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Sample records for identify interaction partners

  1. Identifying specific protein interaction partners using quantitative mass spectrometry and bead proteomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Boulon, Séverine; Lam, Yun Wah; Urcia, Roby; Boisvert, François-Michel; Vandermoere, Franck; Morrice, Nick A.; Swift, Sam; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Lamond, Angus

    2008-01-01

    The identification of interaction partners in protein complexes is a major goal in cell biology. Here we present a reliable affinity purification strategy to identify specific interactors that combines quantitative SILAC-based mass spectrometry with characterization of common contaminants binding to affinity matrices (bead proteomes). This strategy can be applied to affinity purification of either tagged fusion protein complexes or endogenous protein complexes, illustrated here using the well-characterized SMN complex as a model. GFP is used as the tag of choice because it shows minimal nonspecific binding to mammalian cell proteins, can be quantitatively depleted from cell extracts, and allows the integration of biochemical protein interaction data with in vivo measurements using fluorescence microscopy. Proteins binding nonspecifically to the most commonly used affinity matrices were determined using quantitative mass spectrometry, revealing important differences that affect experimental design. These data provide a specificity filter to distinguish specific protein binding partners in both quantitative and nonquantitative pull-down and immunoprecipitation experiments. PMID:18936248

  2. Identifying diabetes-related important protein targets with few interacting partners with the PageRank algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolmusz, Vince I

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes is a growing concern for the developed nations worldwide. New genomic, metagenomic and gene-technologic approaches may yield considerable results in the next several years in its early diagnosis, or in advances in therapy and management. In this work, we highlight some human proteins that may serve as new targets in the early diagnosis and therapy. With the help of a very successful mathematical tool for network analysis that formed the basis of the early successes of Google(TM), Inc., we analyse the human protein-protein interaction network gained from the IntAct database with a mathematical algorithm. The novelty of our approach is that the new protein targets suggested do not have many interacting partners (so, they are not hubs or super-hubs), so their inhibition or promotion probably will not have serious side effects. We have identified numerous possible protein targets for diabetes therapy and/or management; some of these have been well known for a long time (these validate our method), some of them appeared in the literature in the last 12 months (these show the cutting edge of the algorithm), and the remainder are still unknown to be connected with diabetes, witnessing completely new hits of the method.

  3. A strategy for interaction site prediction between phospho-binding modules and their partners identified from proteomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucher, Willy; Becker, Emmanuelle; Ma, Emilie; Miron, Simona; Martel, Arnaud; Ochsenbein, Françoise; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Guerois, Raphaël

    2010-12-01

    Small and large scale proteomic technologies are providing a wealth of potential interactions between proteins bearing phospho-recognition modules and their substrates. Resulting interaction maps reveal such a dense network of interactions that the functional dissection and understanding of these networks often require to break specific interactions while keeping the rest intact. Here, we developed a computational strategy, called STRIP, to predict the precise interaction site involved in an interaction with a phospho-recognition module. The method was validated by a two-hybrid screen carried out using the ForkHead Associated (FHA)1 domain of Rad53, a key protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA checkpoint, as a bait. In this screen we detected 11 partners, including Cdc7 and Cdc45, essential components of the DNA replication machinery. FHA domains are phospho-threonine binding modules and the threonines involved in both interactions could be predicted using the STRIP strategy. The threonines T484 and T189 in Cdc7 and Cdc45, respectively, were mutated and loss of binding could be monitored experimentally with the full-length proteins. The method was further tested for the analysis of 63 known Rad53 binding partners and provided several key insights regarding the threonines likely involved in these interactions. The STRIP method relies on a combination of conservation, phosphorylation likelihood, and binding specificity criteria and can be accessed via a web interface at http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/strip/.

  4. A Strategy for Interaction Site Prediction between Phospho-binding Modules and their Partners Identified from Proteomic Data*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucher, Willy; Becker, Emmanuelle; Ma, Emilie; Miron, Simona; Martel, Arnaud; Ochsenbein, Françoise; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Guerois, Raphaël

    2010-01-01

    Small and large scale proteomic technologies are providing a wealth of potential interactions between proteins bearing phospho-recognition modules and their substrates. Resulting interaction maps reveal such a dense network of interactions that the functional dissection and understanding of these networks often require to break specific interactions while keeping the rest intact. Here, we developed a computational strategy, called STRIP, to predict the precise interaction site involved in an interaction with a phospho-recognition module. The method was validated by a two-hybrid screen carried out using the ForkHead Associated (FHA)1 domain of Rad53, a key protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA checkpoint, as a bait. In this screen we detected 11 partners, including Cdc7 and Cdc45, essential components of the DNA replication machinery. FHA domains are phospho-threonine binding modules and the threonines involved in both interactions could be predicted using the STRIP strategy. The threonines T484 and T189 in Cdc7 and Cdc45, respectively, were mutated and loss of binding could be monitored experimentally with the full-length proteins. The method was further tested for the analysis of 63 known Rad53 binding partners and provided several key insights regarding the threonines likely involved in these interactions. The STRIP method relies on a combination of conservation, phosphorylation likelihood, and binding specificity criteria and can be accessed via a web interface at http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/strip/. PMID:20733106

  5. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental...

  6. Reticulomics: Protein-Protein Interaction Studies with Two Plasmodesmata-Localized Reticulon Family Proteins Identify Binding Partners Enriched at Plasmodesmata, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and the Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Botchway, Stanley W; Slade, Susan E; Knox, Kirsten; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Oparka, Karl; Hawes, Chris

    2015-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a ubiquitous organelle that plays roles in secretory protein production, folding, quality control, and lipid biosynthesis. The cortical ER in plants is pleomorphic and structured as a tubular network capable of morphing into flat cisternae, mainly at three-way junctions, and back to tubules. Plant reticulon family proteins (RTNLB) tubulate the ER by dimerization and oligomerization, creating localized ER membrane tensions that result in membrane curvature. Some RTNLB ER-shaping proteins are present in the plasmodesmata (PD) proteome and may contribute to the formation of the desmotubule, the axial ER-derived structure that traverses primary PD. Here, we investigate the binding partners of two PD-resident reticulon proteins, RTNLB3 and RTNLB6, that are located in primary PD at cytokinesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Coimmunoprecipitation of green fluorescent protein-tagged RTNLB3 and RTNLB6 followed by mass spectrometry detected a high percentage of known PD-localized proteins as well as plasma membrane proteins with putative membrane-anchoring roles. Förster resonance energy transfer by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy assays revealed a highly significant interaction of the detected PD proteins with the bait RTNLB proteins. Our data suggest that RTNLB proteins, in addition to a role in ER modeling, may play important roles in linking the cortical ER to the plasma membrane. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Liesl; Collier, Kate L

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the intimate relationship experiences of the cisgender (i.e., not transgender) female partners of masculine-identifying transgender persons, with a particular focus on these partners' self-understanding of their sexual orientation. Limited research about this topic has been conducted to date. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight South African women who are or have been cisgender female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons. Although the interviews showed that the relationship experiences of female partners of masculine-identifying trans persons are diverse, several common themes emerged in the narratives. The way that participants labelled their sexual orientation did not change from before to after their relationship with a transgender partner. The participants reported varied family and community responses to their relationships. Specific emotional and informational support needs for women with transgender partners were identified.

  8. PCNA Structure and Interactions with Partner Proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse; Zaher, Manal S.; Hamdan, Samir

    2018-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) consists of three identical monomers that topologically encircle double-stranded DNA. PCNA stimulates the processivity of DNA polymerase δ and, to a less extent, the intrinsically highly processive DNA polymerase ε. It also functions as a platform that recruits and coordinates the activities of a large number of DNA processing proteins. Emerging structural and biochemical studies suggest that the nature of PCNA-partner proteins interactions is complex. A hydrophobic groove at the front side of PCNA serves as a primary docking site for the consensus PIP box motifs present in many PCNA-binding partners. Sequences that immediately flank the PIP box motif or regions that are distant from it could also interact with the hydrophobic groove and other regions of PCNA. Posttranslational modifications on the backside of PCNA could add another dimension to its interaction with partner proteins. An encounter of PCNA with different DNA structures might also be involved in coordinating its interactions. Finally, the ability of PCNA to bind up to three proteins while topologically linked to DNA suggests that it would be a versatile toolbox in many different DNA processing reactions.

  9. PCNA Structure and Interactions with Partner Proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Oke, Muse

    2018-01-29

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) consists of three identical monomers that topologically encircle double-stranded DNA. PCNA stimulates the processivity of DNA polymerase δ and, to a less extent, the intrinsically highly processive DNA polymerase ε. It also functions as a platform that recruits and coordinates the activities of a large number of DNA processing proteins. Emerging structural and biochemical studies suggest that the nature of PCNA-partner proteins interactions is complex. A hydrophobic groove at the front side of PCNA serves as a primary docking site for the consensus PIP box motifs present in many PCNA-binding partners. Sequences that immediately flank the PIP box motif or regions that are distant from it could also interact with the hydrophobic groove and other regions of PCNA. Posttranslational modifications on the backside of PCNA could add another dimension to its interaction with partner proteins. An encounter of PCNA with different DNA structures might also be involved in coordinating its interactions. Finally, the ability of PCNA to bind up to three proteins while topologically linked to DNA suggests that it would be a versatile toolbox in many different DNA processing reactions.

  10. SNP interaction pattern identifier (SIPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hui Yi; Chen, Dung Tsa; Huang, Po Yu

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: Testing SNP-SNP interactions is considered as a key for overcoming bottlenecks of genetic association studies. However, related statistical methods for testing SNP-SNP interactions are underdeveloped. Results: We propose the SNP Interaction Pattern Identifier (SIPI), which tests 45...

  11. Identification of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 as an interaction partner of glutaminase interacting protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zencir, Sevil; Ovee, Mohiuddin; Dobson, Melanie J.; Banerjee, Monimoy; Topcu, Zeki; Mohanty, Smita

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2) is a new partner protein for GIP. → BAI2 interaction with GIP was revealed by yeast two-hybrid assay. → Binding of BAI2 to GIP was characterized by NMR, CD and fluorescence. → BAI2 and GIP binding was mediated through the C-terminus of BAI2. -- Abstract: The vast majority of physiological processes in living cells are mediated by protein-protein interactions often specified by particular protein sequence motifs. PDZ domains, composed of 80-100 amino acid residues, are an important class of interaction motif. Among the PDZ-containing proteins, glutaminase interacting protein (GIP), also known as Tax Interacting Protein TIP-1, is unique in being composed almost exclusively of a single PDZ domain. GIP has important roles in cellular signaling, protein scaffolding and modulation of tumor growth and interacts with a number of physiological partner proteins, including Glutaminase L, β-Catenin, FAS, HTLV-1 Tax, HPV16 E6, Rhotekin and Kir 2.3. To identify the network of proteins that interact with GIP, a human fetal brain cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid assay with GIP as bait. We identified brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2), a member of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a new partner of GIP. BAI2 is expressed primarily in neurons, further expanding GIP cellular functions. The interaction between GIP and the carboxy-terminus of BAI2 was characterized using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assays. These biophysical analyses support the interaction identified in the yeast two-hybrid assay. This is the first study reporting BAI2 as an interaction partner of GIP.

  12. The Extended Role of the Communication Partner in AAC interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd

    in the field.FindingsThe findings demonstrate that the speaking co-participant is sensitive to the actions of the person with impairments’ display of attention and actions within the local ‘contextual configuration’ (Goodwin, 2000). Due to differing resources, the relevant options for the next move......The Extended Role of the Communication Partner in AAC interactionIntroductionThe speaking communication partner in AAC interaction has a unique role (Blackstone et al., 2007). Interactional research in the field of AAC has, for instance, found that the interaction is characterized by a great deal......-analyses on naturally occurring social interaction, this session will demonstrate tasks that the speaking communication partner can undertake in AAC- interaction.Method and dataThe method of Conversation analysis (CA) is used in the current study (Higginbotham & Engelke, 2013). The general aim of CA is at getting...

  13. Interaction Patterns in Couples with a Depressed Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautzinger, Martin

    Recently, research has been conducted using an interactional understanding of depression, which views depression as a disorder exacerbated by a pathogenic social system. The interaction between intimate social partners seems especially relevant. Couples (N=26) participated in a study of depressed out-patients and their spouses and a matched…

  14. GPCR & company: databases and servers for GPCRs and interacting partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalsman, Noga; Niv, Masha Y

    2014-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large superfamily of membrane receptors that are involved in a wide range of signaling pathways. To fulfill their tasks, GPCRs interact with a variety of partners, including small molecules, lipids and proteins. They are accompanied by different proteins during all phases of their life cycle. Therefore, GPCR interactions with their partners are of great interest in basic cell-signaling research and in drug discovery.Due to the rapid development of computers and internet communication, knowledge and data can be easily shared within the worldwide research community via freely available databases and servers. These provide an abundance of biological, chemical and pharmacological information.This chapter describes the available web resources for investigating GPCR interactions. We review about 40 freely available databases and servers, and provide a few sentences about the essence and the data they supply. For simplification, the databases and servers were grouped under the following topics: general GPCR-ligand interactions; particular families of GPCRs and their ligands; GPCR oligomerization; GPCR interactions with intracellular partners; and structural information on GPCRs. In conclusion, a multitude of useful tools are currently available. Summary tables are provided to ease navigation between the numerous and partially overlapping resources. Suggestions for future enhancements of the online tools include the addition of links from general to specialized databases and enabling usage of user-supplied template for GPCR structural modeling.

  15. [HPV diagnosis: woman's process of interaction with her partner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Silva, Carla Marins; Azevedo E Silva, Gulnar; Girianelli, Vânia Reis

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive research, with qualitative approach, which aimed at analyze the interaction process between woman and her partner starting from the diagnosis of infection by the human papilomavirus (HPV). It was accomplished in 13 communities in the cities of Duque de Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, from October/2006 to September/2008. Twenty women, diagnosed with HPV infection related to oncogenic high risk, were interviewed. The Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory perspectives guided data collection and analysis. The results revealed that the HPV diagnosis means serious challenges in the women's relationship with her partner mainly regarding to the adoption of preventive initiatives. It is concluded that these issues lead to the need of a humanized care in order to favor the women's empowerment.

  16. Novel Endogenous, Insulin-Stimulated Akt2 Protein Interaction Partners in L6 Myoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Caruso

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are marked by an aberrant response in the insulin signaling network. The phosphoinositide-dependent serine/threonine kinase, Akt2, plays a key role in insulin signaling and glucose uptake, most notably within skeletal muscle. Protein-protein interaction regulates the functional consequence of Akt2 and in turn, Akt2's role in glucose uptake. However, only few insulin-responsive Akt2 interaction partners have been identified in skeletal muscle cells. In the present work, rat L6 myoblasts, a widely used insulin sensitive skeletal muscle cell line, were used to examine endogenous, insulin-stimulated Akt2 protein interaction partners. Akt2 co-immunoprecipitation was coupled with 1D-SDS-PAGE and fractions were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS to reveal Akt2 protein-protein interactions. The pull-down assay displayed specificity for the Akt2 isoform; Akt1 and Akt3 unique peptides were not detected. A total of 49 were detected with a significantly increased (47 or decreased (2 association with Akt2 following insulin administration (n = 4; p<0.05. Multiple pathways were identified for the novel Akt2 interaction partners, such as the EIF2 and ubiquitination pathways. These data suggest that multiple new endogenous proteins may associate with Akt2 under basal as well as insulin-stimulated conditions, providing further insight into the insulin signaling network. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002557.

  17. Asymmetric Partner Pronoun Use and Demand-Withdraw Interaction in Couples Coping with Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentscher, Kelly E.; Rohrbaugh, Michael J.; Shoham, Varda; Mehl, Matthias R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research links first-person plural pronoun use (we-talk) by individual romantic partners to adaptive relationship functioning and individual health outcomes. To examine a possible boundary condition of adaptive we-talk in couples coping with health problems, we correlated asymmetric couple-level we/I-ratios (more we-talk relative to I-talk by the spouse than the patient) with a concurrent pattern of directional demand-withdraw (D-W) interaction in which the spouse demands change while the patient withdraws. Couples in which a partner who abused alcohol (n = 65), smoked cigarettes despite having heart or lung disease (n = 24), or had congestive heart failure (n = 58) discussed a health-related disagreement during a video-recorded interaction task. Transcripts of these conversations provided measures of pronoun use for each partner, and trained observers coded D-W patterns from the recordings. As expected, partner asymmetry in we/I-ratio scores predicted directional demand-withdraw, such that spouses who used more we-talk (relative to I-talk) than patients tended to assume the demand role in concurrent D-W interaction. Asymmetric I-talk rather than we-talk accounted for this association, and asymmetric you-talk contributed independently as well. In contrast to previous studies of we-talk by individual partners, the present results identify dyad-level pronoun patterns that clearly do not mark beneficent processes: asymmetric partner we/I-ratios and you-talk reflect problematic demand-withdraw interaction. PMID:24098961

  18. Hedonic Benefits of Close and Distant Interaction Partners: The Mediating Roles of Social Approval and Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venaglia, Rachel B; Lemay, Edward P

    2017-09-01

    The current research utilized ecological momentary assessment methodology to examine affective responses to interacting with close versus distant interaction partners during naturally occurring social interactions, and to test predictions regarding the mediating roles of perceived social approval and authenticity. Analysis of 4,602 social interactions reported by 176 participants suggested that, relative to interactions with distant partners, interactions with close partners were characterized by more positive affect. This effect was mediated by perceived social approval and authenticity. These findings suggest that social interactions with close others confer greater hedonic benefits relative to interactions with distant partners due to greater confidence in social approval and feelings of authenticity. Exploratory analyses suggested that interactions with close partners featured warmer and less shy behavior, and that participants who placed more importance on close relationships (as measured by high relational-interdependent self-construal) experienced more approval and authenticity in their interactions, particularly with distant partners.

  19. Identification and characterization of Iporin as a novel interaction partner for rab1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konczal Magdalena

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small GTPase rab1a and its isoform rab1b are essential regulating components in the vesicle transport between the ER and the Golgi apparatus. Rab1 is thought to act as a molecular switch and can change between an active GTP-bound and an inactive GDP-bound conformation. To elucidate the function of rab1, several approaches have been established to isolate effector proteins, which interact with the activated conformation of rab1. To date p115, GM130, golgin-84 and MICAL have been identified as direct interacting partners. Together with rab1, these molecules are components of a protein complex, which mediates and regulates intracellular vesicle transport. Results Here, we report the characterization of Iporin, which is similar to KIAA0375 as a novel rab1-interacting protein. It was initially identified by yeast two-hybrid screening experiments with the active mutant of rab1b (rab1b Q67R as bait. Iporin contains a SH3 domain and two polyproline stretches, which are known to play a role in protein/protein interactions. In addition, Iporin encloses a RUN domain, which seems to be a major part of the rab1binding domain (R1BD. Iporin is ubiquitously expressed and immunofluorescence staining displays a cytosolic punctual distribution. Interestingly, we also show that Iporin interacts with another rab1 interacting partner, the GM130 protein. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that Iporin is a potential new interacting partner of rab1. Iporin is different from already identified rab1 interacting proteins concerning protein structure and cellular localization. We conclude that Iporin might function as a link between the targeting of ER derived vesicles, triggered by the rab1 GTPase and a signaling pathway regulated by molecules containing SH3 and/or poly-proline regions. The characterization of this novel intermolecular relation could help to elucidate how vesicles find their way from ER to the Golgi apparatus.

  20. Identification of new interacting partners of the shuttling protein ubinuclein (Ubn-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, Julien [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CHU de Grenoble, BP217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Conti, Audrey [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sueur, Charlotte [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CHU de Grenoble, BP217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coly, Pierre-Alain [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coute, Yohann [CEA, IRTSV, Laboratoire Biologie a Grande Echelle, F-38054 Grenoble (France); INSERM, U1038, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, F-38000 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Hunziker, Walter [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Epithelial Cell Biology Laboratory, Singapore 1386473 (Singapore); Burmeister, Wim P. [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Germi, Raphaelle [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CHU de Grenoble, BP217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Manet, Evelyne; Gruffat, Henri [INSERM U758, Unite de Virologie humaine, Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie F-69007 France (France); Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, F-69007 France (France); Universite Lyon1, F-69007, Lyon (France); and others

    2012-03-10

    We have previously characterized ubinuclein (Ubn-1) as a NACos (Nuclear and Adherent junction Complex components) protein which interacts with viral or cellular transcription factors and the tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1. The purpose of the present study was to get more insights on the binding partners of Ubn-1, notably those present in the epithelial junctions. Using an in vivo assay of fluorescent protein-complementation assay (PCA), we demonstrated that the N-terminal domains of the Ubn-1 and ZO-1 proteins triggered a functional interaction inside the cell. Indeed, expression of both complementary fragments of venus fused to the N-terminal parts of Ubn-1 and ZO-1 was able to reconstitute a fluorescent venus protein. Furthermore, nuclear expression of the chimeric Ubn-1 triggered nuclear localization of the chimeric ZO-1. We could localize this interaction to the PDZ2 domain of ZO-1 using an in vitro pull-down assay. More precisely, a 184-amino acid region (from amino acids 39 to 223) at the N-terminal region of Ubn-1 was responsible for the interaction with the PDZ2 domain of ZO-1. Co-imunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy experiments also revealed the tight junction protein cingulin as a new interacting partner of Ubn-1. A proteomic approach based on mass spectrometry analysis (MS) was then undertaken to identify further binding partners of GST-Ubn-1 fusion protein in different subcellular fractions of human epithelial HT29 cells. LYRIC (Lysine-rich CEACAM1-associated protein) and RACK-1 (receptor for activated C-kinase) proteins were validated as bona fide interacting partners of Ubn-1. Altogether, these results suggest that Ubn-1 is a scaffold protein influencing protein subcellular localization and is involved in several processes such as cell-cell contact signalling or modulation of gene activity.

  1. Brain transcriptome-wide screen for HIV-1 Nef protein interaction partners reveals various membrane-associated proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen C Kammula

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Nef protein contributes essentially to the pathology of AIDS by a variety of protein-protein-interactions within the host cell. The versatile functionality of Nef is partially attributed to different conformational states and posttranslational modifications, such as myristoylation. Up to now, many interaction partners of Nef have been identified using classical yeast two-hybrid screens. Such screens rely on transcriptional activation of reporter genes in the nucleus to detect interactions. Thus, the identification of Nef interaction partners that are integral membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins or other proteins that do not translocate into the nucleus is hampered. In the present study, a split-ubiquitin based yeast two-hybrid screen was used to identify novel membrane-localized interaction partners of Nef. More than 80% of the hereby identified interaction partners of Nef are transmembrane proteins. The identified hits are GPM6B, GPM6A, BAP31, TSPAN7, CYB5B, CD320/TCblR, VSIG4, PMEPA1, OCIAD1, ITGB1, CHN1, PH4, CLDN10, HSPA9, APR-3, PEBP1 and B3GNT, which are involved in diverse cellular processes like signaling, apoptosis, neurogenesis, cell adhesion and protein trafficking or quality control. For a subfraction of the hereby identified proteins we present data supporting their direct interaction with HIV-1 Nef. We discuss the results with respect to many phenotypes observed in HIV infected cells and patients. The identified Nef interaction partners may help to further elucidate the molecular basis of HIV-related diseases.

  2. Dynamic hubs show competitive and static hubs non-competitive regulation of their interaction partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurv Goel

    Full Text Available Date hub proteins have 1 or 2 interaction interfaces but many interaction partners. This raises the question of whether all partner proteins compete for the interaction interface of the hub or if the cell carefully regulates aspects of this process? Here, we have used real-time rendering of protein interaction networks to analyse the interactions of all the 1 or 2 interface hubs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the cell cycle. By integrating previously determined structural and gene expression data, and visually hiding the nodes (proteins and their edges (interactions during their troughs of expression, we predict when interactions of hubs and their partners are likely to exist. This revealed that 20 out of all 36 one- or two- interface hubs in the yeast interactome fell within two main groups. The first was dynamic hubs with static partners, which can be considered as 'competitive hubs'. Their interaction partners will compete for the interaction interface of the hub and the success of any interaction will be dictated by the kinetics of interaction (abundance and affinity and subcellular localisation. The second was static hubs with dynamic partners, which we term 'non-competitive hubs'. Regulatory mechanisms are finely tuned to lessen the presence and/or effects of competition between the interaction partners of the hub. It is possible that these regulatory processes may also be used by the cell for the regulation of other, non-cell cycle processes.

  3. CDC's DELTA FOCUS Program: Identifying Promising Primary Prevention Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.

  4. Coevolution between positive reciprocity, punishment, and partner switching in repeated interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubs, Matthias; Bshary, Redouan; Lehmann, Laurent

    2016-06-15

    Cooperation based on mutual investments can occur between unrelated individuals when they are engaged in repeated interactions. Individuals then need to use a conditional strategy to deter their interaction partners from defecting. Responding to defection such that the future payoff of a defector is reduced relative to cooperating with it is called a partner control mechanism. Three main partner control mechanisms are (i) to switch from cooperation to defection when being defected ('positive reciprocity'), (ii) to actively reduce the payoff of a defecting partner ('punishment'), or (iii) to stop interacting and switch partner ('partner switching'). However, such mechanisms to stabilize cooperation are often studied in isolation from each other. In order to better understand the conditions under which each partner control mechanism tends to be favoured by selection, we here analyse by way of individual-based simulations the coevolution between positive reciprocity, punishment, and partner switching. We show that random interactions in an unstructured population and a high number of rounds increase the likelihood that selection favours partner switching. In contrast, interactions localized in small groups (without genetic structure) increase the likelihood that selection favours punishment and/or positive reciprocity. This study thus highlights the importance of comparing different control mechanisms for cooperation under different conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Fanconi Anemia Proteins and Their Interacting Partners: A Molecular Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddar, Tagrid; Carreau, Madeleine

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Fanconi anemia (FA) has been the subject of intense investigations, primarily in the DNA repair research field. Many discoveries have led to the notion of a canonical pathway, termed the FA pathway, where all FA proteins function sequentially in different protein complexes to repair DNA cross-link damages. Although a detailed architecture of this DNA cross-link repair pathway is emerging, the question of how a defective DNA cross-link repair process translates into the disease phenotype is unresolved. Other areas of research including oxidative metabolism, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and transcriptional regulation have been studied in the context of FA, and some of these areas were investigated before the fervent enthusiasm in the DNA repair field. These other molecular mechanisms may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. In addition, several FA-interacting proteins have been identified with roles in these “other” nonrepair molecular functions. Thus, the goal of this paper is to revisit old ideas and to discuss protein-protein interactions related to other FA-related molecular functions to try to give the reader a wider perspective of the FA molecular puzzle. PMID:22737580

  6. Social support needs identified by mothers affected by intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Nicole; Morris, Catherine Young; Stewart, Miriam; Hughes, Jean; Critchley, Kim A; Secco, Loretta

    2013-09-01

    In order to offer optimal supports and services for mothers affected by intimate partner violence (IPV), an understanding of these mothers' perceptions of support needs, resources, barriers to support, and preferences for support intervention is warranted. Moreover, the growing recognition of the effects of IPV on maternal-infant relationships and of the importance of these early relationships to long-term child health outcomes suggests interventions are needed to support optimal maternal-infant relationships in these families. Thus, 64 mothers exposed to IPV when their infants were below 12 months of age participated in a retrospective qualitative study to identify mothers' support needs, resources, barriers to support, and preferences for specific support interventions to promote optimal mother-infant relationships. Participants identified both personal needs (including needs for leaving or staying with the violent partner), along with intertwined needs to care for, and help, their infants cope with the experience of violence. Mothers reported that integrated services that include information and practical support from professionals with emotional and affirmation support from peers would promote positive, nurturing mother-infant relationships and healthy child development.

  7. Attuning: A Communication Process between People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability and Their Interaction Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Colin; Smith, Martine

    2016-03-01

    People with severe and profound intellectual disability typically demonstrate a limited ability to communicate effectively. Most of their communications are non-verbal, often idiosyncratic and ambiguous. This article aims to identify the process that regulates communications of this group of people with others and to describe the methodological approach that was used to achieve this. In this qualitative study, two dyads consisting of a person with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disability and a teacher or carer were filmed as they engaged in school-based activities. Two 1-hour videotapes were transcribed and analysed using grounded theory. Attuning was identified within the theory proposed here as a central process that calibrates and regulates communication. Attuning is conceptualized as a bidirectional, dyadic communication process. Understanding this process may support more effective communication between people with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disability and their interaction partners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Gender differences in partner interactions during an after-school science peer tutoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei-Crawley, M. Jo

    This teacher research study examined an after-school science program called SSTAR (Science Students Teaching as Resources) to determine if this program encourages early scientific involvement for girls, specifically the investigation of simple machines. SSTAR's overall goal was to develop scientific skills in fourth grade tutors who were partnered with second grade tutees. This study was conducted during two different SSTAR study sessions, identified as the pilot study (year one) and the expanded study (year two). The SSTAR program and the data collection instruments were refined and modified during this two-year process. Four data collection instruments were used to gather data and insights into this program; video-taped interactions between tutor and tutee, a writing assessment, a performance assessment and focus group discussions. The video taped partnership interactions found that tutors used similar instructional strategies and tutees gave similar response strategies. However, these strategies varied according to the gender of the partner. A written assessment, in the form of an open ended question was given to just the tutors at the beginning and end of their session. Additionally, a performance assessment was given. This assessment asked the tutors to construct a machine from the Legos(c) that were provided. This assessment was also done in a pretest/post-test format. Scores from the writing and performance assessment were then compared and the performance assessment showed more tutor growth in knowledge of simple machines than the writing assessment. Overall students made comments stating they enjoyed the SSTAR program and would sign up again. They had no preference for a same gender or opposite gender partner among either tutor or tutee discussions. All the data examined shows evidence that SSTAR was an effective program for tutor growth in the scientific area of simple machines. While the original study focus was specifically on girls, both genders

  9. When Humanoid Robots Become Human-Like Interaction Partners: Corepresentation of Robotic Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Anna; Chinellato, Eris; Bou, Maria A. Tirado; del Pobil, Angel P.; Lappe, Markus; Liepelt, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In human-human interactions, corepresenting a partner's actions is crucial to successfully adjust and coordinate actions with others. Current research suggests that action corepresentation is restricted to interactions between human agents facilitating social interaction with conspecifics. In this study, we investigated whether action…

  10. Identifying Mother-Child Interaction Styles Using a Person-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; O'Brien, Marion; Grimm, Kevin J; Leerkes, Esther M

    2014-05-01

    Parent-child conflict in the context of a supportive relationship has been discussed as a potentially constructive interaction pattern; the current study is the first to test this using a holistic analytic approach. Interaction styles, defined as mother-child conflict in the context of maternal sensitivity, were identified and described with demographic and stress-related characteristics of families. Longitudinal associations were tested between interaction styles and children's later social competence. Participants included 814 partnered mothers with a first-grade child. Latent profile analysis identified agreeable , dynamic , and disconnected interaction styles. Mothers' intimacy with a partner, depressive symptoms, and authoritarian childrearing beliefs, along with children's later conflict with a best friend and externalizing problems, were associated with group membership. Notably, the dynamic style, characterized by high sensitivity and high conflict, included families who experienced psychological and relational stressors. Findings are discussed with regard to how family stressors shape parent-child interaction patterns.

  11. Intact Marriages in which One Partner Dis-Identifies with Experiences of Same-Sex Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Lisa M.; Tan, Erica S. N.

    2003-01-01

    This study is of heterosexually married couples in which one partner reports having experienced same-sex attraction and both partners report satisfaction with their marriage despite facing such constraints. Analysis suggested a number of themes related to how spouses learned about their partners' experiences of same-sex attraction, motivations for…

  12. CD6 and Linker of Activated T Cells are Potential Interaction Partners for T Cell-Specific Adaptor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, C D; Ekornhol, M; Granum, S; Sundvold-Gjerstad, V; Spurkland, A

    2017-02-01

    The T cell-specific adaptor protein (TSAd) contains several protein interaction domains, and is merging as a modulator of T cell activation. Several interaction partners for the TSAd proline-rich region and phosphotyrosines have been identified, including the Src and Tec family kinases lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase and interleukin 2-inducible T cell kinase. Via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, TSAd may thus function as a link between these enzymes and other signalling molecules. However, few binding partners to the TSAd SH2 domain in T cells are hitherto known. Through the use of in silico ligand prediction, peptide spot arrays, pull-down and immunoprecipitation experiments, we here report novel interactions between the TSAd SH2 domain and CD6 phosphotyrosine (pTyr) 629 and linker of activated T cells (LAT) pTyr 171 , pTyr 191 and pTyr 226 . © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  13. Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Their Partners: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostyn, Ine; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: High quality interactions are of crucial importance for quality of life of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This literature review describes and synthesises studies addressing the interaction between persons with PIMD and their partners. Method: A computerised literature search using defined…

  14. Identifying intimate partner violence (IPV) during the postpartum period in a Greek sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivilaki, Victoria G; Dafermos, Vassilis; Daglas, Maria; Antoniou, Evagelia; Tsopelas, Nicholas D; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Brown, Judith B; Lionis, Christos

    2010-12-01

    Research has highlighted the wide impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the public health role of community health professionals in detection of victimized women. The purpose of this study was to identify postpartum emotional and physical abuse and to validate the Greek version of the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) along with its sensitivity and specificity. Five hundred seventy-nine mothers within 12 weeks postpartum were recruited from the perinatal care registers of the Maternity Departments of two public hospitals in Athens, Greece. Participants were randomly selected by clinic or shift. The WAST and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS) surveys were administered in random order to the mothers from September 2007 to January 2008. The WAST was compared with the PVS as a criterion standard. Agreement between the screening instruments was examined. The psychometric measurements that were performed included: two independent sample t tests, reliability coefficients, explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation, and Principal Components Method. Confirmatory analysis-also called structural equation modeling-of principal components was conducted by Linear Structural Relations. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale. Two hundred four (35.6%) of the mothers screened were identified as experiencing IPV. Scores on the WAST correlated well with those on the PVS; the internal consistency of the WAST Greek version-tested using Cronbach's alpha coefficient-was found to be 0.926 and that of Guttman's split-half coefficient was 0.924. Our findings confirm the multidimensionality of the WAST, demonstrating a two-factor structure. The area under ROC curve (AUC) was found to be 0.824, and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 0/1 fitted the model sensitivity at 99.7% and model specificity at 64.4%. Our data confirm the validity of the Greek version of the WAST in identifying IPV

  15. Identifying signs and symptoms of intimate partner violence in an oncology setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, JoAnn

    2006-08-01

    Domestic violence (DV), or intimate partner violence (IPV), is a prevailing problem in public health. Often, healthcare providers may be the first people that victims of DV will approach to reveal their problem or seek assistance. IPV is a pattern of control using assault and intimidating behaviors that has devastating effects on individuals, their families, and communities. Oncology nurses need to become familiar with common indicators of DV so that signs and symptoms of abuse can be identified when assessing patients in an oncology setting. Standards of oncology nursing practice support that the psychosocial impact of cancer on patients and their families or significant others needs to be considered at all stages of diagnosis and treatment. The psychosocial impact of other personal situations or concerns, such as IPV, can add to the complexity of cancer management. Routine screening for signs and symptoms of psychosocial distress helps identify patients who require additional interventions. Oncology nursing practice is based on a holistic approach to patient care, which supports that identification of physical and psychosocial needs are equally important. Oncology nursing provides many unique opportunities to help patients cope with cancer. Routine nursing assessment for signs and symptoms of abuse will provide an opportunity to assist patients with cancer to manage not only the life-threatening aspects of their diagnosis but also the life-threatening aspects of IPV.

  16. Association of intimate partner violence and health-care provider-identified obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rhian; Lehman, Erik; Perry, Amanda; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S

    2016-07-01

    The association of physical and nonphysical intimate partner violence (IPV) with obesity was examined. Women (N = 1,179) were surveyed regarding demographics, obesity, and IPV exposure using humiliate-afraid-rape-kick (HARK), an IPV screening tool. A three-level lifetime IPV exposure variable measured physical, nonphysical or no IPV. Health-care provider-identified obesity was defined if participants were told by a medical provider within the past 5 years that they were obese. Bivariate analyses examined obesity by IPV and demographics. Multivariable logistic regression assessed odds of obesity by IPV type, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. Among participants, 44% reported lifetime IPV (25% physical, 19% nonphysical), and 24% reported health-care provider-identified obesity. In unadjusted analyses, obesity was more prevalent among women exposed to physical IPV (30%) and nonphysical IPV (27%), compared to women without IPV (20%, p = .002). In multivariable models, women reporting physical IPV had 1.67 times greater odds of obesity (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20, 2.33), and women reporting nonphysical IPV had 1.46 times greater odds of obesity (95% CI 1.01, 2.10), compared to women reporting no exposure. This study extends prior data by showing, not only an association between physical IPV and obesity, but also an association between obesity and nonphysical IPV.

  17. Identifying Successful Learners from Interaction Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, Judi; Baldwin, Julia

    2012-01-01

    The interaction behaviours of successful, high-achieving learners when using a Learning Management System (LMS) are different than the behaviours of learners who are having more difficulty mastering the course material. This paper explores the idea that conventional Learning Management Systems can exploit data mining techniques to predict the…

  18. Identifying Best Practices for an Interactive Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoumenou, Virginie; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Coleman, Gayle; Malekian, Fatemeh; Zee, Julia M. K.; Fountain, Brent J.; Marsh, Akela

    2015-01-01

    A webinar or web-seminar is a presentation, seminar, lecture, or workshop transmitted over the internet. This emerging technology is becoming increasingly popular due to its convenience and affordability. However, little research has been conducted on best practices for an interactive webinar that engages learners in a professional development or…

  19. Establishing Network Interaction between Resource Training Centers for People with Disabilities and Partner Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panyukova S.V.,

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of accessibility and quality of higher education for students with disabilities. We describe our experience in organising network interaction between the MSUPE Resource and Training Center for Disabled People established in 2016-2017 and partner universities in ‘fixed territories’. The need for cooperation and network interaction arises from the high demand for the cooperation of efforts of leading experts, researchers, methodologists and instructors necessary for improving the quality and accessibility of higher education for persons with disabilities. The Resource and Training Center offers counseling for the partner universities, arranges advanced training for those responsible for teaching of the disabled, and offers specialized equipment for temporary use. In this article, we emphasize the importance of organizing network interactions with universities and social partners in order to ensure accessibility of higher education for students with disabilities.

  20. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Preferred SH3 domain partners of ADAM metalloproteases include shared and ADAM-specific SH3 interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iivari Kleino

    Full Text Available A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs constitute a protein family essential for extracellular signaling and regulation of cell adhesion. Catalytic activity of ADAMs and their predicted potential for Src-homology 3 (SH3 domain binding show a strong correlation. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of SH3 binding capacity and preferences of the catalytically active ADAMs 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 17, and 19. Our results revealed several novel interactions, and also confirmed many previously reported ones. Many of the identified SH3 interaction partners were shared by several ADAMs, whereas some were ADAM-specific. Most of the ADAM-interacting SH3 proteins were adapter proteins or kinases, typically associated with sorting and endocytosis. Novel SH3 interactions revealed in this study include TOCA1 and CIP4 as preferred partners of ADAM8, and RIMBP1 as a partner of ADAM19. Our results suggest that common as well as distinct mechanisms are involved in regulation and execution of ADAM signaling, and provide a useful framework for addressing the pathways that connect ADAMs to normal and aberrant cell behavior.

  2. Identifying and characterizing Hfq-RNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faner, M A; Feig, A L

    2013-09-15

    To regulate stress responses and virulence, bacteria use small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs). These RNAs can up or down regulate target mRNAs through base pairing by influencing ribosomal access and RNA decay. A large class of these sRNAs, called trans-encoded sRNAs, requires the RNA binding protein Hfq to facilitate base pairing between the regulatory RNA and its target mRNA. The resulting network of regulation is best characterized in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, but the importance of Hfq dependent sRNA regulation is recognized in a diverse population of bacteria. In this review we present the approaches and methods used to discover Hfq binding RNAs, characterize their interactions and elucidate their functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of five B-type response regulators as members of a multistep phosphorelay system interacting with histidine-containing phosphotransfer partners of Populus osmosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertheau Lucie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, the multistep phosphorelay signaling pathway mediates responses to environmental factors and plant hormones. This system is composed of three successive partners: hybrid Histidine-aspartate Kinases (HKs, Histidine-containing Phosphotransfer proteins (HPts, and Response Regulators (RRs. Among the third partners, B-type RR family members are the final output elements of the pathway; they act as transcription factors and clearly play a pivotal role in the early response to cytokinin in Arabidopsis. While interactions studies between partners belonging to the multistep phosphorelay system are mainly focused on protagonists involved in cytokinin or ethylene pathways, very few reports are available concerning partners of osmotic stress signaling pathway. Results In Populus, we identified eight B-type RR proteins, RR12-16, 19, 21 and 22 in the Dorskamp genotype. To assess HPt/B-type RR interactions and consequently determine potential third partners in the osmosensing multistep phosphorelay system, we performed global yeast two-hybrid (Y2H assays in combination with Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC assays in plant cells. We found that all B-type RRs are able to interact with HPt predominant partners (HPt2, 7 and 9 of HK1, which is putatively involved in the osmosensing pathway. However, different profiles of interaction are observed depending on the studied HPt. HPt/RR interactions displayed a nuclear localization, while the nuclear and cytosolic localization of HPt and nuclear localization of RR proteins were validated. Although the nuclear localization of HPt/RR interaction was expected, this work constitutes the first evidence of such an interaction in plants. Furthermore, the pertinence of this partnership is reinforced by highlighting a co-expression of B-type RR transcripts and the other partners (HK1 and HPts belonging to a potential osmosensing pathway. Conclusion Based on the interaction studies

  4. Social and emotional relevance in face processing: Happy faces of future interaction partners enhance the LPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eBublatzky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. Social relevance was manipulated by presenting pictures of two specific face actors as future interaction partners (meet condition, whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. As a further control condition all stimuli were presented without specific task instructions (passive viewing condition. A within-subject design (Facial Expression x Relevance x Task was implemented, where randomly ordered face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF were presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female. Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of instructed social relevance. Whereas the meet condition was accompanied with unspecific effects regardless of relevance (P1, EPN, viewing potential interaction partners was associated with increased LPP amplitudes. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.

  5. Evaluation by Expert Dancers of a Robot That Performs Partnered Stepping via Haptic Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L Chen

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to enable a robot to engage in partner dance for use in rehabilitation therapy, assessment, diagnosis, and scientific investigations of two-person whole-body motor coordination. Partner dance has been shown to improve balance and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and in older adults, which motivates our work. During partner dance, dance couples rely heavily on haptic interaction to convey motor intent such as speed and direction. In this paper, we investigate the potential for a wheeled mobile robot with a human-like upper-body to perform partnered stepping with people based on the forces applied to its end effectors. Blindfolded expert dancers (N=10 performed a forward/backward walking step to a recorded drum beat while holding the robot's end effectors. We varied the admittance gain of the robot's mobile base controller and the stiffness of the robot's arms. The robot followed the participants with low lag (M=224, SD=194 ms across all trials. High admittance gain and high arm stiffness conditions resulted in significantly improved performance with respect to subjective and objective measures. Biomechanical measures such as the human hand to human sternum distance, center-of-mass of leader to center-of-mass of follower (CoM-CoM distance, and interaction forces correlated with the expert dancers' subjective ratings of their interactions with the robot, which were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=0.92. In response to a final questionnaire, 1/10 expert dancers strongly agreed, 5/10 agreed, and 1/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was a good follower." 2/10 strongly agreed, 3/10 agreed, and 2/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was fun to dance with." The remaining participants were neutral with respect to these two questions.

  6. Evaluation by Expert Dancers of a Robot That Performs Partnered Stepping via Haptic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiffany L.; Bhattacharjee, Tapomayukh; McKay, J. Lucas; Borinski, Jacquelyn E.; Hackney, Madeleine E.; Ting, Lena H.; Kemp, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to enable a robot to engage in partner dance for use in rehabilitation therapy, assessment, diagnosis, and scientific investigations of two-person whole-body motor coordination. Partner dance has been shown to improve balance and gait in people with Parkinson's disease and in older adults, which motivates our work. During partner dance, dance couples rely heavily on haptic interaction to convey motor intent such as speed and direction. In this paper, we investigate the potential for a wheeled mobile robot with a human-like upper-body to perform partnered stepping with people based on the forces applied to its end effectors. Blindfolded expert dancers (N=10) performed a forward/backward walking step to a recorded drum beat while holding the robot's end effectors. We varied the admittance gain of the robot's mobile base controller and the stiffness of the robot's arms. The robot followed the participants with low lag (M=224, SD=194 ms) across all trials. High admittance gain and high arm stiffness conditions resulted in significantly improved performance with respect to subjective and objective measures. Biomechanical measures such as the human hand to human sternum distance, center-of-mass of leader to center-of-mass of follower (CoM-CoM) distance, and interaction forces correlated with the expert dancers' subjective ratings of their interactions with the robot, which were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=0.92). In response to a final questionnaire, 1/10 expert dancers strongly agreed, 5/10 agreed, and 1/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was a good follower." 2/10 strongly agreed, 3/10 agreed, and 2/10 disagreed with the statement "The robot was fun to dance with." The remaining participants were neutral with respect to these two questions. PMID:25993099

  7. Wide range of interacting partners of pea Gβ subunit of G-proteins suggests its multiple functions in cell signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Deepak; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Tuteja, Narendra

    2012-09-01

    Climate change is a major concern especially in view of the increasing global population and food security. Plant scientists need to look for genetic tools whose appropriate usage can contribute to sustainable food availability. G-proteins have been identified as some of the potential genetic tools that could be useful for protecting plants from various stresses. Heterotrimeric G-proteins consisting of three subunits Gα, Gβ and Gγ are important components of a number of signalling pathways. Their structure and functions are already well studied in animals but their potential in plants is now gaining attention for their role in stress tolerance. Earlier we have reported that over expressing pea Gβ conferred heat tolerance in tobacco plants. Here we report the interacting partners (proteins) of Gβ subunit of Pisum sativum and their putative role in stress and development. Out of 90 transformants isolated from the yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) screening, seven were chosen for further investigation due to their recurrence in multiple experiments. These interacting partners were confirmed using β-galactosidase colony filter lift and ONPG (O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside) assays. These partners include thioredoxin H, histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein 5-like, pathogenesis-related protein, glucan endo-beta-1, 3-glucosidase (acidic isoform), glycine rich RNA binding protein, cold and drought-regulated protein (corA gene) and soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase 1. This study suggests the role of pea Gβ subunit in stress signal transduction and development pathways owing to its capability to interact with a wide range of proteins of multiple functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative proteomics identifies Gemin5, a scaffolding protein involved in ribonucleoprotein assembly, as a novel partner for eukaryotic initiation factor 4E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro-Monti, Ivo; Mohammed, Shabaz; Matthiesen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    Protein complexes are dynamic entities; identification and quantitation of their components is critical in elucidating functional roles under specific cellular conditions. We report the first quantitative proteomic analysis of the human cap-binding protein complex. Components and proteins......-starved tumorigenic human mesenchymal stromal cells, attested to their activated translational states. The WD-repeat, scaffolding-protein Gemin5 was identified as a novel eIF4E binding partner, which interacted directly with eIF4E through a motif (YXXXXLPhi) present in a number of eIF4E-interacting partners. Elevated...... levels of Gemin5:eIF4E complexes were found in phorbol ester treated HEK293 cells. Gemin5 and eIF4E co-localized to cytoplasmic P-bodies in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells. Interaction between eIF4E and Gemin5 and their co-localization to the P-bodies, may serve to recruit capped mRNAs to these RNP...

  9. Interaction matters: A perceived social partner alters the neural processing of human speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that social interaction changes how communicative behaviors (e.g., spoken language, gaze) are processed, but the precise neural bases by which social-interactive context may alter communication remain unknown. Various perspectives suggest that live interactions are more rewarding, more attention-grabbing, or require increased mentalizing-thinking about the thoughts of others. Dissociating between these possibilities is difficult because most extant neuroimaging paradigms examining social interaction have not directly compared live paradigms to conventional "offline" (or recorded) paradigms. We developed a novel fMRI paradigm to assess whether and how an interactive context changes the processing of speech matched in content and vocal characteristics. Participants listened to short vignettes--which contained no reference to people or mental states--believing that some vignettes were prerecorded and that others were presented over a real-time audio-feed by a live social partner. In actuality, all speech was prerecorded. Simply believing that speech was live increased activation in each participant's own mentalizing regions, defined using a functional localizer. Contrasting live to recorded speech did not reveal significant differences in attention or reward regions. Further, higher levels of autistic-like traits were associated with altered neural specialization for live interaction. These results suggest that humans engage in ongoing mentalizing about social partners, even when such mentalizing is not explicitly required, illustrating how social context shapes social cognition. Understanding communication in social context has important implications for typical and atypical social processing, especially for disorders like autism where social difficulties are more acute in live interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Label-Free Proteomic Identification of Endogenous, Insulin-Stimulated Interaction Partners of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, Thangiah; Langlais, Paul; Luo, Moulun; Mapes, Rebekka; Lefort, Natalie; Chen, Shu-Chuan; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Yi, Zhengping

    2011-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions are key to most cellular processes. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based proteomics combined with co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) has emerged as a powerful approach for studying protein complexes. However, a majority of systematic proteomics studies on protein-protein interactions involve the use of protein overexpression and/or epitope-tagged bait proteins, which might affect binding stoichiometry and lead to higher false positives. Here, we report an application of a straightforward, label-free CO-IP-MS/MS method, without the use of protein overexpression or protein tags, to the investigation of changes in the abundance of endogenous proteins associated with a bait protein, which is in this case insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), under basal and insulin stimulated conditions. IRS-1 plays a central role in the insulin signaling cascade. Defects in the protein-protein interactions involving IRS-1 may lead to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses identified eleven novel endogenous insulin-stimulated IRS-1 interaction partners in L6 myotubes reproducibly, including proteins play an important role in protein dephosphorylation [protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A, (PPP1R12A)], muscle contraction and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and protein folding, as well as protein synthesis. This novel application of label-free CO-IP-MS/MS quantification to assess endogenous interaction partners of a specific protein will prove useful for understanding how various cell stimuli regulate insulin signal transduction.

  11. A partner-related risk behavior index to identify people at elevated risk for sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard; Shrier, Lydia A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a sexual-partner-related risk behavior index to identify high-risk individuals most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Patients from five STI and adolescent medical clinics in three US cities were recruited (N = 928; M age = 29.2 years). Data were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. Of seven sexual-partner-related variables, those that were significantly associated with the outcomes were combined into a partner-related risk behavior index. The dependent variables were laboratory-confirmed infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis. Nearly one-fifth of the sample (169/928; 18.4%) tested positive for an STI. Three of the seven items were significantly associated with having one or more STIs: sex with a newly released prisoner, sex with a person known or suspected of having an STI, and sexual concurrency. In combined form, this three-item index was significantly associated with STI prevalence (p one or more of three STIs. This index could be used to prioritize and guide intensified clinic-based counseling for high-risk patients of STI and other clinics.

  12. New reactions and products resulting from alternative interactions between the P450 enzyme and redox partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yi; Yan, Jinyong; Cao, Shaona; Bai, Fali; Yang, Ying; Huang, Shaohua; Yao, Lishan; Anzai, Yojiro; Kato, Fumio; Podust, Larissa M; Sherman, David H; Li, Shengying

    2014-03-05

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are capable of catalyzing a great variety of synthetically useful reactions such as selective C-H functionalization. Surrogate redox partners are widely used for reconstitution of P450 activity based on the assumption that the choice of these auxiliary proteins or their mode of action does not affect the type and selectivity of reactions catalyzed by P450s. Herein, we present an exceptional example to challenge this postulate. MycG, a multifunctional biosynthetic P450 monooxygenase responsible for hydroxylation and epoxidation of 16-membered ring macrolide mycinamicins, is shown to catalyze the unnatural N-demethylation(s) of a range of mycinamicin substrates when partnered with the free Rhodococcus reductase domain RhFRED or the engineered Rhodococcus-spinach hybrid reductase RhFRED-Fdx. By contrast, MycG fused with the RhFRED or RhFRED-Fdx reductase domain mediates only physiological oxidations. This finding highlights the larger potential role of variant redox partner protein-protein interactions in modulating the catalytic activity of P450 enzymes.

  13. Identifying User Interaction Patterns in E-Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarinen, Santeri; Heimonen, Tomi; Turunen, Markku; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Raisamo, Roope; Erdmann, Norbert; Yrjänäinen, Sari; Keskinen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new architecture for e-textbooks which contains two navigational aids: an index and a concept map. We report results from an evaluation in a university setting with 99 students. The interaction sequences of the users were captured during the user study. We found several clusters of user interaction types in our data. Three separate user types were identified based on the interaction sequences: passive user, term clicker, and concept map user. We also discovered that with the concept map interface users started to interact with the application significantly sooner than with the index interface. Overall, our findings suggest that analysis of interaction patterns allows deeper insights into the use of e-textbooks than is afforded by summative evaluation.

  14. Interaction of Proteins Identified in Human Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Jessica; Riwaldt, Stefan; Bauer, Johann; Sickmann, Albert; Weber, Gerhard; Grosse, Jirka; Infanger, Manfred; Eilles, Christoph; Grimm, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Influence of gravity forces on the regulation of protein expression by healthy and malignant thyroid cells was studied with the aim to identify protein interactions. Western blot analyses of a limited number of proteins suggested a time-dependent regulation of protein expression by simulated microgravity. After applying free flow isoelectric focusing and mass spectrometry to search for differently expressed proteins by thyroid cells exposed to simulated microgravity for three days, a considerable number of candidates for gravi-sensitive proteins were detected. In order to show how proteins sensitive to microgravity could directly influence other proteins, we investigated all polypeptide chains identified with Mascot scores above 100, looking for groups of interacting proteins. Hence, UniProtKB entry numbers of all detected proteins were entered into the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) and processed. The program indicated that we had detected various groups of interacting proteins in each of the three cell lines studied. The major groups of interacting proteins play a role in pathways of carbohydrate and protein metabolism, regulation of cell growth and cell membrane structuring. Analyzing these groups, networks of interaction could be established which show how a punctual influence of simulated microgravity may propagate via various members of interaction chains. PMID:23303277

  15. Interaction of Proteins Identified in Human Thyroid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Pietsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of gravity forces on the regulation of protein expression by healthy and malignant thyroid cells was studied with the aim to identify protein interactions. Western blot analyses of a limited number of proteins suggested a time-dependent regulation of protein expression by simulated microgravity. After applying free flow isoelectric focusing and mass spectrometry to search for differently expressed proteins by thyroid cells exposed to simulated microgravity for three days, a considerable number of candidates for gravi-sensitive proteins were detected. In order to show how proteins sensitive to microgravity could directly influence other proteins, we investigated all polypeptide chains identified with Mascot scores above 100, looking for groups of interacting proteins. Hence, UniProtKB entry numbers of all detected proteins were entered into the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING and processed. The program indicated that we had detected various groups of interacting proteins in each of the three cell lines studied. The major groups of interacting proteins play a role in pathways of carbohydrate and protein metabolism, regulation of cell growth and cell membrane structuring. Analyzing these groups, networks of interaction could be established which show how a punctual influence of simulated microgravity may propagate via various members of interaction chains.

  16. Identification of BLCAP as a novel STAT3 interaction partner in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromova, Irina; Svensson, Sofia; Gromov, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Bladder cancer associated protein (Blcap) expression is commonly down-regulated in invasive bladder cancer, and may have prognostic value given that its expression is negatively correlated with patient survival. We have previously investigated the expression patterns and cellular localization...... and canonical signaling pathways. We performed serial immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of bladder tissue samples, with serial sections stained with phospho-specific antibodies recognizing key signaling intermediates, such as P-Stat3, P-Akt, and P-Erk1/2, among others, in an immunophenotyping approach we have......, using an in situ proximity ligation assay that Blcap and Stat3 are in close physical proximity of each other in bladder tissue, and that Blcap physically interacts with Stat3 as determined by co-immunoprecipitation of these proteins. Our data indicates that Blcap is a novel Stat3 interaction partner...

  17. Establishment of a protein frequency library and its application in the reliable identification of specific protein interaction partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulon, Séverine; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Verheggen, Céline; Cobley, Andy; Gregor, Peter; Bertrand, Edouard; Whitehorn, Mark; Lamond, Angus I

    2010-05-01

    The reliable identification of protein interaction partners and how such interactions change in response to physiological or pathological perturbations is a key goal in most areas of cell biology. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based mass spectrometry has been shown to provide a powerful strategy for characterizing protein complexes and identifying specific interactions. Here, we show how SILAC can be combined with computational methods drawn from the business intelligence field for multidimensional data analysis to improve the discrimination between specific and nonspecific protein associations and to analyze dynamic protein complexes. A strategy is shown for developing a protein frequency library (PFL) that improves on previous use of static "bead proteomes." The PFL annotates the frequency of detection in co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments for all proteins in the human proteome. It can provide a flexible and objective filter for discriminating between contaminants and specifically bound proteins and can be used to normalize data values and facilitate comparisons between data obtained in separate experiments. The PFL is a dynamic tool that can be filtered for specific experimental parameters to generate a customized library. It will be continuously updated as data from each new experiment are added to the library, thereby progressively enhancing its utility. The application of the PFL to pulldown experiments is especially helpful in identifying either lower abundance or less tightly bound specific components of protein complexes that are otherwise lost among the large, nonspecific background.

