installations, Fuel implemented in the Key Topic Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence were chaired by Dr. Thorsten Hollands (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH) and Dr. Erwin Fischer (PreussenElektra GmbH) who was the keynote coordinator for the Technical Sessions. Both sessions consist of a keynote lecture followed by technical presentations.

  9. CRISPR and piRNAs: Fundamental Mechanisms and Key Applications of the Next Generation of Molecular Technologies in the Field of Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    " Exploration into the roles of genes, the proteins that they encode, and the functions that they carry out within the cell is a founding pillar in the field of toxicology. Recent breakthroughs in clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology...

  10. Marginal abatement cost and carbon reduction potential outlook of key energy efficiency technologies in China's building sector to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, He; Wei, Qingpeng; Wang, Hailin

    2014-01-01

    China achieved an energy savings of 67.5 Mtce in the building sector at the end of the 11th Five-Year Plan and set a new target of 116 Mtce by the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan. In this paper, an improved bottom-up model is developed to assess the carbon abatement potential and marginal abatement cost (MAC) of 34 selected energy-saving technologies/measures for China's building sector. The total reduction potential is 499.8 million t-CO 2 by 2030. 4.8 Gt-CO 2 potential will be achieved cumulatively to 2030. By 2030, total primary energy consumption of Chinese building sector will rise continuously to 1343 Mtce in the reference scenario and 1114 Mtce in the carbon reduction scenario. Total carbon dioxide emission will rise to 2.39 Gt-CO 2 and 1.9 Gt-CO 2 in two scenarios separately. The average carbon abatement cost of the aforementioned technologies is 19.5 $/t-CO 2 . The analysis reveals that strengthening successfully energy-saving technologies is important, especially for the residential building sector. The central government's direct investments in such technologies should be reduced without imposing significant negative effects. - Highlights: • MAC of 34 energy-saving technologies of China's building sector is calculated. • Energy use and CO 2 emission of China's building sector by 2030 is forecasted. • The reference and the carbon reduction scenarios are compared

  11. Research on Key Technologies of the next generation mobile communication%关于下一代移动通信的关键技术探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄美华

    2015-01-01

    当今社会的竞争,在一定程度上是信息的竞争,随着网络技术和科学技术的发展,人们对于网络协作性和速度性的要求越来越高,因此,改进通信技术对于社会的发展和人们生活水平的提高具有十分重要的意义.下一代移动通信的发展需要更多技术的支持,当然各通信公司也在集中力量发展技术,希望在下一代技术改革中抢占市场,就目前而言,下一代无线通信技术中最关键最受人瞩目的要属多入多出(MIMO)技术,在实际应用中,系统经常需要在一个基点和多个移动台之间进行通信, MIMO技术的产生为多点之间的联系提供了更大的便利,本文将对MIMO系统进行简单介绍,分析其存在的问题,并进行相关应用的研究,希望为下一代移动通信技术的发展提供参考.%Competition in today's society,in a certain extent,is the competition of information,with the development of network technology and science and technology,people for network collaboration and speed requirements more and more high.Therefore,improved communication technology for the development of the society and people's life level of with high is very important significance.The link is the most popular in the development of next generation mobile communication need more technical support,of course,the communication company concentrate on technology development,in the hope that the next generation of technology reform to seize the market,at present,the next generation of wireless communication technology in the most critical attention to multiple input multiple (MIMO) technology in the practical application, the system is often needed in a base and a plurality of mobile stations between communication, MIMO technology to provide greater convenience,this paper will be of MIMO system are simple introduced, analyzed the existing problems and the related application research,hope for the next generation mobile communication technology development

  12. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  13. Biofuels and regulatory framework: recent developments and key technological routes; Biocombustiveis e marco regulatorio: evolucao recente e as principais rotas tecnologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berni, Mauro Donizeti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: mauro_berni@yahoo.com.br; Guerra, Sinclair M. Guy , [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas

    2008-07-01

    The excessive dependence of energy of the current societies, and the growing concern with the potentials associated climate change motivate the implementation of energy systems with base in resources of renewable energy. Climate change is the greatest environmental challenge the world is facing today. Rising global temperatures will bring changes in weather patterns, rising sea levels and increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. The effects will be felt here in Brazil; internationally there may be severe problems for people in regions that are particularly vulnerable. Brazil with experience in the bio fuels production can participate as a supplier of new technology for his production, at world level. This work, shows the recent evolution of the regulation for the bio fuels in Brazil, as well as their main ones routes technology, and it indicates the possible alternatives to guarantee the sustainability for the production and use. (author)

  14. Mobile phone technology identifies and recruits trained citizens to perform CPR on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims prior to ambulance arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringh, Mattias; Fredman, David; Nordberg, Per; Stark, Tomas; Hollenberg, Jacob

    2011-12-01

    In a two-parted study, evaluate a new concept were mobile phone technology is used to dispatch lay responders to nearby out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). Mobile phone positioning systems (MPS) can geographically locate selected mobile phone users at any given moment. A mobile phone service using MPS was developed and named Mobile Life Saver (MLS). Simulation study: 25 volunteers named mobile responders (MRs) were connected to MLS. Ambulance time intervals from 22 consecutive OHCAs in 2005 were used as controls. The MRs randomly moved in Stockholm city centre and were dispatched to simulated OHCAs (identical to controls) if they were within a 350 m distance. Real life study: during 25 weeks 1271-1801 MRs trained in CPR were connected to MLS. MLS was activated at the dispatch centre in parallel with ambulance dispatch when an OHCA was suspected. The MRs were dispatched if they were within 500 m from the suspected OHCA. Simulation study: mean response time for the MRs compared to historical ambulance time intervals was reduced by 2 min 20s (44%), pMobile phone technology can be used to identify and recruit nearby CPR-trained citizens to OHCAs for bystander CPR prior to ambulance arrival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 46{sup th} annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2015). Key topics / Outstanding know-how and sustainable innovations enhanced safety and operation excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamm, Matthias [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). R and D; Hollands, Thorsten [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany). Reactor Safety Research Div.

    2016-01-15

    Summary report on the Technical Sessions ''Know-how, New Build and Innovations'' and ''Operation and Safety of Nuclear Installations, Fuel SA: WASA-BOSS + CESAM'' of the 46{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2015) held in Berlin, 5 to 7 May 2015. Other Sessions of AMNT 2015 have been covered in atw 7 to 12 (2015) and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  16. 46{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2015). Key topics / Outstanding know-how and sustainable innovations / Enhanced safety and operation excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffrath, Andreas; Scheuerer, Martina [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Garching (Germany); Oenneby Carina; Benjaminsson, Ulf [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden). Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA)

    2015-11-15

    Summary report on the Topical Sessions ''CFD Simulations for Reactor Safety Relevant Objectives '' and ''Fuel Management During the Last Cycles and Beyond'' of the 46th Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2015) held in Berlin, 5 to 7 May 2015. Other Sessions of AMNT 2015 have been covered in atw 7 to 10 (2015) and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  17. Genetic and pharmacological screens converge in identifying FLIP, BCL2 and IAP proteins as key regulators of sensitivity to the TRAIL-inducing anti-cancer agent ONC201/TIC10

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joshua E.; Prabhu, Varun V.; Talekar, Mala; van den Heuvel, AP; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T.; Fritz, Jennifer L.; Beck, Adam; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2015-01-01

    ONC201/TIC10 is a small molecule inducer of the TRAIL gene under current investigation as a novel anticancer agent. In this study, we identify critical molecular determinants of ONC201 sensitivity offering potential utility as pharmacodynamic or predictive response markers. By screening a library of kinase siRNAs in combination with a subcytotoxic dose of ONC201, we identified several kinases that ablated tumor cell sensitivity, including the MAPK pathway inducer KSR1. Unexpectedly, KSR1 sile...

  18. Computer science: Key to a space program renaissance. The 1981 NASA/ASEE summer study on the use of computer science and technology in NASA. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R. A., Jr. (Editor); Carlson, P. A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Adoption of an aggressive computer science research and technology program within NASA will: (1) enable new mission capabilities such as autonomous spacecraft, reliability and self-repair, and low-bandwidth intelligent Earth sensing; (2) lower manpower requirements, especially in the areas of Space Shuttle operations, by making fuller use of control center automation, technical support, and internal utilization of state-of-the-art computer techniques; (3) reduce project costs via improved software verification, software engineering, enhanced scientist/engineer productivity, and increased managerial effectiveness; and (4) significantly improve internal operations within NASA with electronic mail, managerial computer aids, an automated bureaucracy and uniform program operating plans.

  19. Revaluation of the concept of the human condition and the common heritage of mankind: Keys to the social benefits of space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocca, Aldo Armando

    Men may do many things, but they must never forget the human condition in any act or relation with a fellow human being. Space Law has vindicated the supreme value of man as a legal subject par excellence. The dignity of the human being is a value that rates above any scientific or technological advance. A benefit, by definition and derivation, is anything contributing to an improvement in a condition. Social benefits pertain only to human beings, who are their sole beneficiaries. Developing countries are young nations that through their international relations may, and indeed must, realize the benefits of space technology. The principle of the "common heritage of Mankind" was created to satisfy the aspirations of all peoples and to meet the needs of both industrialized and developing countries. Only a groundless fear and lack of vision of the future can induce governments to delay its implementation. We must not forget that the concept was transformed into a principle of international positive law by the unanimous decision of the international community, which enshrined it in the Moon Agreement. The social and individual responsibility of the scientist is becoming even more clearly defined, and scientists play an important role in the conduct of nations. Through education, including education in the humanities and a graduation pledge, the scientist has embarked on the road leading to an active presence in society, facing his responsibility. Inter-generational equity contributes to strengthening the concept of the human condition and the legal principle of the common heritage of mankind.

  20. Application of next-generation sequencing technology to study genetic diversity and identify unique SNP markers in bread wheat from Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Suchecki, Radoslaw; Eliby, Serik; Abugalieva, Aigul; Kenebayev, Serik; Langridge, Peter

    2014-09-28

    New SNP marker platforms offer the opportunity to investigate the relationships between wheat cultivars from different regions and assess the mechanism and processes that have led to adaptation to particular production environments. Wheat breeding has a long history in Kazakhstan and the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between key varieties from Kazakhstan and germplasm from breeding programs for other regions. The study revealed 5,898 polymorphic markers amongst ten cultivars, of which 2,730 were mapped in the consensus genetic map. Mapped SNP markers were distributed almost equally across the A and B genomes, with between 279 and 484 markers assigned to each chromosome. Marker coverage was approximately 10-fold lower in the D genome. There were 863 SNP markers identified as unique to specific cultivars, and clusters of these markers (regions containing more than three closely mapped unique SNPs) showed specific patterns on the consensus genetic map for each cultivar. Significant intra-varietal genetic polymorphism was identified in three cultivars (Tzelinnaya 3C, Kazakhstanskaya rannespelaya and Kazakhstanskaya 15). Phylogenetic analysis based on inter-varietal polymorphism showed that the very old cultivar Erythrospermum 841 was the most genetically distinct from the other nine cultivars from Kazakhstan, falling in a clade together with the American cultivar Sonora and genotypes from Central and South Asia. The modern cultivar Kazakhstanskaya 19 also fell into a separate clade, together with the American cultivar Thatcher. The remaining eight cultivars shared a single sub-clade but were categorised into four clusters. The accumulated data for SNP marker polymorphisms amongst bread wheat genotypes from Kazakhstan may be used for studying genetic diversity in bread wheat, with potential application for marker-assisted selection and the preparation of a set of genotype-specific markers.

  1. Capacity building for sustainable development. One of the five key areas to sustainable development where progress is possible with the resources and technologies at our disposal today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Today, approximately one third of the world's population lack access to modern energy services. Poverty eradication and sustainable development will require not just access, but also clean and affordable energy services. Expanding access to such services requires careful planning. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) helps developing countries and economies in transition build their energy planning capabilities with respect to all three pillars of sustainable development - economic, environmental, and social. The Agency develops and transfers planning models tailored to their special circumstances. It transfers the latest data on technologies, resources, and economics. It trains local experts. It jointly analyzes national options and interprets results. And the IAEA helps establish the continuing local planning expertise needed to independently chart national paths to sustainable development

  2. Analysis of the Key and Difficult Points in the Engineering Construction Technology of the Steel Structures of a Super High-rise Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Lijun; Li, Hengxu

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, with the rapid development of the economy of China, the traditional building structure has not been able to meet the current people’s demands and the super high-rise building has become a symbol of a city. In the current period, the research on the super high-rise building in the architectural industry of China is late and the technical blanks exist in some construction difficulties in the super high-rise steel structures. Based on the above, a brief analysis and discussion on the difficult construction technology in the steel structures of a super high-rise building and some measures are presented for reference of the relevant personnel in this paper.