  18. Identification of potential novel interaction partners of the sodium-activated potassium channels Slick and Slack in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Sandra; Schwarzer, Christoph; Kremser, Leopold; Lindner, Herbert H; Knaus, Hans-Günther

    2015-12-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channels Slick (Slo2.1, KCNT2) and Slack (Slo2.2, KCNT1) are paralogous channels of the Slo family of high-conductance potassium channels. Slick and Slack channels are widely distributed in the mammalian CNS and they play a role in slow afterhyperpolarization, generation of depolarizing afterpotentials and in setting and stabilizing the resting potential. In the present study we used a combined approach of (co)-immunoprecipitation studies, Western blot analysis, double immunofluorescence and mass spectrometric sequencing in order to investigate protein-protein interactions of the Slick and Slack channels. The data strongly suggest that Slick and Slack channels co-assemble into identical cellular complexes. Double immunofluorescence experiments revealed that Slick and Slack channels co-localize in distinct mouse brain regions. Moreover, we identified the small cytoplasmic protein beta-synuclein and the transmembrane protein 263 (TMEM 263) as novel interaction partners of both, native Slick and Slack channels. In addition, the inactive dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPP 10) and the synapse associated protein 102 (SAP 102) were identified as constituents of the native Slick and Slack channel complexes in the mouse brain. This study presents new insights into protein-protein interactions of native Slick and Slack channels in the mouse brain.

  19. Identification of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 as a new interaction partner of cyclin D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Maoyun; Wei Yuanyan; Yao Luyang; Xie Jianhui; Chen Xiaoning; Wang Hanzhou; Jiang Jianhai; Gu Jianxin

    2006-01-01

    Cyclin D3, like cyclin D1 and D2 isoforms, is a crucial component of the core cell cycle machinery in mammalian cells. It also exhibits its unique properties in many other physiological processes. In the present study, using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified ERK3, an atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as a cyclin D3 binding partner. GST pull-down assays showed that cyclin D3 interacts directly and specifically with ERK3 in vitro. The binding of cyclin D3 and ERK3 was further confirmed in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation assay and confocal microscopic analysis. Moreover, carboxy-terminal extension of ERK3 was responsible for its association with intact cyclin D3. These findings further expand distinct roles of cyclin D3 and suggest the potential activity of ERK3 in cell proliferation

  20. Interactions of adolescent social experiences and dopamine genes to predict physical intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Schwab-Reese

    Full Text Available We examined the interactions between three dopamine gene alleles (DAT1, DRD2, DRD4 previously associated with violent behavior and two components of the adolescent environment (exposure to violence, school social environment to predict adulthood physical intimate partner violence (IPV perpetration among white men and women.We used data from Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a cohort study following individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Based on the prior literature, we categorized participants as at risk for each of the three dopamine genes using this coding scheme: two 10-R alleles for DAT1; at least one A-1 allele for DRD2; at least one 7-R or 8-R allele for DRD4. Adolescent exposure to violence and school social environment was measured in 1994 and 1995 when participants were in high school or middle school. Intimate partner violence perpetration was measured in 2008 when participants were 24 to 32 years old. We used simple and multivariable logistic regression models, including interactions of genes and the adolescent environments for the analysis.Presence of risk alleles was not independently associated with IPV perpetration but increasing exposure to violence and disconnection from the school social environment was associated with physical IPV perpetration. The effects of these adolescent experiences on physical IPV perpetration varied by dopamine risk allele status. Among individuals with non-risk dopamine alleles, increased exposure to violence during adolescence and perception of disconnection from the school environment were significantly associated with increased odds of physical IPV perpetration, but individuals with high risk alleles, overall, did not experience the same increase.Our results suggested the effects of adolescent environment on adulthood physical IPV perpetration varied by genetic factors. This analysis did not find a direct link between risk alleles and violence, but

  1. A proteomic analysis of LRRK2 binding partners reveals interactions with multiple signaling components of the WNT/PCP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salašová, Alena; Yokota, Chika; Potěšil, David; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Bryja, Vítězslav; Arenas, Ernest

    2017-07-11

    Autosomal-dominant mutations in the Park8 gene encoding Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been identified to cause up to 40% of the genetic forms of Parkinson's disease. However, the function and molecular pathways regulated by LRRK2 are largely unknown. It has been shown that LRRK2 serves as a scaffold during activation of WNT/β-catenin signaling via its interaction with the β-catenin destruction complex, DVL1-3 and LRP6. In this study, we examine whether LRRK2 also interacts with signaling components of the WNT/Planar Cell Polarity (WNT/PCP) pathway, which controls the maturation of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, the main cell type lost in Parkinson's disease patients. Co-immunoprecipitation and tandem mass spectrometry was performed in a mouse substantia nigra cell line (SN4741) and human HEK293T cell line in order to identify novel LRRK2 binding partners. Inhibition of the WNT/β-catenin reporter, TOPFlash, was used as a read-out of WNT/PCP pathway activation. The capacity of LRRK2 to regulate WNT/PCP signaling in vivo was tested in Xenopus laevis' early development. Our proteomic analysis identified that LRRK2 interacts with proteins involved in WNT/PCP signaling such as the PDZ domain-containing protein GIPC1 and Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in dopaminergic cells in vitro and in the mouse ventral midbrain in vivo. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that LRRK2 binds to two core components of the WNT/PCP signaling pathway, PRICKLE1 and CELSR1, as well as to FLOTILLIN-2 and CULLIN-3, which regulate WNT secretion and inhibit WNT/β-catenin signaling, respectively. We also found that PRICKLE1 and LRRK2 localize in signalosomes and act as dual regulators of WNT/PCP and β-catenin signaling. Accordingly, analysis of the function of LRRK2 in vivo, in X. laevis revelaed that LRKK2 not only inhibits WNT/β-catenin pathway, but induces a classical WNT/PCP phenotype in vivo. Our study shows for the first time that LRRK2 activates the WNT

  2. The sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK to identify intimate partner violence: a diagnostic accuracy study in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feder Gene

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV including physical, sexual and emotional violence, causes short and long term ill-health. Brief questions that reliably identify women experiencing IPV who present in clinical settings are a pre-requisite for an appropriate response from health services to this substantial public health problem. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK developed from the Abuse Assessment screen, compared to a 30-item abuse questionnaire, the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS. Methods We administered the four HARK questions and the CAS to women approached by two researchers in general practice waiting rooms in Newham, east London. Inclusions: women aged more than 17 years waiting to see a doctor or nurse, who had been in an intimate relationship in the last year. Exclusions: women who were accompanied by children over four years of age or another adult, too unwell to complete the questionnaires, unable to understand English or unable to give informed consent. Results Two hundred and thirty two women were recruited. The response rate was 54%. The prevalence of current intimate partner violence, within the last 12 months, using the CAS cut off score of ≥3, was 23% (95% C.I. 17% to 28% with pre-test odds of 0.3 (95% C.I. 0.2 to 0.4. The receiver operator characteristic curve demonstrated that a HARK cut off score of ≥1 maximises the true positives whilst minimising the false positives. The sensitivity of the optimal HARK cut-off score of ≥1 was 81% (95% C.I. 69% to 90%, specificity 95% (95% C.I. 91% to 98%, positive predictive value 83% (95% C.I. 70% to 91%, negative predictive value 94% (95% C.I. 90% to 97%, likelihood ratio 16 (95% C.I. 8 to 31 and post-test odds 5. Conclusion The four HARK questions accurately identify women experiencing IPV in the past year and may help women disclose abuse in general practice. The HARK questions could be incorporated into the electronic medical record

  3. Microbes in the coral holobiont: partners through evolution, development, and ecological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janelle R; Rivera, Hanny E; Closek, Collin J; Medina, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, genetic and genomic studies have revealed the astonishing diversity and ubiquity of microorganisms. Emergence and expansion of the human microbiome project has reshaped our thinking about how microbes control host health-not only as pathogens, but also as symbionts. In coral reef environments, scientists have begun to examine the role that microorganisms play in coral life history. Herein, we review the current literature on coral-microbe interactions within the context of their role in evolution, development, and ecology. We ask the following questions, first posed by McFall-Ngai et al. (2013) in their review of animal evolution, with specific attention to how coral-microbial interactions may be affected under future environmental conditions: (1) How do corals and their microbiome affect each other's genomes? (2) How does coral development depend on microbial partners? (3) How is homeostasis maintained between corals and their microbial symbionts? (4) How can ecological approaches deepen our understanding of the multiple levels of coral-microbial interactions? Elucidating the role that microorganisms play in the structure and function of the holobiont is essential for understanding how corals maintain homeostasis and acclimate to changing environmental conditions.

  4. Bacurd2 is a novel interacting partner to Rnd2 which controls radial migration within the developing mammalian cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwyn-Ng, Ivan Enghian; Li, Shan Shan; Qu, Zhengdong; Davis, John Michael; Ngo, Linh; Haas, Matilda; Singer, Jeffrey; Heng, Julian Ik-Tsen

    2015-03-31

    During fetal brain development in mammals, newborn neurons undergo cell migration to reach their appropriate positions and form functional circuits. We previously reported that the atypical RhoA GTPase Rnd2 promotes the radial migration of mouse cerebral cortical neurons (Nature 455(7209):114-8, 2008; Neuron 69(6):1069-84, 2011), but its downstream signalling pathway is not well understood. We have identified BTB-domain containing adaptor for Cul3-mediated RhoA degradation 2 (Bacurd2) as a novel interacting partner to Rnd2, which promotes radial migration within the developing cerebral cortex. We find that Bacurd2 binds Rnd2 at its C-terminus, and this interaction is critical to its cell migration function. We show that forced expression or knockdown of Bacurd2 impairs neuronal migration within the embryonic cortex and alters the morphology of immature neurons. Our in vivo cellular analysis reveals that Bacurd2 influences the multipolar-to-bipolar transition of radially migrating neurons in a cell autonomous fashion. When we addressed the potential signalling relationship between Bacurd2 and Rnd2 using a Bacurd2-Rnd2 chimeric construct, our results suggest that Bacurd2 and Rnd2 could interact to promote radial migration within the embryonic cortex. Our studies demonstrate that Bacurd2 is a novel player in neuronal development and influences radial migration within the embryonic cerebral cortex.

  5. Ethics in Community-University-Artist Partnered Research: Tensions, Contradictions and Gaps Identified in an 'Arts for Social Change' Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jennifer Beth; Lockhart, Karen; Fels, Lynn; Boydell, Katherine; Marcuse, Judith

    Academics from diverse disciplines are recognizing not only the procedural ethical issues involved in research, but also the complexity of everyday "micro" ethical issues that arise. While ethical guidelines are being developed for research in aboriginal populations and low-and-middle-income countries, multi-partnered research initiatives examining arts-based interventions to promote social change pose a unique set of ethical dilemmas not yet fully explored. Our research team, comprising health, education, and social scientists, critical theorists, artists and community-activists launched a five-year research partnership on arts-for-social change. Funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council in Canada and based in six universities, including over 40 community-based collaborators, and informed by five main field projects (circus with street youth, theatre by people with disabilities, dance for people with Parkinson's disease, participatory theatre with refugees and artsinfused dialogue), we set out to synthesize existing knowledge and lessons we learned. We summarized these learnings into 12 key points for reflection, grouped into three categories: community-university partnership concerns ( n  = 3), dilemmas related to the arts ( n  = 5), and team issues ( n  = 4). In addition to addressing previous concerns outlined in the literature (e.g., related to consent, anonymity, dangerous emotional terrain, etc.), we identified power dynamics (visible and hidden) hindering meaningful participation of community partners and university-based teams that need to be addressed within a reflective critical framework of ethical practice. We present how our team has been addressing these issues, as examples of how such concerns could be approached in community-university partnerships in arts for social change.

  6. Bioinformatic analysis of xenobiotic reactive metabolite target proteins and their interacting partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzlik Robert P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein covalent binding by reactive metabolites of drugs, chemicals and natural products can lead to acute cytotoxicity. Recent rapid progress in reactive metabolite target protein identification has shown that adduction is surprisingly selective and inspired the hope that analysis of target proteins might reveal protein factors that differentiate target- vs. non-target proteins and illuminate mechanisms connecting covalent binding to cytotoxicity. Results Sorting 171 known reactive metabolite target proteins revealed a number of GO categories and KEGG pathways to be significantly enriched in targets, but in most cases the classes were too large, and the "percent coverage" too small, to allow meaningful conclusions about mechanisms of toxicity. However, a similar analysis of the directlyinteracting partners of 28 common targets of multiple reactive metabolites revealed highly significant enrichments in terms likely to be highly relevant to cytotoxicity (e.g., MAP kinase pathways, apoptosis, response to unfolded protein. Machine learning was used to rank the contribution of 211 computed protein features to determining protein susceptibility to adduction. Protein lysine (but not cysteine content and protein instability index (i.e., rate of turnover in vivo were among the features most important to determining susceptibility. Conclusion As yet there is no good explanation for why some low-abundance proteins become heavily adducted while some abundant proteins become only lightly adducted in vivo. Analyzing the directly interacting partners of target proteins appears to yield greater insight into mechanisms of toxicity than analyzing target proteins per se. The insights provided can readily be formulated as hypotheses to test in future experimental studies.

  7. Depression in Intimate Partner Violence Victims in Slovenia: A Crippling Pattern of Factors Identified in Family Practice Attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Kopčavar Guček

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This multi-centre cross-sectional study explored associations between prevalence of depression and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV at any time in patients’ adult life in 471 participants of a previous IPV study. In 2016, 174 interviews were performed, using the Short Form Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire, the Zung Scale and questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to IPV. Family doctors reviewed patients’ medical charts for period from 2012 to 2016, using the Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List, for conditions which persisted for at least three years. Depression was found to be associated with any exposure to IPV in adult life and was more likely to affect women. In multivariable logistic regression modelling, factors associated with self-rated depression were identified (p < 0.05. Exposure to emotional and physical violence was identified as a risk factor in the first model, explaining 23% of the variance. The second model explained 66% of the variance; past divorce, dysfunctional family relationships and a history of incapacity to work increased the likelihood of depression in patients. Family doctors should consider IPV exposure when detecting depression, since lifetime IPV exposure was found to be 40.4% and 36.9% of depressed revealed it.

  8. Depression in Intimate Partner Violence Victims in Slovenia: A Crippling Pattern of Factors Identified in Family Practice Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guček, Nena Kopčavar; Selič, Polona

    2018-01-26

    This multi-centre cross-sectional study explored associations between prevalence of depression and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) at any time in patients' adult life in 471 participants of a previous IPV study. In 2016, 174 interviews were performed, using the Short Form Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire, the Zung Scale and questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to IPV. Family doctors reviewed patients' medical charts for period from 2012 to 2016, using the Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List, for conditions which persisted for at least three years. Depression was found to be associated with any exposure to IPV in adult life and was more likely to affect women. In multivariable logistic regression modelling, factors associated with self-rated depression were identified (p < 0.05). Exposure to emotional and physical violence was identified as a risk factor in the first model, explaining 23% of the variance. The second model explained 66% of the variance; past divorce, dysfunctional family relationships and a history of incapacity to work increased the likelihood of depression in patients. Family doctors should consider IPV exposure when detecting depression, since lifetime IPV exposure was found to be 40.4% and 36.9% of depressed revealed it.

  9. Using Spatial Semantics and Interactions to Identify Urban Functional Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandong Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structures of cities have changed dramatically with rapid socio-economic development in ways that are not well understood. To support urban structural analysis and rational planning, we propose a framework to identify urban functional regions and quantitatively explore the intensity of the interactions between them, thus increasing the understanding of urban structures. A method for the identification of functional regions via spatial semantics is proposed, which involves two steps: (1 the study area is classified into three types of functional regions using taxi origin/destination (O/D flows; and (2 the spatial semantics for the three types of functional regions are demonstrated based on point-of-interest (POI categories. To validate the existence of urban functional regions, we explored the intensity of interactions quantitatively between them. A case study using POI data and taxi trajectory data from Beijing validates the proposed framework. The results show that the proposed framework can be used to identify urban functional regions and promotes an enhanced understanding of urban structures.

  10. Discovery of novel interacting partners of PSMD9, a proteasomal chaperone: Role of an Atypical and versatile PDZ-domain motif interaction and identification of putative functional modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Sangith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PSMD9 (Proteasome Macropain non-ATPase subunit 9, a proteasomal assembly chaperone, harbors an uncharacterized PDZ-like domain. Here we report the identification of five novel interacting partners of PSMD9 and provide the first glimpse at the structure of the PDZ-domain, including the molecular details of the interaction. We based our strategy on two propositions: (a proteins with conserved C-termini may share common functions and (b PDZ domains interact with C-terminal residues of proteins. Screening of C-terminal peptides followed by interactions using full-length recombinant proteins, we discovered hnRNPA1 (an RNA binding protein, S14 (a ribosomal protein, CSH1 (a growth hormone, E12 (a transcription factor and IL6 receptor as novel PSMD9-interacting partners. Through multiple techniques and structural insights, we clearly demonstrate for the first time that human PDZ domain interacts with the predicted Short Linear Sequence Motif (SLIM at the C-termini of the client proteins. These interactions are also recapitulated in mammalian cells. Together, these results are suggestive of the role of PSMD9 in transcriptional regulation, mRNA processing and editing, hormone and receptor activity and protein translation. Our proof-of-principle experiments endorse a novel and quick method for the identification of putative interacting partners of similar PDZ-domain proteins from the proteome and for discovering novel functions.

  11. GESearch: An Interactive GUI Tool for Identifying Gene Expression Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of gene expression data generated by microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies present challenges to exploit their biological meanings. When searching for the coexpression genes, the data mining process is largely affected by selection of algorithms. Thus, it is highly desirable to provide multiple options of algorithms in the user-friendly analytical toolkit to explore the gene expression signatures. For this purpose, we developed GESearch, an interactive graphical user interface (GUI toolkit, which is written in MATLAB and supports a variety of gene expression data files. This analytical toolkit provides four models, including the mean, the regression, the delegate, and the ensemble models, to identify the coexpression genes, and enables the users to filter data and to select gene expression patterns by browsing the display window or by importing knowledge-based genes. Subsequently, the utility of this analytical toolkit is demonstrated by analyzing two sets of real-life microarray datasets from cell-cycle experiments. Overall, we have developed an interactive GUI toolkit that allows for choosing multiple algorithms for analyzing the gene expression signatures.

  12. Improving Interactive Health Literacy Skills of Older Adults: Lessons Learned From Formative Organizational Research With Community Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmer, John; Furtado, Debra; Rubin, Donald L; Freimuth, Vicki; Kaley, Terry; Okundaye, Mumbi

    2015-01-01

    Meals on Wheels (MOW) organizations are ideal community partners for delivering social support relating to health information exchange for vulnerable and home-bound older adults. This article illustrates how formative organizational evaluation can be used to adapt health literacy interventions delivered by community partners. Key informant interviews and ethnographic observations were conducted as part of a formative organizational evaluation of potential community partners. The observed brevity of volunteer-client interaction led program planners to incorporate substantial emphasis on communicating with older adults into the health literacy coach training curriculum. Ethnographic observations made clear that program materials had to be portable and fit it in with the mobile nature of MOW delivery. Formative organizational research can greatly increase the chance of successful implementation of public health interventions when those interventions will be implemented in partnerships with community-based organizations in diverse settings and with varying practices.

  13. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Minsam; Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong; Lee, Uichin; Jang, Young Jae

    2016-01-01

    Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers' online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans' interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users.

  14. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsam Ko

    Full Text Available Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers' online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans' interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users.

  15. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jaeryong; Lee, Juyeong

    2016-01-01

    Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers’ online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans’ interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users. PMID:26849568

  16. Identifying Interacting Genetic Variations by Fish-Swarm Logic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aiyuan; Yan, Chunxia; Zhu, Feng; Zhao, Zhongmeng; Cao, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Understanding associations between genotypes and complex traits is a fundamental problem in human genetics. A major open problem in mapping phenotypes is that of identifying a set of interacting genetic variants, which might contribute to complex traits. Logic regression (LR) is a powerful multivariant association tool. Several LR-based approaches have been successfully applied to different datasets. However, these approaches are not adequate with regard to accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we propose a new LR-based approach, called fish-swarm logic regression (FSLR), which improves the logic regression process by incorporating swarm optimization. In our approach, a school of fish agents are conducted in parallel. Each fish agent holds a regression model, while the school searches for better models through various preset behaviors. A swarm algorithm improves the accuracy and the efficiency by speeding up the convergence and preventing it from dropping into local optimums. We apply our approach on a real screening dataset and a series of simulation scenarios. Compared to three existing LR-based approaches, our approach outperforms them by having lower type I and type II error rates, being able to identify more preset causal sites, and performing at faster speeds. PMID:23984382

  17. Identifying Interacting Genetic Variations by Fish-Swarm Logic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanping Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding associations between genotypes and complex traits is a fundamental problem in human genetics. A major open problem in mapping phenotypes is that of identifying a set of interacting genetic variants, which might contribute to complex traits. Logic regression (LR is a powerful multivariant association tool. Several LR-based approaches have been successfully applied to different datasets. However, these approaches are not adequate with regard to accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we propose a new LR-based approach, called fish-swarm logic regression (FSLR, which improves the logic regression process by incorporating swarm optimization. In our approach, a school of fish agents are conducted in parallel. Each fish agent holds a regression model, while the school searches for better models through various preset behaviors. A swarm algorithm improves the accuracy and the efficiency by speeding up the convergence and preventing it from dropping into local optimums. We apply our approach on a real screening dataset and a series of simulation scenarios. Compared to three existing LR-based approaches, our approach outperforms them by having lower type I and type II error rates, being able to identify more preset causal sites, and performing at faster speeds.

  18. Meaningful modalities : Stimulating the use of tactile-bodily interaction and communication in everyday situations with persons who are congenitally deafblind and their communication partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskens, Hermelinde

    2015-01-01

    The dual sensory impairment that characterizes congenital deafblindness, confronts communication partners of persons who are congenitally deafblind with serious challenges regarding interaction and communication. In order to create interaction and communication in everyday practice, communication

  19. Protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) reduces reinsertion rates of interaction partners sorted to Rab11-dependent slow recycling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kenneth Lindegaard; Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    The scaffolding protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) contains an N-terminal PSD-95/Discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain and a central lipid-binding Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain. PICK1 is thought to regulate trafficking of its PDZ binding partners but different and even opposing...... functions have been suggested. Here, we apply ELISA-based assays and confocal microscopy in HEK293 cells with inducible PICK1 expression to assess in an isolated system the ability of PICK1 to regulate trafficking of natural and engineered PDZ binding partners. The dopamine transporter (DAT), which...

  20. Identifying Drug–Drug Interactions by Data Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Wæde; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Sehested, Thomas S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background—Knowledge about drug–drug interactions commonly arises from preclinical trials, from adverse drug reports, or based on knowledge of mechanisms of action. Our aim was to investigate whether drug–drug interactions were discoverable without prior hypotheses using data mining. We focused...... registries. Additionally, we discovered a few potentially novel interactions. This opens up for the use of data mining to discover unknown drug–drug interactions in cardiovascular medicine....... on warfarin–drug interactions as the prototype. Methods and Results—We analyzed altered prothrombin time (measured as international normalized ratio [INR]) after initiation of a novel prescription in previously INR-stable warfarin-treated patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Data sets were retrieved...

  1. Remarriage Beliefs as Predictors of Marital Quality and Positive Interaction in Stepcouples: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Chelsea L; Higginbotham, Brian; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, we examined remarriage beliefs as predictors of marital quality and positive interaction in a sample of 179 stepcouples. Three beliefs were measured using subscales from the Remarriage Belief Inventory (RMBI) including success is slim, children are the priority, and finances should be pooled. Several significant actor and partner effects were found for both wives' and husbands' beliefs. Wives' marital quality was positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Wives' reports of their own and spouses' positive interaction were both positively associated with their beliefs that finances should be pooled. Their reports of spouses' positive interaction were also negatively associated with husbands' beliefs that success is slim. Husbands' marital quality was positively associated with wives' beliefs that children are the priority, positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled, and negatively with success is slim. Positive interaction for husbands was positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Finally, husbands' reports of positive interaction for their spouses were positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled. Implications for future research utilizing dyadic data analysis with stepcouples are addressed. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  2. Bayesian inference for identifying interaction rules in moving animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Mann

    Full Text Available The emergence of similar collective patterns from different self-propelled particle models of animal groups points to a restricted set of "universal" classes for these patterns. While universality is interesting, it is often the fine details of animal interactions that are of biological importance. Universality thus presents a challenge to inferring such interactions from macroscopic group dynamics since these can be consistent with many underlying interaction models. We present a Bayesian framework for learning animal interaction rules from fine scale recordings of animal movements in swarms. We apply these techniques to the inverse problem of inferring interaction rules from simulation models, showing that parameters can often be inferred from a small number of observations. Our methodology allows us to quantify our confidence in parameter fitting. For example, we show that attraction and alignment terms can be reliably estimated when animals are milling in a torus shape, while interaction radius cannot be reliably measured in such a situation. We assess the importance of rate of data collection and show how to test different models, such as topological and metric neighbourhood models. Taken together our results both inform the design of experiments on animal interactions and suggest how these data should be best analysed.

  3. Identifying User Experience Goals for Interactive Climate Management Business Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Barlow, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from interpretative phenomenological interviews about the user experience of interactive climate management with six growers and crop consultants. The focus of user experience research has been on quantitative studies of consumers’ initial usage experiences, for example...... of mobile phones or e-commerce websites. In contrast, this empirical paper provides an example of how to capture user experience in work contexts and with a qualitative methodology. We present a model of the essence of the emotional user experience of interactive climate management. Then we suggest...... of interactive climate management in this and other domains. The overall aim with the paper is to take the concept of user experience into the IS community and to describe and understand what are individual workers’ positive emotional use experiences when interacting with workplace systems....

  4. Physical interaction between the strawberry allergen Fra a 1 and an associated partner FaAP: Interaction of Fra a 1 proteins and FaAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Langer, Andreas; Strasser, Ralf; Isono, Erika; Ranftl, Quirin L; Wunschel, Christian; Schwab, Wilfried

    2017-10-01

    The strawberry fruit allergens Fra a 1.01E, Fra a 1.02 and Fra a 1.03 belong to the group of pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) proteins and are homologs of the major birch pollen Bet v 1 and apple allergen Mal d 1. Bet v 1 related proteins are the most extensively studied allergens but their physiological function in planta remains elusive. Since Mal d 1-Associated Protein has been previously identified as interaction partner of Mal d 1 we studied the binding of the orthologous Fra a 1-Associated Protein (FaAP) to Fra a 1.01E/1.02/1.03. As the C-terminal sequence of FaAP showed strong auto-activation activity in yeast 2-hybrid analysis a novel time resolved DNA-switching system was successfully applied. Fra a 1.01E, Fra a 1.02, and Fra a 1.03 bind to FaAP with K D of 4.5 ± 1.1, 15 ± 3, and 11 ± 2 nM, respectively. Fra a 1.01E forms a dimer, whereas Fra a 1.02 and Fra a 1.03 bind as monomer. The results imply that PR-10 proteins might be integrated into a protein-interaction network and FaAP binding appears to be essential for the physiological function of the Fra a 1 proteins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Identification of the PDI-family member ERp90 as an interaction partner of ERFAD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Riemer

    Full Text Available In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI family perform critical functions during protein maturation. Herein, we identify the previously uncharacterized PDI-family member ERp90. In cultured human cells, we find ERp90 to be a soluble ER-luminal glycoprotein that comprises five potential thioredoxin (Trx-like domains. Mature ERp90 contains 10 cysteine residues, of which at least some form intramolecular disulfides. While none of the Trx domains contain a canonical Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys active-site motif, other conserved cysteines could endow the protein with redox activity. Importantly, we show that ERp90 co-immunoprecipitates with ERFAD, a flavoprotein involved in ER-associated degradation (ERAD, through what is most likely a direct interaction. We propose that the function of ERp90 is related to substrate recruitment or delivery to the ERAD retrotranslocation machinery by ERFAD.

  6. 'Doctor' or 'darling'? Decoding the communication partner from ECoG of the anterior temporal lobe during non-experimental, real-life social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eDerix

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human brain processes underlying real-life social interaction in everyday situations have been difficult to study and have, until now, remained largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether electrocorticography (ECoG recorded for pre-neurosurgical diagnostics during the daily hospital life of epilepsy patients could provide a way to elucidate the neural correlates of non-experimental social interaction. We identified time periods in which patients were involved in conversations with either their respective life partners (Condition 1; C1 or attending physicians (Condition 2; C2. These two conditions can be expected to differentially involve subfunctions of social interaction which have been associated with activity in the anterior temporal lobe (ATL, including the temporal poles (TP. Therefore, we specifically focused on ECoG recordings from this brain region and investigated spectral power modulations in the alpha (8-12 Hz and theta (3-5 Hz frequency ranges, which have been previously assumed to play an important role in the processing of social interaction. We hypothesized that brain activity in this region might be sensitive to differences in the two interaction situations and tested whether these differences can be detected by single-trial decoding. Condition-specific effects in both theta and alpha bands were observed: the left and right TP exclusively showed increased power in C1 compared to C2, whereas more posterior parts of the ATL exhibited similar (C1 > C2 and also contrary (C2 > C1 effects. Single-trial decoding accuracies for classification of these effects were highly above chance. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to study the neural correlates of human social interaction in non-experimental conditions. Decoding the identity of the communication partner and adjusting the speech output accordingly may be useful in the emerging field of brain- machine interfacing for restoration of expressive speech.

  7. Identifying and Intervening with Substance-Using Women Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Phenomenology, Comorbidities, and Integrated Approaches Within Primary Care and Other Agency Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Terri L.; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Resnick, Heidi S.; Noursi, Samia

    2015-01-01

    Substance use and/or disorders (SUDs) have been identified as a significant correlate of intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and present complex issues that intersect with the topography of IPV, attendant mental health, and physical co-morbidities and may pose barriers to primary care- and other agency-based screening and intervention efforts. Despite substantial research indicating significantly higher rates of all types and severity of IPV victimization among women with SUDs and bidire...

  8. The intercropping partner affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici interactions in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Krammer, Johannes; Steinkellner, Siegrid

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their bioprotective aspects are of great interest in the context of sustainable agriculture. Combining the benefits of AMF with the utilisation of plant species diversity shows great promise for the management of plant diseases in environmentally compatible agriculture. In the present study, AMF were tested against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with tomato intercropped with either leek, cucumber, basil, fennel or tomato itself. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root colonisation of tomato was clearly affected by its intercropping partners. Tomato intercropped with leek showed even a 20 % higher AM colonisation rate than tomato intercropped with tomato. Positive effects of AMF expressed as an increase of tomato biomass compared to the untreated control treatment could be observed in root as well as in shoot weights. A compensation of negative effects of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato biomass by AMF was observed in the tomato/leek combination. The intercropping partners leek, cucumber, basil and tomato had no effect on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease incidence or disease severity indicating no allelopathic suppression; however, tomato co-cultivated with tomato clearly showed a negative effect on one plant/pot with regard to biomass and disease severity of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Nonetheless, bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity were evident in treatments with AMF and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici co-inoculation. However, these bioprotective effects depended on the intercropping partner since these effects were only observed in the tomato/leek and tomato/basil combination and for the better developed plant of tomato/tomato. In conclusion, the effects of the intercropping partner on AMF colonisation of tomato are of great interest for crop plant communities and for the influences on each other. The outcome of the bioprotective

  9. Identifying Drug-Target Interactions with Decision Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Shao-Wu

    2018-01-01

    During the development process of new drugs, identification of the drug-target interactions wins primary concerns. However, the chemical or biological experiments bear the limitation in coverage as well as the huge cost of both time and money. Based on drug similarity and target similarity, chemogenomic methods can be able to predict potential drug-target interactions (DTIs) on a large scale and have no luxurious need about target structures or ligand entries. In order to reflect the cases that the drugs having variant structures interact with common targets and the targets having dissimilar sequences interact with same drugs. In addition, though several other similarity metrics have been developed to predict DTIs, the combination of multiple similarity metrics (especially heterogeneous similarities) is too naïve to sufficiently explore the multiple similarities. In this paper, based on Gene Ontology and pathway annotation, we introduce two novel target similarity metrics to address above issues. More importantly, we propose a more effective strategy via decision template to integrate multiple classifiers designed with multiple similarity metrics. In the scenarios that predict existing targets for new drugs and predict approved drugs for new protein targets, the results on the DTI benchmark datasets show that our target similarity metrics are able to enhance the predictive accuracies in two scenarios. And the elaborate fusion strategy of multiple classifiers has better predictive power than the naïve combination of multiple similarity metrics. Compared with other two state-of-the-art approaches on the four popular benchmark datasets of binary drug-target interactions, our method achieves the best results in terms of AUC and AUPR for predicting available targets for new drugs (S2), and predicting approved drugs for new protein targets (S3).These results demonstrate that our method can effectively predict the drug-target interactions. The software package can

  10. Functional Complementation Studies Reveal Different Interaction Partners of Escherichia coli IscS and Human NFS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühning, Martin; Friemel, Martin; Leimkühler, Silke

    2017-08-29

    The trafficking and delivery of sulfur to cofactors and nucleosides is a highly regulated and conserved process among all organisms. All sulfur transfer pathways generally have an l-cysteine desulfurase as an initial sulfur-mobilizing enzyme in common, which serves as a sulfur donor for the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing biomolecules like iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters, thiamine, biotin, lipoic acid, the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), and thiolated nucleosides in tRNA. The human l-cysteine desulfurase NFS1 and the Escherichia coli homologue IscS share a level of amino acid sequence identity of ∼60%. While E. coli IscS has a versatile role in the cell and was shown to have numerous interaction partners, NFS1 is mainly localized in mitochondria with a crucial role in the biosynthesis of Fe-S clusters. Additionally, NFS1 is also located in smaller amounts in the cytosol with a role in Moco biosynthesis and mcm 5 s 2 U34 thio modifications of nucleosides in tRNA. NFS1 and IscS were conclusively shown to have different interaction partners in their respective organisms. Here, we used functional complementation studies of an E. coli iscS deletion strain with human NFS1 to dissect their conserved roles in the transfer of sulfur to a specific target protein. Our results show that human NFS1 and E. coli IscS share conserved binding sites for proteins involved in Fe-S cluster assembly like IscU, but not with proteins for tRNA thio modifications or Moco biosynthesis. In addition, we show that human NFS1 was almost fully able to complement the role of IscS in Moco biosynthesis when its specific interaction partner protein MOCS3 from humans was also present.

  11. Identifying Interactions that Determine Fragment Binding at Protein Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoux, Chris J; Olsson, Tjelvar S G; Pitt, Will R; Groom, Colin R; Blundell, Tom L

    2016-05-12

    Locating a ligand-binding site is an important first step in structure-guided drug discovery, but current methods do little to suggest which interactions within a pocket are the most important for binding. Here we illustrate a method that samples atomic hotspots with simple molecular probes to produce fragment hotspot maps. These maps specifically highlight fragment-binding sites and their corresponding pharmacophores. For ligand-bound structures, they provide an intuitive visual guide within the binding site, directing medicinal chemists where to grow the molecule and alerting them to suboptimal interactions within the original hit. The fragment hotspot map calculation is validated using experimental binding positions of 21 fragments and subsequent lead molecules. The ligands are found in high scoring areas of the fragment hotspot maps, with fragment atoms having a median percentage rank of 97%. Protein kinase B and pantothenate synthetase are examined in detail. In each case, the fragment hotspot maps are able to rationalize a Free-Wilson analysis of SAR data from a fragment-based drug design project.

  12. Computational analysis and prediction of the binding motif and protein interacting partners of the Abl SH3 domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingjun Hou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions, particularly weak and transient ones, are often mediated by peptide recognition domains, such as Src Homology 2 and 3 (SH2 and SH3 domains, which bind to specific sequence and structural motifs. It is important but challenging to determine the binding specificity of these domains accurately and to predict their physiological interacting partners. In this study, the interactions between 35 peptide ligands (15 binders and 20 non-binders and the Abl SH3 domain were analyzed using molecular dynamics simulation and the Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Solvent Area method. The calculated binding free energies correlated well with the rank order of the binding peptides and clearly distinguished binders from non-binders. Free energy component analysis revealed that the van der Waals interactions dictate the binding strength of peptides, whereas the binding specificity is determined by the electrostatic interaction and the polar contribution of desolvation. The binding motif of the Abl SH3 domain was then determined by a virtual mutagenesis method, which mutates the residue at each position of the template peptide relative to all other 19 amino acids and calculates the binding free energy difference between the template and the mutated peptides using the Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Solvent Area method. A single position mutation free energy profile was thus established and used as a scoring matrix to search peptides recognized by the Abl SH3 domain in the human genome. Our approach successfully picked ten out of 13 experimentally determined binding partners of the Abl SH3 domain among the top 600 candidates from the 218,540 decapeptides with the PXXP motif in the SWISS-PROT database. We expect that this physical-principle based method can be applied to other protein domains as well.

  13. Identifying and intervening with substance-using women exposed to intimate partner violence: phenomenology, comorbidities, and integrated approaches within primary care and other agency settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Terri L; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Resnick, Heidi S; Noursi, Samia

    2015-01-01

    Substance use and/or disorders (SUDs) have been identified as a significant correlate of intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and present complex issues that intersect with the topography of IPV, attendant mental health, and physical co-morbidities and may pose barriers to primary care- and other agency-based screening and intervention efforts. Despite substantial research indicating significantly higher rates of all types and severity of IPV victimization among women with SUDs and bidirectional associations between partner or self-use of drugs or alcohol and IPV victimization, effective screening, brief interventions, coordinated systems of care, and treatment approaches to address these co-occurring problems remain very limited. We integrated select research examining the intersection of IPV victimization and SUDs and several comorbidities that have significant public health impact and provided recommendations for scaling up targeted interventions to redress these co-occurring problems among women in primary, emergency, and other care settings.

  14. Discovery of multiple interacting partners of gankyrin, a proteasomal chaperone and an oncoprotein--evidence for a common hot spot site at the interface and its functional relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanaware, Padma P; Ramteke, Manoj P; Somavarapu, Arun K; Venkatraman, Prasanna

    2014-07-01

    Gankyrin, a non-ATPase component of the proteasome and a chaperone of proteasome assembly, is also an oncoprotein. Gankyrin regulates a variety of oncogenic signaling pathways in cancer cells and accelerates degradation of tumor suppressor proteins p53 and Rb. Therefore gankyrin may be a unique hub integrating signaling networks with the degradation pathway. To identify new interactions that may be crucial in consolidating its role as an oncogenic hub, crystal structure of gankyrin-proteasome ATPase complex was used to predict novel interacting partners. EEVD, a four amino acid linear sequence seems a hot spot site at this interface. By searching for EEVD in exposed regions of human proteins in PDB database, we predicted 34 novel interactions. Eight proteins were tested and seven of them were found to interact with gankyrin. Affinity of four interactions is high enough for endogenous detection. Others require gankyrin overexpression in HEK 293 cells or occur endogenously in breast cancer cell line- MDA-MB-435, reflecting lower affinity or presence of a deregulated network. Mutagenesis and peptide inhibition confirm that EEVD is the common hot spot site at these interfaces and therefore a potential polypharmacological drug target. In MDA-MB-231 cells in which the endogenous CLIC1 is silenced, trans-expression of Wt protein (CLIC1_EEVD) and not the hot spot site mutant (CLIC1_AAVA) resulted in significant rescue of the migratory potential. Our approach can be extended to identify novel functionally relevant protein-protein interactions, in expansion of oncogenic networks and in identifying potential therapeutic targets. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Self-Presentation, Desired Partner Characteristics, and Sexual Behavior Preferences in Online Personal Advertisements of Men Seeking Non-Gay-Identified Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite attention to the sexual behaviors of non-gay-identified (NGI) men who have same-sex encounters, virtually no research has focused on issues of partner desirability and selection. Limited evidence suggests that a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) advertise online for sexual encounters with NGI men. Exchange theory provided a framework to investigate this seeking of NGI men, based on the content of Internet personal advertisements for same-sex encounters. Researchers analyzed 282 ads posted to an online bulletin board. Ads by men who explicitly desired encounters with NGI men were compared with those by men who did not indicate this preference in potential partners. Multivariate analyses revealed that NGI-seeking men had significantly increased odds of identifying as discreet (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.82), seeking a discreet encounter (AOR = 4.68), seeking a masculine partner (AOR = 2.18), being willing to host (AOR = 2.77), as well as seeking oral-receptive sex (AOR = 2.69), unprotected oral sex (AOR = 6.76), and anal-receptive sex (AOR = 2.18). Further, NGI-seeking ads were more likely to not mention condom use or safer sex practices (AOR = 4.13) and were less likely to indicate a desire for oral-insertive sex (AOR = 0.34) and rimming (AOR = 0.21). Findings suggest that some men may deliberately present themselves in ways that they perceive as being attractive to NGI men, and have research implications for NGI MSM, their partners, and the risk outcomes of these online ads. PMID:25750927

  16. Self-Presentation, Desired Partner Characteristics, and Sexual Behavior Preferences in Online Personal Advertisements of Men Seeking Non-Gay-Identified Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W

    2014-03-14

    Despite attention to the sexual behaviors of non-gay-identified (NGI) men who have same-sex encounters, virtually no research has focused on issues of partner desirability and selection. Limited evidence suggests that a subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM) advertise online for sexual encounters with NGI men. Exchange theory provided a framework to investigate this seeking of NGI men, based on the content of Internet personal advertisements for same-sex encounters. Researchers analyzed 282 ads posted to an online bulletin board. Ads by men who explicitly desired encounters with NGI men were compared with those by men who did not indicate this preference in potential partners. Multivariate analyses revealed that NGI-seeking men had significantly increased odds of identifying as discreet (Adjusted odds ratio [ AOR ] = 2.82), seeking a discreet encounter ( AOR = 4.68), seeking a masculine partner ( AOR = 2.18), being willing to host ( AOR = 2.77), as well as seeking oral-receptive sex ( AOR = 2.69), unprotected oral sex ( AOR = 6.76), and anal-receptive sex ( AOR = 2.18). Further, NGI-seeking ads were more likely to not mention condom use or safer sex practices ( AOR = 4.13) and were less likely to indicate a desire for oral-insertive sex ( AOR = 0.34) and rimming ( AOR = 0.21). Findings suggest that some men may deliberately present themselves in ways that they perceive as being attractive to NGI men, and have research implications for NGI MSM, their partners, and the risk outcomes of these online ads.

  17. Toll like receptors TLR1/2, TLR6 and MUC5B as binding interaction partners with cytostatic proline rich polypeptide 1 in human chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galoian, Karina; Abrahamyan, Silva; Chailyan, Gor; Qureshi, Amir; Patel, Parthik; Metser, Gil; Moran, Alexandra; Sahakyan, Inesa; Tumasyan, Narine; Lee, Albert; Davtyan, Tigran; Chailyan, Samvel; Galoyan, Armen

    2018-01-01

    Metastatic chondrosarcoma is a bone malignancy not responsive to conventional therapies; new approaches and therapies are urgently needed. We have previously reported that mTORC1 inhibitor, antitumorigenic cytostatic proline rich polypeptide 1 (PRP-1), galarmin caused a significant upregulation of tumor suppressors including TET1/2 and SOCS3 (known to be involved in inflammatory processes), downregulation of oncoproteins and embryonic stem cell marker miR-302C and its targets Nanog, c-Myc and Bmi-1 in human chondrosarcoma. To understand better the mechanism of PRP-1 action it was very important to identify the receptor it binds to. Nuclear pathway receptor and GPCR assays indicated that PRP-1 receptors are not G protein coupled, neither do they belong to family of nuclear or orphan receptors. In the present study, we have demonstrated that PRP-1 binding interacting partners belong to innate immunity pattern recognition toll like receptors TLR1/2 and TLR6 and gel forming secreted mucin MUC5B. MUC5B was identified as PRP-1 receptor in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line using Ligand-receptor capture technology. Toll like receptors TLR1/2 and TLR6 were identified as binding interaction partners with PRP-1 by western blot analysis in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line lysates. Immunocytochemistry experiments confirmed the finding and indicated the localization of PRP-1 receptors in the tumor nucleus predominantly. TLR1/2, TLR6 and MUC5B were downregulated in human chondrosarcoma and upregulated in dose-response manner upon PRP-1 treatment. Experimental data indicated that in this cellular context the mentioned receptors had tumor suppressive function.

  18. Studies on the interactions of SAP-1 (an N-terminal truncated form of cystatin S) with its binding partners by CD-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikash Kumar; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2015-01-01

    SAP-1 is a 113 amino acid long single-chain protein which belongs to the type 2 cystatin gene family. In our previous study, we have purified SAP-1 from human seminal plasma and observed its cross-class inhibitory property. At this time, we report the interaction of SAP-1 with diverse proteases and its binding partners by CD-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies demonstrate that the conformation of SAP-1 is changed after its complexation with proteases, and the alterations in protein secondary structure are quantitatively calculated with increase of α-helices and reduction of β-strand content. To get insight into the interactions between SAP-1 and proteases, we make an effort to model the three-dimensional structure of SAP-1 by molecular modeling and verify its stability and viability through molecular dynamics simulations and finally complexed with different proteases using ClusPro 2.0 Server. A high degree of shape complementarity is examined within the complexes, stabilized by a number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) and hydrophobic interactions. Using HB analyses in different protein complexes, we have identified a series of key residues that may be involved in the interactions between SAP-1 and proteases. These findings will assist to understand the mechanism of inhibition of SAP-1 for different proteases and provide intimation for further research.

  19. Revisiting interaction specificity reveals neuronal and adipocyte Munc18 membrane fusion regulatory proteins differ in their binding interactions with partner SNARE Syntaxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle P Christie

    Full Text Available The efficient delivery of cellular cargo relies on the fusion of cargo-carrying vesicles with the correct membrane at the correct time. These spatiotemporal fusion events occur when SNARE proteins on the vesicle interact with cognate SNARE proteins on the target membrane. Regulatory Munc18 proteins are thought to contribute to SNARE interaction specificity through interaction with the SNARE protein Syntaxin. Neuronal Munc18a interacts with Syntaxin1 but not Syntaxin4, and adipocyte Munc18c interacts with Syntaxin4 but not Syntaxin1. Here we show that this accepted view of specificity needs revision. We find that Munc18c interacts with both Syntaxin4 and Syntaxin1, and appears to bind "non-cognate" Syntaxin1 a little more tightly than Syntaxin4. Munc18a binds Syntaxin1 and Syntaxin4, though it interacts with its cognate Syntaxin1 much more tightly. We also observed that when bound to non-cognate Munc18c, Syntaxin1 captures its neuronal SNARE partners SNAP25 and VAMP2, and Munc18c can bind to pre-formed neuronal SNARE ternary complex. These findings reveal that Munc18a and Munc18c bind Syntaxins differently. Munc18c relies principally on the Syntaxin N-peptide interaction for binding Syntaxin4 or Syntaxin1, whereas Munc18a can bind Syntaxin1 tightly whether or not the Syntaxin1 N-peptide is present. We conclude that Munc18a and Munc18c differ in their binding interactions with Syntaxins: Munc18a has two tight binding modes/sites for Syntaxins as defined previously but Munc18c has just one that requires the N-peptide. These results indicate that the interactions between Munc18 and Syntaxin proteins, and the consequences for in vivo function, are more complex than can be accounted for by binding specificity alone.

  20. PTPIP51: A New Interaction Partner of the Insulin Receptor and PKA in Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bobrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Our previous experiments revealed an association of PTPIP51 (protein tyrosine phosphatase interacting protein 51 with the insulin signalling pathway through PTP1B and 14-3-3beta. We aimed to clarify the role of PTPIP51 in adipocyte metabolism. Methods. Four groups of ten C57Bl/6 mice each were used. Two groups were fed a standard diet; two groups were fed a high-fat diet. Two groups (one high-fat diet and one standard diet were submitted to endurance training, while the remaining two groups served as untrained control groups. After ten weeks, we measured glucose tolerance of the mice. Adipose tissue samples were analyzed by immunofluorescence and Duolink proximity ligation assay to quantify interactions of PTPIP51 with either insulin receptor (IR or PKA. Results. PTPIP51 and the IR and PTPIP51 and PKA, respectively, were colocalized in all groups. Standard diet animals that were submitted to endurance training showed low PTPIP51-IR and PTPIP51-PKA interactions. The interaction levels of both the IR and PKA differed between the feeding and training groups. Conclusion. PTPIP51 might serve as a linking protein in adipocyte metabolism by connecting the IR-triggered lipogenesis with the PKA-dependent lipolysis. PTPIP51 interacts with both proteins, therefore being a potential gateway for the cooperation of both pathways.

  1. Gene by Social-Context Interactions for Number of Sexual Partners Among White Male Youths: Genetics-informed Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Tong, Yuying; Cai, Tianji

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we set out to investigate whether introducing molecular genetic measures into an analysis of sexual partner variety will yield novel sociological insights. The data source is the white male DNA sample in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our empirical analysis has produced a robust protective effect of the 9R/9R genotype relative to the Any10R genotype in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). The gene-environment interaction analysis demonstrates that the protective effect of 9R/9R tends to be lost in schools in which higher proportions of students start having sex early or among those with relatively low levels of cognitive ability. Our genetics-informed sociological analysis suggests that the “one size” of a single social theory may not fit all. Explaining a human trait or behavior may require a theory that accommodates the complex interplay between social contextual and individual influences and genetic predispositions. PMID:19569400

  2. Reactions to Participating in Intimate Partner Violence and Minority Stress Research: A Mixed Methodological Study of Self-Identified Lesbian and Gay Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine lesbian and gay (LG) young adults' reactions to participating in intimate partner violence (IPV) and minority stress research using a mixed methodological design. Participants were 277 U.S. college students currently involved in same-sex relationships and self-identified cisgender LG who completed an online questionnaire that included closed- and open-ended questions. Results suggested that IPV research was well tolerated by the vast majority of participants; close to one in 10 participants reported being upset by the study questions, yet 75% of upset individuals reported some level of personal benefit. Reasons for upset as identified in the open-ended responses included thinking about personal experiences with IPV, as the perpetrator or friend of a victim, as well as thinking about the uncertainty of their future with their current partner. The correlates of emotional reactions and personal benefits to research participation were also examined, and these varied among gay men and lesbian women. Implications of these findings underscore the importance of accurate reflection of risk and benefits in informed consent documents as well as systematic evaluation of sexual minority participants' reactions to research participation in an effort to conduct ethically sound sexual science research.

  3. HinT proteins and their putative interaction partners in Mollicutes and Chlamydiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegemann Johannes H

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background HinT proteins are found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and belong to the superfamily of HIT proteins, which are characterized by an histidine-triad sequence motif. While the eukaryotic variants hydrolyze AMP derivates and modulate transcription, the function of prokaryotic HinT proteins is less clearly defined. In Mycoplasma hominis, HinT is concomitantly expressed with the proteins P60 and P80, two domains of a surface exposed membrane complex, and in addition interacts with the P80 moiety. Results An cluster of hitABL genes, similar to that of M. hominis was found in M. pulmonis, M. mycoides subspecies mycoides SC, M. mobile and Mesoplasma florum. RT-PCR analyses provided evidence that the P80, P60 and HinT homologues of M. pulmonis were polycistronically organized, suggesting a genetic and physical interaction between the proteins encoded by these genes in these species. While the hit loci of M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium encoded, in addition to HinT, a protein with several transmembrane segments, the hit locus of Ureaplasma parvum encoded a pore-forming protein, UU270, a P60 homologue, UU271, HinT, UU272, and a membrane protein of unknown function, UU273. Although a full-length mRNA spanning the four genes was not detected, amplification of all intergenic regions from the center of UU270 to the end of UU273 by RT-PCR may be indicative of a common, but unstable mRNA. In Chlamydiaceae the hit gene is flanked upstream by a gene predicted to encode a metal dependent hydrolase and downstream by a gene putatively encoding a protein with ARM-repeats, which are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. In RT-PCR analyses of C. pneumoniae, regions comprising only two genes, Cp265/Cp266 and Cp266/Cp267 were able to be amplified. In contrast to this in vivo interaction analysis using the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro immune co-precipitation revealed an interaction between Cp267, which contains the ARM repeats, Cp265, the

  4. Attuning: A Communication Process between People with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disability and Their Interaction Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Colin; Smith, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with severe and profound intellectual disability typically demonstrate a limited ability to communicate effectively. Most of their communications are non-verbal, often idiosyncratic and ambiguous. This article aims to identify the process that regulates communications of this group of people with others and to describe the…

  5. Human-Chromatin-Related Protein Interactions Identify a Demethylase Complex Required for Chromosome Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Marcon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin regulation is driven by multicomponent protein complexes, which form functional modules. Deciphering the components of these modules and their interactions is central to understanding the molecular pathways these proteins are regulating, their functions, and their relation to both normal development and disease. We describe the use of affinity purifications of tagged human proteins coupled with mass spectrometry to generate a protein-protein interaction map encompassing known and predicted chromatin-related proteins. On the basis of 1,394 successful purifications of 293 proteins, we report a high-confidence (85% precision network involving 11,464 protein-protein interactions among 1,738 different human proteins, grouped into 164 often overlapping protein complexes with a particular focus on the family of JmjC-containing lysine demethylases, their partners, and their roles in chromatin remodeling. We show that RCCD1 is a partner of histone H3K36 demethylase KDM8 and demonstrate that both are important for cell-cycle-regulated transcriptional repression in centromeric regions and accurate mitotic division.

  6. Chemical Synaptic and Gap Junctional Interactions Between Principal Neurons: Partners in Epileptogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Roger D.; Cunningham, Mark O.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2010-01-01

    Field potential signals, corresponding to electrographic seizures in cortical structures, often contain two components, which sometimes appear to be separable and other times to be superimposed. The first component consists of low-amplitude very fast oscillations (VFO, > 70–80 Hz); the second component consists of larger amplitude transients, lasting tens to hundreds of ms, and variously called population spikes, EEG spikes, or bursts – terms chosen in part because of the cellular correlates of the field events. To first approximation, the two components arise because of distinctive types of cellular interactions: gap junctions for VFO (a model of which is reviewed in the following), and recurrent synaptic excitation and/or inhibition for the transients. With in vitro studies of epileptic human neocortical tissue, it is possible to elicit VFO alone, or VFO superimposed on a large transient, but not a large transient without the VFO. If such observations prove to be general, they would imply that gap junction-mediated interactions are the primary factor in epileptogenesis. It appears to be the case then, that in the setting of seizure initiation (but not necessarily under physiological conditions), the gain of gap junction-mediated circuits can actually be larger than the gain in excitatory synaptic circuits. PMID:21168305

  7. The dipole moment of the electron carrier adrenodoxin is not critical for redox partner interaction and electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Frank; Guyot, Arnaud; Zöllner, Andy; Müller, Jürgen J; Heinemann, Udo; Bernhardt, Rita

    2009-07-01

    Dipole moments of proteins arise from helical dipoles, hydrogen bond networks and charged groups at the protein surface. High protein dipole moments were suggested to contribute to the electrostatic steering between redox partners in electron transport chains of respiration, photosynthesis and steroid biosynthesis, although so far experimental evidence for this hypothesis was missing. In order to probe this assumption, we changed the dipole moment of the electron transfer protein adrenodoxin and investigated the influence of this on protein-protein interactions and electron transfer. In bovine adrenodoxin, the [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin of the adrenal glands, a dipole moment of 803 Debye was calculated for a full-length adrenodoxin model based on the Adx(4-108) and the wild type adrenodoxin crystal structures. Large distances and asymmetric distribution of the charged residues in the molecule mainly determine the observed high value. In order to analyse the influence of the resulting inhomogeneous electric field on the biological function of this electron carrier the molecular dipole moment was systematically changed. Five recombinant adrenodoxin mutants with successively reduced dipole moment (from 600 to 200 Debye) were analysed for their redox properties, their binding affinities to the redox partner proteins and for their function during electron transfer-dependent steroid hydroxylation. None of the mutants, not even the quadruple mutant K6E/K22Q/K24Q/K98E with a dipole moment reduced by about 70% showed significant changes in the protein function as compared with the unmodified adrenodoxin demonstrating that neither the formation of the transient complex nor the biological activity of the electron transfer chain of the endocrine glands was affected. This is the first experimental evidence that the high dipole moment observed in electron transfer proteins is not involved in electrostatic steering among the proteins in the redox chain.

  8. Evaluation of Selected CYP51A1 Polymorphisms in View of Interactions with Substrate and Redox Partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Režen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is essential for development, growth, and maintenance of organisms. Mutations in cholesterol biosynthetic genes are embryonic lethal and few polymorphisms have been so far associated with pathologies in humans. Previous analyses show that lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51A1 from the late part of cholesterol biosynthesis has only a few missense mutations with low minor allele frequencies and low association with pathologies in humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of amino acid changes in the natural missense mutations of the hCYP51A1 protein. We searched SNP databases for existing polymorphisms of CYP51A1 and evaluated their effect on protein function. We found rare variants causing detrimental missense mutations of CYP51A1. Some missense variants were also associated with a phenotype in humans. Two missense variants have been prepared for testing enzymatic activity in vitro but failed to produce a P450 spectrum. We performed molecular modeling of three selected missense variants to evaluate the effect of the amino acid substitution on potential interaction with its substrate and the obligatory redox partner POR. We show that two of the variants, R277L and especially D152G, have possibly lower binding potential toward obligatory redox partner POR. D152G and R431H have also potentially lower affinity toward the substrate lanosterol. We evaluated the potential effect of damaging variants also using data from other in vitro CYP51A1 mutants. In conclusion, we propose to include damaging CYP51A1 variants into personalized diagnostics to improve genetic counseling for certain rare disease phenotypes.