  3. Design of a High Density SNP Genotyping Assay in the Pig Using SNPs Identified and Characterized by Next Generation Sequencing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antonio M.; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Affara, Nabeel A.; Amaral, Andreia J.; Archibald, Alan L.; Beever, Jonathan E.; Bendixen, Christian; Churcher, Carol; Clark, Richard; Dehais, Patrick; Hansen, Mark S.; Hedegaard, Jakob; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Kerstens, Hindrik H.; Law, Andy S.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Milan, Denis; Nonneman, Danny J.; Rohrer, Gary A.; Rothschild, Max F.; Smith, Tim P. L.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Van Tassell, Curt P.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Wiedmann, Ralph T.; Schook, Lawrence B.; Groenen, Martien A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The dissection of complex traits of economic importance to the pig industry requires the availability of a significant number of genetic markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study was conducted to discover several hundreds of thousands of porcine SNPs using next generation sequencing technologies and use these SNPs, as well as others from different public sources, to design a high-density SNP genotyping assay. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 19 reduced representation libraries derived from four swine breeds (Duroc, Landrace, Large White, Pietrain) and a Wild Boar population and three restriction enzymes (AluI, HaeIII and MspI) were sequenced using Illumina's Genome Analyzer (GA). The SNP discovery effort resulted in the de novo identification of over 372K SNPs. More than 549K SNPs were used to design the Illumina Porcine 60K+SNP iSelect Beadchip, now commercially available as the PorcineSNP60. A total of 64,232 SNPs were included on the Beadchip. Results from genotyping the 158 individuals used for sequencing showed a high overall SNP call rate (97.5%). Of the 62,621 loci that could be reliably scored, 58,994 were polymorphic yielding a SNP conversion success rate of 94%. The average minor allele frequency (MAF) for all scorable SNPs was 0.274. Conclusions/Significance Overall, the results of this study indicate the utility of using next generation sequencing technologies to identify large numbers of reliable SNPs. In addition, the validation of the PorcineSNP60 Beadchip demonstrated that the assay is an excellent tool that will likely be used in a variety of future studies in pigs. PMID:19654876

  4. Identifying barriers to Science, Technology, Society and environment (STSE) educational goals and pedagogy in science education: A case study of UMASS Lowell undergraduate engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaneuf, Tiffany

    The implementation of sustainable development in higher education is a global trend. Engineers, as gatekeepers of technological innovation, confront increasingly complex world issues ranging from economic and social to political and environmental. Recently, a multitude of government reports have argued that solving such complex problems requires changes in the pedagogy of engineering education, such as that prescribed by the Science, Technology, Society, and education (STS) movement that grew out of the environmental movement in the 70s. In STS students are engaged in the community by understanding that scientific progress is innately a sociopolitical process that involves dimensions of power, wealth and responsibility. United States accreditation criteria now demand "the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context" (ABET Engineering Accreditation Commission 2005). With such emphasis on STS education as necessary to address complex world issues, it is vital to assess the barriers in the traditional engineering curriculum that may inhibit the success of such educational reform. This study identifies barriers to STS goals and pedagogy in post secondary science education by using the Francis College of Engineering at UMASS Lowell as a single case study. The study draws on existing literature to develop a theoretical framework for assessing four hypothesized barriers to STS education in undergraduate engineering. Identification of barriers to STS education in engineering generates a critical reflection of post secondary science education and its role in preparing engineers to be active citizens in shaping a rapidly globalizing world. The study offers policy recommendations for enabling post secondary science education to incorporate STS education into its curriculum.

  5. Structural, kinetic, and docking studies of artificial imine reductases based on biotin-streptavidin technology: an induced lock-and-key hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Victor Muñoz; Dürrenberger, Marc; Heinisch, Tillmann; Lledós, Agustí; Schirmer, Tilman; Ward, Thomas R; Maréchal, Jean-Didier

    2014-11-05

    An artificial imine reductase results upon incorporation of a biotinylated Cp*Ir moiety (Cp* = C5Me5(-)) within homotetrameric streptavidin (Sav) (referred to as Cp*Ir(Biot-p-L)Cl] ⊂ Sav). Mutation of S112 reveals a marked effect of the Ir/streptavidin ratio on both the saturation kinetics as well as the enantioselectivity for the production of salsolidine. For [Cp*Ir(Biot-p-L)Cl] ⊂ S112A Sav, both the reaction rate and the selectivity (up to 96% ee (R)-salsolidine, kcat 14-4 min(-1) vs [Ir], KM 65-370 mM) decrease upon fully saturating all biotin binding sites (the ee varying between 96% ee and 45% ee R). In contrast, for [Cp*Ir(Biot-p-L)Cl] ⊂ S112K Sav, both the rate and the selectivity remain nearly constant upon varying the Ir/streptavidin ratio [up to 78% ee (S)-salsolidine, kcat 2.6 min(-1), KM 95 mM]. X-ray analysis complemented with docking studies highlight a marked preference of the S112A and S112K Sav mutants for the SIr and RIr enantiomeric forms of the cofactor, respectively. Combining both docking and saturation kinetic studies led to the formulation of an enantioselection mechanism relying on an "induced lock-and-key" hypothesis: the host protein dictates the configuration of the biotinylated Ir-cofactor which, in turn, by and large determines the enantioselectivity of the imine reductase.

  6. Labonté Identifies Key Issues for Health Promoters in the New World Order; Comment on “Health Promotion in an Age of Normative Equity and Rampant Inequality”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Raphael

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For over 35 years Ronald Labonté has been critically analyzing the state of health promotion in Canada and the world. In 1981, he identified the shortcomings of the groundbreaking Lalonde Report by warning of the seductive appeal of so-called lifestyle approaches to health. Since then, he has left a trail of critical work identifying the barriers to — and opportunities for —health promotion work. More recently, he has shown how the rise of economic globalization and acceptance of neo-liberal ideology has come to threaten the health of those in both developed and developing nations. In his recent commentary, Labonté shows how the United Nations’ 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs can offer a new direction for health promoters in these difficult times.

  7. A Novel Application of a Hybrid Delphi-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Technique: Identifying Key Success Factors in the Strategic Alignment of Collaborative Heterarchical Transportation Networks for Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Yasanur Kayikci; Volker Stix; Larry J. LeBlanc; Michael R. Bartolacci

    2014-01-01

    This research studies heterarchical collaboration in logistical transport. Specifically, it utilizes a hybrid Delphi-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach to explore the relevant criteria for the formation and maintenance of a strategic alignment for heterarchical transport collaboration. The importance of this work is that it applies a novel hybrid approach for identifying criteria for success to a little-studied form of supply chain collaboration: heterarchical collaborative transport. ...

  8. Indicators for sustainable development. One of the five key areas to sustainable development where progress is possible with the resources and technologies at our disposal today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Energy is essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life. Much of the world's energy is currently produced and used in ways that may not be sustainable in the long term. In order to assess progress towards a sustainable energy future, energy indicators that can measure and monitor important changes will be needed. The 41 indicators resulting from the IAEA activity in this field are listed in this document, 23 are identified as 'core indicators', meaning that they are either specific to energy or especially important, given the interest in working with the most compact, but still meaningful number of indicators possible

  9. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  10. THE GENESIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN PHYSICS EDUCATION: FROM IT-SUPPORT OF STUDYING TO THE FORMATION OF THE KEY AND THE SUBJECT COMPETENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola V. Holovko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the peculiarities of the process of the implementation of the information and communication technologies in teaching Physics, the development of the computer didactic provision are specified on the basis of the historical and methodological analysis. The development of the scientific fundamentals and the tools of their implementation in the homeland theory and methodology of teaching Physics, the impact of the formation of the computer-oriented environment as well as the qualitative change in the academic process subjects’ role are demonstrated. The necessity of the further didactic researches on the abovementioned issue because of the priority of the computer-oriented technologies in the formation of the key and the subject competences of the comprehensive and high school pupils in the process of Physics teaching are actualized.