  9. Mother-Infant and Extra-Dyadic Interactions with a New Social Partner: Developmental Trajectories of Early Social Abilities during Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Roberta; Lucarelli, Loredana

    2017-01-01

    Mother-infant interactions during feeding and play are pivotal experiences in the development of infants' early social abilities (Stern, 1985, 1995; Biringen, 2000). Stern indicated distinctive characteristics of mother-infant interactions, respectively, during feeding and play, suggesting to evaluate both to better describe the complexity of such early affective and social experiences (Stern, 1996). Moreover, during the first years of life, infants acquire cognitive and social skills that allow them to interact with new social partners in extra-dyadic interactions. However, the relations between mother-child interactions and infants' social skills in extra-dyadic interactions are still unknown. We investigated longitudinally the relations between mother-child interactions during feeding and play and child's pre-verbal communicative abilities in extra-dyadic interactions during play. 20 dyads were evaluated at T 1 (infants aged between 9-22 months) and 6 months later, at T 2 . The interdyadic differences in mother-infant interactions during feeding and play were evaluated, respectively, with the "Feeding Scale" (Chatoor et al., 1997) and with the "Play Scale" (Chatoor, 2006) and the socio-communicative abilities of children with a new social partner during play were evaluated with the "Early Social Communication Scales" (Mundy et al., 2003). We distinguished the dyads into two categories: dyads with functional interactions (high dyadic reciprocity, low dyadic conflict) and dyads with dysfunctional interactions (lower dyadic reciprocity, higher dyadic conflict). At T 1 , infants belonging to dyads with dysfunctional interactions were significantly lower in "Initiating Joint Attention" and in "Responding to Joint Attention" in interaction with a new social partner compared to the infants belonging to dyads with functional interactions. At T 2 , infants belonging to dyads with dysfunctional interactions were significantly lower in "Initiating Social Interactions" with

  10. Identification of FUSE-binding proteins as interacting partners of TIA proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, Francoise; Gueydan, Cyril; Bellefroid, Eric; Huez, Georges; Kruys, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    TIA-1 and TIAR are closely related RNA-binding proteins involved in several mechanisms of RNA metabolism, including alternative hnRNA splicing and mRNA translation regulation. In particular, TIA-1 represses tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mRNA translation by binding to the AU-rich element (ARE) present in the mRNA 3' untranslated region. Here, we demonstrate that TIA proteins interact with FUSE-binding proteins (FBPs) and that fbp genes are co-expressed with tia genes during Xenopus embryogenesis. FBPs participate in various steps of RNA processing and degradation. In Cos cells, FBPs co-localize with TIA proteins in the nucleus and migrate into TIA-enriched cytoplasmic granules upon oxidative stress. Overexpression of FBP2-KH3 RNA-binding domain fused to EGFP induces the specific sequestration of TIA proteins in cytoplasmic foci, thereby precluding their nuclear accumulation. In cytosolic RAW 264.7 macrophage extracts, FBPs are found associated in EMSA to the TIA-1/TNF-ARE complex. Together, our results indicate that TIA and FBP proteins may thus be relevant biological involved in common events of RNA metabolism occurring both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm

  11. Emotional display rules in Palestine: Ingroup/outgroup membership, status of interaction partner and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sharon M; Ayoub, Haneen J S; Guynn, Melissa J

    2017-05-05

    This study investigates emotional display rules within the Palestinian context, focusing on the seven basic emotions in a sample of 150 college students from the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. Overall, participants felt that it was more appropriate to express positive emotions (happiness and surprise) than negative powerful (anger, contempt and disgust) or negative powerless (fear and sadness) emotions. They also perceived it to be more appropriate to express positive and negative powerless emotions to ingroup than outgroup members and to express negative powerful emotions to lower status compared to higher status individuals. Gender differences were also found: men endorsed greater expression of both powerful and, surprisingly, powerless emotions than women, but only when interacting with outgroup members. Results are interpreted in terms of the cultural values of individualism-collectivism and power distance as well as cultural differences in emotional expressiveness between collectivistic societies. This study is one of the first to examine emotional display rules in an Arab population, thus expanding our current knowledge base. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Multi-omics approach identifies molecular mechanisms of plant-fungus mycorrhizal interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E Larsen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mycorrhizal symbiosis, plant roots form close, mutually beneficial interactions with soil fungi. Before this mycorrhizal interaction can be established however, plant roots must be capable of detecting potential beneficial fungal partners and initiating the gene expression patterns necessary to begin symbiosis. To predict a plant root – mycorrhizal fungi sensor systems, we analyzed in vitro experiments of Populus tremuloides (aspen tree and Laccaria bicolor (mycorrhizal fungi interaction and leveraged over 200 previously published transcriptomic experimental data sets, 159 experimentally validated plant transcription factor binding motifs, and more than 120-thousand experimentally validated protein-protein interactions to generate models of pre-mycorrhizal sensor systems in aspen root. These sensor mechanisms link extracellular signaling molecules with gene regulation through a network comprised of membrane receptors, signal cascade proteins, transcription factors, and transcription factor biding DNA motifs. Modeling predicted four pre-mycorrhizal sensor complexes in aspen that interact with fifteen transcription factors to regulate the expression of 1184 genes in response to extracellular signals synthesized by Laccaria. Predicted extracellular signaling molecules include common signaling molecules such as phenylpropanoids, salicylate, and, jasmonic acid. This multi-omic computational modeling approach for predicting the complex sensory networks yielded specific, testable biological hypotheses for mycorrhizal interaction signaling compounds, sensor complexes, and mechanisms of gene regulation.

  13. Semantic integration to identify overlapping functional modules in protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Murali

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The systematic analysis of protein-protein interactions can enable a better understanding of cellular organization, processes and functions. Functional modules can be identified from the protein interaction networks derived from experimental data sets. However, these analyses are challenging because of the presence of unreliable interactions and the complex connectivity of the network. The integration of protein-protein interactions with the data from other sources can be leveraged for improving the effectiveness of functional module detection algorithms. Results We have developed novel metrics, called semantic similarity and semantic interactivity, which use Gene Ontology (GO annotations to measure the reliability of protein-protein interactions. The protein interaction networks can be converted into a weighted graph representation by assigning the reliability values to each interaction as a weight. We presented a flow-based modularization algorithm to efficiently identify overlapping modules in the weighted interaction networks. The experimental results show that the semantic similarity and semantic interactivity of interacting pairs were positively correlated with functional co-occurrence. The effectiveness of the algorithm for identifying modules was evaluated using functional categories from the MIPS database. We demonstrated that our algorithm had higher accuracy compared to other competing approaches. Conclusion The integration of protein interaction networks with GO annotation data and the capability of detecting overlapping modules substantially improve the accuracy of module identification.

  14. Using a network-based approach to identify interactions structure for innovation in a low-technology intensive sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouinait, C.; Lepori, B.; Christen, D.; Carlen, C.; Foray, D.

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge transfer in the agricultural network is realized through interactions between stakeholders, inducing innovation development and diffusion. The aim of the paper was to trace interactions in the Swiss apricot sector. Identification of collaborations using face-toface interviews of knowledge producers and knowledge users were conducted. The study showed that informal collaborations are exclusively used to transfer knowledge and create innovation. Personal ties have been established between internal actors of the value chain (e.g. professionals like producers, transformers and wholesalers). External partners like public research organizations have created strong ties with agricultural stakeholders. However, the spatial proximity does not guarantee higher rate of collaborations. The links with the Universities of Applied Sciences, closely located, are sparse. Hence, in order to warrant innovation success, spatial proximity has to be balanced with organizational proximity. Despite the educational background of producers, there are a few connections with universities. Human capital formation and education in the agricultural sector should be examined to design innovation policy. Besides, the public research center for agriculture catalyzes knowledge transfer and facilitates innovation adoption. A suitable ecology of actors through the value chain from research to application is necessary. Furthermore, productive interactions should be investigated to identify the efficiency of knowledge and innovation transfer mechanisms and potential gaps in this process. (Author)

  15. Qualitative interaction trees: A tool to identify qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Mechelen, I. van

    2014-01-01

    When two alternative treatments (A and B) are available, some subgroup of patients may display a better outcome with treatment A than with B, whereas for another subgroup, the reverse may be true. If this is the case, a qualitative (i.e., disordinal) treatment-subgroup interaction is present. Such

  16. Bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis for identifying systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources from electroencephalographic or magnetoencephalographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chella, Federico; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Nolte, Guido; Marzetti, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Brain cognitive functions arise through the coordinated activity of several brain regions, which actually form complex dynamical systems operating at multiple frequencies. These systems often consist of interacting subsystems, whose characterization is of importance for a complete understanding of the brain interaction processes. To address this issue, we present a technique, namely the bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis (biPISA), for analyzing systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources when multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) or magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data are available. Specifically, the biPISA makes it possible to identify one or many subsystems of cross-frequency interacting sources by decomposing the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra between EEG or MEG signals, based on the assumption that interactions are pairwise. Thanks to the properties of the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra, biPISA is also robust to spurious interactions arising from mixing artifacts, i.e., volume conduction or field spread, which always affect EEG or MEG functional connectivity estimates. This method is an extension of the pairwise interacting source analysis (PISA), which was originally introduced for investigating interactions at the same frequency, to the study of cross-frequency interactions. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in simulations for up to three interacting source pairs and for real MEG recordings of spontaneous brain activity. Simulations show that the performances of biPISA in estimating the phase difference between the interacting sources are affected by the increasing level of noise rather than by the number of the interacting subsystems. The analysis of real MEG data reveals an interaction between two pairs of sources of central mu and beta rhythms, localizing in the proximity of the left and right central sulci.

  17. Msx1 and Msx2 are functional interacting partners of T-box factors in the regulation of Connexin43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogerd, Kees-Jan; Wong, L Y Elaine; Christoffels, Vincent M; Klarenbeek, Meinke; Ruijter, Jan M; Moorman, Antoon F M; Barnett, Phil

    2008-06-01

    T-box factors Tbx2 and Tbx3 play key roles in the development of the cardiac conduction system, atrioventricular canal, and outflow tract of the heart. They regulate the gap-junction-encoding gene Connexin43 (Cx43) and other genes critical for heart development and function. Discovering protein partners of Tbx2 and Tbx3 will shed light on the mechanisms by which these factors regulate these gene programs. Employing an yeast 2-hybrid screen and subsequent in vitro pull-down experiments we demonstrate that muscle segment homeobox genes Msx1 and Msx2 are able to bind the cardiac T-box proteins Tbx2, Tbx3, and Tbx5. This interaction, as that of the related Nkx2.5 protein, is supported by the T-box and homeodomain alone. Overlapping spatiotemporal expression patterns of Msx1 and Msx2 together with the T-box genes during cardiac development in mouse and chicken underscore the biological significance of this interaction. We demonstrate that Msx proteins together with Tbx2 and Tbx3 suppress Cx43 promoter activity and down regulate Cx43 gene activity in a rat heart-derived cell line. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis we demonstrate that Msx1 can bind the Cx43 promoter at a conserved binding site located in close proximity to a previously defined T-box binding site, and that the activity of Msx proteins on this promoter appears dependent in the presence of Tbx3. Msx1 and Msx2 can function in concert with the T-box proteins to suppress Cx43 and other working myocardial genes.

  18. Students' Understanding on Newton's Third Law in Identifying the Reaction Force in Gravity Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaona; Zhang, Chunbin; Xiao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the past three decades, previous researches showed that students had various misconceptions of Newton's Third Law. The present study focused on students' difficulties in identifying the third-law force pair in gravity interaction situations. An instrument involving contexts with gravity and non-gravity associated interactions was designed and…

  19. SH2 Binding Site Protection Assay: A Method for Identification of SH2 Domain Interaction Partners by Exploiting SH2 Mediated Phosphosite Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwin, Joshua A

    2017-01-01

    Over the last two decades there has been a significant effort in the field to characterize the phosphosite binding specificities of SH2 domains with the goal of deciphering the pY signaling code. Although high throughput studies in various formats using most SH2 domains have collectively provided a rich resource of in vitro SH2-pTyr site specificity maps, this data can only be used approximate what is happening in the cell where protein concentrations and localization are not homogenous, as they are for in vitro experiments. Here we describe an in vivo approach, SH2 site protection assay, which can capture the pTyr binding specificity of SH2 domains in the cell. The basis of this approach is SH2-pY site protection, the ability of SH2 domains to prevent the PTP-dependent dephosphorylation of their pY site binding partners. We overexpress a tracer SH2 domain in cells and quantify the change in abundance of tyrosine phosphorylated sites using MS. Since the method is performed in vivo, it has the advantage of identifying SH2-pY interactions as they occur within in the cell.

  20. A Virtual Research Partner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cowie, Jim; Guerrero, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    .... The goal was to investigate the feasibility of creating a software agent that would be able to interact with researchers and provide them with support at a level equivalent to a human research partner...

  1. Children exposed to intimate partner violence: Identifying differential effects of family environment on children's trauma and psychopathology symptoms through regression mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Shelby Elaine; Shin, Sunny; Corona, Rosalie; Maternick, Anna; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Ascione, Frank R; Herbert Williams, James

    2016-08-01

    The majority of analytic approaches aimed at understanding the influence of environmental context on children's socioemotional adjustment assume comparable effects of contextual risk and protective factors for all children. Using self-reported data from 289 maternal caregiver-child dyads, we examined the degree to which there are differential effects of severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure, yearly household income, and number of children in the family on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and psychopathology symptoms (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) among school-age children between the ages of 7-12 years. A regression mixture model identified three latent classes that were primarily distinguished by differential effects of IPV exposure severity on PTS and psychopathology symptoms: (1) asymptomatic with low sensitivity to environmental factors (66% of children), (2) maladjusted with moderate sensitivity (24%), and (3) highly maladjusted with high sensitivity (10%). Children with mothers who had higher levels of education were more likely to be in the maladjusted with moderate sensitivity group than the asymptomatic with low sensitivity group. Latino children were less likely to be in both maladjusted groups compared to the asymptomatic group. Overall, the findings suggest differential effects of family environmental factors on PTS and psychopathology symptoms among children exposed to IPV. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene-environment interaction involving recently identified colorectal cancer susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Minnier, Jessica; Berndt, Sonja I.; Brenner, Hermann; Caan, Bette J.; Campbell, Peter T.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Du, Mengmeng; Duggan, David; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Gong, Jian; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jiao, Shuo; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lemire, Mathieu; Ma, Jing; Newcomb, Polly A.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Pflugeisen, Bethann M.; Potter, John D.; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Stelling, Deanna L.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Thornquist, Mark; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Warnick, Greg S.; Zanke, Brent W.; Peters, Ulrike; Hsu, Li; White, Emily

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genome-wide association studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Prior research has evaluated the presence of gene-environment interaction involving the first 10 identified susceptibility loci, but little work has been conducted on interaction involving SNPs at recently identified susceptibility loci, including: rs10911251, rs6691170, rs6687758, rs11903757, rs10936599, rs647161, rs1321311, rs719725, rs1665650, rs3824999, rs7136702, rs11169552, rs59336, rs3217810, rs4925386, and rs2423279. METHODS Data on 9160 cases and 9280 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO) and Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) were used to evaluate the presence of interaction involving the above-listed SNPs and sex, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, smoking, aspirin use, post-menopausal hormone (PMH) use, as well as intake of dietary calcium, dietary fiber, dietary folate, red meat, processed meat, fruit, and vegetables. Interaction was evaluated using a fixed-effects meta-analysis of an efficient Empirical Bayes estimator, and permutation was used to account for multiple comparisons. RESULTS None of the permutation-adjusted p-values reached statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS The associations between recently identified genetic susceptibility loci and CRC are not strongly modified by sex, BMI, alcohol, smoking, aspirin, PMH use, and various dietary factors. IMPACT Results suggest no evidence of strong gene-environment interactions involving the recently identified 16 susceptibility loci for CRC taken one at a time. PMID:24994789

  3. A cross-sectional study identifying the pattern of factors related to psychological intimate partner violence exposure in Slovenian family practice attendees: what hurt them the most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is yet to be fully acknowledged as a public health problem in Slovenia. This study aimed to explore the health and other patient characteristics associated with psychological IPV exposure and gender-related specificity in family clinic attendees. Methods In a multi-centre cross-sectional study, 960 family practice attendees aged 18 years and above were recruited. In 689 interviews with currently- or previously-partnered patients, the short form of A Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire and additional questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to psychological abuse in the past year were given. General practitioners (GPs) reviewed the medical charts of 470 patients who met the IPV exposure criteria. The Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List was used, collecting data on the patients’ lives and physical, sexual and reproductive, and psychological health status, as well as sick leave, hospitalisation, visits to family practices and referrals to other clinical specialists in the past year. In multivariate logistic regression modelling the factors associated with past year psychological IPV exposure were identified, with P < 0.05 set as the level of statistical significance. Results Of the participants (n = 470), 12.1% (n = 57) were exposed to psychological IPV in the previous year (46 women and 11 men). They expressed more complaints regarding sexual and reproductive (p = 0.011), and psychological and behavioural status (p <0.001), in the year prior to the survey. Unemployment or working part-time, a college degree, an intimate relationship of six years or more and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship, increased the odds of psychological IPV exposure in the sample, explaining 41% of the variance. In females, unemployment and a history of disputes in the intimate relationship explained 43% of the variance. Conclusions The prevalence of psychological IPV above 10% during the past year

  4. A high-confidence interaction map identifies SIRT1 as a mediator of acetylation of USP22 and the SAGA coactivator complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Sean M; Bennett, Eric J; Braun, Craig R; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; McMahon, Steven B; Gygi, Steven P; Harper, J Wade; Sinclair, David A

    2013-04-01

    Although many functions and targets have been attributed to the histone and protein deacetylase SIRT1, a comprehensive analysis of SIRT1 binding proteins yielding a high-confidence interaction map has not been established. Using a comparative statistical analysis of binding partners, we have assembled a high-confidence SIRT1 interactome. Employing this method, we identified the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22), a component of the deubiquitinating module (DUBm) of the SAGA transcriptional coactivating complex, as a SIRT1-interacting partner. We found that this interaction is highly specific, requires the ZnF-UBP domain of USP22, and is disrupted by the inactivating H363Y mutation within SIRT1. Moreover, we show that USP22 is acetylated on multiple lysine residues and that alteration of a single lysine (K129) within the ZnF-UBP domain is sufficient to alter interaction of the DUBm with the core SAGA complex. Furthermore, USP22-mediated recruitment of SIRT1 activity promotes the deacetylation of individual SAGA complex components. Our results indicate an important role of SIRT1-mediated deacetylation in regulating the formation of DUBm subcomplexes within the larger SAGA complex.

  5. Identifying functional cancer-specific miRNA-mRNA interactions in testicular germ cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Nafiseh; Fathy, Mahmood; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Shojaie, Ali

    2016-09-07

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged between 15 and 35 and more than 90% of testicular neoplasms are originated at germ cells. Recent research has shown the impact of microRNAs (miRNAs) in different types of cancer, including testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT). MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which affect the development and progression of cancer cells by binding to mRNAs and regulating their expressions. The identification of functional miRNA-mRNA interactions in cancers, i.e. those that alter the expression of genes in cancer cells, can help delineate post-regulatory mechanisms and may lead to new treatments to control the progression of cancer. A number of sequence-based methods have been developed to predict miRNA-mRNA interactions based on the complementarity of sequences. While necessary, sequence complementarity is, however, not sufficient for presence of functional interactions. Alternative methods have thus been developed to refine the sequence-based interactions using concurrent expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs. This study aims to find functional cancer-specific miRNA-mRNA interactions in TGCT. To this end, the sequence-based predicted interactions are first refined using an ensemble learning method, based on two well-known methods of learning miRNA-mRNA interactions, namely, TaLasso and GenMiR++. Additional functional analyses were then used to identify a subset of interactions to be most likely functional and specific to TGCT. The final list of 13 miRNA-mRNA interactions can be potential targets for identifying TGCT-specific interactions and future laboratory experiments to develop new therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of multi-locus analytical methods to identify interacting loci in case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Sham, P.; Knight, J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify interacting loci in genetic epidemiological studies the application of multi-locus methods of analysis is warranted. Several more advanced classification methods have been developed in the past years, including multiple logistic regression, sum statistics, logic regression, and the

  7. Interactions between microfinance programmes and non-economic empowerment of women associated with intimate partner violence in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Koustuv; Dahlström, Örjan; Timpka, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine the associations between microfinance programme membership and intimate partner violence (IPV) in different socioeconomic strata of a nationally representative sample of women in Bangladesh. Methods The cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative interview survey of 11 178 ever-married women of reproductive age (15–49 years). A total of 4465 women who answered the IPV-related questions were analysed separately using χ2 tests and Cramer's V as a measure of effect size to identify the differences in proportions of exposure to IPV with regard to microfinance programme membership, and demographic variables and interactions between microfinance programme membership and factors related to non-economic empowerment were considered. Results Only 39% of women were members of microfinance programmes. The prevalence of a history of IPV was 48% for moderate physical violence, 16% for severe physical violence and 16% for sexual violence. For women with secondary or higher education, and women at the two wealthiest levels of the wealth index, microfinance programme membership increased the exposure to IPV two and three times, respectively. The least educated and poorest groups showed no change in exposure to IPV associated with microfinance programmes. The educated women who were more equal with their spouses in their family relationships by participating in decision-making increased their exposure to IPV by membership in microfinance programmes. Conclusions Microfinance plans are associated with an increased exposure to IPV among educated and empowered women in Bangladesh. Microfinance firms should consider providing information about the associations between microfinance and IPV to the women belonging to the risk groups. PMID:24319278

  8. Identifying Ant-Mirid Spatial Interactions to Improve Biological Control in Cacao-Based Agroforestry System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Piou, Cyril; Tadu, Zéphirin; Babin, Régis

    2018-06-06

    The use of ants for biological control of insect pests was the first reported case of conservation biological control. Direct and indirect community interactions between ants and pests lead to differential spatial pattern. We investigated spatial interactions between mirids, the major cocoa pest in West Africa and numerically dominant ant species, using bivariate point pattern analysis to identify potential biological control agents. We assume that potential biological control agents should display negative spatial interactions with mirids considering their niche overlap. The mirid/ant data were collected in complex cacao-based agroforestry systems sampled in three agroecological areas over a forest-savannah gradient in Cameroon. Three species, Crematogaster striatula Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Crematogaster clariventris Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Oecophylla longinoda Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with high predator and aggressive behaviors were identified as dominant and showed negative spatial relationships with mirids. The weaver ant, O. longinoda was identified as the only potential biological control agent, considering its ubiquity in the plots, the similarity in niche requirements, and the spatial segregation with mirids resulting probably from exclusion mechanisms. Combining bivariate point pattern analysis to good knowledge of insect ecology was an effective method to identify a potentially good biological control agent.

  9. Nutrient demand and fungal access to resources control the carbon allocation to the symbiotic partners in tripartite interactions of Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Arjun; Garcia, Kevin; Wang, Xiurong; Pfeffer, Philip E; Strahan, Gary D; Bücking, Heike

    2018-06-02

    Legumes form tripartite interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobia, and both root symbionts exchange nutrients against carbon from their host. The carbon costs of these interactions are substantial, but our current understanding of how the host controls its carbon allocation to individual root symbionts is limited. We examined nutrient uptake and carbon allocation in tripartite interactions of Medicago truncatula under different nutrient supply conditions, and when the fungal partner had access to nitrogen, and followed the gene expression of several plant transporters of the SUT and SWEET family. Tripartite interactions led to synergistic growth responses and stimulated the phosphate and nitrogen uptake of the plant. Plant nutrient demand but also fungal access to nutrients played an important role for the carbon transport to different root symbionts, and the plant allocated more carbon to rhizobia under nitrogen demand, but more carbon to the fungal partner when nitrogen was available. These changes in carbon allocation were consistent with changes in the SUT and SWEET expression. Our study provides important insights into how the host plant controls its carbon allocation under different nutrient supply conditions and changes its carbon allocation to different root symbionts to maximize its symbiotic benefits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. The flexible C-terminal arm of the Lassa arenavirus Z-protein mediates interactions with multiple binding partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Eric R; Armen, Roger S; Mannan, Aristotle M; Brooks, Charles L

    2010-08-01

    The arenavirus genome encodes for a Z-protein, which contains a RING domain that coordinates two zinc ions, and has been identified as having several functional roles at various stages of the virus life cycle. Z-protein binds to multiple host proteins and has been directly implicated in the promotion of viral budding, repression of mRNA translation, and apoptosis of infected cells. Using homology models of the Z-protein from Lassa strain arenavirus, replica exchange molecular dynamics (MD) was used to refine the structures, which were then subsequently clustered. Population-weighted ensembles of low-energy cluster representatives were predicted based upon optimal agreement of the chemical shifts computed with the SPARTA program with the experimental NMR chemical shifts. A member of the refined ensemble was identified to be a potential binder of budding factor Tsg101 based on its correspondence to the structure of the HIV-1 Gag late domain when bound to Tsg101. Members of these ensembles were docked against the crystal structure of human eIF4E translation initiation factor. Two plausible binding modes emerged based upon their agreement with experimental observation, favorable interaction energies and stability during MD trajectories. Mutations to Z are proposed that would either inhibit both binding mechanisms or selectively inhibit only one mode. The C-terminal domain conformation of the most populated member of the representative ensemble shielded protein-binding recognition motifs for Tsg101 and eIF4E and represents the most populated state free in solution. We propose that C-terminal flexibility is key for mediating the different functional states of the Z-protein. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. A lanthipeptide library used to identify a protein-protein interaction inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Lennard, Katherine R; He, Chang; Walker, Mark C; Ball, Andrew T; Doigneaux, Cyrielle; Tavassoli, Ali; van der Donk, Wilfred A

    2018-04-01

    In this article we describe the production and screening of a genetically encoded library of 10 6 lanthipeptides in Escherichia coli using the substrate-tolerant lanthipeptide synthetase ProcM. This plasmid-encoded library was combined with a bacterial reverse two-hybrid system for the interaction of the HIV p6 protein with the UEV domain of the human TSG101 protein, which is a critical protein-protein interaction for HIV budding from infected cells. Using this approach, we identified an inhibitor of this interaction from the lanthipeptide library, whose activity was verified in vitro and in cell-based virus-like particle-budding assays. Given the variety of lanthipeptide backbone scaffolds that may be produced with ProcM, this method may be used for the generation of genetically encoded libraries of natural product-like lanthipeptides containing substantial structural diversity. Such libraries may be combined with any cell-based assay to identify lanthipeptides with new biological activities.

  12. Multiplicity fluctuations of identified hadrons in p+p interactions at SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Study of energy and system size fluctuations of identified hadrons is one of the key goals of NA61/SHINE at the CERN SPS. Results may allow to discover the critical point (CP) of strongly interacting matter as well as to uncover properties of the onset of deconfinement (OD). But fluctuations exhibit numerous other sources starting from most basic ones like volume effects and conservation laws. NA49 seems to observe fluctuations related to CP in collisions of medium size nuclei at top SPS energy. However, this result will remain inconclusive until systematic data on energy and system size dependence will be available. Moreover, fluctuations in p+p as well as in Pb+Pb interactions should be better understood. In this contribution results on multiplicity fluctuations of identified hadrons in p+p interactions at the CERN SPS energies will be presented. The NA61 data will be compared with the corresponding results from central Pb+Pb collisions of NA49 in the common acceptance region of both experiments. Moreover, ...

  13. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tikkanen, Tarja; Hansen, Leif Emil; Guðmundsson, Bernharður

    2012-01-01

    based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises......based on a survey carried out in the Nordic countries in the regie of Nordic Council of Ministries the article deals with the role of social partners in senior and older workers policies and practises...

  14. Transcriptional repressor domain of MBD1 is intrinsically disordered and interacts with its binding partners in a selective manner.

    KAUST Repository

    Hameed, Umar Farook Shahul

    2014-05-09

    Methylation of DNA CpG sites is a major mechanism of epigenetic gene silencing and plays important roles in cell division, development and carcinogenesis. One of its regulators is the 64-residue C-terminal Transcriptional Repressor Domain (the TRD) of MBD1, which recruits several repressor proteins such as MCAF1, HDAC3 and MPG that are essential for the gene silencing. Using NMR spectroscopy, we have characterized the solution structure of the C-terminus of MBD1 (MBD1-c, residues D507 to Q605), which included the TRD (A529 to P592). Surprisingly, the MBD1-c is intrinsically disordered. Despite its lack of a tertiary folding, MBD1-c could still bind to different partner proteins in a selective manner. MPG and MCAF1Δ8 showed binding to both the N-terminal and C-terminal residues of MBD1-c but HDAC3 preferably bound to the C-terminal region. This study reveals how MBD1-c discriminates different binding partners, and thus, expands our understanding of the mechanisms of gene regulation by MBD1.

  15. Transcriptional repressor domain of MBD1 is intrinsically disordered and interacts with its binding partners in a selective manner.

    KAUST Repository

    Hameed, Umar Farook Shahul; Lim, Jackwee; Zhang, Qian; Wasik, Mariusz A; Yang, Daiwen; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of DNA CpG sites is a major mechanism of epigenetic gene silencing and plays important roles in cell division, development and carcinogenesis. One of its regulators is the 64-residue C-terminal Transcriptional Repressor Domain (the TRD) of MBD1, which recruits several repressor proteins such as MCAF1, HDAC3 and MPG that are essential for the gene silencing. Using NMR spectroscopy, we have characterized the solution structure of the C-terminus of MBD1 (MBD1-c, residues D507 to Q605), which included the TRD (A529 to P592). Surprisingly, the MBD1-c is intrinsically disordered. Despite its lack of a tertiary folding, MBD1-c could still bind to different partner proteins in a selective manner. MPG and MCAF1Δ8 showed binding to both the N-terminal and C-terminal residues of MBD1-c but HDAC3 preferably bound to the C-terminal region. This study reveals how MBD1-c discriminates different binding partners, and thus, expands our understanding of the mechanisms of gene regulation by MBD1.

  16. Homophilic and Heterophilic Interactions of Type II Cadherins Identify Specificity Groups Underlying Cell-Adhesive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Brasch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Type II cadherins are cell-cell adhesion proteins critical for tissue patterning and neuronal targeting but whose molecular binding code remains poorly understood. Here, we delineate binding preferences for type II cadherin cell-adhesive regions, revealing extensive heterophilic interactions between specific pairs, in addition to homophilic interactions. Three distinct specificity groups emerge from our analysis with members that share highly similar heterophilic binding patterns and favor binding to one another. Structures of adhesive fragments from each specificity group confirm near-identical dimer topology conserved throughout the family, allowing interface residues whose conservation corresponds to specificity preferences to be identified. We show that targeted mutation of these residues converts binding preferences between specificity groups in biophysical and co-culture assays. Our results provide a detailed understanding of the type II cadherin interaction map and a basis for defining their role in tissue patterning and for the emerging importance of their heterophilic interactions in neural connectivity. : Type II cadherins are a family of vertebrate cell adhesion proteins expressed primarily in the CNS. Brasch et al. measure binding between adhesive fragments, revealing homophilic and extensive selective heterophilic binding with specificities that define groups of similar cadherins. Structures reveal common adhesive dimers, with residues governing cell-adhesive specificity. Keywords: cell adhesion, crystal structure, hemophilic specificity, heterophilic specificity, neural patterning, synaptic targeting, cadherin

  17. xSyn: A Software Tool for Identifying Sophisticated 3-Way Interactions From Cancer Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baishali Bandyopadhyay

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constructing gene co-expression networks from cancer expression data is important for investigating the genetic mechanisms underlying cancer. However, correlation coefficients or linear regression models are not able to model sophisticated relationships among gene expression profiles. Here, we address the 3-way interaction that 2 genes’ expression levels are clustered in different space locations under the control of a third gene’s expression levels. Results: We present xSyn, a software tool for identifying such 3-way interactions from cancer gene expression data based on an optimization procedure involving the usage of UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean and synergy. The effectiveness is demonstrated by application to 2 real gene expression data sets. Conclusions: xSyn is a useful tool for decoding the complex relationships among gene expression profiles. xSyn is available at http://www.bdxconsult.com/xSyn.html .

  18. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D.; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic fungus primarily infecting small grain cereals, including barley and wheat. Secreted enzymes play important roles in the pathogenicity of many fungi. In order to access the secretome of F. graminearum, the fungus was grown in liquid culture with barley...... or wheat flour as the sole nutrient source to mimic the host–pathogen interaction. A gel‐based proteomics approach was employed to identify the proteins secreted into the culture medium. Sixty‐nine unique fungal proteins were identified in 154 protein spots, including enzymes involved in the degradation...... between wheat and barley flour medium were mainly involved in fungal cell wall remodelling and the degradation of plant cell walls, starch and proteins. The in planta expression of corresponding F. graminearum genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction in barley...

  19. The Actor, Partner, Similarity Effects of Personality, and Interactions with Gender and Relationship Duration among Chinese Emerging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding personality effects and their role in influencing relationship quality, varied according to gender and relationship duration, could help us better understand close relationships. Participants were Chinese dating dyads and were asked to complete both the Big Five Inventory and Perceived Relationship Quality Component scales. Males and those who had a long-term relationship perceived better relationship quality; individuals who scored higher on agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability enjoyed better relationship quality; gender and/or relationship duration moderated the actor effect of extraversion and the partner effects of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness on relationship quality. Regarding the profile similarity, those couples who were more dissimilar in their profile personality had better relationship quality, especially when they were in a relatively long-term relationship. Meanwhile, with an increase in profile similarity, the males' perceived relationship quality decreased.

  20. An Integrative Data Science Pipeline to Identify Novel Drug Interactions that Prolong the QT Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorberbaum, Tal; Sampson, Kevin J; Woosley, Raymond L; Kass, Robert S; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2016-05-01

    Drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram (long QT syndrome, LQTS) can lead to a potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmia known as torsades de pointes (TdP). Over 40 drugs with both cardiac and non-cardiac indications are associated with increased risk of TdP, but drug-drug interactions contributing to LQTS (QT-DDIs) remain poorly characterized. Traditional methods for mining observational healthcare data are poorly equipped to detect QT-DDI signals due to low reporting numbers and lack of direct evidence for LQTS. We hypothesized that LQTS could be identified latently using an adverse event (AE) fingerprint of more commonly reported AEs. We aimed to generate an integrated data science pipeline that addresses current limitations by identifying latent signals for QT-DDIs in the US FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and retrospectively validating these predictions using electrocardiogram data in electronic health records (EHRs). We trained a model to identify an AE fingerprint for risk of TdP for single drugs and applied this model to drug pair data to predict novel DDIs. In the EHR at Columbia University Medical Center, we compared the QTc intervals of patients prescribed the flagged drug pairs with patients prescribed either drug individually. We created an AE fingerprint consisting of 13 latently detected side effects. This model significantly outperformed a direct evidence control model in the detection of established interactions (p = 1.62E-3) and significantly enriched for validated QT-DDIs in the EHR (p = 0.01). Of 889 pairs flagged in FAERS, eight novel QT-DDIs were significantly associated with prolonged QTc intervals in the EHR and were not due to co-prescribed medications. Latent signal detection in FAERS validated using the EHR presents an automated and data-driven approach for systematically identifying novel QT-DDIs. The high-confidence hypotheses flagged using this method warrant further investigation.

  1. Pathway Interaction Network Analysis Identifies Dysregulated Pathways in Human Monocytes Infected by Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wufeng Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we aimed to extract dysregulated pathways in human monocytes infected by Listeria monocytogenes (LM based on pathway interaction network (PIN which presented the functional dependency between pathways. After genes were aligned to the pathways, principal component analysis (PCA was used to calculate the pathway activity for each pathway, followed by detecting seed pathway. A PIN was constructed based on gene expression profile, protein-protein interactions (PPIs, and cellular pathways. Identifying dysregulated pathways from the PIN was performed relying on seed pathway and classification accuracy. To evaluate whether the PIN method was feasible or not, we compared the introduced method with standard network centrality measures. The pathway of RNA polymerase II pretranscription events was selected as the seed pathway. Taking this seed pathway as start, one pathway set (9 dysregulated pathways with AUC score of 1.00 was identified. Among the 5 hub pathways obtained using standard network centrality measures, 4 pathways were the common ones between the two methods. RNA polymerase II transcription and DNA replication owned a higher number of pathway genes and DEGs. These dysregulated pathways work together to influence the progression of LM infection, and they will be available as biomarkers to diagnose LM infection.

  2. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.

  3. PARTNER Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  4. Efficient Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Technique Identifies Direct Interaction of Small Molecule Inhibitors with the Target Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Maayan; Bloch, Itai; Shechter, Nelia; Romanenko, Olga; Shir, Ofer M

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPI) play a critical role in regulating many cellular processes. Finding novel PPI inhibitors that interfere with specific binding of two proteins is considered a great challenge, mainly due to the complexity involved in characterizing multi-molecular systems and limited understanding of the physical principles governing PPIs. Here we show that the combination of virtual screening techniques, which are capable of filtering a large library of potential small molecule inhibitors, and a unique secondary screening by isothermal titration calorimetry, a label-free method capable of observing direct interactions, is an efficient tool for finding such an inhibitor. In this study we applied this strategy in a search for a small molecule capable of interfering with the interaction of the tumor-suppressor p53 and the E3-ligase MDM2. We virtually screened a library of 15 million small molecules that were filtered to a final set of 80 virtual hits. Our in vitro experimental assay, designed to validate the activity of mixtures of compounds by isothermal titration calorimetry, was used to identify an active molecule against MDM2. At the end of the process the small molecule (4S,7R)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-hydroxy-2,7-dimethyl-N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-4,6,7,8 tetrahydrIoquinoline-3-carboxamide was found to bind MDM2 with a dissociation constant of ~2 µM. Following the identification of this single bioactive compound, spectroscopic measurements were used to further characterize the interaction of the small molecule with the target protein. 2D NMR spectroscopy was used to map the binding region of the small molecule, and fluorescence polarization measurement confirmed that it indeed competes with p53.

  5. Benchmarking pathway interaction network for colorectal cancer to identify dysregulated pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wang

    Full Text Available Different pathways act synergistically to participate in many biological processes. Thus, the purpose of our study was to extract dysregulated pathways to investigate the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC based on the functional dependency among pathways. Protein-protein interaction (PPI information and pathway data were retrieved from STRING and Reactome databases, respectively. After genes were aligned to the pathways, each pathway activity was calculated using the principal component analysis (PCA method, and the seed pathway was discovered. Subsequently, we constructed the pathway interaction network (PIN, where each node represented a biological pathway based on gene expression profile, PPI data, as well as pathways. Dysregulated pathways were then selected from the PIN according to classification performance and seed pathway. A PIN including 11,960 interactions was constructed to identify dysregulated pathways. Interestingly, the interaction of mRNA splicing and mRNA splicing-major pathway had the highest score of 719.8167. Maximum change of the activity score between CRC and normal samples appeared in the pathway of DNA replication, which was selected as the seed pathway. Starting with this seed pathway, a pathway set containing 30 dysregulated pathways was obtained with an area under the curve score of 0.8598. The pathway of mRNA splicing, mRNA splicing-major pathway, and RNA polymerase I had the maximum genes of 107. Moreover, we found that these 30 pathways had crosstalks with each other. The results suggest that these dysregulated pathways might be used as biomarkers to diagnose CRC.

  6. Interpretation of Y(4390) as an isoscalar partner of Z(4430) from D*(2010) anti D{sub 1}(2420) interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jun [Nanjing Normal University, Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing (China); Chen, Dian-Yong [Southeast University, School of Physics, Nanjing (China)

    2017-06-15

    Invoked by the recent observation of Y(4390) at BESIII, which is about 40 MeV below the D*(2010) anti D{sub 1}(2420) threshold, we investigate possible bound and resonance states from the D*(2010) anti D{sub 1}(2420) interaction with the one-boson-exchange model in a quasipotential Bethe-Salpeter equation approach. A bound state with quantum number 0{sup -}(1{sup --}) is produced at 4384 MeV from the D*(2010) anti D{sub 1}(2420) interaction, which can be related to experimentally observed Y(4390). Another state with quantum number 1{sup +}(1{sup +}) is also produced at 4461 + i39 MeV from this interaction. Different from the 0{sup -}(1{sup --}) state, the 1{sup +}(1{sup +}) state is a resonance state above the D*(2010) anti D{sub 1}(2420) threshold. This resonance state can be related to the first observed charged charmonium-like state Z(4430), which has a mass about 4475 MeV measured above the threshold as observed at Belle and LHCb. Our result suggests that Y(4390) is an isoscalar partner of the Z(4430) as a hadronic-molecular state from the D*(2010) anti D{sub 1}(2420) interaction. (orig.)

  7. Identifying Novel Candidate Genes Related to Apoptosis from a Protein-Protein Interaction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoman Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death (PCD that occurs in multicellular organisms. This process of normal cell death is required to maintain the balance of homeostasis. In addition, some diseases, such as obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, can be cured through apoptosis, which produces few side effects. An effective comprehension of the mechanisms underlying apoptosis will be helpful to prevent and treat some diseases. The identification of genes related to apoptosis is essential to uncover its underlying mechanisms. In this study, a computational method was proposed to identify novel candidate genes related to apoptosis. First, protein-protein interaction information was used to construct a weighted graph. Second, a shortest path algorithm was applied to the graph to search for new candidate genes. Finally, the obtained genes were filtered by a permutation test. As a result, 26 genes were obtained, and we discuss their likelihood of being novel apoptosis-related genes by collecting evidence from published literature.

  8. What is an attractive body? Using an interactive 3D program to create the ideal body for you and your partner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara L Crossley

    Full Text Available What is the ideal body size and shape that we want for ourselves and our partners? What are the important physical features in this ideal? And do both genders agree on what is an attractive body? To answer these questions we used a 3D interactive software system which allows our participants to produce a photorealistic, virtual male or female body. Forty female and forty male heterosexual Caucasian observers (females mean age 19.10 years, s.d. 1.01; 40 males mean age 19.84, s.d. 1.66 set their own ideal size and shape, and the size and shape of their ideal partner using the DAZ studio image manipulation programme. In this programme the shape and size of a 3D body can be altered along 94 independent dimensions, allowing each participant to create the exact size and shape of the body they want. The volume (and thus the weight assuming a standard density and the circumference of the bust, waist and hips of these 3D models can then be measured. The ideal female body set by women (BMI = 18.9, WHR = 0.70, WCR = 0.67 was very similar to the ideal partner set by men, particularly in their BMI (BMI = 18.8, WHR = 0.73, WCR = 0.69. This was a lower BMI than the actual BMI of 39 of the 40 women. The ideal male body set by the men (BMI = 25.9, WHR = 0.87, WCR = 0.74 was very similar to the ideal partner set by the women (BMI = 24.5, WHR = 0.86, WCR = 0.77. This was a lower BMI than the actual BMI of roughly half of the men and a higher BMI than the other half. The results suggest a consistent preference for an ideal male and female body size and shape across both genders. The results also suggest that both BMI and torso shape are important components for the creation of the ideal body.

  9. Conversation therapy with people with aphasia and conversation partners using video feedback: a group and case series investigation of changes in interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Best

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversation therapies employing video for feedback and to facilitate outcome measurement are increasingly used with people with post-stroke aphasia and their conversation partners; however the evidence base for change in everyday interaction remains limited. We investigated the effect of Better Conversations with Aphasia, an intervention that is freely available online (https:// extend.ucl.ac.uk/. Eight people with chronic agrammatic aphasia, and their regular conversation partners participated in the tailored 8 week program involving significant video feedback. We explored changes in (i conversation facilitators (such as multi-modal turns by people with aphasia and (ii conversation barriers (such as use of test questions by conversation partners. The outcome of intervention was evaluated directly by measuring change in video-recorded everyday conversations. The study employed a pre-post design with multiple 5 minute samples of conversation before and after intervention, scored by trained raters blind to the point of data collection. Group level analysis showed no significant increase in conversation facilitators. There was, however, a significant reduction in the number of conversation barriers. The case series data revealed variability in conversation behaviors across occasions for the same dyad and between different dyads. Specifically, post-intervention there was a significant increase in facilitator behaviors for two dyads, a decrease for one and no significant change for five dyads. There was a significant decrease in barrier behaviors for five dyads and no significant change for three dyads. The reduction in barrier behaviors was considerable; on average change from over 8 to fewer than 3 barrier behaviors in 5 minutes conversation. The pre-post design has the limitation of no comparison group. However, change occurs in targeted conversational behaviors and in people with chronic aphasia and their partners. The findings suggest change

  10. A coevolution analysis for identifying protein-protein interactions by Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changchuan; Yau, Stephen S. -T.

    2017-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play key roles in life processes, such as signal transduction, transcription regulations, and immune response, etc. Identification of PPIs enables better understanding of the functional networks within a cell. Common experimental methods for identifying PPIs are time consuming and expensive. However, recent developments in computational approaches for inferring PPIs from protein sequences based on coevolution theory avoid these problems. In the coevolution theory model, interacted proteins may show coevolutionary mutations and have similar phylogenetic trees. The existing coevolution methods depend on multiple sequence alignments (MSA); however, the MSA-based coevolution methods often produce high false positive interactions. In this paper, we present a computational method using an alignment-free approach to accurately detect PPIs and reduce false positives. In the method, protein sequences are numerically represented by biochemical properties of amino acids, which reflect the structural and functional differences of proteins. Fourier transform is applied to the numerical representation of protein sequences to capture the dissimilarities of protein sequences in biophysical context. The method is assessed for predicting PPIs in Ebola virus. The results indicate strong coevolution between the protein pairs (NP-VP24, NP-VP30, NP-VP40, VP24-VP30, VP24-VP40, and VP30-VP40). The method is also validated for PPIs in influenza and E.coli genomes. Since our method can reduce false positive and increase the specificity of PPI prediction, it offers an effective tool to understand mechanisms of disease pathogens and find potential targets for drug design. The Python programs in this study are available to public at URL (https://github.com/cyinbox/PPI). PMID:28430779

  11. A coevolution analysis for identifying protein-protein interactions by Fourier transform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchuan Yin

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions (PPIs play key roles in life processes, such as signal transduction, transcription regulations, and immune response, etc. Identification of PPIs enables better understanding of the functional networks within a cell. Common experimental methods for identifying PPIs are time consuming and expensive. However, recent developments in computational approaches for inferring PPIs from protein sequences based on coevolution theory avoid these problems. In the coevolution theory model, interacted proteins may show coevolutionary mutations and have similar phylogenetic trees. The existing coevolution methods depend on multiple sequence alignments (MSA; however, the MSA-based coevolution methods often produce high false positive interactions. In this paper, we present a computational method using an alignment-free approach to accurately detect PPIs and reduce false positives. In the method, protein sequences are numerically represented by biochemical properties of amino acids, which reflect the structural and functional differences of proteins. Fourier transform is applied to the numerical representation of protein sequences to capture the dissimilarities of protein sequences in biophysical context. The method is assessed for predicting PPIs in Ebola virus. The results indicate strong coevolution between the protein pairs (NP-VP24, NP-VP30, NP-VP40, VP24-VP30, VP24-VP40, and VP30-VP40. The method is also validated for PPIs in influenza and E.coli genomes. Since our method can reduce false positive and increase the specificity of PPI prediction, it offers an effective tool to understand mechanisms of disease pathogens and find potential targets for drug design. The Python programs in this study are available to public at URL (https://github.com/cyinbox/PPI.

  12. Contributions of work stressors, alcohol, and normative beliefs to partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Genevieve M; Cunradi, Carol B; Duke, Michael; Todd, Michael; Chen, Meng-Jinn

    2013-03-01

    A body of research has established that lower socioeconomic populations, including blue-collar workers, are at higher risk for problem drinking and intimate partner violence. This study of married/cohabiting construction workers and their spouses/partners describes how work stressors, hazardous drinking, and couple characteristics interact to influence normative beliefs around partner violence and, thereafter, its occurrence. Our survey respondents from a sample of 502 dual-earner couples were asked about drinking patterns, past-year partner violence, normative beliefs about partner violence, work-related stressors, impulsivity, and childhood exposure to violence and other adverse events. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 81 workers on context of work stress, partner violence, and drinking. Analyses of data revealed that men's and women's normative beliefs about partner violence were positively related to maleto- female partner violence; female partner violence normative beliefs were associated with female-to-male partner violence. Both partners' levels of impulsivity were directly associated with male-to-female and female-to-male partner violence, and male partner's frequency of intoxication mediated the association between level of impulsivity and male-to-female partner violence. Female partner's adverse childhood experience was directly associated with male-to-female partner violence. Both survey and qualitative interviews identified individual and workrelated factors that influence the occurrence of violence between men and women. These findings provide guidelines for prevention of partner violence that can be implemented in the workplace with attention to hazardous drinking, job stress, treatment, education, and work culture.

  13. Methodology to explore interactions between the water system and society in order to identify adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermans, A. G. E.; Haasnoot, M.

    2009-04-01

    Development of sustainable water management strategies involves analysing current and future vulnerability, identification of adaptation possibilities, effect analysis and evaluation of the strategies under different possible futures. Recent studies on water management often followed the pressure-effect chain and compared the state of social, economic and ecological functions of the water systems in one or two future situations with the current situation. The future is, however, more complex and dynamic. Water management faces major challenges to cope with future uncertainties in both the water system as well as the social system. Uncertainties in our water system relate to (changes in) drivers and pressures and their effects on the state, like the effects of climate change on discharges. Uncertainties in the social world relate to changing of perceptions, objectives and demands concerning water (management), which are often related with the aforementioned changes in the physical environment. The methodology presented here comprises the 'Perspectives method', derived from the Cultural Theory, a method on analyzing and classifying social response to social and natural states and pressures. The method will be used for scenario analysis and to identify social responses including changes in perspectives and management strategies. The scenarios and responses will be integrated within a rapid assessment tool. The purpose of the tool is to provide users with insight about the interaction of the social and physical system and to identify robust water management strategies by analysing the effectiveness under different possible futures on the physical, social and socio-economic system. This method allows for a mutual interaction between the physical and social system. We will present the theoretical background of the perspectives method as well as a historical overview of perspective changes in the Dutch Meuse area to show how social and physical systems interrelate. We

  14. Identifying Opportunities for Exploiting Cross-Layer Interactions in Adaptive Wireless Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Weingart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility of cognitive and software-defined radio heralds an opportunity for researchers to reexamine how network protocol layers operate with respect to providing quality of service aware transmission among wireless nodes. This opportunity is enhanced by the continued development of spectrally responsive devices—ones that can detect and respond to changes in the radio frequency environment. Present wireless network protocols define reliability and other performance-related tasks narrowly within layers. For example, the frame size employed on 802.11 can substantially influence the throughput, delay, and jitter experienced by an application, but there is no simple way to adapt this parameter. Furthermore, while the data link layer of 802.11 provides error detection capabilities across a link, it does not specify additional features, such as forward error correction schemes, nor does it provide a means for throttling retransmissions at the transport layer (currently, the data link and transport layer can function counterproductively with respect to reliability. This paper presents an analysis of the interaction of physical, data link, and network layer parameters with respect to throughput, bit error rate, delay, and jitter. The goal of this analysis is to identify opportunities where system designers might exploit cross-layer interactions to improve the performance of Voice over IP (VoIP, instant messaging (IM, and file transfer applications.

  15. Disorganized Behavior in Adolescent-Parent Interaction: Relations to Attachment State of Mind, Partner Abuse, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Katherine; Brumariu, Laura E.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    Disoriented, punitive, and caregiving/role-confused attachment behaviors are associated with psychopathology in childhood, but have not been assessed in adolescence. A total of 120 low-income late adolescents (aged 18-23 years) and parents were assessed in a conflict-resolution paradigm. Their interactions were coded with the Goal-Corrected…

  16. The emergence of a partner-focused question in aided interaction. A case study of participation in conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Norén, Niklas

    To ask a question can be highly challenging for a person with severe communication impairment, but questions have not received much attention in research in the field of atypical interaction and Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In the current paper, the principles and practices...

  17. Computational modeling identifies key gene regulatory interactions underlying phenobarbital-mediated tumor promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisier, Raphaëlle; Unterberger, Elif B.; Goodman, Jay I.; Schwarz, Michael; Moggs, Jonathan; Terranova, Rémi; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory interactions underlying the early stages of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have identified key candidate regulators of phenobarbital (PB)-mediated mouse liver tumorigenesis, a well-characterized model of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis, by applying a new computational modeling approach to a comprehensive collection of in vivo gene expression studies. We have combined our previously developed motif activity response analysis (MARA), which models gene expression patterns in terms of computationally predicted transcription factor binding sites with singular value decomposition (SVD) of the inferred motif activities, to disentangle the roles that different transcriptional regulators play in specific biological pathways of tumor promotion. Furthermore, transgenic mouse models enabled us to identify which of these regulatory activities was downstream of constitutive androstane receptor and β-catenin signaling, both crucial components of PB-mediated liver tumorigenesis. We propose novel roles for E2F and ZFP161 in PB-mediated hepatocyte proliferation and suggest that PB-mediated suppression of ESR1 activity contributes to the development of a tumor-prone environment. Our study shows that combining MARA with SVD allows for automated identification of independent transcription regulatory programs within a complex in vivo tissue environment and provides novel mechanistic insights into PB-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:24464994

  18. Adding biological meaning to human protein-protein interactions identified by yeast two-hybrid screenings: A guide through bioinformatics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgueiras, Juliana; Silva, Joana Vieira; Fardilha, Margarida

    2018-01-16

    "A man is known by the company he keeps" is a popular expression that perfectly fits proteins. A common approach to characterize the function of a target protein is to identify its interacting partners and thus infer its roles based on the known functions of the interactors. Protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) have been created for several organisms, including humans, primarily as results of high-throughput screenings, such as yeast two-hybrid (Y2H). Their unequivocal use to understand events underlying human pathophysiology is promising in identifying genes and proteins associated with diseases. Therefore, numerous opportunities have emerged for PPINs as tools for clinical management of diseases: network-based disease classification systems, discovery of biomarkers and identification of therapeutic targets. Despite the great advantages of PPINs, their use is still unrecognised by several researchers who generate high-throughput data to generally characterize interactions in a certain model or to select an interaction to study in detail. We strongly believe that both approaches are not exclusive and that we can use PPINs as a complementary methodology and rich-source of information to the initial study proposal. Here, we suggest a pipeline to deal with Y2H results using bioinformatics tools freely available for academics. Yeast two-hybrid is widely-used to identify protein-protein interactions. Conventionally, the positive clones that result from a yeast two-hybrid screening are sequenced to identify the interactors of the protein of interest (also known as bait protein), and few interactions, thought as potentially relevant for the model in study, are selected for further validation using biochemical methods (e.g. co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization). The huge amount of data that is potentially lost during this conservative approach motivated us to write this tutorial-like review, so that researchers feel encouraged to take advantage of

  19. A systems wide mass spectrometric based linear motif screen to identify dominant in-vivo interacting proteins for the ubiquitin ligase MDM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Judith; Scherl, Alex; Way, Luke; Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D; Ball, Kathryn L; Hupp, Ted R

    2014-06-01

    Linear motifs mediate protein-protein interactions (PPI) that allow expansion of a target protein interactome at a systems level. This study uses a proteomics approach and linear motif sub-stratifications to expand on PPIs of MDM2. MDM2 is a multi-functional protein with over one hundred known binding partners not stratified by hierarchy or function. A new linear motif based on a MDM2 interaction consensus is used to select novel MDM2 interactors based on Nutlin-3 responsiveness in a cell-based proteomics screen. MDM2 binds a subset of peptide motifs corresponding to real proteins with a range of allosteric responses to MDM2 ligands. We validate cyclophilin B as a novel protein with a consensus MDM2 binding motif that is stabilised by Nutlin-3 in vivo, thus identifying one of the few known interactors of MDM2 that is stabilised by Nutlin-3. These data invoke two modes of peptide binding at the MDM2 N-terminus that rely on a consensus core motif to control the equilibrium between MDM2 binding proteins. This approach stratifies MDM2 interacting proteins based on the linear motif feature and provides a new biomarker assay to define clinically relevant Nutlin-3 responsive MDM2 interactors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectively identifying compound-protein interactions by learning from positive and unlabeled examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhanzhan; Zhou, Shuigeng; Wang, Yang; Liu, Hui; Guan, Jihong; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2016-05-18

    Prediction of compound-protein interactions (CPIs) is to find new compound-protein pairs where a protein is targeted by at least a compound, which is a crucial step in new drug design. Currently, a number of machine learning based methods have been developed to predict new CPIs in the literature. However, as there is not yet any publicly available set of validated negative CPIs, most existing machine learning based approaches use the unknown interactions (not validated CPIs) selected randomly as the negative examples to train classifiers for predicting new CPIs. Obviously, this is not quite reasonable and unavoidably impacts the CPI prediction performance. In this paper, we simply take the unknown CPIs as unlabeled examples, and propose a new method called PUCPI (the abbreviation of PU learning for Compound-Protein Interaction identification) that employs biased-SVM (Support Vector Machine) to predict CPIs using only positive and unlabeled examples. PU learning is a class of learning methods that leans from positive and unlabeled (PU) samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that identifies CPIs using only positive and unlabeled examples. We first collect known CPIs as positive examples and then randomly select compound-protein pairs not in the positive set as unlabeled examples. For each CPI/compound-protein pair, we extract protein domains as protein features and compound substructures as chemical features, then take the tensor product of the corresponding compound features and protein features as the feature vector of the CPI/compound-protein pair. After that, biased-SVM is employed to train classifiers on different datasets of CPIs and compound-protein pairs. Experiments over various datasets show that our method outperforms six typical classifiers, including random forest, L1- and L2-regularized logistic regression, naive Bayes, SVM and k-nearest neighbor (kNN), and three types of existing CPI prediction models. Source code, datasets and

  1. Ant-plant-homopteran mutualism: how the third partner affects the interaction between a plant-specialist ant and its myrmecophyte host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, L.; McKey, D.; Terrin, S.