  11. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  12. Lightweight Materials for Vehicles: Needs, Goals, and Future Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    during heating, cooling, and deformation - Developing an improved understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms for tranisition Friction Stir Welding ...technology worthiness - Identify new gaps and opportunities Pre- competitive Research Solicitations and Demonstrations - Identify technology gaps...or processing . Key Technology Gaps Active Research . Gap: Microstructural damage during welding limits potential usefulness - Many

  13. Harnessing Social Networks along with Consumer-Driven Electronic Communication Technologies to Identify and Engage Members of 'Hard-to-Reach' Populations: A Methodological Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rock Melanie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sampling in the absence of accurate or comprehensive information routinely poses logistical, ethical, and resource allocation challenges in social science, clinical, epidemiological, health service and population health research. These challenges are compounded if few members of a target population know each other or regularly interact. This paper reports on the sampling methods adopted in ethnographic case study research with a 'hard-to-reach' population. Methods To identify and engage a small yet diverse sample of people who met an unusual set of criteria (i.e., pet owners who had been treating cats or dogs for diabetes, four sampling strategies were used. First, copies of a recruitment letter were posted in pet-friendly places. Second, information about the study was diffused throughout the study period via word of mouth. Third, the lead investigator personally sent the recruitment letter via email to a pet owner, who then circulated the information to others, and so on. Fourth, veterinarians were enlisted to refer people who had diabetic pets. The second, third and fourth strategies rely on social networks and represent forms of chain referral sampling. Results Chain referral sampling via email proved to be the most efficient and effective, yielding a small yet diverse group of respondents within one month, and at negligible cost. Conclusions The widespread popularity of electronic communication technologies offers new methodological opportunities for researchers seeking to recruit from hard-to-reach populations.

  14. Harnessing social networks along with consumer-driven electronic communication technologies to identify and engage members of 'hard-to-reach' populations: a methodological case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie J

    2010-01-20

    Sampling in the absence of accurate or comprehensive information routinely poses logistical, ethical, and resource allocation challenges in social science, clinical, epidemiological, health service and population health research. These challenges are compounded if few members of a target population know each other or regularly interact. This paper reports on the sampling methods adopted in ethnographic case study research with a 'hard-to-reach' population. To identify and engage a small yet diverse sample of people who met an unusual set of criteria (i.e., pet owners who had been treating cats or dogs for diabetes), four sampling strategies were used. First, copies of a recruitment letter were posted in pet-friendly places. Second, information about the study was diffused throughout the study period via word of mouth. Third, the lead investigator personally sent the recruitment letter via email to a pet owner, who then circulated the information to others, and so on. Fourth, veterinarians were enlisted to refer people who had diabetic pets. The second, third and fourth strategies rely on social networks and represent forms of chain referral sampling. Chain referral sampling via email proved to be the most efficient and effective, yielding a small yet diverse group of respondents within one month, and at negligible cost. The widespread popularity of electronic communication technologies offers new methodological opportunities for researchers seeking to recruit from hard-to-reach populations.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of Hsp40 J-domain mutants identifies disruption of the critical HPD-motif as the key factor for impaired curing in vivo of the yeast prion [URE3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, You-Lin; Wang, Hao; Riedy, Michael; Roberts, Brittany-Lee; Sun, Yuna; Song, Yong-Bo; Jones, Gary W; Masison, Daniel C; Song, Youtao

    2018-05-01

    Genetic screens using Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified an array of Hsp40 (Ydj1p) J-domain mutants that are impaired in the ability to cure the yeast [URE3] prion through disrupting functional interactions with Hsp70. However, biochemical analysis of some of these Hsp40 J-domain mutants has so far failed to provide major insight into the specific functional changes in Hsp40-Hsp70 interactions. To explore the detailed structural and dynamic properties of the Hsp40 J-domain, 20 ns molecular dynamic simulations of 4 mutants (D9A, D36A, A30T, and F45S) and wild-type J-domain were performed, followed by Hsp70 docking simulations. Results demonstrated that although the Hsp70 interaction mechanism of the mutants may vary, the major structural change was targeted to the critical HPD motif of the J-domain. Our computational analysis fits well with previous yeast genetics studies regarding highlighting the importance of J-domain function in prion propagation. During the molecular dynamics simulations several important residues were identified and predicted to play an essential role in J-domain structure. Among these residues, Y26 and F45 were confirmed, using both in silico and in vivo methods, as being critical for Ydj1p function.