    1998-01-01

    By estimating relative costs and benefits, we explored the role of the homopteran partner in the protection mutualism between the myrmecophyte Leonardoxa africana T3, the ant Aphomomyrmex afer, and sap-sucking homopterans tended by ants in the tree's swollen hollow twigs. The ants obtain nest sites and food from their host-plant (food is obtained either directly by extrafloral nectar or indirectly via homopterans). Aphomomyrmex workers patrol the young leaves of L. africana T3 and protect them against phytophagous insects. Because ants tended, either solely or primarily, coccids in some trees and pseudococcids in others, we were able to study whether the nature of the interaction was dependent on the identity of the third partner. First, the type of homopteran affects the benefits to the tree of maintaining a large ant colony. Larger colony size (relative to tree size) confers greater protection against herbivory; this relationship is more pronounced for trees whose ants tend pseudococcids than for those in which ants tend coccids. Second, for trees (and associated ant colonies) of comparable size, homopteran biomass was much larger in trees harbouring coccids than in trees with pseudococcids. Thus, the cost to the tree of maintaining ants may be greater when ants are associated with coccids. The net benefits to the plant of maintaining ants appear to be much greater with pseudococcids as the third partner. To explore how the type of homopteran affects functioning of the system, we attempted to determine which of the resources (nest sites, extrafloral nectar, and homopterans) is likely to limit ant colony size. In trees where ants tended coccids, ant-colony biomass was strongly dependent on the number of extrafloral nectaries. In contrast, in trees whose ants tended only pseudococcids, colony biomass was not related to the number of nectaries and was most strongly determined by the volume of available nest sites. We present hypotheses to explain how the type of

  2. Social Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present findings from a new Nordic survey on social partners’ policy and practice in regards older workers. The goal of the survey was to find out to what extent the social partners have developed policies and outlined strategies, which explicitly address the demogr...... lifelong learning and career development to their senior members during their last 15-20 years in working life. In this issue the social partners can and should play an active role – indeed, a leading role if needed – among the other key actors in society....... the demographic change and promote opportunities for lifelong learning and career development among their senior members (45+). Workforce in the Nordic countries tend to be highly organised – especially the older workers. The social partners’ involvement in the discussion of sustainable society...... and the contribution of lifelong learning to the needs and potential of older workers is crucial, as the demographic situation already today, and in particular the one to be expected within the next about 40 years, is historically without a precedent. The idea of continuous learning and the need for a meaningful work...

  3. Development of Novel Random Network Theory-Based Approaches to Identify Network Interactions among Nitrifying Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Cindy

    2015-07-17

    The interactions among different microbial populations in a community could play more important roles in determining ecosystem functioning than species numbers and their abundances, but very little is known about such network interactions at a community level. The goal of this project is to develop novel framework approaches and associated software tools to characterize the network interactions in microbial communities based on high throughput, large scale high-throughput metagenomics data and apply these approaches to understand the impacts of environmental changes (e.g., climate change, contamination) on network interactions among different nitrifying populations and associated microbial communities.

  4. Regression Trees Identify Relevant Interactions: Can This Improve the Predictive Performance of Risk Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Florian; Wasem, Jürgen; Schillo, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Risk equalization formulas have been refined since their introduction about two decades ago. Because of the complexity and the abundance of possible interactions between the variables used, hardly any interactions are considered. A regression tree is used to systematically search for interactions, a methodologically new approach in risk equalization. Analyses are based on a data set of nearly 2.9 million individuals from a major German social health insurer. A two-step approach is applied: In the first step a regression tree is built on the basis of the learning data set. Terminal nodes characterized by more than one morbidity-group-split represent interaction effects of different morbidity groups. In the second step the 'traditional' weighted least squares regression equation is expanded by adding interaction terms for all interactions detected by the tree, and regression coefficients are recalculated. The resulting risk adjustment formula shows an improvement in the adjusted R 2 from 25.43% to 25.81% on the evaluation data set. Predictive ratios are calculated for subgroups affected by the interactions. The R 2 improvement detected is only marginal. According to the sample level performance measures used, not involving a considerable number of morbidity interactions forms no relevant loss in accuracy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Teaching Women with Intellectual Disabilities to Identify and Report Inappropriate Staff-to-Resident Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollman, Jessica R.; Davis, Paula K.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training in teaching 2 adult women with mild intellectual disabilities to report inappropriate staff-to-resident interactions. The reporting skill included making a self-advocacy response, walking away, and reporting the interaction. Participants' performance was measured during baseline,…

  6. Pennsylvania's partnering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Pennsylvania is committed to finding a site for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility through an innovative voluntary process. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. (CNSI) developed the Community Partnering Plan with extensive public participation. The Community Partnering Plan outlines a voluntary process that empowers municipalities to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of hosting the facility. DEP and CNSI began developing the Community Partnering Plan in July 1995. Before then, CNSI was using a screening process prescribed by state law and regulations to find a location for the facility. So far, approximately 78 percent of the Commonwealth has been identified as disqualified as a site for the LLRW disposal facility. The siting effort will now focus on identifying volunteer host municipalities in the remaining 22 percent of the state. This combination of technical screening and voluntary consideration makes Pennsylvania's process unique. A volunteered site will have to meet the same tough requirements for protecting people and the environment as a site chosen through the screening process. Protection of public health and safety continues to be the foundation of the state's siting efforts. The Community Partnering Plan offers a window of opportunity. If Pennsylvania does not find volunteer municipalities with suitable sites by the end of 1997, it probably will return to a technical screening process

  7. Identifying potential survival strategies of HIV-1 through virus-host protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucher Charles AB

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has launched the HIV-1 Human Protein Interaction Database in an effort to catalogue all published interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins. In order to systematically investigate these interactions functionally and dynamically, we have constructed an HIV-1 human protein interaction network. This network was analyzed for important proteins and processes that are specific for the HIV life-cycle. In order to expose viral strategies, network motif analysis was carried out showing reoccurring patterns in virus-host dynamics. Results Our analyses show that human proteins interacting with HIV form a densely connected and central sub-network within the total human protein interaction network. The evaluation of this sub-network for connectivity and centrality resulted in a set of proteins essential for the HIV life-cycle. Remarkably, we were able to associate proteins involved in RNA polymerase II transcription with hubs and proteasome formation with bottlenecks. Inferred network motifs show significant over-representation of positive and negative feedback patterns between virus and host. Strikingly, such patterns have never been reported in combined virus-host systems. Conclusions HIV infection results in a reprioritization of cellular processes reflected by an increase in the relative importance of transcriptional machinery and proteasome formation. We conclude that during the evolution of HIV, some patterns of interaction have been selected for resulting in a system where virus proteins preferably interact with central human proteins for direct control and with proteasomal proteins for indirect control over the cellular processes. Finally, the patterns described by network motifs illustrate how virus and host interact with one another.

  8. Affinity purification combined with mass spectrometry to identify herpes simplex virus protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, David G

    2014-01-01

    The identification and characterization of herpes simplex virus protein interaction complexes are fundamental to understanding the molecular mechanisms governing the replication and pathogenesis of the virus. Recent advances in affinity-based methods, mass spectrometry configurations, and bioinformatics tools have greatly increased the quantity and quality of protein-protein interaction datasets. In this chapter, detailed and reliable methods that can easily be implemented are presented for the identification of protein-protein interactions using cryogenic cell lysis, affinity purification, trypsin digestion, and mass spectrometry.

  9. Competitive interactions between co-occurring invaders: identifying asymmetries between two invasive crayfish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudina, S.; Galic, N.G.; Roessink, I.; Hock, K.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems today increasingly suffer invasions by multiple invasive species. Complex interactions between invasive species can have different fitness implications for each invader, which can in turn determine the future progression of their invasions and result in differential impacts on native

  10. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A; Retrum, Jessica H; Varda, Danielle M

    2015-10-05

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  11. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bevc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162, to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships.

  12. Patterns in PARTNERing across Public Health Collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Christine A.; Retrum, Jessica H.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-organizational networks represent one of the most promising practice-based approaches in public health as a way to attain resources, share knowledge, and, in turn, improve population health outcomes. However, the interdependencies and effectiveness related to the structure, management, and costs of these networks represents a critical item to be addressed. The objective of this research is to identify and determine the extent to which potential partnering patterns influence the structure of collaborative networks. This study examines data collected by PARTNER, specifically public health networks (n = 162), to better understand the structured relationships and interactions among public health organizations and their partners, in relation to collaborative activities. Combined with descriptive analysis, we focus on the composition of public health collaboratives in a series of Exponential Random Graph (ERG) models to examine the partnerships between different organization types to identify the attribute-based effects promoting the formation of network ties within and across collaboratives. We found high variation within and between these collaboratives including composition, diversity, and interactions. The findings of this research suggest common and frequent types of partnerships, as well as opportunities to develop new collaborations. The result of this analysis offer additional evidence to inform and strengthen public health practice partnerships. PMID:26445053

  13. Quantification of cytosolic interactions identifies Ede1 oligomers as key organizers of endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Dominik; Trautmann, Susanne; Meurer, Matthias; Wachsmuth, Malte; Godlee, Camilla; Knop, Michael; Kaksonen, Marko

    2014-11-03

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a highly conserved intracellular trafficking pathway that depends on dynamic protein-protein interactions between up to 60 different proteins. However, little is known about the spatio-temporal regulation of these interactions. Using fluorescence (cross)-correlation spectroscopy in yeast, we tested 41 previously reported interactions in vivo and found 16 to exist in the cytoplasm. These detected cytoplasmic interactions included the self-interaction of Ede1, homolog of mammalian Eps15. Ede1 is the crucial scaffold for the organization of the early stages of endocytosis. We show that oligomerization of Ede1 through its central coiled coil domain is necessary for its localization to the endocytic site and we link the oligomerization of Ede1 to its function in locally concentrating endocytic adaptors and organizing the endocytic machinery. Our study sheds light on the importance of the regulation of protein-protein interactions in the cytoplasm for the assembly of the endocytic machinery in vivo. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  14. A single arginine residue is required for the interaction of the electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) with three of its dehydrogenase partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Antony R

    2003-12-01

    The interaction of several dehydrogenases with the electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) is a crucial step required for the successful transfer of electrons into the electron transport chain. The exact determinants regarding the interaction of ETF with its dehydrogenase partners are still unknown. Chemical modification of ETF with arginine-specific reagents resulted in the loss, to varying degrees, of activity with medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD). The kinetic profiles showed the inactivations followed pseudo-first-order kinetics for all reagents used. For activity with MCAD, maximum inactivation of ETF was accomplished by 2,3-butanedione (4% residual activity after 120 min) and it was shown that modification of one arginine residue was responsible for the inactivation. Almost 100% restoration of this ETF activity was achieved upon incubation with free arginine. However, the same 2,3-butanedione modified ETF only possessed decreased activity with dimethylglycine-(DMGDH, 44%) and sarcosine- (SDH, 27%) dehydrogenases unlike the abolition with MCAD. Full protection of ETF from arginine modification by 2,3-butanedione was achieved using substrate-protected DMGDH, MCAD and SDH respectively. Cross-protection studies of ETF with the three dehydrogenases implied use of the same single arginine residue in the binding of all three dehydrogenases. These results lead us to conclude that this single arginine residue is essential in the binding of the ETF to MCAD, but only contributes partially to the binding of ETF to SDH and DMGDH and thus, the determinants of the dehydrogenase binding sites overlap but are not identical.

  15. Analysis of the interacting partners eIF4F and 3'-CITE required for Melon necrotic spot virus cap-independent translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras, Manuel; Truniger, Verónica; Querol-Audi, Jordi; Aranda, Miguel A

    2017-06-01

    We have shown previously that the translation of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, family Tombusviridae, genus Carmovirus) RNAs is controlled by a 3'-cap-independent translation enhancer (CITE), which is genetically and functionally dependent on the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E. Here, we describe structural and functional analyses of the MNSV-Mα5 3'-CITE and its translation initiation factor partner. We first mapped the minimal 3'-CITE (Ma5TE) to a 45-nucleotide sequence, which consists of a stem-loop structure with two internal loops, similar to other I-shaped 3'-CITEs. UV crosslinking, followed by gel retardation assays, indicated that Ma5TE interacts in vitro with the complex formed by eIF4E + eIF4G 980-1159 (eIF4F p20 ), but not with each subunit alone or with eIF4E + eIF4G 1003-1092 , suggesting binding either through interaction with eIF4E following a conformational change induced by its binding to eIF4G 980-1159 , or through a double interaction with eIF4E and eIF4G 980-1159 . Critical residues for this interaction reside in an internal bulge of Ma5TE, so that their mutation abolished binding to eIF4E + eIF4G 1003-1092 and cap-independent translation. We also developed an in vivo system to test the effect of mutations in eIF4E in Ma5TE-driven cap-independent translation, showing that conserved amino acids in a positively charged RNA-binding motif around amino acid position 228, implicated in eIF4E-eIF4G binding or belonging to the cap-recognition pocket, are essential for cap-independent translation controlled by Ma5TE, and thus for the multiplication of MNSV. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  17. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  18. Identifying barriers on Facebook interaction: An Experience with Southern Patagonia Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Vilte

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present an experience with elders and their interaction with Facebook. To this end we made a workshop which allowed us observing the way in which participants executed proposed activities and then we evaluated usability of the application.

  19. Comparative Genomics and Disorder Prediction Identify Biologically Relevant SH3 Protein Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein interaction networks are an important part of the post-genomic effort to integrate a part-list view of the cell into system-level understanding. Using a set of 11 yeast genomes we show that combining comparative genomics and secondary structure information greatly increases consensus-based prediction of SH3 targets. Benchmarking of our method against positive and negative standards gave 83% accuracy with 26% coverage. The concept of an optimal divergence time for effective comparative genomics studies was analyzed, demonstrating that genomes of species that diverged very recently from Saccharomyces cerevisiae(S. mikatae, S. bayanus, and S. paradoxus, or a long time ago (Neurospora crassa and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, contain less information for accurate prediction of SH3 targets than species within the optimal divergence time proposed. We also show here that intrinsically disordered SH3 domain targets are more probable sites of interaction than equivalent sites within ordered regions. Our findings highlight several novel S. cerevisiae SH3 protein interactions, the value of selection of optimal divergence times in comparative genomics studies, and the importance of intrinsic disorder for protein interactions. Based on our results we propose novel roles for the S. cerevisiae proteins Abp1p in endocytosis and Hse1p in endosome protein sorting.

  20. Comparative genomics and disorder prediction identify biologically relevant SH3 protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Beltrao

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein interaction networks are an important part of the post-genomic effort to integrate a part-list view of the cell into system-level understanding. Using a set of 11 yeast genomes we show that combining comparative genomics and secondary structure information greatly increases consensus-based prediction of SH3 targets. Benchmarking of our method against positive and negative standards gave 83% accuracy with 26% coverage. The concept of an optimal divergence time for effective comparative genomics studies was analyzed, demonstrating that genomes of species that diverged very recently from Saccharomyces cerevisiae(S. mikatae, S. bayanus, and S. paradoxus, or a long time ago (Neurospora crassa and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, contain less information for accurate prediction of SH3 targets than species within the optimal divergence time proposed. We also show here that intrinsically disordered SH3 domain targets are more probable sites of interaction than equivalent sites within ordered regions. Our findings highlight several novel S. cerevisiae SH3 protein interactions, the value of selection of optimal divergence times in comparative genomics studies, and the importance of intrinsic disorder for protein interactions. Based on our results we propose novel roles for the S. cerevisiae proteins Abp1p in endocytosis and Hse1p in endosome protein sorting.

  1. Analysis of Pairwise Interactions in a Maximum Likelihood Sense to Identify Leaders in a Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Mwaffo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Collective motion in animal groups manifests itself in the form of highly coordinated maneuvers determined by local interactions among individuals. A particularly critical question in understanding the mechanisms behind such interactions is to detect and classify leader–follower relationships within the group. In the technical literature of coupled dynamical systems, several methods have been proposed to reconstruct interaction networks, including linear correlation analysis, transfer entropy, and event synchronization. While these analyses have been helpful in reconstructing network models from neuroscience to public health, rules on the most appropriate method to use for a specific dataset are lacking. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of detecting leaders in a group from raw positional data in a model-free approach that combines multiple methods in a maximum likelihood sense. We test our framework on synthetic data of groups of self-propelled Vicsek particles, where a single agent acts as a leader and both the size of the interaction region and the level of inherent noise are systematically varied. To assess the feasibility of detecting leaders in real-world applications, we study a synthetic dataset of fish shoaling, generated by using a recent data-driven model for social behavior, and an experimental dataset of pharmacologically treated zebrafish. Not only does our approach offer a robust strategy to detect leaders in synthetic data but it also allows for exploring the role of psychoactive compounds on leader–follower relationships.

  2. 4C-ker: A Method to Reproducibly Identify Genome-Wide Interactions Captured by 4C-Seq Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviram, Ramya; Rocha, Pedro P; Müller, Christian L; Miraldi, Emily R; Badri, Sana; Fu, Yi; Swanzey, Emily; Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-03-01

    4C-Seq has proven to be a powerful technique to identify genome-wide interactions with a single locus of interest (or "bait") that can be important for gene regulation. However, analysis of 4C-Seq data is complicated by the many biases inherent to the technique. An important consideration when dealing with 4C-Seq data is the differences in resolution of signal across the genome that result from differences in 3D distance separation from the bait. This leads to the highest signal in the region immediately surrounding the bait and increasingly lower signals in far-cis and trans. Another important aspect of 4C-Seq experiments is the resolution, which is greatly influenced by the choice of restriction enzyme and the frequency at which it can cut the genome. Thus, it is important that a 4C-Seq analysis method is flexible enough to analyze data generated using different enzymes and to identify interactions across the entire genome. Current methods for 4C-Seq analysis only identify interactions in regions near the bait or in regions located in far-cis and trans, but no method comprehensively analyzes 4C signals of different length scales. In addition, some methods also fail in experiments where chromatin fragments are generated using frequent cutter restriction enzymes. Here, we describe 4C-ker, a Hidden-Markov Model based pipeline that identifies regions throughout the genome that interact with the 4C bait locus. In addition, we incorporate methods for the identification of differential interactions in multiple 4C-seq datasets collected from different genotypes or experimental conditions. Adaptive window sizes are used to correct for differences in signal coverage in near-bait regions, far-cis and trans chromosomes. Using several datasets, we demonstrate that 4C-ker outperforms all existing 4C-Seq pipelines in its ability to reproducibly identify interaction domains at all genomic ranges with different resolution enzymes.

  3. Simple and efficient machine learning frameworks for identifying protein-protein interaction relevant articles and experimental methods used to study the interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-03

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is an important biomedical phenomenon. Automatically detecting PPI-relevant articles and identifying methods that are used to study PPI are important text mining tasks. In this study, we have explored domain independent features to develop two open source machine learning frameworks. One performs binary classification to determine whether the given article is PPI relevant or not, named "Simple Classifier", and the other one maps the PPI relevant articles with corresponding interaction method nodes in a standardized PSI-MI (Proteomics Standards Initiative-Molecular Interactions) ontology, named "OntoNorm". We evaluated our system in the context of BioCreative challenge competition using the standardized data set. Our systems are amongst the top systems reported by the organizers, attaining 60.8% F1-score for identifying relevant documents, and 52.3% F1-score for mapping articles to interaction method ontology. Our results show that domain-independent machine learning frameworks can perform competitively well at the tasks of detecting PPI relevant articles and identifying the methods that were used to study the interaction in such articles. Simple Classifier is available at http://sourceforge.net/p/simpleclassify/home/ and OntoNorm at http://sourceforge.net/p/ontonorm/home/.

  4. Identification of the site of human mannan-binding lectin involved in the interaction with its partner serine proteases: the essential role of Lys55

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teillet, F; Lacroix, M; Thiel, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is an oligomeric lectin that binds neutral carbohydrates on pathogens, forms complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP)-1, -2, and -3 and 19-kDa MBL-associated protein (MAp19), and triggers the complement lectin pathway through activation of MASP-2. To ident......Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is an oligomeric lectin that binds neutral carbohydrates on pathogens, forms complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASP)-1, -2, and -3 and 19-kDa MBL-associated protein (MAp19), and triggers the complement lectin pathway through activation of MASP-2....... To identify the MASP binding site(s) of human MBL, point mutants targeting residues C-terminal to the hinge region were produced and tested for their interaction with the MASPs and MAp19 using surface plasmon resonance and functional assays. Mutation Lys(55)Ala abolished interaction with the MASPs and MAp19...... and prevented formation of functional MBL-MASP-2 complexes. Mutations Lys(55)Gln and Lys(55)Glu abolished binding to MASP-1 and -3 and strongly inhibited interaction with MAp19. Conversely, mutation Lys(55)Arg abolished interaction with MASP-2 and MAp19, but only weakened interaction with MASP-1 and -3...

  5. Promoter-enhancer interactions identified from Hi-C data using probabilistic models and hierarchical topological domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Gil; Globerson, Yuval; Moran, Dror; Kaplan, Tommy

    2017-12-21

    Proximity-ligation methods such as Hi-C allow us to map physical DNA-DNA interactions along the genome, and reveal its organization into topologically associating domains (TADs). As the Hi-C data accumulate, computational methods were developed for identifying domain borders in multiple cell types and organisms. Here, we present PSYCHIC, a computational approach for analyzing Hi-C data and identifying promoter-enhancer interactions. We use a unified probabilistic model to segment the genome into domains, which we then merge hierarchically and fit using a local background model, allowing us to identify over-represented DNA-DNA interactions across the genome. By analyzing the published Hi-C data sets in human and mouse, we identify hundreds of thousands of putative enhancers and their target genes, and compile an extensive genome-wide catalog of gene regulation in human and mouse. As we show, our predictions are highly enriched for ChIP-seq and DNA accessibility data, evolutionary conservation, eQTLs and other DNA-DNA interaction data.

  6. Interactions between the Nse3 and Nse4 components of the SMC5-6 complex identify evolutionarily conserved interactions between MAGE and EID Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J R Hudson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The SMC5-6 protein complex is involved in the cellular response to DNA damage. It is composed of 6-8 polypeptides, of which Nse1, Nse3 and Nse4 form a tight sub-complex. MAGEG1, the mammalian ortholog of Nse3, is the founding member of the MAGE (melanoma-associated antigen protein family and Nse4 is related to the EID (E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation family of transcriptional repressors.Using site-directed mutagenesis, protein-protein interaction analyses and molecular modelling, we have identified a conserved hydrophobic surface on the C-terminal domain of Nse3 that interacts with Nse4 and identified residues in its N-terminal domain that are essential for interaction with Nse1. We show that these interactions are conserved in the human orthologs. Furthermore, interaction of MAGEG1, the mammalian ortholog of Nse3, with NSE4b, one of the mammalian orthologs of Nse4, results in transcriptional co-activation of the nuclear receptor, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1. In an examination of the evolutionary conservation of the Nse3-Nse4 interactions, we find that several MAGE proteins can interact with at least one of the NSE4/EID proteins.We have found that, despite the evolutionary diversification of the MAGE family, the characteristic hydrophobic surface shared by all MAGE proteins from yeast to humans mediates its binding to NSE4/EID proteins. Our work provides new insights into the interactions, evolution and functions of the enigmatic MAGE proteins.

  7. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  8. Generalising human demonstration data by identifying affordance symmetries in object interaction trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Claassens, J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available presents a formal description of a set of these symmetries, which are termed affordance symmetries, and a method to identify them in multiple demonstration recordings. The approach is robust to arbitrary motion before and after the symmetry artifact...

  9. Dialoguing on the Interactions between Racially/Ethnically Identifiable Characters in Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilscek, Elaine

    Children's understandings about people of color are enhanced when they have opportunities to dialogue. Similarities and differences between people can be identified, appreciated, and celebrated. Jerome Bruner, among others, has indicated that stories lure readers into thinking that what they are receiving is a transparent description of the real…

  10. Partner verification: restoring shattered images of our intimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Ronde, C; Swann, W B

    1998-08-01

    When spouses received feedback that disconfirmed their impressions of their partners, they attempted to undermine that feedback during subsequent interactions with these partners. Such partner verification activities occurred whether partners construed the feedback as overly favorable or overly unfavorable. Furthermore, because spouses tended to see their partners as their partners saw themselves, their efforts to restore their impressions of partners often worked hand-in-hand with partners' efforts to verify their own views. Finally, support for self-verification theory emerged in that participants were more intimate with spouses who verified their self-views, whether their self-views happened to be positive or negative.

  11. Identifying stabilizing key residues in proteins using interresidue interaction energy matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermannová, Lada; Hobza, Pavel; Vondrášek, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2008), s. 402-413 ISSN 0887-3585 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0009; GA ČR GA203/06/1727; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/05/H001; GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : protein stabilisation * an-initio calculation * interaction energy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.419, year: 2008

  12. Identifying autism from neural representations of social interactions: neurocognitive markers of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Marcel Adam; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Buchweitz, Augusto; Keller, Timothy A; Mitchell, Tom M

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a psychiatric/neurological condition in which alterations in social interaction (among other symptoms) are diagnosed by behavioral psychiatric methods. The main goal of this study was to determine how the neural representations and meanings of social concepts (such as to insult) are altered in autism. A second goal was to determine whether these alterations can serve as neurocognitive markers of autism. The approach is based on previous advances in fMRI analysis methods that permit (a) the identification of a concept, such as the thought of a physical object, from its fMRI pattern, and (b) the ability to assess the semantic content of a concept from its fMRI pattern. These factor analysis and machine learning methods were applied to the fMRI activation patterns of 17 adults with high-functioning autism and matched controls, scanned while thinking about 16 social interactions. One prominent neural representation factor that emerged (manifested mainly in posterior midline regions) was related to self-representation, but this factor was present only for the control participants, and was near-absent in the autism group. Moreover, machine learning algorithms classified individuals as autistic or control with 97% accuracy from their fMRI neurocognitive markers. The findings suggest that psychiatric alterations of thought can begin to be biologically understood by assessing the form and content of the altered thought's underlying brain activation patterns.

  13. Use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) to identify interactive meteorological conditions affecting relative throughfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John T.; Gay, Trent E.; Lewis, Elliott S.

    2016-02-01

    Forest canopies alter rainfall reaching the surface by redistributing it as throughfall. Throughfall supplies water and nutrients to a variety of ecohydrological components (soil microbial communities, stream water discharge/chemistry, and stormflow pathways) and is controlled by canopy structural interactions with meteorological conditions across temporal scales. This work introduces and applies multiple correspondence analyses (MCAs) to a range of meteorological thresholds (median intensity, median absolute deviation (MAD) of intensity, median wind-driven droplet inclination angle, and MAD of wind speed) for an example throughfall problem: identification of interacting storm conditions corresponding to temporal concentration in relative throughfall beyond the median observation (⩾73% of rain). MCA results from the example show that equalling or exceeding rain intensity thresholds (median and MAD) corresponded with temporal concentration of relative throughfall across all storms. Under these intensity conditions, two wind mechanisms produced significant correspondences: (1) high, steady wind-driven droplet inclination angles increased surface wetting; and (2) sporadic winds shook entrained droplets from surfaces. A discussion is provided showing that these example MCA findings agree well with previous work relying on more historically common methods (e.g., multiple regression and analytical models). Meteorological threshold correspondences to temporal concentration of relative throughfall at our site may be a function of heavy Tillandsia usneoides coverage. Applications of MCA within other forests may provide useful insights to how temporal throughfall dynamics are affected for drainage pathways dependent on different structures (leaves, twigs, branches, etc.).

  14. Patient preferences for partner notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoola, A; Radcliffe, K W; Das, S; Robshaw, V; Gilleran, G; Kumari, B S; Boothby, M; Rajakumar, R

    2006-08-01

    To identify patient preferences for notification of sexual contacts when a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is diagnosed. A questionnaire survey of 2544 patients attending three large genitourinary clinics at Derby, Birmingham, and Coventry in the United Kingdom. The median age of the respondents was 24 with 1474 (57.9%) women, 1835 (72.1%) white, 1826 (71.8%) single. The most favoured method of partner notification was patient referral, which was rated a "good" method by 65.8% when they had to be contacted because a sexual partner has an STI. Notifying contacts by letter as a method of provider partner notification is more acceptable than phoning, text messaging, or email. Respondents with access to mobile telephones, private emails, and private letters were more likely to rate a method of partner notification using that mode of communication as "good" compared to those without. With provider referral methods of partner notification respondents preferred to receive a letter, email, or text message asking them to contact the clinic rather than a letter, email or text message informing them that they may have an STI. Most respondents think that being informed directly by a partner is the best method of being notified of the risk of an STI. Some of the newer methods may not be acceptable to all but a significant minority of respondents prefer these methods of partner notification. The wording of letters, emails, or text messages when used for partner notification has an influence on the acceptability of the method and may influence success of the partner notification method. Services should be flexible enough to utilise the patients' preferred method of partner notification.

  15. A novel glutamine–RNA interaction identified by screening libraries in mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Ruoying; Frankel, Alan D.

    1998-01-01

    The arginine-rich motif provides a versatile framework for RNA recognition in which few amino acids other than arginine are needed to mediate specific binding. Using a mammalian screening system based on transcriptional activation by HIV Tat, we identified novel arginine-rich peptides from combinatorial libraries that bind tightly to the Rev response element of HIV. Remarkably, a single glutamine, but not asparagine, within a stretch of polyarginine can mediate high-affinity binding. These re...

  16. Identifying genes involved in the interaction of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans with Maillard reaction products (MRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaha, Raniah Abdulmohsen

    Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycelemcomitcrns is a gram-negative bacterium that is a facultative anaerobe which can grow in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The bacteria cause localized aggressive periodontitis that can result in the loss of teeth and endocarditis, which is an infection of the heart valves. A rich medium is an essential requirement for its growth. There arc some difficulties associated with growing the bacteria as they easily switch from the rough to smooth phenotype under no specific conditions. The bacteria start to lose viability after about 19 hours of growth in broth or about three days on plates. Colonies in the dense part of the streak on plates die earlier. It was shown that acid secreted by the colonies is responsible for the loss of viability as the bacteria are extremely sensitive to low pH. Autoclaving the growth medium for A. actinomycetemcomitans causes the bacteria to grow slowly because of the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). A method has been developed to make the A. actinomycetemcomitans growth medium using the microwave instead of the autoclave. This method produces much less of the inhibitory product since the heating time is only six minutes, compared to more than an hour when using the autoclave. Two approaches were sought in this research. The first approach was the identification of genes responsible for the interaction between the MRP and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The gene responsible for this interaction was found to be a Lys M protein which is found in many genes responsible for the cell wall integrity. The second approach was to develop a new drug made of glucose and lysine with a minimum inhibitory concentration as 75mM.

  17. Using neural networks with jet shapes to identify b jets in e+e- interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellantoni, L.; Conway, J.S.; Jacobsen, J.E.; Pan, Y.B.; Wu Saulan

    1991-01-01

    A feed-forward neural network trained using backpropagation was used to discriminate between b and light quark jets in e + e - → Z 0 → qanti q events. The information presented to the network consisted of 25 jet shape variables. The network successfully identified b jets in two- and three-jet events modeled using a detector simulation. The jet identification efficiency for two-jet events was 61% and the probability to call a light quark jet a b jet equal to 20%. (orig.)

  18. Cardiorespiratory interactions previously identified as mammalian are present in the primitive lungfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Diana A; Taylor, Edwin W; Sartori, Marina R; Cruz, André L; Rantin, Francisco T; Leite, Cleo A C

    2018-02-01

    The present study has revealed that the lungfish has both structural and functional features of its system for physiological control of heart rate, previously considered solely mammalian, that together generate variability (HRV). Ultrastructural and electrophysiological investigation revealed that the nerves connecting the brain to the heart are myelinated, conferring rapid conduction velocities, comparable to mammalian fibers that generate instantaneous changes in heart rate at the onset of each air breath. These respiration-related changes in beat-to-beat cardiac intervals were detected by complex analysis of HRV and shown to maximize oxygen uptake per breath, a causal relationship never conclusively demonstrated in mammals. Cardiac vagal preganglionic neurons, responsible for controlling heart rate via the parasympathetic vagus nerve, were shown to have multiple locations, chiefly within the dorsal vagal motor nucleus that may enable interactive control of the circulatory and respiratory systems, similar to that described for tetrapods. The present illustration of an apparently highly evolved control system for HRV in a fish with a proven ancient lineage, based on paleontological, morphological, and recent genetic evidence, questions much of the anthropocentric thinking implied by some mammalian physiologists and encouraged by many psychobiologists. It is possible that some characteristics of mammalian respiratory sinus arrhythmia, for which functional roles have been sought, are evolutionary relics that had their physiological role defined in ancient representatives of the vertebrates with undivided circulatory systems.

  19. Spatial Interaction Modeling to Identify Potentially Exposed Populations during RDD or IND Terrorism Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regens, J.L.; Gunter, J.T.; Gupta, S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeland Security Presidential Directive no.5 (HSPD-5) Management of Domestic Incidents and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Planning Guidance for Protection and Recovery Following Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) Incidents underscore the need to delineate radiological emergency guidance applicable to remedial action and recovery following an RDD or IND incident. Rapid delineation of the population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from fallout during terrorist incidents involving RDDs or low-yield nuclear devices (≤ 20 KT) is necessary for effective medical response and incident management as part of the recovery process. This paper illustrates the application of spatial interaction models to allocate population data for a representative U.S. urban area (≅1.3M people; 1,612.27 km 2 area) at a geographical scale relevant for accurately estimating risk given dose concentrations. Estimated total dose equivalents (TEDE) are calculated for isopleths moving away from the detonation point for typical release scenarios. Population is estimated within the TEDE zones using Euclidean distances between zip code polygon centroids generated in ArcGIS version 9.1 with distance decay determined by regression analysis to apportion origin-destination pairs to a population count and density matrix on a spatial basis for daytime and night-time release scenarios. (authors)

  20. Cardiorespiratory interactions previously identified as mammalian are present in the primitive lungfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Diana A.; Taylor, Edwin W.; Sartori, Marina R.; Cruz, André L.; Rantin, Francisco T.; Leite, Cleo A. C.

    2018-01-01

    The present study has revealed that the lungfish has both structural and functional features of its system for physiological control of heart rate, previously considered solely mammalian, that together generate variability (HRV). Ultrastructural and electrophysiological investigation revealed that the nerves connecting the brain to the heart are myelinated, conferring rapid conduction velocities, comparable to mammalian fibers that generate instantaneous changes in heart rate at the onset of each air breath. These respiration-related changes in beat-to-beat cardiac intervals were detected by complex analysis of HRV and shown to maximize oxygen uptake per breath, a causal relationship never conclusively demonstrated in mammals. Cardiac vagal preganglionic neurons, responsible for controlling heart rate via the parasympathetic vagus nerve, were shown to have multiple locations, chiefly within the dorsal vagal motor nucleus that may enable interactive control of the circulatory and respiratory systems, similar to that described for tetrapods. The present illustration of an apparently highly evolved control system for HRV in a fish with a proven ancient lineage, based on paleontological, morphological, and recent genetic evidence, questions much of the anthropocentric thinking implied by some mammalian physiologists and encouraged by many psychobiologists. It is possible that some characteristics of mammalian respiratory sinus arrhythmia, for which functional roles have been sought, are evolutionary relics that had their physiological role defined in ancient representatives of the vertebrates with undivided circulatory systems. PMID:29507882

  1. Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Rutten, Bart P; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; van Zelst, Catherine; Bruggeman, Richard; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta; McGuire, Philip; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Kempton, Matthew J; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Hubbard, Kathryn; Beards, Stephanie; Stilo, Simona A; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Bourque, Francois; Modinos, Gemma; Tognin, Stefania; Calem, Maria; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Holmans, Peter; Williams, Nigel; Craddock, Nicholas; Richards, Alexander; Humphreys, Isla; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Leweke, F Markus; Tost, Heike; Akdeniz, Ceren; Rohleder, Cathrin; Bumb, J Malte; Schwarz, Emanuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Üçok, Alp; Saka, Meram Can; Atbaşoğlu, E Cem; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Gumus-Akay, Guvem; Cihan, Burçin; Karadağ, Hasan; Soygür, Haldan; Cankurtaran, Eylem Şahin; Ulusoy, Semra; Akdede, Berna; Binbay, Tolga; Ayer, Ahmet; Noyan, Handan; Karadayı, Gülşah; Akturan, Elçin; Ulaş, Halis; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara; Bernardo, Miguel; Sanjuán, Julio; Bobes, Julio; Arrojo, Manuel; Santos, Jose Luis; Cuadrado, Pedro; Rodríguez Solano, José Juan; Carracedo, Angel; García Bernardo, Enrique; Roldán, Laura; López, Gonzalo; Cabrera, Bibiana; Cruz, Sabrina; Díaz Mesa, Eva Ma; Pouso, María; Jiménez, Estela; Sánchez, Teresa; Rapado, Marta; González, Emiliano; Martínez, Covadonga; Sánchez, Emilio; Olmeda, Ma Soledad; de Haan, Lieuwe; Velthorst, Eva; van der Gaag, Mark; Selten, Jean-Paul; van Dam, Daniella; van der Ven, Elsje; van der Meer, Floor; Messchaert, Elles; Kraan, Tamar; Burger, Nadine; Leboyer, Marion; Szoke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Jamain, Stéphane; Tortelli, Andrea; Frijda, Flora; Vilain, Jeanne; Galliot, Anne-Marie; Baudin, Grégoire; Ferchiou, Aziz; Richard, Jean-Romain; Bulzacka, Ewa; Charpeaud, Thomas; Tronche, Anne-Marie; De Hert, Marc; van Winkel, Ruud; Decoster, Jeroen; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Stefanis, Nikos C; Sachs, Gabriele; Aschauer, Harald; Lasser, Iris; Winklbaur, Bernadette; Schlögelhofer, Monika; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Borgwardt, Stefan; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Smieskova, Renata; Rapp, Charlotte; Ittig, Sarah; Soguel-dit-Piquard, Fabienne; Studerus, Erich; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Paruch, Julia; Julkowski, Dominika; Hilboll, Desiree; Sham, Pak C; Cherny, Stacey S; Chen, Eric Y H; Campbell, Desmond D; Li, Miaoxin; Romeo-Casabona, Carlos María; Emaldi Cirión, Aitziber; Urruela Mora, Asier; Jones, Peter; Kirkbride, James; Cannon, Mary; Rujescu, Dan; Tarricone, Ilaria; Berardi, Domenico; Bonora, Elena; Seri, Marco; Marcacci, Thomas; Chiri, Luigi; Chierzi, Federico; Storbini, Viviana; Braca, Mauro; Minenna, Maria Gabriella; Donegani, Ivonne; Fioritti, Angelo; La Barbera, Daniele; La Cascia, Caterina Erika; Mulè, Alice; Sideli, Lucia; Sartorio, Rachele; Ferraro, Laura; Tripoli, Giada; Seminerio, Fabio; Marinaro, Anna Maria; McGorry, Patrick; Nelson, Barnaby; Amminger, G Paul; Pantelis, Christos; Menezes, Paulo R; Del-Ben, Cristina M; Gallo Tenan, Silvia H; Shuhama, Rosana; Ruggeri, Mirella; Tosato, Sarah; Lasalvia, Antonio; Bonetto, Chiara; Ira, Elisa; Nordentoft, Merete; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Cristóbal, Paula; Kwapil, Thomas R; Brietzke, Elisa; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Maric, Nadja P; Andric, Sanja; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana

    2014-07-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual molecular genetic variants is small. There are now also a limited number of studies that have investigated molecular genetic candidate gene-environment interactions (G × E), however, so far, thorough replication of findings is rare and G × E research still faces several conceptual and methodological challenges. In this article, we aim to review these recent developments and illustrate how integrated, large-scale investigations may overcome contemporary challenges in G × E research, drawing on the example of a large, international, multi-center study into the identification and translational application of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap in phenotype. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Tiny changes in local order identify the cluster formation threshold in model fluids with competing interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomont, Jean-Marc; Costa, Dino; Bretonnet, Jean-Louis

    2017-06-14

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to carry out a thorough analysis of structural correlations arising in a relatively dense fluid of rigid spherical particles with prototype competing interactions (short-range attractive and long-range repulsive two-Yukawa model). As the attraction strength increases, we show that the local density of the fluid displays a tiny reversal of trend within specific ranges of interparticle distances, whereupon it decreases first and increases afterwards, passing through a local minimum. Particles involved in this trend display, accordingly, distinct behaviours: for a sufficiently weak attraction, they seem to contribute to the long-wave oscillations typically heralding the formation of patterns in such fluids; for a stronger attraction, after the reversal of the local density has occurred, they form an outer shell of neighbours stabilizing the existing aggregation seeds. Following the increment of attraction, precisely in correspondence of the local density reversal, the local peak developed in the structure factor at small wavevectors markedly rises, signalling-in agreement with recent structural criteria-the onset of a clustered state. A detailed cluster analysis of microscopic configurations fully validates this picture.

  3. A modified Leslie-Gower predator-prey interaction model and parameter identifiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jai Prakash; Meghwani, Suraj S.; Thakur, Manoj; Abbas, Syed

    2018-01-01

    In this work, bifurcation and a systematic approach for estimation of identifiable parameters of a modified Leslie-Gower predator-prey system with Crowley-Martin functional response and prey refuge is discussed. Global asymptotic stability is discussed by applying fluctuation lemma. The system undergoes into Hopf bifurcation with respect to parameters intrinsic growth rate of predators (s) and prey reserve (m). The stability of Hopf bifurcation is also discussed by calculating Lyapunov number. The sensitivity analysis of the considered model system with respect to all variables is performed which also supports our theoretical study. To estimate the unknown parameter from the data, an optimization procedure (pseudo-random search algorithm) is adopted. System responses and phase plots for estimated parameters are also compared with true noise free data. It is found that the system dynamics with true set of parametric values is similar to the estimated parametric values. Numerical simulations are presented to substantiate the analytical findings.

  4. Tombusvirus-yeast interactions identify conserved cell-intrinsic viral restriction factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna eSasvari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To combat viral infections, plants possess innate and adaptive immune pathways, such as RNA silencing, R gene and recessive gene-mediated resistance mechanisms. However, it is likely that additional cell-intrinsic restriction factors (CIRF are also involved in limiting plant virus replication. This review discusses novel CIRFs with antiviral functions, many of them RNA-binding proteins or affecting the RNA binding activities of viral replication proteins. The CIRFs against tombusviruses have been identified in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is developed as an advanced model organism. Grouping of the identified CIRFs based on their known cellular functions and subcellular localization in yeast reveals that TBSV replication is limited by a wide variety of host gene functions. Yeast proteins with the highest connectivity in the network map include the well-characterized Xrn1p 5’-3’ exoribonuclease, Act1p actin protein and Cse4p centromere protein. The protein network map also reveals an important interplay between the pro-viral Hsp70 cellular chaperone and the antiviral co-chaperones, and possibly key roles for the ribosomal or ribosome-associated factors. We discuss the antiviral functions of selected CIRFs, such as the RNA binding nucleolin, ribonucleases, WW-domain proteins, single- and multi-domain cyclophilins, TPR-domain co-chaperones and cellular ion pumps. These restriction factors frequently target the RNA-binding region in the viral replication proteins, thus interfering with the recruitment of the viral RNA for replication and the assembly of the membrane-bound viral replicase. Although many of the characterized CIRFs act directly against TBSV, we propose that the TPR-domain co-chaperones function as guardians of the cellular Hsp70 chaperone system, which is subverted efficiently by TBSV for viral replicase assembly in the absence of the TPR-domain co-chaperones.

  5. 4C-ker: A Method to Reproducibly Identify Genome-Wide Interactions Captured by 4C-Seq Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Raviram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 4C-Seq has proven to be a powerful technique to identify genome-wide interactions with a single locus of interest (or "bait" that can be important for gene regulation. However, analysis of 4C-Seq data is complicated by the many biases inherent to the technique. An important consideration when dealing with 4C-Seq data is the differences in resolution of signal across the genome that result from differences in 3D distance separation from the bait. This leads to the highest signal in the region immediately surrounding the bait and increasingly lower signals in far-cis and trans. Another important aspect of 4C-Seq experiments is the resolution, which is greatly influenced by the choice of restriction enzyme and the frequency at which it can cut the genome. Thus, it is important that a 4C-Seq analysis method is flexible enough to analyze data generated using different enzymes and to identify interactions across the entire genome. Current methods for 4C-Seq analysis only identify interactions in regions near the bait or in regions located in far-cis and trans, but no method comprehensively analyzes 4C signals of different length scales. In addition, some methods also fail in experiments where chromatin fragments are generated using frequent cutter restriction enzymes. Here, we describe 4C-ker, a Hidden-Markov Model based pipeline that identifies regions throughout the genome that interact with the 4C bait locus. In addition, we incorporate methods for the identification of differential interactions in multiple 4C-seq datasets collected from different genotypes or experimental conditions. Adaptive window sizes are used to correct for differences in signal coverage in near-bait regions, far-cis and trans chromosomes. Using several datasets, we demonstrate that 4C-ker outperforms all existing 4C-Seq pipelines in its ability to reproducibly identify interaction domains at all genomic ranges with different resolution enzymes.

  6. Heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping identifies intra-locus interactions that underlie reproductive hybrid vigor in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis.

  7. Physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of interaction between C-type lectin-like receptor 2 and podoplanin: partners from in utero to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Inoue, K; Osada, M; Ozaki, Y

    2017-02-01

    A platelet activation receptor, C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2), has been identified as a receptor for a platelet-activating snake venom, rhodocytin. CLEC-2 protein is highly expressed in platelets/megakaryocytes, and at lower levels in liver Kupffer cells. Recently, podoplanin has been revealed as an endogenous ligand for CLEC-2. Podoplanin is expressed in certain types of tumor cells, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) in lymph nodes, kidney podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells, but not in vascular endothelial cells. CLEC-2 in platelets cannot have access to podoplanin under normal conditions, but they interact with each other under pathologic conditions or during developmental stages, and play various pathophysiologic roles. CLEC-2 facilitates hematogenous metastasis of podoplanin-expressing tumors. During development, the interaction between CLEC-2 and podoplanin in lymphatic endothelial cells or neuroepithelial cells facilitates blood-lymphatic vessel separation and cerebrovascular patterning and integrity, respectively. In adulthood, platelet CLEC-2 binding to FRCs is crucial for maintenance of the integrity of high endothelial venules in lymph nodes. Podoplanin-expressing FRC-like cells have recently been identified in the bone marrow, and facilitate megakaryocyte proliferation and proplatelet formation by binding to megakaryocyte CLEC-2. Podoplanin is inducibly expressed in liver monocytes and keratinocytes during Salmonella infection and wound healing, and regulates thrombus formation in the liver and controlled wound healing, respectively. By binding to unknown ligands, platelet CLEC-2 regulates the maintenance of vascular integrity during inflammation, thrombus stability under flow, and maintenance of quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells. Podoplanin is expressed in various cells, and additional roles of the CLEC-2-podoplanin interaction will be revealed in the future. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  8. Proteomic profiling identifies markers for inflammation-related tumor-fibroblast interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drev, Daniel; Bileck, Andrea; Erdem, Zeynep N; Mohr, Thomas; Timelthaler, Gerald; Beer, Andrea; Gerner, Christopher; Marian, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Cancer associated fibroblasts are activated in the tumor microenvironment and contribute to tumor progression, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inflammation. To identify proteins characteristic for fibroblasts in colorectal cancer we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to derive protein abundance from whole-tissue homogenates of human colorectal cancer/normal mucosa pairs. Alterations of protein levels were determined by two-sided t test with greater than threefold difference and an FDR of matrix organization, TGFβ receptor signaling and angiogenesis mainly originating from the stroma. Most prominent were increased abundance of SerpinB5 in the parenchyme and latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein, thrombospondin-B2, and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich in the stroma. Extracellular matrix remodeling involved collagens type VIII, XII, XIV, and VI as well as lysyl-oxidase-2. In silico analysis of mRNA levels demonstrated altered expression in the tumor and the adjacent normal tissue as compared to mucosa of healthy individuals indicating that inflammatory activation affected the surrounding tissue. Immunohistochemistry of 26 tumor specimen confirmed upregulation of SerpinB5, thrombospondin B2 and secreted protein acidic-and-cysteine-rich. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting tumor- and compartment-specific protein-signatures that are functionally meaningful by proteomic profiling of whole-tissue extracts together with mining of RNA expression datasets. The results provide the basis for further exploration of inflammation-related stromal markers in larger patient cohorts and experimental models.

  9. GOTHiC, a probabilistic model to resolve complex biases and to identify real interactions in Hi-C data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borbala Mifsud

    Full Text Available Hi-C is one of the main methods for investigating spatial co-localisation of DNA in the nucleus. However, the raw sequencing data obtained from Hi-C experiments suffer from large biases and spurious contacts, making it difficult to identify true interactions. Existing methods use complex models to account for biases and do not provide a significance threshold for detecting interactions. Here we introduce a simple binomial probabilistic model that resolves complex biases and distinguishes between true and false interactions. The model corrects biases of known and unknown origin and yields a p-value for each interaction, providing a reliable threshold based on significance. We demonstrate this experimentally by testing the method against a random ligation dataset. Our method outperforms previous methods and provides a statistical framework for further data analysis, such as comparisons of Hi-C interactions between different conditions. GOTHiC is available as a BioConductor package (http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GOTHiC.html.

  10. GOTHiC, a probabilistic model to resolve complex biases and to identify real interactions in Hi-C data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, Borbala; Martincorena, Inigo; Darbo, Elodie; Sugar, Robert; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Fraser, Peter; Luscombe, Nicholas M

    2017-01-01

    Hi-C is one of the main methods for investigating spatial co-localisation of DNA in the nucleus. However, the raw sequencing data obtained from Hi-C experiments suffer from large biases and spurious contacts, making it difficult to identify true interactions. Existing methods use complex models to account for biases and do not provide a significance threshold for detecting interactions. Here we introduce a simple binomial probabilistic model that resolves complex biases and distinguishes between true and false interactions. The model corrects biases of known and unknown origin and yields a p-value for each interaction, providing a reliable threshold based on significance. We demonstrate this experimentally by testing the method against a random ligation dataset. Our method outperforms previous methods and provides a statistical framework for further data analysis, such as comparisons of Hi-C interactions between different conditions. GOTHiC is available as a BioConductor package (http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GOTHiC.html).

  11. Over-expression of SR-cyclophilin, an interaction partner of nuclear pinin, releases SR family splicing factors from nuclear speckles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-L.; Leu, Steve; Lu, M.-C.; Ouyang Pin

    2004-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing takes place within a dynamic ribonucleoprotein particle called the spliceosome and occurs in an ordered pathway. Although it is known that spliceosome consists of five small nuclear RNAs and at least 50 proteins, little is known about how the interaction among the proteins changes during splicing. Here we identify that SR-cyp, a Moca family of nuclear cyclophilin, interacts and colocalizes with nuclear pinin (pnn), a SR-related protein involving in pre-mRNA splicing. Nuclear pnn interacts with SR-cyp via its C-terminal RS domain. Upon SR-cyp over-expression, however, the subnuclear distribution of nuclear pnn is altered, resulting in its redistribution from nuclear speckles to a diffuse nucleoplasmic form. The diffuse subnuclear distribution of nuclear pnn is not due to epitope masking, accelerated protein turnover or post-translational modification. Furthermore, we find that SR-cyp regulates the subnuclear distribution of other SR family proteins, including SC35 and SRm300, in a similar manner as it does on nuclear pnn. This result is significant because it suggests that SR-cyp plays a general role in modulating the distribution pattern of SR-like and SR proteins, similar to that of Clk (cdc2-like kinase)/STY on SR family splicing factors. SR-cyp might direct its effect via either alteration of protein folding/conformation or of protein-protein interaction and thus may add another control level of regulation of SR family proteins and modification of their functions

  12. Consistent interactive segmentation of pulmonary ground glass nodules identified in CT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Fang, Ming; Naidich, David P.; Novak, Carol L.

    2004-05-01

    Ground glass nodules (GGNs) have proved especially problematic in lung cancer diagnosis, as despite frequently being malignant they characteristically have extremely slow rates of growth. This problem is further magnified by the small size of many of these lesions now being routinely detected following the introduction of multislice CT scanners capable of acquiring contiguous high resolution 1 to 1.25 mm sections throughout the thorax in a single breathhold period. Although segmentation of solid nodules can be used clinically to determine volume doubling times quantitatively, reliable methods for segmentation of pure ground glass nodules have yet to be introduced. Our purpose is to evaluate a newly developed computer-based segmentation method for rapid and reproducible measurements of pure ground glass nodules. 23 pure or mixed ground glass nodules were identified in a total of 8 patients by a radiologist and subsequently segmented by our computer-based method using Markov random field and shape analysis. The computer-based segmentation was initialized by a click point. Methodological consistency was assessed using the overlap ratio between 3 segmentations initialized by 3 different click points for each nodule. The 95% confidence interval on the mean of the overlap ratios proved to be [0.984, 0.998]. The computer-based method failed on two nodules that were difficult to segment even manually either due to especially low contrast or markedly irregular margins. While achieving consistent manual segmentation of ground glass nodules has proven problematic most often due to indistinct boundaries and interobserver variability, our proposed method introduces a powerful new tool for obtaining reproducible quantitative measurements of these lesions. It is our intention to further document the value of this approach with a still larger set of ground glass nodules.

  13. Identifying Trajectories of Borderline Personality Features in Adolescence: Antecedent and Interactive Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    To examine trajectories of adolescent borderline personality (BP) features in a normative-risk cohort (n = 566) of Canadian children assessed at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 and childhood predictors of trajectory group membership assessed at ages 8, 10, 11, and 12. Data were drawn from the McMaster Teen Study, an on-going study examining relations among bullying, mental health, and academic achievement. Participants and their parents completed a battery of mental health and peer relations questionnaires at each wave of the study. Academic competence was assessed at age 8 (Grade 3). Latent class growth analysis, analysis of variance, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Three distinct BP features trajectory groups were identified: elevated or rising, intermediate or stable, and low or stable. Parent- and child-reported mental health symptoms, peer relations risk factors, and intra-individual risk factors were significant predictors of elevated or rising and intermediate or stable trajectory groups. Child-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and somatization symptoms uniquely predicted elevated or rising trajectory group membership, whereas parent-reported anxiety and child-reported ADHD symptoms uniquely predicted intermediate or stable trajectory group membership. Child-reported somatization symptoms was the only predictor to differentiate the intermediate or stable and elevated or rising trajectory groups (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.28). Associations between child-reported reactive temperament and elevated BP features trajectory group membership were 10.23 times higher among children who were bullied, supporting a diathesis-stress pathway in the development of BP features for these youth. Findings demonstrate the heterogeneous course of BP features in early adolescence and shed light on the potential prodromal course of later borderline personality disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Children's use of communicative intent in the selection of cooperative partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Dunfield

    Full Text Available Within the animal kingdom, human cooperation represents an outlier. As such, there has been great interest across a number of fields in identifying the factors that support the complex and flexible variety of cooperation that is uniquely human. The ability to identify and preferentially interact with better social partners (partner choice is proposed to be a major factor in maintaining costly cooperation between individuals. Here we show that the ability to engage in flexible and effective partner choice behavior can be traced back to early childhood. Specifically, across two studies, we demonstrate that by 3 years of age, children identify effective communication as "helpful" (Experiments 1 & 2, reward good communicators with information (Experiment 1, and selectively reciprocate communication with diverse cooperative acts (Experiment 2. Taken together, these results suggest that even in early childhood, humans take advantage of cooperative benefits, while mitigating free-rider risks, through appropriate partner choice behavior.

  15. Metabolomic profiling identifies potential pathways involved in the interaction of iron homeostasis with glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Stechemesser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Elevated serum ferritin has been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D and adverse health outcomes in subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS. As the mechanisms underlying the negative impact of excess iron have so far remained elusive, we aimed to identify potential links between iron homeostasis and metabolic pathways. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 163 patients, allocated to one of three groups: (1 lean, healthy controls (n = 53, (2 MetS without hyperferritinemia (n = 54 and (3 MetS with hyperferritinemia (n = 56. An additional phlebotomy study included 29 patients with biopsy-proven iron overload before and after iron removal. A detailed clinical and biochemical characterization was obtained and metabolomic profiling was performed via a targeted metabolomics approach. Results: Subjects with MetS and elevated ferritin had higher fasting glucose (p < 0.001, HbA1c (p = 0.035 and 1 h glucose in oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.002 compared to MetS subjects without iron overload, whereas other clinical and biochemical features of the MetS were not different. The metabolomic study revealed significant differences between MetS with high and low ferritin in the serum concentrations of sarcosine, citrulline and particularly long-chain phosphatidylcholines. Methionine, glutamate, and long-chain phosphatidylcholines were significantly different before and after phlebotomy (p < 0.05 for all metabolites. Conclusions: Our data suggest that high serum ferritin concentrations are linked to impaired glucose homeostasis in subjects with the MetS. Iron excess is associated to distinct changes in the serum concentrations of phosphatidylcholine subsets. A pathway involving sarcosine and citrulline also may be involved in iron-induced impairment of glucose metabolism. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Metabolomics, Hyperferritinemia, Iron overload, Metabolic

  16. Condom use and HIV-related behaviors in urban Tanzanian men who have sex with men: a study of beliefs, HIV knowledge sources, partner interactions and risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyoni, Joyce E; Ross, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    Although studies have been conducted in neighboring countries, there are no published data on men who have sex with men (MSM) in mainland Tanzania. We report on a respondent-driven sampling study of 271 MSM in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The sample covered a wide range of educational attainment and employment, median age was 24, and all respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, mostly through public media. Those satisfied with media information on HIV were younger, had lower education, and had obtained their information from health facilities. Over two-thirds believed that having one faithful partner and using condoms would protect against HIV: nevertheless, more than two-thirds were worried about HIV infection. Two-thirds had had a relationship with a woman, one-third in the past year. Predictors of non-use of condoms for anal sex with last casual partner were younger age, not being worried about HIV infection, and agreeing to have sex even if a condom was refused. There was no significance in proportion using a condom with last casual (43%) and last regular (49%) partner. Most partners (MSM knew a median of 10 other MSM) were met in bars, music halls, and in the home/local environment, and 70% of MSM described their sexual position as "bottom." Sixty percent reported having an HIV test and the great majority was comfortable discussing condoms with partners and friends: half would refuse to have sex if condoms were not agreed to. These data suggest a significant "gay" community in Dar es Salaam with relatively accurate HIV information but moderate condom use, HIV testing and ability to refuse unsafe sex. There is clearly scope for targeted HIV prevention programs in the MSM community in Tanzania.