  16. Genetic and pharmacological screens converge in identifying FLIP, BCL2 and IAP proteins as key regulators of sensitivity to the TRAIL-inducing anti-cancer agent ONC201/TIC10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua E.; Prabhu, Varun V.; Talekar, Mala; van den Heuvel, AP; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T.; Fritz, Jennifer L.; Beck, Adam; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2015-01-01

    ONC201/TIC10 is a small molecule inducer of the TRAIL gene under current investigation as a novel anticancer agent. In this study, we identify critical molecular determinants of ONC201 sensitivity offering potential utility as pharmacodynamic or predictive response markers. By screening a library of kinase siRNAs in combination with a subcytotoxic dose of ONC201, we identified several kinases that ablated tumor cell sensitivity, including the MAPK pathway inducer KSR1. Unexpectedly, KSR1 silencing did not affect MAPK signaling in the presence or absence of ONC201, but instead reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins FLIP, Mcl-1, Bcl-2, cIAP1, cIAP2, and survivin. In parallel to this work, we also conducted a synergy screen in which ONC201 was combined with approved small molecule anticancer drugs. In multiple cancer cell populations, ONC201 synergized with diverse drug classes including the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib. Notably, combining ONC201 and sorafenib led to synergistic induction of TRAIL and its receptor DR5 along with a potent induction of cell death. In a mouse xenograft model of hepatocellular carcinoma, we demonstrated that ONC201 and sorafenib cooperatively and safely triggered tumor regressions. Overall, our results established a set of determinants for ONC201 sensitivity that may predict therapeutic response, particularly in settings of sorafenib co-treatment to enhance anticancer responses. PMID:25681273

  17. Genetic and Pharmacological Screens Converge in Identifying FLIP, BCL2, and IAP Proteins as Key Regulators of Sensitivity to the TRAIL-Inducing Anticancer Agent ONC201/TIC10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua E; Prabhu, Varun V; Talekar, Mala; van den Heuvel, A Pieter J; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T; Fritz, Jennifer L; Beck, Adam; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-04-15

    ONC201/TIC10 is a small-molecule inducer of the TRAIL gene under current investigation as a novel anticancer agent. In this study, we identify critical molecular determinants of ONC201 sensitivity offering potential utility as pharmacodynamic or predictive response markers. By screening a library of kinase siRNAs in combination with a subcytotoxic dose of ONC201, we identified several kinases that ablated tumor cell sensitivity, including the MAPK pathway-inducer KSR1. Unexpectedly, KSR1 silencing did not affect MAPK signaling in the presence or absence of ONC201, but instead reduced expression of the antiapoptotic proteins FLIP, Mcl-1, Bcl-2, cIAP1, cIAP2, and survivin. In parallel to this work, we also conducted a synergy screen in which ONC201 was combined with approved small-molecule anticancer drugs. In multiple cancer cell populations, ONC201 synergized with diverse drug classes, including the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. Notably, combining ONC201 and sorafenib led to synergistic induction of TRAIL and its receptor DR5 along with a potent induction of cell death. In a mouse xenograft model of hepatocellular carcinoma, we demonstrated that ONC201 and sorafenib cooperatively and safely triggered tumor regressions. Overall, our results established a set of determinants for ONC201 sensitivity that may predict therapeutic response, particularly in settings of sorafenib cotreatment to enhance anticancer responses. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Imperfect DNA mirror repeats in the gag gene of HIV-1 (HXB2 identify key functional domains and coincide with protein structural elements in each of the mature proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Dorothy M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A DNA mirror repeat is a sequence segment delimited on the basis of its containing a center of symmetry on a single strand, e.g. 5'-GCATGGTACG-3'. It is most frequently described in association with a functionally significant site in a genomic sequence, and its occurrence is regarded as noteworthy, if not unusual. However, imperfect mirror repeats (IMRs having ≥ 50% symmetry are common in the protein coding DNA of monomeric proteins and their distribution has been found to coincide with protein structural elements – helices, β sheets and turns. In this study, the distribution of IMRs is evaluated in a polyprotein – to determine whether IMRs may be related to the position or order of protein cleavage or other hierarchal aspects of protein function. The gag gene of HIV-1 [GenBank:K03455] was selected for the study because its protein motifs and structural components are well documented. Results There is a highly specific relationship between IMRs and structural and functional aspects of the Gag polyprotein. The five longest IMRs in the polyprotein translate a key functional segment in each of the five cleavage products. Throughout the protein, IMRs coincide with functionally significant segments of the protein. A detailed annotation of the protein, which combines structural, functional and IMR data illustrates these associations. There is a significant statistical correlation between the ends of IMRs and the ends of PSEs in each of the mature proteins. Weakly symmetric IMRs (≥ 33% are related to cleavage positions and processes. Conclusion The frequency and distribution of IMRs in HIV-1 Gag indicates that DNA symmetry is a fundamental property of protein coding DNA and that different levels of symmetry are associated with different functional aspects of the gene and its protein. The interaction between IMRs and protein structure and function is precise and interwoven over the entire length of the polyprotein. The