  17. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy intentions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra; Mitchell, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    In this qualitative study, we explored women's pregnancy intentions and experiences of intimate partner violence before, during and after pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies in the context of intimate partner violence can have serious health, social and economic consequences for women and their children. Feminist and phenomenological philosophies underpinned the study to gain a richer understanding of women's experiences. Eleven women who had been pregnant in the previous two years were recruited from community-based women's refuges in one region of the UK. Of the 11 women, eight had unplanned pregnancies, two reported being coerced into early motherhood, and only one woman had purposively planned her pregnancy. Multiple in-depth interviews focused on participants' accounts of living with intimate partner violence. Experiential data analysis was used to identify, analyse and highlight themes. Three major themes were identified: men's control of contraception, partner's indiscriminate response to the pregnancy and women's mixed feelings about the pregnancy. Participants reported limited influence over their sexual relationship and birth control. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and fear for their unborn babies' safety were intensified by their partners' continued violence during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This could be attributed to male dominance and fear, which impacts on a woman's ability to manage her birth control options. The women's initial excitement about their pregnancy diminished in the face of uncertainty and ongoing violence within their relationship. Women experiencing violence lack choice in relation to birth control options leading to unintended pregnancies. Interpreting the findings from the victim-perpetrator interactive spin theory of intimate partner violence provides a possible framework for midwives and nurses to better understand and respond to women

  18. Protein-protein interaction networks identify targets which rescue the MPP+ cellular model of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Harriet; Ryan, Brent J.; Jackson, Brendan; Whitmore, Alan; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are complex multifactorial disorders characterised by the interplay of many dysregulated physiological processes. As an exemplar, Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves multiple perturbed cellular functions, including mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation in preferentially-sensitive dopamine neurons, a selective pathophysiology recapitulated in vitro using the neurotoxin MPP+. Here we explore a network science approach for the selection of therapeutic protein targets in the cellular MPP+ model. We hypothesised that analysis of protein-protein interaction networks modelling MPP+ toxicity could identify proteins critical for mediating MPP+ toxicity. Analysis of protein-protein interaction networks constructed to model the interplay of mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation (key aspects of MPP+ toxicity) enabled us to identify four proteins predicted to be key for MPP+ toxicity (P62, GABARAP, GBRL1 and GBRL2). Combined, but not individual, knockdown of these proteins increased cellular susceptibility to MPP+ toxicity. Conversely, combined, but not individual, over-expression of the network targets provided rescue of MPP+ toxicity associated with the formation of autophagosome-like structures. We also found that modulation of two distinct proteins in the protein-protein interaction network was necessary and sufficient to mitigate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings validate our network science approach to multi-target identification in complex neurological diseases.

  19. A Statistical Method of Identifying Interactions in Neuron–Glia Systems Based on Functional Multicell Ca2+ Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Ken; Ikegaya, Yuji; Ishikawa, Tomoe; Oba, Shigeyuki; Urakubo, Hidetoshi; Koyama, Masanori; Ishii, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Crosstalk between neurons and glia may constitute a significant part of information processing in the brain. We present a novel method of statistically identifying interactions in a neuron–glia network. We attempted to identify neuron–glia interactions from neuronal and glial activities via maximum-a-posteriori (MAP)-based parameter estimation by developing a generalized linear model (GLM) of a neuron–glia network. The interactions in our interest included functional connectivity and response functions. We evaluated the cross-validated likelihood of GLMs that resulted from the addition or removal of connections to confirm the existence of specific neuron-to-glia or glia-to-neuron connections. We only accepted addition or removal when the modification improved the cross-validated likelihood. We applied the method to a high-throughput, multicellular in vitro Ca2+ imaging dataset obtained from the CA3 region of a rat hippocampus, and then evaluated the reliability of connectivity estimates using a statistical test based on a surrogate method. Our findings based on the estimated connectivity were in good agreement with currently available physiological knowledge, suggesting our method can elucidate undiscovered functions of neuron–glia systems. PMID:25393874

  20. The malaria parasite RhopH protein complex interacts with erythrocyte calmyrin identified from a comprehensive erythrocyte protein library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyokazu; Takeo, Satoru; Ntege, Edward H; Otsuki, Hitoshi; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Ishino, Tomoko; Takashima, Eizo; Tsuboi, Takafumi

    2018-06-02

    Malaria merozoite apical organelles; microneme and rhoptry secreted proteins play functional roles during and following invasion of host erythrocytes. Among numerous proteins, the rhoptries discharge high molecular weight proteins known as RhopH complex. Recent reports suggest that the RhopH complex is essential for growth and survival of the malaria parasite within erythrocytes. However, an in-depth understanding of the host-parasite molecular interactions is indispensable. Here we utilized a comprehensive mouse erythrocyte protein library consisting of 443 proteins produced by a wheat germ cell-free system, combined with AlphaScreen technology to identify mouse erythrocyte calmyrin as an interacting molecule of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii RhopH complex (PyRhopH). The PyRhopH interaction was dependent on the calmyrin N-terminus and divalent cation capacity. The finding unveils a recommendable and invaluable usefulness of our comprehensive mouse erythrocyte protein library together with the AlphaScreen technology in investigating a wide-range of host-parasite molecular interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of bentonite alteration due to interactions with iron. Sensitivity analyses to identify the important factors for the bentonite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Wilson, James; Sato, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Performance assessment of geological disposal systems for high-level radioactive waste requires a consideration of long-term systems behaviour. It is possible that the alteration of swelling clay present in bentonite buffers might have an impact on buffer functions. In the present study, iron (as a candidate overpack material)-bentonite (I-B) interactions were evaluated as the main buffer alteration scenario. Existing knowledge on alteration of bentonite during I-B interactions was first reviewed, then the evaluation methodology was developed considering modeling techniques previously used overseas. A conceptual model for smectite alteration during I-B interactions was produced. The following reactions and processes were selected: 1) release of Fe 2+ due to overpack corrosion; 2) diffusion of Fe 2+ in compacted bentonite; 3) sorption of Fe 2+ on smectite edge and ion exchange in interlayers; 4) dissolution of primary phases and formation of alteration products. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the most important factors for the alteration of bentonite by I-B interactions. (author)

  2. Solution Structure, Membrane Interactions, and Protein Binding Partners of the Tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a Vaccine Antigen from the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J.; Daly, Norelle L.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jones, Malcolm K.; Craik, David J.; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument. PMID:24429291

  3. Solution structure, membrane interactions, and protein binding partners of the tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a vaccine antigen from the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J; Daly, Norelle L; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Jones, Malcolm K; Craik, David J; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-03-07

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument.

  4. The Use of Chemical-Chemical Interaction and Chemical Structure to Identify New Candidate Chemicals Related to Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Lung cancer causes over one million deaths every year worldwide. However, prevention and treatment methods for this serious disease are limited. The identification of new chemicals related to lung cancer may aid in disease prevention and the design of more effective treatments. This study employed a weighted network, constructed using chemical-chemical interaction information, to identify new chemicals related to two types of lung cancer: non-small lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer. Then, a randomization test as well as chemical-chemical interaction and chemical structure information were utilized to make further selections. A final analysis of these new chemicals in the context of the current literature indicates that several chemicals are strongly linked to lung cancer.

  5. Effects of relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol on women's risky sexual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki, Tina; Norris, Jeanette; Hessler, Danielle M; Morrison, Diane M; Stoner, Susan A; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Abdallah, Devon A

    2009-06-01

    This experiment examined the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. Women completed an individual difference measure of relationship motivation and then were randomly assigned to partner familiarity condition (low, high) and to alcohol consumption condition (high dose, low dose, no alcohol, placebo). Then women read and projected themselves into a scenario of a sexual encounter. Relationship motivation and partner familiarity interacted with intoxication to influence primary appraisals of relationship potential. Participants' primary and secondary relationship appraisals mediated the effects of women's relationship motivation, partner familiarity, and intoxication on condom negotiation, sexual decision abdication, and unprotected sex intentions. These findings support a cognitive mediation model of women's sexual decision making and identify how individual and situational factors interact to shape alcohol's influences on cognitive appraisals that lead to risky sexual decisions. This knowledge can inform empirically based risky sex interventions.

  6. An interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on finite-order independence of structural difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Hikita, Shiro

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on the concept of finite-order independence of structural difference. This concept includes Dyer and Sarin's weak difference independence as special cases. The algorithm developed is composed of four major parts: 1) formulation of the problem 2) assessment of normalized conditional value functions and structural difference functions 3) assessment of corner values 4) assessment of the order of independence of structural difference and selection of the model. A hypothetical numerical example of a trade-off analysis for siting a nuclear power plant is included. (author)

  7. Genetic interactions of MAF1 identify a role for Med20 in transcriptional repression of ribosomal protein genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Willis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional repression of ribosomal components and tRNAs is coordinately regulated in response to a wide variety of environmental stresses. Part of this response involves the convergence of different nutritional and stress signaling pathways on Maf1, a protein that is essential for repressing transcription by RNA polymerase (pol III in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we identify the functions buffering yeast cells that are unable to down-regulate transcription by RNA pol III. MAF1 genetic interactions identified in screens of non-essential gene-deletions and conditionally expressed essential genes reveal a highly interconnected network of 64 genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, RNA pol II transcription, tRNA modification, ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and other processes. A survey of non-essential MAF1 synthetic sick/lethal (SSL genes identified six gene-deletions that are defective in transcriptional repression of ribosomal protein (RP genes following rapamycin treatment. This subset of MAF1 SSL genes included MED20 which encodes a head module subunit of the RNA pol II Mediator complex. Genetic interactions between MAF1 and subunits in each structural module of Mediator were investigated to examine the functional relationship between these transcriptional regulators. Gene expression profiling identified a prominent and highly selective role for Med20 in the repression of RP gene transcription under multiple conditions. In addition, attenuated repression of RP genes by rapamycin was observed in a strain deleted for the Mediator tail module subunit Med16. The data suggest that Mediator and Maf1 function in parallel pathways to negatively regulate RP mRNA and tRNA synthesis.

  8. KNOWLEDGE SHARING IN PARTNERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    . The diversity and disjunct feature of the practices is a condition of possibility of knowledge handling as it is a prerequisite for the synthesis of various forms of knowledge in the building construct. Here an orchestrated combination of relationbased interaction with boundary objects and brokers, requisite......This paper adopts practicebased theory for understanding interorganisational knowledge work and extents it with a discussion of the role of redundancy. The paper presents a case study of a project partnership in construction using the partnering concept. The project group responsible...... for the building design counts members from different companies like architects, engineers, and contractors. The paper discusses three central mechanisms for coordinating knowledge in a complex construction project, redundancy, relations, and governance. The knowledge relations is conceptualised through focusing...

  9. Characterizing associations and SNP-environment interactions for GWAS-identified prostate cancer risk markers--results from BPC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lindstrom

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with prostate cancer risk. However, whether these associations can be consistently replicated, vary with disease aggressiveness (tumor stage and grade and/or interact with non-genetic potential risk factors or other SNPs is unknown. We therefore genotyped 39 SNPs from regions identified by several prostate cancer GWAS in 10,501 prostate cancer cases and 10,831 controls from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. We replicated 36 out of 39 SNPs (P-values ranging from 0.01 to 10⁻²⁸. Two SNPs located near KLK3 associated with PSA levels showed differential association with Gleason grade (rs2735839, P = 0.0001 and rs266849, P = 0.0004; case-only test, where the alleles associated with decreasing PSA levels were inversely associated with low-grade (as defined by Gleason grade < 8 tumors but positively associated with high-grade tumors. No other SNP showed differential associations according to disease stage or grade. We observed no effect modification by SNP for association with age at diagnosis, family history of prostate cancer, diabetes, BMI, height, smoking or alcohol intake. Moreover, we found no evidence of pair-wise SNP-SNP interactions. While these SNPs represent new independent risk factors for prostate cancer, we saw little evidence for effect modification by other SNPs or by the environmental factors examined.

  10. Performance of a PET detector module utilizing an array of silicon photodiodes to identify the crystal of interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Nutt, R.; Digby, W.M.; Williams, C.W.; Andreaco, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors initial performance results for a new multi-layer PET detector module consisting of an array of 3 mm square by 30 mm deep BGO crystals coupled on one end to a single photomultiplier tube and on the opposite end to an array of 3 mm square silicon photodiodes. The photomultiplier tube provides an accurate timing pulse and energy discrimination for all the crystals in the module, while the silicon photodiodes identify the crystal of interaction. When a single BGO crystal at +25 C is excited with 511 keV photons, the authors measure a photodiode signal centered at 700 electrons (e - ) with noise of 375 e - fwhm. When a four crystal/photodiode module is excited with a collimated line source of 511 keV photons, the crystal of interaction is correctly identified 82% of the time. The misidentification rate can be greatly reduced and an 8 x 8 crystal/photodiode module constructed by using thicker depletion layer photodiodes or cooling to 0 C

  11. New Partner Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA presentation provides information on the SmartWay Transport Partnership Program, including key information about EPA, Partners' roles, benefits, tools, partner recognition, awards, and brand value. Transcript available.

  12. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  13. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  14. The SADI Personal Health Lens: A Web Browser-Based System for Identifying Personally Relevant Drug Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, Ben; McCarthy, E Luke; Cruz-Toledo, José; Klein, Artjom; Baker, Christopher J O; Dumontier, Michel; Wilkinson, Mark D

    2013-04-05

    The Web provides widespread access to vast quantities of health-related information that can improve quality-of-life through better understanding of personal symptoms, medical conditions, and available treatments. Unfortunately, identifying a credible and personally relevant subset of information can be a time-consuming and challenging task for users without a medical background. The objective of the Personal Health Lens system is to aid users when reading health-related webpages by providing warnings about personally relevant drug interactions. More broadly, we wish to present a prototype for a novel, generalizable approach to facilitating interactions between a patient, their practitioner(s), and the Web. We utilized a distributed, Semantic Web-based architecture for recognizing personally dangerous drugs consisting of: (1) a private, local triple store of personal health information, (2) Semantic Web services, following the Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) design pattern, for text mining and identifying substance interactions, (3) a bookmarklet to trigger analysis of a webpage and annotate it with personalized warnings, and (4) a semantic query that acts as an abstract template of the analytical workflow to be enacted by the system. A prototype implementation of the system is provided in the form of a Java standalone executable JAR file. The JAR file bundles all components of the system: the personal health database, locally-running versions of the SADI services, and a javascript bookmarklet that triggers analysis of a webpage. In addition, the demonstration includes a hypothetical personal health profile, allowing the system to be used immediately without configuration. Usage instructions are provided. The main strength of the Personal Health Lens system is its ability to organize medical information and to present it to the user in a personalized and contextually relevant manner. While this prototype was limited to a single knowledge domain

  15. The SADI Personal Health Lens: A Web Browser-Based System for Identifying Personally Relevant Drug Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervalk, Ben; McCarthy, E Luke; Cruz-Toledo, José; Klein, Artjom; Baker, Christopher J O; Dumontier, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background The Web provides widespread access to vast quantities of health-related information that can improve quality-of-life through better understanding of personal symptoms, medical conditions, and available treatments. Unfortunately, identifying a credible and personally relevant subset of information can be a time-consuming and challenging task for users without a medical background. Objective The objective of the Personal Health Lens system is to aid users when reading health-related webpages by providing warnings about personally relevant drug interactions. More broadly, we wish to present a prototype for a novel, generalizable approach to facilitating interactions between a patient, their practitioner(s), and the Web. Methods We utilized a distributed, Semantic Web-based architecture for recognizing personally dangerous drugs consisting of: (1) a private, local triple store of personal health information, (2) Semantic Web services, following the Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI) design pattern, for text mining and identifying substance interactions, (3) a bookmarklet to trigger analysis of a webpage and annotate it with personalized warnings, and (4) a semantic query that acts as an abstract template of the analytical workflow to be enacted by the system. Results A prototype implementation of the system is provided in the form of a Java standalone executable JAR file. The JAR file bundles all components of the system: the personal health database, locally-running versions of the SADI services, and a javascript bookmarklet that triggers analysis of a webpage. In addition, the demonstration includes a hypothetical personal health profile, allowing the system to be used immediately without configuration. Usage instructions are provided. Conclusions The main strength of the Personal Health Lens system is its ability to organize medical information and to present it to the user in a personalized and contextually relevant manner. While this

  16. Pharma partnering: other people's science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Partnering is an ideal field if someone is seeking to move from a scientific to a more business-oriented discipline. Partnering's goal is to identify and acquire external innovation. These discoveries are then included in a company's pipeline and help bring novel treatments to patients. Advanced scientific training is essential in the identification and evaluation of these external assets. Here I describe how partnering works in a pharmaceutical company and offer advice on how to make a successful transition from a PhD program to a business career. © 2017 Hofmann. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10......(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies....

  18. Genomic and transcriptome profiling identified both human and HBV genetic variations and their interactions in Chinese hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between HBV and host genome integrations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC development is a complex process and the mechanism is still unclear. Here we described in details the quality controls and data mining of aCGH and transcriptome sequencing data on 50 HCC samples from the Chinese patients, published by Dong et al. (2015 (GEO#: GSE65486. In additional to the HBV-MLL4 integration discovered, we also investigated the genetic aberrations of HBV and host genes as well as their genetic interactions. We reported human genome copy number changes and frequent transcriptome variations (e.g. TP53, CTNNB1 mutation, especially MLL family mutations in this cohort of the patients. For HBV genotype C, we identified a novel linkage disequilibrium region covering HBV replication regulatory elements, including basal core promoter, DR1, epsilon and poly-A regions, which is associated with HBV core antigen over-expression and almost exclusive to HBV-MLL4 integration.

  19. Yeast screens identify the RNA polymerase II CTD and SPT5 as relevant targets of BRCA1 interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig B Bennett

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 has been implicated in numerous DNA repair pathways that maintain genome integrity, however the function responsible for its tumor suppressor activity in breast cancer remains obscure. To identify the most highly conserved of the many BRCA1 functions, we screened the evolutionarily distant eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae for mutants that suppressed the G1 checkpoint arrest and lethality induced following heterologous BRCA1 expression. A genome-wide screen in the diploid deletion collection combined with a screen of ionizing radiation sensitive gene deletions identified mutants that permit growth in the presence of BRCA1. These genes delineate a metabolic mRNA pathway that temporally links transcription elongation (SPT4, SPT5, CTK1, DEF1 to nucleopore-mediated mRNA export (ASM4, MLP1, MLP2, NUP2, NUP53, NUP120, NUP133, NUP170, NUP188, POM34 and cytoplasmic mRNA decay at P-bodies (CCR4, DHH1. Strikingly, BRCA1 interacted with the phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (RNAPII carboxy terminal domain (P-CTD, phosphorylated in the pattern specified by the CTDK-I kinase, to induce DEF1-dependent cleavage and accumulation of a RNAPII fragment containing the P-CTD. Significantly, breast cancer associated BRCT domain defects in BRCA1 that suppressed P-CTD cleavage and lethality in yeast also suppressed the physical interaction of BRCA1 with human SPT5 in breast epithelial cells, thus confirming SPT5 as a relevant target of BRCA1 interaction. Furthermore, enhanced P-CTD cleavage was observed in both yeast and human breast cells following UV-irradiation indicating a conserved eukaryotic damage response. Moreover, P-CTD cleavage in breast epithelial cells was BRCA1-dependent since damage-induced P-CTD cleavage was only observed in the mutant BRCA1 cell line HCC1937 following ectopic expression of wild type BRCA1. Finally, BRCA1, SPT5 and hyperphosphorylated RPB1 form a complex that was rapidly degraded following MMS treatment in wild type but not BRCA1

  20. Hierarchthis: An Interactive Interface for Identifying Mission-Relevant Components of the Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litomisky, Krystof

    2012-01-01

    Even though NASA's space missions are many and varied, there are some tasks that are common to all of them. For example, all spacecraft need to communicate with other entities, and all spacecraft need to know where they are. These tasks use tools and services that can be inherited and reused between missions, reducing systems engineering effort and therefore reducing cost.The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System, or AMMOS, is a collection of multimission tools and services, whose development and maintenance are funded by NASA. I created HierarchThis, a plugin designed to provide an interactive interface to help customers identify mission-relevant tools and services. HierarchThis automatically creates diagrams of the AMMOS database, and then allows users to show/hide specific details through a graphical interface. Once customers identify tools and services they want for a specific mission, HierarchThis can automatically generate a contract between the Multimission Ground Systems and Services Office, which manages AMMOS, and the customer. The document contains the selected AMMOS components, along with their capabilities and satisfied requirements. HierarchThis reduces the time needed for the process from service selections to having a mission-specific contract from the order of days to the order of minutes.

  1. A synthetic interaction screen identifies factors selectively required for proliferation and TERT transcription in p53-deficient human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xie

    Full Text Available Numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations render cancer cells selectively dependent on specific genes and regulatory pathways, and represent potential vulnerabilities that can be therapeutically exploited. Here we describe an RNA interference (RNAi-based synthetic interaction screen to identify genes preferentially required for proliferation of p53-deficient (p53- human cancer cells. We find that compared to p53-competent (p53+ human cancer cell lines, diverse p53- human cancer cell lines are preferentially sensitive to loss of the transcription factor ETV1 and the DNA damage kinase ATR. In p53- cells, RNAi-mediated knockdown of ETV1 or ATR results in decreased expression of the telomerase catalytic subunit TERT leading to growth arrest, which can be reversed by ectopic TERT expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that ETV1 binds to a region downstream of the TERT transcriptional start-site in p53- but not p53+ cells. We find that the role of ATR is to phosphorylate and thereby stabilize ETV1. Our collective results identify a regulatory pathway involving ETV1, ATR, and TERT that is preferentially important for proliferation of diverse p53- cancer cells.

  2. The promise of two-person neuroscience for developmental psychiatry: Using interaction-based sociometrics to identify disorders of social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Victoria; Schilbach, Leonhard

    2018-01-01

    Social interactions are fundamental for human development, and disordered social interactions are pervasive in many psychiatric disorders. Recent advances in “two-person neuroscience” have provided new tools for characterising social interactions. Accordingly, interaction-based ‘sociometrics’ hold great promise for developmental psychology and psychiatry, particularly in the early identification of social disorders.

  3. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners.

  4. Identification of sumoylation sites in CCDC6, the first identified RET partner gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma, uncovers a mode of regulating CCDC6 function on CREB1 transcriptional activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Luise

    Full Text Available CCDC6 was originally identified in chimeric genes as caused by chromosomal translocation involving the RET protooncogene in some thyroid tumors. Recognised as a 65 kDa pro-apoptotic phosphoprotein, CCDC6 has been enrolled as an ATM substrate that contribute to protect genome integrity by modulating PP4c activity in response to genotoxic stress. Recently, CCDC6 has been identified as a repressor of CREB1-dependent transcription. Sumoylation has emerged as an important mechanism in transcriptional control. Here, we report the identification and characterization of three sites of sumoylation in CCDC6 (K74, K266 and K424 which are highly conserved in vertebrates. We demonstrate that the post-translational modifications by SUMO2 constrain most of the CCDC6 protein in the cytosol and affect its functional interaction with CREB1 with a decrease of CCDC6 repressive function on CREB1 transcriptional activity. Indeed, the impairment of functional outcome of sumoylated CCDC6 is obtained knocking down all three the sumoylation sites. Interestingly, in thyroid cells the SUMO2-mediated CCDC6 post-translational modifications are induced by Forskolin, a cAMP analog. Signal transduction via the cAMP pathway is known to be ubiquitous and represents a major line of communication between many organisms and their environment. We believe that CCDC6 could be an important player in the dynamics of cAMP signaling by fine regulating CREB1 transcriptional activity in normal and transformed thyroid cells.

  5. Exploring interaction between a non-speaking boy using aided AAC and his everyday communication partners: features of turn organizing and turn design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Rasmussen, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    -at-action is suggested. The analyses demonstrate that the boy’s turn-at-actions are oriented to as a co-constructed and thus interactionally achieved unit: the boy points at a bliss symbol which is given voice by the speaking co-participant. In and through the relevant made voicing of the turn-at-action, a turn...... AAC, bliss symbolics. The analysis indicates that the participants can collaborately create and orient to units in interaction equivalent to turns in interaction although they differ dramatically from ordinary turns-at-talk. In order to capture the nature of the described units, the category turn...

  6. Climate Ready Estuaries Partner Projects Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRE partners with the National Estuary Program to develop climate change projects in coastal U.S. areas, such as bays and harbors; to develop adaptation action plans, identify climate impacts and indicators, and more. This map shows project locations.

  7. A partnered approach for structured observation to assess the environment of a neighborhood with high diabetes rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Lawrence C; Lutz, David; Plumb, Ellen J; Barkley, Pearl; Nazario, Hector R; Ramos, Michelle A; Horowitz, Carol R

    2011-01-01

    The Communities IMPACT Diabetes Center uses partnered methods to address diabetes-related conditions among African Americans and Latinos in East Harlem, New York. To describe a novel, partnered approach that integrates simultaneous structured observation by community and academic partners with "on-the-spot" resolution of differences to collect baseline data regarding the built and food environments in a two census tract area of East Harlem and present select findings. We designed an environmental assessment to explore characteristics of the environment related to walking and eating. We paired community and academic partners to assess each block, resolve any differences, and report results. Nearly one year later, we surveyed the data collectors and analyzed responses using standard qualitative methods. Key themes included connection to and characteristics of the community; interactions with partners; surprises and learning, and aspects of data collection. All but the first were common to academic and community partners. Relationships between partners were generally amiable. Both community-"I think it was very helpful, we made sure neither of us made mistakes, and helped each other when we could"-and academic-"I really enjoyed it . . . I learned a lot about the areas I surveyed"-partners were complimentary. Community partners' strengths included local knowledge of the community, whereas academic partners' focus on adherence to the specifications was critical. Structured observation identified many sidewalks in disrepair or obstructed, few benches, and highly variable times allocated for pedestrians to cross at cross walks. The partnered data collection was both successful and formative, building additional relationships and further capacity for ongoing partnership. Community partners saw their community in a new way, seeing, "little things that are important but people don't pay attention to." Structured observations added to our understanding of how an environment

  8. Designing Comprehensive Partnering Agreements : An Introduction to the Partnering Agreement Scorecard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Pfisterer (Stella); N. Payandeh (Nasim); S. Reid

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAgreements are a key mechanism of partnerships because their role is to govern interactions. They help partnerships become more effective by allowing partners to cope with relational, performance and situational risks that characterise inter-organisational relationships. The

  9. Gene interactions in the DNA damage-response pathway identified by genome-wide RNA-interference analysis of synthetic lethality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaften, Gijs; Vastenhouw, Nadine L; Nollen, Ellen A A; Plasterk, Ronald H A; Tijsterman, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    Here, we describe a systematic search for synthetic gene interactions in a multicellular organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We established a high-throughput method to determine synthetic gene interactions by genome-wide RNA interference and identified genes that are required to protect

  10. Partner notification of sexually transmitted diseases: practices and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursahaney, Priya R; Jeong, Kwonho; Dixon, Bruce W; Wiesenfeld, Harold C

    2011-09-01

    Timely notification and treatment of sex partners exposed to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is essential to reduce reinfection and transmission. Our objectives were to determine factors associated with patient-initiated notification of sex partners and preferences regarding standard partner referral versus expedited partner therapy (EPT). Participants diagnosed with gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, or nongonococcal urethritis within the previous year were administered a baseline survey asking about demographics, sexual history, and partner treatment preferences (standard partner referral vs. EPT). They identified up to 4 sex partners within the past 2 months, and answered questions on relationship characteristics, quality, and notification self-efficacy. At follow-up, participants with a current STD were asked whether they notified their partners. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the associations between predictor variables and partner notification. Of the 201 subjects enrolled, 157 had a current STD diagnosis, and 289 sex partners were identified. The rate of successful partner notification was 77.3% (157/203 sex partners). Partner notification was increased if the subject had a long-term relationship with a sex partner (odds ratio: 3.07; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), considered the partner to be a main partner (odds ratio: 2.53; 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 6.58), or had increased notification self-efficacy. Overall, participants did not prefer EPT over standard referral; however, females, those with higher education levels, and those with a prior STD preferred EPT. Patient-initiated partner referral is more successful in patients with increased self-efficacy who have stronger interpersonal relationships with their sex partners.

  11. Gathering and Using Information for the Selection of Trading Partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; Douglas, S.P.; Calis, G.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the nature of the search process used by international firms in identifying trading partners in emerging markets, and to what extent systematic information collection on potential partners is likely to enhance the choice of satisfactory partners. The results, based on 46 Dutch companies,

  12. Partner's influences and other correlates of prenatal alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Nickie Y; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the influence of partners on alcohol consumption in pregnant women within the context of other factors. A Dutch nationwide online cross-sectional study among 158 pregnant women and their partners was conducted. To identify correlates of prenatal alcohol use, including perceived and reported partner norm (i.e. partner's belief regarding acceptability of prenatal alcohol use), partner modeling (i.e. partner's alcohol use during the woman's pregnancy) and partner support (i.e. partner's help in abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy), independent sample T-tests and Chi square tests were conducted. Correlation analyses tested the relationship between perceived and reported partner influence. Multivariate logistic hierarchical regression analyses tested the independent impact of partner's perceived and reported influence next to other correlates from the I-Change Model. Pregnant women who consumed alcohol perceived a weaker partner norm (p alcohol use and a weaker partner norm were more likely to use alcohol (R(2) = 0.42). This study demonstrated that perceived partner norm was the most critical of the constructs of perceived and reported partner influences in explaining prenatal alcohol use.

  13. If you pick up the children, I'll do the groceries: spatial differences in between-partner interactions in out-of-home household activities

    OpenAIRE

    Schwanen, T.; Ettema, D.F.; Timmermans, Harry

    2007-01-01

    While many studies have been conducted about the allocation of household duties within households, little is known about the impact of land use and accessibility on the distribution of out-of- home household tasks between spouses and about men's participation in such activities. This paper addresses this impact, while controlling for the impact of household structure, life cycle, employment status and hours, access to transport systems, and interactions among activities in persons' activity s...

  14. Aberrant reward center response to partner reputation during a social exchange game in generalized social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Chandra; Angstadt, Michael; Liberzon, Israel; McCabe, Kevin; Phan, K Luan

    2013-04-01

    Generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is characterized by excessive fear of public scrutiny and reticence in social engagement. Previous studies have probed the neural basis of GSAD often using static, noninteractive stimuli (e.g., face photographs) and have identified dysfunction in fear circuitry. We sought to investigate brain-based dysfunction in GSAD during more real-world, dynamic social interactions, focusing on the role of reward-related regions that are implicated in social decision-making. Thirty-six healthy individuals (healthy control [HC]) and 36 individuals with GSAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while participating in a behavioral economic game ("Trust Game") involving iterative exchanges with fictive partners who acquire differential reputations for reciprocity. We investigated brain responses to reciprocation of trust in one's social partner, and how these brain responses are modulated by partner reputation for repayment. In both HC and GSAD, receipt of reciprocity robustly engaged ventral striatum, a region implicated in reward. In HC, striatal responses to reciprocity were specific to partners who have consistently returned the investment ("cooperative partners"), and were absent for partners who lack a cooperative reputation. In GSAD, modulation of striatal responses by partner reputation was absent. Social anxiety severity predicted diminished responses to cooperative partners. These results suggest abnormalities in GSAD in reward-related striatal mechanisms that may be important for the initiation, valuation, and maintenance of cooperative social relationships. Moreover, this study demonstrates that dynamic, interactive task paradigms derived from economics can help illuminate novel mechanisms of pathology in psychiatric illnesses in which social dysfunction is a cardinal feature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Collateral Intimate Partner Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.

  16. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  17. Characteristics of vibrator use by gay and bisexually identified men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Michael; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa; Herbenick, Debby; Dodge, Brian; Novak, David S

    2010-10-01

    Recent reports indicate that vibrator use during solo and partnered sexual activities is common among heterosexual men and women in the United States. However, little research has comprehensively assessed vibrator use among gay and bisexually identified men. This study sought to document the extent to which gay and bisexually identified men report using vibrators, the sexual and relational situations within which they use them, and how men use vibrators on their own and their partners' bodies. Data were collected from 25,294 gay and bisexually identified men from 50 U.S. states and from the District of Columbia via an internet-based survey. Measures included sociodemographics, health-related indicators, sexual behaviors, and those related to recent and past use of vibrators during solo and partnered sexual interactions with other men. Approximately half (49.8%) of gay and bisexually identified men reported having used vibrators. Most men who had used a vibrator in the past reported use during masturbation (86.2%). When used during partnered interactions, vibrators were incorporated into foreplay (65.9%) and intercourse (59.4%). Men reported frequent insertion of vibrators into the anus or rectum when using them during masturbation (87.3%), which was also common during partnered interactions (∼60%), but varied slightly for casual and relationship sex partners. For both masturbation and partnered interactions, men overwhelmingly endorsed the extent to which vibrator use contributed to sexual arousal, orgasm, and pleasure. Vibrator use during both solo and partnered sexual acts was common among the gay and bisexually identified men in this sample and was described by men as adding to the quality of their sexual experiences. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  19. CHP Partnership Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partners of EPA's Combined Heat and Power Partnership include federal, state, and local government agencies and private organizations such as energy users, energy service companies, CHP project developers and consultants, and equipment manufacturers.

  20. Multiple sex partner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    intercourse, about 60% reported having a single sexual partner and 40% reported having multiple ... masturbation, start having sex at a younger age, have sex with married people and/or .... sex were considered unacceptable by 89 vs.

  1. The lonely female partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Poul; Pedersen, Birthe D; Osther, Palle J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith.......The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate the experiences of female partners to men with prostate cancer. The women found the capacity to manage their lives through mutual love in the family and through their faith....

  2. The journey of integrins and partners in a complex interactions landscape studied by super-resolution microscopy and single protein tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossier, Olivier; Giannone, Grégory

    2016-01-01

    Cells adjust their adhesive and cytoskeletal organizations according to changes in the biochemical and physical nature of their surroundings. In return, by adhering and generating forces on the extracellular matrix (ECM) cells organize their microenvironment. Integrin-dependent focal adhesions (FAs) are the converging zones integrating biochemical and biomechanical signals arising from the ECM and the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, integrin-mediated adhesion and mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical forces into biochemical signals, are involved in critical cellular functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation, and their deregulation contributes to pathologies including cancer. A challenging problem is to decipher how stochastic protein movements and interactions lead to formation of dynamic architecture such as integrin-dependent adhesive structures. In this review, we will describe recent advances made possible by super-resolution microscopies and single molecule tracking approaches that provided new understanding on the organization and the dynamics of integrins and intracellular regulators at the nanoscale in living cells.

  3. The journey of integrins and partners in a complex interactions landscape studied by super-resolution microscopy and single protein tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossier, Olivier; Giannone, Grégory [Univ. Bordeaux, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, UMR 5297, F-33000 Bordeaux (France); CNRS, Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, UMR 5297, F-33000 Bordeaux (France)

    2016-04-10

    Cells adjust their adhesive and cytoskeletal organizations according to changes in the biochemical and physical nature of their surroundings. In return, by adhering and generating forces on the extracellular matrix (ECM) cells organize their microenvironment. Integrin-dependent focal adhesions (FAs) are the converging zones integrating biochemical and biomechanical signals arising from the ECM and the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, integrin-mediated adhesion and mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical forces into biochemical signals, are involved in critical cellular functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation, and their deregulation contributes to pathologies including cancer. A challenging problem is to decipher how stochastic protein movements and interactions lead to formation of dynamic architecture such as integrin-dependent adhesive structures. In this review, we will describe recent advances made possible by super-resolution microscopies and single molecule tracking approaches that provided new understanding on the organization and the dynamics of integrins and intracellular regulators at the nanoscale in living cells.

  4. A proteomics method using immunoaffinity fluorogenic derivatization-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (FD-LC-MS/MS) to identify a set of interacting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Katsunori; Saitoh, Ryoichi; Ishigai, Masaki; Imai, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-01

    Biological functions in organisms are usually controlled by a set of interacting proteins, and identifying the proteins that interact is useful for understanding the mechanism of the functions. Immunoprecipitation is a method that utilizes the affinity of an antibody to isolate and identify the proteins that have interacted in a biological sample. In this study, the FD-LC-MS/MS method, which involves fluorogenic derivatization followed by separation and quantification by HPLC and finally identification of proteins by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry, was used to identify proteins in immunoprecipitated samples, using heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) as a model of an interacting protein in HepaRG cells. As a result, HSC70 protein, which was known to form a complex with HSP90, was isolated, together with three different types of HSP90-beta. The results demonstrated that the proposed immunoaffinity-FD-LC-MS/MS method could be useful for simultaneously detecting and identifying the proteins that interact with a certain protein. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Drug abuse and aggression between intimate partners: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Todd M; Stuart, Gregory L; Meehan, Jeffrey C; Rhatigan, Deborah L; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Keen, Stefanie M

    2008-02-01

    The present investigation employed meta-analytic procedures to quantitatively evaluate the empirical evidence on the relationship between drug abuse and aggression between intimate partners. Data from 96 studies yielding 547 effect sizes indicated that increases in drug use and drug-related problems were significantly associated with increases in aggression between intimate partners (d= .27). Cocaine emerged as the illicit substance with the strongest relationship to psychological, physical, and sexual aggression (ds= .39 to .62). Marijuana was also identified as having a significant association with partner aggression. Results showed comparable effect sizes for men and women, regardless of the sex of the drug user and/or perpetrator of partner aggression, with female reports of aggression having yielded larger effect sizes than male reports. Moderator analyses revealed that relative to other groups, married or cohabiting couples and Black participants evidenced significantly stronger effect sizes. The findings are discussed in relation to possible mechanisms linking drugs to partner aggression, and implications for future research are discussed in terms of focusing on conducting studies that assess the interaction of context and temporal sequencing of drugs and partner aggression.

  6. El personal sanitario no percibe la violencia doméstica como un problema de salud Intimate partner violence is not identified as a health problem by health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Coll-Vinent

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la opinión del personal sanitario de nuestro hospital frente al fenómeno de la violencia doméstica. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de prevalencia, utilizando un cuestionario diseñado ad hoc. Se preguntó a 321 profesionales, seleccionados aleatoriamente, acerca de la violencia doméstica y su relación con la salud. Resultados: Respondieron 287 profesionales. La mayoría de encuestados (87,1% consideró que era un problema importante, pero no lo consideraban un problema de salud. El 60% consideró que podía tener un papel relevante en la detección de esta situación. En general, valoraron como muy baja su preparación para atender a este tipo de pacientes. El personal de enfermería era más sensible al problema y se consideraba más preparado que el personal médico. Conclusiones: Los profesionales de la salud están sensibilizados frente al problema de la violencia de género, pero no lo consideran un problema de salud y aducen falta de preparación para abordar este tema.Objective: To determine attitudes, opinions and knowledge of domestic violence among medical and nursing staff. Methods: We performed a descriptive study of prevalence using an ad hoc questionnaire. A random sample of 321 health professionals were asked about their opinions and knowledge of domestic violence and its relationship with health. Results: A total of 287 health professions completed the questionnaire. Most (87.1% considered that intimate partner violence was an important problem, but not a health issue. Sixty percent of the health professionals believed that they could play an important role in detecting patients in this situation. Knowledge about the management of this problem was low. Nursing professionals were more sensitive to this issue and better prepared than medical staff. Conclusions: Healthcare personnel are sensitive to the problem of intimate partner violence but do not consider this issue to be a health problem. Education about

  7. Solution Structure of Pfu RPP21, a Component of the Archaeal RNase P Holoenzyme, and Interactions with its RPP29 Protein Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amero, Carlos D; Boomershine, William P; Xu, Yiren; Foster, Mark

    2009-01-01

    RNase P is the ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein metalloenzyme responsible for cleaving the 5′-leader sequence of precursor tRNAs during their maturation. While the RNA subunit is catalytically active on its own at high monovalent and divalent ion concentration, four proteins subunits are associated with archaeal RNase P activity in vivo: RPP21, RPP29, RPP30 and POP5. These proteins have been shown to function in pairs: RPP21-RPP29 and POP5-RPP30. We have determined the solution structure of RPP21 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) using conventional and paramagnetic NMR techniques. Pfu RPP21 in solution consists of an unstructured N-terminus, two alpha helices, a zinc binding motif, and an unstructured C-terminus. Moreover, we have used chemical shift perturbations to characterize the interaction of RPP21 with Pfu RPP29. The data show that the primary contact with RPP29 is localized to the two helices of RPP21. This information represents a fundamental step towards understanding structure-function relationships of the archaeal RNase P holoenzyme. PMID:18922021

  8. The journey of integrins and partners in a complex interactions landscape studied by super-resolution microscopy and single protein tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossier, Olivier; Giannone, Grégory

    2016-04-10

    Cells adjust their adhesive and cytoskeletal organizations according to changes in the biochemical and physical nature of their surroundings. In return, by adhering and generating forces on the extracellular matrix (ECM) cells organize their microenvironment. Integrin-dependent focal adhesions (FAs) are the converging zones integrating biochemical and biomechanical signals arising from the ECM and the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, integrin-mediated adhesion and mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical forces into biochemical signals, are involved in critical cellular functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation, and their deregulation contributes to pathologies including cancer. A challenging problem is to decipher how stochastic protein movements and interactions lead to formation of dynamic architecture such as integrin-dependent adhesive structures. In this review, we will describe recent advances made possible by super-resolution microscopies and single molecule tracking approaches that provided new understanding on the organization and the dynamics of integrins and intracellular regulators at the nanoscale in living cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. New Partners in Regulation of Gene Expression: The Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto Interacts with Methylated Ribosomal Protein L12 Via Its Chromodomain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coléno-Costes, Anne; Jang, Suk Min; de Vanssay, Augustin; Rougeot, Julien; Bouceba, Tahar; Randsholt, Neel B.; Gibert, Jean-Michel; Le Crom, Stéphane; Mouchel-Vielh, Emmanuèle

    2012-01-01

    Chromodomains are found in many regulators of chromatin structure, and most of them recognize methylated lysines on histones. Here, we investigate the role of the Drosophila melanogaster protein Corto's chromodomain. The Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto is involved in both silencing and activation of gene expression. Over-expression of the Corto chromodomain (CortoCD) in transgenic flies shows that it is a chromatin-targeting module, critical for Corto function. Unexpectedly, mass spectrometry analysis reveals that polypeptides pulled down by CortoCD from nuclear extracts correspond to ribosomal proteins. Furthermore, real-time interaction analyses demonstrate that CortoCD binds with high affinity RPL12 tri-methylated on lysine 3. Corto and RPL12 co-localize with active epigenetic marks on polytene chromosomes, suggesting that both are involved in fine-tuning transcription of genes in open chromatin. RNA–seq based transcriptomes of wing imaginal discs over-expressing either CortoCD or RPL12 reveal that both factors deregulate large sets of common genes, which are enriched in heat-response and ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that they could be implicated in dynamic coordination of ribosome biogenesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Corto and RPL12 bind hsp70 and are similarly recruited on gene body after heat shock. Hence, Corto and RPL12 could be involved together in regulation of gene transcription. We discuss whether pseudo-ribosomal complexes composed of various ribosomal proteins might participate in regulation of gene expression in connection with chromatin regulators. PMID:23071455

  10. The third person in the room: The needs of care partners of older people in home care services-A systematic review from a person-centred perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker-Hansen, Camilla; Skovdahl, Kirsti; McCormack, Brendan; Tønnessen, Siri

    2018-04-01

    To identify and synthesise the needs of care partners of older people living at home with assistance from home care services. "Ageing in place" is a promoted concept where care partners and home care services play significant roles. Identifying the needs of care partners and finding systematic ways of meeting them can help care partners to cope with their role. This study is based on the PRISMA reporting guidelines. The systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies was guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. In total, 16 studies were included in the review, eleven qualitative and five quantitative. Three main categories were revealed in the analysis: the need for quality interaction, the need for a shared approach to care and the need to feel empowered. Care partners of older people have several, continuously unmet needs. A person-centred perspective can contribute new understandings of how to meet these needs. A knowledge gap has been identified regarding the needs of care partners of older people with mental health problems. There is a need to develop a tool for systematic collaboration between home care services and care partners, so that the identified needs can be met in a more thorough, systematic and person-centred way. The carers in home care services need competence to identify and meet the needs of care partners. The implementation of person-centred values in home care services can contribute to meet the needs of care partners to a greater extent than today. Future research on the needs of care partners of older people with mental health problems needs to be undertaken. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. In vitro and in vivo studies identify important features of dengue virus pr-E protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Zheng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses bud into the endoplasmic reticulum and are transported through the secretory pathway, where the mildly acidic environment triggers particle rearrangement and allows furin processing of the prM protein to pr and M. The peripheral pr peptide remains bound to virus at low pH and inhibits virus-membrane interaction. Upon exocytosis, the release of pr at neutral pH completes virus maturation to an infectious particle. Together this evidence suggests that pr may shield the flavivirus fusion protein E from the low pH environment of the exocytic pathway. Here we developed an in vitro system to reconstitute the interaction of dengue virus (DENV pr with soluble truncated E proteins. At low pH recombinant pr bound to both monomeric and dimeric forms of E and blocked their membrane insertion. Exogenous pr interacted with mature infectious DENV and specifically inhibited virus fusion and infection. Alanine substitution of E H244, a highly conserved histidine residue in the pr-E interface, blocked pr-E interaction and reduced release of DENV virus-like particles. Folding, membrane insertion and trimerization of the H244A mutant E protein were preserved, and particle release could be partially rescued by neutralization of the low pH of the secretory pathway. Thus, pr acts to silence flavivirus fusion activity during virus secretion, and this function can be separated from the chaperone activity of prM. The sequence conservation of key residues involved in the flavivirus pr-E interaction suggests that this protein-protein interface may be a useful target for broad-spectrum inhibitors.

  12. Emory University: MEDICI (Mining Essentiality Data to Identify Critical Interactions) for Cancer Drug Target Discovery and Development | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Emory University has developed a computational methodology to combine high-throughput knockdown data with known protein network topologies to infer the importance of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) for the survival of cancer cells.  Applying these data to the Achilles shRNA results, the CCLE cell line characterizations, and known and newly identified PPIs provides novel insights for potential new drug targets for cancer therapies and identifies important PPI hubs.

  13. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  14. Meta-Ethnography of Qualitative Research on the Experience of Being a Partner to an Individual with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura Foran

    2017-03-01

    Several qualitative studies explore the experience of being a partner to an individual with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, but these studies remain isolated "islands of knowledge." This meta-ethnography aimed to synthesize current qualitative studies using Noblit and Hare's method. Thirteen studies were identified for inclusion. Three overarching themes were revealed: unmet expectations of relationship, renegotiating relationship roles, and separation versus togetherness. Themes interacted as a cycle with separation versus togetherness as temporal endpoints. Partners also renegotiated relationships with mental health professionals to accommodate unmet expectations. Leverage points for intervention were identified.

  15. Identifying interactive effects of task demands in lifting on estimates of in vivo low back joint loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooyers, Chad E; Beach, Tyson A C; Frost, David M; Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P

    2018-02-01

    This investigation examined interactions between the magnitude of external load, movement speed and (a)symmetry of load placement on estimates of in vivo joint loading in the lumbar spine during simulated occupational lifting. Thirty-two participants with manual materials handling experience were included in the study. Three-dimensional motion data, ground reaction forces, and activation of six bilateral trunk muscle groups were captured while participants performed lifts with two loads at two movement speeds and using two load locations. L4-L5 joint compression and shear force-time histories were estimated using an EMG-assisted musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine. Results from this investigation provide strong evidence that known mechanical low back injury risk factors should not be viewed in isolation. Rather, injury prevention efforts need to consider the complex interactions that exist between external task demands and their combined influence on internal joint loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MEDICI: Mining Essentiality Data to Identify Critical Interactions for Cancer Drug Target Discovery and Development | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) mediate the transmission and regulation of oncogenic signals that are essential to cellular proliferation and survival, and thus represent potential targets for anti-cancer therapeutic discovery. Despite their significance, there is no method to experimentally disrupt and interrogate the essentiality of individual endogenous PPIs. The ability to computationally predict or infer PPI essentiality would help prioritize PPIs for drug discovery and help advance understanding of cancer biology.

  17. Helper component proteinase of the genus Potyvirus is an interaction partner of translation initiation factors eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E and contains a 4E binding motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Poikela, Marjo; Goytia, Elisa; Haikonen, Tuuli; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2011-07-01

    The multifunctional helper component proteinase (HCpro) of potyviruses (genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) shows self-interaction and interacts with other potyviral and host plant proteins. Host proteins that are pivotal to potyvirus infection include the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E and the isoform eIF(iso)4E, which interact with viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Here we show that HCpro of Potato virus A (PVA) interacts with both eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E, with interactions with eIF(iso)4E being stronger, as judged by the data of a yeast two-hybrid system assay. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay on leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana showed that HCpro from three potyviruses (PVA, Potato virus Y, and Tobacco etch virus) interacted with the eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum); interactions with eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E of potato (Solanum tuberosum) were weaker. In PVA-infected cells, interactions between HCpro and tobacco eIF(iso)4E were confined to round structures that colocalized with 6K2-induced vesicles. Point mutations introduced to a 4E binding motif identified in the C-terminal region of HCpro debilitated interactions of HCpro with translation initiation factors and were detrimental to the virulence of PVA in plants. The 4E binding motif conserved in HCpro of potyviruses and HCpro-initiation factor interactions suggest new roles for HCpro and/or translation factors in the potyvirus infection cycle.

  18. Connecting, Supporting, Colliding: The Work-Based Interactions of Young LGBQ-Identifying Workers and Older Queer Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Paul

    2010-01-01

    While attention has been given to older employees' experiences of sexuality-based discrimination and harassment, this paper explores young lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer identifying employees' (18-26 years old) accounts of working with queer coworkers and managers in Australian workplaces. Two sets of relationships are evidenced and discussed:…

  19. A splicing variant of TERT identified by GWAS interacts with menopausal estrogen therapy in risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Alice W; Bomkamp, Ashley; Bandera, Elisa V

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal estrogen-alone therapy (ET) is a well-established risk factor for serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer. Genetics also plays a role in ovarian cancer, which is partly attributable to 18 confirmed ovarian cancer susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association studies. The int...

  20. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen

  1. Photolabeling identifies an interaction between phosphatidylcholine and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gut2p) in yeast mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Marjolein J F W; van Voorst, Frank; Ploeger, Ginette E J

    2002-01-01

    In search of mitochondrial proteins interacting with phosphatidylcholine (PC), a photolabeling approach was applied, in which photoactivatable probes were incorporated into isolated yeast mitochondria. Only a limited number of proteins were labeled upon photoactivation, using either the PC analogue......-dependent mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. This was confirmed by the lack of specific labeling in mitochondria from a gut2 deletion strain. Only under conditions where the inner membrane was accessible to the probe, Gut2p was labeled by [125I]TID-PC, in parallel with increased labeling of the phosphate...

  2. Systematic Expression Profiling Analysis Identifies Specific MicroRNA-Gene Interactions that May Differentiate between Active and Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases. About 90% of those infected are asymptomatic—the so-called latent TB infections (LTBI, with a 10% lifetime chance of progressing to active TB. To further understand the molecular pathogenesis of TB, several molecular studies have attempted to compare the expression profiles between healthy controls and active TB or LTBI patients. However, the results vary due to diverse genetic backgrounds and study designs and the inherent complexity of the disease process. Thus, developing a sensitive and efficient method for the detection of LTBI is both crucial and challenging. For the present study, we performed a systematic analysis of the gene and microRNA profiles of healthy individuals versus those affected with TB or LTBI. Combined with a series of in silico analysis utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and published literature data, we have uncovered several microRNA-gene interactions that specifically target both the blood and lungs. Some of these molecular interactions are novel and may serve as potential biomarkers of TB and LTBI, facilitating the development for a more sensitive, efficient, and cost-effective diagnostic assay for TB and LTBI for the Taiwanese population.

  3. Systematic expression profiling analysis identifies specific microRNA-gene interactions that may differentiate between active and latent tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Lee, Shih-Wei; Huang, Kai-Yao; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases. About 90% of those infected are asymptomatic--the so-called latent TB infections (LTBI), with a 10% lifetime chance of progressing to active TB. To further understand the molecular pathogenesis of TB, several molecular studies have attempted to compare the expression profiles between healthy controls and active TB or LTBI patients. However, the results vary due to diverse genetic backgrounds and study designs and the inherent complexity of the disease process. Thus, developing a sensitive and efficient method for the detection of LTBI is both crucial and challenging. For the present study, we performed a systematic analysis of the gene and microRNA profiles of healthy individuals versus those affected with TB or LTBI. Combined with a series of in silico analysis utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and published literature data, we have uncovered several microRNA-gene interactions that specifically target both the blood and lungs. Some of these molecular interactions are novel and may serve as potential biomarkers of TB and LTBI, facilitating the development for a more sensitive, efficient, and cost-effective diagnostic assay for TB and LTBI for the Taiwanese population.

  4. Identifying interactions in the time and frequency domains in local and global networks - A Granger Causality Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Cunlu; Ladroue, Christophe; Guo, Shuixia; Feng, Jianfeng

    2010-06-21

    Reverse-engineering approaches such as Bayesian network inference, ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and information theory are widely applied to deriving causal relationships among different elements such as genes, proteins, metabolites, neurons, brain areas and so on, based upon multi-dimensional spatial and temporal data. There are several well-established reverse-engineering approaches to explore causal relationships in a dynamic network, such as ordinary differential equations (ODE), Bayesian networks, information theory and Granger Causality. Here we focused on Granger causality both in the time and frequency domain and in local and global networks, and applied our approach to experimental data (genes and proteins). For a small gene network, Granger causality outperformed all the other three approaches mentioned above. A global protein network of 812 proteins was reconstructed, using a novel approach. The obtained results fitted well with known experimental findings and predicted many experimentally testable results. In addition to interactions in the time domain, interactions in the frequency domain were also recovered. The results on the proteomic data and gene data confirm that Granger causality is a simple and accurate approach to recover the network structure. Our approach is general and can be easily applied to other types of temporal data.

  5. Identifying interactions in the time and frequency domains in local and global networks - A Granger Causality Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Shuixia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse-engineering approaches such as Bayesian network inference, ordinary differential equations (ODEs and information theory are widely applied to deriving causal relationships among different elements such as genes, proteins, metabolites, neurons, brain areas and so on, based upon multi-dimensional spatial and temporal data. There are several well-established reverse-engineering approaches to explore causal relationships in a dynamic network, such as ordinary differential equations (ODE, Bayesian networks, information theory and Granger Causality. Results Here we focused on Granger causality both in the time and frequency domain and in local and global networks, and applied our approach to experimental data (genes and proteins. For a small gene network, Granger causality outperformed all the other three approaches mentioned above. A global protein network of 812 proteins was reconstructed, using a novel approach. The obtained results fitted well with known experimental findings and predicted many experimentally testable results. In addition to interactions in the time domain, interactions in the frequency domain were also recovered. Conclusions The results on the proteomic data and gene data confirm that Granger causality is a simple and accurate approach to recover the network structure. Our approach is general and can be easily applied to other types of temporal data.

  6. Partner relationship satisfaction and maternal emotional distress in early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard-Gran Malin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of maternal emotional distress during pregnancy and the identification of risk factors for this distress are of considerable clinical- and public health importance. The mental health of the mother is important both for herself, and for the physical and psychological health of her children and the welfare of the family. The first aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for maternal emotional distress during pregnancy with special focus on partner relationship satisfaction. The second aim was to assess interaction effects between relationship satisfaction and the main predictors. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 51,558 completed a questionnaire with questions about maternal emotional distress, relationship satisfaction, and other risk factors. Associations between 37 predictor variables and emotional distress were estimated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results Relationship dissatisfaction was the strongest predictor of maternal emotional distress (β = 0.25. Other predictors were dissatisfaction at work (β = 0.11, somatic disease (β = 0.11, work related stress (β = 0.10 and maternal alcohol problems in the preceding year (β = 0.09. Relationship satisfaction appeared to buffer the effects of frequent moving, somatic disease, maternal smoking, family income, irregular working hours, dissatisfaction at work, work stress, and mother's sick leave (P Conclusions Dissatisfaction with the partner relationship is a significant predictor of maternal emotional distress in pregnancy. A good partner relationship can have a protective effect against some stressors.

  7. Interaction of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in monomeric and dimeric state with its endogenous ligand CXCL12: coarse-grained simulations identify differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Pasquale; Basdevant, Nathalie; Bernadat, Guillaume; Bachelerie, Françoise; Ha-Duong, Tâp

    2017-02-01

    Despite the recent resolutions of the crystal structure of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in complex with small antagonists or viral chemokine, a description at the molecular level of the interactions between the full-length CXCR4 and its endogenous ligand, the chemokine CXCL12, in relationship with the receptor recognition and activation, is not yet completely elucidated. Moreover, since CXCR4 is able to form dimers, the question of whether the CXCR4-CXCL12 complex has a 1:1 or 2:1 preferential stoichiometry is still an open question. We present here results of coarse-grained protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics simulations of CXCL12 in association with CXCR4 in monomeric and dimeric states. Our proposed models for the 1:1 and 2:1 CXCR4-CXCL12 quaternary structures are consistent with recognition and activation motifs of both partners provided by the available site-directed mutagenesis data. Notably, we observed that in the 2:1 complex, the chemokine N-terminus makes more steady contacts with the receptor residues critical for binding and activation than in the 1:1 structure, suggesting that the 2:1 stoichiometry would favor the receptor signaling activity with respect to the 1:1 association.

  8. Intimate partner violence (IPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Van, Toan Ngo; Nguyen, Hanh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global problem that affects one-third of all women. The present study aims to develop and determine the validity of a screening instrument for the detection of IPV in pregnant women in Tanzania and Vietnam and to determine the minimum number...

  9. Identifying Hierarchical and Overlapping Protein Complexes Based on Essential Protein-Protein Interactions and “Seed-Expanding” Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many evidences have demonstrated that protein complexes are overlapping and hierarchically organized in PPI networks. Meanwhile, the large size of PPI network wants complex detection methods have low time complexity. Up to now, few methods can identify overlapping and hierarchical protein complexes in a PPI network quickly. In this paper, a novel method, called MCSE, is proposed based on λ-module and “seed-expanding.” First, it chooses seeds as essential PPIs or edges with high edge clustering values. Then, it identifies protein complexes by expanding each seed to a λ-module. MCSE is suitable for large PPI networks because of its low time complexity. MCSE can identify overlapping protein complexes naturally because a protein can be visited by different seeds. MCSE uses the parameter λ_th to control the range of seed expanding and can detect a hierarchical organization of protein complexes by tuning the value of λ_th. Experimental results of S. cerevisiae show that this hierarchical organization is similar to that of known complexes in MIPS database. The experimental results also show that MCSE outperforms other previous competing algorithms, such as CPM, CMC, Core-Attachment, Dpclus, HC-PIN, MCL, and NFC, in terms of the functional enrichment and matching with known protein complexes.

  10. Interactive cervical motion kinematics: sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide gene-environment study identifies glutamate receptor gene GRIN2A as a Parkinson's disease modifier gene via interaction with coffee.

    OpenAIRE

    Taye H Hamza; Honglei Chen; Erin M Hill-Burns; Shannon L Rhodes; Jennifer Montimurro; Denise M Kay; Albert Tenesa; Victoria I Kusel; Patricia Sheehan; Muthukrishnan Eaaswarkhanth; Dora Yearout; Ali Samii; John W Roberts; Pinky Agarwal; Yvette Bordelon

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal compo...

  12. Partner Choice in Raven (Corvus corax) Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa-Haas, Kenji; Schiestl, Martina; Bugnyar, Thomas; Massen, Jorg J M

    2016-01-01

    Although social animals frequently make decisions about when or with whom to cooperate, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of partner choice. Most previous studies compared different dyads' performances, though did not allow an actual choice among partners. We tested eleven ravens, Corvus corax, in triads, giving them first the choice to cooperate with either a highly familiar or a rather unfamiliar partner and, second, with either a friend or a non-friend using a cooperative string-pulling task. In either test, the ravens had a second choice and could cooperate with the other partner, given that this one had not pulled the string in the meantime. We show that during the experiments, these partner ravens indeed learn to wait and inhibit pulling, respectively. Moreover, the results of these two experiments show that ravens' preferences for a specific cooperation partner are not based on familiarity. In contrast, the ravens did show a preference based on relationship quality, as they did choose to cooperate significantly more with friends than with non-friends and they were also more proficient when cooperating with a friend. In order to further identify the proximate mechanism of this preference, we designed an open-choice experiment for the whole group where all birds were free to cooperate on two separate apparatuses. This set-up allowed us to distinguish between preferences for close proximity and preferences to cooperate. The results revealed that friends preferred staying close to each other, but did not necessarily cooperate with one another, suggesting that tolerance of proximity and not relationship quality as a whole may be the driving force behind partner choice in raven cooperation. Consequently, we stress the importance of experiments that allow such titrations and, suggest that these results have important implications for the interpretations of cooperation studies that did not include open partner choice.

  13. SLC25 Family Member Genetic Interactions Identify a Role for HEM25 in Yeast Electron Transport Chain Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufay, J Noelia; Fernández-Murray, J Pedro; McMaster, Christopher R

    2017-06-07

    The SLC25 family member SLC25A38 (Hem25 in yeast) was recently identified as a mitochondrial glycine transporter that provides substrate to initiate heme/hemoglobin synthesis. Mutations in the human SLC25A38 gene cause congenital sideroblastic anemia. The full extent to which SLC25 family members coregulate heme synthesis with other mitochondrial functions is not clear. In this study, we surveyed 29 nonessential SLC25 family members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for their ability to support growth in the presence and absence of HEM25 Six SLC25 family members were identified that were required for growth or for heme synthesis in cells lacking Hem25 function. Importantly, we determined that loss of function of the SLC25 family member Flx1, which imports FAD into mitochondria, together with loss of function of Hem25, resulted in inability to grow on media that required yeast cells to supply energy using mitochondrial respiration. We report that specific components of complexes of the electron transport chain are decreased in the absence of Flx1 and Hem25 function. In addition, we show that mitochondria from flx1 Δ hem25 Δ cells contain uncharacterized Cox2-containing high molecular weight aggregates. The functions of Flx1 and Hem25 provide a facile explanation for the decrease in heme level, and in specific electron transport chain complex components. Copyright © 2017 Dufay et al.

  14. SLC25 Family Member Genetic Interactions Identify a Role for HEM25 in Yeast Electron Transport Chain Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noelia Dufay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The SLC25 family member SLC25A38 (Hem25 in yeast was recently identified as a mitochondrial glycine transporter that provides substrate to initiate heme/hemoglobin synthesis. Mutations in the human SLC25A38 gene cause congenital sideroblastic anemia. The full extent to which SLC25 family members coregulate heme synthesis with other mitochondrial functions is not clear. In this study, we surveyed 29 nonessential SLC25 family members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for their ability to support growth in the presence and absence of HEM25. Six SLC25 family members were identified that were required for growth or for heme synthesis in cells lacking Hem25 function. Importantly, we determined that loss of function of the SLC25 family member Flx1, which imports FAD into mitochondria, together with loss of function of Hem25, resulted in inability to grow on media that required yeast cells to supply energy using mitochondrial respiration. We report that specific components of complexes of the electron transport chain are decreased in the absence of Flx1 and Hem25 function. In addition, we show that mitochondria from flx1Δ hem25Δ cells contain uncharacterized Cox2-containing high molecular weight aggregates. The functions of Flx1 and Hem25 provide a facile explanation for the decrease in heme level, and in specific electron transport chain complex components.

  15. Adaptive Evolution of Signaling Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Daisuke; Dong, Taoran; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Jones, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins that interact coevolve their structures. When mutation disrupts the interaction, compensation by the partner occurs to restore interaction otherwise counterselection occurs. We show in this study how a destabilizing mutation in one protein is compensated by a stabilizing mutation in its protein partner and their coevolving path. The pathway in this case and likely a general principle of coevolution is that the compensatory change must tolerate both the original and derived structures with equivalence in function and activity. Evolution of the structure of signaling elements in a network is constrained by specific protein pair interactions, by requisite conformational changes, and by catalytic activity. The heterotrimeric G protein-coupled signaling is a paragon of this protein interaction/function complexity and our deep understanding of this pathway in diverse organisms lends itself to evolutionary study. Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rate of the Gα subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex. An important RGS-contact site is a hydroxyl-bearing residue on the switch I region of Gα subunits in animals and most plants, such as Arabidopsis. The exception is the grasses (e.g., rice, maize, sugarcane, millets); these plants have Gα subunits that replaced the critical hydroxyl-bearing threonine with a destabilizing asparagine shown to disrupt interaction between Arabidopsis RGS protein (AtRGS1) and the grass Gα subunit. With one known exception (Setaria italica), grasses do not encode RGS genes. One parsimonious deduction is that the RGS gene was lost in the ancestor to the grasses and then recently acquired horizontally in the lineage S. italica from a nongrass monocot. Like all investigated grasses, S. italica has the Gα subunit with the destabilizing asparagine residue in the protein interface but, unlike other known grass genomes, still encodes an expressed RGS gene, SiRGS1. SiRGS1

  16. Materials interaction tests to identify base and coating materials for an enhanced in-vessel core catcher design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L.; Condie, K.G.; Swank, W.D. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls ID (United States); Cheung, F.B. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park PA (United States); Suh, K.Y. [Seoul National University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Severe Accident Research Project, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    An enhanced in-vessel core catcher is being designed and evaluated, it must ensure In-Vessel Retention of core materials that may relocate under severe accident conditions in advanced reactors. To reduce cost and simplify manufacture and installation, this new core catcher design consists of several interlocking sections that are machined to fit together when inserted into the lower head. If needed, the core catcher can be manufactured with holes to accommodate lower head penetrations. Each section of the core catcher consists of two material layers with an option to add a third layer (if deemed necessary): a base material, which has the capability to support and contain the mass of core materials that may relocate during a severe accident; an insulating oxide coating material on top of the base material, which resists interactions with high-temperature core materials; and an optional coating on the bottom side of the base material to prevent any potential oxidation of the base material during the lifetime of the reactor. Initial evaluations suggest that a thermally-sprayed oxide material is the most promising candidate insulator coating for a core catcher. Tests suggest that 2 coatings can provide adequate protection to a stainless steel core catcher: -) a 500 {mu}m thick zirconium dioxide coating over a 100-200 {mu}m Inconel 718 bond coating, and -) a 500 {mu}m thick magnesium zirconate coating.

  17. Identifying controlling variables for math computation fluency through experimental analysis: the interaction of stimulus control and reinforcing consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems. A subsequent comparison of the single-most effective condition from the experimental analyses replicated the findings with novel computation problems. Results are discussed in terms of the critical role of stimulus control in identifying controlling consequences for academic deficits, and recommendations for future research refining and extending experimental analysis to academic responding are made. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Characterization of the CLASP2 Protein Interaction Network Identifies SOGA1 as a Microtubule-Associated Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Kruse; Krantz, James; Barker, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    . The GTPase-activating proteins AGAP1 and AGAP3 were also enriched in the CLASP2 interactome, although subsequent AGAP3 and CLIP2 interactome analysis suggests a preference of AGAP3 for CLIP2. Follow-up MARK2 interactome analysis confirmed reciprocal co-IP of CLASP2 and also revealed MARK2 can co-IP SOGA1......, glycogen synthase, and glycogenin. Investigating the SOGA1 interactome confirmed SOGA1 can reciprocal co-IP both CLASP2 and MARK2 as well as glycogen synthase and glycogenin. SOGA1 was confirmed to colocalize with CLASP2 and also with tubulin, which identifies SOGA1 as a new microtubule-associated protein....... These results introduce the metabolic function of these proposed novel protein networks and their relationship with microtubules as new fields of cytoskeleton-associated protein biology....

  19. Ants use partner specific odors to learn to recognize a mutualistic partner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru K Hojo

    Full Text Available Regulation via interspecific communication is an important for the maintenance of many mutualisms. However, mechanisms underlying the evolution of partner communication are poorly understood for many mutualisms. Here we show, in an ant-lycaenid butterfly mutualism, that attendant ants selectively learn to recognize and interact cooperatively with a partner. Workers of the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus learn to associate cuticular hydrocarbons of mutualistic Narathura japonica caterpillars with food rewards and, as a result, are more likely to tend the caterpillars. However, the workers do not learn to associate the cuticular hydrocarbons of caterpillars of a non-ant-associated lycaenid, Lycaena phlaeas, with artificial food rewards. Chemical analysis revealed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the mutualistic caterpillars were complex compared with those of non-ant-associated caterpillars. Our results suggest that partner-recognition based on partner-specific chemical signals and cognitive abilities of workers are important mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of mutualism with ants.

  20. Number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness predict sexual victimization: do more partners equal more risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion.

  1. The McGill Interactive Pediatric OncoGenetic Guidelines: An approach to identifying pediatric oncology patients most likely to benefit from a genetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, Catherine; Coltin, Hallie; Witkowski, Leora; Mourad, Stephanie; Malkin, David; Foulkes, William D

    2017-08-01

    Identifying cancer predisposition syndromes in children with tumors is crucial, yet few clinical guidelines exist to identify children at high risk of having germline mutations. The McGill Interactive Pediatric OncoGenetic Guidelines project aims to create a validated pediatric guideline in the form of a smartphone/tablet application using algorithms to process clinical data and help determine whether to refer a child for genetic assessment. This paper discusses the initial stages of the project, focusing on its overall structure, the methodology underpinning the algorithms, and the upcoming algorithm validation process. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Identifying the interacting roles of stressors in driving the global loss of canopy-forming to mat-forming algae in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Elisabeth M A; Thomson, Russell J; Micheli, Fiorenza; Mancuso, Francesco P; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the type and strength of interactions between local anthropogenic and other stressors can help to set achievable management targets for degraded marine ecosystems and support their resilience by identifying local actions. We undertook a meta-analysis, using data from 118 studies to test the hypothesis that ongoing global declines in the dominant habitat along temperate rocky coastlines, forests of canopy-forming algae and/or their replacement by mat-forming algae are driven by the nonadditive interactions between local anthropogenic stressors that can be addressed through management actions (fishing, heavy metal pollution, nutrient enrichment and high sediment loads) and other stressors (presence of competitors or grazers, removal of canopy algae, limiting or excessive light, low or high salinity, increasing temperature, high wave exposure and high UV or CO2 ), not as easily amenable to management actions. In general, the cumulative effects of local anthropogenic and other stressors had negative effects on the growth and survival of canopy-forming algae. Conversely, the growth or survival of mat-forming algae was either unaffected or significantly enhanced by the same pairs of stressors. Contrary to our predictions, the majority of interactions between stressors were additive. There were however synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and heavy metals, the presence of competitors, low light and increasing temperature, leading to amplified negative effects on canopy-forming algae. There were also synergistic interactions between nutrient enrichment and increasing CO2 and temperature leading to amplified positive effects on mat-forming algae. Our review of the current literature shows that management of nutrient levels, rather than fishing, heavy metal pollution or high sediment loads, would provide the greatest opportunity for preventing the shift from canopy to mat-forming algae, particularly in enclosed bays or estuaries because of the

  3. Proximity Interactions among Basal Body Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identify Novel Regulators of Basal Body Biogenesis and Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Quang Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei. Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins. These proteins localize to distinct subdomains of the basal body, and several of them form a ring-like structure surrounding the basal body barrel. Functional characterization of representative basal body proteins revealed distinct roles in basal body duplication/separation and flagellar axoneme assembly. Overall, this work identified novel proteins required for basal body duplication and separation and uncovered new functions of conserved basal body proteins in basal body duplication and separation, highlighting an unusual mechanism of basal body biogenesis and inheritance in this early divergent eukaryote.

  4. Comparative and functional genomics of Legionella identified eukaryotic like proteins as key players in host-pathogen interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eGomez-Valero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although best known for its ability to cause severe pneumonia in people whose immune defenses are weakened, Legionella pneumophila and Legionella longbeachae are two species of a large genus of bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature, where they parasitize protozoa. Adaptation to the host environment and exploitation of host cell functions are critical for the success of these intracellular pathogens. The establishment and publication of the complete genome sequences of L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae isolates paved the way for major breakthroughs in understanding the biology of these organisms. In this review we present the knowledge gained from the analyses and comparison of the complete genome sequences of different L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae strains. Emphasis is given on putative virulence and Legionella life cycle related functions, such as the identification of an extended array of eukaryotic-like proteins, many of which have been shown to modulate host cell functions to the pathogen's advantage. Surprisingly, many of the eukaryotic domain proteins identified in L. pneumophila as well as many substrates of the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system essential for intracellular replication are different between these two species, although they cause the same disease. Finally, evolutionary aspects regarding the eukaryotic like proteins in Legionella are discussed.

  5. Methods for identifying SNP interactions: a review on variations of Logic Regression, Random Forest and Bayesian logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Carla Chia-Ming; Schwender, Holger; Keith, Jonathan; Nunkesser, Robin; Mengersen, Kerrie; Macrossan, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Due to advancements in computational ability, enhanced technology and a reduction in the price of genotyping, more data are being generated for understanding genetic associations with diseases and disorders. However, with the availability of large data sets comes the inherent challenges of new methods of statistical analysis and modeling. Considering a complex phenotype may be the effect of a combination of multiple loci, various statistical methods have been developed for identifying genetic epistasis effects. Among these methods, logic regression (LR) is an intriguing approach incorporating tree-like structures. Various methods have built on the original LR to improve different aspects of the model. In this study, we review four variations of LR, namely Logic Feature Selection, Monte Carlo Logic Regression, Genetic Programming for Association Studies, and Modified Logic Regression-Gene Expression Programming, and investigate the performance of each method using simulated and real genotype data. We contrast these with another tree-like approach, namely Random Forests, and a Bayesian logistic regression with stochastic search variable selection.

  6. Pacific Partners Wargame Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    such as medical qualifications and malpractice considerations, can be explored as part of interoperability. Partner nations are motivated to...prefers a medical research focus. Subsuming medical under HA/DR attempts to minimize those differences. There were dissenting views on the proposed...positive view of USARPAC engagement activities, they were still able to develop ideas for ways to improve engagement activities by modifying or

  7. The Price of Distrust: Trust, Anxious Attachment, Jealousy, and Partner Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M; DiBello, Angelo M; Øverup, Camilla S; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-07-01

    Trust is essential to the development of healthy, secure, and satisfying relationships (Simpson, 2007a). Attachment styles provide a theoretical framework for understanding how individuals respond to partner behaviors that either confirm or violate trust (Hazan & Shaver, 1994). The current research aimed to identify how trust and attachment anxiety might interact to predict different types of jealousy and physical and psychological abuse. We expected that when experiencing lower levels of trust, anxiously attached individuals would report higher levels of both cognitive and behavioral jealousy as well as partner abuse perpetration. Participants in committed romantic relationships ( N = 261) completed measures of trust, attachment anxiety and avoidance, jealousy, and physical and psychological partner abuse in a cross-sectional study. Moderation results largely supported the hypotheses: Attachment anxiety moderated the association between trust and jealousy, such that anxious individuals experienced much higher levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy when reporting lower levels of trust. Moreover, attachment anxiety moderated the association between trust and nonphysical violence. These results suggest that upon experiencing distrust in one's partner, anxiously attached individuals are more likely to become jealous, snoop through a partner's belongings, and become psychologically abusive. The present research illustrates that particularly for anxiously attached individuals, distrust has cascading effects on relationship cognitions and behavior, and this should be a key area of discussion during therapy.

  8. The predictive validity of ideal partner preferences: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Luchies, Laura B; Finkel, Eli J; Hunt, Lucy L

    2014-05-01

    A central element of interdependence theory is that people have standards against which they compare their current outcomes, and one ubiquitous standard in the mating domain is the preference for particular attributes in a partner (ideal partner preferences). This article reviews research on the predictive validity of ideal partner preferences and presents a new integrative model that highlights when and why ideals succeed or fail to predict relational outcomes. Section 1 examines predictive validity by reviewing research on sex differences in the preference for physical attractiveness and earning prospects. Men and women reliably differ in the extent to which these qualities affect their romantic evaluations of hypothetical targets. Yet a new meta-analysis spanning the attraction and relationships literatures (k = 97) revealed that physical attractiveness predicted romantic evaluations with a moderate-to-strong effect size (r = ∼.40) for both sexes, and earning prospects predicted romantic evaluations with a small effect size (r = ∼.10) for both sexes. Sex differences in the correlations were small (r difference = .03) and uniformly nonsignificant. Section 2 reviews research on individual differences in ideal partner preferences, drawing from several theoretical traditions to explain why ideals predict relational evaluations at different relationship stages. Furthermore, this literature also identifies alternative measures of ideal partner preferences that have stronger predictive validity in certain theoretically sensible contexts. Finally, a discussion highlights a new framework for conceptualizing the appeal of traits, the difference between live and hypothetical interactions, and the productive interplay between mating research and broader psychological theories.

  9. Audit quality and the audit partner effect : Evidence from European listed companies

    OpenAIRE

    Buuren, van, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to provide evidence on the differences in audit quality amongst audit partners. I attribute these dissimilarities to (i) differences in the audit risk perception and the risk appetite of individual audit partners and (ii) to differences in the personal business case of audit partners. As a result, three audit partner archetypes have been identified: liberal, high quality and conservative. This paper will provide evidence that 50% of the audit partners (53% ...

  10. Identifying space for offshore wind energy in the North Sea. Consequences of scenario calculations for interactions with other marine uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongbloed, R.H.; Wal, J.T. van der; Lindeboom, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for renewable energy drives the development of offshore wind energy (OWE) leading to competing claims with other human and nature related uses of the North Sea. This paper investigates possibilities to identify space for new OWE while minimising effects on other uses. An inventory is made of the major uses in the Central and Southern North Sea, including the expected development towards 2030. The spatial distribution of non-wind uses is determined as well as the possibilities for differentiation based on density, economic value or nature value and co-existence. These possibilities are translated into calculation rules quantifying the relative importance. These calculation rules have been incorporated in a Decision Support System (DSS) to analyse how the priority of OWE development could impact non-wind uses. In a low OWE priority scenario consequences for other use was found to be very limited, with fisheries and wildlife affected most. In a high OWE priority scenario a considerable amount of OWE may be developed with substantial claims on sand extraction and military use areas and a shift towards higher value categories for shipping and fisheries. Relocation and co-existence of uses are important means to reduce the impact of increased OWE development. - Highlights: • A new method for minimising effects of new Offshore Wind Energy on other uses. • Calculation rules are based on density, economic or nature values of major marine activities. • Most activities are concentrated near the coast and expected to increase. • Increasing priority for OWE claims more and higher value area from other uses. • Relocation and co-use of areas reduce negative consequences

  11. Partner Market Opportunities and Relationship Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Rapp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although partner market opportunities are generally considered to be important for relationship stability, they have never been measured accurately. In order to be able to test the anticipated effects of partner market opportunities, this study conceptualises them as individual opportunities for contact and interaction in concrete social contexts, like the neighbourhood, the workplace, leisure activities, etc. Using data from the German Marriage Market Survey, we first examine the impact of individual partner market opportunities on the risk of separation. Second, we examine to what extend the most frequently studied determinants of divorce and separation depend on partner market opportunities. Our results show that the number of opposite sex contacts increases the probability of separation. Sharing the same contacts with one’s partner decreases the risk of separation. Our results indicate further that reducing opposite sex contacts in the course of the relationship is partly responsible for the higher stability of longer-lasting relationships. Having a migration background is associated with fewer opposite sex contacts. This means that having a migration background would be more destabilising if these individuals did not have less opposite sex contacts than individuals without a migration background. In contrast, joint home ownership, church attendance, higher education and residing in western Germany would generally be more stabilising if these factors were not connected with more opposite sex contacts.

  12. Partner personality in distressed relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, D.P.H.; Barelds-Dijkstra, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the personality characteristics of partners receiving marital therapy. On the basis of previous research, we expected partners in distressed relationships to be more neurotic and more introverted and to have lower self-esteem than partners in non-distressed relationships.

  13. Individual and Partner Correlates of Sexual Satisfaction and Relationship Happiness in Midlife Couples: Dyadic Analysis of the International Survey of Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Donahue, Kelly L; Long, J Scott; Heiman, Julia R; Rosen, Raymond C; Sand, Michael S

    2015-08-01

    The current research reports a dyadic analysis of sexual satisfaction, relationship happiness, and correlates of these couple outcomes in a large multinational dataset consisting of 1,009 midlife heterosexual couples (2,018 individuals) recruited in Japan, Brazil, Germany, Spain, and the United States (Heiman et al., 2011). Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) identified correlates of sexual satisfaction that included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness. Even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater relationship happiness contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' sexual satisfaction. Correlates of relationship happiness included individuals' reports of good health; frequent kissing, cuddling, and caressing; frequent recent sexual activity; attaching importance to one's own and one's partner's orgasm; better sexual functioning; and greater sexual satisfaction, and once again, even after controlling for individual-level effects, partners' reports of each of these correlates contributed significantly to predicting and understanding individuals' relationship happiness. Interactions of individual and partner effects with participant gender are also reported. Current results demonstrate empirically that the partner "matters" to an individual's sexual satisfaction and relationship happiness and indicate that a comprehensive understanding of factors contributing to these couple outcomes requires a couple-level research strategy. Partner effects, even when controlling for individual effects, were

  14. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Sharma, Monica; Chaudhury, Ashok; Tuli, Rakesh; Roy, Joy

    2014-01-16

    The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study

  15. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  16. A NEW APPROACH FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY TO IDENTIFY A TYPE OF INTERACTION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA IN CONSORTIUMS OF DIFFERENT STAGES OF CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kondratenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing approaches for evaluation of types of interactions between individual monocultures in consortiums allow obtaining only qualitative results (synergistic, antagonistic, additive interaction as a whole, without regarding to changes in the cultivation process. Therefore, the development of a new approach for the quantitative determination of this indicator as a continuous function defined during the all period of cultivation is in need. In the course of the research a two-component consortium of lactic acid microorganisms cultivated on different mediums according to directed fermentation process in vegetable products was chosen to analyze types of interaction. As a result, the an original approach that was based on comparison of grow speed of biomass of microorganisms with calculated additive curve determined by results of dynamic analysis of titre of microorganism participating in consortium in monoculture during their cultivation has been elaborated. This approach is a convenient tool to identify complex regularity in changes of types of microorganism interaction in consortium represented by continuous function defined during all cultivation period.

  17. Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women's HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Isler, M; Golin, C; Wang, J; Hughes, J; Justman, J; Haley, D; Kuo, I; Adimora, A; Chege, W; Hodder, S

    2016-06-01

    Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristics. The 2099 women reported meeting 3991 partners, 51 % at Public, 30 % Private, 17 % Formal and 3 % at Virtual venues. Women meeting partners at Formal venues reported more education and condom use than women meeting partners at other venues. Fewer partners met through Formal venues had "high" risk characteristics for HIV than through other venues and hence may pose less risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevention interventions can help women choose partners with fewer risk characteristics across all venue types.

  18. Care partner: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul N; Wang, Wei; Moore, Mel; Nagle, Cate

    The use of the term care partner has increased, particularly in the chronic disease literature; however, the concept has not been well defined. The purpose of this concept analysis was to define and assist nurses to better understand the concept of care partner. The method by Walker and Avant was used for this literature-based concept analysis. Care partnering includes providing assistance to an individual with a health condition to meet their self-care deficits, the commitment to a care partner relationship, and the recognition that people with self-care deficits are care partners contributing to their own care. Emphasizing the care partner dyad in nursing may contribute to improved patient care outcomes both in the acute and chronic settings. It is recommended that nurses view the person with the condition as a contributor and partner in their own care in the context of a larger care partnership. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. New partner - Forestland

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      New partner   Do you need a moment of relaxation and adventure?  Come to Divonne-les-bains and benefit of an immediate discount of 20% on all ropes courses of Forestland http://www.forestland.fr/ upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card. The park is open from 10h00 to 19h00 on Wednesday, Saturday, Sunday during the school period and public holidays (France and Switzerland) or every day during school holidays (France and Switzerland). Different levels of difficulty are available: children, juniors, adults, athletes.

  20. Benefiting through partnering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of dramatic changes in the world market in nuclear services over the last decade, BNFL has embarked on a comprehensive strategic review of its business. Central to this review has been the need for the company to achieve cost reduction and improved efficiency in all aspects of its business. An area where substantial benefits can be gained is in improved efficiency in the discharge of the capital expenditure programme. This paper focuses on the opportunity of profiting through partnering in capital project delivery. (author)

  1. Interactions between household air pollution and GWAS-identified lung cancer susceptibility markers in the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia (FLCCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosgood, H Dean; Song, Minsun; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Yin, Zhihua; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Wang, Zhaoming; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Zheng, Wei; Caporaso, Neil; Burdette, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Berndt, Sonja I; Landi, Maria Teresa; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chang, Gee-Chen; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Wang, Chih-Liang; Hung, Jen-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Perng, Reury-Perng; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Li, Yao-Jen; Yu, Chong-Jen; Chen, Yi-Song; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Kim, Christopher; Seow, Wei Jie; Bassig, Bryan A; Wu, Wei; Guan, Peng; He, Qincheng; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Qiuyin; Chow, Wong-Ho; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Lin, Dongxin; Wu, Chen; Wu, Yi-Long; Shin, Min-Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul; Matsuo, Keitaro; Chen, Kexin; Wong, Maria Pik; Lu, Dara; Jin, Li; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Tangchun; Shen, Hongbing; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Chang, I-Shou; Zhou, Baosen; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-03-01

    We previously carried out a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) on lung cancer among never smokers in the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia (FLCCA) (6,609 cases, 7,457 controls) that identified novel susceptibility loci at 10q25.2, 6q22.2, and 6p21.32, and confirmed two previously identified loci at 5p15.33 and 3q28. Household air pollution (HAP) attributed to solid fuel burning for heating and cooking, is the leading cause of the overall disease burden in Southeast Asia, and is known to contain lung carcinogens. To evaluate the gene-HAP interactions associated with lung cancer in loci independent of smoking, we analyzed data from studies participating in FLCCA with fuel use information available (n = 3; 1,731 cases; 1,349 controls). Coal use was associated with a 30% increased risk of lung cancer (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). Among the five a priori SNPs identified by our GWAS, two showed a significant interaction with coal use (HLA Class II rs2395185, p = 0.02; TP63 rs4488809 (rs4600802), p = 0.04). The risk of lung cancer associated with coal exposure varied with the respective alleles for these two SNPs. Our observations provide evidence that genetic variation in HLA Class II and TP63 may modify the association between HAP and lung cancer risk. The roles played in the cell cycle and inflammation pathways by the proteins encoded by these two genes provide biological plausibility for these interactions; however, additional replication studies are needed in other non-smoking populations.

  2. Two-player partnered exergame for obesity prevention: using discrepancy in players' abilities as a strategy to motivate physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L; Irwin, Brandon; Kerr, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A key obstacle to physical activity is lack of motivation. Although some interactive exercise games (i.e., exergames--video games that require physical exertion in order to play) motivate players to exercise more, few games take advantage of group dynamics to motivate players' duration of exercise. In a test of the Köhler motivation gain effect, this study varied the ability level of a virtually presented partner in an interactive exergame that focused on abdominal strength to identify effects on a subject's (S') persistence with the task. Male (n = 63) and female (n = 72) undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (individual control or low-, moderate-, or high- partner discrepancy) in a conditions × gender factorial design and tested on a series of isometric abdominal exercises using PlayStation 2 EyeToy: Kinetic software. They performed the first series of five exercises alone (trial block 1), and after a rest period, those in the partner conditions performed remaining trials (trial block 2) with a same-sex virtually presented partner whom they could observe during their performance, while those in the individual control condition performed the remaining trials alone. In the partner conditions, the partner's performance was manipulated to be always better than the S's, the exact difference depending on the discrepancy condition. The partnered tasks were conjunctive; that is, success in the game depended on the performance of the weaker team member. Persistence, the outcome measure for this study, consisted of the total number of seconds the S held the exercise position. Using planned orthogonal contrasts on difference scores between blocks 1 and 2, results showed that persistence was significantly (p < .001) greater in all experimental conditions with a virtually presented partner (M = 33.59 s) than in the individual control condition (M = -49.04 s). Subjects

  3. Communication Partners Supporting Children with Complex Communication Needs Who Use AAC: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Jones, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Communication partners who efficiently use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) are essential interaction partners for children learning to communicate using AAC. This systematic review examines studies targeting interventions designed to help communication partners support children with complex communication needs who use AAC.…

  4. Postpartum depression and the male partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna de Magistris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have shown that postpartum depression is a phenomenon that develops in a family, social and economic context capable of influencing its course. A predominant role in the onset of the pathology is played by the relationship of the couple, but up to now few studies have been carried out on the role of the partner of the depressed mother and on the interactions between the two partners, that is, on how maternal depression influences the behaviour of the male partner and is in turn influenced, and how the depression of both parents, and not only that of the mother, influences the neuropsychic development of the child and the interactions between the child and the outside world. Objectives: The objectives are to examine the literature to arrive at an understanding of how the father figure develops during the pregnancy and how postpartum depression impacts on the couple’s relationship and the care of the children by both partners. Materials and methods: This article presents a review of recent literature on the subject through a search for articles in Pubmed and Sciencedirect (keywords: men, postpartum depression, fathers, couple, prediction, detection, and by referring to classic texts in the fields of psychiatry and psychotherapy on the development of the parental figures. Conclusions: Although up to now the literature on the consequences of postpartum depression on the couple is scanty, the data collected allow us to affirm that it is not a problem that concerns only the mother, but one that has an impact on the entire family, on the child and the partner, triggering a chain reaction of maladjustment and distress that may lead to separation and destruction of the family unit with important repercussions on society as a whole.

  5. A longitudinal study to identify the influence of quality of chronic care delivery on productive interactions between patients and (teams of) healthcare professionals within disease management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2014-09-19

    The chronic care model is an increasingly used approach to improve the quality of care through system changes in care delivery. While theoretically these system changes are expected to increase productive patient-professional interaction empirical evidence is lacking. This study aims to identify the influence of quality of care on productive patient-professional interaction. Longitudinal study in 18 Dutch regions. Questionnaires were sent to all 5076 patients participating in 18 Disease Management Programmes (DMPs) in 2010 (2676 (53%) respondents). One year later (T1), 4693 patients still participating in the DMPs received a questionnaire (2191 (47%) respondents) and 2 years later (in 2012; T2) 1722 patients responded (out of 4350; 40% response). DMPs Patients' perceptions of the productivity of interactions (measured as relational coordination/coproduction of care) with professionals. Patients were asked about communication dimensions (frequent, accurate, and problem-solving communication) and relationship dimensions (shared goals and mutual respect). After controlling for background characteristics these results clearly show that quality of chronic care (T0), first-year changes in quality of chronic care (T1-T0) and second-year changes in quality of chronic care (T2-T1) predicted productive interactions between patients and professionals at T2 (all at p≤0.001). Furthermore, we found a negative relationship between lower educational level and productive interactions between patients and professionals 2 years later. We can conclude that successfully dealing with the consequences of chronic illnesses requires proactive patients who are able to make productive decisions together with their healthcare providers. Since patients and professionals share responsibility for management of the chronic illness, they must also share control of interactions and decisions. The importance of patient-centeredness is growing and this study reports a first example of how quality

  6. Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women's HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Isler, M. Roman; Golin, C.; Wang, J.; Hughes, J.; Justman, J.; Haley, D.; Kuo, I.; Adimora, A.; Chege, W.; Hodder, S.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristic...

  7. Managing Adaptation in Multi-Partner Collaboration: Role of Alliance Board

    OpenAIRE

    Barbic, Frano; Hidalgo Nuchera, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to changing circumstances is crucial for success of alliances. Using a longitudinal case study of the R&D non-equity multi-partner alliance between four partners, we examine how the alliance board can complement incomplete contracts for coordinated adaptation. We trace the interactions between the partners in order to explore the functioning of the alliance board in multi-partner alliances for coordinated adaptation. We found that alliance board can complement incomplete contract, ...

  8. Identification of nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) as an interacting partner of plant ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) and a positive regulator of rDNA transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Ora [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghan [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yun-jeong [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Young [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hee-Jong, E-mail: heejkoh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Choong-Ill, E-mail: ccheon@sookmyung.ac.kr [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-18

    The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is a downstream component of the signaling mediated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase that acts as a central regulator of the key metabolic processes, such as protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, in response to various environmental cues. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of plant RPS6, which negatively regulates rDNA transcription, forming a complex with a plant-specific histone deacetylase, AtHD2B. Here we report that the Arabidopsis RPS6 interacts additionally with a histone chaperone, nucleosome assembly protein 1(AtNAP1;1). The interaction does not appear to preclude the association of RPS6 with AtHD2B, as the AtNAP1 was also able to interact with AtHD2B as well as with an RPS6-AtHD2B fusion protein in the BiFC assay and pulldown experiment. Similar to a positive effect of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) on rDNA transcription observed in this study, overexpression or down regulation of the AtNAP1;1 resulted in concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, in rDNA transcription suggesting a positive regulatory role played by AtNAP1 in plant rDNA transcription, possibly through derepression of the negative effect of the RPS6-AtHD2B complex. - Highlights: • Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (AtNAP1) interacts with RPS6 as well as with AtHD2B. • rDNA transcription is regulated S6K1. • Overexpression or down regulation of AtNAP1 results in concomitant increase or decrease in rDNA transcription.

  9. Mixed Partnering and Parenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    relationship is formed across two socially significant groups: ethnic, religious, region/caste, thus the present study has broad relevance. This proposal delineates the demographic details, intervention process of two ethnically mixed- marriage cases. Cases’ analyses are combined with relevant results from...... an empirical study (Singla, 2015) about intermarried couples to present lessons for counselling and psychotherapy good practices. The couples in the two cases and ten in-depth interviews based empirical study are formed across ethnic/religious borders - one partner is native Danish and the other originates...... from South Asia (India, Pakistan). Cultural historical psychology forms the background of the theoretical framework of the study, while a combination of intersectionality (Moodley, 2011), everyday life perspective and transnationalism forms the foreground. The lessons learnt for counselling...

  10. Bioinformatic analysis of neurotropic HIV envelope sequences identifies polymorphisms in the gp120 bridging sheet that increase macrophage-tropism through enhanced interactions with CCR5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mefford, Megan E.; Kunstman, Kevin; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages express low levels of the CD4 receptor compared to T-cells. Macrophage-tropic HIV strains replicating in brain of untreated patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) express Envs that are adapted to overcome this restriction through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here, bioinformatic analysis of env sequence datasets together with functional studies identified polymorphisms in the β3 strand of the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that increase M-tropism. D197, which results in loss of an N-glycan located near the HIV Env trimer apex, was detected in brain in some HAD patients, while position 200 was estimated to be under positive selection. D197 and T/V200 increased fusion and infection of cells expressing low CD4 by enhancing gp120 binding to CCR5. These results identify polymorphisms in the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that overcome the restriction to macrophage infection imposed by low CD4 through enhanced gp120–CCR5 interactions, thereby promoting infection of brain and other macrophage-rich tissues. - Highlights: • We analyze HIV Env sequences and identify amino acids in beta 3 of the gp120 bridging sheet that enhance macrophage tropism. • These amino acids at positions 197 and 200 are present in brain of some patients with HIV-associated dementia. • D197 results in loss of a glycan near the HIV Env trimer apex, which may increase exposure of V3. • These variants may promote infection of macrophages in the brain by enhancing gp120–CCR5 interactions

  11. Bioinformatic analysis of neurotropic HIV envelope sequences identifies polymorphisms in the gp120 bridging sheet that increase macrophage-tropism through enhanced interactions with CCR5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mefford, Megan E., E-mail: megan_mefford@hms.harvard.edu [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Kunstman, Kevin, E-mail: kunstman@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Wolinsky, Steven M., E-mail: s-wolinsky@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Gabuzda, Dana, E-mail: dana_gabuzda@dfci.harvard.edu [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Neurology (Microbiology and Immunobiology), Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Macrophages express low levels of the CD4 receptor compared to T-cells. Macrophage-tropic HIV strains replicating in brain of untreated patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) express Envs that are adapted to overcome this restriction through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here, bioinformatic analysis of env sequence datasets together with functional studies identified polymorphisms in the β3 strand of the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that increase M-tropism. D197, which results in loss of an N-glycan located near the HIV Env trimer apex, was detected in brain in some HAD patients, while position 200 was estimated to be under positive selection. D197 and T/V200 increased fusion and infection of cells expressing low CD4 by enhancing gp120 binding to CCR5. These results identify polymorphisms in the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that overcome the restriction to macrophage infection imposed by low CD4 through enhanced gp120–CCR5 interactions, thereby promoting infection of brain and other macrophage-rich tissues. - Highlights: • We analyze HIV Env sequences and identify amino acids in beta 3 of the gp120 bridging sheet that enhance macrophage tropism. • These amino acids at positions 197 and 200 are present in brain of some patients with HIV-associated dementia. • D197 results in loss of a glycan near the HIV Env trimer apex, which may increase exposure of V3. • These variants may promote infection of macrophages in the brain by enhancing gp120–CCR5 interactions.

  12. A hot spot for systemic lupus erythematosus, but not for psoriatic arthritis, identified by spatial analysis suggests an interaction between ethnicity and place of residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maini, Mustafa; Jeyalingam, Thurarshen; Brown, Patrick; Lee, Jennifer J Y; Li, Lennon; Su, Jiandong; Gladman, Dafna D; Fortin, Paul R

    2013-06-01

    To describe the spatial distribution of incident cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using geographic information systems (GIS). Spatial analyses were carried out on 890 SLE patients and 541 psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients (controls). Age- and sex-adjusted rates for SLE/PsA for each census tract were calculated using denominator population values from the Canadian census. Spatial variations in relative risk were estimated by modeling risk as the product of a time effect, an age effect, and a spatially autocorrelated risk surface to identify hot spots. Patients within the detected hot spot were compared to those outside the hot spot to identify explanatory factors. SLE patients were predominantly female (87.75%) and the incidence rate was highest among those 15-19 years of age (2.4 cases/100,000 person-years). In an SLE hot spot containing 59 patients, 100% of the patients were female and 49.1% (n = 29) were Caucasian, while outside of the hot spot, 86.9% (n = 722) of the patients were female and 68.4% (n = 568) were Caucasian. The proportion of cases of Chinese ethnicity was significantly greater within the hot spot. An interaction was found between Chinese ethnicity and residence within the hot spot, with the risk of SLE to the Chinese population found to be twice the risk to the non-Chinese population. GIS was used to map SLE cases and a hot spot was identified after adjustment for age and sex. Ethnicity by itself did not confer an increased risk of SLE, but the interaction of ethnicity with location of residence significantly increased the risk of SLE. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Genome-wide joint meta-analysis of SNP and SNP-by-smoking interaction identifies novel loci for pulmonary function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana B Hancock

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic loci for spirometic measures of pulmonary function, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1, and its ratio to forced vital capacity (FEV(1/FVC. Given that cigarette smoking adversely affects pulmonary function, we conducted genome-wide joint meta-analyses (JMA of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years associations on FEV(1 and FEV(1/FVC across 19 studies (total N = 50,047. We identified three novel loci not previously associated with pulmonary function. SNPs in or near DNER (smallest P(JMA = 5.00×10(-11, HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2 (smallest P(JMA = 4.35×10(-9, and KCNJ2 and SOX9 (smallest P(JMA = 1.28×10(-8 were associated with FEV(1/FVC or FEV(1 in meta-analysis models including SNP main effects, smoking main effects, and SNP-by-smoking (ever-smoking or pack-years interaction. The HLA region has been widely implicated for autoimmune and lung phenotypes, unlike the other novel loci, which have not been widely implicated. We evaluated DNER, KCNJ2, and SOX9 and found them to be expressed in human lung tissue. DNER and SOX9 further showed evidence of differential expression in human airway epithelium in smokers compared to non-smokers. Our findings demonstrated that joint testing of SNP and SNP-by-environment interaction identified novel loci associated with complex traits that are missed when considering only the genetic main effects.

  14. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  15. Using others' words: conversational use of reported speech by individuals with aphasia and their communication partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A; Frame, Simone R; Neuman-Stritzel, Tiffany; Gannaway, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    Reported speech, wherein one quotes or paraphrases the speech of another, has been studied extensively as a set of linguistic and discourse practices. Researchers agree that reported speech is pervasive, found across languages, and used in diverse contexts. However, to date, there have been no studies of the use of reported speech among individuals with aphasia. Grounded in an interactional sociolinguistic perspective, the study presented here documents and analyzes the use of reported speech by 7 adults with mild to moderately severe aphasia and their routine communication partners. Each of the 7 pairs was videotaped in 4 everyday activities at home or around the community, yielding over 27 hr of conversational interaction for analysis. A coding scheme was developed that identified 5 types of explicitly marked reported speech: direct, indirect, projected, indexed, and undecided. Analysis of the data documented reported speech as a common discourse practice used successfully by the individuals with aphasia and their communication partners. All participants produced reported speech at least once, and across all observations the target pairs produced 400 reported speech episodes (RSEs), 149 by individuals with aphasia and 251 by their communication partners. For all participants, direct and indirect forms were the most prevalent (70% of RSEs). Situated discourse analysis of specific episodes of reported speech used by 3 of the pairs provides detailed portraits of the diverse interactional, referential, social, and discourse functions of reported speech and explores ways that the pairs used reported speech to successfully frame talk despite their ongoing management of aphasia.

  16. A Kinome RNAi Screen in Drosophila Identifies Novel Genes Interacting with Lgl, aPKC, and Crb Cell Polarity Genes in Epithelial Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Linda M; Grzeschik, Nicola A; Amaratunga, Kasun; Burke, Peter; Quinn, Leonie M; Richardson, Helena E

    2017-08-07

    In both Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian systems, epithelial structure and underlying cell polarity are essential for proper tissue morphogenesis and organ growth. Cell polarity interfaces with multiple cellular processes that are regulated by the phosphorylation status of large protein networks. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that coordinate cell polarity with tissue growth, we screened a boutique collection of RNAi stocks targeting the kinome for their capacity to modify Drosophila "cell polarity" eye and wing phenotypes. Initially, we identified kinase or phosphatase genes whose depletion modified adult eye phenotypes associated with the manipulation of cell polarity complexes (via overexpression of Crb or aPKC). We next conducted a secondary screen to test whether these cell polarity modifiers altered tissue overgrowth associated with depletion of Lgl in the wing. These screens identified Hippo, Jun kinase (JNK), and Notch signaling pathways, previously linked to cell polarity regulation of tissue growth. Furthermore, novel pathways not previously connected to cell polarity regulation of tissue growth were identified, including Wingless (Wg/Wnt), Ras, and lipid/Phospho-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways. Additionally, we demonstrated that the "nutrient sensing" kinases Salt Inducible Kinase 2 and 3 ( SIK2 and 3 ) are potent modifiers of cell polarity phenotypes and regulators of tissue growth. Overall, our screen has revealed novel cell polarity-interacting kinases and phosphatases that affect tissue growth, providing a platform for investigating molecular mechanisms coordinating cell polarity and tissue growth during development. Copyright © 2017 Parsons et al.

  17. Two-Player Partnered Exergame for Obesity Prevention: Using Discrepancy in Players’ Abilities as a Strategy to Motivate Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Irwin, Brandon; Kerr, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A key obstacle to physical activity is lack of motivation. Although some interactive exercise games (i.e., exergames—video games that require physical exertion in order to play) motivate players to exercise more, few games take advantage of group dynamics to motivate players’ duration of exercise. In a test of the Köhler motivation gain effect, this study varied the ability level of a virtually presented partner in an interactive exergame that focused on abdominal strength to identify effects on a subject’s (S’) persistence with the task. Method Male (n = 63) and female (n = 72) undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (individual control or low-, moderate-, or high- partner discrepancy) in a conditions × gender factorial design and tested on a series of isometric abdominal exercises using PlayStation 2 EyeToy: Kinetic software. They performed the first series of five exercises alone (trial block 1), and after a rest period, those in the partner conditions performed remaining trials (trial block 2) with a same-sex virtually presented partner whom they could observe during their performance, while those in the individual control condition performed the remaining trials alone. In the partner conditions, the partner’s performance was manipulated to be always better than the S’s, the exact difference depending on the discrepancy condition. The partnered tasks were conjunctive; that is, success in the game depended on the performance of the weaker team member. Persistence, the outcome measure for this study, consisted of the total number of seconds the S held the exercise position. Results Using planned orthogonal contrasts on difference scores between blocks 1 and 2, results showed that persistence was significantly (p < .001) greater in all experimental conditions with a virtually presented partner (M = 33.59 s) than in the individual control

  18. PARTNER INVOLVEMENT: NEGOTIATING THE PRESENCE OF PARTNERS IN PSYCHOSOCIAL ASSESSMENT AS CONDUCTED BY MIDWIVES AND CHILD AND FAMILY HEALTH NURSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollans, Mellanie; Kohlhoff, Jane; Meade, Tanya; Kemp, Lynn; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    Universal screening for maternal depression and assessment of psychosocial risks has been integrated into the routine perinatal care provided in many Australian hospitals, but to date, partners/fathers have been largely excluded from the process. This study explored the ways in which clinicians in health service settings include partners who attend antenatal and postnatal visits with women. Qualitative data were collected using observations (n = 54), interviews (n = 60), and discussion groups (n = 7) with midwives and child and family health nurses who conducted the appointments. Transcripts from observations, interviews, and discussion groups underwent qualitative analysis, and key themes were identified. Results showed partners to have little or no involvement in psychosocial assessment and depression screening. Thematic analysis revealed four key themes: negotiating partner exclusion, partial inclusion, women's business or a couple concern? and they know anyway. Partner involvement appeared to be challenged particularly by mandatory interpersonal violence screening, which, according to health service policy, is to be conducted confidentially. Overall, results highlighted partner involvement in perinatal depression screening and psychosocial assessment processes and identified some of the benefits such as partner disclosure, but also the challenges and complexities of inclusion of partners. Clinical implications and directions for further education and research are discussed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  20. Resources and Intimate Partner Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Combining DHS data for 580,000 women from 30 different countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, we analyze how both the incidence and the acceptance of intimate partner violence vary across time and space, in a region with record high levels of violence against women. We review the existing literature regarding the impact of resources on intimate partner violence, extracting testable and often conflicting hypotheses at the micro and macro level, and on the interaction across levels. We propose to ext...

  1. Women's motivations to have sex in casual and committed relationships with male and female partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Heather L; Reissing, Elke D

    2015-05-01

    Women report a wide variety of reasons to have sex (e.g., Meston & Buss, 2010), and while it is reasonable to assume that those reasons may vary based on the context of the relationship, this assumption has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to explore how relationship type, sexual attraction, and the gender of one's partner interact and affect the sexual motivations of women. A total of 510 women (361 who reported exclusively other-sex attraction and 149 who reported same-sex/bisexual attraction) completed the YSEX? questionnaire. Participants rated their sexual motivations for casual sex and sex in a committed relationship with male and/or female partners, depending on reported sexual attraction. Results showed that relationship type affected reported motivation for sex: physical motivations were more strongly endorsed for casual sex, whereas emotional motivations were more strongly endorsed for sex in committed relationships. No significant differences in motivation were reported between women who reported same-sex attraction and those who did not. Women who reported bisexual attraction and identified as being lesbian, bisexual, or another sexual minority reported no significant differences in motivation for sex with male or female partners. The results of this study highlight the importance of relationship context when discussing sexual motivation and suggest a high degree of similarity in motivation for women, regardless of sexual orientation or gender of partner.

  2. Identifying behaviors that generate positive interactions between museums and people on a social media platform: An analysis of 27 science museums on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stacy Christine

    The aim of this study was to provide a detailed examination of how science museums use Twitter and suggest changes these museums should make to improve their current approach on this social media platform. Previous studies have identified the types of content museums are creating on social media, but none have quantitatively investigated the specific types of content most likely to generate interaction and engagement with a social media audience. A total of 5,278 tweets from 27 science museums were analyzed to determine what type of tweet yields the greatest impact measured in retweets and favorites. 1,453 of those tweets were selected for additional qualitative analysis. The results indicate that tweets with educational content, links, and hashtags lead to the greatest number of retweets and favorites. The results also indicate that the majority of tweets posted by museums do not generate interaction and engagement with a social media audience. A model for existing museums to improve their use of Twitter was created using the results of this study.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  4. Partnering with the NCPV (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    Brochure that explains the basic partnering opportunities that exist within the National Center for Photovoltaics for industry and university groups: non-proprietary partnering opportunities, competitive solicitations, Technology Partnership Agreements, seed fund to develop Technology Partnership Agreements, Hands-On PV Experience Workshop, and NCPV Fellowship Program.

  5. Partner selection and Hollywood Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Based on cognitive, neurological and evolutionary based film theory the article describes the representation of partner selection in Hollywood films. It analyses paradigm scenarios of partner selection and love, It further describes some of those mechanisms that regulate the relation between...

  6. [Partner violence: women trust health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burquier, Raphaelle; Hofner, Marie-Claude; Cepedes, Mia; Adjaho, Maria-Théresa; Hohlfeld, Patrick; Renteria, Saira-Christine

    2010-03-10

    In 2008, the department of gynaecology and obstetrics of a university hospital centre implemented a program addressing interpersonal partner violence (screening, prevention and care of the patient victims). A qualitative survey was conducted to identify the needs and feelings of patients. The results show that patients are in favour of being actively and directly questioned about violence during the consultation and that they trust medical doctors and nurses to help and support them.

  7. An inventory and update of jealousy-evoking partner behaviours in modern society.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Groothof, Hinke A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the most important jealousy-evoking partner behaviours and to examine the extent to which these behaviours evoke jealousy. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was constructed containing 42 jealousy-evoking partner behaviours, including a partner's

  8. Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV. While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector.

  9. Incorporation of Spatial Interactions in Location Networks to Identify Critical Geo-Referenced Routes for Assessing Disease Control Measures on a Large-Scale Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzai-Hung Wen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases mainly spread through interpersonal contact. Class suspension is the most direct strategy to prevent the spread of disease through elementary or secondary schools by blocking the contact network. However, as university students usually attend courses in different buildings, the daily contact patterns on a university campus are complicated, and once disease clusters have occurred, suspending classes is far from an efficient strategy to control disease spread. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological framework for generating campus location networks from a routine administration database, analyzing the community structure of the network, and identifying the critical links and nodes for blocking respiratory disease transmission. The data comes from the student enrollment records of a major comprehensive university in Taiwan. We combined the social network analysis and spatial interaction model to establish a geo-referenced community structure among the classroom buildings. We also identified the critical links among the communities that were acting as contact bridges and explored the changes in the location network after the sequential removal of the high-risk buildings. Instead of conducting a questionnaire survey, the study established a standard procedure for constructing a location network on a large-scale campus from a routine curriculum database. We also present how a location network structure at a campus could function to target the high-risk buildings as the bridges connecting communities for blocking disease transmission.

  10. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eChatel-Goldman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration. 14 couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.

  11. When and why do ideal partner preferences affect the process of initiating and maintaining romantic relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J; Eagly, Alice H

    2011-11-01

    Three studies explored how the traits that people ideally desire in a romantic partner, or ideal partner preferences, intersect with the process of romantic relationship initiation and maintenance. Two attraction experiments in the laboratory found that, when participants evaluated a potential romantic partner's written profile, they expressed more romantic interest in a partner whose traits were manipulated to match (vs. mismatch) their idiosyncratic ideals. However, after a live interaction with the partner, the match vs. mismatch manipulation was no longer associated with romantic interest. This pattern appeared to have emerged because participants reinterpreted the meaning of the traits as they applied to the partner, a context effect predicted by classic models of person perception (S. E. Asch, 1946). Finally, a longitudinal study of middle-aged adults demonstrated that participants evaluated a current romantic partner (but not a partner who was merely desired) more positively to the extent that the partner matched their overall pattern of ideals across several traits; the match in level of ideals (i.e., high vs. low ratings) was not relevant to participants' evaluations. In general, the match between ideals and a partner's traits may predict relational outcomes when participants are learning about a partner in the abstract and when they are actually in a relationship with the partner, but not when considering potential dating partners they have met in person.

  12. Partnering for Success (OIT Customer Day Partner Recognition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-04-01

    Office of Industrial Technologies document produced for 2002 Customer Day event, which features industry partners who have worked with OIT to achieve outstanding energy efficiency achievements from January 2001 to the present.