  19. Enhancing Key Competencies of Health Professionals in the Assessment and Care of Adults at Risk of Suicide Through Education and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kathryn; Tindall, Claudia; Strudwick, Gillian

    This article describes efforts undertaken to improve the clinical competencies of health professionals in the area of suicide risk assessment, documentation, and care planning. Best practices that fit the mental health and addictions setting were identified from the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario Best Practice Guideline on Assessment and Care of Adults at Risk for Suicidal Ideation and Behaviour. A variety of methods were used to implement the guidelines at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. These included 3 in-person educational modules, an e-learning module, and the creation of an electronic health record suicide risk assessment documentation form. Results showed that interprofessional team members improved their suicide awareness and increased their confidence and knowledge in suicide risk assessment and the identification of interventions for clients at risk. Organizational level performance and quality improvement activities after implementation of the education and the electronic suicide risk assessment documentation form are being implemented through a collaboration between performance improvement, clinical education and informatics, and professional practice. The success of an interprofessional educational program of this nature is dependent on the collaboration of a number of stakeholders from a variety of areas of the organization.

  20. Utilizing ‘Omic’ technologies to identify and prioritize novel sources of resistance to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans in potato germplasm collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stephanie Marie Van Weymers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biggest threat to potato production world-wide is late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. A screen of 126 wild diploid Solanum accessions from the Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC with P. infestans isolates belonging to the genotype 13-A2 identified resistances in the species S. bulbocastanum, S. capsicibaccatum, S. microdontum, S. mochiquense, S. okadae, S. pinnatisectum, S. polyadenium, S. tarijense and S. verrucosum. Effector-omics, allele mining and diagnostic RenSeq (dRenSeq were utilized to investigate the nature of resistances in S. okadae accessions. dRenSeq in resistant S. okadae accessions 7129, 7625, 3762 and a bulk of 20 resistant progeny confirmed the presence of full-length Rpi-vnt1.1 under stringent mapping conditions and corroborated allele mining results in the accessions 7129 and 7625 as well as Avr-vnt1 recognition in transient expression assays. In contrast, susceptible S. okadae accession 3761 and a bulk of 20 susceptible progeny lacked sequence homology in the 5’ end compared to the functional Rpi-vnt1.1 gene. Further evaluation of S. okadae accessions with late blight isolates that have a broad spectrum of virulence demonstrated that, although S. okadae accessions 7129, 7625 and 7629 contain functional Rpi-vnt1.1, they also carry a novel resistance gene. We provide evidence that existing germplasm collection are important sources of novel resistances and that ‘omic’ technologies such as dRenSeq-based genomics and effector-omics are efficacious tools to rapidly explore the diversity within these collections.