  13. Genome-Wide Gene-Environment Study Identifies Glutamate Receptor Gene GRIN2A as a Parkinson's Disease Modifier Gene via Interaction with Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Taye H.; Chen, Honglei; Hill-Burns, Erin M.; Rhodes, Shannon L.; Montimurro, Jennifer; Kay, Denise M.; Tenesa, Albert; Kusel, Victoria I.; Sheehan, Patricia; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Yearout, Dora; Samii, Ali; Roberts, John W.; Agarwal, Pinky; Bordelon, Yvette; Park, Yikyung; Wang, Liyong; Gao, Jianjun; Vance, Jeffery M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Scott, William K.; Ritz, Beate; Nutt, John; Factor, Stewart A.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Payami, Haydeh

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal components. We then stratified subjects as heavy or light coffee-drinkers and performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) in each group. We replicated the most significant SNP. Finally, we imputed the NGRC dataset, increasing genomic coverage to examine the region of interest in detail. The primary analyses (GWAIS, GWAS, Replication) were performed using genotyped data. In GWAIS, the most significant signal came from rs4998386 and the neighboring SNPs in GRIN2A. GRIN2A encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit and regulates excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Achieving P2df = 10−6, GRIN2A surpassed all known PD susceptibility genes in significance in the GWAIS. In stratified GWAS, the GRIN2A signal was present in heavy coffee-drinkers (OR = 0.43; P = 6×10−7) but not in light coffee-drinkers. The a priori Replication hypothesis that “Among heavy coffee-drinkers, rs4998386_T carriers have lower PD risk than rs4998386_CC carriers” was confirmed: ORReplication = 0.59, PReplication = 10−3; ORPooled = 0.51, PPooled = 7×10−8. Compared to light coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype, heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype had 18% lower risk (P = 3×10−3), whereas heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_TC genotype had 59% lower risk (P = 6×10−13). Imputation revealed a block of SNPs that achieved P2dfcoffee-drinkers. This study is proof of concept that inclusion of environmental factors can help identify genes that

  14. Genome-wide gene-environment study identifies glutamate receptor gene GRIN2A as a Parkinson's disease modifier gene via interaction with coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Taye H; Chen, Honglei; Hill-Burns, Erin M; Rhodes, Shannon L; Montimurro, Jennifer; Kay, Denise M; Tenesa, Albert; Kusel, Victoria I; Sheehan, Patricia; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Yearout, Dora; Samii, Ali; Roberts, John W; Agarwal, Pinky; Bordelon, Yvette; Park, Yikyung; Wang, Liyong; Gao, Jianjun; Vance, Jeffery M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Scott, William K; Ritz, Beate; Nutt, John; Factor, Stewart A; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Payami, Haydeh

    2011-08-01

    Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC), and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS), testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal components. We then stratified subjects as heavy or light coffee-drinkers and performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) in each group. We replicated the most significant SNP. Finally, we imputed the NGRC dataset, increasing genomic coverage to examine the region of interest in detail. The primary analyses (GWAIS, GWAS, Replication) were performed using genotyped data. In GWAIS, the most significant signal came from rs4998386 and the neighboring SNPs in GRIN2A. GRIN2A encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit and regulates excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Achieving P(2df) = 10(-6), GRIN2A surpassed all known PD susceptibility genes in significance in the GWAIS. In stratified GWAS, the GRIN2A signal was present in heavy coffee-drinkers (OR = 0.43; P = 6×10(-7)) but not in light coffee-drinkers. The a priori Replication hypothesis that "Among heavy coffee-drinkers, rs4998386_T carriers have lower PD risk than rs4998386_CC carriers" was confirmed: OR(Replication) = 0.59, P(Replication) = 10(-3); OR(Pooled) = 0.51, P(Pooled) = 7×10(-8). Compared to light coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype, heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype had 18% lower risk (P = 3×10(-3)), whereas heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_TC genotype had 59% lower risk (P = 6×10(-13)). Imputation revealed a block of SNPs that achieved P(2df)coffee-drinkers. This study is proof of concept that inclusion of environmental factors can help identify

  15. Genome-wide gene-environment study identifies glutamate receptor gene GRIN2A as a Parkinson's disease modifier gene via interaction with coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taye H Hamza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to identify genes that influence the inverse association of coffee with the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD. We used genome-wide genotype data and lifetime caffeinated-coffee-consumption data on 1,458 persons with PD and 931 without PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC, and we performed a genome-wide association and interaction study (GWAIS, testing each SNP's main-effect plus its interaction with coffee, adjusting for sex, age, and two principal components. We then stratified subjects as heavy or light coffee-drinkers and performed genome-wide association study (GWAS in each group. We replicated the most significant SNP. Finally, we imputed the NGRC dataset, increasing genomic coverage to examine the region of interest in detail. The primary analyses (GWAIS, GWAS, Replication were performed using genotyped data. In GWAIS, the most significant signal came from rs4998386 and the neighboring SNPs in GRIN2A. GRIN2A encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit and regulates excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Achieving P(2df = 10(-6, GRIN2A surpassed all known PD susceptibility genes in significance in the GWAIS. In stratified GWAS, the GRIN2A signal was present in heavy coffee-drinkers (OR = 0.43; P = 6×10(-7 but not in light coffee-drinkers. The a priori Replication hypothesis that "Among heavy coffee-drinkers, rs4998386_T carriers have lower PD risk than rs4998386_CC carriers" was confirmed: OR(Replication = 0.59, P(Replication = 10(-3; OR(Pooled = 0.51, P(Pooled = 7×10(-8. Compared to light coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype, heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_CC genotype had 18% lower risk (P = 3×10(-3, whereas heavy coffee-drinkers with rs4998386_TC genotype had 59% lower risk (P = 6×10(-13. Imputation revealed a block of SNPs that achieved P(2df<5×10(-8 in GWAIS, and OR = 0.41, P = 3×10(-8 in heavy coffee-drinkers. This study is proof of

  16. Partners in Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2016-01-01

    Dementia is a syndrome that affects memory, thinking, behavior, and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Therefore caregiving gradually becomes an essential part of the lives for people with dementia. This chapter draws on literature and research in order to understand the “family......” caregiver role and the implications of caregiving on wellbeing and health. With this as the starting point, the role of music therapy in communication and interaction in the caregiver-care recipient dyad is elaborated....

  17. Effective Identification of Akt Interacting Proteins by Two-Step Chemical Crosslinking, Co-Immunoprecipitation and Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bill X.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Akt is a critical protein for cell survival and known to interact with various proteins. However, Akt binding partners that modulate or regulate Akt activation have not been fully elucidated. Identification of Akt-interacting proteins has been customarily achieved by co-immunoprecipitation combined with western blot and/or MS analysis. An intrinsic problem of the method is loss of interacting proteins during procedures to remove non-specific proteins. Moreover, antibody contamination often interferes with the detection of less abundant proteins. Here, we developed a novel two-step chemical crosslinking strategy to overcome these problems which resulted in a dramatic improvement in identifying Akt interacting partners. Akt antibody was first immobilized on protein A/G beads using disuccinimidyl suberate and allowed to bind to cellular Akt along with its interacting proteins. Subsequently, dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate], a cleavable crosslinker, was introduced to produce stable complexes between Akt and binding partners prior to the SDS-PAGE and nanoLC-MS/MS analysis. This approach enabled identification of ten Akt partners from cell lysates containing as low as 1.5 mg proteins, including two new potential Akt interacting partners. None of these but one protein was detectable without crosslinking procedures. The present method provides a sensitive and effective tool to probe Akt-interacting proteins. This strategy should also prove useful for other protein interactions, particularly those involving less abundant or weakly associating partners. PMID:23613850

  18. Mrica Hydroelectric Project: a study in partnering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loraine, R.K.; Bannmark, O.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the contractual and financial aspects of the Mrica Project. Of particular interest is the high degree of cooperation that developed between the various parties, and the effect this had on the progress and completion of the project. This relationship had its origin in the need to make the best use of the relatively scarce funds available. It was vitally important that problems were solved jointly and that costs did not escalate as a result of confrontation between the parties. In this respect, the project was an early manifestation of the contractual relationship now called partnering, and the procedures adopted at Mrica are very similar to those now widely used in partnering contracts. The paper is therefore structured to identify and analyse the key elements of co-operation, and their impact on both the negotiation of the contracts and the completion of the works. (Author)

  19. The yeast three-hybrid system as an experimental platform to identify proteins interacting with small signaling molecules in plant cells: Potential and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eCottier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical genetics is a powerful scientific strategy that utilizes small bioactive molecules as experimental tools to unravel biological processes. Bioactive compounds occurring in nature represent an enormous diversity of structures that can be used to dissect functions of biological systems. Once the bioactivity of a natural or synthetic compound has been critically evaluated the challenge remains to identify its molecular target and mode of action, which usually is a time consuming and labor-intensive process. To facilitate this task, we decided to implement the yeast three-hybrid (Y3H technology as a general experimental platform to scan the whole Arabidopsis proteome for targets of small signaling molecules. The Y3H technology is based on the yeast two-hybrid system and allows direct cloning of proteins that interact in vivo with a synthetic hybrid ligand, which comprises the biologically active molecule of interest covalently linked to methotrexate (Mtx. In yeast nucleus the hybrid ligand connects two fusion proteins: the Mtx part binding to dihydrofolate reductase fused to a DNA binding domain (encoded in the yeast strain, and the bioactive molecule part binding to its potential protein target fused to a DNA activating domain (encoded on a cDNA expression vector. During cDNA library screening, the formation of this ternary, transcriptional activator complex leads to reporter gene activation in yeast cells, and thereby allows selection of the putative targets of small bioactive molecules of interest. Here we present the strategy and experimental details for construction and application of a Y3H platform, including chemical synthesis of different hybrid ligands, construction of suitable cDNA libraries, the choice of yeast strains, and appropriate screening conditions. Based on the results obtained and the current literature we discussed the perspectives and limitations of the Y3H approach for identifying targets of small bioactive molecules.

  20. Managing Your China JV Partner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Having critical management tools gives foreign investors the chance to maximize their investment, minimize their risk and develop a mutually profitable business with a Chinese partner. This concludes our series on this topic.

  1. Partners Against Crime (PAC) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Partners Against Crime (PAC) program promotes collaboration among police officers, Durham residents, and city and county government officials to find...

  2. The genome of the endophytic bacterium H. frisingense GSF30T identifies diverse strategies in the Herbaspirillum genus to interact with plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStraub

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The diazotrophic, bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30T has been identified in biomass grasses grown in temperate climate, including the highly nitrogen-efficient grass Miscanthus. Its genome was annotated and compared with related Herbaspirillum species from diverse habitats, including H. seropedicae, and further well-characterized endophytes. The analysis revealed that Herbaspirillum frisingense lacks a type III secretion system that is present in some related Herbaspirillum grass endophytes. Together with the lack of components of the type II secretion system, the genomic inventory indicates distinct interaction scenarios of endophytic Herbaspirillum strains with plants. Differences in respiration, carbon, nitrogen and cell wall metabolism among Herbaspirillum isolates partially correlate with their different habitats. Herbaspirillum frisingense is closely related to strains isolated from the rhizosphere of phragmites and from well water, but these lack nitrogen fixation and metabolism genes. Within grass endophytes, the high diversity in their genomic inventory suggests that even individual plant species provide distinct, highly diverse metabolic niches for successful endophyte-plant associations.

  3. The genome of the endophytic bacterium H. frisingense GSF30(T) identifies diverse strategies in the Herbaspirillum genus to interact with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Daniel; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Ludewig, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    The diazotrophic, bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30(T) has been identified in biomass grasses grown in temperate climate, including the highly nitrogen-efficient grass Miscanthus. Its genome was annotated and compared with related Herbaspirillum species from diverse habitats, including H. seropedicae, and further well-characterized endophytes. The analysis revealed that Herbaspirillum frisingense lacks a type III secretion system that is present in some related Herbaspirillum grass endophytes. Together with the lack of components of the type II secretion system, the genomic inventory indicates distinct interaction scenarios of endophytic Herbaspirillum strains with plants. Differences in respiration, carbon, nitrogen and cell wall metabolism among Herbaspirillum isolates partially correlate with their different habitats. Herbaspirillum frisingense is closely related to strains isolated from the rhizosphere of phragmites and from well water, but these lack nitrogen fixation and metabolism genes. Within grass endophytes, the high diversity in their genomic inventory suggests that even individual plant species provide distinct, highly diverse metabolic niches for successful endophyte-plant associations.

  4. The genome of the endophytic bacterium H. frisingense GSF30T identifies diverse strategies in the Herbaspirillum genus to interact with plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Daniel; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Ludewig, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    The diazotrophic, bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30T has been identified in biomass grasses grown in temperate climate, including the highly nitrogen-efficient grass Miscanthus. Its genome was annotated and compared with related Herbaspirillum species from diverse habitats, including H. seropedicae, and further well-characterized endophytes. The analysis revealed that Herbaspirillum frisingense lacks a type III secretion system that is present in some related Herbaspirillum grass endophytes. Together with the lack of components of the type II secretion system, the genomic inventory indicates distinct interaction scenarios of endophytic Herbaspirillum strains with plants. Differences in respiration, carbon, nitrogen and cell wall metabolism among Herbaspirillum isolates partially correlate with their different habitats. Herbaspirillum frisingense is closely related to strains isolated from the rhizosphere of phragmites and from well water, but these lack nitrogen fixation and metabolism genes. Within grass endophytes, the high diversity in their genomic inventory suggests that even individual plant species provide distinct, highly diverse metabolic niches for successful endophyte-plant associations. PMID:23825472

  5. Profiling of Parkin-binding partners using tandem affinity purification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Zanon

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 1-2% of the general population over age 60. It is characterized by a rather selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of α-synuclein-enriched Lewy body inclusions. Mutations in the Parkin gene (PARK2 are the major cause of autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism. The Parkin protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with various cellular functions, including the induction of mitophagy upon mitochondrial depolarizaton, but the full repertoire of Parkin-binding proteins remains poorly defined. Here we employed tandem affinity purification interaction screens with subsequent mass spectrometry to profile binding partners of Parkin. Using this approach for two different cell types (HEK293T and SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, we identified a total of 203 candidate Parkin-binding proteins. For the candidate proteins and the proteins known to cause heritable forms of parkinsonism, protein-protein interaction data were derived from public databases, and the associated biological processes and pathways were analyzed and compared. Functional similarity between the candidates and the proteins involved in monogenic parkinsonism was investigated, and additional confirmatory evidence was obtained using published genetic interaction data from Drosophila melanogaster. Based on the results of the different analyses, a prioritization score was assigned to each candidate Parkin-binding protein. Two of the top ranking candidates were tested by co-immunoprecipitation, and interaction to Parkin was confirmed for one of them. New candidates for involvement in cell death processes, protein folding, the fission/fusion machinery, and the mitophagy pathway were identified, which provide a resource for further elucidating Parkin function.

  6. Profiling of Parkin-Binding Partners Using Tandem Affinity Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenburg, Hagen; Doncheva, Nadezhda T.; Schwienbacher, Christine; Serafin, Alice; Alexa, Adrian; Weichenberger, Christian X.; Albrecht, Mario; Klein, Christine; Hicks, Andrew A.; Pramstaller, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 1–2% of the general population over age 60. It is characterized by a rather selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of α-synuclein-enriched Lewy body inclusions. Mutations in the Parkin gene (PARK2) are the major cause of autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism. The Parkin protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with various cellular functions, including the induction of mitophagy upon mitochondrial depolarizaton, but the full repertoire of Parkin-binding proteins remains poorly defined. Here we employed tandem affinity purification interaction screens with subsequent mass spectrometry to profile binding partners of Parkin. Using this approach for two different cell types (HEK293T and SH-SY5Y neuronal cells), we identified a total of 203 candidate Parkin-binding proteins. For the candidate proteins and the proteins known to cause heritable forms of parkinsonism, protein-protein interaction data were derived from public databases, and the associated biological processes and pathways were analyzed and compared. Functional similarity between the candidates and the proteins involved in monogenic parkinsonism was investigated, and additional confirmatory evidence was obtained using published genetic interaction data from Drosophila melanogaster. Based on the results of the different analyses, a prioritization score was assigned to each candidate Parkin-binding protein. Two of the top ranking candidates were tested by co-immunoprecipitation, and interaction to Parkin was confirmed for one of them. New candidates for involvement in cell death processes, protein folding, the fission/fusion machinery, and the mitophagy pathway were identified, which provide a resource for further elucidating Parkin function. PMID:24244333

  7. Top partner-resonance interplay in a composite Higgs framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Juan; Zerwekh, Alfonso

    2018-04-01

    Guided us by the scenario of weak scale naturalness and the possible existence of exotic resonances, we have explored in a SO(5) Composite Higgs setup the interplay among three matter sectors: elementary, top partners and vector resonances. We parametrize it through explicit interactions of spin-1 SO(4)-resonances, coupled to the SO(5)-invariant fermionic currents and tensors presented in this work. Such invariants are built upon the Standard Model fermion sector as well as top partners sourced by the unbroken SO(4). The mass scales entailed by the top partner and vector resonance sectors will control the low energy effects emerging from our interplaying model. Its phenomenological impact and parameter spaces have been considered via flavor-dijet processes and electric dipole moments bounds. Finally, the strength of the Nambu-Goldstone symmetry breaking and the extra couplings implied by the top partner mass scales are measured in accordance with expected estimations.

  8. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Loreto; Melo, Ricardo; Montero, Ruth; Maisey, Kevin; Mendoza, Leonora; Wilkens, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6-375 μg/mL antibiotics). Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the currently unused

  9. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Sanhueza

    Full Text Available Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6-375 μg/mL antibiotics. Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the

  10. Associations of Partner Age Gap at Sexual Debut with Teenage Parenthood and Lifetime Number of Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masho, Saba W; Chambers, Gregory J; Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L

    2017-06-01

    Age at sexual debut and age gap between partners at debut are modifiable characteristics that may be related to risky sexual behaviors. Understanding any such relationships is a necessary first step toward strengthening risk interventions. Age at sexual debut and partner age gap were examined for 3,154 female and 2,713 male respondents to the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth who first had intercourse before age 18. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between these measures and teenage parenthood and reporting a high lifetime number of partners (i.e., a number above the sample median). Females' odds of teenage parenthood were elevated if sexual debut occurred at ages 15-17 and involved a partner age gap of 3-4 years (odds ratio, 1.8) or more (2.0); they were reduced if debut occurred before age 15 and the gap was 3-4 years (0.8). Females' likelihood of reporting a high lifetime number of partners was negatively associated with age gap (0.4-0.7, depending on age at debut and length of age gap). Males' likelihood of reporting a large number of partners was positively associated with age gap if sexual debut was before age 15 and the gap was five or more years (1.7) or if debut was at ages 15-17 and involved a 3-4-year gap (2.0). Identifying the mechanisms underlying these associations could inform program design and implementation. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  11. Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Francis J

    2010-09-01

    best clinical practice but many also felt that it is better than nothing. GPs identified the following factors which they considered would facilitate partner notification: clear clinical guidelines; a legal framework around partner notification; a formal chlamydia screening program; financial incentives; education and practical support for health professionals, and raising awareness of chlamydia in the community, in particular amongst young people. Conclusions GPs reported some partners do not seek medical treatment even after they are notified of being a sexual contact of a patient with chlamydia. More routine use of PDPT may help address this issue however GPs in this study had negative attitudes to the use of PDPT. Appropriate guidelines and legislation may make the use of PDPT more acceptable to Australian GPs.

  12. Communication partner training in aphasia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Raymer, Anastasia; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Holland, Audrey; Cherney, Leora R

    2010-12-01

    To describe the effects of communication partner training on persons with aphasia and their communication partners. Specifically the systematic review addressed 3 clinical questions regarding the impact of partner training on language, communication activity and participation, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life for adults with aphasia and their communication partners. Twenty-three terms were used to search 12 electronic databases (eg, PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO, PsychArticles, CSA Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts, Social Sciences Citation Index [Web of Science], SUMSearch, TRIP, EMBASE, REHABDATA, National Library for Health, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) and the journal "Aphasiology." References from all relevant articles were hand-searched. Two reviewers independently applied inclusion criteria to select potential relevant articles from the titles and abstracts of references retrieved by the literature search. The full text of the remaining articles was reviewed by a 5-member panel, resulting in a corpus of 31 studies that met the final inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted the descriptive data related to the participants, the intervention, the outcome measures, and the results. The 5-member review team by consensus classified the studies using the American Academy of Neurology system for classification of evidence (2004). Evidence shows that communication partner training is effective in improving communication activities and/or participation of the communication partner and is probably effective in improving communication activities and/or participation of persons with chronic aphasia when they are interacting with trained communication partners. There is insufficient evidence to make recommendations related to the impact of partner training on persons with acute aphasia or the impact of training on language impairment, psychosocial adjustment, or quality of life for either the person with aphasia or the

  13. Trends and variation in prescribing of low-priority treatments identified by NHS England: a cross-sectional study and interactive data tool in English primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alex J; Curtis, Helen J; Bacon, Seb; Croker, Richard; Goldacre, Ben

    2018-06-01

    Objectives NHS England recently announced a consultation seeking to discourage the use of treatments it considers to be low-value. We set out to produce an interactive data resource to show savings in each NHS general practice and to assess the current use of these treatments, their change in use over time, and the extent and reasons for variation in such prescribing. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting English primary care. Participants English general practices. Main outcome measures We determined the cost per 1000 patients for prescribing of each of 18 treatments identified by NHS England for each month from July 2012 to June 2017, and also aggregated over the most recent year to assess total cost and variation among practices. We used mixed effects linear regression to determine factors associated with cost of prescribing. Results Spend on low-value treatments was £153.5 m in the last year, across 5.8 m prescriptions (mean, £26 per prescription). Among individual treatments, liothyronine had the highest prescribing cost at £29.6 m, followed by trimipramine (£20.2 m). Over time, the overall total number of low-value prescriptions decreased, but the cost increased, although this varied greatly between treatments. Three treatment areas increased in cost and two increased in volume, all others reduced in cost and volume. Annual practice level spending varied widely (median, £2262 per thousand patients; interquartile range £1439 to £3298). Proportion of patients over 65 was strongly associated with low-value prescribing, as was Clinical Commissioning Group. Our interactive data tool was deployed to OpenPrescribing.net where monthly updated figures and graphs can be viewed. Conclusions Prescribing of low-value treatments is extensive but varies widely by treatment, geographic area and individual practice. Despite a fall in prescription numbers, the overall cost of prescribing for low-value items has risen. Prescribing behaviour is clustered by

  14. The stress granule component G3BP is a novel interaction partner for the nuclear shuttle proteins of the nanovirus pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus and geminivirus abutilon mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Susanna; Greiner, Eva; Amin, Bushra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Krenz, Björn

    2017-01-02

    Stress granules (SGs) are structures within cells that regulate gene expression during stress response, e.g. viral infection. In mammalian cells assembly of SGs is dependent on the Ras-GAP SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP). The C-terminal domain of the viral nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) forms a complex with mammalian G3BP and sequesters it into viral RNA replication complexes in a manner that inhibits the formation of SGs. The binding domain of nsP3 to HsG3BP was mapped to two tandem 'FGDF' repeat motifs close to the C-terminus of the viral proteins. It was speculated that plant viruses employ a similar strategy to inhibit SG function. This study identifies an Arabidopsis thaliana NTF2-RRM domain-containing protein as a G3BP-like protein (AtG3BP), which localizes to plant SGs. Moreover, the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) of the begomovirus abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV), which harbors a 'FVSF'-motif at its C-terminal end, interacts with the AtG3BP-like protein, as does the 'FNGSF'-motif containing NSP of pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV), a member of the Nanoviridae family. We therefore propose that SG formation upon stress is conserved between mammalian and plant cells and that plant viruses may follow a similar strategy to inhibit plant SG function as it has been shown for their mammalian counterparts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumer participation in quality improvements for chronic disease care: development and evaluation of an interactive patient-centered survey to identify preferred service initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradgley, Elizabeth A; Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie; Roos, Ian A; Henskens, Frans A; Paul, David J

    2014-12-19

    With increasing attention given to the quality of chronic disease care, a measurement approach that empowers consumers to participate in improving quality of care and enables health services to systematically introduce patient-centered initiatives is needed. A Web-based survey with complex adaptive questioning and interactive survey items would allow consumers to easily identify and prioritize detailed service initiatives. The aim was to develop and test a Web-based survey capable of identifying and prioritizing patient-centered initiatives in chronic disease outpatient services. Testing included (1) test-retest reliability, (2) patient-perceived acceptability of the survey content and delivery mode, and (3) average completion time, completion rates, and Flesch-Kincaid reading score. In Phase I, the Web-based Consumer Preferences Survey was developed based on a structured literature review and iterative feedback from expert groups of service providers and consumers. The touchscreen survey contained 23 general initiatives, 110 specific initiatives available through adaptive questioning, and a relative prioritization exercise. In Phase II, a pilot study was conducted within 4 outpatient clinics to evaluate the reliability properties, patient-perceived acceptability, and feasibility of the survey. Eligible participants were approached to complete the survey while waiting for an appointment or receiving intravenous therapy. The age and gender of nonconsenters was estimated to ascertain consent bias. Participants with a subsequent appointment within 14 days were asked to complete the survey for a second time. A total of 741 of 1042 individuals consented to participate (71.11% consent), 529 of 741 completed all survey content (78.9% completion), and 39 of 68 completed the test-retest component. Substantial or moderate reliability (Cohen's kappa>0.4) was reported for 16 of 20 general initiatives with observed percentage agreement ranging from 82.1%-100.0%. The majority of

  16. Consumer Participation in Quality Improvements for Chronic Disease Care: Development and Evaluation of an Interactive Patient-Centered Survey to Identify Preferred Service Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie; Roos, Ian A; Henskens, Frans A; Paul, David J

    2014-01-01

    Background With increasing attention given to the quality of chronic disease care, a measurement approach that empowers consumers to participate in improving quality of care and enables health services to systematically introduce patient-centered initiatives is needed. A Web-based survey with complex adaptive questioning and interactive survey items would allow consumers to easily identify and prioritize detailed service initiatives. Objective The aim was to develop and test a Web-based survey capable of identifying and prioritizing patient-centered initiatives in chronic disease outpatient services. Testing included (1) test-retest reliability, (2) patient-perceived acceptability of the survey content and delivery mode, and (3) average completion time, completion rates, and Flesch-Kincaid reading score. Methods In Phase I, the Web-based Consumer Preferences Survey was developed based on a structured literature review and iterative feedback from expert groups of service providers and consumers. The touchscreen survey contained 23 general initiatives, 110 specific initiatives available through adaptive questioning, and a relative prioritization exercise. In Phase II, a pilot study was conducted within 4 outpatient clinics to evaluate the reliability properties, patient-perceived acceptability, and feasibility of the survey. Eligible participants were approached to complete the survey while waiting for an appointment or receiving intravenous therapy. The age and gender of nonconsenters was estimated to ascertain consent bias. Participants with a subsequent appointment within 14 days were asked to complete the survey for a second time. Results A total of 741 of 1042 individuals consented to participate (71.11% consent), 529 of 741 completed all survey content (78.9% completion), and 39 of 68 completed the test-retest component. Substantial or moderate reliability (Cohen’s kappa>0.4) was reported for 16 of 20 general initiatives with observed percentage agreement

  17. Partner-specific sexual practices among heterosexual men and women with multiple partners: results from the French national survey, ACSF. Analyse des Comportements Sexuel en France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, A; Pelletier, A

    1996-06-01

    Heterosexual men and women with several partners are at risk of acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Risk depends on parameters such as the sexual practices themselves which may vary according to the type of partner (regular vs. casual). It is therefore important to describe the sexual practices and identify the correlations between the type of partner and these practices among heterosexuals with multiple partners. A subsample of all subjects having had at least two sexual partners during the previous year (n = 1644) was obtained from the ACSF survey (n = 20,055), the French national telephone survey on sexual behavior conducted between September 1991 and February 1992. Questions concerned in particular sexual practices of the last encounter as well as type of partner. Petting and vaginal penetration were almost systematic, mutual manual stimulation and orogenital sex were common, while self-masturbation and anal sex were infrequent. On average, a condom was seldom used. However, it was used more often when the partner was occasional. Nonpenetrative and oral practices were also more frequent with occasional partners. Women tended to report lower frequencies of practices and of condom use than men. A subset of heterosexuals with multiple partners engaged in safe sex. Practices tend to be partner-specific, with safer sex practices more likely to occur with occasional partners, although the magnitude of the difference is moderate.

  18. Urban Adolescent Girls’ Perspectives on Multiple Partners in the Context of the Sexual Double Standard and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Tennille, Julie; Bohinski, Julia; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Jemmott, John B.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the influence of abusive and non-abusive relationship dynamics on the number of sex partners among urban adolescent girls. Focus groups were conducted with 64 sexually active adolescent girls ages 14 to 17 years. General coding and content analyses identified patterns, themes, and salient beliefs. More than one third (37.5%) reported having experienced physical, intimate partner violence; 32.8% had 2 or more recent sex partners, and 37.5% had ever had a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV. Although some girls in abusive relationships feared retribution if they had more than one partner, others sought additional partners for solace or as an act of resistance. Adolescent HIV/STI prevention programs need to address the influence of gender norms such as the sexual double standard as well as partner pressure and partner abuse on adolescent decision-making about safer sex, and also promote healthy relationships as integral to advancing HIV/STI risk reduction. PMID:23790274

  19. Minority stress and relationship functioning among young male same-sex couples: An examination of actor-partner interdependence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Brian A; McConnell, Elizabeth; Dyar, Christina; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E

    2018-05-01

    In different-sex couples, individual and partner stress can both have a negative impact on relationship functioning (actor and partner effects). Gay and bisexual men experience unique stress (sexual minority stress), but few studies have examined the effects of this stress on relationship functioning among young male couples. The current study examined (a) actor and partner effects of general and minority stress (internalized stigma, microaggressions, victimization, and outness) on relationship functioning (relationship quality and negative relationship interactions), (b) interactions between individual and partner stress as predictors of relationship functioning, and (c) dyadic coping and relationship length as moderators of actor and partner effects. Actor-partner interdependence models were tested using data from 153 young male couples. There was strong support for actor effects. Higher general stress and internalized stigma were associated with lower relationship quality, but only for those in longer relationships. Additionally, higher general stress, internalized stigma, and microaggressions, and lower outness, were associated with more negative relationship interactions. There was limited support for partner effects. Having a partner with higher internalized stigma was associated with more negative relationship interactions, but none of the other partner effects were significant. There was no support for individual and partner stress interacting to predict relationship functioning or for dyadic coping as a stress buffer. Findings highlight the influence of one's own experiences of general and minority stress on relationship functioning, but raise questions about how partner stress influences relationship functioning among young male couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Intimate Partner Violence May Be One Mechanism by Which Male Partner Socioeconomic Status and Substance Use Affect Female Partner Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although male partners' socioeconomic status (SES and substance use is associated with worse health of female partners, the mechanism behind this link is still unknown.Objectives: To investigate whether intimate partner violence (IPV is a mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use influence female partners' self-rated health (SRH as victims and survivors of IPV.Materials and Methods: Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS is an ongoing population-based cohort. Male and female partners' SES, anxiety, depression, and substance use, and their relationship status were measured at baseline. IPV victimization was also asked among female partners' at baseline. Female partners' subjective health was measured 3 times (baseline−1998, 3 years later−2001, and 5 years later−2003. Using AMOS, we fitted two structural equation models (SEM for data analysis. In Model 1 we tested direct paths from male partners' SES and mental health to female partners' SRH, in the absence of IPV. In the Model 2 we conceptualized female partners' IPV victimization between male partners' SES and mental health and female partners' SRH. In both models we controlled for the effect of female partners' SES and mental health.Results: In Model 1, male partners' poor SES and substance use were associated with worse trajectory of SRH of female partner. In Model 2, male to female IPV was the mechanism by which male partners' SES and substance use were associated with female partners' SRH.Conclusions: IPV is one of the mechanisms by which male partners' SES and substance use can influence female partners' health. That is, IPV may operate as a vehicle by which male partners' social and psychological risk factors impact female partners' health. Thus, this study demonstrates how male partners' socio-ecological risk factors such as low SES and substance use impact female partners' health. Therefore, there is a need for broader socio-ecological approach

  1. Intraspecific diversity among partners drives functional variation in coral symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, John Everett; Banaszak, Anastazia T; Altman, Naomi S; LaJeunesse, Todd C; Baums, Iliana B

    2015-10-26

    The capacity of coral-dinoflagellate mutualisms to adapt to a changing climate relies in part on standing variation in host and symbiont populations, but rarely have the interactions between symbiotic partners been considered at the level of individuals. Here, we tested the importance of inter-individual variation with respect to the physiology of coral holobionts. We identified six genetically distinct Acropora palmata coral colonies that all shared the same isoclonal Symbiodinium 'fitti' dinoflagellate strain. No other Symbiodinium could be detected in host tissues. We exposed fragments of each colony to extreme cold and found that the stress-induced change in symbiont photochemical efficiency varied up to 3.6-fold depending on host genetic background. The S. 'fitti' strain was least stressed when associating with hosts that significantly altered the expression of 184 genes under cold shock; it was most stressed in hosts that only adjusted 14 genes. Key expression differences among hosts were related to redox signaling and iron availability pathways. Fine-scale interactions among unique host colonies and symbiont strains provide an underappreciated source of raw material for natural selection in coral symbioses.

  2. Partnering models in Nordic construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    of local research and industry partners including major building clients. Data were collected by means of national reviews of partnering policies and practices, thematic analyses, and case studies. The concept partnering was introduced in a Nordic context in the 1990s and has since then been implemented...... in a large number of projects. Clients sought to establish a culture of openness and trust within the project and tried promoting this with various kinds of incentives. In some countries the move towards voluntary collaboration was, paradoxically, strongly advocated by public authorities. Generally, however......Traditionally, procurement and contractual policies adopted by building and construction clients produce a system in which clients procure design services separately from construction services, while operation and maintenance have been subject to further, separate procurement actions...

  3. Partnering and integrated supply management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian; Olsen, Anders; Thyssen, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    for strategic management of collaborative relationships on a line with the purchasing perspectives offered by Supply Chain Management. Based on a study of the literature and an in-depth case study carried out within a large Scandinavian contractor, this article gives a proposal for how Partnering can...... be supported by strategic purchasing, with the aim of achieving strategic Partnering. The contribution of this article is thus the development of a new purchasing perspective within Construction Supply Chain Management.......Developments in the construction industry, with a lack of productivity increases compared to manufacturing industry in general, have amongst other things led to the use of Partnering, which is a form of collaboration which attempts to counteract the distrust and the sub-optimisation which...

  4. Global Precipitation Measurement. Report 2; Benefits of Partnering with GPM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich F.; Smith, Eric A. (Editor); Adams, W. James (Editor); Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An important goal of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is to maximize participation by non-NASA partners both domestic and international. A consequence of this objective is the provision for NASA to provide sufficient incentives to achieve partner buy-in and commitment to the program. NASA has identified seven specific areas in which substantive incentives will be offered: (1) partners will be offered participation in governance of GPM mission science affairs including definition of data products; (2) partners will be offered use of NASA's TDRSS capability for uplink and downlink of commands and data in regards to partner provided spacecraft; (3) partners will be offered launch support for placing partner provided spacecraft in orbit conditional upon mutually agreeable co-manifest arrangements; (4) partners will be offered direct data access at the NASA-GPM server level rather than through standard data distribution channels; (5) partners will be offered the opportunity to serve as regional data archive and distribution centers for standard GPM data products; and (6) partners will be offered the option to insert their own specialized filtering and extraction software into the GPM data processing stream or to obtain specialized subsets and products over specific areas of interest (7) partners will be offered GPM developed software tools that can be run on their platforms. Each of these incentives, either individually or in combination, represents a significant advantage to partners who may wish to participate in the GPM mission.

  5. Partnering for Canada's nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenderman, P.P.

    1997-01-01

    ''Partnering'' is an evolving relationship that could lead to a partnership or joint ownership. Babcock and Wilcox (BW) has used a variety of forms of contracting and partnering to develop global strategy for the supply of its products, both fossil and nuclear steam generating equipment. A strategic mix of consortia, strategic alliances and joint ventures has provided the impetus for BW to lead in worldwide market share in many categories, including the supply of nuclear replacement steam generators to the USA since 1992. The implication is that continuing cooperation with BW will benefit the Canadian nuclear industry. 6 refs., 12 figs

  6. Attachment insecurity, biased perceptions of romantic partners' negative emotions, and hostile relationship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Orthopedic Patients: A Comparison of Three Screening Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…

  8. Does age matter? Sexual event-level analysis of age-disparate sexual partners among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, K; Lachowsky, N J; Cui, Z; Shurgold, S; Sereda, P; Rich, A; Moore, D M; Roth, E A; Hogg, R S

    2017-08-01

    To determine factors associated with age-disparate sexual partners among Vancouver gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM). Sexually active GBM aged ≥16 years were recruited from February 2012 to February 2014. Participants self-completed a questionnaire on demographics, attitudes and sexual behaviour and substance use at last sexual event with five most recent partners. Two generalised linear mixed models identified factors associated with: (1) 'same-age' (referent), 'younger' or 'much-younger' and (2) 'same-age' (referent), 'older' or 'much-older' partners. Statistical interactions between age and HIV status were tested. Participants (n=719) were predominantly gay (85.1%), White (75.0%), HIV-negative/unknown status (72.9%) with median age of 33 years (Q1,Q3: 26,47). A minority of sexual events were reported with much-older/much-younger partners (13.7%). In the multivariable models, GBM reporting older partners were more likely to be Asian or Latino, have greater Escape Motivation scores, report their partner used erectile dysfunction drugs (EDDs) and have received something for sex; compared with condom-protected insertive anal sex, participants with older partners were more likely to report condomless insertive anal sex with a serodiscordant or unknown status partner or no insertive anal sex. GBM reporting older partners were less likely to be bisexual-identified, have given something for sex and report event-level alcohol and EDD use. GBM reporting younger partners were more likely to have annual incomes >$30 000 and have met their partner online. As per significant statistical interactions, age-disparate relations were more common for younger HIV-positive and older HIV-negative GBM. Differences among age-disparate partners highlight important targets for health promotion and future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Psychological and Relational Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Profiles Among Pregnant Adolescent Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2017-01-01

    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to compare IPV groups and sex on relationship and psychological factors. Analyses were conducted at the couple level, with IPV groups as a between-subjects couple level variable and sex as a within-subjects variable that allowed us to model and compare the outcomes of both partners while controlling for the correlated nature of the data. Analyses controlled for age, race, income, relationship duration, and gestational age. Among couples, 64% had no IPV; 23% male IPV victim only; 7% mutual IPV; 5% female IPV victim only. Relationship (F = 3.61, P profile (all P profile by sex interaction (all P families from developing IPV behaviors. PMID:27135634

  10. Identification of FAM96B as a novel prelamin A binding partner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Xing-Dong; Wang, Junwen; Zheng, Huiling; Jing, Xia; Liu, Zhenjie; Zhou, Zhongjun; Liu, Xinguang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We screen the binding protein of prelamin A by yeast two-hybrid screen. •FAM96B colocalizes with prelamin A in HEK-293 cells. •FAM96B physically interacts with prelamin A. -- Abstract: Prelamin A accumulation causes nuclear abnormalities, impairs nuclear functions, and eventually promotes cellular senescence. However, the underlying mechanism of how prelamin A promotes cellular senescence is still poorly understood. Here we carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen using a human skeletal muscle cDNA library to search for prelamin A binding partners, and identified FAM96B as a prelamin A binding partner. The interaction of FAM96B with prelamin A was confirmed by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Furthermore, co-localization experiments by fluorescent confocal microscopy revealed that FAM96B colocalized with prelamin A in HEK-293 cells. Taken together, our data demonstrated the physical interaction between FAM96B and prelamin A, which may provide some clues to the mechanisms of prelamin A in premature aging

  11. Identification of FAM96B as a novel prelamin A binding partner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xing-Dong; Wang, Junwen; Zheng, Huiling; Jing, Xia; Liu, Zhenjie [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808 (China); Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524023 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Dongguan 523808 (China); Zhou, Zhongjun [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808 (China); Department of Biochemistry, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Liu, Xinguang, E-mail: xgliu64@126.com [Institute of Aging Research, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808 (China); Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical College, Zhanjiang 524023 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Dongguan 523808 (China)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •We screen the binding protein of prelamin A by yeast two-hybrid screen. •FAM96B colocalizes with prelamin A in HEK-293 cells. •FAM96B physically interacts with prelamin A. -- Abstract: Prelamin A accumulation causes nuclear abnormalities, impairs nuclear functions, and eventually promotes cellular senescence. However, the underlying mechanism of how prelamin A promotes cellular senescence is still poorly understood. Here we carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen using a human skeletal muscle cDNA library to search for prelamin A binding partners, and identified FAM96B as a prelamin A binding partner. The interaction of FAM96B with prelamin A was confirmed by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Furthermore, co-localization experiments by fluorescent confocal microscopy revealed that FAM96B colocalized with prelamin A in HEK-293 cells. Taken together, our data demonstrated the physical interaction between FAM96B and prelamin A, which may provide some clues to the mechanisms of prelamin A in premature aging.

  12. OLC Partners with the People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways in which Oglala Lakota College (South Dakota) helps to strengthen the cultural fabric of the Lakota community and how it has partnered with other institutions of higher learning throughout the state. Reports that the college has a number of community-based initiatives that emphasize the relationship between academics and ancestral…

  13. Partnering in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Bejder, Erik; Haugbølle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Huge efforts have been made in order to stimulate thorough improvements in the construction industry in terms of value for money, feasibility and consistency when facilitating a partnering approach. Despite this attention there is limited documentation on the development of research trends, thus...

  14. Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At Olympic times, many business giants try to expand their influence by sponsoring the Games. The Games is an opportunity for them to turn from a national to an international brand. Here are brief introductions to some of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games partners.

  15. Romantic partners in a market perspective: expectations about what ensures a highly desirable partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe N; Hattori, Wallisen T; Yamamoto, Maria Emília; Lopes, Fívia A

    2013-10-01

    This study used the biological market perspective and influential statistical models from the marketing field to investigate males' and females' expectations regarding which combination of characteristics are most relevant in ensuring desirable partnerships for same-sex individuals. Thus, 358 Brazilian undergraduates assessed eight descriptions of same-gender stimulus targets (formulated with different levels of physical attractiveness, social skills, and current or prospective social status) and evaluated the overall desirability of the targets' expected or probable partners. From the possible combinations, three groups emerged: for one group, mainly composed of men, status characteristics were the most important attributes; for the others, mostly composed of women, social skills or physical characteristics were identified as most important in appealing to a desirable partner. This work expands the understanding of variability in male and female romantic expectations, and its implications are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

  16. Adolescent patient preferences surrounding partner notification and treatment for sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jennifer L; Huppert, Jill S; Gillespie, Gordon L; Taylor, Regina G; Holland, Carolyn K; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Kahn, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Important barriers to addressing the sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemic among adolescents are the inadequate partner notification of positive STI results and insufficient rates of partner testing and treatment. However, adolescent attitudes regarding partner notification and treatment are not well understood. The aim was to qualitatively explore the barriers to and preferences for partner notification and treatment among adolescent males and females tested for STIs in an emergency department (ED) setting and to explore the acceptability of ED personnel notifying their sexual partners. This was a descriptive, qualitative study in which a convenience sample of 40 adolescents (18 females, 22 males) 14 to 21 years of age who presented to either adult or pediatric EDs with STI-related complaints participated. Individualized, semistructured, confidential interviews were administered to each participant. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim by an independent transcriptionist. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Barriers to partner notification included fear of retaliation or loss of the relationship, lack of understanding of or concern for the consequences associated with an STI, and social stigma and embarrassment. Participants reported two primary barriers to their partners obtaining STI testing and treatment: lack of transportation to the health care site and the partner's fear of STI positive test results. Most participants preferred to notify their main sexual partners of an STI exposure via a face-to-face interaction or a phone call. Most participants were agreeable with a health care provider (HCP) notifying their main sexual partners of STI exposure and preferred that the HCP notify the partner by phone call. There are several adolescent preferences and barriers for partner notification and treatment. To be most effective, future interventions to prevent adolescent STIs should incorporate these preferences and address the

  17. Ant species confer different partner benefits on two neotropical myrmecophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Megan E

    2005-04-01

    The dynamics of mutualistic interactions involving more than a single pair of species depend on the relative costs and benefits of interaction among alternative partners. The neotropical myrmecophytes Cordia nodosa and Duroia hirsuta associate with several species of obligately symbiotic ants. I compared the ant partners of Cordia and Duroia with respect to two benefits known to be important in ant-myrmecophyte interactions: protection against herbivores provided by ants, and protection against encroaching vegetation provided by ants. Azteca spp., Myrmelachista schumanni, and Allomerus octoarticulatus demerarae ants all provide the leaves of Cordia and Duroia some protection against herbivores. However, Azteca and Allomerus provide more protection than does Myrmelachista to the leaves of their host plants. Although Allomerus protects the leaves of its hosts, plants occupied by Allomerus suffer more attacks by herbivores to their stems than do plants occupied by other ants. Relative to Azteca or Allomerus, Myrmelachista ants provide better protection against encroaching vegetation, increasing canopy openness over their host plants. These differences in benefits among the ant partners of Cordia and Duroia are reflected in the effect of each ant species on host plant size, growth rate, and reproduction. The results of this study show how mutualistic ant partners can differ with respect to both the magnitude and type of benefits they provide to the same species of myrmecophytic host.

  18. Comparative modeling and docking studies of p16ink4/Cyclin D1/Rb pathway genes in lung cancer revealed functionally interactive residue of RB1 and its functional partner E2F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    e Zahra Syeda Naqsh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the major cause of mortality worldwide. Major signalling pathways that could play significant role in lung cancer therapy include (1 Growth promoting pathways (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Ras/ PhosphatidylInositol 3-Kinase (2 Growth inhibitory pathways (p53/Rb/P14ARF, STK11 (3 Apoptotic pathways (Bcl-2/Bax/Fas/FasL. Insilico strategy was implemented to solve the mystery behind selected lung cancer pathway by applying comparative modeling and molecular docking studies. Results YASARA [v 12.4.1] was utilized to predict structural models of P16-INK4 and RB1 genes using template 4ELJ-A and 1MX6-B respectively. WHAT CHECK evaluation tool demonstrated overall quality of predicted P16-INK4 and RB1 with Z-score of −0.132 and −0.007 respectively which showed a strong indication of reliable structure prediction. Protein-protein interactions were explored by utilizing STRING server, illustrated that CDK4 and E2F1 showed strong interaction with P16-INK4 and RB1 based on confidence score of 0.999 and 0.999 respectively. In order to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the complex interactions between candidate genes with their functional interactors, GRAMM-X server was used. Protein-protein docking investigation of P16-INK4 revealed four ionic bonds illustrating Arg47, Arg80,Cys72 and Met1 residues as actively participating in interactions with CDK4 while docking results of RB1 showed four hydrogen bonds involving Glu864, Ser567, Asp36 and Arg861 residues which interact strongly with its respective functional interactor E2F1. Conclusion This research may provide a basis for understanding biological insights of P16-INK4 and RB1 proteins which will be helpful in future to design a suitable drug to inhibit the disease pathogenesis as we have determined the interacting amino acids which can be targeted in order to design a ligand in-vitro to propose a drug for clinical trials. Protein -protein docking of

  19. Online social networks that connect users to physical activity partners: a review and descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhasi, Atul; Shen, Album Xiaotian; Passarella, Ralph Joseph; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl Am

    2014-06-16

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified a lack of encouragement, support, or companionship from family and friends as a major barrier to physical activity. To overcome this barrier, online social networks are now actively leveraging principles of companion social support in novel ways. The aim was to evaluate the functionality, features, and usability of existing online social networks which seek to increase physical activity and fitness among users by connecting them to physical activity partners, not just online, but also face-to-face. In September 2012, we used 3 major databases to identify the website addresses for relevant online social networks. We conducted a Google search using 8 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword "find" coupled with 1 of 4 prefix terms "health," "fitness," "workout," or "physical" coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms "activity partners" or "activity buddies." We also searched 2 prominent technology start-up news sites, TechCrunch and Y Combinator, using 2 unique keyword combinations: the common keyword "find" coupled with 1 of 2 stem terms "activity partners" and "activity buddies." Sites were defined as online social health activity networks if they had the ability to (1) actively find physical activity partners or activities for the user, (2) offer dynamic, real-time tracking or sharing of social activities, and (3) provide virtual profiles to users. We excluded from our analysis sites that were not Web-based, publicly available, in English, or free. Of the 360 initial search results, we identified 13 websites that met our complete criteria of an online social health activity network. Features such as physical activity creation (13/13, 100%) and private messaging (12/13, 92%) appeared almost universally among these websites. However, integration with Web 2.0 technologies such as Facebook and Twitter (9/13, 69%) and the option of direct event joining (8/13, 62%) were not as universally present. Largely

  20. Expression Patterns and Identified Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest That Cassava CBL-CIPK Signal Networks Function in Responses to Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chunyan; Wan, Shumin; Xia, Youquan; Ren, Ning; Zhou, Yang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2018-01-01

    Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL ( MeCBL ) and 26 CIPK ( MeCIPK ) genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBL s and CIPK s. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10 , and Na + /H + antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses.

  1. Development of a high-throughput screening-compatible assay to identify inhibitors of the CK2alpha/CK2beta interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochscherf, Jennifer; Lindenblatt, Dirk; Steinkrueger, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Increased activity of protein kinase CK2 is associated with various types of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and chronic inflammation. In the search for CK2 inhibitors, attention has expanded toward compounds disturbing the interaction between CK2alpha and CK2beta in addition to established a...

  2. Intimate-partner homicide among pregnant and postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana; Horon, Isabelle L

    2010-06-01

    To identify pregnancy-associated homicide cases and to estimate the proportion that were perpetrated by a current or former intimate partner. This was an analysis of pregnancy-associated homicides occurring from 1993 to 2008 among Maryland residents using linked birth and death certificates, medical examiner charts, police records, and news publications. Homicides (n=110) were the leading cause of death during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. Women who were African American, younger than 25 years, and unmarried were at the highest risk for homicide. Firearms were the most common (61.8%) method of death. A current or former intimate partner was the perpetrator in 54.5% (n=60) of homicide deaths and a nonpartner in 31.8% (n=35). If the cases (n=15) in which the victim-offender relationship could not be identified are excluded, 63.2% of homicides were committed by an intimate partner. Compared with homicides in which the perpetrator was not an intimate partner, a significantly higher percentage (Phomicides occurred at home (66.7% compared with 28.6%), among women who had completed more than 12 years of education (23.3% compared with 5.7%), and who were married (28.3% compared with 8.6%). Intimate-partner homicides were most prevalent (25.0%) during the first 3 months of pregnancy and least prevalent during the first 3 months postpartum (5.0%). The majority of pregnancy-associated homicides were committed by current or former intimate partners, most commonly during the first 3 months of pregnancy. Efforts to protect women from partners optimally should begin before conception or very early in pregnancy. III.

  3. Profits for nonprofits: find a corporate partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, A R

    1996-01-01

    Here's a familiar story. A nonprofit organization joins forces with a corporation in a caused-related marketing campaign. It seems like a win-win deal, but the nonprofit--and the media--find out several weeks into the campaign that the corporation's business practices are antithetical to the nonprofit's mission. The nonprofit's credibility is severely damaged. Is the moral of the story that nonprofits should steer clear of alliances with for-profit organizations? Not at all, Alan Andreasen says. Nonprofit managers can help their organizations avoid many of the risks and reap the rewards of cause-related marketing alliances by thinking of themselves not as charities but as partners in the marketing effort. More than ever, nonprofits need what many companies can offer: crucial new sources of revenue. But nonprofits offer corporate partners a great deal in return: the opportunity to enhance their image--and increase the bottom line--by supporting a worthy cause. Consider the fruitful partnership between American Express and Share Our Strength, a hunger-relief organization. Through the Charge Against Hunger program, now in its fourth year, American Express has helped contribute more than +16 million to SOS. In return, American Express has seen an increase in transactions with the card and in the number of merchants carrying the card. How can nonprofit managers build a successful partnership? They can assess their organization to see how it can add value to a corporate partner. They can identify those companies that stand to gain the most from a cause-related marketing alliance. And they can take an active role in shaping the partnership and monitoring its progress.

  4. Identification and characterization of new molecular partners for the protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lo Sardo

    Full Text Available PRMT6 is a protein arginine methyltransferase that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis. Only few substrates of this enzyme are known and therefore its cellular role is not well understood. To identify in an unbiased manner substrates and potential regulators of PRMT6 we have used a yeast two-hybrid approach. We identified 36 new putative partners for PRMT6 and we validated the interaction in vivo for 7 of them. In addition, using invitro methylation assay we identified 4 new substrates for PRMT6, extending the involvement of this enzyme to other cellular processes beyond its well-established role in gene expression regulation. Holistic approaches create molecular connections that allow to test functional hypotheses. The assembly of PRMT6 protein network allowed us to formulate functional hypotheses which led to the discovery of new molecular partners for the architectural transcription factor HMGA1a, a known substrate for PRMT6, and to provide evidences for a modulatory role of HMGA1a on the methyltransferase activity of PRMT6.

  5. A computational approach identifies two regions of Hepatitis C Virus E1 protein as interacting domains involved in viral fusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sawaf Gamal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The E1 protein of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV can be dissected into two distinct hydrophobic regions: a central domain containing an hypothetical fusion peptide (FP, and a C-terminal domain (CT comprising two segments, a pre-anchor and a trans-membrane (TM region. In the currently accepted model of the viral fusion process, the FP and the TM regions are considered to be closely juxtaposed in the post-fusion structure and their physical interaction cannot be excluded. In the present study, we took advantage of the natural sequence variability present among HCV strains to test, by purely sequence-based computational tools, the hypothesis that in this virus the fusion process involves the physical interaction of the FP and CT regions of E1. Results Two computational approaches were applied. The first one is based on the co-evolution paradigm of interacting peptides and consequently on the correlation between the distance matrices generated by the sequence alignment method applied to FP and CT primary structures, respectively. In spite of the relatively low random genetic drift between genotypes, co-evolution analysis of sequences from five HCV genotypes revealed a greater correlation between the FP and CT domains than respect to a control HCV sequence from Core protein, so giving a clear, albeit still inconclusive, support to the physical interaction hypothesis. The second approach relies upon a non-linear signal analysis method widely used in protein science called Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA. This method allows for a direct comparison of domains for the presence of common hydrophobicity patterns, on which the physical interaction is based upon. RQA greatly strengthened the reliability of the hypothesis by the scoring of a lot of cross-recurrences between FP and CT peptides hydrophobicity patterning largely outnumbering chance expectations and pointing to putative interaction sites. Intriguingly, mutations in the CT

  6. Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blues: Partners Interview with Wade Bowen Coping with Suicide & Loss Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners Pregnancy and postpartum mood and anxiety disorders affect the whole family. Here are some tips ...

  7. Intimate Partner Violence, 1993-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 Special Report NCJ 2392 03 Intimate Partner Violence, 1993–2010 Shannan Catalano, Ph.D., BJS Statistician ... to 2010, the overall rate of intimate partner violence in the United States declined by 64%, from ...

  8. Expression Patterns and Identified Protein-Protein Interactions Suggest That Cassava CBL-CIPK Signal Networks Function in Responses to Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Mo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is an energy crop that is tolerant of multiple abiotic stresses. It has been reported that the interaction between Calcineurin B-like (CBL protein and CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK is implicated in plant development and responses to various stresses. However, little is known about their functions in cassava. Herein, 8 CBL (MeCBL and 26 CIPK (MeCIPK genes were isolated from cassava by genome searching and cloning of cDNA sequences of Arabidopsis CBLs and CIPKs. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of MeCBL and MeCIPK genes were different in different tissues throughout the life cycle. The expression patterns of 7 CBL and 26 CIPK genes in response to NaCl, PEG, heat and cold stresses were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, and it was found that the expression of each was induced by multiple stimuli. Furthermore, we found that many pairs of CBLs and CIPKs could interact with each other via investigating the interactions between 8 CBL and 25 CIPK proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. Yeast cells co-transformed with cassava MeCIPK24, MeCBL10, and Na+/H+ antiporter MeSOS1 genes exhibited higher salt tolerance compared to those with one or two genes. These results suggest that the cassava CBL-CIPK signal network might play key roles in response to abiotic stresses.

  9. Trade, Technology Diffusion and Misallocation : Trade Partner Matters (Replaces CentER DP 2011-125)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curuk, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper suggests that contingent on the productivity level of the trade partner; international trade may create resource misallocation in less productive countries. It theoretically shows how the interaction between technology diffusion induced by trade and cross sectoral heterogeneity

  10. Sexual relationships, intimate partner violence and STI partner notification in Cape Town, South Africa: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira O; Laubscher, Ria; Hutchison, Cameron; Nkoko, Koena; Lurie, Mark; Kalichman, Seth C

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to identify individual and sexual partnership characteristics associated with partner notification (PN) among people with STI. We hypothesised that PN would be less likely in more casual sexual partnerships and in partnerships with intimate partner violence (IPV). We conducted an observational study among the first 330 patients with STI enrolled in a trial of a behavioural intervention to reduce STI incidence, at a clinic in a poor, Cape Town community. We included 195 index patients (those reporting STI symptoms), and conducted longitudinal analyses using participant-completed questionnaires on the day of diagnosis and 2 weeks later. Using partnership data for five recent sexual partners, we assessed factors associated with reported PN with logistic regressions, adjusting for repeated measurements on the same participant for each partner. The sample included 99 males with 303 partners and 96 females with 158 partners. Males reported perpetrating IPV in 46.2% of partnerships. Females reported being IPV victims in 53.2% of partnerships. Males notified 58.1%, females 75.4% of partners during the 2 weeks following diagnosis. Type of partner was an independent correlate of PN for males and females, with the odds of PN lower in more casual partnerships. For males, reporting physical IPV perpetration in the partnership was an independent correlate of PN. For females, there was no association between IPV victimisation in a partnership and PN. Efforts to decrease the pool of infectious partners need to have a strong focus on the promotion of PN in casual relationships and one-night stands. IPV was not identified as a barrier to PN. In future, we need to investigate the association between IPV with an objective measure of PN success such as partner testing or treatment, or index patient reinfection. PACTR201606001682364; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No

  11. An Analysis of Interaction Patterns in the Focus Group Interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavora Peter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the analysis of a focus group interview of a moderator and a group of undergraduate students on the topic of self-regulation of learning. The purpose of the investigation was to identify interaction patterns that appeared in the talk of participants and the moderator. In the stream of communication two rudimentary interaction patterns were recognized. The first pattern was named the Catalogue. It consists of a sequence of turns of participants who respond to a request of the moderator and who provide their answers, one by one, without reacting on the content of the previous partner(s talk. The other interaction pattern was called the Domino. In this pattern participants respond to each other. The Catalogue pattern prevailed in the interview. Alongside with identification of patterns of interaction the study demonstrated the functions of the common ground and its accomplishment in the talk of the moderator and participants.

  12. Moving on in life after intensive care--partners' experience of group communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Mona; Bäckman, Carl; Jones, Christina; Walther, Sten; Hollman Frisman, Gunilla

    2015-09-01

    Partners have a burdensome time during and after their partners' intensive care period. They may appear to be coping well outwardly but inside feel vulnerable and lost. Evaluated interventions for partners on this aspect are limited. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of participating in group communication with other partners of former intensive care patients. The study has a descriptive intervention-based design where group communication for partners of former, surviving intensive care unit (ICU) patients was evaluated. A strategic selection was made of adult partners to former adult intensive care patients (n = 15), 5 men and 10 women, aged 37-89 years. Two group communication sessions lasting 2 h were held at monthly intervals with three to five partners. The partners later wrote, in a notebook, about their feelings of participating in group communications. To deepen the understanding of the impact of the sessions, six of the partners were interviewed. Content analysis was used to analyse the notebooks and the interviews. Three categories were identified: (1) Emotional impact, the partners felt togetherness and experienced worries and gratitude, (2) Confirmation, consciousness through insight and reflection and (3) The meeting design, group constellation and recommendation to participate in group communication. Partners of an intensive care patient are on a journey, constantly trying to adapt to the new situation and find new strategies to ever-changing circumstances. Group communications contributed to togetherness and confirmation. To share experiences with others is one way for partners to be able to move forward in life. Group communication with other patients' partners eases the process of going through the burden of being a partner to an intensive care patient. Group communications needs to be further developed and evaluated to obtain consensus and evidence for the best practice. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  13. School Psychologists' Family-School Partnering Experiences with Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Desireé; Lasser, Jon; Fernandez, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify the beliefs, perceptions, and actions of school psychologists toward family-school partnering (FSP) with Latino families in the public school system. Existing research in this area is extremely limited; therefore, the present study has significant implications for pre- and in-service…

  14. Women at Risk of Physical Intimate Partner Violence: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is prevalent in Nigeria but a culture of silence exists, making it difficult to identify women at risk. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical IPV in a low income, high density community in south west Nigeria. Among 924 interviews ...

  15. Welfare consequences for people with epilepsy and their partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Sabers, Anne; Christensen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the excess direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy. METHODS: From the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2013), we identified people within all ages with an epilepsy diagnosis and matched them to control individuals. Additionally, partners of people wi...

  16. Barriers to Screening for Intimate Partner Violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Simunovic, Nicole; Godin, Katelyn; Pham, Ngan K.; Bhandari, Mohit; Goslings, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health care providers play a vital role in the detection of intimate partner violence among their patients. Despite the recommendations for routine intimate partner violence screening in various medical settings, health care providers do not routinely screen for intimate partner

  17. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a

  18. Approaches used by employee assistance programs to address perpetration of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Pollack, Keshia M; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Lindquist, Christine H; McKay, Tasseli; Lasater, Beth M

    2012-01-01

    Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) are workplace resources available to employees with problems impacting work performance. EAPs are well-positioned to address intimate partner violence (IPV), a major public health problem with workplace impacts. A purposeful sample of 28 EAPs across the United States was surveyed to identify policies and programs to address IPV, including perpetration. Most EAPs did not report having standardized approaches for addressing IPV perpetration. EAPs also described significant barriers to identifying IPV perpetrators, with the majority relying on self-disclosure on the part of the perpetrator when contacting the EAP. These results suggest that many EAPs--even when interacting with employees who present with issues known to correlate with IPV--are missing a potential opportunity to assess and intervene with IPV perpetrators.

  19. m6A-Driver: Identifying Context-Specific mRNA m6A Methylation-Driven Gene Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Song-Yao; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Liu, Lian; Meng, Jia; Huang, Yufei

    2016-01-01

    As the most prevalent mammalian mRNA epigenetic modification, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) has been shown to possess important post-transcriptional regulatory functions. However, the regulatory mechanisms and functional circuits of m6A are still largely elusive. To help unveil the regulatory circuitry mediated by mRNA m6A methylation, we develop here m6A-Driver, an algorithm for predicting m6A-driven genes and associated networks, whose functional interactions are likely to be actively modulated ...

  20. Identifying the Interaction of Vancomycin With Novel pH-Responsive Lipids as Antibacterial Biomaterials Via Accelerated Molecular Dynamics and Binding Free Energy Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shaimaa; Vepuri, Suresh B; Jadhav, Mahantesh; Kalhapure, Rahul S; Govender, Thirumala

    2018-06-01

    Nano-drug delivery systems have proven to be an efficient formulation tool to overcome the challenges with current antibiotics therapy and resistance. A series of pH-responsive lipid molecules were designed and synthesized for future liposomal formulation as a nano-drug delivery system for vancomycin at the infection site. The structures of these lipids differ from each other in respect of hydrocarbon tails: Lipid1, 2, 3 and 4 have stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid hydrocarbon chains, respectively. The impact of variation in the hydrocarbon chain in the lipid structure on drug encapsulation and release profile, as well as mode of drug interaction, was investigated using molecular modeling analyses. A wide range of computational tools, including accelerated molecular dynamics, normal molecular dynamics, binding free energy calculations and principle component analysis, were applied to provide comprehensive insight into the interaction landscape between vancomycin and the designed lipid molecules. Interestingly, both MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA binding affinity calculations using normal molecular dynamics and accelerated molecular dynamics trajectories showed a very consistent trend, where the order of binding affinity towards vancomycin was lipid4 > lipid1 > lipid2 > lipid3. From both normal molecular dynamics and accelerated molecular dynamics, the interaction of lipid3 with vancomycin is demonstrated to be the weakest (∆G binding  = -2.17 and -11.57, for normal molecular dynamics and accelerated molecular dynamics, respectively) when compared to other complexes. We believe that the degree of unsaturation of the hydrocarbon chain in the lipid molecules may impact on the overall conformational behavior, interaction mode and encapsulation (wrapping) of the lipid molecules around the vancomycin molecule. This thorough computational analysis prior to the experimental investigation is a valuable approach to guide for predicting the encapsulation

  1. Energy dependence of identified hadron spectra and event-by-event fluctuations in p+p interactions from NA61/SHINE at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Rybczynski, Maciej; Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Dembinski, H.; Diakonos, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grabez, B.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Jakovic, D.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kaptur, E.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Maletic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Mathes, H.J.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mrowczynski, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paul, T.; Pistillo, C.; Redij, A.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Pulawski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, M.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Stroebele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vinogradov, L.; Wilczek, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek, A.; Wyszynski, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.

    2013-01-01

    NA61/SHINE at the CERN SPS is a fixed-target experiment pursuing a rich physics program including measurements for heavy ion, neutrino and cosmic ray physics. The main goal of the ion program is to explore the most interesting $T, mu_{B}$ region of the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. We plan to study the properties of the onset of deconfinement and to search for the signatures of the critical point. The search is performed by varying collision energy (13A-158A GeV/c) and system size (p+p, Be+Be, Ar+Ca, Xe+La). Thanks to its large acceptance and excellent particle identification capability NA61/SHINE is well suited for performing high-precision particle production measurements as well as for studying event-by-event fluctuations in p+p, p+nucleus and nucleus+nucleus collisions. Preliminary results on p+p interactions at 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c are presented. They include inclusive spectra of pi+, pi-, K- and protons as a function of transverse momentum/mass and rapidity as well as event-by-ev...

  2. Nanodisc-based Co-immunoprecipitation for Mass Spectrometric Identification of Membrane-interacting Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Jensen, Jonas; Roepstorff, Peter; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    enterotoxigenic Escherischia coli, GM1-nanodiscs were employed for co-immunoprecipitation. The B subunit of heat labile enterotoxin was identified as a specific interaction partner by mass spectrometry, thus demonstrating that nanodisc technology is useful for highly specific detection and identification...

  3. Searching for cellular partners of hantaviral nonstructural protein NSs: Y2H screening of mouse cDNA library and analysis of cellular interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Tuomas; Jääskeläinen, Kirsi; Blot, Guillaume; Parviainen, Ville; Vaheri, Antti; Renkonen, Risto; Bouloy, Michele; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae) are negative-strand RNA viruses with a tripartite genome. The small (S) segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein and, in some hantaviruses, also the nonstructural protein (NSs). The aim of this study was to find potential cellular partners for the hantaviral NSs protein. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening of mouse cDNA library was performed followed by a search for potential NSs protein counterparts via analyzing a cellular interactome. The resulting interaction network was shown to form logical, clustered structures. Furthermore, several potential binding partners for the NSs protein, for instance ACBD3, were identified and, to prove the principle, interaction between NSs and ACBD3 proteins was demonstrated biochemically.

  4. Changes in the Distribution of Sex Partners in the United States: 2002 to 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Christopher R; Dittus, Patricia J; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the current analysis is to examine subgroup differences in the distribution of opposite-sex sex partners in the United States across an approximate 10-year period to identify patterns that may inform sexually transmitted infection research and prevention. Data were drawn from the 2002 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, a US probability-based household survey focusing on sexual and reproductive health. The measures included in this analysis were lifetime opposite-sex sex partners and opposite-sex sex partners in the past year. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women. All analyses were conducted in R and R-studio with the "survey" package, focusing on medians, the 80th, and 95th quartile. In 2002, there were significant differences between men and women in median number of lifetime sex partners with men reporting more lifetime partners. However, in the 2011-2013 data, these differences are no longer significant. Still, the findings suggest that the top 20% and top 5% of men are reporting significantly more lifetime partners than their female counterparts. In comparison, partners in the past year remain relatively unchanged for both men and women. These findings suggest that there were important changes in the distribution of sex partners between 2002 and 2011-2013 that have implications for sexually transmitted infection prevention. Median lifetime partners are no longer different for women and men: however, the distribution of lifetime partners among men is becoming even more skewed.

  5. Positive illusions about one's partner's physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelds-Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H

    2008-03-01

    This study examined couples' ratings of self and partner physical attractiveness. On the basis of the theory of positive illusions, it was expected that individuals would rate their partners as more attractive than their partners would rate themselves. Both members of 93 heterosexual couples, with a mean relationship length of about 14 years, provided ratings of both their own and their partner's physical attractiveness. Results support the theory that individuals hold positive illusions about their partner's physical attractiveness. Implications of these results in terms of relationship-enhancing biases are discussed.

  6. Semen quality of male partners of infertile couples in Ile-Ife, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective was to evaluate seminal fluid indices of male partners of infertile couples so as to identify the current status of the contributions of male factor to infertility in our environment. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of the seminal fluid indices of consecutively consenting male partners of ...

  7. Maternal Re-Partnering and New-Partner Fertility: Associations with Nonresident Father Investments in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that paternal re-partnering and new-partner fertility are associated with decreased nonresident father investments in children. Few studies, however, have examined the influence of maternal re-partnering and new-partner births on nonresident father investments. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine associations of maternal re-partnering (through cohabitation or marriage with a new partner) and new-partner births with nonresident father visitation and child support payments. Results suggest that maternal re-partnering is associated with a decrease in both yearly father-child contact and child support received by the mother. New-partner fertility for mothers who are co-residing with a partner is associated with an additional decrease in monthly father-child contact, but does not have an additional influence on yearly father-child contact or child support receipt. PMID:22581998

  8. Search strategies for top partners in composite Higgs models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripaios, Ben; Müller, Thibaut; Parker, M. A.; Sutherland, Dave

    2014-08-01

    We consider how best to search for top partners in generic composite Higgs models. We begin by classifying the possible group representations carried by top partners in models with and without a custodial SU(2) × SU(2) ⋊ 2 symmetry protecting the rate for Z → decays. We identify a number of minimal models whose top partners only have electric charges of , , or and thus decay to top or bottom quarks via a single Higgs or electroweak gauge boson. We develop an inclusive search for these based on a top veto, which we find to be more effective than existing searches. Less minimal models feature light states that can be sought in final states with like-sign leptons and so we find that 2 straightforward LHC searches give a reasonable coverage of the gamut of composite Higgs models.

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posluszny, Donna M; Dougall, Angela Liegey; Johnson, Jonas T; Argiris, Athanassios; Ferris, Robert L; Baum, Andrew; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2015-09-01

    Head and neck cancer is a life-threatening illness requiring aversive treatments. Despite clear potential for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in both patients and their partners, research is scant. Newly diagnosed patients and partners (number of dyads = 42) completed questionnaires to assess symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, as well as demographic, medical, and attitudinal variables. Partners had higher average levels of PTSD symptoms than patients (p = .023). More partners (28.6%) met criteria for estimated PTSD caseness than did patients (11.9%). There were no significant differences in levels of other anxiety or depression symptoms. Perceived threat of disease appeared to be a stronger correlate of PTSD symptom levels than medical variables in patients and partners. A diagnosis of head and neck cancer elicits significant levels of PTSD symptoms in patients, and even higher levels among partners. Identified correlates of distress, including perceived threat of disease, are potential intervention targets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. An inventory and update of jealousy-evoking partner behaviours in modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H; Groothof, Hinke A K

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the most important jealousy-evoking partner behaviours and to examine the extent to which these behaviours evoke jealousy. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was constructed containing 42 jealousy-evoking partner behaviours, including a partner's extra-dyadic involvement with someone else by means of modern communication devices, such as the Internet. A second study examined the extent to which undergraduates and a community sample experienced jealousy in response to these partner behaviours. Results showed that explicit unfaithful behaviours evoked most feelings of jealousy, followed by a partner's emotional or romantic involvement with someone else by means of modern communication devices. In general, older individuals responded with less jealousy in response to a partner's unfaithful and suspicious behaviours. Clinical implications are discussed. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The mechanism of building competitiveness through strategic partnering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamik Anna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper assumes that strategic partnering, as one of the more mature forms of inter-organisational cooperation, is also an effective method of support for strategic activities of enterprises. In the light of the above, the use of strategic partnering in processes aimed at enhancing their competitiveness was proposed. The aim of the analyses is to identify and systematise the key actions in the mechanism of building competitiveness through strategic partnering of enterprises. For its implementation, a review of literature in the field of theory of organisation, theory of cooperation and partnering as well as theory of competitiveness was carried out. Empirical research to verify the initial theoretical assumptions was also conducted. Quantitative research (surveys and qualitative research (extended case studies was carried out. The study was based on the research procedure modelled on forecasting methods of searching for solutions to organisational problems, i.e. on creative (lateral thinking. As a result, the algorithm of building competitiveness through mature strategic partnering was formulated and recommendations were made as to the possibility of its practical use.

  12. Improved partnering through supplier self-evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, R.K.; Cobb, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Early in 1989, the Virginia Power purchasing department decided that a different approach was needed for resolving supplier partnering issues and to motivate the supplier to perform as promised to purchase order requirements. Purchasing formed task teams composed of purchasing personnel and requested that they investigate and evaluate alternative methods of order administration and supplier communications. The task teams were asked to research the feasibility of using a reward/penalty approach or to suggest an alternative method to motivate results. The task teams determined that the root cause of the problems for the identified areas of concern was that purchasing personnel and supplier personnel neither communicated well nor fully understood the effect that their actions or inactions had on each other

  13. Mass spectrometric analysis of protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jonas; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Roepstorff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for identification of interaction partners and structural characterization of protein interactions because of its high sensitivity, mass accuracy and tolerance towards sample heterogeneity. Several tools that allow studies of protein interaction are now...... available and recent developments that increase the confidence of studies of protein interaction by mass spectrometry include quantification of affinity-purified proteins by stable isotope labeling and reagents for surface topology studies that can be identified by mass-contributing reporters (e.g. isotope...... labels, cleavable cross-linkers or fragment ions. The use of mass spectrometers to study protein interactions using deuterium exchange and for analysis of intact protein complexes recently has progressed considerably....

  14. Pupil-mimicry conditions trust in partners: moderation by oxytocin and group membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-03-15

    Across species, oxytocin, an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide, facilitates social communication by attuning individuals to conspecifics' social signals, fostering trust and bonding. The eyes have an important signalling function; and humans use their salient and communicative eyes to intentionally and unintentionally send social signals to others, by contracting the muscles around their eyes and pupils. In our earlier research, we observed that interaction partners with dilating pupils are trusted more than partners with constricting pupils. But over and beyond this effect, we found that the pupil sizes of partners synchronize and that when pupils synchronously dilate, trust is further boosted. Critically, this linkage between mimicry and trust was bound to interactions between ingroup members. The current study investigates whether these findings are modulated by oxytocin and sex of participant and partner. Using incentivized trust games with partners from ingroup and outgroup whose pupils dilated, remained static or constricted, this study replicates our earlier findings. It further reveals that (i) male participants withhold trust from partners with constricting pupils and extend trust to partners with dilating pupils, especially when given oxytocin rather than placebo; (ii) female participants trust partners with dilating pupils most, but this effect is blunted under oxytocin; (iii) under oxytocin rather than placebo, pupil dilation mimicry is weaker and pupil constriction mimicry stronger; and (iv) the link between pupil constriction mimicry and distrust observed under placebo disappears under oxytocin. We suggest that pupil-contingent trust is parochial and evolved in social species in and because of group life. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Development and properties of a brief scale to assess intimate partner relationship in the postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynter, Karen; Tran, Thach Duc; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Poor quality intimate partner relationship is associated with postnatal depression and anxiety among women. Existing scales assessing the quality of this relationship are long and measure stable aspects of the relationship rather than specific behaviours which may respond to targeted interventions. The aim was to develop and investigate the properties of a brief, life stage-specific scale to assess potentially modifiable partner behaviours in the postpartum period. Participants were primiparous women from diverse geographical and socio-economic backgrounds in Victoria, Australia. Seven study-specific items were developed to assess potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship at 6 months postpartum. Women's mental health was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression and generalised anxiety modules. Factor analysis was conducted on the 7 items, and associations calculated between factor scores. Factor scores were compared for women with and without mental health problems. Mean inter-item correlations were computed to assess internal consistency. Factor analysis on data from 355 women revealed two factors with good internal consistency: Caring Partner Behaviours and Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours. Having mental health problems was associated with lower Caring Partner Behaviours and higher Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours scores. Interaction between partners was not observed; thus external criterion validity was not assessed. This brief scale is a promising means of assessing potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship in the postnatal period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring partners' perspectives on participation in heart failure home care: a mixed-method design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsström, Lena; Luttik, Marie Louise; Idvall, Ewa; Strömberg, Anna

    2017-05-01

    To describe the partners' perspectives on participation in the care for patients with heart failure receiving home care. Partners are often involved in care of patients with heart failure and have an important role in improving patients' well-being and self-care. Partners have described both negative and positive experiences of involvement, but knowledge of how partners of patients with heart failure view participation in care when the patient receives home care is lacking. A convergent parallel mixed-method design was used, including data from interviews and questionnaires. A purposeful sample of 15 partners was used. Data collection lasted between February 2010 - December 2011. Interviews were analysed with content analysis and data from questionnaires (participation, caregiving, health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms) were analysed statistically. Finally, results were merged, interpreted and labelled as comparable and convergent or as being inconsistent. Partners were satisfied with most aspects of participation, information and contact. Qualitative findings revealed four different aspects of participation: adapting to the caring needs and illness trajectory, coping with caregiving demands, interacting with healthcare providers and need for knowledge to comprehend the health situation. Results showed confirmatory results that were convergent and expanded knowledge that gave a broader understanding of partner participation in this context. The results revealed different levels of partner participation. Heart failure home care included good opportunities for both participation and contact during home visits, necessary to meet partners' ongoing need for information to comprehend the situation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. How to find the optimal partner--studies of snurportin 1 interactions with U snRNA 5' TMG-cap analogues containing modified 2-amino group of 7-methylguanosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecyk, Karolina; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Ferenc-Mrozek, Aleksandra; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena

    2015-08-01

    Snurportin 1 is an adaptor protein that mediates the active nuclear import of uridine-rich small nuclear RNAs (U snRNA) by the importin-β receptor pathway. Its cellular activity influences the overall transport yield of small ribonucleoprotein complexes containing N(2),N(2),7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) capped U snRNA. So far little is still known about structural requirements related to molecular recognition of the trimethylguanosine moiety by snurportin in solution. Since these interactions are of a great biomedical importance, we synthesized a series of new 7-methylguanosine cap analogues with extended substituents at the exocyclic 2-amino group to gain a deeper insight into how the TMG-cap is adapted into the snurportin cap-binding pocket. Prepared chemical tools were applied in binding assays using emission spectroscopy. Surprisingly, our results revealed strict selectivity of snurportin towards the TMG-cap structure that relied mainly on its structural stiffness and compactness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Partnering to Enhance Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, H.; Shipp, S. S.; Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; LaConte, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas utilizes many partners to support its multi-faceted Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. The poster will share what we have learned about successful partnerships. One portion of the program is focused on providing training and NASA content and resources to K-12 educators. Teacher workshops are performed in several locations per year, including LPI and the Harris County Department of Education, as well as across the country in cooperation with other programs and NASA Planetary Science missions. To serve the public, LPI holds several public events per year called Sky Fest, featuring activities for children, telescopes for night sky viewing, and a short scientist lecture. For Sky Fest, LPI partners with the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society; they provide the telescopes and interact with members of the public as they are viewing celestial objects. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is held annually and involves the same aspects as Sky Fest, but also includes partners from Johnson Space Center's Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science group, who provide Apollo samples for the event. Another audience that LPI E/PO serves is the NASA Planetary Science E/PO community. Partnering efforts for the E/PO community include providing subject matter experts for professional development workshops and webinars, connections to groups that work with diverse and underserved audiences, and avenues to collaborate with groups such as the National Park Service and the Afterschool Alliance. Additional information about LPI's E/PO programs can be found at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education. View a list of LPI E/PO's partners here: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/partners/.

  19. Partnering to Enhance Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Heather; Shipp, Stephanie; Shupla, Christine; Shaner, Andrew; LaConte, Keliann

    2015-11-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas utilizes many partners to support its multi-faceted Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. The poster will share what we have learned about successful partnerships. One portion of the program is focused on providing training and NASA content and resources to K-12 educators. Teacher workshops are performed in several locations per year, including LPI and the Harris County Department of Education, as well as across the country in cooperation with other programs and NASA Planetary Science missions.To serve the public, LPI holds several public events per year called Sky Fest, featuring activities for children, telescopes for night sky viewing, and a short scientist lecture. For Sky Fest, LPI partners with the NASA Johnson Space Center Astronomical Society; they provide the telescopes and interact with members of the public as they are viewing celestial objects. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is held annually and involves the same aspects as Sky Fest, but also includes partners from Johnson Space Center’s Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science group, who provide Apollo samples for the event.Another audience that LPI E/PO serves is the NASA Planetary Science E/PO community. Partnering efforts for the E/PO community include providing subject matter experts for professional development workshops and webinars, connections to groups that work with diverse and underserved audiences, and avenues to collaborate with groups such as the National Park Service and the Afterschool Alliance.Additional information about LPI’s E/PO programs can be found at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education. View a list of LPI E/PO’s partners here: http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/partners/.

  20. Detecting mutually exclusive interactions in protein-protein interaction maps.

    KAUST Repository

    Sá nchez Claros, Carmen; Tramontano, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive protein interaction maps can complement genetic and biochemical experiments and allow the formulation of new hypotheses to be tested in the system of interest. The computational analysis of the maps may help to focus on interesting cases and thereby to appropriately prioritize the validation experiments. We show here that, by automatically comparing and analyzing structurally similar regions of proteins of known structure interacting with a common partner, it is possible to identify mutually exclusive interactions present in the maps with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity higher than 85% and that, in about three fourth of the correctly identified complexes, we also correctly recognize at least one residue (five on average) belonging to the interaction interface. Given the present and continuously increasing number of proteins of known structure, the requirement of the knowledge of the structure of the interacting proteins does not substantially impact on the coverage of our strategy that can be estimated to be around 25%. We also introduce here the Estrella server that embodies this strategy, is designed for users interested in validating specific hypotheses about the functional role of a protein-protein interaction and it also allows access to pre-computed data for seven organisms.

  1. Detecting mutually exclusive interactions in protein-protein interaction maps.

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez Claros, Carmen

    2012-06-08

    Comprehensive protein interaction maps can complement genetic and biochemical experiments and allow the formulation of new hypotheses to be tested in the system of interest. The computational analysis of the maps may help to focus on interesting cases and thereby to appropriately prioritize the validation experiments. We show here that, by automatically comparing and analyzing structurally similar regions of proteins of known structure interacting with a common partner, it is possible to identify mutually exclusive interactions present in the maps with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity higher than 85% and that, in about three fourth of the correctly identified complexes, we also correctly recognize at least one residue (five on average) belonging to the interaction interface. Given the present and continuously increasing number of proteins of known structure, the requirement of the knowledge of the structure of the interacting proteins does not substantially impact on the coverage of our strategy that can be estimated to be around 25%. We also introduce here the Estrella server that embodies this strategy, is designed for users interested in validating specific hypotheses about the functional role of a protein-protein interaction and it also allows access to pre-computed data for seven organisms.

  2. Collaborative vaccine development: partnering pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Rangappa

    2008-01-01

    Vaccine development, supported by infusions of public and private venture capital, is re-entering a golden age as one of the fastest growing sectors in the life-sciences industry. Demand is driven by great unmet need in underdeveloped countries, increased resistance to current treatments, bioterrorism, and for prevention indications in travelers, pediatric, and adult diseases. Production systems are becoming less reliant on processes such as egg-based manufacturing, while new processes can help to optimize vaccines. Expeditious development hinges on efficient study conduct, which is greatly enhanced through research partnerships with specialized contract research organizations (CROs) that are licensed and knowledgeable in the intricacies of immunology and with the technologic and scientific foundation to support changing timelines and strategies inherent to vaccine development. The CRO often brings a more objective assessment for probability of success and may offer alternative development pathways. Vaccine developers are afforded more flexibility and are free to focus on innovation and internal core competencies. Functions readily outsourced to a competent partner include animal model development, safety and efficacy studies, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity, dose response studies, and stability and potency testing. These functions capitalize on the CRO partner's regulatory and scientific talent and expertise, and reduce infrastructure expenses for the vaccine developer. Successful partnerships result in development efficiencies, elimination or reduced redundancies, and improved time to market. Keys to success include honest communications, transparency, and flexibility.

  3. Mucin 1 (MUC1 is a novel partner for MAL2 in breast carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuckin Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MAL2 gene, encoding a four-transmembrane protein of the MAL family, is amplified and overexpressed in breast and other cancers, yet the significance of this is unknown. MAL-like proteins have trafficking functions, but their molecular roles are largely obscure, partly due to a lack of known binding partners. Methods Yeast two-hybrid screening of a breast carcinoma cDNA expression library was performed using a full-length MAL2 bait, and subsequent deletion mapping experiments were performed. MAL2 interactions were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analyses and confocal microscopy was employed to compare protein sub-cellular distributions. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation of membranes extracted in cold Triton X-100 was employed to compare protein distributions between Triton X-100-soluble and -insoluble fractions. Results The tumor-associated protein mucin 1 (MUC1 was identified as a potential MAL2 partner, with MAL2/MUC1 interactions being confirmed in myc-tagged MAL2-expressing MCF-10A cells using co-immunoprecipitation assays. Deletion mapping experiments demonstrated a requirement for the first MAL2 transmembrane domain for MUC1 binding, whereas the MAL2 N-terminal domain was required to bind D52-like proteins. Confocal microscopy identified cytoplasmic co-localisation of MUC1 and MAL2 in breast cell lines, and centrifugation of cell lysates to equilibrium in sucrose density gradients demonstrated that MAL2 and MUC1 proteins were co-distributed between Triton X-100-soluble and -insoluble fractions. However co-immunoprecipitation analyses detected MAL2/MUC1 interactions in Triton X-100-soluble fractions only. Myc-MAL2 expression in MCF-10A cells was associated with both increased MUC1 detection within Triton X-100-soluble and -insoluble fractions, and increased MUC1 detection at the cell surface. Conclusion These results identify MUC1 as a novel MAL2 partner, and suggest a role for MAL2 in regulating MUC1

  4. Children with Autism Show Altered Autonomic Adaptation to Novel and Familiar Social Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Emily; Bernier, Raphael A; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2016-05-01

    Social deficits are fundamental to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and a growing body of research implicates altered functioning of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), including both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches. However, few studies have explored both branches concurrently in ASD, particularly within the context of social interaction. The current study investigates patterns of change in indices of sympathetic (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) cardiac influence as boys (ages 8-11 years) with (N = 18) and without (N = 18) ASD engage in dyadic social interaction with novel and familiar social partners. Groups showed similar patterns of autonomic change during interaction with the novel partner, but differed in heart rate, PEP, and RSA reactivity while interacting with a familiar partner. Boys without ASD evinced decreasing sympathetic and increasing parasympathetic influence, whereas boys with ASD increased in sympathetic influence. Boys without ASD also demonstrated more consistent ANS responses across partners than those with ASD, with parasympathetic responding differentiating familiar and novel interaction partners. Finally, PEP slopes with a familiar partner correlated with boys' social skills. Implications include the importance of considering autonomic state during clinical assessment and treatment, and the potential value of regulation strategies as a complement to intervention programs aiming to support social cognition and behavior. Autism Res 2016, 9: 579-591. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. High-resolution array CGH profiling identifies Na/K transporting ATPase interacting 2 (NKAIN2) as a predisposing candidate gene in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romania, Paolo; Castellano, Aurora; Surace, Cecilia; Citti, Arianna; De Ioris, Maria Antonietta; Sirleto, Pietro; De Mariano, Marilena; Longo, Luca; Boldrini, Renata; Angioni, Adriano; Locatelli, Franco; Fruci, Doriana

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB), the most common solid cancer in early childhood, usually occurs sporadically but also its familial occurance is known in 1-2% of NB patients. Germline mutations in the ALK and PHOX2B genes have been found in a subset of familial NBs. However, because some individuals harbouring mutations in these genes do not develop this tumor, additional genetic alterations appear to be required for NB pathogenesis. Herein, we studied an Italian family with three NB patients, two siblings and a first cousin, carrying an ALK germline-activating mutation R1192P, that was inherited from their unaffected mothers and with no mutations in the PHOX2B gene. A comparison between somatic and germline DNA copy number changes in the two affected siblings by a high resolution array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) analysis revealed a germline gain at NKAIN2 (Na/K transporting ATPase interacting 2) locus in one of the sibling, that was inherited from the parent who does not carry the ALK mutation. Surprisingly, NKAIN2 was expressed at high levels also in the affected sibling that lacks the genomic gain at this locus, clearly suggesting the existance of other regulatory mechanisms. High levels of NKAIN2 were detected in the MYCN-amplified NB cell lines and in the most aggressive NB lesions as well as in the peripheral blood of a large cohort of NB patients. Consistent with a role of NKAIN2 in NB development, NKAIN2 was down-regulated during all-trans retinoic acid differentiation in two NB cell lines. Taken together, these data indicate a potential role of NKAIN2 gene in NB growth and differentiation.

  6. High-resolution array CGH profiling identifies Na/K transporting ATPase interacting 2 (NKAIN2 as a predisposing candidate gene in neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Romania

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB, the most common solid cancer in early childhood, usually occurs sporadically but also its familial occurance is known in 1-2% of NB patients. Germline mutations in the ALK and PHOX2B genes have been found in a subset of familial NBs. However, because some individuals harbouring mutations in these genes do not develop this tumor, additional genetic alterations appear to be required for NB pathogenesis. Herein, we studied an Italian family with three NB patients, two siblings and a first cousin, carrying an ALK germline-activating mutation R1192P, that was inherited from their unaffected mothers and with no mutations in the PHOX2B gene. A comparison between somatic and germline DNA copy number changes in the two affected siblings by a high resolution array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH analysis revealed a germline gain at NKAIN2 (Na/K transporting ATPase interacting 2 locus in one of the sibling, that was inherited from the parent who does not carry the ALK mutation. Surprisingly, NKAIN2 was expressed at high levels also in the affected sibling that lacks the genomic gain at this locus, clearly suggesting the existance of other regulatory mechanisms. High levels of NKAIN2 were detected in the MYCN-amplified NB cell lines and in the most aggressive NB lesions as well as in the peripheral blood of a large cohort of NB patients. Consistent with a role of NKAIN2 in NB development, NKAIN2 was down-regulated during all-trans retinoic acid differentiation in two NB cell lines. Taken together, these data indicate a potential role of NKAIN2 gene in NB growth and differentiation.

  7. Women as Partners of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeesh Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing Partnership with the stakeholders and giving space for planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating the project for their own development is an ideal situation of participatory development. It is the popular as well as effective way of development and leads to sustainable progress. When this partnership involves strong participation from the part of women folk, the dynamism of the developmental changes takes in a drastic form. SPED III (sustainability through participation, empowerment and decentralization is a five-year project funded by CIDA and implemented by Save A Family Plan Trust India through their 28 partner NGOs and in 520 villages across India. The methodology of the SPED III is based on the decentralized planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. In this process, women are taking important stand and new partnership brings about fundamental changes when it is analyzed from the point of view of stakeholders. The researcher analyses and seeks to find out the comprehensive, multilevel process by which the stakeholders or partners in the development especially women develop, leverage and manage the partnership. The researcher has taken five cases of exemplary changes occurred as part of a participatory development programme. Descriptive design using case study method is applied to do in depth analysis of the cases. The primary data has collected through interview schedule and FGD with shortlisted cases and secondary through sources such as case studies and annual and bi-annual reports of the CIDA programme. The researcher observed the development of perceived need into felt need where the people especially women get involved into the village issue and the spirit that takes them into transformative leadership and partners in development. It was also observed that the when women gets resources to overcome the binding chains, they came out of the culture of silence and they move far ahead in achieving the hierarchy

  8. Effect modification of air pollution on Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine by genotypes: an application of the multiple testing procedure to identify significant SNP interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiani David C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution is associated with adverse human health, but mechanisms through which pollution exerts effects remain to be clarified. One suggested pathway is that pollution causes oxidative stress. If so, oxidative stress-related genotypes may modify the oxidative response defenses to pollution exposure. Methods We explored the potential pathway by examining whether an array of oxidative stress-related genes (twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs in nine genes modified associations of pollutants (organic carbon (OC, ozone and sulfate with urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxygunosine (8-OHdG, a biomarker of oxidative stress among the 320 aging men. We used a Multiple Testing Procedure in R modified by our team to identify the significance of the candidate genes adjusting for a priori covariates. Results We found that glutathione S-tranferase P1 (GSTP1, rs1799811, M1 and catalase (rs2284367 and group-specific component (GC, rs2282679, rs1155563 significantly or marginally significantly modified effects of OC and/or sulfate with larger effects among those carrying the wild type of GSTP1, catalase, non-wild type of GC and the non-null of GSTM1. Conclusions Polymorphisms of oxidative stress-related genes modified effects of OC and/or sulfate on 8-OHdG, suggesting that effects of OC or sulfate on 8-OHdG and other endpoints may be through the oxidative stress pathway.

  9. Forbidden versus permitted interactions: Disentangling processes from patterns in ecological network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Veech, Joseph A

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have identified the tendency for species to share interacting partners as a key property to the functioning and stability of ecological networks. However, assessing this pattern has proved challenging in several regards, such as finding proper metrics to assess node overlap (sharing), and using robust null modeling to disentangle significance from randomness. Here, we bring attention to an additional, largely neglected challenge in assessing species' tendency to share interacting partners. In particular, we discuss and illustrate with two different case studies how identifying the set of "permitted" interactions for a given species (i.e. interactions that are not impeded, e.g. by lack of functional trait compatibility) is paramount to understand the ecological and co-evolutionary processes at the basis of node overlap and segregation patterns.

  10. Ravens reconcile after aggressive conflicts with valuable partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2011-03-25

    Reconciliation, a post-conflict affiliative interaction between former opponents, is an important mechanism for reducing the costs of aggressive conflict in primates and some other mammals as it may repair the opponents' relationship and reduce post-conflict distress. Opponents who share a valuable relationship are expected to be more likely to reconcile as for such partners the benefits of relationship repair should outweigh the risk of renewed aggression. In birds, however, post-conflict behavior has thus far been marked by an apparent absence of reconciliation, suggested to result either from differing avian and mammalian strategies or because birds may not share valuable relationships with partners with whom they engage in aggressive conflict. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of reconciliation in a group of captive subadult ravens (Corvus corax) and show that it is more likely to occur after conflicts between partners who share a valuable relationship. Furthermore, former opponents were less likely to engage in renewed aggression following reconciliation, suggesting that reconciliation repairs damage caused to their relationship by the preceding conflict. Our findings suggest not only that primate-like valuable relationships exist outside the pair bond in birds, but that such partners may employ the same mechanisms in birds as in primates to ensure that the benefits afforded by their relationships are maintained even when conflicts of interest escalate into aggression. These results provide further support for a convergent evolution of social strategies in avian and mammalian species.

  11. Self-regulatory failure and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Eli J; DeWall, C Nathan; Slotter, Erica B; Oaten, Megan; Foshee, Vangie A

    2009-09-01

    Five studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory failure is an important predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Study 1 participants were far more likely to experience a violent impulse during conflictual interaction with their romantic partner than they were to enact a violent behavior, suggesting that self-regulatory processes help individuals refrain from perpetrating IPV when they experience a violent impulse. Study 2 participants high in dispositional self-control were less likely to perpetrate IPV, in both cross-sectional and residualized-lagged analyses, than were participants low in dispositional self-control. Study 3 participants verbalized more IPV-related cognitions if they responded immediately to partner provocations than if they responded after a 10-s delay. Study 4 participants whose self-regulatory resources were experimentally depleted were more violent in response to partner provocation (but not when unprovoked) than were nondepleted participants. Finally, Study 5 participants whose self-regulatory resources were experimentally bolstered via a 2-week training regimen exhibited less violent inclinations than did participants whose self-regulatory resources had not been bolstered. These findings hint at the power of incorporating self-regulation dynamics into predictive models of IPV perpetration. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Community preferences for health states associated with intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Eve; Lichter, Erika L; Ganz, Michael L; McCloskey, Laura A

    2006-08-01

    One in 4 women is affected by intimate partner violence in her lifetime. This article reports on a cross-sectional survey to estimate community preferences for health states resulting from intimate partner violence. A secondary analysis was conducted of data from a convenience sample of 93 abused and 138 nonabused women (231 total) recruited for in-person interviews from hospital outpatient department waiting rooms in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. SF-12 data were converted to utilities to describe community-perspective preferences for health states associated with intimate partner violence. Linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between violence and utility while controlling for other health and demographic factors. Median utility for intimate partner violence was between 0.58 and 0.63 on a scale of 0 (equivalent to death) to 1.0 (equivalent to optimal health), with a range from 0.64 to 0.66 for less severe violence to 0.53 to 0.62 for more severe violence. The data do not reveal whether violence itself is responsible for lower utility or whether a constellation of factors contributes to disutility experienced by women victims of abuse. The utility of health states experienced by women exposed to intimate partner violence is substantially diminished compared with optimal health and even other health conditions. These values quantify the substantial negative health impact of the experience of intimate partner violence in terms that allow comparison across diseases. They can be used in cost-effectiveness analyses to identify the benefits and potential returns from resources allocated to violence prevention and intervention efforts.

  13. Predictors of intimate partner problem-related suicides among suicide decedents in Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L. Comiford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Furthermore, intimate partner problems are amid the top precipitating circumstances among suicide decedents. The aim of this study was to determine circumstantial associations of intimate partner problem-related suicides in suicide decedents in Kentucky. METHODS: All suicides that were reported to the Kentucky Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2012 were eligible for this study. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore predictors (precipitating health-related problems, life stressors, and criminal/legal issues of intimate partner problem-related suicides. RESULTS: Of the 4,754 suicides, included in this study, approximately 17% had intimate partner problems prior to suicide. In the adjusted analysis, mental health issues, alcohol problems, history of suicides attempts, suicides precipitated by another crime, and other legal problems increased the odds of having an intimate partner-related suicide. However, having physical health problems, prior to the suicide, decreased the odds of intimate partner-related suicide. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide insight for the development of suicide interventions for individuals with intimate partner problems by targeting risk factors that are prevalent among this population. Moreover, these results may help marriage/relationship and/or family/divorce court representatives identify individuals with intimate partner problems more at risk for suicide and alleviate the influence these suicide risk factors have on individuals experiencing Intimate partner problems.

  14. Older adults' acceptance of a robot for partner dance-based exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiffany L; Bhattacharjee, Tapomayukh; Beer, Jenay M; Ting, Lena H; Hackney, Madeleine E; Rogers, Wendy A; Kemp, Charles C

    2017-01-01

    Partner dance has been shown to be beneficial for the health of older adults. Robots could potentially facilitate healthy aging by engaging older adults in partner dance-based exercise. However, partner dance involves physical contact between the dancers, and older adults would need to be accepting of partner dancing with a robot. Using methods from the technology acceptance literature, we conducted a study with 16 healthy older adults to investigate their acceptance of robots for partner dance-based exercise. Participants successfully led a human-scale wheeled robot with arms (i.e., a mobile manipulator) in a simple, which we refer to as the Partnered Stepping Task (PST). Participants led the robot by maintaining physical contact and applying forces to the robot's end effectors. According to questionnaires, participants were generally accepting of the robot for partner dance-based exercise, tending to perceive it as useful, easy to use, and enjoyable. Participants tended to perceive the robot as easier to use after performing the PST with it. Through a qualitative data analysis of structured interview data, we also identified facilitators and barriers to acceptance of robots for partner dance-based exercise. Throughout the study, our robot used admittance control to successfully dance with older adults, demonstrating the feasibility of this method. Overall, our results suggest that robots could successfully engage older adults in partner dance-based exercise.

  15. Older adults’ acceptance of a robot for partner dance-based exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiffany L.; Beer, Jenay M.; Ting, Lena H.; Hackney, Madeleine E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Kemp, Charles C.

    2017-01-01

    Partner dance has been shown to be beneficial for the health of older adults. Robots could potentially facilitate healthy aging by engaging older adults in partner dance-based exercise. However, partner dance involves physical contact between the dancers, and older adults would need to be accepting of partner dancing with a robot. Using methods from the technology acceptance literature, we conducted a study with 16 healthy older adults to investigate their acceptance of robots for partner dance-based exercise. Participants successfully led a human-scale wheeled robot with arms (i.e., a mobile manipulator) in a simple, which we refer to as the Partnered Stepping Task (PST). Participants led the robot by maintaining physical contact and applying forces to the robot’s end effectors. According to questionnaires, participants were generally accepting of the robot for partner dance-based exercise, tending to perceive it as useful, easy to use, and enjoyable. Participants tended to perceive the robot as easier to use after performing the PST with it. Through a qualitative data analysis of structured interview data, we also identified facilitators and barriers to acceptance of robots for partner dance-based exercise. Throughout the study, our robot used admittance control to successfully dance with older adults, demonstrating the feasibility of this method. Overall, our results suggest that robots could successfully engage older adults in partner dance-based exercise. PMID:29045408

  16. Older adults' acceptance of a robot for partner dance-based exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L Chen

    Full Text Available Partner dance has been shown to be beneficial for the health of older adults. Robots could potentially facilitate healthy aging by engaging older adults in partner dance-based exercise. However, partner dance involves physical contact between the dancers, and older adults would need to be accepting of partner dancing with a robot. Using methods from the technology acceptance literature, we conducted a study with 16 healthy older adults to investigate their acceptance of robots for partner dance-based exercise. Participants successfully led a human-scale wheeled robot with arms (i.e., a mobile manipulator in a simple, which we refer to as the Partnered Stepping Task (PST. Participants led the robot by maintaining physical contact and applying forces to the robot's end effectors. According to questionnaires, participants were generally accepting of the robot for partner dance-based exercise, tending to perceive it as useful, easy to use, and enjoyable. Participants tended to perceive the robot as easier to use after performing the PST with it. Through a qualitative data analysis of structured interview data, we also identified facilitators and barriers to acceptance of robots for partner dance-based exercise. Throughout the study, our robot used admittance control to successfully dance with older adults, demonstrating the feasibility of this method. Overall, our results suggest that robots could successfully engage older adults in partner dance-based exercise.

  17. Advancing Partner Notification Through Electronic Communication Technology: A Review of Acceptability and Utilization Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellowski, Jennifer; Mathews, Catherine; Kalichman, Moira O; Dewing, Sarah; Lurie, Mark N; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-06-01

    A cornerstone of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention is the identification, tracing, and notification of sex partners of index patients. Although partner notification reduces disease burden and prevents new infections as well as reinfections, studies show that only a limited number of partners are ever notified. Electronic communication technologies, namely, the Internet, text messaging, and phone calls (i.e., e-notification), have the potential to expand partner services. We conducted a systematic review of studies that have investigated the acceptability and utility of e-notification. We identified 23 studies that met the following criteria: (a) 9 studies presented data on the acceptability of technology-based communications for contacting sex partner(s), and (b) 14 studies reported on the utilization of communication technologies for partner notification. Studies found high levels of interest in and acceptability of e-notification; however, there was little evidence for actual use of e-notification. Taken together, results suggest that electronic communications could have their greatest impact in notifying less committed partners who would otherwise be uninformed of their STI exposure. In addition, all studies to date have been conducted in resource-rich countries, although the low cost of e-notification may have its greatest impact in resource-constrained settings. Research is needed to determine the best practices for exploiting the opportunities afforded by electronic communications for expanding STI partner services.

  18. Pharmacy-level barriers to implementing expedited partner therapy in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jennifer Z; Diniz, Clarissa P; Coleman, Jenell S

    2018-05-01

    Addressing record high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence in the United States requires the utilization of effective strategies, such as expedited partner therapy, to reduce reinfection and further transmission. Expedited partner therapy, which can be given as a prescription or medication, is a strategy to treat the sexual partners of index patients diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection without prior medical evaluation of the partners. There are multiple steps in the prescription-expedited partner therapy cascade, and we sought to identify pharmacy-level barriers to implementing prescription-expedited partner therapy for Chlamydia trachomatis treatment. We used spatial analysis and ArcGIS, a geographic information system, to map and assess geospatial access to pharmacies within Baltimore, MD, neighborhoods with the highest rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (1180.25-4255.31 per 100,000 persons). Expedited partner therapy knowledge and practices were collected via a telephone survey of pharmacists employed at retail pharmacies located in these same neighborhoods. Cost of antibiotic medication in US dollars was collected. Census tracts with the highest Chlamydia trachomatis incidence rates had lower median pharmacy density than other census tracts (26.9 per 100,000 vs 31.4 per 100,000, P barriers to implementing prescription-expedited partner therapy. Although most Baltimore pharmacists were unaware of expedited partner therapy, they were generally receptive to learning about and filling expedited partner therapy prescriptions. This finding suggests the need for wide dissemination of educational material targeted to pharmacists. In areas with limited geographic access to pharmacies, expedited partner therapy strategies that do not depend on partners physically accessing a pharmacy merit consideration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards Using a Generic Robot as Training Partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth; Nielsen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how a generic industrial robot can be used as a training partner, for upper limb training. The motion path and human/robot interaction of a non-generic upper-arm training robot is transferred to a generic industrial robot arm, and we demonstrate that the robot arm can...... implement the same type of interaction, but can expand the training regime to include both upper arm and shoulder training. We compare the generic robot to two affordable but custom-built training robots, and outline interesting directions for future work based on these training robots....

  20. Spouses' involvement in their partners' diabetes management: associations with spouse stress and perceived marital quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Kristin J; Rook, Karen S; Franks, Melissa M; Parris Stephens, Mary Ann

    2013-10-01

    Spouses frequently attempt to influence (control) or support their chronically ill partners' adherence behaviors. Studies have documented effects of spousal control and support on chronically ill individuals, but little is known about how these two forms of involvement in a partner's disease management may be associated with spouses' stress or the quality of their interactions with their ill partners. The current study sought to address this gap by examining spouses' day-to-day involvement in their marital partner's management of type 2 diabetes (n = 129). Multilevel analyses of daily diary data revealed that on days when spouses exerted control, they reported more stress and more tense marital interactions, although these associations were more pronounced when patients exhibited poor adherence, had been ill for a longer period of time, and had more comorbid health conditions. On days when spouses provided support, in contrast, they reported less stress and more enjoyable marital interactions. The findings from the current study suggest that spouses' day-to-day stress and quality of interactions with their partners are associated with spouses' involvement in their partners' disease management, with health-related social control and support exhibiting distinctive associations.

  1. Partner-Mediated Polymorphism of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignon, Christophe; Troilo, Francesca; Gianni, Stefano; Longhi, Sonia

    2017-11-29

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) recognize their partners through molecular recognition elements (MoREs). The MoRE of the C-terminal intrinsically disordered domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (N TAIL ) is partly pre-configured as an α-helix in the free form and undergoes α-helical folding upon binding to the X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein. Beyond XD, N TAIL also binds the major inducible heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). So far, no structural information is available for the N TAIL /hsp70 complex. Using mutational studies combined with a protein complementation assay based on green fluorescent protein reconstitution, we have investigated both N TAIL /XD and N TAIL /hsp70 interactions. Although the same N TAIL region binds the two partners, the binding mechanisms are different. Hsp70 binding is much more tolerant of MoRE substitutions than XD, and the majority of substitutions lead to an increased N TAIL /hsp70 interaction strength. Furthermore, while an increased and a decreased α-helicity of the MoRE lead to enhanced and reduced interaction strength with XD, respectively, the impact on hsp70 binding is negligible, suggesting that the MoRE does not adopt an α-helical conformation once bound to hsp70. Here, by showing that the α-helical conformation sampled by the free form of the MoRE does not systematically commit it to adopt an α-helical conformation in the bound form, we provide an example of partner-mediated polymorphism of an IDP and of the relative insensitiveness of the bound structure to the pre-recognition state. The present results therefore contribute to shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which IDPs recognize different partners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonverbal behavior during face-to-face social interaction in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions.

  3. What patients with pulmonary fibrosis and their partners think: a live, educative survey in the Netherlands and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Mirjam J.G.; Kreuter, Michael; van den Blink, Bernt; Oltmanns, Ute; Palmowski, Karin; Brunnemer, Eva; Hummler, Simone; Tak, Nelleke C.; van den Toorn, Leon; Miedema, Jelle; Hoogsteden, Henk C.

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis greatly impacts patients and their partners. Unmet needs of patients are increasingly acknowledged; the needs of partners often remain unnoticed. Little is known about the best way to educate patients and partners. We investigated pulmonary fibrosis patients' and partners' perspectives and preferences in care, and the differences in these between the Netherlands and Germany. Additionally, we evaluated whether interactive interviewing could be a novel education method in this population. Patients and partners were interviewed during pulmonary fibrosis patient information meetings. In the Netherlands, voting boxes were used and results were projected directly. In Germany, questionnaires were used. In the Netherlands, 278 patients and partners participated; in Germany, 51. Many participants experienced anxiety. Almost all experienced misunderstanding, because people do not know what pulmonary fibrosis is. All expressed a need for information, psychological support and care for partners. Use of the interactive voting system was found to be pleasant (70%) and informative (94%). This study improves the knowledge of care needs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and their partners. There were no major differences between the Netherlands and Germany. Interactive interviewing could be an attractive method to acquire insights into the needs and preferences of patients and partners, while providing them with information at the same time. PMID:28229083

  4. What patients with pulmonary fibrosis and their partners think: a live, educative survey in the Netherlands and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam J.G. van Manen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis greatly impacts patients and their partners. Unmet needs of patients are increasingly acknowledged; the needs of partners often remain unnoticed. Little is known about the best way to educate patients and partners. We investigated pulmonary fibrosis patients' and partners' perspectives and preferences in care, and the differences in these between the Netherlands and Germany. Additionally, we evaluated whether interactive interviewing could be a novel education method in this population. Patients and partners were interviewed during pulmonary fibrosis patient information meetings. In the Netherlands, voting boxes were used and results were projected directly. In Germany, questionnaires were used. In the Netherlands, 278 patients and partners participated; in Germany, 51. Many participants experienced anxiety. Almost all experienced misunderstanding, because people do not know what pulmonary fibrosis is. All expressed a need for information, psychological support and care for partners. Use of the interactive voting system was found to be pleasant (70% and informative (94%. This study improves the knowledge of care needs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and their partners. There were no major differences between the Netherlands and Germany. Interactive interviewing could be an attractive method to acquire insights into the needs and preferences of patients and partners, while providing them with information at the same time.

  5. Employee assistance program services for intimate partner violence and client satisfaction with these services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; McKay, Tasseli; Cumminskey, Chris; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Lindquist, Christine H; Lasater, Beth M; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Krotki, Karol; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2010-08-01

    To describe intimate partner violence (IPV) services available through employee assistance programs (EAPs) and determine women's satisfaction with these services. A mixed-methods study consisting of semistructured telephone interviews with 28 EAPs about IPV-related services and a national web-based survey of 1765 women regarding their interactions with EAPs when seeking IPV-related assistance. Data were collected in the fall of 2008. EAPs provide fairly extensive services to individuals experiencing IPV. Satisfaction with EAP services for IPV was significantly associated with annual income and the type of help received from the EAP, but not with type of IPV experienced. EAP representatives described challenges with accurately identifying IPV victims and women expressed concerns with confidentiality. Future efforts to enhance the ability of EAPs to respond effectively to IPV should address confidentially and strengthen how IPV-related assistance is delivered.

  6. BIRTHPLACE, CULTURE, SELF-ESTEEM AND INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING HISPANIC WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; McCabe, Brian E.; Peragallo, Nilda P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variations in demographics, culture, self-esteem and intimate partner violence among Hispanic women according to birthplace, and to identify factors that are associated with these differences in intimate partner violence. Baseline data from a randomized control trial testing the efficacy of an HIV prevention program was used. Path analyses identified differences in intimate partner violence between Colombian women and women from other Central/South American. Self-esteem was the only factor that was associated with these differences. Interventions that address the unique needs of Hispanic women from different subgroups are needed. PMID:23363655

  7. Getting acquainted: Actor and partner effects of attachment and temperament on young children's peer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Nancy L; Holland, Ashley S; Engle, Jennifer M; Ogolsky, Brian G

    2014-06-01

    Guided by a dyadic view of children's peer behavior, this study assessed actor and partner effects of attachment security and temperament on young children's behavior with an unfamiliar peer. At 33 months of age, child-mother attachment security was assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure, and parents reported on child temperament (anger proneness and social fearfulness). At 39 months, same-sex children (N = 114, 58 girls) were randomly paired, and child dyads were observed during 3 laboratory visits occurring over 1 month. Actor-partner interdependence models, tested via multilevel modeling, revealed that actor security, partner anger proneness, and acquaintanceship (e.g., initial vs. later visits) combined to predict child behavior. Actor security predicted more responsiveness to the new peer partner at the initial visit, regardless of partner anger proneness. Actor security continued to predict responsiveness at the 2nd and 3rd visits when partner anger was low, but these associations were nonsignificant when partner anger was high. Actor security also predicted a less controlling assertiveness style at the initial visit when partner anger proneness was high, yet this association was nonsignificant by the final visit. The findings shed light on the dynamic nature of young children's peer behavior and indicate that attachment security is related to behavior in expected ways during initial interactions with a new peer, but may change as children become acquainted. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. An exploratory study on the information needs of prostate cancer patients and their partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos P. Kassianos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the information needs of men with prostate cancer and their partners retrospectively at various points in the treatment process. An online questionnaire was used to collect information from men with prostate cancer and their partners about information needs, and when these developed. Readers of a Prostate Care Cookbook and members of a Prostate Cancer Charity were invited to participate: 73 men with prostate cancer and 25 partners completed the questionnaire. Responses showed that participants develop their information needs close to diagnosis. Less educated men with prostate cancer and partners developed their needs closer to the time after diagnosis than those with higher education. Partners develop an interest on information related to treatment and interaction earlier than patients. Patients prioritised treatment and disease-specific information. Patients and partners differ in how their information needs develop. Medical information is prioritized by patients as opposed to practical information by partners. Health care provision can be tailored to meet the different needs of prostate cancer patients and their partners at different times in the treatment process

  9. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  10. Partner support and maternal depression in the context of the Iowa floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Hart, Kimberly J; McCabe, Jennifer E; Williamson, J Austin; Laplante, David P; Yu, Chunbo; King, Suzanne

    2014-12-01

    A systematic investigation of the role of prenatal partner support in perinatal maternal depression was conducted. Separate facets of partner support were examined (i.e., received support and support adequacy) and a multidimensional model of support was applied to investigate the effects of distinct types of support (i.e., informational, physical comfort, emotional/esteem, and tangible support). Both main and stress-buffering models of partner support were tested in the context of prenatal maternal stress resulting from exposure to a natural disaster. Questionnaire data were analyzed from 145 partnered women using growth curve analytic techniques. Results indicate that received support interacts with maternal flood stress during pregnancy to weaken the association between stress and trajectories of maternal depression from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Support adequacy did not interact with stress, but was associated with levels of depressive symptoms controlling for maternal stress and received support. Results demonstrate the distinct roles of various facets and types of support for a more refined explanatory model of prenatal partner support and perinatal maternal depression. Results inform both main effect and stress buffering models of partner support as they apply to the etiology of perinatal maternal depression, and highlight the importance of promoting partner support during pregnancy that matches support preferences.

  11. [Sexual partners and practices of young homosexuals in Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Luís Felipe

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on the organization of the erotic lives of young men who engage in homosexual practices. The reflections presented here are based on ethnographic research including observation in places of homosociability and interviews with young men in Rio de Janeiro reporting homosexual practices. By presenting erotic scenes pertaining to a homoerotic circuit and recording the sexual trajectories of young men engaging in homosexual practices, the article seeks to identify the implications of the observed erotic scripts and sex-partner patterns for the sexual health of these individuals. The text calls special attention to reports concerning the emergence of different forms of erotic interaction in childhood, as well as cross-age and crossgenerational partnerships that extend into adulthood, with a growing trend toward seeking younger partners as the young men themselves grow older. The article suggests that such phenomena require a more in-depth understanding, since they have serious implications for planning sexual health measures for young men (and boys) who engage in homosexual practices.

  12. Intimate partner violence against women in eastern Uganda: implications for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tylleskar Thorkild

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT. Methods The study consisted of a household survey of rural and urban women with infants in Mbale district, complemented with focus group discussions with women and men. Women were interviewed on socio-demographic characteristics of the woman and her husband, antenatal and postnatal experience related to the youngest child, antenatal HIV testing, perceptions regarding the marital relationship, and intimate partner violence. We obtained ethical approval from Makerere University and informed consent from all participants in the study. Results During November and December 2003, we interviewed 457 women in Mbale District. A further 96 women and men participated in the focus group discussions. The prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence was 54% and physical violence in the past year was 14%. Higher education of women (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 and marriage satisfaction (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 were associated with lower risk of intimate partner violence, while rural residence (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2–16.2 and the husband having another partner (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.02–5.7 were associated with higher risk of intimate partner violence. There was a strong association between sexual coercion and lifetime physical violence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5–5.7. Multiple partners and consumption of alcohol were major reasons for intimate partner violence. According to the focus group discussions, women fear to test for HIV, disclose HIV results, and request to use condoms

  13. Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings