Sample records for identify historic pear

  1. Population structure of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on pear trees in China identified using microsatellites. (United States)

    Cao, Jinjun; Li, Jie; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen


    The spiraea aphid (Aphis spiraecola Patch) is a primary pest of fruit trees, particularly pear trees in China. Despite the economic importance of this pest, little is known about its genetic structure or its patterns of dispersal at local and regional scales; however, knowledge of these characteristics is important for establishing effective control strategies for this pest. The genetic variability of 431 individuals from 21 populations on pear trees in China was investigated using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. The high polymorphism of these markers was evident from the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.824) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.805), indicating that the spiraea aphid maintains a high level of genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed a middle level of population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.1478) among A. spiraecola populations. This result is consistent with the results of the STRUCTURE analysis (K = 3), the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average tree and the Mantel test (r = 0.6392; P < 0.05). Our results indicate high levels of genetic exchange in the spiraea aphid, possibly facilitated by geography and climate. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering regional differences in studies of population structure, even when strong isolation-by-distance influences the genetic population structure of species.

  2. Targeted deep resequencing identifies coding variants in the PEAR1 gene that play a role in platelet aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonhee Kim

    Full Text Available Platelet aggregation is heritable, and genome-wide association studies have detected strong associations with a common intronic variant of the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor1 (PEAR1 gene both in African American and European American individuals. In this study, we used a sequencing approach to identify additional exonic variants in PEAR1 that may also determine variability in platelet aggregation in the GeneSTAR Study. A 0.3 Mb targeted region on chromosome 1q23.1 including the entire PEAR1 gene was Sanger sequenced in 104 subjects (45% male, 49% African American, age = 52±13 selected on the basis of hyper- and hypo- aggregation across three different agonists (collagen, epinephrine, and adenosine diphosphate. Single-variant and multi-variant burden tests for association were performed. Of the 235 variants identified through sequencing, 61 were novel, and three of these were missense variants. More rare variants (MAF<5% were noted in African Americans compared to European Americans (108 vs. 45. The common intronic GWAS-identified variant (rs12041331 demonstrated the most significant association signal in African Americans (p = 4.020×10(-4; no association was seen for additional exonic variants in this group. In contrast, multi-variant burden tests indicated that exonic variants play a more significant role in European Americans (p = 0.0099 for the collective coding variants compared to p = 0.0565 for intronic variant rs12041331. Imputation of the individual exonic variants in the rest of the GeneSTAR European American cohort (N = 1,965 supports the results noted in the sequenced discovery sample: p = 3.56×10(-4, 2.27×10(-7, 5.20×10(-5 for coding synonymous variant rs56260937 and collagen, epinephrine and adenosine diphosphate induced platelet aggregation, respectively. Sequencing approaches confirm that a common intronic variant has the strongest association with platelet aggregation in African Americans

  3. PEAR code review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, R.; Jamieson, T.; Lord, M.; Lafortune, J.F.


    As a necessary component in the continuous improvement and refinement of methodologies employed in the nuclear industry, regulatory agencies need to periodically evaluate these processes to improve confidence in results and ensure appropriate levels of safety are being achieved. The independent and objective review of industry-standard computer codes forms an essential part of this program. To this end, this work undertakes an in-depth review of the computer code PEAR (Public Exposures from Accidental Releases), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to assess accidental releases from CANDU reactors. PEAR is based largely on the models contained in the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) N288.2-M91. This report presents the results of a detailed technical review of the PEAR code to identify any variations from the CSA standard and other supporting documentation, verify the source code, assess the quality of numerical models and results, and identify general strengths and weaknesses of the code. The version of the code employed in this review is the one which AECL intends to use for CANDU 9 safety analyses. (author)

  4. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies (United States)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; hide


    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  5. Pear transformed with a lytic peptide gene for disease control affects nontarget organism, pear psylla (Homoptera: Psyllidae). (United States)

    Puterka, Gary J; Bocchetti, Chris; Dang, Phat; Bell, R L; Scorza, Ralph


    The biology and behavior of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola Foerster, on a transgenic clone of 'Bartlett' pear, Pyrus communis L., containing a synthetic antimicrobial gene, D5C1, was compared with that of a nontransgenic parental clone to determine whether there were any nontarget effects. The gene construct also contained the marker gene nptII (aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase II) that encodes for antibiotic resistance to identify transformed plants. The purpose of the original transformation was to enhance pear resistance to the bacterial disease fireblight caused by Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al. The biology and behavior of pear psylla on a transgenic clone were compared with a nontransgenic parental pear clone in short- (crops.

  6. Narrowing Historical Uncertainty: Probabilistic Classification of Ambiguously Identified Tree Species in Historical Forest Survey Data (United States)

    David J. Mladenoff; Sally E. Dahir; Eric V. Nordheim; Lisa A. Schulte; Glenn G. Gutenspergen


    Historical data have increasingly become appreciated for insight into the past conditions of ecosystems, Uses of such data include assessing the extent of ecosystem change; deriving ecological baselines for management, restoration, and modeling; and assessing the importance of past conditions on the composition and function of current systems. One historical data set...

  7. Chemical thinning of 'Conference' pears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.; Kanne, H.J.; Steeg, van der P.A.H.


    The increasing difference in the market value of small and larger sized ‘Conference’ pears (>65 mm) and the high labour costs for hand thinning, makes it interesting for growers to find a cheaper and reliable method for thinning pear trees. In 2007, 2008 and 2009 trials were carried out to test

  8. The genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.). (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Zebin; Zhang, Shu; Ming, Ray; Zhu, Shilin; Khan, M Awais; Tao, Shutian; Korban, Schuyler S; Wang, Hao; Chen, Nancy J; Nishio, Takeshi; Xu, Xun; Cong, Lin; Qi, Kaijie; Huang, Xiaosan; Wang, Yingtao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Juyou; Deng, Cao; Gou, Caiyun; Zhou, Weili; Yin, Hao; Qin, Gaihua; Sha, Yuhui; Tao, Ye; Chen, Hui; Yang, Yanan; Song, Yue; Zhan, Dongliang; Wang, Juan; Li, Leiting; Dai, Meisong; Gu, Chao; Wang, Yuezhi; Shi, Daihu; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Huping; Zeng, Liang; Zheng, Danman; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Maoshan; Wang, Guangbiao; Xie, Lin; Sovero, Valpuri; Sha, Shoufeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhang, Shujun; Zhang, Mingyue; Sun, Jiangmei; Xu, Linlin; Li, Yuan; Liu, Xing; Li, Qingsong; Shen, Jiahui; Wang, Junyi; Paull, Robert E; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling


    The draft genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) using a combination of BAC-by-BAC and next-generation sequencing is reported. A 512.0-Mb sequence corresponding to 97.1% of the estimated genome size of this highly heterozygous species is assembled with 194× coverage. High-density genetic maps comprising 2005 SNP markers anchored 75.5% of the sequence to all 17 chromosomes. The pear genome encodes 42,812 protein-coding genes, and of these, ~28.5% encode multiple isoforms. Repetitive sequences of 271.9 Mb in length, accounting for 53.1% of the pear genome, are identified. Simulation of eudicots to the ancestor of Rosaceae has reconstructed nine ancestral chromosomes. Pear and apple diverged from each other ~5.4-21.5 million years ago, and a recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) event must have occurred 30-45 MYA prior to their divergence, but following divergence from strawberry. When compared with the apple genome sequence, size differences between the apple and pear genomes are confirmed mainly due to the presence of repetitive sequences predominantly contributed by transposable elements (TEs), while genic regions are similar in both species. Genes critical for self-incompatibility, lignified stone cells (a unique feature of pear fruit), sorbitol metabolism, and volatile compounds of fruit have also been identified. Multiple candidate SFB genes appear as tandem repeats in the S-locus region of pear; while lignin synthesis-related gene family expansion and highly expressed gene families of HCT, C3'H, and CCOMT contribute to high accumulation of both G-lignin and S-lignin. Moreover, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism is a key pathway for aroma in pear fruit.

  9. Pear distillates from pear juice concentrate: effect of lees in the aromatic composition. (United States)

    García-Llobodanin, L; Achaerandio, I; Ferrando, M; Güell, C; López, F


    Pear juice obtained from pear concentrate was fermented at room temperature using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BDX, ENOFERM, France) as the fermentation microorganism. During the fermentation process, total sugars were measured. High performance liquid chromatography analyses were used to monitor the fermentation process and to characterize the pear wine. The pear wine obtained was distilled with its lees using three different equipments: a glass alembic (a glass pot still coupled to a glass column), a copper alembic, and a glass alembic with the addition of 5 g/L of copper shavings to the pot still. The same distillations were repeated with the wine without its lees (separated by decanting). Several distillation fractions were collected, up to a total of 500 mL of distillate. Gas chromatography was used to identify and quantify the volatile compounds in each fraction, and the methanol and ethanol contents. Based on these results, the heart fraction was defined. ANOVA tests were performed on the heart fractions to determine quantitative differences between some volatile compounds depending on the equipment used and the presence or absence of the wine lees. From this series of ANOVA tests, it can be concluded that the concentrations of the compounds that are considered to have a negative effect on the quality of the distillates (methanol, ethyl acetate, furfural) decrease or do not change when they are distilled in the presence of lees and in the copper alembic. In addition, the concentrations of the positive compounds (ethyl decanoate and ethyl-2-trans-4-cis-decadienoate) increase in the presence of lees for all of the equipment tested. So, it can be assumed that the distillation of pear wine with its lees in copper alembic leads to a better quality product.

  10. 76 FR 54075 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears (United States)


    ... production research and market development, $6,355,000 for promotion and paid advertising for winter pears, and $1,260,000 for promotion and paid advertising for summer/ fall pears. In comparison, major... advertising for winter pears, and $1,410,000 for promotion and paid advertising for summer/fall pears. The...

  11. Micropropagation of pear (Pyrus sp.). (United States)

    Reed, Barbara M; Denoma, Jeanine; Wada, Sugae; Postman, Joseph


    Elements of micropropagation include establishment of shoot tip cultures, proliferation, rooting, and acclimatization of the resulting plantlets. The wide genetic variation in Pyrus makes micropropagation challenging for many genotypes. Initiation of shoots is most successful from forced dormant shoots or from scions grafted onto seedling rootstocks to impose juvenility. Clean shoots are recovered after testing for contaminants at the initiation stage on ½ strength Murashige and Skoog 1962 medium (MS), at pH 6.9 for 1 week or by streaking on nutrient agar. Although pear species and cultivars are cultured on several well-known media, MS is the most commonly used. Our studies showed that multiplication and growth of shoots are best on Pear Medium with higher concentrations of calcium chloride, potassium phosphate, and magnesium sulfate than MS medium and 4.4 μM N(6) benzyladenine. Pear shoots are often recalcitrant to rooting; however, a 5 s dip in 10 mM indole-3-butyric acid or naphthalene acetic acid before planting on basal medium without plant growth regulators is effective for many genotypes. Pear shoots store well at 1-4°C, and can hold for as long as 4 years without reculture. Cryopreservation protocols are available for long-term storage of pear shoot tips. Acclimation of in vitro-rooted or micrografted shoots in a mist bed follows standard procedures.

  12. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin. (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H


    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  13. Microorganisms associated with the spoilage of avocado pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microorganisms associated with the spoilage of Avocado pear, Persea americana fruits, purchased fresh from various markets in Benin City were investigated. The pour plate method was used for the isolation. A total of nine species of microorganisms were isolated and identified in this study. They comprise of seven ...

  14. 77 FR 72197 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears (United States)


    ... Agricultural Statistics Service, the total farm-gate value of summer/fall processed pears grown in Oregon and... introductory text and paragraph (a) are revised to read as follows: Sec. 927.237 Processed pear assessment rate...

  15. Harnessing Biomedical Natural Language Processing Tools to Identify Medicinal Plant Knowledge from Historical Texts. (United States)

    Sharma, Vivekanand; Law, Wayne; Balick, Michael J; Sarkar, Indra Neil


    The growing amount of data describing historical medicinal uses of plants from digitization efforts provides the opportunity to develop systematic approaches for identifying potential plant-based therapies. However, the task of cataloguing plant use information from natural language text is a challenging task for ethnobotanists. To date, there have been only limited adoption of informatics approaches used for supporting the identification of ethnobotanical information associated with medicinal uses. This study explored the feasibility of using biomedical terminologies and natural language processing approaches for extracting relevant plant-associated therapeutic use information from historical biodiversity literature collection available from the Biodiversity Heritage Library. The results from this preliminary study suggest that there is potential utility of informatics methods to identify medicinal plant knowledge from digitized resources as well as highlight opportunities for improvement.

  16. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Fruits of Asian Pear Tree Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum


    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Park, Yeong Seob


    Anthracnose symptoms often occurred on fruits of Asian pear trees grown in Anseong, Naju, Seonghwan and Pyeongtaek in Korea during the harvesting period from 2000 to 2005. A total of 28 isolates of Colletotrichum sp. were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms. All the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Four isolates of the fungus were tested for pathogenicity to fruits of Asian pear tree by artificial inoculation. Al...

  17. Aromatically enhanced pear distillates from blanquilla and conference varieties using a packed column. (United States)

    Arrieta-Garay, Yanine; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López-Vázquez, Cristina; Orriols, Ignacio; López, Francisco


    Pear distillates are generally produced from the Bartlett variety because of its rich aroma. In this study, a chemical and sensorial comparative examination of pear distillates from the three main varieties grown in Spain (Bartlett, Blanquilla, and Conference) using two distillation systems (copper Charentais alembic and packed column) was undertaken. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography to differentiate the spirits according to pear variety and distillation method. The Bartlett distillates from both distillation systems possessed higher ethyl ester and acetate and lower cis-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol concentrations. Despite these differences, a sensory analysis panel could distinguish only the Bartlett alembic distillate from the alembic distillates of the other varieties. In contrast, the panel rated the packed-column distillates equally. Therefore, less aromatic pear varieties can be used to produce distillates with aromatic characteristics similar to those of the Bartlett variety if a suitable distillation process is used.

  18. Cell-Specific PEAR1 Methylation Studies Reveal a Locus that Coordinates Expression of Multiple Genes

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    Benedetta Izzi


    Full Text Available Chromosomal interactions connect distant enhancers and promoters on the same chromosome, activating or repressing gene expression. PEAR1 encodes the Platelet-Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1, a contact receptor involved in platelet function and megakaryocyte and endothelial cell proliferation. PEAR1 expression during megakaryocyte differentiation is controlled by DNA methylation at its first CpG island. We identified a PEAR1 cell-specific methylation sensitive region in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes that showed strong chromosomal interactions with ISGL20L2, RRNAD1, MRLP24, HDGF and PRCC, using available promoter capture Hi-C datasets. These genes are involved in ribosome processing, protein synthesis, cell cycle and cell proliferation. We next studied the methylation and expression profile of these five genes in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs and megakaryocyte precursors. While cell-specific PEAR1 methylation corresponded to variability in expression for four out of five genes, no methylation change was observed in their promoter regions across cell types. Our data suggest that PEAR1 cell-type specific methylation changes may control long distance interactions with other genes. Further studies are needed to show whether such interaction data might be relevant for the genome-wide association data that showed a role for non-coding PEAR1 variants in the same region and platelet function, platelet count and cardiovascular risk.

  19. 21 CFR 145.175 - Canned pears. (United States)


    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits § 145.175 Canned pears. (a.... The lower end of the rod is a plane surface to which the vertical axis of the rod is perpendicular...

  20. Using Historical Data to Automatically Identify Air-Traffic Control Behavior (United States)

    Lauderdale, Todd A.; Wu, Yuefeng; Tretto, Celeste


    This project seeks to develop statistical-based machine learning models to characterize the types of errors present when using current systems to predict future aircraft states. These models will be data-driven - based on large quantities of historical data. Once these models are developed, they will be used to infer situations in the historical data where an air-traffic controller intervened on an aircraft's route, even when there is no direct recording of this action.

  1. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears. (United States)


    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND... means pears that have been certified by an organic certification organization currently registered with... under the National Organic Program. Communications ...

  2. Proteomic analysis of 'Zaosu' pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its early-maturing bud sport. (United States)

    Liu, Xueting; Zhai, Rui; Feng, Wenting; Zhang, Shiwei; Wang, Zhigang; Qiu, Zonghao; Zhang, Junke; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei


    Maturation of fruits involves a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes that eventually make fleshy fruits attractive, palatable, and nutritional. In order to understand the mature mechanism of the early-maturing bud sport of 'Zaosu' pear, we analyzed the differences of proteome expression between the both pears in different mature stages by the methods of a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. Seventy-five differential expressed protein spots (psport, but only sixty-eight were demonstratively identified in the database of NCBI and uniprot. The majority of proteins were linked to metabolism, energy, stress response/defense and cell structure. Additionally, our data confirmed an increase of proteins related to cell-wall modification, oxidative stress and pentose phosphate metabolism and a decrease of proteins related to photosynthesis and glycolysis during the development process of both pears, but all these proteins increased or decreased faster in the early-maturing bud sport. This comparative analysis between both pears showed that these proteins were closely associated with maturation and could provide more detailed characteristics of the maturation process of both pears. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-39 - Fragrant pears from China. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fragrant pears from China. 319.56-39 Section 319.56-39... pears from China. Fragrant pears may be imported into the United States from China only under the... China. (2) All propagative material introduced into a registered production site must be certified free...

  4. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There are exempted from the provisions of the order any and all pears which, in individual gift packages, are shipped...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pear is among the fruits of major commercial interest in the world and one of the most imported in Brazil. Brazilian production is very small and the fruit quality is low, due to production problems. The success of culture in the country, among other factors, may be linked to the choice of cultivars, pollinating and rootstocks better adapted to local conditions, and thus depend on the particulars of an agricultural zoning. The aim of this study was to identify, in southern Brazil, homogeneous climatic zones with potential for growing of European and Asian pears, through climate risk studies. The regions were defined by the seasonal availability of chilling hours (<7.2 °C accumulated during the period from May to September and the monthly risk of drought. The analysis allowed the recognition of four homogeneous areas for the production of pears in southern Brazil.

  6. Occurrence of Anthracnose on Fruits of Asian Pear Tree Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. (United States)

    Kim, Wan Gyu; Hong, Sung Kee; Park, Yeong Seob


    Anthracnose symptoms often occurred on fruits of Asian pear trees grown in Anseong, Naju, Seonghwan and Pyeongtaek in Korea during the harvesting period from 2000 to 2005. A total of 28 isolates of Colletotrichum sp. were obtained from the anthracnose symptoms. All the isolates were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Four isolates of the fungus were tested for pathogenicity to fruits of Asian pear tree by artificial inoculation. All the isolates induced anthracnose symptoms on the fruits by wound inoculation but not by unwound inoculation. The anthracnose symptoms induced by artificial inoculation were similar to those observed in the orchard. This is the first report of anthracnose of Asian pear tree caused by Colletotrichum acutatum.

  7. Ancient DNA in historical parchments - identifying a procedure for extraction and amplification of genetic material. (United States)

    Lech, T


    Historical parchments in the form of documents, manuscripts, books, or letters, make up a large portion of cultural heritage collections. Their priceless historical value is associated with not only their content, but also the information hidden in the DNA deposited on them. Analyses of ancient DNA (aDNA) retrieved from parchments can be used in various investigations, including, but not limited to, studying their authentication, tracing the development of the culture, diplomacy, and technology, as well as obtaining information on the usage and domestication of animals. This article proposes and verifies a procedure for aDNA recovery from historical parchments and its appropriate preparation for further analyses. This study involved experimental selection of an aDNA extraction method with the highest efficiency and quality of extracted genetic material, from among the multi-stage phenol-chloroform extraction methods, and the modern, column-based techniques that use selective DNA-binding membranes. Moreover, current techniques to amplify entire genetic material were questioned, and the possibility of using mitochondrial DNA for species identification was analyzed. The usefulness of the proposed procedure was successfully confirmed in identification tests of historical parchments dating back to the 13-16th century AD.

  8. Physicochemical Properties of Avocado Pear (Persea americana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil from edible avocado pear (Persea americana) was extracted using the Soxhlet extraction method and characterized for specific gravity, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value, acid value and biofuel potential using standard methods. The percent oil content in the fruit pulp was determined.

  9. (Persea americana) and African pear (Dacryodes edulis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 2, 2007 ... The percent oil content in the fruit pulp was determined. The oil content of avocado pear .... isomerisation processes which usually lead to loss of unsaturation. The low ... The role of fats and oils in cosmetics. JAOCS 49(71):.

  10. Ohmic Heating Assisted Lye Peeling of Pears. (United States)

    Gupta, Sarvesh; Sastry, Sudhir K


    Currently, high concentrations (15% to 18%) of lye (sodium hydroxide) are used in peeling pears, constituting a wastewater handling and disposal problem for fruit processors. In this study, the effect of ohmic heating on lye peeling of pears was investigated. Pears were peeled using 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3% NaOH under different electric field strengths at two run times and their peeled yields were compared to that obtained at 2% and 18% NaOH with conventional heating. Results revealed that ohmic heating results in greater than 95% peeled yields and the best peel quality at much lower concentrations of lye (2% NaOH at 532 V/m and 3% NaOH at 426 and 479 V/m) than those obtained under conventional heating conditions. Treatment times of 30 and 60 s showed no significant differences. Within the studied range, the effects of increasing field strength yielded no significant additional benefits. These results confirm that the concentration of lye can be significantly lowered in the presence of ohmic heating to achieve high peeled yields and quality. Our work shows that lye concentrations can be greatly reduced while peeling pears, resulting in significant savings in use of caustic chemicals, reduced costs for effluent treatment and waste disposal. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Historical uses of saffron: Identifying potential new avenues for modern research

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    Seyedeh Zeinab Mousavi


    Full Text Available Objective: During the ancient times, saffron (Crocus sativus L. had many uses around the world; however, some of these uses were forgotten throughout the history. But a newly formed interest in natural active compounds brought back the attention toward historical uses of saffron. Understanding different uses of saffron in the past can help us finding the best uses at present. In this study, we reviewed different uses of saffron throughout the history among different nations.Methods: ISI web of Science and Medline, along with references of traditional Iranian medicine were searched for historical uses of saffron.Results: Saffron has been known since more than 3000 years ago by many nations. It was valued not only as a culinary condiment, but also as a dye, perfume and as a medicinal herb. Its medicinal uses ranged from treating eye problems to genitourinary and many other diseases in various cultures. It was also used as a tonic agent and antidepressant drug among many nations. Conclusion(s: Saffron has had many different uses such as a food additive and a palliative agent for many human diseases. Thus, as an important medicinal herb, it is a good candidate with many promising potentials to be considered for new drug design.

  12. Historical uses of saffron: Identifying potential new avenues for modern research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zeinab Mousavi


    Full Text Available Objective: During the ancient times, saffron (Crocus sativus L. had many uses around the world; however, some of these uses were forgotten throughout the history. But a newly formed interest in natural active compounds brought back the attention toward historical uses of saffron. Understanding different uses of saffron in the past can help us finding the best uses at present.In this study, wereviewed different uses of saffron throughout the history among different nations. Methods: ISI web of Science and Medline, along with references of traditional Iranian medicine were searched for historical uses of saffron. Results: Saffron has been known since more than 3000 years ago by many nations. It was valued not only as a culinary condiment, but also as a dye, perfume and as a medicinal herb. Its medicinal uses ranged from treating eye problems to genitourinary and many other diseases in various cultures. It was also used as a tonic agent and antidepressant drug among many nations. Conclusion(s: Saffron has had many different uses such as a food additive and a palliative agent for many human diseases. Thus, as an important medicinal herb, it is a good candidate with many promising potentials to be considered for new drug design.

  13. The principles, procedures and pitfalls in identifying archaeological and historical wood samples. (United States)

    Cartwright, Caroline R


    The science of wood anatomy has evolved in recent decades to add archaeological and historical wood to its repertoire of documenting and characterizing modern and fossil woods. The increasing use of online wood anatomy databases and atlases has fostered the adoption of an international consensus regarding terminology, largely through the work of the International Association of Wood Anatomists (IAWA). This review presents an overview for the general reader of the current state of principles and procedures involved in the study of the wood anatomy of archaeological and historical specimens, some of which may be preserved through charring, waterlogging, desiccation or mineral replacement. By means of selected case studies, the review evaluates to what extent varying preservation of wood anatomical characteristics limits the level of identification to taxon. It assesses the role played by increasingly accessible scanning electron microscopes and complex optical microscopes, and whether these, on the one hand, provide exceptional opportunities for high-quality imaging and analysis of difficult samples, but, on the other hand, might be misleading the novice into thinking that advanced technology can be a substitute for specialized botanical training in wood anatomy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  14. Systematic Analysis of the 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase (4CL Related Genes and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development in the Chinese Pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Cao


    Full Text Available In plants, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases (4CLs, comprising some of the adenylate-forming enzymes, are key enzymes involved in regulating lignin metabolism and the biosynthesis of flavonoids and other secondary metabolites. Although several 4CL-related proteins were shown to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study on 4CL-related genes in the pear and other Rosaceae species has been reported. In this study, we identified 4CL-related genes in the apple, peach, yangmei, and pear genomes using DNATOOLS software and inferred their evolutionary relationships using phylogenetic analysis, collinearity analysis, conserved motif analysis, and structure analysis. A total of 149 4CL-related genes in four Rosaceous species (pear, apple, peach, and yangmei were identified, with 30 members in the pear. We explored the functions of several 4CL and acyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS genes during the development of pear fruit by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. We found that duplication events had occurred in the 30 4CL-related genes in the pear. These duplicated 4CL-related genes are distributed unevenly across all pear chromosomes except chromosomes 4, 8, 11, and 12. The results of this study provide a basis for further investigation of both the functions and evolutionary history of 4CL-related genes.

  15. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  16. Synchrotron DUV luminescence micro-imaging to identify and map historical organic coatings on wood. (United States)

    Echard, Jean-Philippe; Thoury, Mathieu; Berrie, Barbara H; Séverin-Fabiani, Tatiana; Vichi, Alessandra; Didier, Marie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Bertrand, Loïc


    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photoluminescence (PL) microimaging is an emerging approach to characterise materials from historical artefacts (see M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. H. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme and L. Bertrand, Anal. Chem., 2011, 83, 1737-1745). Here we further assess the potential of the method to access a deeper understanding of multi-layered varnishes coating wooden violins and lutes. Cross-section micro samples from important 16(th)- to 18(th)-century instruments were investigated using synchrotron PL microimaging and microspectroscopy. Excitation was performed in the DUV and the near ultraviolet (NUV) regions, and emission recorded from the DUV to the visible region, at a submicrometric spatial resolution. Intercomparison of microspectroscopy and microimaging was made possible by radiometrically correcting PL spectra both in excitation and emission. Based on an optimised selection of emission and excitation bands, the specific PL features of the organic binding materials allowed a vastly enhanced discrimination between collagen-based sizing layers and oil/resin-based layers compared to epiluminescence microscopy. PL therefore appears to be a very promising analytical tool to provide new insights into the diversity of surface coating techniques used by instrument-makers. More generally, our results demonstrate the potential of synchrotron PL for studying complex heterogeneous materials beyond the core application of the technique to life sciences.

  17. Approaches for identifying change in the abundance and historical distribution of a freshwater diatom (United States)

    Spaulding, S. A.; Pite, D.; Wolfe, A. P.; Sundareshwar, P. V.


    The diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Bacillariophyta) has been considered native to high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. In recent years, this species has expanded its range to New Zealand and South America, forming large, invasive blooms in rivers. In contrast, historical populations in Alaska (Katmai National Park) have remained unchanged, while those in at least one Montana site have declined. In addition to a complex distributional history, this diatom has proven its remarkable ability to produce high amounts of biomass in low nutrient rivers. The high biomass is composed of the diatom cytoplasm and silica cell wall, but the high amounts of organic mater are mostly composed of extracellular mucopolysaccaride stalks. For example, in a low nutrient river, Lake Creek in Grand Teton National Park, the biovolume of D. geminata was estimated to be 57 m3 / km of stream, containing nearly 400 μg P / g stalk (dry weight). We examine the recent pattern of expansion of this species, the geochemical processes associated with the stalk, and paleolimnological record to 10,000 ybp to access the ecological factors that relate to the geographic distribution of this microscopic species on a regional and global scale.

  18. Identifying the role of historical anthropogenic activities on urban soils: geochemical impact and city scale mapping (United States)

    Le Guern, Cecile; Baudouin, Vivien; Conil, Pierre


    Recently, European cities have faced several changes including deindustrialization and population increase. To limit urban sprawl, urban densification is preferred. It conducts to (re)develop available areas such as brownfields. Although these areas can be attractive for housing due to their location (in proximity to the city centre or to a riverside), their soils and subsoils are often contaminated. They are therefore potentially harmful for human health and the environment, and potentially costly to remediate. Currently, in case of contamination suspicion, depth geochemical characterization of urban soil and subsoil are carried out at site scale. Nevertheless, large redevelopment project occur at quarter to city scale. It appears therefore useful to acquire the preliminary knowledge on the structure and quality of soil and subsoils, as well as on the potential sources of contamination at quarter to city scale. In the frame of the Ile de Nantes (France) redevelopment project, we considered more particularly anthropogenic deposits and former industrial activities as main sources of contamination linked to human activities. To face the low traceability of the use of anthropogenic deposits and the lack of synthesis of former industrial activities, we carried out a historical study, synthetizing the information spread in numerous archive documents to spatialize the extent of the deposits and of the former activities. In addition we developed a typology of made grounds according to their contamination potential to build a 3D geological model with a geochemical coherence. In this frame, we valorized existing borehole descriptions coming mainly from pollution diagnosis and geotechnical studies. We also developed a methodology to define urban baseline compatibility levels using the existing analytical data at depth from pollution diagnosis. These data were previously gathered in a local geodatabase towards with borehole descriptions (more than 2000 borehole descriptions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Validžić


    Full Text Available The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae, furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Section of Entomology and Nematology. In this study, pear shoot sawfly in Eastern Slavonia occurred in the period of four weeks, starting from the third decade of April with the peak population at the beginning of the May. Adults flight is the most intensive during warm and sunny days, when temperatures are above 14°C. Adult sawflies are characterized by elongated body and antennae, usually 7-12 mm long and sexual dimorphism is present. Pest is univoltine. Basic colour of adult sawfly is black. Antennae are moniliform and consist of 20 (male - 22 (female segments. Females have red or dark red colored abdomen, while males have yellow or orange one. Eggs are cylindrically shaped, 0.8-1.0 mm long. Female lays approximately 30 eggs. Embryonic development of pear shoot sawfly eggs lasts from 11 to 14 days. Larvae are 8-10 mm long, white or pale yellow. Larvae molt three times. Pear shoot sawfly larvae were parasitized by insects from Hymenoptera order, from five identified and one unidentified genera. Level of parasitism by genera is as follows: Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae – 9.83%, Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – 2.01%, Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae – 1.66%, Pteromalus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae – 0.55%, Ichneumonida sp. (Hymenoptera: Pimplinae – 0.35% and unidentified genera – 0.62%. Plant parasitic species Metopoplax origani (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae was found in 1.80% of analyzed shoots. Larvae were

  20. Genome-wide analysis of WRKY transcription factors in white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) reveals evolution and patterns under drought stress. (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosan; Li, Kongqing; Xu, Xiaoyong; Yao, Zhenghong; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Shaoling


    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) constitute one of the largest protein families in higher plants, and its members contain one or two conserved WRKY domains, about 60 amino acid residues with the WRKYGQK sequence followed by a C2H2 or C2HC zinc finger motif. WRKY proteins play significant roles in plant development, and in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world and is frequently threatened by abiotic stress, such as drought, affecting growth, development and productivity. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little is known about the WRKY TFs in pear, especially in respond to drought stress at the genome-wide level. We identified a total of 103 WRKY TFs in the pear genome. Based on the structural features of WRKY proteins and topology of the phylogenetic tree, the pear WRKY (PbWRKY) family was classified into seven groups (Groups 1, 2a-e, and 3). The microsyteny analysis indicated that 33 (32%) PbWRKY genes were tandemly duplicated and 57 genes (55.3%) were segmentally duplicated. RNA-seq experiment data and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that PbWRKY genes in different groups were induced by drought stress, and Group 2a and 3 were mainly involved in the biological pathways in response to drought stress. Furthermore, adaptive evolution analysis detected a significant positive selection for Pbr001425 in Group 3, and its expression pattern differed from that of other members in this group. The present study provides a solid foundation for further functional dissection and molecular evolution of WRKY TFs in pear, especially for improving the water-deficient resistance of pear through manipulation of the PbWRKYs.

  1. Systematic analysis and comparison of the PHD-Finger gene family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) and its role in fruit development. (United States)

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Abdullah, Muhammad; Li, Dahui; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping


    PHD-finger proteins, which belongs to the type of zinc finger family, and that play an important role in the regulation of both transcription and the chromatin state in eukaryotes. Currently, PHD-finger proteins have been well studied in animals, while few studies have been carried out on their function in plants. In the present study, 129 non-redundant PHD-finger genes were identified from 5 Rosaceae species (pear, apple, strawberry, mei, and peach); among them, 31 genes were identified in pear. Subsequently, we carried out a bioinformatics analysis of the PHD-finger genes. Thirty-one PbPHD genes were divided into 7 subfamilies based on the phylogenetic analysis, which are consistent with the intron-exon and conserved motif analyses. In addition, we identified five segmental duplication events, implying that the segmental duplications might be a crucial role in the expansion of the PHD-finger gene family in pear. The microsynteny analysis of five Rosaceae species showed that there were independent duplication events in addition to the genome-wide duplication of the pear genome. Subsequently, ten expressed PHD-finger genes of pear fruit were identified using qRT-PCR, and one of these genes, PbPHD10, was identified as an important candidate gene for the regulation of lignin synthesis. Our research provides useful information for the further analysis of the function of PHD-finger gene family in pear.

  2. Historical sources of black carbon identified by PAHs and δ13C in Sanjiang Plain of Northeastern China (United States)

    Gao, Chuanyu; Liu, Hanxiang; Cong, Jinxin; Han, Dongxue; Zhao, Winston; Lin, Qianxin; Wang, Guoping


    Black carbon (BC), the byproduct of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass can be stored in soil for a long time and potentially archive changes in natural and human activities. Increasing amounts of BC has been produced from human activities during the past 150 years and has influenced global climate change and carbon cycle. Identifying historical BC sources is important in knowing how historical human activities influenced BC and BC transportation processes in the atmosphere. In this study, PAH components and δ13C-BC in peatland in the Sanjiang Plain were used for identifying and verifying regional BC sources during the last 150 years. Results showed that environment-unfriendly industry developed at the end of the 1950s produced a great amount of BC and contributed the most BC in this period. In other periods, however, BC in the Sanjiang Plain was mainly produced from incomplete biomass burning before the 1990s; particularly, slash-and-burn of pastures and forests during regional reclamation periods between the 1960s and 1980s produced a huge amount of biomass burning BC, which then deposited into the surrounding ecosystems. With the regional reclamation decreasing and environment-friendly industry developing, the proportion of BC emitted and deposited from transportation sources increased and transportation source became an important BC source in the Sanjiang Plain after the 1990s.

  3. Critical points and magnitude of impacts on the packing line: effect on ripening and quality of 'Packham's Triumph' pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Pasini


    Full Text Available Pears have a very sensitive epidermis and are prone to signal mechanical blemishes, which result in reduced visual quality and low consumer acceptance. The objective of this work was to identify critical points and the magnitude of impact forces on a packing line at a commercial packinghouse. The effect of injuries on ripening and quality of ´Packham´s Triumph´ pears was also evaluated after cold storage. The packing line was scrutinized on its transfer points, fruit drop heights and cushioning overlays, which allowed to acquire the maximum accelerations on each spot. The maximum acceleration forces were reproduced in the lab with ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears to evaluate the effects on fruit quality after cold storage. Four critical points were noticed on the packing line: at the transfer from the conveyor belt to the lifting rollers, at the transfer from the lifting rollers to the washing ramp with rotatory brushes, at the entrance to the singulator at the end of the conveyor belt and at the drop from the sizer to the packing stalls. Ripening of ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears invariably came about during cold storage, and independently of the imposed impacts. The impacts under the circumstances of the test did not affect the quality of ´Packham´s Triumph´ pears kept for up to 120 days at cold storage followed by five days at room temperature.

  4. Effect of hormone treatments on deformed fruit development in pear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 31, 2012 ... of plant growth regulators applications and endogenous hormones on deformed pear fruit to clarify the relation- ship between shape and hormones in the fruit. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The experiments were conducted in 2008 using pear trees growing fruit demonstration farm in Jianning County.

  5. 76 FR 78168 - Importation of Chinese Sand Pears From China (United States)


    ... require the sand pears to be packed in cartons that are labeled with the identity of the place of... of China. (5) The pears must be packed in cartons that are labeled with the identity of the place of... registration of places of production and packinghouses, sourcing of pest-free propagative material, inspection...

  6. Changes in endogenous hormone contents of pear stock ( Pyrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, changes in endogenous hormone contents of pear stock seeds during cold stratification were investigated. Abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased with increase in the periods of stratification of pear stock seeds. However, gibberellic acid (GA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents of Pyrus betulaefolia and ...

  7. Detection of pear thrips damage using satellite imagery data (United States)

    James E. Vogelmann; Barrett N. Rock


    This study evaluates the potential of measuring, mapping and monitoring sugar maple damage caused by pear thrips in southern Vermont and northwestern Massachusetts using satellite imagery data. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were obtained during a major thrips infestation in June 1988, and were compared with satellite data acquired during June 1984 (before pear...

  8. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions. (United States)


    ... alternating or mixed pattern. Marketable. Pear production acceptable for processing or other human consumption... irrigation water supply, if caused by an insured peril that occurs during the insurance period. (b) In... provisions of the Basic Provisions are not applicable. 13. Pear Quality Adjustment Endorsement (a) This...

  9. Wet faeces produced by sheep fed dried spineless cactus pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cactus pear cladodes in ruminant diets are characterized by the production of wet faeces and assumed to be diarrhoea. Incremental levels of sun-dried and coarsely ground spineless cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Algerian) cladodes were used to substitute part of the lucerne hay in balanced sheep diets. Feed and ...

  10. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pear Regulation 12. 917.461 Section 917.461 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of flower...

  11. Quality characteristics and phenolic compounds of European pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pear fruits are an important source of plant secondary metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolic compounds. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the individual phenolic compounds and some quality characteristics of the flesh and peel of the fruit in four pear ...

  12. Identifying the Minimum Model Features to Replicate Historic Morphodynamics of a Juvenile Delta (United States)

    Czapiga, M. J.; Parker, G.


    We introduce a quasi-2D morphodynamic delta model that improves on past models that require many simplifying assumptions, e.g. a single channel representative of a channel network, fixed channel width, and spatially uniform deposition. Our model is useful for studying long-term progradation rates of any generic micro-tidal delta system with specification of: characteristic grain size, input water and sediment discharges and basin morphology. In particular, we relax the assumption of a single, implicit channel sweeping across the delta topset in favor of an implicit channel network. This network, coupled with recent research on channel-forming Shields number, quantitative assessments of the lateral depositional length of sand (corresponding loosely to levees) and length between bifurcations create a spatial web of deposition within the receiving basin. The depositional web includes spatial boundaries for areas infilling with sands carried as bed material load, as well as those filling via passive deposition of washload mud. Our main goal is to identify the minimum features necessary to accurately model the morphodynamics of channel number, width, depth, and overall delta progradation rate in a juvenile delta. We use the Wax Lake Delta in Louisiana as a test site due to its rapid growth in the last 40 years. Field data including topset/island bathymetry, channel bathymetry, topset/island width, channel width, number of channels, and radial topset length are compiled from US Army Corps of Engineers data for 1989, 1998, and 2006. Additional data is extracted from a DEM from 2015. These data are used as benchmarks for the hindcast model runs. The morphology of Wax Lake Delta is also strongly affected by a pre-delta substrate that acts as a lower "bedrock" boundary. Therefore, we also include closures for a bedrock-alluvial transition and an excess shear rate-law incision model to estimate bedrock incision. The model's framework is generic, but inclusion of individual

  13. Adsorption isotherms of pear at several temperatures


    Mitrevski Vangelče; Lutovska Monika; Mijakovski Vladimir; Pavkov Ivan S.; Babić Mirko M.; Radojčin Milivoje T.


    The moisture adsorption isotherms of pear were determined at 15ºC, 30ºC and 45ºC using the standard static gravimetric method over a range of water activity from 0.112 to 0.920. The experimental data were fitted with isotherm equations recommended in ASAE Standard D245.5. In order to find which equation gives the best results, large number of numerical experiments were performed. After that, several statistical criteria proposed in scientific literature for...

  14. Characterization and analysis of CCR and CAD gene families at the whole-genome level for lignin synthesis of stone cells in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) fruit. (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; Li, Manli; Li, Dahui; Zhang, Jinyun; Jin, Qing; Sheng, Lingling; Cai, Yongping; Lin, Yi


    The content of stone cells has significant effects on the flavour and quality of pear fruit. Previous research suggested that lignin deposition is closely related to stone cell formation. In the lignin biosynthetic pathway, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), dehydrogenase/reductase family members, catalyse the last two steps in monolignol synthesis. However, there is little knowledge of the characteristics of the CCR and CAD families in pear and their involvement in lignin synthesis of stone cells. In this study, 31 CCR s and 26 CAD s were identified in the pear genome. Phylogenetic trees for CCR s and CAD s were constructed; key amino acid residues were analysed, and three-dimensional structures were predicted. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), PbCAD2 , PbCCR1 , -2 and - 3 were identified as participating in lignin synthesis of stone cells in pear fruit. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the expressed proteins (PbCAD2, PbCCR1, -2 and -3) are found in the cytoplasm or at the cell membrane. These results reveal the evolutionary features of the CCR and CAD families in pear as well as the genes responsible for regulation of lignin synthesis and stone cell development in pear fruit. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Characterization and analysis of CCR and CAD gene families at the whole-genome level for lignin synthesis of stone cells in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Cheng


    Full Text Available The content of stone cells has significant effects on the flavour and quality of pear fruit. Previous research suggested that lignin deposition is closely related to stone cell formation. In the lignin biosynthetic pathway, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, dehydrogenase/reductase family members, catalyse the last two steps in monolignol synthesis. However, there is little knowledge of the characteristics of the CCR and CAD families in pear and their involvement in lignin synthesis of stone cells. In this study, 31 CCRs and 26 CADs were identified in the pear genome. Phylogenetic trees for CCRs and CADs were constructed; key amino acid residues were analysed, and three-dimensional structures were predicted. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, PbCAD2, PbCCR1, -2 and -3 were identified as participating in lignin synthesis of stone cells in pear fruit. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the expressed proteins (PbCAD2, PbCCR1, -2 and -3 are found in the cytoplasm or at the cell membrane. These results reveal the evolutionary features of the CCR and CAD families in pear as well as the genes responsible for regulation of lignin synthesis and stone cell development in pear fruit.

  16. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.: Genome-Wide Identification, Classification and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Peng eCao


    Full Text Available The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although some MYBs have been reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes. The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the twenty genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear.

  17. Historical zoonoses and other changes in host tropism of Staphylococcus aureus, identified by phylogenetic analysis of a population dataset.

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    Marcus A Shepheard

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus exhibits tropisms to many distinct animal hosts. While spillover events can occur wherever there is an interface between host species, changes in host tropism only occur with the establishment of sustained transmission in the new host species, leading to clonal expansion. Although the genomic variation underpinning adaptation in S. aureus genotypes infecting bovids and poultry has been well characterized the frequency of switches from one host to another remains obscure. We sought to identify sustained switches in host tropism in the S. aureus population, both anthroponotic and zoonotic, and their distribution over the species phylogeny. METHODOLOGIES/RESULTS: We have used a sample of 3042 isolates, representing 696 distinct MLST genotypes, from a well-established database ( Using an empirical parsimony approach (AdaptML we have investigated the distribution of switches in host association between both human and non-human (henceforth referred to as animal hosts. We reconstructed a credible description of past events in the form of a phylogenetic tree; the nodes and leaves of which are statistically associated with either human or animal habitats, estimated from extant host-association and the degree of sequence divergence between genotypes. We identified 15 likely historical switching events; 13 anthroponoses and two zoonoses. Importantly, we identified two human-associated clade candidates (CC25 and CC59 that have arisen from animal-associated ancestors; this demonstrates that a human-specific lineage can emerge from an animal host. We also highlight novel rabbit-associated genotypes arising from a human ancestor.S. aureus is an organism with the capacity to switch into and adapt to novel hosts, even after long periods of isolation in a single host species. Based on this evidence, animal-adapted S. aureus lineages exhibiting resistance to antibiotics must be considered a major threat to public health, as they

  18. Identifying Spatio-Temporal Landslide Hotspots on North Island, New Zealand, by Analyzing Historical and Recent Aerial Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hölbling


    Full Text Available Accurate mapping of landslides and the reliable identification of areas most affected by landslides are essential for advancing the understanding of landslide erosion processes. Remote sensing data provides a valuable source of information on the spatial distribution and location of landslides. In this paper we present an approach for identifying landslide-prone “hotspots” and their spatio-temporal variability by analyzing historical and recent aerial photography from five different dates, ranging from 1944 to 2011, for a study site near the town of Pahiatua, southeastern North Island, New Zealand. Landslide hotspots are identified from the distribution of semi-automatically detected landslides using object-based image analysis (OBIA, and compared to hotspots derived from manually mapped landslides. When comparing the overlapping areas of the semi-automatically and manually mapped landslides the accuracy values of the OBIA results range between 46% and 61% for the producer’s accuracy and between 44% and 77% for the user’s accuracy. When evaluating whether a manually digitized landslide polygon is only intersected to some extent by any semi-automatically mapped landslide, we observe that for the natural-color images the landslide detection rate is 83% for 2011 and 93% for 2005; for the panchromatic images the values are slightly lower (67% for 1997, 74% for 1979, and 72% for 1944. A comparison of the derived landslide hotspot maps shows that the distribution of the manually identified landslides and those mapped with OBIA is very similar for all periods; though the results also reveal that mapping landslide tails generally requires visual interpretation. Information on the spatio-temporal evolution of landslide hotspots can be useful for the development of location-specific, beneficial intervention measures and for assessing landscape dynamics.

  19. Subject in Tractatus according to David Pears

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    M Hoseinzadeh Yazdi


    Full Text Available Subjectivism is viewed as one of the most fundamental underpinnings of modern philosophy. In modern philosophy, subject takes up a new position in human knowledge. The formation of the concept of subject is a decisive turn with which the modern philosophy starts. Considering the centrality of subjectivism in modern philosophy, this article attempts to explain subject in Tractatus according to David Pears. A review of Wittgenstein’s earlier teachings reveals that he considers a fundamental limitation for language. The subject serves as a point of view from which the language can be understood. The subject is the presupposition of understanding. Another way of putting this would be to say that any experience is understood from a point of view which is not represented in that experience. Regarding this, it seems that earlier Wittgenstein is somehow subjectivist. This specific form of subjectivism is different from Kantian subjectivism.

  20. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo


    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry.

  1. Aerial spray trials for pear thrips management fall 1988 (United States)

    H. Brenton Teillon; Bruce L. Parker


    The defoliation from pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), in 1988 caused a great deal of public concern throughout the entire State of Vermont and the New England region (Parker et al. 1988).

  2. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals (United States)

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine


    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  3. Carbon footprint of apple and pear : orchards, storage and distribution


    Figueiredo, F.; Castanheira, E.G.; Feliciano, M.; Rodrigues, M.A.; Peres, A.; Maia, F.; Ramos, A.; Carneiro, J.P.; Coroama, V.C.; Freire, F.


    Apple and pear represent 51% of fresh fruit orchards in Portugal. This paper presents a life-cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment (so-called carbon footprint) of 3 apple and 1 pear Portuguese production systems. An LC model and inventory were implemented, encompassing the farm stage (cultivation of fruit trees in orchards), storage and distribution (transport to retail). The functional unit considered in this study was 1 kg of distributed fruit (at retail). Four different LC inventories...

  4. Characterization of the lipoxygenase (LOX) gene family in the Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) and comparison with other members of the Rosaceae. (United States)

    Li, Meng; Li, Leiting; Dunwell, Jim M; Qiao, Xin; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Shaoling


    Lipoxygenases (LOXs), a type of non-haem iron-containing dioxygenase, are ubiquitous enzymes in plants and participate in the formation of fruit aroma which is a very important aspect of fruit quality. Amongst the various aroma volatiles, saturated and unsaturated alcohols and aldehydes provide the characteristic aroma of the fruit. These compounds are formed from unsaturated fatty acids through oxidation, pyrolysis and reduction steps. This biosynthetic pathway involves at least four enzymes, including LOX, the enzyme responsible for lipid oxidation. Although some studies have been conducted on the LOX gene family in several species including Arabidopsis, soybean, cucumber and apple, there is no information from pear; and the evolutionary history of this gene family in the Rosaceae is still not resolved. In this study we identified 107 LOX homologous genes from five Rosaceous species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus × domestica, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume and Prunus persica); 23 of these sequences were from pear. By using structure analysis, phylogenic analysis and collinearity analysis, we identified variation in gene structure and revealed the phylogenetic evolutionary relationship of this gene family. Expression of certain pear LOX genes during fruit development was verified by analysis of transcriptome data. 23 LOX genes were identified in pear and these genes were found to have undergone a duplication 30-45 MYA; most of these 23 genes are functional. Specific gene duplication was found on chromosome4 in the pear genome. Useful information was provided for future research on the evolutionary history and transgenic research on LOX genes.

  5. Identifying and Allocating Geodetic Systems to historical oil gas wells by using high-resolution satellite imagery (United States)

    Alvarez, Gabriel O.


    Hydrocarbon exploration in Argentina started long before the IGM created a single, high-precision geodetic reference network for the whole country. Several geodetic surveys were conducted in every producing basin, which have ever since then supported well placement. Currently, every basin has a huge amount of information referenced to the so-called "local" geodetic systems, such as Chos Malal - Quiñi Huao in the Neuquén Basin, and Pampa del Castillo in the San Jorge Basin, which differ to a greater or lesser extent from the national Campo Inchauspe datum established by the IGM in 1969 as the official geodetic network. However, technology development over the last few years and the expansion of satellite positioning systems such as GPS resulted in a new world geodetic order. Argentina rapidly joined this new geodetic order through the implementation of a new national geodetic system by the IGM: POSGAR network, which replaced the old national Campo Inchauspe system. However, this only helped to worsen the data georeferencing issue for oil companies, as a third reference system was added to each basin. Now every basin has a local system, the national system until 1997 (Campo Inchauspe), and finally the newly created POSGAR network national satellite system, which is geocentric unlike the former two planimetric datums. The purpose of this paper is to identify and allocate geodetic systems of coordinates to historical wells, whose geodetic system is missing or has been erroneously allocated, by using currently available technological resources such as geographic information systems and high-resolution satellite imagery.

  6. Adsorption isotherms of pear at several temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrevski Vangelče


    Full Text Available The moisture adsorption isotherms of pear were determined at 15ºC, 30ºC and 45ºC using the standard static gravimetric method over a range of water activity from 0.112 to 0.920. The experimental data were fitted with isotherm equations recommended in ASAE Standard D245.5. In order to find which equation gives the best results, large number of numerical experiments were performed. After that, several statistical criteria proposed in scientific literature for estimation and selection of the best sorption isotherm equations were used. For each equation and experimental data set, the average performance index was calculated and models were ranked afterwards. After that, some statistical rejection criteria were checked (D’Agostino-Pearson test of normality, single-sample run test and significance and precision of the model parameters. The performed statistical analysis shows that the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB equation has the highest value of average performance index, but higher correlation between pair of parameters leads to lower precision of estimated parameters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31058

  7. Impacts and underlying factors of landscape-scale, historical disturbance of mountain forest identified using archival documents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brůna, Josef; Wild, Jan; Svoboda, M.; Heurich, M.; Müllerová, Jana


    Roč. 2013, č. 305 (2013), s. 294-306 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/0843 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : mountain forests * disturbance * historical range of variability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.667, year: 2013

  8. Genetic linkage maps of Japanese and European pears aligned to the apple consensus map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamamoto, T.; Kimura, T.; Saito, T.; Kotobuki, K.; Matsuta, N.; Liebhard, R.; Gessler, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Hayashi, T.


    Genetic linkage maps of the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar `Housui¿ and the European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar `Bartlett¿ were constructed based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers (AFLPs), Simple Sequence Repeat markers (SSRs) (from pear, apple and Prunus),

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in accordance...

  10. Crowdsourcing modern and historical data identifies sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus habitat offshore of south-western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Johnson


    Full Text Available The distribution and use of pelagic habitat by sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus is poorly understood in the south-eastern Indian Ocean off Western Australia. However, a variety of data are available via online portals where records of historical expeditions, commercial whaling operations, and modern scientific research voyages can now be accessed. Crowdsourcing these online data allows collation of presence-only information of animals and provides a valuable tool to help augment areas of low research effort. Four data sources were examined, the primary one being the Voyage of the Odyssey expedition, a five-year global study of sperm whales and ocean pollution. From December 2001-May 2002, acoustic surveys were conducted along 5,200 nautical miles of transects off Western Australia including the Perth Canyon and historical whaling grounds off Albany; 60 tissue biopsy samples were also collected. To augment areas not surveyed by the RV Odyssey, historical Yankee whaling data (1712-1920, commercial whaling data (1904-1999, and citizen science reports of sperm whale sightings (1990-2003 were used. Using Maxent, a species distribution modeling tool, we found that the submarine canyons off Albany and Perth provide important habitat for sperm whales. Current technology, along with current understanding of sperm whale bioacoustics and habitat preferences, provides strong motivation for undertaking long-term passive acoustic studies that can monitor the sperm whale population within Australia’s EEZ waters (Perth and Albany canyons as a way of informing future marine management and policy decisions.

  11. Origin, Domestication, and Dispersing of Pear (Pyrus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Silva


    Full Text Available The pear (Pyrus communis L. is a typical fruit of temperate regions, having its origin and domestication at two different points, China and Asia Minor until the Middle East. It is the fifth most widely produced fruit in the world, being produced mainly in China, Europe, and the United States. Pear belongs to rosaceous family, being a close “cousin” of the apple, but with some particularities that make this fruit special with a delicate flavor. Thus, it deserves a special attention and a meticulous review of all the history involved, and the recent research devoted to it, because of the economic and cultural importance of this fruit in a range of countries and cultures. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review is to approach the history of the origin, domestication, and dispersal of pears, as well as reporting their botany, their current scenario in the world, and their breeding and conservation.

  12. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees


    Giovambattista Sorrenti; Maurizio Quartieri; Silvia Salvi; Moreno Toselli


    Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1), pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1) an...

  13. An investigation by LA-ICP-MS of possum tooth enamel as a model for identifying childhood geographical locations of historical and archaeological human remains from New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, N.E.; Balks, M.; Littler, R.; Manley-Harris, M.; Te Awekotuku, N.


    LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) has been used to analyse enamel from the teeth of brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in order to model a method for identifying the childhood geographical origin of human remains within New Zealand. The model application of the method is promising for establishing locations of historical and archaeological human remains, including preserved heads, upoko tuhi. (author). 30 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Studies of the shapes of heavy pear-shaped nuclei at ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P. A., E-mail: [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)


    For certain combinations of protons and neutrons there is a theoretical expectation that the shape of nuclei can assume octupole deformation, which would give rise to reflection asymmetry or a ”pear-shape” in the intrinsic frame, either dynamically (octupole vibrations) or statically (permanent octupole deformation). I will briefly review the historic evidence for reflection asymmetry in nuclei and describe how recent experiments carried out at REX-ISOLDE have constrained nuclear theory and how they contribute to tests of extensions of the Standard Model. I will also discuss future prospects for measuring nuclear shapes from Coulomb Excitation: experiments are being planned that will exploit beams from HIE-ISOLDE that are cooled in the TSR storage ring and injected into a solenoidal spectrometer similar to the HELIOS device developed at the Argonne National Laboratory.

  15. Molecular Characterization, Evolution, and Expression Profiling of the Dirigent (DIR Family Genes in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri

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    Xi Cheng


    Full Text Available Stone cells content and size are the key factors determining the internal quality of the pear fruit. Synthesis of lignin and thickening of secondary cell wall are the keys to the development of stone cells. The polymerization of monolignols and secondary cell wall formation requires the participation of dirigent proteins (DIRs. In recent years, DIR family have been studied in higher plants, but lack of comprehensive study in the pear DIR (PbDIR family. This study focuses on the identification and analysis of PbDIR family for the first time. We identified 35 PbDIRs from the pear genome, 89% of which are intronless genes. Phylogenetic tree and chromosome localization analysis showed that 35 PbDIRs were divided into four subfamilies (DIR-a, -b/d, -e, and -g and irregularly distributed among 10 chromosomes. In addition, we identified 29, 26, and 14 DIRs from the other three Rosids (peach, Mei, and grape, respectively. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed the collinear gene pairs between pear and peach are the most. Temporal expression analysis showed that the expression changes of seven PbDIRs (DIR-a subfamily: PbDIR4 and PbDIR5; DIR-b/d subfamily: PbDIR11; DIR-g subfamily: PbDIR19; DIR-e subfamily: PbDIR23, 25 and 26 in fruits were consistent with the changes of fruit lignin and stone cells contents. In addition, the subfamily of PbDIRs in fruits showed significant responses after treatment with ABA, SA, and MeJA. According to the protein tertiary structure, key amino acid residues and expression patterns analysis found that PbDIR4 might be involved in the metabolism of lignin and related to stone cells contents in pear fruits. In this study, we systematically analyzed the structure, evolution, function and expression of PbDIR family, which not only confirmed the characteristics of PbDIR family, but also laid the foundation for revealing the role of DIR in pear stone cell development and lignin polymerization.

  16. The membrane may be an important factor in browning of fresh-cut pear. (United States)

    Li, Zhenghong; Zhang, Yuxing; Ge, Huibo


    Surface browning is an important cause of deterioration of fresh-cut fruit during postharvest handling. In this paper, four pear cultivars with different extents of natural browning were selected to analyse the factors involved in browning. The main results are as follows: the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of 'Mantianhong' and 'Yali' pears was higher accompanied by a stronger degree of browning, while the LOX activity in 'Xueqing' and 'Xinli 7' pears was lower, with less browning. A higher unsaturated fatty acid ratio of pear resulted in reduced browning. The cell membranes disappeared 30min after being cut in 'Mantianhong' pear, which browns easily; however, the cell membranes were still intact 30min after being cut in 'Xueqing' pear, which does not brown easily. Therefore, it can be assumed that the stability of the cell membrane plays an important role in inhibiting browning of fresh-cut pears. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Genetic, metabolite and developmental determinism of fruit friction discolouration in pear. (United States)

    Saeed, Munazza; Brewer, Lester; Johnston, Jason; McGhie, Tony K; Gardiner, Susan E; Heyes, Julian A; Chagné, David


    The unattractive appearance of the surface of pear fruit caused by the postharvest disorder friction discolouration (FD) is responsible for significant consumer dissatisfaction in markets, leading to lower returns to growers. Developing an understanding of the genetic control of FD is essential to enable the full application of genomics-informed breeding for the development of new pear cultivars. Biochemical constituents [phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid (AsA)], polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, as well as skin anatomy, have been proposed to play important roles in FD susceptibility in studies on a limited number of cultivars. However, to date there has been no investigation on the biochemical and genetic control of FD, employing segregating populations. In this study, we used 250 seedlings from two segregating populations (POP369 and POP356) derived from interspecific crosses between Asian (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai and P. bretschneideri Rehd.) and European (P. communis) pears to identify genetic factors associated with susceptibility to FD. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based linkage maps suitable for QTL analysis were developed for the parents of both populations. The maps for population POP369 comprised 174 and 265 SNP markers for the male and female parent, respectively, while POP356 maps comprised 353 and 398 SNP markers for the male and female parent, respectively. Phenotypic data for 22 variables were measured over two successive years (2011 and 2012) for POP369 and one year (2011) only for POP356. A total of 221 QTLs were identified that were linked to 22 phenotyped variables, including QTLs associated with FD for both populations that were stable over the successive years. In addition, clear evidence of the influence of developmental factors (fruit maturity) on FD and other variables was also recorded. The QTLs associated with fruit firmness, PPO activity, AsA concentration and concentration of polyphenol compounds as well as FD are the first

  18. Some chemical and physico-mechanical properties of pear cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 18, 2009 ... carried out at the Biological Material Laboratory in Agricultural. Machinery Department and Fruit Science Laboratory in Horticulture. Department of Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. Chemical analysis. All chemical properties of the pear cultivars were investigated on randomly selected fifty fruit samples.

  19. Potential causes of the pear thrips outbreak in sugar maple (United States)

    Jack C. Schultz


    No one knows what caused the 1988 outbreak of pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), in sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh., in the northeastern United States. As an entomologist and ecologist who knows even less about this insect than most of the authors of this volume, I cannot presume to understand the causes of this...

  20. Response of cactus pear genotypes to different crop densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Aroaldo Dantas Cavalcante


    Full Text Available Considering the importance of cactus pear as an alimentary alternative for the herd of cattle of the Brazilian semiarid region and the effect of crop spacing among plants, this study aimed to evaluate the morphometry, yield and chemical-bromatological composition of cactus pear genotypes, under different cropping densities. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, in a 3x4 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of a combination of three cactus pear genotypes (Gigante, Redonda and Miúda and four cropping densities (10,000 plants ha-1; 20,000 plants ha-1; 40,000 plants ha-1; and 80,000 plants ha-1, with three replications. The cactus pear genotypes reacted differently, regarding morphometry, yield and chemical-bromatological composition, and, regardless of the species, the denser planting increased yield (tons ha-1. The Miúda palm presented the highest dry matter yield and consequently the greater accumulation of total digestible nutrients, raw protein and water per hectare, as well as the highest in vitro dry matter digestibility.

  1. 78 FR 24033 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears (United States)


    ... March 2012 by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, the total 2011 farm-gate value of all pears...: 7 U.S.C. 601-674. 0 2. In Sec. 927.236, the introductory text and paragraphs (a) and (b) are revised...

  2. 78 FR 34 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears (United States)


    ... Agricultural Statistics Service, the total 2011 farm-gate value of all pears grown in Oregon and Washington is... follows: Authority: 7 U.S.C. 601-674. 0 2. In Sec. 927.236, the introductory text and paragraphs (a) and...

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group buds during the dormancy by RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guoqin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bud dormancy is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. Pear is one of the most important deciduous fruit trees in the world, but the mechanisms regulating bud dormancy in this species are unknown. Because genomic information for pear is currently unavailable, transcriptome and digital gene expression data for this species would be valuable resources to better understand the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating its bud dormancy. Results We performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE profiling analyses of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group using the Illumina RNA-seq system. RNA-Seq generated approximately 100 M high-quality reads that were assembled into 69,393 unigenes (mean length = 853 bp, including 14,531 clusters and 34,194 singletons. A total of 51,448 (74.1% unigenes were annotated using public protein databases with a cut-off E-value above 10-5. We mainly compared gene expression levels at four time-points during bud dormancy. Between Nov. 15 and Dec. 15, Dec. 15 and Jan. 15, and Jan. 15 and Feb. 15, 1,978, 1,024, and 3,468 genes were differentially expressed, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis arranged 190 significantly differentially-expressed genes into seven groups. Seven genes were randomly selected to confirm their expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions The new transcriptomes offer comprehensive sequence and DGE profiling data for a dynamic view of transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in pear. These data provided a basis for future studies of metabolism during bud dormancy in non-model but economically-important perennial species.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Jakab- Ilyefalv


    Full Text Available At Bistriţa Fruit Research and Development Station, in a pear collection, planted with 44 varieties, there has been studied the susceptibility to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora,Burill. During the vegetation period, phytosanitary treatments to control the disease have been applied using copper based products (copper sulfate, Champion, Funguran, Kocide. Erwinia amylovora infections have been influenced by the rainfall registered in April (70.9 mm and May (104.7 mm and the temperature fluctuations in April-May. The field observations on Erwinia amylvora attack demonstrate that the pear varieties have a different susceptibility to this dangerous bacterium. Evaluation of attack level in the pear collection was done using an evaluation scale with 9 scores using a reference resistance scale for : ‘Highly resistant’ , ‘Moderately resistant’, ‘Susceptible’, ‘Very susceptible’ cultivars . The most sensitive pear varieties in the collection were: ‘De Noiembrie’, ‘Abatele Fetel’, ’Daciana’, ’Triumf’, ’Williams Boway’, ’Margareta Marillat’, ’Beauty Tomme’, ‘Williams rosu’, ’Aromata de Bistrita’, ’Jeanne d`Arc’, ’Aramiu de Somes’, ’Belle des Arbres’, ’Zorka’ representing 13.64% of the total pear varieties. In several cultivars there have been observed increased symptoms, a very high susceptibility of infections leading to complete scorching of trees: Jeanne d`Arc’, Williams rosu’, ‘Triumf’, ‘Aromata de Bistrita’, ‘Zorka’. Strong attack symtoms were observed at the pear cultivars ‘Cure’, ‘Euras, ’Ciuda’ ‘Highland’, ‘Precoce Morettini’, ’Monica’, ’Cadillac’, ’Juliana’, ’Somesan’, ’Beurré Hardenpont’ these cultivars being susceptible to Erwinia amylovora , representing 40.91 % of total genotypes . Cultivars ‘Untoasa Geoagiu’, ‘Beurre Hardy’, ‘Trivale’ manifested a certain tolerance to Erwinia amylovora , no attack symptoms being

  5. Anthocyanin biosynthesis in pears is regulated by a R2R3-MYB transcription factor PyMYB10. (United States)

    Feng, Shouqian; Wang, Yanling; Yang, Song; Xu, Yuting; Chen, Xuesen


    Skin color is an important factor in pear breeding programs. The degree of red coloration is determined by the content and composition of anthocyanins. In plants, many MYB transcriptional factors are involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. In this study, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, PyMYB10, was isolated from Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cv. 'Aoguan'. Sequence analysis suggested that the PyMYB10 gene was an ortholog of MdMYB10 gene, which regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in red fleshed apple (Malus x domestica) cv. 'Red Field'. PyMYB10 was identified at the genomic level and had three exons, with its upstream sequence containing core sequences of cis-acting regulatory elements involved in light responsiveness. Fruit bagging showed that light could induce expression of PyMYB10 and anthocyanin biosynthesis. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that PyMYB10 was predominantly expressed in pear skins, buds, and young leaves, and the level of transcription in buds was higher than in skin and young leaves. In ripening fruits, the transcription of PyMYB10 in the skin was positively correlated with genes in the anthocyanin pathway and with anthocyanin biosynthesis. In addition, the transcription of PyMYB10 and genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis were more abundant in red-skinned pear cultivars compared to blushed cultivars. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PyMYB10 exhibited ectopic pigmentation in immature seeds. The study suggested that PyMYB10 plays a role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and the overexpression of PyMYB10 was sufficient to induce anthocyanin accumulation.

  6. Environment-Friendly Control of Pear Scab and Rust Using Lime Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hoon Cha


    Full Text Available Pear scab and rust are the major diseases causing severe epidemics in organic cultivation of pear trees. Incidences of pear scab and rust were compared in organically managed plots and conventionally managed plots to obtain optimum application schedule of environment-friendly control agents in organically managed plots. Organically cultural practice with 10 time-applications of lime sulfur and Bordeaux mixture showed higher than 40% of control efficacies of pear scab and rust compared to conventionally cultural practice. Organically cultural practice with 8 time-applications of lime sulfur considering weather condition showed higher than 30% of control efficacies of pear scab compared to conventionally cultural practice. The results suggest that proper application of environment-friendly control agents such as lime sulfur considering weather condition will enable effective control of the major diseases for organic cultivation of pear.

  7. Studies on Perspectives and Marketing Strategies of Pear Farming in Japan


    竹内, 幹雄; 佐藤, 豊信; 目瀬, 守男


    As the economic situations surrounding pear farms are changing rapidly, a new management is required to cope with them. This paper is to study the past and present conditions of pear marketing in Tottori and to suggest a future strategy. At present pears have been marketed primarily through individual cooperative with some coordinations and supports by Tottori Fruit Growers Cooperative Association. But recently the consummers needs have been changing for higher quality fruit, the improvemen...

  8. Industrialization Development of Korla Fragrant Pear in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, China


    Ma, Qiong; Li, Ying


    Based on the introduction of the natural and geographic conditions in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang(Bazhou), development status of Korla Fragrant Pear is introduced from the two aspects of the production status and the storage and processing status of Korla Fragrant Pear. Among them, production status of Korla Fragrant Pear is analyzed from the aspects of the rapid growth of planting area and the stable growth of output. And the storage and processing status of Korla Fra...

  9. Phytotoxic effects of phenylmercuric compounds upon certain pear varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, A H.M.; Bennett, M


    In trials at East Malling Research Station, extending over the years 1952 to 1959, chlorotic spotting, associated with loss of chlorophyll, and distortion of leaves occurred following post-blossom application to four pear varieties of phenylmercuric salts at 0.003% elemental mercury concentration. In the light of rainfall and temperature conditions recorded on the days following each post-blossom application in each year, crop loss must be expected following post-blossom application of sufficient organomercurial for scab control in any season on Conference and Doyenne du Comice; on Conference, reduction of fruit-bud formation may also occur. Although pear leaves are obviously damaged by phenylmercuric salts, it is likely that the effects on cropping are largely due to direct absorption and/or translocation of some form of mercury into fruit-buds and fruitlets.

  10. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Hernández-Ceruelos


    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS. The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP, in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg, a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg, and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE. The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment.

  11. Bioecology of pear thrips: distribution in forest soils (United States)

    Margaret Skinner; Bruce L. Parker


    The vertical and horizontal distribution of pear thrips in Vermont sugar maple forest soils was investigated. In the fall, about 86% of the thrips were found in the upper 10 cm of soil, though a few were found as deep as 20 cm. No thrips were found in the leaf litter. Soil sampling tools to determine thrips populations within an entire forest were tested and a standard...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Repeatability analysis has been used to study traits in several crops, assisting in the definition of the minimum number needed to evaluate genotypes more efficiently and with less time and resource consumption. So far, however, no repeatability studies on cactus pear have been found in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the coefficient of repeatability for cactus pear fruits traits and the minimum number of evaluations (fruit that can provide acceptable accuracy for the prediction of the true value. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Institute of Bahia/Campus Guanambi, with 150 fruits collected from three municipalities in the state of Bahia. The coefficients of repeatability were estimated by the methods of analysis of variance, principal components based on the covariance (PCCV and correlation (PCC matrices, and structural analysis based on the correlation matrix (SA. The analysis of variance showed that, except for fruit diameter, the effect of the production site (municipality was significant for all traits evaluated. The PCCV method was proven the most suitable for studying the repeatability of quality traits of cactus pear fruits. Seven fruits were required to determine, with 90% confidence, the traits length, diameter, fruit firmness, skin thickness, number of seeds, fruit mass, bark mass, pulp mass, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/AT ratio, and pulp yield.


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    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘Bartlett’ pears from different harvest dates were assessed regarding to cold storage potential and reduction of physiological disorder incidence. Three harvests, the first (HD1, second (HD2, and third (HD3, were carried out at weekly intervals. The pears were assessed after the harvest, with no exposition to the temperature conditioning, after 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 days at 0 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH and after three and six days at room temperature (20 ± 1 °C. Fruit from the early harvest (HD1 showed the smallest incidence of physiological disorder during both cold and room temperature storage. The disorder symptoms became apparent in HD1 fruit after 20 days at cold storage followed by three days at 20 °C, whereas HD2 and HD3 fruit showed the symptoms before being kept in a cold room. ‘Bartlett’ pears harvested at 70.75 N flesh firmness can be stored at 0 ± 1 °C for up to 40 days and preferably commercialized within three days, when they reach the firmness for eating. The extension of cold storage as well as the trade period can result in higher physiological disorder incidence and loss of sensorial quality.

  14. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere sister lineage. (United States)

    Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E; Nowak, Michael; Healy, Rosanne A; Guevara, Gonzalo; Cázares, Efren; Kinoshita, Akihiko; Nouhra, Eduardo R; Domínguez, Laura S; Tedersoo, Leho; Murat, Claude; Wang, Yun; Moreno, Baldomero Arroyo; Pfister, Donald H; Nara, Kazuhide; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Trappe, James M; Vilgalys, Rytas


    Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae--the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash) Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp.) and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (~156 million years ago), with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of truffle

  15. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere sister lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Bonito

    Full Text Available Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae--the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp. and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (~156 million years ago, with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of

  16. Different biosynthesis patterns among flavonoid 3-glycosides with distinct effects on accumulation of other flavonoid metabolites in pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhai

    Full Text Available Flavonoid biosynthesis profile was clarified by fruit bagging and re-exposure treatments in the green Chinese pear 'Zaosu' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. and its red mutant 'Red Zaosu'. Two distinct biosynthesis patterns of flavonoid 3-glycosides were found in 'Zaosu' pear. By comparison with 'Red Zaosu', the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides and flavonoid 3-arabinosides were inhibited by bagging and these compounds only re-accumulated to a small degree in the fruit peel of 'Zaosu' after the bags were removed. In contrast, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-gluctosides and flavonoid 3-rutinosides was reduced by bagging and then increased when the fruits were re-exposed to sunlight. A combination of correlation, multicollinearity test and partial-correlation analyses among major flavonoid metabolites indicated that biosynthesis of each phenolic compound was independent in 'Zaosu' pear, except for the positive correlation between flavonoid 3-rutincosides and flavanols. In contrast with the green pear cultivar, almost all phenolic compounds in the red mutant had similar biosynthesis patterns except for arbutin. However, only the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides was relatively independent and strongly affected the synthesis of the other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that the strong accumulation of flavonoid 3-galactosides stimulated the biosynthesis of other flavonoid compounds in the red mutant and, therefore, caused systemic variation of flavonoid biosynthesis profiles between 'Zaosu' and its red mutant. This hypothesis had been further demonstrated by the enzyme activity of UFGT, and transcript levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and been well tested by a stepwise linear regression forecasting model. The gene that encodes flavonoid 3-galacosyltransferase was also identified and isolated from the pear genome.

  17. Strategies to control tree vigour and optimise fruit production in 'Conference' pears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, F.M.


    The ban on the use of chlormequat (CCC) in pear orchards in 2001 forced Dutch pear growers to look for alternative methods to control tree vigour and stimulate flower bud development and fruit production. Root pruning and trunk notching have become the major growth retarding methods. In addition to

  18. Classification of Korean native pear based on a standard set of microsatellite loci (United States)

    After analysis with 12 microsatellite loci previously selected for use by ECPGR, 34 Korean pear accessions were classified into 3 groups. Group I included 4 Korean pea pears and one accession of P. calleryana. Group II contained 12 cultivars including 7 accessions presumed to belong to P. pyrifolia....

  19. Application of exogenous ethylene inhibits postharvest peel browning of ‘Huangguan’ pear (United States)

    Peel browning disorder has an enormous impact on the exterior quality of ‘Huangguan’ pear whereas the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the effect of exogenous ethylene on peel browning of pear fruits stored at 0' was evaluated. Results showed that ethylene effectively inhibited ...

  20. 76 FR 27848 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Amendment To Allow Additional Exemptions (United States)


    ... marketing order for Oregon-Washington pears that provides for the sale of fresh pears directly to consumers...' markets. These consumer-direct sales are exempt from the marketing order's assessment, reporting, handling... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0072...

  1. The relationship between measures of tree vigor and pear thrips damage in sugar maple (United States)

    Gretchen Smith; Christina M. Petersen; Roy Van Driesche; Charles Burnham


    In this presentation I will address three points associated with pear thrips damage and sugar maple. First, I will describe the impact of pear thrips on sugar maple in Massachusetts, in both the sugarbush and the natural forest stand, based on root starch assays that were completed this fall (1988). Secondly, I will discuss the relationship between tree health and...

  2. The life cycle of pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel) in Vermont (United States)

    Margaret Skinner; Bruce L. Parker; Sandra H. Wilmot


    Life history information has been collected for pear thrips in orchard habitats in California and British Columbia (Cameron & Treherne 1918, Bailey 1944). However such information is not available for this insect in a northern hardwood forest ecosystem in the eastern United States. Research is currently underway at the University of Vermont to determine the pear...

  3. 75 FR 77563 - Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda (United States)


    ... that time, the pear industry has been regulated by a State marketing order. If the results of the pear... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 [Doc. No. AMS-FV... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referenda order. SUMMARY: This document directs...

  4. Draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain in Taiwan (United States)

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain (PLS229) isolated from pear cultivar Hengshan (Pyrus pyrifolia) in Taiwan is reported. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,733,013 bp with a G+C content of 53.1%. The PLS229 strain genome was annotated to have 3,259 open readin...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319.56-22 Section 319.56-22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The...

  6. Constitutive and herbivore-induced volatiles in pear, alder and hawthorn trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scutareanu, P.; Bruin, de J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Drukker, B.


    Qualitative and quantitative differences among pear cultivars were found in constitutive and Cacopsylla-induced volatiles, depending on experimental treatment of the trees (i.e., uninfested and partly or completely infested by psyllids). Blend differences were also found between pear cultivars and

  7. Prickly pear induces upregulation of liver LDL binding in familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, B.; Palumbo, R.; Efthimiou, Y.; Stamatopoulos, J.; Sinzinger, H.; Oguogho, A.; Budinsky, A.; Sinzinger, H.


    The hypoglycemic effect of prickly pear is well known by native local Indian population since a long time. Beside the beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, oxidation injury and platelet function has been claimed in experimental animals. We recently found an upregulation of apo-B/E receptor. We therefore examined 10 patients with isolated heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) being enrolled in a dietary run-in phase of 6 weeks after dietary counselling and a further 6 weeks of prickly pear addition. Uptake of autologous 123 I-radiolabeled LDL was determined at entry as well as after 6 weeks of daily prickly pear ingestion. We found a significant (p 176.4 mg/dl; p 123 I-LDL binding by prickly pear in FH-patients in vivo and indicate that prickly pear exerts a significant hypolipidemic action via receptor upregulation. (author)

  8. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti


    Full Text Available Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1, pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1 and cherry (AlexTM/Gisela 6®; density of 40,000 trees ha–1 trees from a commercial nursery. Trees were divided into roots (below the root collar, rootstock (above-ground wood between root collar and grafting point and variety (1-year-old wood above the grafting point. For each organ we determined biomass, macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and micro- (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B nutrient concentration. Pear trees were the most developed (650 g (dw tree–1, equal to 1.75 and 2.78 folds than apple and cherry trees, respectively whereas, independently of the species, variety mostly contributed (>50% to the total tree biomass, followed by roots and then above-ground rootstock. However, the dry biomass and nutrient amount measured in rootstocks (including roots represent the cumulative amount of 2 and 3 seasons, for Gisela® 6 (tissue culture and pome fruit species (generated by mound layering, respectively. Macro and micronutrients were mostly concentrated in roots, followed by variety and rootstock, irrespective of the species. Independently of the tissue, macronutrients concentration hierarchy was N>Ca>K> P>Mg>S. Removed N by whole tree accounted for 6.58, 3.53 and 2.49 g tree–1 for pear, apple and cherry, respectively, corresponding to almost 200, 107 and 100 kg N ha–1, respectively. High amounts of K and Ca were used by pear (130-140 kg ha–1 and apple trees (~50 and 130 kg ha–1 of K and Ca, respectively, while ~25 kg K ha–1 and 55 kg Ca ha–1 were

  9. Phytochemical study of prickly pear from southern Morocco

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    Z. Bouzoubaâ


    Full Text Available This work concerns the phytochemical study of the prickly pear pulp’s fruits of two opuntia cultivars; Achefri and Amouslem widely present in two regions of southern Morocco; Arbaa Sahel and Asgherkis that are different in their altitude and annual rainfall. The results of the phytochemical study show that the levels of antioxidants have a non-significant difference between the fruits of the two sites (comparing Amouslem and Achefri in the same site, on the one hand, for the differences due to the variety or cultivar, on the other hand between Amouslem and Achefri from the two sites to show the site effect.

  10. Bio-cultural anchorage of the prickly pear cactus in Tlalnepantla (Morelos, Mexico

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    Torres-Salcido, Gerardo


    Full Text Available The prickly pear cactus is a source of food with strong bio-cultural anchorage in Mexico. This is due to at least three factors: 1 the nature and heritage of cacti; 2 cultural heritage; and 3 the socio-cultural relationships with historical and symbolic roots that have facilitated knowledge of how to cultivate it and how to use it. The aim of this article is to put factors of territorial anchorage and its historical transformation in context by examining the case of the municipality of Tlalnepantla in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This community has experienced accelerated change due to the exchange of traditional crops for the prickly pear cactus and the integration of farming, commercialization and agro-transformation. Our hypothesis is that the market, internal conflicts and a lack of socio-institutional coordination have put social organization into crisis, favoring the territorial spread of the prickly pear cactus and making the Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS of Tlalnepantla less competitive. The conclusions highlight important economic and social advances whose roots lie in the strengthening and anchorage of the territory-product. However, circumstances both internal and external to the community persist, such as intra-community conflicts, the international market and cultural paradigm shifts that affect the producers and put consolidation of the LAFS at risk.El nopal es un alimento con un fuerte anclaje bio-cultural en México, propiciado por al menos tres factores: 1 la naturaleza y el patrimonio de cactáceas; 2 el patrimonio cultural; y, 3 las relaciones socio-culturales que han permitido un “saber hacer” y un “saber utilizar” con raíces históricas y simbólicas. El objetivo es situar los factores de anclaje territorial y su transformación histórica tomando como caso el municipio de Tlalnepantla, en el estado de Morelos, México. Esta comunidad ha experimentado un acelerado cambio por la reconversión de los cultivos

  11. Improvement of Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Pears Using a Specialized Edible Coating

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    Virgilio Cruz


    Full Text Available An edible coating functionalized with pomegranate polyphenols was designed. Different blends of candelilla wax, gum arabic, jojoba oil, and pomegranate polyphenols were formulated in order to improve the shelf life quality of pears (variety Bartlett, and all formulations were applied by immersion onto the fruit surface. Coated pears with and without polyphenols and uncoated pears (control were stored under the same conditions. Fruits were analyzed to evaluate changes in their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties during 30 days of storage at room temperature. Coated pears coded as T13 (candelilla wax 3%, gum arabic 4%, jojoba oil 0.15%, and pomegranate polyphenols 0.015% extended and improved their shelf life quality due to the minimization of the physic-chemical changes and sensorial properties. Therefore, the results indicated that the formulated edible coating has potential to extend the shelf life and maintain quality of pears. It was probed that coated pears were accepted for consumers as a good product. Edible coating application represents a good alternative to keep pears freshness for longer periods.

  12. Stability of cactus-pear powder during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The stability of cactus-pear powder, obtained by the process of spray drying for 40 days, was evaluated under controlled conditions of relative air humidity (83% and temperature (25 and 40 °C. The whole pulp was characterized with regard to its physico-chemical parameters: pH, total titratable acidity, soluble solids, water content, total solids, ashes, reducing sugars, total sugars, non-reducing sugars, luminosity, redness, yellowness and water activity. The stored samples in powder were evaluated every 10 days for water content, water activity, total titratable acidity and color (luminosity, redness and yellowness. The whole pulp was slightly acidic and perishable, due to the high water content. During storage, the packages did not prevent water absorption, thus increasing water content and, consequently, water activity. Yellowness oscillated along the storage time, but the predominance of the yellow color was not affected.

  13. Studies of pear-shaped nuclei using accelerated radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, L P; Scheck, M; Hayes, A B; Wenander, F; Albers, M; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bonig, S; Bree, N; Cederkall, J; Chupp, T; Cline, D; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; DeWitte, H; Diriken, J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Huyse, M; Jenkins, D G; Joss, D T; Kesteloot, N; Konki, J; Kowalczyk, M; Kroll, Th; Kwan, E; Lutter, R; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Pakarinen, J; Pfeiffer, M; Radeck, D; Reiter, P; Reynders, K; Rigby, S V; Robledo, L M; Rudigier, M; Sambi, S; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Stora, T; Thoele, P; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M J; von Schmid, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wimmer, K; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Wu, C Y; Zielinska, M


    There is strong circumstantial evidence that certain heavy, unstable atomic nuclei are ‘octupole deformed’, that is, distorted into a pear shape. This contrasts with the more prevalent rugby-ball shape of nuclei with reflection-symmetric, quadrupole deformations. The elusive octupole deformed nuclei are of importance for nuclear structure theory, and also in searches for physics beyond the standard model; any measurable electric-dipole moment (a signature of the latter) is expected to be amplified in such nuclei. Here we determine electric octupole transition strengths (a direct measure of octupole correlations) for short-lived isotopes of radon and radium. Coulomb excitation experiments were performed using accelerated beams of heavy, radioactive ions. Our data on and $^{224}$Ra show clear evidence for stronger octupole deformation in the latter. The results enable discrimination between differing theoretical approaches to octupole correlations, and help to constrain suitable candidates for experimental...

  14. Refillable and magnetically actuated drug delivery system using pear-shaped viscoelastic membrane

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun; Seo, Young Ho; Pisano, Albert P.


    We report a refillable and valveless drug delivery device actuated by an external magnetic field for on-demand drug release to treat localized diseases. The device features a pear-shaped viscoelastic magnetic membrane inducing asymmetrical

  15. Empirical models in the description of prickly pear shoot (Nopal drying kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel M. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe the technological process involved in the drying kinetics of fresh-cut prickly pear shoots through numerical and analytical solutions. Shoots of two different prickly pear species were used, ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’. Drying was performed at different temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C and weighing procedures were made continuously. The experimental data were expressed as moisture ratio. The Page model showed the best fit to the drying kinetics of minimally processed ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots, with the best coefficients of determination and Chi-square. Peleg and Wang & Singh models can not be used to simulate the drying of ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots within the evaluated range of temperatures, showing an incoherent graphic pattern.

  16. 76 FR 4202 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Amendment To Allow Additional Exemptions (United States)


    ... orchards, packing facilities, roadside stands, or farmers' markets without regard to the marketing order's... of pears sold at orchards, packing facilities, roadside stands, and farmers' markets should also be... directly to consumers from their [[Page 4203

  17. PpHB22, a member of HD-Zip proteins, activates PpDAM1 to regulate bud dormancy transition in 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia White Pear Group). (United States)

    Yang, Qinsong; Niu, Qingfeng; Li, Jianzhao; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Ma, Yunjing; Bai, Songling; Teng, Yuanwen


    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins, which form one of the largest and most diverse families, regulate many biological processes in plants, including differentiation, flowering, vascular development, and stress signaling. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been proved to be one of the key regulators of bud dormancy and to influence several HD-Zip genes expression. However, the role of HD-Zip genes in regulating bud dormancy remains unclear. We identified 47 pear (P. pyrifolia White Pear Group) HD-Zip genes, which were classified into four subfamilies (HD-Zip I-IV). We further revealed that gene expression levels of some HD-Zip members were closely related to ABA concentrations in flower buds during dormancy transition. Exogenous ABA treatment confirmed that PpHB22 and several other HD-Zip genes responded to ABA. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase assay results combining subcellular localization showed that PpHB22 was present in nucleus and directly induced PpDAM1 (dormancy associated MADS-box 1) expression. Thus, PpHB22 is a negative regulator of plant growth associated with the ABA response pathway and functions upstream of PpDAM1. These findings enrich our understanding of the function of HD-Zip genes related to the bud dormancy transition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Mathematical modelling of thin layer drying of pear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovska Monika


    Full Text Available In this study, a thin - layer drying of pear slices as a function of drying conditions were examined. The experimental data set of thin - layer drying kinetics at five drying air temperatures 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70°C, and three drying air velocities 1, 1.5 and 2 m s-1 were obtained on the experimental setup, designed to imitate industrial convective dryer. Five well known thin - layer drying models from scientific literature were used to approximate the experimental data in terms of moisture ratio. In order to find which model gives the best results, numerical experiments were made. For each model and data set, the statistical performance index, (φ, and chi-squared, (χ2, value were calculated and models were ranked afterwards. The performed statistical analysis shows that the model of Midilli gives the best statistical results. Because the effect of drying air temperature and drying air velocity on the empirical parameters was not included in the base Midilli model, in this study the generalized form of this model was developed. With this model, the drying kinetic data of pear slices can be approximated with high accuracy. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick’s second laws. The obtained values of the effective moisture diffusivity, (Deff, during drying ranged between 6.49 x 10-9 and 3.29 x 10-8 m2 s-1, while the values of activation energy (E0 varied between 28.15 to 30.51 kJ mol-1.

  19. In-vitro neoformation of woody plants (apple, pear, Weigela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevreau, E.; Dufour, M.; Duron, M.


    Full text: Adventitious bud neoformation may induce variability in two ways: somaclonal variation, if the explant has undergone undifferentiated growth (callus); induced mutations, if a physical or chemical mutagen has been applied to the explant prior to the regeneration. Three apple scion cultivars ('Gala', 'Granny Smith', 'Golden Delicious') and four apple rootstock cultivars ('Mark', 'Novole', 'Lancep', 'Cepiland') were grown on basal apple multiplication medium. Leaves, internodes and roots were used for callogenesis and/or regeneration experiments. Scion varieties were more responsive than rootstocks. 1000 'Gala' neoformations will be planted in the field to investigate somaclonal variation. In pear, shoot regeneration was obtained from in-vitro leaves of 3 varieties of Pyrus communis ('Seckel', 'Louise Bonne', 'Comice') and one variety of Pyrus bretschneideri ('Crystal Pear'). It was observed that regeneration is still possible from leaves irradiated with up to 40 Gy of γ rays, or treated with 5mM ENU for one hour. In Weigela, stem segments (0.5 cm) from rooted in vitro plants of 5 cultivars were used in experiments to induce adventitious buds. On the cultivar 'Eva Rathke' the adventitious buds were detected as early as 10 to 15 days after the beginning of the culture. A mutagenic treatment was carried out by immersing explants of 'Bristol Ruby' in a suspension of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Among 400 plants regenerated from treated explants, 5 mutants were detected after 5 years of field observation. Two of them seem to be solid mutants. Apparently in Weigela both homogeneous mutants and chimeras are produced by adventitious regeneration from mutagenised explants. (author)

  20. Exploring candidate genes for pericarp russet pigmentation of sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia via RNA-Seq data in two genotypes contrasting for pericarp color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia russet pericarp is an important trait affecting both the quality and stress tolerance of fruits. This trait is controlled by a relative complex genetic process, with some fundamental biological questions such as how many and which genes are involved in the process remaining elusive. In this study, we explored differentially expressed genes between the russet- and green-pericarp offspring from the sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. 'Qingxiang' × 'Cuiguan' F1 group by RNA-seq-based bulked segregant analysis (BSA. A total of 29,100 unigenes were identified and 206 of which showed significant differences in expression level (log2fold values>1 between the two types of pericarp pools. Gene Ontology (GO analyses detected 123 unigenes in GO terms related to 'cellular_component' and 'biological_process', suggesting developmental and growth differentiations between the two types. GO categories associated with various aspects of 'lipid metabolic processes', 'transport', 'response to stress', 'oxidation-reduction process' and more were enriched with genes with divergent expressions between the two libraries. Detailed examination of a selected set of these categories revealed repressed expressions of candidate genes for suberin, cutin and wax biosynthesis in the russet pericarps.Genes encoding putative cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD and peroxidase (POD that are involved in the lignin biosynthesis were suggested to be candidates for pigmentation of sand pear russet pericarps. Nine differentially expressed genes were analyzed for their expressions using qRT-PCR and the results were consistent with those obtained from Illumina RNA-sequencing. This study provides a comprehensive molecular biology insight into the sand pear pericarp pigmentation and appearance quality formation.

  1. Exploitation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains to improve shelf life, rheological, sensory and functional features of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) fruit puree. (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Filannino, Pasquale; Vincentini, Olimpia; Lanera, Alessia; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco


    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified from raw prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.). Five autochthonous strains were selected based on the kinetics of growth and acidification on prickly pear fruit juice, and the capacity to synthesize exo-polysaccharides. All selected Leuc. mesenteroides strains showed an in vitro mucilage-degrading capability. A protocol for processing and storage of fermented prickly pear fruit puree (FP) was set up. Unstarted FP and chemically acidified FP were used as the controls. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Contaminating Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were found only in the controls. Viscosity and serum separation distinguished started FP compared to the controls. Colour parameters, browning index, sensory attributes, antimicrobial activity, vitamin C and betalains levels were positively affected by lactic acid fermentation. Increase of free radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate soluble extract suggested an effect of selected strains on phenolic profiles. Started FP markedly inhibited the inflammatory status of Caco-2/TC7 cells, and also contributed to maintaining the integrity of tight junctions. Started FP scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 on Caco-2 cells. All selected strain variously affected the immunomodulatory activity towards anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytochemical characterization of different prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) cultivars and botanical parts: UHPLC-ESI-MSn metabolomics profiles and their chemometric analysis. (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Legua, Pilar; Del Rio, Daniele; Hernández, Francisca


    Prickly pear is an important source of bioactive compounds. However, a comprehensive characterization of the phytochemical profile of its aerial botanical parts, considering genotypic differences, has not been conducted. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of four botanical parts (fruit pulp and skin, and young and adult cladodes) of six cultivars. Analysis was carried out by using two non-targeted UHPLC-ESI-MS n experimental conditions and assisted with multivariate analysis to facilitate data interpretation. Up to 41 compounds, mainly (poly)phenolic molecules, were identified and quantified, 23 compounds being reported for the first time in Opuntia ficus-indica. Phenolic composition varied significantly depending on the part of the plant. Betalains were detected only in the fruit of a red cultivar. This study provided novel insights in terms of identification of bioactives and thorough characterization of botanical parts of prickly pears. This information may be used for the development of prickly pear-derived products with high levels of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of the cation proton antiporters family in pear and four other Rosaceae species. (United States)

    Zhou, Hongsheng; Qi, Kaijie; Liu, Xing; Yin, Hao; Wang, Peng; Chen, Jianqing; Wu, Juyou; Zhang, Shaoling


    The monovalent cation proton antiporters (CPAs) play essential roles in plant nutrition, development, and signal transduction by regulating ion and pH homeostasis of the cell. The CPAs of plants include the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, K(+) efflux antiporter, and cation/H(+) exchanger families. However, currently, little is known about the CPA genes in Rosaceae species. In this study, 220 CPA genes were identified from five Rosaceae species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus domestica, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, and Prunus mume), and 53 of which came from P. bretschneideri. Phylogenetic, structure, collinearity, and gene expression analyses were conducted on the entire CPA genes of pear. Gene expression data showed that 35 and 37 CPA genes were expressed in pear fruit and pollen tubes, respectively. The transcript analysis of some CPA genes under abiotic stress conditions revealed that CPAs may play an important role in pollen tubes growth. The results presented here will be useful in improving understanding of the complexity of the CPA gene family and will promote functional characterization in future studies.

  4. The ability of a cold-adapted Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain from Tibet to control blue mold in pear fruit. (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Yan, Fujie; Wilson, Charles; Shen, Qing; Zheng, Xiaodong


    Cold-adapted yeasts were isolated from soil samples collected in Tibet and evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against blue mold (Penicillium expansum) of pear fruit in cold storage. YC1, an isolate identified as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, was found to exhibit the greatest biocontrol activity among the different isolates that were screened. A washed cell suspension of YC1 exhibited the best biocontrol activity among three different preparations that were used in the current study. A concentration of 10(8) cells/ml reduced the incidence of decay to 35 %, compared to the control where decay incidence was 100 %. A higher intracellular level of trehalose and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated acids present in YC1, was associated with increased the tolerance of this strain to low temperatures, relative to the other strains that were evaluated. The increased tolerance to low temperature allowed the YC1 strain of yeast to more effectively compete for nutrients and space in wounded pear fruit that had been inoculated with spores of P. expansum and placed in cold storage. The present study demonstrated the ability to select cold-adapted yeasts from cold climates and use them as biocontrol agents of postharvest diseases of fruit placed in cold storage.

  5. Unusual immuno-modulatory triterpene-caffeates in the skins of russeted varieties of apples and pears. (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Larsen, Lesley; Burgess, Elaine J; Jensen, Dwayne J; Cooney, Janine M; Evers, Danièle; Zhang, Jingli; Perry, Nigel B; Laing, William A


    Three triterpene-caffeates have been isolated from skins of a russeted apple cultivar "Merton Russet" and identified by LC-MS and NMR as betulinic acid-3-cis-caffeate, betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate, and oleanolic acid-3-trans-caffeate. Betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate and oleanolic acid-3-trans-caffeate were also found in russeted pear skins. These compounds have not been previously reported in apples or pears, or in any other foods. Their presence was related to suberized tissue as they were only found in russet portions of the partially russeted apple cultivar "Cox's Orange Pippin" and were not detected in the waxy apple cultivar "Royal Gala". High concentrations of betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate were found in the bark of both "Merton Russet" and "Royal Gala" trees. The three triterpene-caffeates showed anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, inhibiting NF-κB activation with IC50's of 6-9 μM. Betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate, the predominant compound in the apples, was immuno-modulatory at around 10 μM in the in vitro and ex vivo bioassays, boosting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα in cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

  6. Transferability of Newly Developed Pear SSR Markers to Other Rosaceae Species. (United States)

    Fan, L; Zhang, M-Y; Liu, Q-Z; Li, L-T; Song, Y; Wang, L-F; Zhang, S-L; Wu, J


    A set of 120 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) was developed from the newly assembled pear sequence and evaluated for polymorphisms in seven genotypes of pear from different genetic backgrounds. Of these, 67 (55.8 %) primer pairs produced polymorphic amplifications. Together, the 67 SSRs detected 277 alleles with an average of 4.13 per locus. Sequencing of the amplification products from randomly picked loci NAUPy31a and NAUpy53a verified the presence of the SSR loci. When the 67 primer pairs were tested on 96 individual members of eight species in the Rosaceae family, 61.2 % (41/67) of the tested SSRs successfully amplified a PCR product in at least one of the Rosaceae genera. The transferability from pear to different species varied from 58.2 % (apple) to 11.9 % (cherry). The ratio of transferability also reflected the closer relationships within Maloideae over Prunoideae. Two pear SSR markers, NAUpy43c and NAUpy55k, could distinguish the 20 different apple genotypes thoroughly, and UPGMA cluster analysis grouped them into three groups at the similarity level of 0.56. The high level of polymorphism and good transferability of pear SSRs to Rosaceae species indicate their promise for application to future molecular screening, map construction, and comparative genomic studies among pears and other Rosaceae species.

  7. PEAR: a fast and accurate Illumina Paired-End reAd mergeR. (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajie; Kobert, Kassian; Flouri, Tomáš; Stamatakis, Alexandros


    The Illumina paired-end sequencing technology can generate reads from both ends of target DNA fragments, which can subsequently be merged to increase the overall read length. There already exist tools for merging these paired-end reads when the target fragments are equally long. However, when fragment lengths vary and, in particular, when either the fragment size is shorter than a single-end read, or longer than twice the size of a single-end read, most state-of-the-art mergers fail to generate reliable results. Therefore, a robust tool is needed to merge paired-end reads that exhibit varying overlap lengths because of varying target fragment lengths. We present the PEAR software for merging raw Illumina paired-end reads from target fragments of varying length. The program evaluates all possible paired-end read overlaps and does not require the target fragment size as input. It also implements a statistical test for minimizing false-positive results. Tests on simulated and empirical data show that PEAR consistently generates highly accurate merged paired-end reads. A highly optimized implementation allows for merging millions of paired-end reads within a few minutes on a standard desktop computer. On multi-core architectures, the parallel version of PEAR shows linear speedups compared with the sequential version of PEAR. PEAR is implemented in C and uses POSIX threads. It is freely available at

  8. Revalorization of cactus pear (Opuntia spp. wastes as a source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaberta Cardador-Martínez


    Full Text Available Recently, an increased interest in antioxidant activity and health-improving capacity of cactus pear has been registered. The antioxidant capacity of the pulp of cactus-pear fruits has been previously assessed. In this work, total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins of peel and seeds of four cactus pear cultivars were examined as well as their antioxidant capacity. Tannins were the major phenolics in cactus pear seeds accounting for almost fifty percent for all cultivars. Analysis of variance revealed that ripeness, cultivar, and its interaction had highly significant effect on the total phenolics, tannin, and flavonoid contents of cactus pear peel. With regard to the seeds, only the stage of ripeness and interaction (ripeness stage x cultivar were significant on total phenolics and tannins contents. The flavonoid content in seeds was not affected by any of the factors or their interactions. The antioxidant capacity was higher in the peel than in the seeds. Generally, fruits with light-green or yellow-brown peel have higher antiradical activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values compared with those with red-purple peel. Cactus pear by-products can indeed be exploited as a good and cheap source of natural antioxidants.

  9. Traumatic glenohumeral bone defects and their relationship to failure of arthroscopic Bankart repairs: significance of the inverted-pear glenoid and the humeral engaging Hill-Sachs lesion. (United States)

    Burkhart, S S; De Beer, J F


    Our goal was to analyze the results of 194 consecutive arthroscopic Bankart repairs (performed by 2 surgeons with an identical suture anchor technique) in order to identify specific factors related to recurrence of instability. Case series. We analyzed 194 consecutive arthroscopic Bankart repairs by suture anchor technique performed for traumatic anterior-inferior instability. The average follow-up was 27 months (range, 14 to 79 months). There were 101 contact athletes (96 South African rugby players and 5 American football players). We identified significant bone defects on either the humerus or the glenoid as (1) "inverted-pear" glenoid, in which the normally pear-shaped glenoid had lost enough anterior-inferior bone to assume the shape of an inverted pear; or (2) "engaging" Hill-Sachs lesion of the humerus, in which the orientation of the Hill-Sachs lesion was such that it engaged the anterior glenoid with the shoulder in abduction and external rotation. There were 21 recurrent dislocations and subluxations (14 dislocations, 7 subluxations). Of those 21 shoulders with recurrent instability, 14 had significant bone defects (3 engaging Hill-Sachs and 11 inverted-pear Bankart lesions). For the group of patients without significant bone defects (173 shoulders), there were 7 recurrences (4% recurrence rate). For the group with significant bone defects (21 patients), there were 14 recurrences (67% recurrence rate). For contact athletes without significant bone defects, there was a 6.5% recurrence rate, whereas for contact athletes with significant bone defects, there was an 89% recurrence rate. (1) Arthroscopic Bankart repairs give results equal to open Bankart repairs if there are no significant structural bone deficits (engaging Hill-Sachs or inverted-pear Bankart lesions). (2) Patients with significant bone deficits as defined in this study are not candidates for arthroscopic Bankart repair. (3) Contact athletes without structural bone deficits may be treated by

  10. Evaluation of selected nursery traits in combination rootstocks and variety for Asian pear trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Nečas


    Full Text Available Evaluation of the nursery traits of rootstocks and varieties is an important tool for optimisation of the fruit orchard plants final growing. The present experiment evaluated the standard and progressive rootstocks for the pear trees in combination with the Asian varieties of P. pyrifolia Nakai. a P. ussuriensis Maxim. in comparison with the control variety ‘Conference’ P. communis L. The evaluation was focused on such properties as affinity, growth of the tree propagated by budding, thickness of the root crown at the rootstock and the root suckering. Their interactions were tested statistically. The highest values of affinity within the nursery were achieved with the following rootstocks: ‘BET’ (96.6%, ‘FOX 11’ (95.5 %, and ‘MA’ (94.4 %. ‘Hosui’ was identified as the variety with the greatest growing capacity, with an average gain of 1238.2 mm. The most supported variety growth was exhibited by the ‘FOX 11’ rootstock, with an average gain of the trees propagated by budding of 1388.8 mm. The growth intensity itself was demonstrated most in the thickness of the root crown of the ‘BET’ (P. betulifolia rootstock, namely 15.8 mm. The rootstock that exhibited the strongest root suckering was also ‘BET’ with 6.2 suckers per rootstock. The identified differences between the varieties and rootstocks were confirmed as statistically significant or even highly statistically significant.

  11. Mutant of Japanese pear resistant to Black Spot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, T.; Nishida, T.; Ikeda, F.


    Full text: Nijisseike is one of the leading cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus serotinea Rehd.), but susceptible to black spot disease. Farmers try to prevent this disease by wrapping the fruit with a paper bag and by repeated spraying of fungicides. The disease is caused by a Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Susceptibility is controlled by a single dominant gene. In 1962, grafted trees of this cultivar were planted at a distance between 53 and 93 m from the 60 Co source in the gamma-field (daily dose 15-4 rad). One branch on a tree planted at 53 m was detected as resistant in 1981. Under field conditions, black spots were observed on many fruits and leaves of the original trees by natural infection in early July, however, they were not observed on the mutant. To examine the resistance of the mutant, artificial inoculations were made using spores of the pathogen and the host specific toxin produced by germinating spores. When some drops of the spore suspension are placed on leaves, the formation of black spots depends upon the leaf age. In a resistant cv. as Chojuro, black spot symptoms are formed only when inoculated on young leaves. An intermediate reaction was observed in the mutant, whereas the original Nijisseiki showed severe symptoms. When inoculation was made on matured fruit skins, no black spot was formed on the mutant just like on the resistant cv. Chojuro, while many small black spots were formed and grew into large spots overlapping each other on the susceptible cv. Nijisseiki. In case of the crude toxin inoculation (4-0.04 ppm) of cv. Nijisseiki black spots were formed on the surface of the susceptible fruit skin, and necrotic lesions at the cut end of detached small pieces of leaves, although reaction on fruit skins was weaker compared with inoculation by spores. However, no symptoms were observed from the toxin application on the mutant and the resistant cv. Chojuro. That the resistance of the mutant is classified as

  12. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der F.


    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple

  13. Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.


    Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting,

  14. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Functional Divergence of MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri). (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Xue, Cheng; Li, Jiaming; Qiao, Xin; Li, Leiting; Yu, Li'ang; Huang, Yuhua; Wu, Jun


    The MYB superfamily is large and functionally diverse in plants. To date, MYB family genes have not yet been identified in Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and their functions remain unclear. In this study, we identified 231 genes as candidate MYB genes and divided them into four subfamilies. The R2R3-MYB (PbrMYB) family shared an R2R3 domain with 104 amino acid residues, including five conserved tryptophan residues. The Pbr MYB family was divided into 37 functional subgroups including 33 subgroups which contained both MYB genes of Rosaceae plants and AtMYB genes, and four subgroups which included only Rosaceae MYB genes or AtMYB genes. PbrMYB genes with similar functions clustered into the same subgroup, indicating functional conservation. We also found that whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplications played critical roles in the expansion of the MYB family. The 87 Pbr MYB duplicated gene pairs dated back to the two WGD events. Purifying selection was the primary force driving Pbr MYB gene evolution. The 15 gene pairs presented 1-7 codon sites under positive selection. A total of 147 expressed genes were identified from RNA-sequencing data of fruit, and six Pbr MYB members in subgroup C1 were identified as important candidate genes in the regulation of lignin synthesis by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Further correlation analysis revealed that six PbrMYBs were significantly correlated with five structural gene families (F5H, HCT, CCR, POD and C3'H) in the lignin pathway. The phylogenetic, evolution and expression analyses of the MYB gene family in Chinese white pear establish a solid foundation for future comprehensive functional analysis of Pbr MYB genes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  15. Agrobiodiversity of cactus pear (Opuntia, Cactaceae in the Meridional Highlands Plateau of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Reyes-Agüero


    Full Text Available Mexico is characterized by a remarkable richness of Opuntia, mostly at the Meridional Highlands Plateau; it is also here where the greatest richness of Opuntia variants occurs. Most of these variants have been maintained in homegardens; however, the gathering process which originated these homegardens has been disrupted over the past decades, as a result of social change and the destruction of large wild nopaleras. If the variants still surviving in homegardens are lost, these will be hard to recover, that is, the millenary cultural heritage from the human groups that populated the Mexican Meridional Highland Plateau will be lost forever. This situation motivated the preparation of a catalogue that records the diversity of wild and cultivated Opuntia variants living in the meridional Highlands Plateau. To this end, 379 samples were obtained in 29 localities, between 1998 and 2003. The information was processed through Twinspan. All specimens were identified and preserved in herbaria. Botanical keys and descriptions were elaborated. The catalogue includes information on 126 variants comprising 18 species. There were species with only one variant (Opuntia atropes, O. cochinera, O. jaliscana, O. leucotricha, O. rzedowskii and O. velutina, two (O. durangensis, O. lindheimeri, O. phaeacantha and O. robusta, five (O. joconostle and O. lasiacantha, seven (O. chavena, 12 (O. hyptiacantha and O. streptacantha, 15 (O. ficus-indica, 22 (O. albicarpa, and up to 34 (O. megacantha. Additionally, 267 common cactus pear names were related to those variants.

  16. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice. (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto


    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Apomixis and the problem of obtaining haploids and homozygote diploids in pear (Pyrus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. О. Долматов


    Full Text Available The article highlights results of research over simulative apomixes in pear and its utilization for obtaining haploids and homozygote diploids. It has been established that over 50% pear varieties with failed remote hybridization are capable of generating seeds of apomictic origin producing diploid plants. Genotypes displaying maximal inclination to apomixes have been singled out. Apomictic pear seedlings obtained from foreign pollination within the limits of the same combination are inherent in profound morphological diversity. Fruit-bearing apomicts originated from one and the same maternal plant differ to the same extent as hybrid seedlings of the same family. Genetic markers have enabled to establish that these are embryo sacs in which meiosis has completed that give rise to apomictic seeds. In vitro method as used for the purpose of increasing apomictic plants output has been illustrated. The greatest induction of apomictic shoots in vitro has been reached by alternation of BAP cytokinin at concentration of 1mg/l and 2 mg/l on the background of GA3 amounting to 1,5 mg/l. Grafting with shoots in vitro on non-sterile rootstocks of pear (Pyrus communis has increased the output of plants up to 80%. A cytological assessment of 9 apomictic samples is provided. The cytological analysis of samples of apomictic forms has certified the presence of simulative haploid parthenogenesis in pear.

  18. Black, queer, and looking for a job: an exploratory study of career decision making among self-identified sexual minorities at an urban historically black college/university. (United States)

    Harris, Latashia N


    This thematically analyzed study seeks to explore the career decision perceptions of sexual minority college students at an urban historically black college/university (HBCU). This qualitative focus group study delved into how sexual minorities feel their visible variables of race, gender expression, and degree of disclosure influence their career thought process. Theories relative to the study included Krumboltz's social learning theory of career decision-making, gender role theory, racial socialization, Cass's homosexual identity model, and impression management. Though participants initially proclaimed they did not allow their sexual minority identity to affect their career decisions, their overall responses indicated otherwise.

  19. First Report of Cadophora luteo-olivacea Causing Side Rot on ‘Conference’ Pears in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de Astrid; Leeuwen, van Paul; Hollinger, T.C.; Haas, de B.H.; Köhl, J.


    Pear (Pyrus communis) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands. Symptoms of side rot disease of pear fruits were first observed in 2008 on cv. Conference in storage in the Netherlands. Typical round to oval, dark-brown, and slightly sunken spots (size 0.5 to 1.0 cm in diameter) appeared after

  20. Effect of Root Pruning and Irrigation Regimes on Yield and Physiology of Pear Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei

    Clara Frijs’ is the dominant pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar in Denmark. It is vigorous with long annual shoots, and therefore can be difficult to prune. Root pruning has been widely used to control the canopy size of fruit trees including pears. However, root pruned trees are more likely......, it was concluded that root pruning not only decreases water uptake but also nutrient uptake, and both have contributed to the reduced canopy growth. Supplemental irrigation partially improved the tree water status and nitrogen uptake without stimulating additional shoot growth in the root pruned trees....... A combination of root pruning and irrigation could be a promising practice to control tree size and secure a stable fruit yield in pear orchard....

  1. Potable NIR spectroscopy predicting soluble solids content of pears based on LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yande; Liu Wei; Sun Xudong; Gao Rongjie; Pan Yuanyuan; Ouyang Aiguo, E-mail: [School of Mechatronics Engineering, East China Jiaotong University, Changbei Open and Developing District, Nanchang, 330013 (China)


    A portable near-infrared (NIR) instrument was developed for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of pears equipped with light emitting diodes (LEDs). NIR spectra were collected on the calibration and prediction sets (145:45). Relationships between spectra and SSC were developed by multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the calibration set. The 45 unknown pears were applied to evaluate the performance of them in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (r). The best result was obtained by PLS with RMSEP of 0.62{sup 0}Brix and r of 0.82. The results showed that the SSC of pears could be predicted by the portable NIR instrument.

  2. Potable NIR spectroscopy predicting soluble solids content of pears based on LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yande; Liu Wei; Sun Xudong; Gao Rongjie; Pan Yuanyuan; Ouyang Aiguo


    A portable near-infrared (NIR) instrument was developed for predicting soluble solids content (SSC) of pears equipped with light emitting diodes (LEDs). NIR spectra were collected on the calibration and prediction sets (145:45). Relationships between spectra and SSC were developed by multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the calibration set. The 45 unknown pears were applied to evaluate the performance of them in terms of root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficients (r). The best result was obtained by PLS with RMSEP of 0.62 0 Brix and r of 0.82. The results showed that the SSC of pears could be predicted by the portable NIR instrument.

  3. Conservation of Williams pear using edible coating with alginate and carrageenan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessiane Silva de Moraes


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical parameters of Williams pear, stored at 25 ºC for 15 days, with and without edible coating. Edible coatings prepared with alginate 2% and carrageenan 0.5% were tested. The analyses carried out on the samples were: weight loss, pH, soluble solids, firmness, and color. The edible coatings were characterized in terms of mechanical properties, permeability, thickness, and opacity. The results show that the application of edible coatings with carrageenan and alginate in pears influenced physical and chemical characteristics such as weight loss, pH, total soluble solids, color, and firmness of the fruit. However, the alginate coating showed the best results on pear conservation since it had lower water vapor permeability and greater tensile strength, and therefore it can be used as a protective film on these fruits.

  4. Utilization of Prickly Pear Peels to Improve Quality of Pan Bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Sallam, E.M.


    This investigation aimed to study utilization of prickly pear peels to improve quality of pan bread. Prickly pear peels powder added to wheat flour 72 % at levels 1.0 and 2.0% to make pan beard. In this study, evaluation of nutrients and chemical constitutes and functional properties of prickly pear peels as well as the rheological properties of dough contained prickly pear peels at levels 1% and 2% has been conducted. Then evaluated organoleptic characteristics of pan bread made of it also determined staling rate. Results showed that prickly pear peels had higher content of 32.67 % fiber, 14.25 % pectin and 87.82 % ascorbic acid, and higher contents of antioxidant components. It consists of 441.11 mg/100 g, total phenols, 35.2 flavonoids mg/100 g and DPPH radical-scavenging 62.14%, also water holding capacity was 1.8 ml H 2 O / g , oil holding capacity 2.35 (ml oil/g) and foam stability 7.15%. The major phenolic compounds Oleuro 1264.407, pyrogallo 1149.68, Benzoic 982.37, 3-oH Tyrosol 588.53, Ellagic 413.26, Chorogenic 271.10, Protocatechuic acid 176.02, P-oH- Benzoic 112.78, Epicatechin105.99, Gallic acid 61.26 ppm. The results revealed that addition of prickly pear peels to wheat flour increased the nutrition values of pan bread made of it due to high contents of fiber, ascorbic acid and natural antioxidants, and also decreased staling which improves the quality of pan bread, as well as increases shelf-life of pan bread.

  5. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Wessels


    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  6. Changes in the physiological characteristics of mature pear fruits subjected to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; Sewidan, A.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Taha, F.


    Moisture content, weight loss, firmness, titrable acidity total soluble solids and decay percentage of the pear fruits (variety of Le conte) of different treatments (0,1,2,3, and 4 KGy) were investigated during storage. The data reported show that there was a slight decrease in the moisture content and titrable acidity of pear fruits during storage and there was decrease in the firmness and decay percentage. This decrease was elevated by the increase of irradiation doses and storage period on the other hand, the weight losses and total soluble solids increased by increasing the irradiation doses and storage period

  7. ACHP | Tribal Historic Preservation Officers (United States)

    preservation of significant historic properties. Those functions include identifying and maintaining Working with Section 106 Federal, State, & Tribal Programs Training & Education Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Historic Preservation Programs & Officers arrow THPOs

  8. XRF analysis to identify historical photographic processes: The case of some Interguglielmi Jr.’s images from the Palermo Municipal Archive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modica, A.; Alberghina, M.F.; Brai, M.; Bruno, M.; Di Bella, M.; Fontana, D.; Tranchina, L.


    In the early period, even though professional photographers worked with similar techniques and products, their artistic and commercial aims determined different choices and led them to follow different, often personal, recipes. For this reason, identification of the techniques through date and name of the photographer or through some visual features like colour, tonality and surface of the image layer, often needs further investigation to be proved. Chemical characterization, carried out in a non or micro destructive way, can be crucial to provide useful information about the original composition, degradation process, realization technique, in obtaining an indirect dating of the photograph and/or to choose the most correct conservation treatment. In our case, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was used to confirm the chemical composition of eleven historical photographs dated between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, shot in Palermo (Sicily) by a renowned photographer of the time, and pasted on their original cardboards. The elemental identification, obtained with a non destructive approach, provided important information to distinguish among different photographic techniques in terms of distribution and characterization of chemical elements markers in the photographic surface. - Highlights: • Overview of the photographic processes used in the early XX century. • X-ray fluorescence used to characterize photographs made by different techniques. • Diagnostic and conservative approach in the photographic material restoration. • Non invasive approach in studying photographic materials.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis L-1, Which Has Antagonistic Activity against Pear Diseases


    Sun, Pingping; Cui, Jianchao; Jia, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenhui


    ABSTRACT Bacillus velezensis L-1 is an effective biocontrol agent against pear diseases. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. velezensis L-1 in which clusters related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were predicted. This genome provides insights into the possible biocontrol mechanisms and furthers application of this specific bacterium.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis L-1, Which Has Antagonistic Activity against Pear Diseases. (United States)

    Sun, Pingping; Cui, Jianchao; Jia, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenhui


    Bacillus velezensis L-1 is an effective biocontrol agent against pear diseases. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. velezensis L-1 in which clusters related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were predicted. This genome provides insights into the possible biocontrol mechanisms and furthers application of this specific bacterium. Copyright © 2017 Sun et al.

  11. Volatiles from Psylla-infested pear trees and their possible involvement in attraction of anthocorid predators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scutareanu, P.; Drukker, B.; Bruin, J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Sabelis, M.W.


    Previous work showed that anthocorid predators aggregate around gauze cages containing Psylla-infested trees in a pear orchard. Because anthocorids responded to odor from Psylla-infested leaves in a laboratory test, it was hypothesized that these aggregative responses in the field were triggered by

  12. Evaluation of Dacryodes edulis (native pear) seed biomass for Pb (II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dacryodes edulis (Native pear) seed is herein evaluated as a promising biomass for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution. The Pb(II) adsorption onto Dacryodes edulis seed biomass was influenced by the solution pH, time, biomass dose and initial adsorbate concentration. The Freundlich model fitted better than the ...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China. (United States)


    ... conditions. (1) The pears must have been grown by growers registered with the national plant protection...) Field inspections for signs of pest infestation must be conducted by the national plant protection...-29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  14. Development of an energy-protein for animal food based crop residues pear (Pyrus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Julián Pulido-Suárez,


    Full Text Available Pear (Pyrus communis is a fruit from the species of deciduous, widely consumed worldwide for its high quality energ y. However, pear itself does not provide the amount of protein required for cattle feeding, so alternatives to improve its nutritional quality have been studied. On these grounds, the objective of this study was to evaluate the parameters of solid state fermentation, and compositional energ y value of a protein food based on pears (Pyrus communis with apparent physical damage. A completely random design was used to evaluate three treatments; these correspond to percentages of inclusion of calcium carbonate (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 formulation based on already established (40 % pear, 25 % rice flour, 25 % wheat bran and 10 % urea, the parameters evaluated were: pH, ashes (CZ, crude protein (CP and crude fiber (CF, and they were recorded at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. As a result, it was found that the pH dropped gradually for each treatment and at each sampling period; however, there were no significant differences. The lower value at the end of the process is recorded T2 (0.25 with 4.66, followed by T3 (0.50 with 4.50, the ash reached values of up to 6 % with T3, and T2 (0.50 reached the highest percentages in fiber and crude protein. Finally, decreasing the fermentation variables ensures a food with no presence of undesirable microorganisms and stable over time.

  15. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation (United States)

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  16. Plant growth responses of apple and pear trees to doses of glyphosate (United States)

    Glyphosate is commonly used for intra-row weed management in perennial plantations, where unintended crop exposure to this herbicide can cause growth reduction. The objective of this research was to analyze the initial plant growth behavior of young apple and pear plants exposed to glyphosate. Glyph...

  17. The genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Zebin


    The draft genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) using a combination of BAC-by-BAC and next-generation sequencing is reported. A 512.0-Mb sequence corresponding to 97.1% of the estimated genome size of this highly heterozygous species is assembled with 194× coverage. High-density genetic maps ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low fruit set is one of the main factors leading to poor yield of pear orchards in Brazil. Ethylene is associated with abscission of flowers and fruitlets. Then, the application of ethylene synthesis inhibitors, such as AVG, is a potential tool to increase fruit set of pears. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of AVG, sprayed at different rates and timings, on fruit set, yield and fruit quality of ‘Rocha’ pear. The study was performed in a commercial orchard located in the municipality of São Joaquim, SC, during the growing seasons of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. Plant material consisted of ‘Rocha’ pear trees grafted on quince rootstock ‘BA29’. AVG was tested at different rates (60 mg L-1 and 80 mg L-1 and timings [full bloom, one week after full bloom (WAFB, and two WAFB, either alone or in combination. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, with at least five single-tree replications. The fruit set, number of fruit per tree, yield, estimated yield, fruit weight, return bloom, and fruit quality attributes were assessed. Fruit set and yield were consistently increased by single applications of AVG at 60 and 80 mg L-1 at both one and two weeks after full bloom, without negatively affecting fruit quality attributes and return bloom.

  19. Estimate of Leaf Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Asian Pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd. by CCM-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa GHASEMI


    Full Text Available In many cases evaluation of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in plants need to destructive methods, more time and organic solvents. Application of chlorophyll meters save time and resources. The aim of this study was estimating of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves using non-destructive method and rapid quantification of chlorophyll by chlorophyll content meter (CCM-200. This study was conducted on 8 years old Asian pear trees during June 2008 in Tehran, Iran. To develop our regression model, the chlorophyll meter data were correlated with extracted chlorophyll and nitrogen content data obtained from DMSO and Kejeldal methods, respectively. The results showed that, there was positive and linear correlation between CCM-200 data and chlorophyll a (R�=0.7183, chlorophyll b (R�=0.8523, total chlorophyll (R�=0.90, and total nitrogen content (R�=0.76 in Asian pear leaves. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCM-200 can be used in order to predict both chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves.

  20. Finite element analysis of the dynamic behavior of pear under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Salarikia


    Full Text Available Pear fruit is susceptible to bruising from mechanical impact during field harvesting operations and at all stages of postharvest handling. The postharvest shelf life of bruised fruits were shorter, and they softened rapidly under cold storage compared with non-bruised samples. Developing strategies for reducing bruising during the supply chain requires an understanding of fruit dynamic behavior to different enforced loadings. Finite Element Method (FEM is among the best techniques, in terms of accuracy and cost-efficiency, for studying the factors effective in impact-induced bruising. In this research, the drop test of pear sample was simulated using FEM. The simulation was conducted on a 3D solid model of the pear that was created by using non-contact optical scanning technology. This computer-based study aimed to assess the stress and strain distribution patterns within pear generated by collision of the fruit with a flat surface made of different materials. The contact force between two colliding surfaces is also investigated. The simulations were conducted at two different drop orientations and four different impact surfaces. Results showed that, in both drop orientations, the largest and smallest stresses, strains and contact forces were developed in collision with the steel and rubber surfaces, respectively. In general, these parameters were smaller when fruit collided with the surfaces along its horizontal axis than when collided along its vertical axis. Finally, analyses of stress and strain magnitudes showed that simulation stress and strain values were compatible with experiments data.

  1. Xylella taiwanensis sp. nov. cause of pear leaf scorch disease in Taiwan (United States)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a group of xylem-limited and nutritionally fastidious plant pathogenic bacteria. While mostly found in the Americas, new X. fastidiosa strains have been reported from other continents such as Asia, including a pear leaf scorch (PLS) strain from Taiwan. Current taxonomy of X. fa...

  2. Soil sampling and extraction methods with possible application to pear thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (United States)

    John E. Bater


    Techniques are described for the sampling and extraction of microarthropods from soil and the potential of these methods to extract the larval stages of the pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), from soil cores taken in sugar maple stands. Also described is a design for an emergence trap that could be used to estimate adult thrips...

  3. Determination of chlormequat in pears by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; Dam, R.C.J. van; Vreeken, R.J.; Steijger, O.M.


    A straightforward and reliable method was developed for the determination of chlormequat in pears by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Water and methanol were compared as extraction solvents. Because no significant differences in extraction efficiency or repeatability were found,

  4. How to prevent ripening blockage in 1-MCP-treated 'Conference' pears. (United States)

    Chiriboga, Maria-Angeles; Schotsmans, Wendy C; Larrigaudière, Christian; Dupille, Eve; Recasens, Inmaculada


    Some European pear varieties treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) often remain 'evergreen', meaning that their ripening process is blocked and does not resume after removal from cold storage. In this work this was confirmed also to be the case in 'Conference' pears. To reverse the blockage of ripening 1-MCP treatments combined with external exogenous ethylene were tested. 1-MCP treatment of 'Conference' pears is very effective in delaying ripening and, more specifically, softening. The same 1-MCP concentration in different experimental years caused a different response. The higher dose of 1-MCP (600 nL L⁻¹) always resulted in irreversible blockage of ripening, whereas the behaviour of fruit receiving a lower dose (300 nL L⁻¹) depended on the year, and this did not depend on maturity at harvest or on storage conditions. Simultaneous exposure to 1-MCP and exogenous ethylene significantly affected fruit ripening, allowing significant softening to occur but at a lower rate compared with control fruit. The application of exogenous ethylene and 1-MCP simultaneously after harvest permitted restoration of the ripening process after storage in 'Conference' pears, extending the possibility of marketing and consumption. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Improved irrigation scheduling for pear-jujube trees based on trunk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A suitable indicator for scheduling pear-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) irrigation in China was developed based on trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF). Parameters derived from TDF responses to variations in soil matrix potential (Ψsoil) were compared under deficit and well irrigation. Maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) increased ...

  6. Hourly laying patterns of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) in Puerto Rico (United States)

    Wayne Arendt


    Temporal aspects of egg deposition are important factors governing avian reproductive success. I report hourly egg-laying patterns of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in northeastern Puerto Rico during 1979–2000. Initiatory eggs were laid by early morning (median 5 0642 hrs, AST) and almost half of the eggs were laid by...

  7. Sources of Neofabraea spp. and Cadophora spp. in Dutch apple and pear orchards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Wenneker, M.; Haas, de B.H.; Anbergen, R.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.


    Post-harvest diseases of apple and pear result in significant economic losses during long storage. Pathogens causing quiescent infections in the orchard leading to late post-harvest losses in The Netherlands are Neofabraea alba (Lenticel spot disease), N. perennans (Bull eye rot), Neonectria

  8. High prevalence of pollinosis symptoms among the farmers cultivating Japanese pears. (United States)

    Hayashi, S; Teranishi, H; Shimooka, Y; Yamada, N


    In a district of Japanese pear cultivators, a questionnaire survey and an IgE antibody survey were conducted on the pollinosis. A high prevalence of 36.3 percent of the farmers complained of pollinosis symptoms. By the IgE antibody survey, the symptoms were found to be related to the airborne pollens in the orchard.

  9. Overhead work and shoulder-neck pain in orchard farmers harvesting pears and apples. (United States)

    Sakakibara, H; Miyao, M; Kondo, T; Yamada, S


    The effects of overhead work were studied by comparing orchard farmers' musculoskeletal symptoms while bagging pears with those same symptoms while bagging apples. The subjects were 52 Japanese female farmers, who were examined twice an evening in late June for bagging pears, and during another evening of late July for bagging apples, when each task had been almost finished. They were questioned about musculoskeletal complaints of stiffness and pain during each job, and examined for muscle tenderness and pain from joint movement. Arm elevation angles during the work were measured for each type of bagging. The prevalence of stiffness and pain in the neck and shoulder, muscle tenderness in the shoulder regions, and pain in neck motion were found to be significantly higher when bagging pears than apples. Musculoskeletal symptoms of parts other than the neck and shoulder did not differ between the two types of bagging. The working posture of elevating the arm more than 90 degrees was assumed to account for 75% of the time bagging pears, against 40% for bagging apples. Overhead work requiring arm elevation and head extension was considered to be closely related with shoulder-neck disorders among farmers.

  10. Polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR for large-scale enzymatic production of antisense oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Antisense oligonucleotides targeting microRNAs or their mRNA targets prove to be powerful tools for molecular biology research and may eventually emerge as new therapeutic agents. Synthetic oligonucleotides are often contaminated with highly homologous failure sequences. Synthesis of a certain oligonucleotide is difficult to scale up because it requires expensive equipment, hazardous chemicals and a tedious purification process. Here we report a novel thermocyclic reaction, polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR, for the amplification of oligonucleotides. A target oligonucleotide and a tandem repeated antisense probe are subjected to repeated cycles of denaturing, annealing, elongation and cleaving, in which thermostable DNA polymerase elongation and strand slipping generate duplex tandem repeats, and thermostable endonuclease (PspGI cleavage releases monomeric duplex oligonucleotides. Each round of PEAR achieves over 100-fold amplification. The product can be used in one more round of PEAR directly, and the process can be further repeated. In addition to avoiding dangerous materials and improved product purity, this reaction is easy to scale up and amenable to full automation. PEAR has the potential to be a useful tool for large-scale production of antisense oligonucleotide drugs.

  11. Effects of major geometric variations between intracavitary applications on pear-shaped isodose dimension in cancer of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, R. Y.


    PURPOSE: The basic principal of intracavitary brachytherapy for cancer of the cervix is based on specific loading rules to achieve a pear-shaped isodose distribution centered around the cervix. Recently, ICRU Report 38 recommends a dose reference volume for reporting. Our previous studies have confirmed that there is considerable variations of geometry between applications. This study is to evaluate the effect of major geometric variations on pear-shaped isodose dimension in manual afterloading low-dose-rate system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred orthogonal films of 50 patients with cancer of the cervix (2 applications/patient) were reviewed for comparative measurements of geometric variations between applications. Major geometric variations were found for 13 patients in lengths of tandem, 7 patients in colpostats separation and 16 patients in vaginal packing. The direct measurement of these geometric variations were compared with the three-dimensional measurement of the pear-shaped isodose enclosed by the point A between the two applications. RESULTS: The geometric variations in the width of colpostats separation and length of tandem were directly related to the width and height of the pear-shaped isodose dimension. The geometric relationship between the colpostats and distal tandem had an important effect on the thickness of the pear-shape. In optimization of poor geometry for rectum or bladder wall, high dose volume centered around the cervix is reduced without changing the overall pear-shaped volume due to changing configuration of the pear-shaped isodose. In our selected patients with two applications, variations in vaginal packing had no direct effect on the width and thickness of the pear-shape due to other variables. CONCLUSION: Major geometric variations between applications greatly affect the dimension of the pear-shaped isodose distribution. Optimization of poor geometry is quite limited without compromising the high-dose volume centered around the

  12. Investigation of Pear Drying Performance by Different Methods and Regression of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient with Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Das


    Full Text Available In this study, an air heated solar collector (AHSC dryer was designed to determine the drying characteristics of the pear. Flat pear slices of 10 mm thickness were used in the experiments. The pears were dried both in the AHSC dryer and under the sun. Panel glass temperature, panel floor temperature, panel inlet temperature, panel outlet temperature, drying cabinet inlet temperature, drying cabinet outlet temperature, drying cabinet temperature, drying cabinet moisture, solar radiation, pear internal temperature, air velocity and mass loss of pear were measured at 30 min intervals. Experiments were carried out during the periods of June 2017 in Elazig, Turkey. The experiments started at 8:00 a.m. and continued till 18:00. The experiments were continued until the weight changes in the pear slices stopped. Wet basis moisture content (MCw, dry basis moisture content (MCd, adjustable moisture ratio (MR, drying rate (DR, and convective heat transfer coefficient (hc were calculated with both in the AHSC dryer and the open sun drying experiment data. It was found that the values of hc in both drying systems with a range 12.4 and 20.8 W/m2 °C. Three different kernel models were used in the support vector machine (SVM regression to construct the predictive model of the calculated hc values for both systems. The mean absolute error (MAE, root mean squared error (RMSE, relative absolute error (RAE and root relative absolute error (RRAE analysis were performed to indicate the predictive model’s accuracy. As a result, the rate of drying of the pear was examined for both systems and it was observed that the pear had dried earlier in the AHSC drying system. A predictive model was obtained using the SVM regression for the calculated hc values for the pear in the AHSC drying system. The normalized polynomial kernel was determined as the best kernel model in SVM for estimating the hc values.

  13. Extraction and determination of polyphenols and betalain pigments in the Moroccan Prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khatabi


    This study has permitted us equally to value betalain pigments extracted from fruity juice. These are the betalains present in the epidermis and the pulp of the prickly pear confers on it its color varying from yellow to purple. Results show that yellow and red prickly pears contain imported strengths in betalains. Our work shows that the red prickly pear contains betaxanthin pigments in excess of the indicaxanthin that permits to valorize human’s potential spring of genuine colorings. Betalains and polyphenols are antioxidants that contribute to nutritional prickly pears’ quality and to their products of transformation.

  14. Shelf-life extension and quality improvement of minimally processed pear by combination treatments with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.; Hammad, A.A.; Serag, M.S.; Mansour, F.A.; Abu El-Nour, S.A.


    Fresh-cut pears are not yet commercially available in Egypt. Thus, an attempt has been done to produce this minimally processed fruit manually at the laboratory. Fifteen samples of this manually prepared fresh-produce were evaluated for their microbiological quality. Total aerobic bacterial counts (TAPC) ranged from 7.5 x 10 to 3.5 x 10 cfu g-1, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ranged from less than 10 to 3.2 x 10 cfu g-1; total mould and yeast counts (TM & Y) ranged from less than 10 to 5.3 x 10 cfu g-1 indicating good quality from the view point of microbiological population. Coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were found in only 2 samples at levels of 20 to 43 and greater than 3 to 9 most probable numbers per gram (MPN g-1), respectively. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus was found in also 2 samples at levels of 102. Aeromonas hydrohila, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp., were not found in any of the samples. Fresh-cut pear s were dipped in water containing 2% ascorbic acid and 1% calcium lactate. The dipped fresh-cut pears were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 kGy. Dipping fresh-cut pears in 2% ascorbic acid plus 1% calcium lactate prevented browning and enhanced firmness during refrigeration storage. Irradiation dose of 2 kGy was the optimum, since it reduced TAPC by 99.58% and LAB and TM and Y to un-detectable level. These combined treatments extend the shelf life of fresh-cut pears without affecting their chemical, physical and sensorial quality attributes

  15. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneel, V., E-mail: [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Vethamony, P., E-mail: [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Naik, B.G., E-mail: [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Krishna, M.S., E-mail: [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam, 530 017 (India); Jadhav, Lakshmikant, E-mail: [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India)


    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. - Highlights: • Multi-marker approach was effective in identifying the source of tar balls. • n-Alkane DRs show weathering effects even within the core of the tar ball. • Tar balls of the west coast of India since 2012 were derived from Bombay High crude. • Tanker-wash is not the only source of tar balls deposited on the beaches of Goa.

  16. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; Naik, B.G.; Krishna, M.S.; Jadhav, Lakshmikant


    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. - Highlights: • Multi-marker approach was effective in identifying the source of tar balls. • n-Alkane DRs show weathering effects even within the core of the tar ball. • Tar balls of the west coast of India since 2012 were derived from Bombay High crude. • Tanker-wash is not the only source of tar balls deposited on the beaches of Goa

  17. Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development. (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak


    Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured.

  18. Studies on the Paint Forming Properties of Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes Edulis) Seed Oils.


    Otaigbe, J.O.E; Oriji, O.G; Ekerenam, G.E


    Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) seed oils were investigated for their suitability as base materials for oil paint production. Soxhlet extraction of the oils from the powdered seeds using n-hexane gave 3.63% and 10.40% yields for Avocado and African Pear respectively. Proximate analysis and chemical characterization of the seed oils were carried out using standard procedures according to the American Oil Chemist Society (AOCS) and the American Society for Testing ...

  19. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India. (United States)

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant


    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. NMR, ESI/MS, and MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of pear juice polymeric proanthocyanidins with potent free radical scavenging activity. (United States)

    Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Guyot, Sylvain; Ducrot, Paul-Henri


    The structure of a polymeric proanthocyanidin fraction isolated from pear juice was characterized by NMR, ESI/MS, and MALDI-TOF/MS analyses, and its antioxidant activity was investigated using the DPPH free radical scavenging method. The results obtained from 13C NMR analysis showed the predominance of signals representative of procyanidins. Typical signals in the chemical shift region between 70 and 90 ppm demonstrated the exclusive presence of epicatechin units. The results obtained through negative ESI/MS analysis showed singly and doubly charged ions corresponding to the molecular mass of procyanidins with a degree of polymerization up to 22. The spectra obtained through MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed the presence of two series of tannin oligomers. Supporting the observations from NMR spectroscopy, the first series consists of well-resolved tannin identified as procyanidin polymers units with chain lengths of up to 25. A second series of monogalloyl flavan-3-ols polymers with polymerization degree up to 25 were also detected. This is the first mass spectrometric evidence confirming the existence of galloylated procyanidin oligomers in pear fruits. Within each of these oligomers, various signals exist suggesting the presence of several oligomeric tannins. The antioxidant properties of the polymeric fraction were investigated through reduction of the DPPH free radical, and the results obtained showed that the polymeric fraction exhibited a higher antioxidant power compared to those of (+)-catechin and B3 procyanidin dimer.

  1. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and heat of sorption of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M.; Mahrouz, M.


    The equilibrium moisture contents were determined for prickly pear fruit using the gravimetric static method at t=30, 40 and 50 deg. C over a range of relative humidities from 0.05 to 0.9. The sorption curves of prickly pear fruit decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. The hysteresis effect was observed. The GAB, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin and modified Henderson models were tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The monolayer moisture content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated using a modified BET equation. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of water were determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures

  2. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and heat of sorption of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M. E-mail:; Mahrouz, M


    The equilibrium moisture contents were determined for prickly pear fruit using the gravimetric static method at t=30, 40 and 50 deg. C over a range of relative humidities from 0.05 to 0.9. The sorption curves of prickly pear fruit decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. The hysteresis effect was observed. The GAB, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin and modified Henderson models were tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The monolayer moisture content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated using a modified BET equation. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of water were determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures.

  3. Performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears as affected by planting density

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    Mateus da Silveira Pasa


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears at two planting densities. The experiment was carried out during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013, and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in one-year-old orchards (2011/2012 of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears, trained in a central-leader system and planted in two densities (2,000 and 4,000 trees per hectare. The assessed parameters were: production per hectare, production per tree, yield efficiency, number of fruit per tree, average fruit weight, trunk diameter increment, fruit firmness, and soluble solid contents. The cumulative yield of 'Rocha' is greater at the higher planting density, whereas the yield efficiency of 'Santa Maria' increases at the lower planting density, as the trees get more mature. Trunk diameter of 'Rocha' also increases at the lower planting density. However, fruit quality parameters in both cultivars are little affected by planting density.

  4. Effect of irradiation and cold storage on the physiological characteristics of the pear fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; El-Latif, F.A.; Taha, F.


    With the aim of extending shelf life of fruits and the effects of gamma irradiation at the 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 KGy dose levels, the present investigation has been undertaken to illustrate, the possible application of gamma irradiation processing to prolong the storage period of mature pear fruit. Significant differences had been found between irradiated and non-irradiated fruits regarding total soluble solids, weight loss, decay, firmness, titrable acidity and moisture content

  5. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel (Opuntia ficus indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahsasni, Siham; Kouhila, Mohammed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Idlimam, Ali; Jamali, Abdelkrim


    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 deg. C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 deg. C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m 3 /s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m 2 of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square (χ 2 ) of 4.6572 10 -5

  6. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Mahrouz, M. [Unite de Chimie Agroalimentaire (LCOA), Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); Kouhila, M.; Idlimam, A.; Jamali, A. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Marrakech (Morocco). Lab. d' Energie Solaire et Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales


    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 {sup o} C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 {sup o}C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m{sup 3}/s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m{sup 2} of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) of 4.6572 10{sup -5}. (Author)

  7. Use of Red Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Encapsulated Powder to Pigment Extruded Cereal

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    Martha G. Ruiz-Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear is a potential natural dye for the food industry and a known antioxidant. Although the use of this powder is possible, it is not clear how it alters food properties, thus ensuing commercial acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear on the physicochemical properties of extruded cereals. The powder was mixed (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% w/w with maize grits and extruded (mix moisture 22%, temperature 100°C, and screw speed 325 rpm. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of the extruded cereal were evaluated; extruded cereal without encapsulated powder was used as a control. All cereal extrudates pigmented with the encapsulated powder showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in expansion, water absorption, color, density, and texture compared to the control. The encapsulated powder had a positive effect on expansion and water absorption indices, as well as color parameters, but a negative effect on density and texture. Extruded cereal properties were significantly (P<0.05 correlated. Sensorially, consumers accepted the extruded cereal with a lower red cactus pear powder content (2.5% w/w, because this presented characteristics similar to extruded cereal lacking pigment.

  8. Aureobasidium pullulansas a biocontrol agent of blue mold in "Rocha" pear. (United States)

    Ferreira-Pinto, M M; Moura-Guedes, M C; Barreiro, M G; Pais, I; Santos, M R; Silva, M J


    The blue mold of "Rocha" pear caused by Penicillium expansum is an important postharvest disease which is adequately controlled by application of synthetic fungicides. In recent years, strategies like biological control have been considered a desirable alternative to chemicals. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans for control of postharvest decay of pear. A Portuguese isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans was characterized and evaluated for its activity in reducing postharvest blue mold decay of "Rocha" pear caused by Penicillium expansum. Study of optimal conditions for antagonist growth was carried out in six different culture media. The effect of four maturity stages of fruits in the development of A. pullulans was also studied. Biocontrol studies were performed with two concentrations of the antagonist (3 x 10(8) and 4 x 10(9) CFU/ml). A. pullulans growth was significantly different (P Corn Meal Agar (CMA) and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media which contains the higher concentration of glucose (20 mg/l). Medium resulted from fruits of the first harvest date presented lower colony diameter. Inoculation of A. pullulans at 3 x 10(8) and 4 x 10(9) CFU/ml reduced the incidence of the disease by 23 and 63%, and reduced the lesion diameter by 36 and 46%, respectively.


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    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, gas-nitric oxide (NO and sodium nitroprusside (SNP on ripening of ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears. The treatments consisted of T1 control; T2 300 ppb 1-MCP; T3 1 mM SNP; T4 10 ppm NO; and T5 20 ppm NO. The fruit treated with 1-MCP showed significantly higher values for flesh firmness, texture, and peel green color, besides lower respiratory rates and ethylene production. On the other hand, NO and SNP treatments did not reduce fruit respiratory rate and ethylene production. Flesh firmness and textural features were maintained by treating fruit with 20 ppm NO after leaving chambers. Treatments using 1 mM SNP and 20 ppm NO kept peel green color (higher hue angle when compared to control, without decreasing fruit yellowing during the shelf life. The application of 300 ppb 1-MCP prevented buttery texture and yellowing in 'Packham’s Triumph' pear fruit during environment condition exposure. The use NO at 20 ppm kept flesh firmness during storage, however, with subsequent reduction of this variable in environmental conditions. The treatments with 1mM SNP and 20 ppm NO maintained green peel of pear fruit, even after exposure to environmental conditions, but not limiting yellowing.

  10. Development of genic SSR markers from transcriptome sequencing of pear buds. (United States)

    Yue, Xiao-yan; Liu, Guo-qin; Zong, Yu; Teng, Yuan-wen; Cai, Dan-ying


    A total of 8375 genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were discovered from a unigene set assembled from 116282 transcriptomic unigenes in this study. Dinucleotide repeat motifs were the most common with a frequency of 65.11%, followed by trinucleotide (32.81%). A total of 4100 primer pairs were designed from the SSR loci. Of these, 343 primer pairs (repeat length ≥15 bp) were synthesized with an M13 tail and tested for stable amplification and polymorphism in four Pyrus accessions. After the preliminary test, 104 polymorphic genic SSR markers were developed; dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats represented 97.11% (101) of these. Twenty-eight polymorphic genic SSR markers were selected randomly to further validate genetic diversity among 28 Pyrus accessions. These markers displayed a high level of polymorphism. The number of alleles at these SSR loci ranged from 2 to 17, with a mean of 9.43 alleles per locus, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.26 to 0.91. The UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average) cluster analysis grouped the 28 Pyrus accessions into two groups: Oriental pears and Occidental pears, which are congruent to the traditional taxonomy, demonstrating their effectiveness in analyzing Pyrus phylogenetic relationships, enriching rare Pyrus EST-SSR resources, and confirming the potential value of a pear transcriptome database for the development of new SSR markers.

  11. Historical and Cultural Informativeness of French Phrasal Units with Component-dendronym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiya I. Skorobogatova


    Full Text Available Research of national specificity of phraseology in a national language by distinguishing thematic groups of phraseological units and the analysis of their component composition becomes increasingly important in linguistic studies. This article is devoted to the analysis of the French phraseological units, which include dendronyms. Authors narrow notion of “dendronym” and use it only to refer to the names of trees. In French phraseological corpus authors identified 18 dendronyms, which are core components of the floral phrasal units: amandier (almond tree, cèdre (cedar, chêne (oak, cocotier (coconut palm, cyprès (cypress, figuier (fig tree, laurier (laurel tree, mûrier (mulberry, olivier (olive tree, orme (elm, osier (willow, palmier (palm, peuplier (poplar, platane (sycamore, poirier (pear, pommier (apple, prunier (plum, sapin (spruce, fir. The following list proves that the repertoire of dendronyms used to form French FU is not too wide. However, the authors confirmed the possibility to consider idioms-dendronym component as special items of historical and cultural memory.

  12. Characterization of carotenoid profile of Spanish Sanguinos and Verdal prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, spp.) tissues. (United States)

    Cano, M P; Gómez-Maqueo, A; García-Cayuela, T; Welti-Chanes, J


    Carotenoid profiles of different tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit) of Spanish Sanguinos (red) and Verdal (orange) prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica spp.) have been characterized in detail and quantified for the first time. Carotenoids were determined by HPLC-PDA-MS (APCI + ), using a reverse phase C 30 column. A total of 9 xantophylls and 4 hydrocarbon carotenes were identified. Also, minor amounts of chlorophyll a, a' and b can be observed in Opuntia peel extracts. All carotenoids were found to be present in their free form (no carotenoid esters were detected). The RAE was highest in Opuntia peels, showing values from 19.20 to 16.48µg/100g fresh weigth, for Sanguinos and Verdal Opuntia fruits, respectively. The main carotenoid in Opuntia peel extracts was (all-E)-lutein with 1132.51 and 767.98µg/100g fresh weigth, followed by (all-E)-β-carotene with 200.40 and 173.50µg/100g fresh weigth for Sanguinos and Verdal varieties of Opuntia fruits, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of cinnamon essential oil microemulsion and its vapor phase for controlling postharvest gray mold of pears (Pyrus pyrifolia). (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Zhao, Ruipeng; Yu, Ling; Zhang, Yunbin; He, Yan; Yao, Jie


    Essential oil of cinnamon (CM) is a potential alternative to chemical fungicides. Thus this work aimed to investigate the possible effects of CM microemulsions on decay developments and qualitative properties of pears. The decay incidence of samples treated with 500 µg L⁻¹ microemulsion was significantly reduced by 18.7% in comparison to that of 500 µg L⁻¹ non-microemulsion after 4 days' storage at 20 °C. In the vapor phase, the CM microemulsion with the lowest concentration had the best control for decay incidence and lesion diameter. The interval between inoculations also influenced decay development. Pears treated with Botrytis cinerea and immediately followed by CM microemulsion showed the lowest decay incidence. Moreover, in the natural decay experiment, the percentage of rotted pears was 3.8% in the CM microemulsion treatment and 5.8% in the control. CM microemulsion delayed the loss of ascorbic acid, yet it had no significant influence on pear qualities such as firmness and color. CM microemulsion may be an alternative way to control the gray mold of pears without a negative influence on its qualities. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals that Ethylene/H2O2-mediated hypersensitive response and program cell death determine the compatible interaction of Sand pear and Alternaria Alternata (United States)

    A major production restriction on sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) is black spot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata. However, pear response mechanism to A. alternata is unknown at molecular level. Here, host responses of a resistant cultivar Cuiguan (CG) and a susceptible cult...

  15. Historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora C, H.H.


    Short history of the ''Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares''. A short historical review about IAN is made: from 1956 when it was called Instituto Colombiano de Asuntos Nucleares, showing its scientific and technical development and the most important events that have occurred in the last 30 years. The people who had contributed to the progress of the institution are also considered, making emphasis in the important happenings that have guided the routes of the IAN

  16. Compatibilidade de enxertia de cultivares de marmeleiros com pereiras Compatibility of pear cultivars on quinces rootstocks

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    Zeni Fonseca Pinto Tomaz


    Full Text Available A insuficiência de estudos sobre compatibilidade de porta-enxertos é um dos fatores limitantes ao desenvolvimento da cultura da pereira (Pyrus sp. no Brasil. A utilização do marmeleiro (Cydonia oblonga como porta-enxerto para a cultura da pereira apresenta inúmeras vantagens, entre as quais a redução do vigor e a rápida entrada em produção; todavia, sua combinação com algumas cultivares copa apresenta problemas de incompatibilidade de enxertia, podendo ocasionar a ruptura do caule das plantas no pomar. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a compatibilidade de enxertia de algumas cultivares de marmeleiros ('Quince C' e 'Adams' com pereiras ('Packham's Triumph' e 'Kieffer'. As variáveis analisadas foram: diâmetro da secção do tronco no ponto de enxertia, 5 cm abaixo e 5 cm acima do ponto de enxertia, diferença do diâmetro entre porta-enxerto e copa, altura das plantas, volume e massa seca da copa e raízes. Além disso, efetuou-se a observação da conexão vascular no ponto de enxertia através da imersão da base das plantas (abaixo do ponto de enxertia, em solução corante de Ácido Fuccínico 0,08%. Concluiu-se que a cultivar 'Packham's Triumph'apresenta compatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Adams'e 'Quince C', enquanto o híbrido 'Kieffer' apresentou sintomas morfológicos de incompatibilidade de enxertia com o marmeleiro cultivares 'Quince C' e 'Adams'.The lack of studies on compatibility of pear cultivars and rootstocks is one of the limiting factors on the development of the pear crop in Brazil. The use of quinces as rootstocks for pear cultivars has several advantages, among them the reduction in vigor and earlier bearing trees, however, its combination with some scions cultivars results in problems of incompatibility , such as lost of trees of the orchard due to break of the graft union. The objective of this study was to determine the compatibility between pears cvs. Packham's Triumph and Kieffer

  17. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of the heat shock transcription factor family in Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) and five other Rosaceae species. (United States)

    Qiao, Xin; Li, Meng; Li, Leiting; Yin, Hao; Wu, Juyou; Zhang, Shaoling


    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs), which act as important transcriptional regulatory proteins in eukaryotes, play a central role in controlling the expression of heat-responsive genes. At present, the genomes of Chinese white pear ('Dangshansuli') and five other Rosaceae fruit crops have been fully sequenced. However, information about the Hsfs gene family in these Rosaceae species is limited, and the evolutionary history of the Hsfs gene family also remains unresolved. In this study, 137 Hsf genes were identified from six Rosaceae species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus × domestica, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Pyrus communis), 29 of which came from Chinese white pear, designated as PbHsf. Based on the structural characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of these sequences, the Hsf family genes could be classified into three main groups (classes A, B, and C). Segmental and dispersed duplications were the primary forces underlying Hsf gene family expansion in the Rosaceae. Most of the PbHsf duplicated gene pairs were dated back to the recent whole-genome duplication (WGD, 30-45 million years ago (MYA)). Purifying selection also played a critical role in the evolution of Hsf genes. Transcriptome data demonstrated that the expression levels of the PbHsf genes were widely different. Six PbHsf genes were upregulated in fruit under naturally increased temperature. A comprehensive analysis of Hsf genes was performed in six Rosaceae species, and 137 full length Hsf genes were identified. The results presented here will undoubtedly be useful for better understanding the complexity of the Hsf gene family and will facilitate functional characterization in future studies.

  18. Evaluation and Comparison of QuickBird and ADS40-SH52 Multispectral Imagery for Mapping Iberian Wild Pear Trees (Pyrus bourgaeana, Decne in a Mediterranean Mixed Forest

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    Salvador Arenas-Castro


    Full Text Available The availability of images with very high spatial and spectral resolution from airborne sensors or those aboard satellites is opening new possibilities for the analysis of fine-scale vegetation, such as the identification and classification of individual tree species. To evaluate the potential of these images, a study was carried out to compare the spatial, spectral and temporal resolution between QuickBird and ADS40-SH52 imagery, in order to discriminate and identify, within the mixed Mediterranean forest, individuals of the Iberian wild pear (Pyrus bourgaeana. This is a typical species of the Mediterranean forest, but its biology and ecology are still poorly known. The images were subjected to different correction processes and data were homogenized. Vegetation classes and individual trees were identified on the images, which were classified from two types of supervised classification (Maximum Likelihood and Support Vector Machines on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The classification values were satisfactory. The classifiers were compared, and Support Vector Machines was the algorithm that provided the best results in terms of overall accuracy. The QuickBird image showed higher overall accuracy (86.16% when the Support Vector Machines algorithm was applied. In addition, individuals of Iberian wild pear were discriminated with probability of over 55%, when the Maximum Likelihood algorithm was applied. From the perspective of improving the sampling effort, these results are a starting point for facilitating research on the abundance, distribution and spatial structure of P. bourgaeana at different scales, in order to quantify the conservation status of this species.

  19. Hurdle technology applied to prickly pear beverages for inhibiting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. (United States)

    García-García, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z; Tejada-Ortigoza, V; Martín-Belloso, O; Valdez-Fragoso, A; Welti-Chanes, J


    The effect of pH reduction (from 6·30-6·45 to 4·22-4·46) and the addition of antimicrobial compounds (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in prickly pear beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of Villanueva (V, Opuntia albicarpa) and Rojo Vigor (RV, Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties during 14 days of storage at 25°C, was evaluated. RV variety presented the highest microbial inhibition. By combining pH reduction and preservatives, reductions of 6·2-log10 and 2·3-log10 for E. coli and S. cerevisiae were achieved respectively. Due to the low reduction of S. cerevisiae, pulsed electric fields (PEF) (11-15 μs/25-50 Hz/27-36 kV cm(-1)) was applied as another preservation factor. The combination of preservatives, pH reduction and PEF at 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for V variety, and 11 μs/50 Hz, 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for RV, had a synergistic effect on S. cerevisiae inhibition, achieving at least 3·4-log10 of microbial reduction immediately after processing, and more than 5-log10 at fourth day of storage at 25°C maintained this reduction during 21 days of storage (P > 0·05). Hurdle technology using PEF in combination with other factors is adequate to maintain stable prickly pear beverages during 21 days/25°C. Significance and impact of the study: Prickly pear is a fruit with functional value, with high content of nutraceuticals and antioxidant activity. Functional beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of this fruit represent an alternative for its consumption. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are micro-organisms that typically affect fruit beverage quality and safety. The food industry is looking for processing technologies that maintain quality without compromising safety. Hurdle technology, including pulsed electric fields (PEF) could be an option to achieve this. The combination of PEF, pH reduction and preservatives is an alternative to obtain safe and minimally processed

  20. Clarification of purple cactus pear juice using microfiltration membranes to obtain a solution of betalain pigments

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    Cristina VERGARA


    Full Text Available Summary Betalains are fruit pigments possessing health-giving properties. To isolate the pigments, the juice must be separated from the fruit matrix, which contains biopolymers. The aim of this study was to clarify cactus pear juice by microfiltration to obtain a clarified juice containing betalains. For this purpose, two 0.2 µm pore size microfiltration membranes (ceramic and polymeric were tested. The permeates were clear, free of turbidity and high in betalains (20%, also containing polyphenols and antioxidant activity, whereas the retained fractions were high in mucilage. The best separation was obtained using the ceramic membrane.

  1. Allergenic pollens and spores in the working environment of Japanese pear farmers. (United States)

    Teranishi, H; Uchida, M; Hayashi, S; Yamada, N


    Occupational allergies such as pollinosis are reported in several agricultural works in Japan. Many pollens and spores were observed in Japanese pear orchard during the artificial pollination season. By the study on daily symptoms in an allergic farmer, we confirmed that the pollinosis symptoms were most common and most severe during the artificial pollination. These results suggest that the exposure to allergenic pollens and spores induces allergic symptoms. Thus, caution should be paid for the avoidance of the exposure to these allergenic pollens and spores to prevent the allergy.

  2. Antioxidant betalains from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) inhibit endothelial ICAM-1 expression. (United States)

    Gentile, C; Tesoriere, L; Allegra, M; Livrea, M A; D'Alessio, P


    It has been suggested that some pigments would have antioxidant properties and that their presence in dietary constituents would contribute to reduce the risk of oxidative stress-correlated diseases. Among others, inflammatory response depends on redox status and may implicate oxidative stress. Vascular endothelial cells are a direct target of oxidative stress in inflammation. We have tested the impact of the free radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of betalains from the prickle pear in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. Here we show the capacity of betalains to protect endothelium from cytokine-induced redox state alteration, through ICAM-1 inhibition.

  3. Combined Analyses of Chloroplast DNA Haplotypes and Microsatellite Markers Reveal New Insights Into the Origin and Dissemination Route of Cultivated Pears Native to East Asia

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    Xiaoyan Yue


    Full Text Available Asian pear plays an important role in the world pear industry, accounting for over 70% of world total production volume. Commercial Asian pear production relies on four major pear cultivar groups, Japanese pear (JP, Chinese white pear (CWP, Chinese sand pear (CSP, and Ussurian pear (UP, but their origins remain controversial. We estimated the genetic diversity levels and structures in a large sample of existing local cultivars to investigate the origins of Asian pears using twenty-five genome-covering nuclear microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, nSSR markers and two non-coding chloroplast DNA (cpDNA regions (trnL-trnF and accD-psaI. High levels of genetic diversity were detected for both nSSRs (HE = 0.744 and cpDNAs (Hd = 0.792. The major variation was found within geographic populations of cultivated pear groups, demonstrating a close relationship among cultivar groups. CSPs showed a greater genetic diversity than CWPs and JPs, and lowest levels of genetic differentiation were detected among them. Phylogeographical analyses indicated that the CSP, CWP, and JP were derived from the same progenitor of Pyrus pyrifolia in China. A dissemination route of cultivated P. pyrifolia estimated by approximate Bayesian computation suggested that cultivated P. pyrifolia from the Middle Yangtze River Valley area contributed the major genetic resources to the cultivars, excluding those of southwestern China. Three major genetic groups of cultivated Pyrus pyrifolia were revealed using nSSRs and a Bayesian statistical inference: (a JPs; (b cultivars from South-Central China northward to northeastern China, covering the main pear production area in China; (c cultivars from southwestern China to southeastern China, including Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Fujian Provinces. This reflected the synergistic effects of ecogeographical factors and human selection during cultivar spread and improvement. The analyses indicated that UP cultivars might be

  4. Comparison of the transcriptomic analysis between two Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. genotypes of different stone cells contents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyun Zhang

    Full Text Available Stone cell content is thought to be one of the key determinants for fruit quality in pears. However, the molecular mechanism of stone cell development remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the stone cell clusters (SCCs distribution and area in 'Dangshan Su' (with abundant stone cells were higher as compared to 'Lianglizaosu' (low stone cell content bud sport of 'Dangshan Su' based on the histochemical staining, and the correlations of lignin content with stone cell content and SCC area was significant. The fruits of 'Dangshan Su' and 'Lianglizaosu' at three different developmental stages (23 and 55 days after flowering and mature were sampled for comparative transcriptome analysis to explore the metabolic pathways associated with stone cell development. A total of 42444 unigenes were obtained from two varieties, among which 7203 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified by comparison of the six transcriptomes. Specifically, many DEGs associated with lignin biosynthesis were identified, including coumaroylquinate 3-monooxygenase (C3H, shikimate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT, ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD and peroxidase (POD, as well as genes related to carbon metabolism, such as sorbitol dehydrogenase-like (SDH-like and ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase (ATP-PFK. At the peak of the stone cell content (55 days after flowering, the expression level of these genes in 'Dangshan Su' was significantly increased compared with 'Lianglizaosu', indicating that these genes were closely related to stone cell development. We validated the transcriptional levels of 33 DEGs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis. The results were consistent with the transcriptome analysis, indicating the reliability of transcriptome data. In addition, subcellular localization analysis of three DEGs in lignin synthesis (PbC3H, PbF5H and PbPOD revealed that these proteins are

  5. Cultivar and Harvest Month Influence the Nutrient Content of Opuntia spp. Cactus Pear Cladode Mucilage Extracts

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    Alba du Toit


    Full Text Available Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10.2 kJ/g were low. The mineral content was high (ash 17.7/100 g, particularly calcium (3.0 g/100 g and phosphorous (109.5 mg/kg. Low insoluble acid-detergent fibre (1.4 g/kg and neutral-detergent fibre (2.1 g/kg values indicated that mucilage was mostly soluble fibre. Calcium oxalate crystals were not detected in dried mucilage. Opuntia robusta powders had higher protein, extractable fat and potassium content, while Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage powders had higher polyunsaturated (Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid fat content. O. robusta Robusta mucilage, harvested after the fruit harvest (February had the lowest energy content and the highest mineral and protein content. Mucilage powders were highly soluble, low-kilojoule and mineral-rich. This is a functional ingredient that is produced from an easily cultivated crop, as cactus pears grow in areas with poor soil, extremely high daytime temperatures and limited water supplies.

  6. Cultivar and Harvest Month Influence the Nutrient Content of Opuntia spp. Cactus Pear Cladode Mucilage Extracts. (United States)

    du Toit, Alba; de Wit, Maryna; Hugo, Arno


    Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo) and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta) cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10.2 kJ/g) were low. The mineral content was high (ash 17.7/100 g), particularly calcium (3.0 g/100 g) and phosphorous (109.5 mg/kg). Low insoluble acid-detergent fibre (1.4 g/kg) and neutral-detergent fibre (2.1 g/kg) values indicated that mucilage was mostly soluble fibre. Calcium oxalate crystals were not detected in dried mucilage. Opuntia robusta powders had higher protein, extractable fat and potassium content, while Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage powders had higher polyunsaturated (Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid) fat content. O. robusta Robusta mucilage, harvested after the fruit harvest (February) had the lowest energy content and the highest mineral and protein content. Mucilage powders were highly soluble, low-kilojoule and mineral-rich. This is a functional ingredient that is produced from an easily cultivated crop, as cactus pears grow in areas with poor soil, extremely high daytime temperatures and limited water supplies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The pear consumption in Brazil is significant and the country is dependent on the import of this fruit to meet the internal market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vegetative growth of European pear trees grafted on quince with two application forms of nutrients. The study was conducted during the 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15 harvests, in the experimental area of the Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina / UDESC, in Lages. The cultivars used were Rocha, Santa Maria and Abbé Fétel. The quinces were ‘Adams’ and ‘EMA’. The application forms of the nutrients were conventional and fertigation. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design and the arrangement of treatments was sub subdivided plots. The application form of nutrients and rootstocks of quince little influenced on the vegetative growth of the plants, being more influenced by the scion in the soil conditions of this study.

  8. Effect of fertilization methods on growth of pear trees, yielding and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Lipa


    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out in the commercial orchard near Lublin on five-year old pear trees of two cultivars: ‘Conference’and ‘Lukasowka’, planted on Quince MA. The objective of the study was evaluated the reaction of pear on the method of application of fertilizers. In the early spring the surface broadcasting of fertilizers was used (N – 71,5 kg, P 2O5 – 33,0 kg, K 2 O – 114,0 kg and from the May to the middle of August the fertigation was applied (N – 76,4 kg, P 2O5 – 49,5 kg, K 2 O – 84,2 kg. Method of fertilizer’s applications had no significant effect on the growth of evaluated trees. There were no differences in quantity of yield in dependence on the method of fertilization. In the case of cv. ‘Lukasowka’the beneficial influence of the way of fertilization on morphology of fruits (their diameter, height and mass was stated. Such an effect was not observed in the case of the ‘Conference’.

  9. Response of the pearly eye melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae) mutant to host-associated visual cues (United States)

    We report on a pearly eye mutant (PEM) line generated from a single male Bactrocera cucurbitae collected in Kapoho, Hawaii. Crossing experiments with colony wild-type flies indicate that the locus controlling this trait is autosomal and the mutant allele is recessive. Experiments with females to ass...

  10. Systematics of the east Palaearctic pear psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) with particular focus on the Japanese and Korean fauna. (United States)

    Cho, Geonho; Burckhardt, Daniel; Inoue, Hiromitsu; Luo, Xinyu; Lee, Seunghwan


    The confused taxonomy of the east Palaearctic pear psyllids, serious pests on cultivated pear, is reviewed. Fifty-six nominal species have been reported from Pyrus, 25 of which we consider valid and ten as not being associated with Pyrus. Our taxonomic revision suggests that, in Korea, four Cacopsylla species develop on pear: the univoltine C. burckhardti Luo et al. previously misidentified as C. pyrisuga (Foerster), the polyvoltine, seasonally dimorphic C. jukyungi (Kwon) (winter form 'cinereosignata' Luo et al., summer form 'jukyungi'), commonly found in Korean pear orchards, and C. maculatili Li (winter form 'maculatili', summer form 'qiuzili' Li) previously misidentified as C. pyricola (Foerster) by some authors, as well as the probably polyvoltine but not dimorphic C. sandolbaea (Park & Lee). The former three species (C. burckhardti, C. jukyungi, misidentified as C. chinensis (Yang & Li), and C. maculatili) occur also in Japan. Keys to the adult and fifth instar immatures as well as short biological notes are provided, and C. jukyungi and C. sandolbaea are redescribed. Following nomenclatorial changes are proposed: Cacopsylla betulaefoliae (Yang & Li, 1981) = Psylla heterobetulaefoliae Yang & Li, 1981, syn. nov.; Cacopsylla bidens (Šulc, 1907) = Psylla jiangli Yang & Li, 1981, syn. nov.; Cacopsylla jukyungi (Kwon) = C. cinereosignata Luo et al., syn. nov.; Cacopsylla maculatili Li = C. qiuzili Li, syn. nov.; Cacopsylla nigella (Konovalova), comb. nov. from Psylla. The synonymy of P. obongsana Kwon with C. sandolbaea is confirmed.

  11. Ohmic Treatment of Pear Purées (cv. ‘Conference’ in Terms of Some Quality Related Attributes

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    Oana Viorela NISTOR


    Full Text Available The effect of ohmic treatment on some quality related characteristics of pear purée (cv. ‘Conference’ such as color, reducing sugars, total phenols, rheological behavior and microbial counts, was analyzed. The inactivation kinetics of pectin methyl esterase (PME in pear crude extract and purée were studied by conventional thermal and ohmic treatments. Thermal inactivation of PME in crude extract was described by a first-order kinetic model. The activation energy values suggested the presence of two isoenzymes with different thermostability. The ohmic heating reduced PME activity by 96% at 25 V·cm-1. Minimal changes induced by ohmic heating on above quality related aspects were observed. Supporting this statement, there were no significant changes in the nutritional and sensorial attributes. It was reported an increase of 3% of reducing sugar content for the ohmic heated samples. The phenolic content of the treated samples registered a reduction of 59% in comparison with fresh pear purée. The pear purée presented a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour. The Ostwald de Waele model was fitted to rheograms and the consistency coefficient (m and flow behavior index (n were determined. Results obtained for the microbial charge were higher in the control samples. Thus, microbial counts showed complete inactivation of yeast and mold at voltage gradient higher than 17.5 V·cm-1.

  12. 78 FR 53051 - Ethyl-2E,4Z-Decadienoate (Pear Ester); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance (United States)


    ..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection...-decadienoate (pear ester) is a naturally occurring, volatile substance emitted from mature, ripening fruit, that is attractive to the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella, a major agricultural pest of pome fruit...

  13. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy Genotypes

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    Clara Albano


    Full Text Available Betacyanin (betanin, total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy. In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity, betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health.

  14. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes (United States)

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica


    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  15. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes. (United States)

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica


    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health.

  16. Fibulorhizoctonia psychrophila is the causal agent of lenticel spot on apple and pear fruit in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.; Geijn, van de F.G.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.


    In a survey for postharvest diseases of apples and pears in the Netherlands, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed. The disease appeared to originate from infected lenticels. A fungus was consistently isolated from the decayed fruits. The fungal pathogen was isolated on potato dextrose

  17. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol on in vitro rooting capacity of shoots in pear clones (Pyrus communis L.) of different ploidy (United States)

    Poor adventitious root formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation. In this study, intense efforts have been made for improvement of rooting procedures for triploid, tetraploid, and mixploid clones of the pear cultivar, 'Fertility', obtained by in vitro colchicine treatment. An efficient roo...

  18. Ascorbic acid and tissue browning in pears (Pyrus communis L. cvs Rocha and Conference) under controlled atmosphere conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, R.H.; Kho, R.M.; Schaik, van A.C.R.; Sanders, M.G.; Oosterhaven, J.


    The relationships between storage gas composition and ascorbic acid (AA) levels, and between AA levels and the development of internal browning, were studied in 'Conference' and 'Rocha' pears (Pyrus communis L.). In both cultivars, AA levels declined under (browning-inducing) controlled atmosphere

  19. Modeling the effects of temperature and relative humidity on gas exchange of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara-Arauza, J.C.; Yahia, E.M.; Cedeno, L.; Tijskens, L.M.M.


    A model to estimate gas profile of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) prickly pear cactus stems was developed and calibrated. The model describes the transient gas exchange taking in consideration the effect of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on film permeability (FPgas), respiration rate

  20. Selection of mutants resistant to black spot disease by chronic irradiation of gamma-rays in Japanese pear 'Osanijisseiki'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tetsuo; Yoshioka, Toji; Kotobuki, Kazuo; Sanada, Tetsuro; Inoue, Kosuke; Murata, Kenji; Kitagawa, Kenichi; Tabira, Hiroki; Yoshida, Akira


    'Osanijisseiki', a self-compatible, spontaneous bud sport of the Japanese pear 'Nijisseiki' is an excellent cultivar with a smooth skin. However, this cultivar is susceptible to Japanese pear black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype. To obtain resistant mutants from 'Osanijisseiki', nursery plants of 'Osanijisseiki' have been irradiated chronically with gamma-rays in the Gamma Field of the Institute of Radiation Breeding, NAR, MAFF, since 1986. Screening tests using AK toxin, a host-specific toxin produced by A. alternata Japanese pear pathotype, were performed form 1988 to 1993. Four branches of young trees planted at a distance of 40 m from the 60 Co source were selected as being resistant mutants in 1991 (IRB 502-13T and IRB 502-14T) and 1993 (IRB 502-17T and IRB 502-18T). Sensitivity of the four resistant mutants to AK-toxin and susceptibility to the pathogen were compared with other of susceptible and resistant cultivars. The results showed that these four mutants possessed intermediate resistance. Furthermore, a mutant, IRB 502-13T, had the same characteristics as the original 'Osanijisseiki', except for the difference in toxin sensitivity. The characteristics of the other mutants, IRB 502 14-T, IRB 502-17T, and IRB 502-18T, care being examined. (author)

  1. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to soil water deficit in seedlings of three populations of wild pear tree (Pyrus boisseriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarafshar, M.


    Full Text Available Water shortage limits the production of fruit orchards, such as pear, in arid and semi-arid regions. The identification of wild pear germplasm for potential use as rootstock would be valuable for pear cultivation in semi-arid regions. The relative drought tolerance of wild pear germplasm (Pyrus boisseriana from three different populations distributed along an elevational gradient ('semi-arid 1,000', 'semi-wet 1,350' and 'semi-wet 1,600' populations was evaluated in a greenhouse trial. Established container-grown seedlings were exposed to 18 days of simulated drought, or not, followed by a seven day recovery period. Biomass allocation and accumulation, physiological (stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, xylem water potential and biochemical parameters (leaf pigments, free proline, malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide production were evaluated. Although all populations were able to recover from water shortage, thereby proving to be relatively drought tolerant, some differences between populations were detected for gas exchange parameters, biomass accumulation and proline concentration in favor of the 'semi-arid 1,000' elevation population, which was more drought tolerant. This population showed the most rapid and complete recovery of physiological activity (stomatal conductance and carbon fixation. In addition, all populations showed an increase in carotenoid content in the leaves. Overall, we showed that plants from the 'semi-arid 1,000' elevation had greater tolerance to drought than those from the higher elevations (semi-wet populations. It therefore appears that plants from the 'semi-arid 1,000' elevation represent a promising source of material to be tested as rootstock for commercial scions of pear in field conditions in areas prone to suffer from water deficit.

  2. Exposure to minimally processed pear and melon during shelf life could modify the pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes. (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Oliveira, Márcia; Anguera, Marina; Serrano, Jose C E; Abadias, Maribel


    Survival and virulence of foodborne pathogens can be influenced by environmental factors such as the intrinsic properties of food as well as the extrinsic properties that contribute to food shelf life (e.g., temperature and gas atmosphere). The direct contribution of food matrix characteristics on the survival of L. monocytogenes during fresh-cut fruit shelf life is not very well understood. In addition, the gastrointestinal tract is the primary route of listeriosis infection and penetration of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier is the first step in the infection process. Hence, the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes, measured as the capability for the organism to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract and the proportion of cells able to subsequently adhere to and invade differentiated Caco-2 cells, subjected to fresh-cut pear and melon shelf life, was investigated. Samples were inoculated, stored at 10 °C for 7 days and evaluated after inoculation and again after 2 and 7 days of storage. A decrease in L. monocytogenes' capacity to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract was observed with increasing storage time, regardless of the fruit matrix evaluated. Furthermore, L. monocytogenes placed on fresh-cut pear and melon was subjected to an attachment and invasion assay after crossing the simulated gastrointestinal tract. After inoculation, pathogen on fresh-cut pear showed 5-fold more capacity to adhere to Caco-2 cells than pathogen on fresh-cut melon. After 2 days of storage, L. monocytogenes grown on fresh-cut melon showed similar adhesive capacity (1.11%) than cells grown on pear (1.83%), but cells grown on melon had the higher invasive capacity (0.0093%). We can conclude that minimally processed melon could represent a more important hazard than pear under the studied shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation the Frost Resistance of Vegetative and Reproductive Buds of Pear Cultivars in Mashhad Climate Condition

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    shadan khorshidi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Most deciduous trees need low temperature to break flower bud dormancy. One of the most important abiotic stresses is low temperature which limits production of temperate fruits. Pear production has been considerably reduced in recent years. Important pear cultivars show different levels of resistance to cold. Cold compatibility followed by resistance increase is controlled genetically and contains several mechanisms which lead to production of different metabolites such as: polypeptides, amino acids and sugars. The object of this research was to evaluate the frost resistance of different ‘Dare Gazi’ genotypes and other pear cultivars in Mashhad climate condition. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to investigate the frost resistance of 23 ‘Dare Gazi’ pear genotypes and nine other cultivars include: ‘William’s’, ‘Bell de june’, ‘Spadona’, ‘Koshia’, ‘Domkaj’, ‘Torsh’, ‘Sebri’ and ‘Tabrizi’. Plant material contained vegetative and reproductive buds of one-year-old shoot samples which were collected from 25-year old trees on March 2014, four days after winter cold (-6.6 °C in three directions of trees and sent to the laboratory. Frost damages of vegetative and reproductive buds were investigated based on visual observations (%, electrolyte leakage (EC and proline content. EC was measured with a Metrohm 644 digital conductivity meter and proline content was measured based on Bates et al. (1973 method, using acid ninhydrin. The experiment was performed on completely randomized experimental design with three replications. Statistical analysis was carried out using MSTAT-C and Excel software. Mean values were compared using the least significance difference test (LSD at 1% levels. Cluster analysis was conducted by SPSS 16 program. Results and Discussion: Highest EC of reproductive buds was observed in ‘Dare Gazi’ 10, 19, ‘Tabrizi’ and ‘Torsh’ whereas ‘Dare Gazi’ 8, 18

  4. Comparison of the influence of defined storing conditions on asian and european pear cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šnurkovič


    Full Text Available The study observed changes in the material composition of European (Conference and Asian (Yali pears during the storage period at different temperatures. Three different temperatures were selected for storing, i.e. 1 °C, 5 °C and 20 °C. Assessed for each of the pieces of fruit were flesh firmness, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, content of organic acids, and production of ethylene and carbon dioxide. Fruit stored at 1 °C and 5 °C was analysed before the moment of putting to the store and then after 25, 55 and 70 days of storing. Fruit stored at 20 °C was analysed before the moment of putting to the store and then after 14, 22 and 30 days of storing. The respiration intensity observed through carbon dioxide production at refrigeration conditions was approximately of the same progress for both of the varieties. For the Yali variety, the intensity of respiration of the fruit at the start of the storing period strongly decreased.The same progress was recorded for the Conference variety. Storing at 20 °C increased the respiration intensity. The varieties Yali and Conference which were stored under the temperature of 5 °C had the highest CO2 production after 70 days of storage. For both varieties the lowest ethylene production during storage was observed at 1 °C. Ethylene production was higher in Yali pear fruits. The Yali variety stored at 20 °C from the beginning produced up to 10 times higher concentration of ethylene than the fruit of the Conference variety. The highest amount of ethylen by the Conference variety was produced by the fruits which were stored under the temperature of 5 °C. At the beginning of the storage period the Conference pears had two-fold higher flesh firmness than the Yali fruit. Fruits of the varieties Yali and Conference which were stored 70 days under the temperature of 1 °C had the highest flesh firmness. For soluble solids and titratable acidity no clear progress was recorded. Malic acid was


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov


    Full Text Available The line is intended for processing of fruit and vegetable raw materials and receiving dried apples, pears, carrots, pumpkins and the fruit-and-vegetable of chips. The line solves problems of improvement of quality of a ready-made product and thermal production efficiency due to more rational alternation of the technological modes of a moisture increment and dehumidification with high extent of use of an energy potential of the heat carrier, use of the inert heat carrier (steam identical by the form for technological thermal processes, decrease in specific energy consumption and metal consumption, and also an intensification of moisture evaporation and creation of the compact multipurpose technological line for production of fruit and vegetable products with the expanded range. The technological production line of dried apples, pears, carrots, pumpkin and fruit and vegetable chips contains the jet washer, the inspection conveyor, the size grader, the car for removal of a seed nest and the device are sharp fruits and vegetables on plates, the sulfiter, the dryer and the packing automatic packing machine. Thus the line contains the combined toroidal device for heatmoisture of handling continuous action divided into sections: section of heating of raw materials, section of convective drying, section of preliminary hydration, which is located between microwave drying sections, and the section of cooling of the dried-up product intended for bringing a product to final readiness. The equipment complex from the drum car with the washing block and multipurpose installation with crushing of raw materials and office of sunflower seeds taking into account raw materials type is provided in lines. Are used recirculation a contour, the heating of the initial raw material fulfilled after drying of pairs and a condensate in the closed contour for creation energy-saving of the "know-how" of a ready product. The line represents modular blocks and is recustomized

  6. Historical prologue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.


    The organizations and machines engaged in a severe nuclear crisis would be its tangible and partially quantifiable factors. For that reason they often dominate our thinking about superpower confrontations. Military organizations, however, are not automatons that can run amok on their own. The perceptions of leaders and populations propel the course of events, and their mindsets are shaped by what experience, history, and myth claim to say about war. Since there has never been combat between nuclear-armed states, it is debatable whether the past has any relevance to what we now face. But the part is all we have to go on. Thus soldiers and statesmen are still haunted by the manner in which this century's two great wars began, and the past thereby influences the thoughts that lead to weapons, to military plans, and to decisions that could turn peace into war. It is therefore essential to have some appreciation for the historical roots that nourish our expectations about international conflict. This paper describes some of these roots

  7. Historical perspective (United States)

    Landsberg, H. E.

    It was a pleasure to learn, from a recent (May 4) issue of Eos, of the formation of a permanent Committee on History of Geophysics. There is a dire need for reference material, books, and articles on geophysical history.Let me recommend to them that they take a good look at the Dictionary of the History of Science (W.F. Bynum, E.J. Browne, Roy Porter (Eds.), Princeton University Press, 494 pp., 1981). What follows is not a book review, although it may appear so. It is meant to be a challenge to place geophysics on the map in historical context. In this book, hydrology is dealt with in one sentence under the heading ‘cycle,’ geomagnetism under ‘declination and dip,’ and its history ends with Edward Sabine. Seismology appears under earthquakes. No important seismologist is mentioned. In the biographical index, Wiechert is included only for a contribution to physics. Where are Sir Harold Jeffreys, Galitzin, Gutenberg, Mohorovičić, Lehman, and many others? Meteorology ends with V. Bjerknes and Solberg; Köppen, Richardson, Rossby, and other notables [of] the last century do not seem to exist.

  8. Historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.M.


    A historical perspective of the nuclear waste issue is presented, beginning from the Atoms for Peace Legislation which made nuclear technology available to private industry in 1953 to 1954. Once the nuclear process had been demonstrated to be a technically and economically feasible method to convert thermal energy for electric power generation, commercial application began. The issue of nuclear waste management did not keep up with higher priorities. As early as 1957, research into storing the waste in geological structures was conducted by the National Academy of Sciences, and considerable technical progress was made in the 60's. During the 60's and 70's, numerous legislative actions (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Environmental Policy Act) had a significant impact on nuclear waste dipsosal decisions. In 1971 to 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized a nuclear waste repository in Kansas, a decision which was amended the following year and finally abandoned altogether in 1974. The OPEC oil embargo and ensuing price actions moved nuclear power into a more prominent position in the United States' plans for energy independence. This increased the stress between environmental concerns and economic need. The Carter Administration indefinitely deferred reprocessing of spent fuel and initiated a government-wide review of nuclear policy issues. The Congress did not actively begin to fashion a nuclear waste program until February 1980. The legislation which passed the Senate in the Spring of '82, and a compromise version pending before the House, may resolve the issue by establishing a long-term stable policy which will contain milestones, goals and specific decision making processes; it will include a mechanism for the public and the states to be involved; and it will insure adequate financing provisions

  9. Micropropagation of Pear Rootstock (Pyrus Communis) by using tissue culture technique and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharnouby, M.E.; ESSAM, E.R.; Ayoub, S.


    New growing shoots from healthy pear rootstock (Pyrus communis) trees were taken and sterilized 3 times in dipping water. Explants were subjected to antioxidant treatment, different media, different additives and different BAP and NAA concentrations. The obtained results showed that Murashig-Skoog (MS) supplemented with 1 mg/l BA was better than Gamborg medium. Adding antioxidant solution and adenine sulphate to the culture medium was preferred for maximizing explants development. Exposing the explants to gamma irradiation at different doses decreased tissue culture parameters with increasing gamma doses. However, the low dose of gamma rays (1 Krad) significantly increased the number of shoots than other gamma treatments. Adding of BAP at 2 mg/l to the culture medium increased number and length of shoots. However, addition of 1 mg/l NAA to the rooting medium led to increase the root formation

  10. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers. (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi


    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  11. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours. (United States)

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa


    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  12. Improving the quality of fresh-cut apples, pears, and melons using natural additives. (United States)

    Alandes, L; Quiles, A; Pérez-Munuera, I; Hernando, I


    Improving the quality of different fresh-cut fruits by adding natural substances was studied. "Fuji" apples, "Flor de Invierno" pears, and "Piel de Sapo" melons were treated with calcium lactate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, glutathione, and malic acid and stored for 4 wk at 4 degrees C. Instrumental texture (penetration), microstructure (light microscopy), acidity, soluble solids, color, pectinmethylesterase activity, and microflora were studied. The results showed that the combined treatment reinforced the cell walls strengthening the structure and texture of these fruits and maintained the L* and a* values throughout 4 wk of storage at 4 degrees C. The combination of additives provided low microbial counts in apples until the 4th week and in melons until the 2nd week. So, this combined treatment could be used to extend the shelf life of some fresh-cut fruits while preserving their quality.

  13. Refillable and magnetically actuated drug delivery system using pear-shaped viscoelastic membrane

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun


    We report a refillable and valveless drug delivery device actuated by an external magnetic field for on-demand drug release to treat localized diseases. The device features a pear-shaped viscoelastic magnetic membrane inducing asymmetrical deflection and consecutive touchdown motion to the bottom of the dome-shaped drug reservoir in response to a magnetic field, thus achieving controlled discharge of the drug. Maximum drug release with 18 ± 1.5 μg per actuation was achieved under a 500 mT magnetic flux density, and various controlled drug doses were investigated with the combination of the number of accumulated actuations and the strength of the magnetic field.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different cutting intensities and years of harvesting on the morphological characteristics and production of fresh (FMP and dry matter (DMP of cactus pear cv. Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill under conditions of irrigation, high planting density and fertilization, with 12 months of regrowth. The experimental was completely randomized in a factorial design (3 × 2 with 12 replicates. The treatments were three cutting intensities (preserving the mother cladode (PMC, primary cladodes (PPC, or secondary cladodes (PSC, and two years of harvesting. The soil was classified as Cambisol Haplicum and the irrigation water was classified as C4S1 (EC 5.25 dS.m-1 density of 50,000 plants ha-1. The research evaluated plant height, number of cladodes per plant (NCP, length, width, perimeter and thickness of the cladodes, cladode area (CA, cladode area index (CAI, FMP and DMP. There was no significant interaction between treatments (P > 0.05 for the variables plant height, NCP, CAI and FMP. The variables related to cladode morphology showed a significant interaction (P < 0.05. The treatment PSC resulted in a greater DMP (P < 0.05 with a mean of 27.17 Mg ha-1 yr-1, compared to PPC (18.58 Mg ha-1 yr-1 or PMC (11.78 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The treatment PSC promoted greater NCP and forage productivity at harvest and can be considered as a management practice for the sustainability of cactus pear cv. Gigante under irrigation. The more important morphological characteristics were also influenced by the lower cutting intensities.

  15. Estimation of loss of genetic diversity in modern Japanese cultivars by comparison of diverse genetic resources in Asian pear (Pyrus spp.). (United States)

    Nishio, Sogo; Takada, Norio; Saito, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Iketani, Hiroyuki


    Pears (Pyrus spp.) are one of the most important fruit crops in temperate regions. Japanese pear breeding has been carried out for over 100 years, working to release new cultivars that have good fruit quality and other desirable traits. Local cultivar 'Nijisseiki' and its relatives, which have excellent fruit texture, have been repeatedly used as parents in the breeding program. This strategy has led to inbreeding within recent cultivars and selections. To avoid inbreeding depression, we need to clarify the degree of inbreeding among crossbred cultivars and to introgress genetic resources that are genetically different from modern cultivars and selections. The objective of the present study was to clarify the genetic relatedness between modern Japanese pear cultivars and diverse Asian pear genetic resources. We genotyped 207 diverse accessions by using 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The heterozygosity and allelic richness of modern cultivars was obviously decreased compared with that of wild individuals, Chinese pear cultivars, and local cultivars. In analyses using Structure software, the 207 accessions were classified into four clusters (K = 4): one consisting primarily of wild individuals, one of Chinese pear cultivars, one of local cultivars from outside the Kanto region, and one containing both local cultivars from the Kanto region and crossbred cultivars. The results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) were similar to those from the Structure analysis. Wild individuals and Chinese pears appeared to be distinct from other groups, and crossbred cultivars became closer to 'Nijisseiki' as the year of release became more recent. Both Structure and PCoA results suggest that the modern Japanese pear cultivars are genetically close to local cultivars that originated in the Kanto region, and that the genotypes of the modern cultivars were markedly biased toward 'Nijisseiki'. Introgression of germplasm from Chinese pear and wild individuals that are

  16. Epidemiological Features and Trends of Brown Spot of Pear Disease Based on the Diversity of Pathogen Populations and Climate Change Effects. (United States)

    Moragrega, Concepció; Puig, Mireia; Ruz, Lídia; Montesinos, Emilio; Llorente, Isidre


    Brown spot of pear, caused by the fungus Stemphylium vesicarium, is an emerging disease of economic importance in several pear-growing areas in Europe. In recent years, new control strategies combining sanitation practices and fungicide applications according to developed forecasting models have been introduced to manage the disease. However, the pathogenic and saprophytic behavior of this pathogen makes it difficult to manage the disease. In addition, climate change can also result in variations in the severity and geographical distribution of the disease. In this study, ecological and epidemiological aspects of brown spot of pear disease related to inoculum characterization and climate change impact were elucidated. The pathogenic variation in S. vesicarium populations from pear orchards and its relationship to inoculum sources (air samples, leaf debris, and infected host and nonhost tissues) was determined using multivariate analysis. In total, six variables related to infection and disease development on cultivar Conference pear detached leaves of 110 S. vesicarium isolates were analyzed. A high proportion of isolates (42%) were nonpathogenic to pear; 85% of these nonpathogenic isolates were recovered from air samples. Most isolates recovered from lesions (93%) and pseudothecia (83%) were pathogenic to pear. A group of pathogenic isolates rapidly infected cultivar Conference pear leaves resulted in disease increase that followed a monomolecular model, whereas some S. vesicarium isolates required a period of time after inoculation to initiate infection and resulted in disease increase that followed a logistic model. The latter group was mainly composed of isolates recovered from pseudothecia on leaf debris, whereas the former group was mainly composed of isolates recovered from lesions on pear fruit and leaves. The relationship between the source of inoculum and pathogenic/aggressiveness profile was confirmed by principal component analysis. The effect of

  17. Fast Detection of Phenolic Compounds in Extracts of Easter Pears (Pyrus communis) from the Atacama Desert by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS). (United States)

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Quispe, Cristina; Bórquez, Jorge; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz


    A small Chilean variety of pears growing in the town of Toconao, an oasis located at the northeastern edge of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile, was studied by means of modern PDA and high resolution mass spectral data (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-orbitrap-MS/MS). In addition, the antioxidant features of the fruits were compared with the varieties Packhman's Triumph and Abate Fetel and correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds. The non-pigmented phenolics were fingerprinted and related to the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods. The machine allowed a fast separation of 15 min employing a flow rate of 1 mL per minute and could accurately identify 25 compounds, including several isorhamnetin derivatives and phenolic acids, present in the peel and pulps of this Chilean variety for the first time. The compounds were monitored using a wavelength range of 210-800 nm. The native small Chilean pear showed the highest antioxidant activity measured as the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power and superoxide anion scavenging activity (8.61 ± 0.65 μg/mL, 712.63 ± 12.12 micromols trolox equivalents (μmol/TE)/100 g FW, and 82.89% ± 2.52% at 100 μg/mL, respectively).

  18. National Register Historic Districts (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  19. Absorption and distribution of calcium (labelled with 45Ca) applied after harvest to Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, A.R.; Dhatt, A.S.; Dhillon, K.S.; Dhillon, S.K.


    Most of the disorders related to calcium are due to its unequal distribution within the plant rather than poor uptake. Immediately after fruit set, calcium uptake by roots as well as its translocation to developing fruit is extensive. However, the absorbed calcium does not reach the fruit in desired amounts during the subsequent fruit development stages and thereby, resulting in physiological disorders. Some corky spots underneath the peel of the fruit at harvest or during storage have been observed in Asian pear (cv. Patharnakh) which is extensively grown in northern India. There is need to increase the Ca concentration in the body of the fruit to prolong its life. The present investigation was, therefore, undertaken to study the absorption and distribution of post-harvest applied Ca in Asian pear fruit using radiotracer techniques. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Rapid and nondestructive detection of watercore and sugar content in Asian pear by near infrared spectroscopy for commercial trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnarit Rittiron


    Full Text Available Watercore and sugar content are internal qualities which are impossible for exterior determination. Therefore the aims of this study were to develop models for nondestructive detection of watercore and predicting sugar content in pear using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR technique. A total of 93 samples of Asian pear variety "SH-078" were used. For sugar content, spectrum of each fruit was measured in the short wavelength region (700–1100 nm in the reflection mode and the first derivative of spectra were then correlated with the sugar content in juice determined by digital refractometer. Prediction equation was performed by multiple linear regression. The result showed Standard Error of Prediction (SEP = 0.58°Bx, and Bias=0.11. The result from t-test showed that sugar content predicted by NIR was not significantly different from the value analyzed by refractometer at 95% confidence. For watercore disorder, NIR measurement was performed over the short wavelength range (700–850 nm in the transmission mode. The first derivative spectra were correlated with internal qualities. Then principle component analysis (PCA and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA were used to perform discrimination models. The accuracy of the PCA model was greater than the PLSDA one. The scores from PC1 were separated into two boundaries, one predicted rejected pears with 100% classification accuracy, and the other was accepted pears with 92% accuracy. The high accuracy of sugar content determining and watercore detecting by NIR reveal the high efficiency of NIR technique for detecting other internal qualities of fruit in the future.

  1. Adaptations of an avian supertramp: distribution, ecology, and life history of the pearly-eyed thrasher (Margarops fuscatus). (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt


    Part B The pearly-eyed thrasher is a major nest predator and competitor for nest sites of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot. In all aspects of its distribution and ecology, Margarops fuscatus is a classic example of an avian “supertramp.” It is a pugnacious, highly vagile species, i.e., a good disperser, with a propensity to fill vacant or underexploited niches at all...

  2. Optimization of edible coating formulations for improving postharvest quality and shelf life of pear fruit using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Nandane, A S; Dave, Rudri K; Rao, T V Ramana


    The effect of composite edible films containing soy protein isolate (SPI) in combination with additives like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and olive oil on 'Babughosha' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stored at ambient temperature (28 ± 5 °C and 60 ± 10% RH) was evaluated using Response surface methodology (RSM). A total of 30 edible coating formulations comprising of SPI (2-6%, w/v), olive oil (0.7-1.1%, v/v), HPMC (0.1-0.5%, w/v) and potassium sorbate (0-0.4% w/v) were evaluated for optimizing the most suitable combination. Quality parameters like weight loss%, TSS, pH and titrable acidity of the stored pears were selected as response variables for optimization. The optimization procedure was carried out using RSM. It was observed that the response variables were mainly effected by concentration of SPI and olive oil in the formulation. Edible coating comprising of SPI 5%, HPMC 0.40%, olive oil 1% and potassium sorbate 0.22% was found to be most suitable combination for pear fruit with predicted values of response variables indicated as weight loss% 3.50, pH 3.41, TSS 11.13 and TA% 0.513.

  3. Synergistic effects of some essential oils against fungal spoilage on pear fruit. (United States)

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Hashemi, Maryam; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Farhoosh, Reza


    The development of natural protective agents as alternatives to chemical fungicides is currently in the spotlight. In the present investigation, chemical composition and antifungal activities of thyme, cinnamon, rosemary and marjoram essential oils (EO), as well as synergism of their possible double and triple combinations were investigated. The compositions of the oils were determined by GC/MS. For determination of antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea, a broth microdilution method was used. The possible interactions of some essential oil combinations were performed by the two and three-dimensional checkerboard assay and isobologram construction. An in vivo antifungal assay was performed by artificial wounding of pear fruits. The maximum antifungal activity was demonstrated by thyme and cinnamon oils which displayed lower MIC values whereas rosemary and marjoram oils with MIC range between 2500 and 10,000μg/mL exhibited weak antifungal activities against tested fungi. In synergy testing, some double combinations (thyme/cinnamon, thyme/rosemary, cinnamon/rosemary) were found to be synergistic (FICi≤0.5). The triple combination of thyme, cinnamon and rosemary was synergistic for B. cinerea and P. expansum (FICi values of 0.5 and 0.375, respectively); while combination of cinnamon, marjoram and thyme exhibited additive and synergistic effect against P. expansum (FIC=0.625) and B. cinerea (FIC=0.375) respectively. The usage of a mathematical Gompertz model in relation to fungal kinetics, showed that the model could be used to predict growth curves (R 2 =0.993±0.05). For B. cinerea, Gompertz parameters for double and triple combination treatments showed significant increase in lag phase (1.92 and 2.92days, respectively) compared to single treatments. Increase lag time up to 2.82days (P<0.05) also observed in P. expansum treated by triple combination of EOs. Base on the results, the lowest maximum growth rate (0.37mm/day) was observed

  4. Probable hypoglycemic adverse drug reaction associated with prickly pear cactus, glipizide, and metformin in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Sobieraj, Diana M; Freyer, Craig W


    To report a case of an adverse drug reaction (ADR) in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking prickly pear cactus (PPC), glipizide, and metformin. A 58-year-old Mexican male with type 2 diabetes mellitus being treated with metformin 1000 mg twice daily and extended-release glipizide 10 mg daily was referred to the pharmacist for medication education. He denied taking herbal supplements or experiencing hypoglycemia. Two hemoglobin A(1c) values (6.8% and 6.7%) obtained over the past year demonstrated glycemic control, which was supported by his reported fasting blood glucose readings of 113-132 mg/dL. One month later, the patient reported 4 hypoglycemic events with blood glucose readings of 49-68 mg/dL, which resulted in discontinuation of glipizide. One month later, the patient denied any further hypoglycemia. During medication reconciliation he reported consuming crude PPC pads daily for 2 months for glucose control. Literature suggests that PPC has an effect on lowering blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, although few identified data describe ADRs from combining PPC with other agents used in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. A literature search of MEDLINE (through December 2009) using the search terms diabetes mellitus, prickly pear cactus, nopal, opuntia, metformin, glipizide, glyburide, glimepiride, and sulfonylurea revealed no case reports of the described ADR. One case report describing the blood glucose-lowering effect of PPC in a patient concurrently taking oral antihyperglycemics documented an episode of hypoglycemia, although the Naranjo probability scale was not applied. One patient survey discovered the most common drug-herbal interaction in the given population to be between PPC and antihyperglycemic agents, resulting in hypoglycemia. In our case, use of the Naranjo probability scale suggests the ADR to be probable. The mechanism may be due to the additive glucose lowering of the 3 agents consumed concurrently by the

  5. Historical ecology: past, present and future. (United States)

    Szabó, Péter


    The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Shelf-life extension of pear (Pyrus communis L.) by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wani, A.M.; Hussain, P.R.; Dar, M.A.; Mir, M.A.


    Hard and unripe pear fruit was precooled and subjected to γ-irradiation in the range of 0.1-2.5 kGy. After irradiation fruit was stored under ambient conditions (25±2 degC, RH 70%) and evaluated periodically for firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, chlorophyll, physiological loss in weight, visual colour score, overall acceptability and microbial load. γ-irradiation at 0.1-0.9 kGy did not show any significant effect with respect to shelf-life extension and microbial load. However, irradiation doses of 1.0-1.5 kGy significantly (p≤0.05) delayed ripening and did not spoil for 14 days of storage under ambient conditions. The microbial load was reduced without affecting the physico-chemical and sensory attributes. The irradiation doses of 2.0-2.5 kGy resulted in reduced microbial load and delayed ripening but adversely affected the fruit colour. (author)

  7. Nitrogen replenishment using variable rate application technique in a small hand-harvested pear orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatsanidou, A.; Nanos, G.D.; Fountas, S.; Baras, J.; Castrignano, A.; Gemtos, T.A.


    Precision agriculture is a management approach for sustainable agriculture. It can be applied even in small fields. It aims to optimize inputs, improve profits, and reduce adverse environmental impacts. In this study, a series of measurements were conducted over three growing seasons to assess variability in a 0.55 ha pear orchard located in central Greece. Soil ECa was measured using EM38 sensor, while soil samples were taken from a grid 17 × 8 m and analysed for texture, pH, P, K, Mg, CaCO3, and organic matter content. Data analysis indicated that most of the nutrients were at sufficient levels. Soil and yield maps showed considerable variability while fruit quality presented small variations across the orchard. Yield fluctuations were observed, possibly due to climatic conditions. Prescription maps were developed for nitrogen variable rate application (VRA) for two years based on the replacement of the nutrients removed by the crop. VRA application resulted in 56% and 50% reduction of N fertiliser compared to uniform application.

  8. Nitrogen replenishment using variable rate application technique in a small hand-harvested pear orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsanidou, A.; Nanos, G.D.; Fountas, S.; Baras, J.; Castrignano, A.; Gemtos, T.A.


    Precision agriculture is a management approach for sustainable agriculture. It can be applied even in small fields. It aims to optimize inputs, improve profits, and reduce adverse environmental impacts. In this study, a series of measurements were conducted over three growing seasons to assess variability in a 0.55 ha pear orchard located in central Greece. Soil ECa was measured using EM38 sensor, while soil samples were taken from a grid 17 × 8 m and analysed for texture, pH, P, K, Mg, CaCO3, and organic matter content. Data analysis indicated that most of the nutrients were at sufficient levels. Soil and yield maps showed considerable variability while fruit quality presented small variations across the orchard. Yield fluctuations were observed, possibly due to climatic conditions. Prescription maps were developed for nitrogen variable rate application (VRA) for two years based on the replacement of the nutrients removed by the crop. VRA application resulted in 56% and 50% reduction of N fertiliser compared to uniform application.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cactus is crucial for the livestock of semi - arid regions in Brazil. This plant has shown the high productivity of forage, which is influenced by several management factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic fertilization doses (20, 40 and 80 t/ ha of bovine manure/ha/two years and planting densities (20, 40, 80 and 160 thousand plants/ha on the productivity of cactus pear Clone IPA - 20 ( Opuntia ficus - indica Mill. At the Experimental Station of Caruaru at the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco, IPA has conducted the experiment. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with split plot arrangements. Higher shoot productivity was observed with increased population density and the application of manure at 80 t ha - 1two years - 1 with values of 61, 90, 117 and 139 t DM ha - 1 two years - 1 at densities of 20, 40, 80 and 160,000 plants ha - 1. The planting density influenced the productivity of cladode - plant and root dry weight, showing exponential responses, with higher cladode - plant and roots weight by area observed with increased plant density. The efficiency of organic fertilization decreased with the increase in manure doses. For increase cactus productivity, 40 t of bovine manure ha - 1 two years - 1 for plantations with 160,000 plants/ha is recommended.

  10. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey. (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y


    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  11. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies. (United States)

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed


    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of the pear tree canopy on photosynthetically active radiation availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.; Baldini, E.; Baraldi, R.


    The relationships existing between radiant energy and photosynthesis have been extensively investigated on the apple /2/ but not on the other fruit trees, pear included. In addition, such information resists generalization, owing to the remarkable differences underlying tree morphology and physiology of the different species; furthermore, some disagreement arises regarding the terminology and the units used to evaluate the amount of radiant energy useful for the photosynthetic process. In general this evaluation is based on the readouts of illuminance (symbol Ev; unit: lux), in agreement with the photopic curve (fig. 1:A), i.e. with the human eye sensibility to the visible radiation(light). However, the relative response of the chloroplasts to the radiant flux, although included within the same spectral wavebands as the photopic curve, follows a different model (fig.1:B), that is, it has two peaks in connection with the spectral wavelenghts of blue (440–490 nm), and, particularly, of red (620–700 nm). Therefore, according to a number of authors /3/6/8/11/, the correct evaluation of the photosynthetically active radiation should be made using sensors calibrated to measure the photosynthetic photon lux density (symbol: PPFD; unit: μE m -2 s -1 ), and provided with a relative spectral response similar to that of the leaves. (author)

  13. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear. (United States)

    Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S


    The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Chemical And Physiological Studies On Drought Stress Tolerance Of Irradiated Communis Pear Using Tissue Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaied, N.S.; Ragab, E.A.


    The rooted in vitro irradiated pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis) were subjected to drought stress by using different concentrations of mannitol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 gm/l), polyethylene glycol (PEG) at concentrations 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % to culture medium and also agar at concentrations 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 gm/l to study their effects on tissue culture and chemical analysis and their tolerance to drought stress. The obtained results showed that the number of shoots, shoot length and number of leaves were higher at 20 and 40 gm/l mannitol. Increasing mannitol concentration enhanced the increase of chlorophyll b, reducing sugars, total indoles and total phenols up to the highest level at 100 gm/l. Adding PEG at concentration 2% to the culture medium encouraged significant increases in the number of shoots and number of leaves and increase chlorophyll a, and non-reducing sugars as well as significant decrease in number of shoots, shoots length, number of leaves, root length and number of roots with increasing agar concentrations to the culture medium. However, decreasing agar concentration in the culture medium induced increase in chlorophyll A and non-reducing sugar

  15. Nitrogen replenishment using variable rate application technique in a small hand-harvested pear orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vatsanidou


    Full Text Available Precision agriculture is a management approach for sustainable agriculture. It can be applied even in small fields. It aims to optimize inputs, improve profits, and reduce adverse environmental impacts. In this study, a series of measurements were conducted over three growing seasons to assess variability in a 0.55 ha pear orchard located in central Greece. Soil ECa was measured using EM38 sensor, while soil samples were taken from a grid 17 × 8 m and analysed for texture, pH, P, K, Mg, CaCO3, and organic matter content. Data analysis indicated that most of the nutrients were at sufficient levels. Soil and yield maps showed considerable variability while fruit quality presented small variations across the orchard. Yield fluctuations were observed, possibly due to climatic conditions. Prescription maps were developed for nitrogen variable rate application (VRA for two years based on the replacement of the nutrients removed by the crop. VRA application resulted in 56% and 50% reduction of N fertiliser compared to uniform application.

  16. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.L.; McNamara, D.J.


    The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. 125 I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids

  17. 不同品种梨果石细胞含量差异研究%Study on the Difference of Stone Cells Content in Different Pear Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯; 王娟娟; 刘汉云


    为了探索不同梨品种果实的石细胞差异,以硕丰梨、玉露香梨、巴梨为试材,测定了3个品种梨果实石细胞含量、石细胞团的分布、石细胞团的大小与密度等指标.结果表明,石细胞含量由高到低依次为硕丰梨>玉露香梨>巴梨,果实不同部位石细胞含量由高到低依次为近果心>近果皮>果肉中部;同一品种的梨果,果实较小的梨果石细胞含量更高.间苯三酚-盐酸染色结果显示,石细胞团主要分布在果心处,且呈现出辐射状由果心向果肉中延伸,分布特点是近果心>近果皮>果肉中部.近果心处石细胞分布密度由高到低依次为硕丰梨>玉露香梨>巴梨.研究结果可为改善梨果实品质奠定基础.%To explore the difference of stone cell,‘Yuluxiang'pear,Bartlett pear and ‘Shuofeng'pear were chose as the research object,the paper mainly measured the indexes of the stone cell content,the distribution of stone cell and the density and size of stone cell.The results showed that the order (from higher to lower) of the stone cell content in different pear varieties was ‘Shuofeng'pear >‘Yuluxiang'pear > Bartlett pear.The order (from higher to lower) of the stone cell content in different parts was core region > peel region > middle part.The smaller pear had a higher content of stone cell in one variety.The result of Wiesner reaction showed that the group of stone cells mainly distributed in the core,and showed a radiation shape from the core to the pulp extends.The distribution characteristics was the stone ceils in the core > the stone cells near the pear peel > the stone cells in the middle flesh.The density distribution of the stone cell in the core paris was ‘Shuofeng'pear > ‘Yuluxiang'pear > Bartlett pear.This research laid the foundation for improving the quality of pear fruit.

  18. The other in the Albanian historical novel


    Myrvete Dreshaj – Baliu


    Main aim of this study is to identify the reflective dimension of the other in relation to the self in the Albanian historical novel. Written over a longer period of time (in comparison to the other types), the Albanian historical novel, only during the recent decades has presented other views of redimensioning the other within novels. Regardless of the writing period, pattern, or style, in the Albanian historical novel, the concept on the other generally preserves a national dimension, or th...

  19. Influence of rootstocks on growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element contents of pear cv. 'Santa Maria' in semi-arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ikinci


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rootstocks play an essential role to determining orchard performance of fruit trees. Pyrus communisand Cydonia oblonga are widely used rootstocks for European pear cultivars. The lack of rootstocks adapted to different soil conditions and different grafted cultivars is widely acknowledged in pear culture. Cydonia rootstocks (clonal and Pyrus rootstocks (seedling or clonal have their advantages and disadvantages. In each case, site-specific environmental characteristics, specific cultivar response and production objectives must be considered before choosing the best rootstock. In this study, the influence of three Quince (BA 29, Quince A = MA, Quince C = MC and a local European pear seedling rootstocks on the scion yield, some fruit quality characteristics and leaf macro (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micro element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B content of 'Santa Maria' pear (Pyrus communis L. were investigated. RESULTS: Trees on seedling rootstock had the highest annual yield, highest cumulative yield (kg tree−1, largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA, lowest yield efficiency and lowest cumulative yield (ton ha−1 in the 10th year after planting. The rootstocks had no significant effect on average fruit weight and fruit volume. Significantly higher fruit firmness was obtained on BA 29 and Quince A. The effect of rootstocks on the mineral element accumulation (N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B was significant. Leaf analysis showed that rootstocks used had different mineral uptake efficiencies throughout the early season. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the rootstocks strongly affected fruit yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element uptake of 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar. Pear seedling and BA 29 rootstock found to be more prominent in terms of several characteristics for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar that is grown in highly calcareous soil in semi-arid climate conditions. We determined the highest N, P (although insignificant, K, Ca, Mg, Fe

  20. Genomic characterization, phylogenetic comparison and differential expression of the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels gene family in pear (Pyrus bretchneideri Rehd.). (United States)

    Chen, Jianqing; Yin, Hao; Gu, Jinping; Li, Leiting; Liu, Zhe; Jiang, Xueting; Zhou, Hongsheng; Wei, Shuwei; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Juyou


    The cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC) family is involved in the uptake of various cations, such as Ca(2+), to regulate plant growth and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there is far less information about this family in woody plants such as pear. Here, we provided a genome-wide identification and analysis of the CNGC gene family in pear. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 21 pear CNGC genes could be divided into five groups (I, II, III, IVA and IVB). The majority of gene duplications in pear appeared to have been caused by segmental duplication and occurred 32.94-39.14 million years ago. Evolutionary analysis showed that positive selection had driven the evolution of pear CNGCs. Motif analyses showed that Group I CNGCs generally contained 26 motifs, which was the greatest number of motifs in all CNGC groups. Among these, eight motifs were shared by each group, suggesting that these domains play a conservative role in CNGC activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that functional diversification of the duplicated CNGC genes was a major feature of long-term evolution. Our results also suggested that the P-S6 and PBC & hinge domains had co-evolved during the evolution. These results provide valuable information to increase our understanding of the function, evolution and expression analyses of the CNGC gene family in higher plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide prolongs postharvest storage of fresh-cut pears (Pyrus pyrifolia by alleviation of oxidative damage and inhibition of fungal growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Di Hu

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has proved to be a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here, we investigated the role of H2S in the decay of fresh-cut pears (Pyrus pyrifolia. H2S gas released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS prolonged the shelf life of fresh-cut pear slices in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, H2S maintained higher levels of reducing sugar and soluble protein in pear slices. H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide radicals (•O2(- and malondialdehyde (MDA. Further investigation showed that H2S fumigation up-regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, and guaiacol peroxidase (POD, while it down-regulated those of lipoxygenase (LOX, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and polyphenol oxidase (PPO. Furthermore, H2S fumigation effectively inhibited the growth of two fungal pathogens of pear, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum, suggesting that H2S can be developed as an effective fungicide for postharvest storage. The present study implies that H2S is involved in prolonging postharvest storage of pears by acting as an antioxidant and fungicide.

  2. VT Historic Preservation Grant (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  3. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards with variable amounts of soil-available phosphorus. (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Iwase, Koji; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide


    We examined the colonization rate and communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) fertilization on AMF. Soil cores containing the roots of Japanese pear were collected from 13 orchards in Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Soil-available P in the examined orchards was 75.7 to 1,200 mg kg(-1), showing the extreme accumulation of soil P in many orchards. The AMF colonization rate was negatively correlated with soil-available P (P soil-available P (P fungi may be adapted to high soil-available P conditions. Redundancy analysis showed the significant effects of soil pH, available P in soil, and P content in leaves of P. pyrifolia var. culta trees on AMF distribution. These results suggested that the accumulation of soil-available P affected AMF communities in the roots of Japanese pear in the orchard environment.

  4. Effect of aqueous extracts of alligator pear seed (Persea americana mill) on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. (United States)

    Edem, Do; Ekanem, Is; Ebong, Pe


    Effects of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated in 6 groups of rats (5 rats per group). Test groups were made diabetic with intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan and treated with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight of alligator pear seed extract. Two non-diabetic groups were also administered with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight extract. The levels of blood glucose were examined in all 6 experimental groups. In diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (pblood glucose levels were significantly reduced (palligator pear seed may contribute significantly to the reduction of blood glucose levels and can be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

  5. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon


    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  6. Study on Pollination and Selection of the Most Suitable Pollinizers for Commercial Pear Cultivars (Pyrus communis L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatari Maryam


    Full Text Available The cultivated pear is an economically important fruit tree species of genus Pyrus in which often gametophytic self-incompatibility occurs. Therefore, this species need to be pollinated by cross-compatible cultivars that bloom in the same time. Selection of appropriate pollinizers for pear cultivars is very important to produce commercial yield. ‘Sebri’, ‘ Shahmiveh’ and ‘Natanzi’ are the best commercial cultivars in Iran, but the lack of a suitable source of pollen can reduce productivity. In order to select the most suitable pollinizer for these pear cvs, an experiment was conducted in which they were considered as pollen recipients and ‘Coscia’, ‘Bartlett’ and ‘Sardroud’ along with ‘Sebri’, ‘Shahmiveh’ and ‘Natanzi’ were evaluated as pollen donors. This research was conducted as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design for four years. Recipient and donor cultivars had almost overlapping flowering time. The flower buds on selected branches were emasculated at balloon stage and then were counted and isolated with cotton tissue bags. Pollen grains of these pollinizers were collected in the laboratory. Isolation bags were taken off from the branches and emasculated flowers were pollinated with pollen grains of listed pollinizers during receptibility of stigma. The number of pollinated flowers was counted, and branches were covered again with the bags. The results showed that for ‘Sebri’ the best pollinizer was ‘Coscia’ with 5.7% fruit set, for ‘Shahmiveh’ ‘Bartlett’ cv. with 5.8% of fruit set and for ‘Natanzi’, ‘Shahmiveh’ with 5.5% of fruit set.

  7. Dormancy-Associated MADS-Box (DAM) and the Abscisic Acid Pathway Regulate Pear Endodormancy Through a Feedback Mechanism. (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Anh; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya


    In the pear 'Kosui' (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), the dormancy-associated MADS-box (PpDAM1 = PpMADS13-1) gene has been reported to play an essential role in bud endodormancy. Here, we found that PpDAM1 up-regulated expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (PpNCED3), which is a rate-limiting gene for ABA biosynthesis. Transient assays with a dual luciferase reporter system (LUC assay) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that PpDAM1 activated PpNCED3 expression by binding to the CArG motif in the PpNCED3 promoter. PpNCED3 expression was increased toward endodormancy release in lateral flower buds of 'Kosui', which is consistent with the induced levels of ABA, its catabolism (ABA 8'-hydroxylase) and signaling genes (type 2C protein phosphatase genes and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 genes). In addition, we found that an ABA response element (ABRE)-binding transcription factor, PpAREB1, exhibiting high expression concomitant with endodormancy release, bound to three ABRE motifs in the promoter region of PpDAM1 and negatively regulated its activity. Taken together, our results suggested a feedback regulation between PpDAM1 and the ABA metabolism and signaling pathway during endodormancy of pear. This first evidence of an interaction between a DAM and ABA biosynthesis in vitro will provide further insights into bud endodormancy regulatory mechanisms of deciduous trees including pear. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  8. Rehabilitation of Degraded Rangeland in Drylands by Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Plantations: Effect on Soil and Spontaneous Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Neffar


    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid lands, the spiny prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica is an outstanding plant for soil conservation and restoration. To determine the role of Opuntia ficus-indica on vegetation recovery process in desertified areas of Southern Tebessa (Northeast Algeria, we investigated the effect of prickly pear plantation age and some soil properties (grain size, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and CaCO3 equivalents on native plant community. Vegetation cover and plant diversity were assessed by calculating the number of individual plants (N, species richness (S, their ratio (N/S, Shannon index, and Evenness in prickly pear plantation plots of different ages (control, 5 and 20 years. Even if surveyed soil parameters did not differ significantly among O. ficus-indica plantations, results of ANOVA testing the effect of Opuntia plantations on native vegetation traits revealed significant variation for plant abundance (P < 0.0001, N/S ratio (P = 0.003 and vegetation cover (P < 0.0001. Vegetation cover differed significantly with both prickly-pear plantation age (P = 0.031 and seasons (P = 0.019. Tukey's tests revealed that all vegetation traits were significantly higher on prickly pear plantations than in control plots. Multiple comparisons also showed that plant abundance, N/S ratio and vegetation cover were significantly different between both young and old plantations and the controls. Prickly pear cultures facilitated the colonization and development of herbaceous species by ameliorating the severe environmental conditions. In conclusion, the facilitative effect of O. ficus-indica has been clearly demonstrated for both abundance and cover of native vegetation.

  9. History, Historical and Historicity in Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel CHILLÓN


    Full Text Available In order to the “Historie” is possible as “Geschichte”, that is, so that the events are more than mere collections of past vestiges, it is necessary that the historical (geschichtlich of history is understood as enshrined in the historicity, in Geschichtlichkeit. In § 6 of the Introduction to ‘Being and Time’ Heidegger understands that the historicity refers to the temporality of Dasein, to its finitude. Thiking of the historicity requires, as its main task, overcoming history as history of entities, in terms of history of forgotten being. And, of course, to think the being, the happening of being and Dasein which, as such event, is being, is occurring , it is historicizing .

  10. In Vitro Propagation of Three Moroccan Prickly Pear Cactus Opuntia and Plant Establishment in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissam EL FINTI


    Full Text Available Opuntia is one of the most widespread cacti, primarily due to their edible fruit and vegetable mass used as feed. The high demand for young plants of Opuntia made it necessary to find a rapid method of multiplication of the cactus, the safest method consisting in vitro micropropagation of species belonging to this genus. With aim of large production of plant material, a propagation system of three important prickly pear cactus cultivar (Opuntia ficus-indica in Morocco was developed. Segments of healthy young cladode (containing one areole were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS containing adenine sulfate (40 mg/1, monosodium phosphate (50 mg/l, sucrose (50 g/l, phytagel (0.3% and benzyladenine (BA at 22.2 μM, to start the process of micropropagation. In vitro-developed shoots from areoles were used as secondary explants to induce shoot development in the MS medium with 5 mg/l of BA. All of the three studied cultivars showed an important multiplication rate in this medium. ‘Sidi Ifni M’ (‘Moussa’ cultivar shows the greatest number of shoots followed by ‘Sidi Ifni A’ (‘Aissa’ and ‘Delahia’ 17.26, 14.12 and 12.13 respectively. Rooting of in vitro-generated shoots was achieved most efficiently on half-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA or IAA. Rooting frequencies were in the range from 95 to 100% and the highest mean number of root (19.1 was obtained with IBA for ‘Delahia’ cultivar. All micropropagated plants were transferred to greenhouse and all of them survived acclimatization process and showed good overall growth.

  11. Conservation of apple and pear juice concentrates. Synergic effect of heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupert, N.L.; Lescano, H.G.; Kotliar, N.


    This paper aims at assessing the feasibility for conserving apple and pear-juice concentrates through the synergic action of heat and radiation. The material was packed in sterile 100-μm polyethylene bags and, after the treatment was applied, the resulting fractions were stored under room temperature (25 0 C+-1 0 C). The temperature applied to the samples before irradiation was 50 0 C during 10 minutes and the doses were 100, 200, 300 and 400 krad. For such purposes, a 60 Co 165-krad/h source was used, located in a mobile irradiator. Periodical microbiological, chemical and organoleptic controls of the food were performed on both control and on irradiated samples, with or without heat. A single alterating microorganism was isolated from all the samples, which was featured as Saccharomyces rouxii. Adopting the temperature as an application variable and the absorbed dose as a constant, the above osmophilic yeast is considerably more sensitive to radiations when it is suspended in a 50% sucrose solution, after the latter was submitted to a 50 0 C temperature treatment. It has been proved that 72.5 krad are needed to attain the reduction of a logarithmic cycle in the Saccharomyces rouxii population irradiated at room temperature, while 36 krad are needed if the sample has been previously heated to 50 0 C for 10 minutes. An attempt was made to apply the synergism of such process to the juice concentrate. Below 50 0 C associated with 400 krad gamma radiation, a total inactivation took place in the Saccharomyces rouxii during the 150 days under analysis. Colour changes were detected in the concentrate; however, the acceptability features for consumption remained at a normal value (level 5) in a hedonic scale of 7 points. (author)

  12. Implementing Solar PV Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.; Buddenborg, J; Lindberg, J.


    Many municipalities, particularly in older communities of the United States, have a large amount of historic buildings and districts. In addition to preserving these historic assets, many municipalities have goals or legislative requirements to procure a certain amount of energy from renewable sources and to become more efficient in their energy use; often, these requirements do not exempt historic buildings. This paper details findings from a workshop held in Denver, Colorado, in June 2010 that brought together stakeholders from both the solar and historic preservation industries. Based on these findings, this paper identifies challenges and recommends solutions for developing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects on historic buildings and in historic districts in such a way as to not affect the characteristics that make a building eligible for historic status.

  13. A Management Plan for Historic Bridges in Virginia : The 2017 Update (United States)


    A Management Plan for Historic Bridges in Virginia, published in 2001, identified the management and treatment needs for 55 historic bridges in Virginia (i.e., bridges that were individually eligible for or listed on the National Register of Historic...

  14. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes. (United States)

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A


    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Salicylic Acid and Chelated Magnesium Sulfate on Fruit Quality Improvement (Physical Characteristics in Pear (cv. Louise Bonne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahjabin adel


    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruit quality is described based on the crop functions (for industry or table and/or difference of the consumer tastes in different societies. The conformity of the quality with consumer demands has an effective role in improvement of the marketing process. For example, elongated pears are preferred for the processing industries and conserving productions. The lack of attention to retaining of quality and/or improvement of apparent situation of gardening product in proportion to consumer demands decreases especial consumer acceptance. The necessity of having desired quality characteristics in pear fruits from the characters viewpoint of fruit specific gravity (major rating criterion of pears and proportion of length to diameter (minor rating, because of their role in market acceptance and pricing, is evident. Fruit quality, while harvesting, as one of the components of plants fertility influenced under different parameters like nourishment and could be managed during growth season. In other words, the gain of qualities proportionated to consumers demands and/or processing industries is possible by the use of acquired method such as the kind of mother plant nutrition, and control of pests and diseases, etc. In the current research, the effect of salicylic acid and chelated magnesium sulfate was studied on physical indexes of fruits quality of pear fruit. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of treatment agents, an experiment was conducted in the ecological conditions of Qazvinon Pear trees belonging to Louise Bonne cultivar in the Randomized Complete Block Design. The treatments includecontrol group (with andwithout water,chelated magnesium sulfate with concentration of 0.5 gram in a liter, chelated magnesium sulfate with concentration of 0.7gram in a liter, salicylic acid with concentration of0.1 gram in a liter,the compound treatment of salicylic acid with concentration of 0.1 andchelated magnesium sulfate with

  16. Steam explosion treatment for ethanol production from branches pruned from pear trees by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi


    This study investigated the production of ethanol from unutilized branches pruned from pear trees by steam explosion pretreatment. Steam pressures of 25, 35, and 45 atm were applied for 5 min, followed by enzymatic saccharification of the extracted residues with cellulase (Cellic CTec2). High glucose recoveries, of 93.3, 99.7, and 87.1%, of the total sugar derived from the cellulose were obtained from water- and methanol-extracted residues after steam explosion at 25, 35, and 45 tm, respectively. These values corresponded to 34.9, 34.3, and 27.1 g of glucose per 100 g of dry steam-exploded branches. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments were done on water-extracted residues and water- and methanol-extracted residues by Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC 1777. An overall highest theoretical ethanol yield of 76% of the total sugar derived from cellulose was achieved when 100 g/L of water- and methanol-washed residues from 35 atm-exploded pear branches was used as substrate.

  17. Prodigious polyphyly in imperilled freshwater pearly-mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): a phylogenetic test of species and generic designations (United States)

    Lydeard, Charles; Minton, Russell L.; Williams, James D.


    Unionid bivalves or freshwater pearly-mussels (Unionoidea: Unionidae) serve as an exemplary system for examining many of the problems facing systematists and conservation biologists today. Most of the species and genera were described in the late 1800s and early 1900s, but few phylogenetic studies have been conducted to test conventional views of species and classification. Pearly-mussels of Gulf Coastal drainages of the southeastern United States from the Escambia (southern Alabama to Florida) to the Suwannee Rivers (Florida) are a unique fauna comprised of approximately 100 species, with about 30 endemic to the region. In this study, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to test the monophyly and to estimate evolutionary relationships of five unionid species representing three different genera. The molecular phylogenies depict all three genera as polyphyletic. The prodigious polyphyly exhibited within unionids is due to incorrect notions of homology and false assumptions about missing anatomical data. In contrast, the molecular phylogeny provides evidence to support the recognition of all five unionid species as distinct evolutionary entities. Furthermore, molecular genealogical evidence supports the elevation of Quincuncina infucata (Conrad) of the Suwannee River to species level, for which Q. kleiniana (Lea) is available.

  18. Effectiveness of Azadirachtin (NeemAzal-T/S in Controlling Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri and European Red Mite (Panonychus ulmi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić


    Full Text Available Here we present the results of field trials conducted in Serbia to evaluate the effectiveness of a neem-based product, NeemAzal-T/S (containing azadirachtin-A as its active ingredient in the form of an emulsifiable concentrate against pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri and European red mite (Panonychus ulmi. Efficacy evaluation against C. pyri was carried out in a commercial pear orchard of the Williams pear cultivar, located at Borkovac (Ruma. The insecticides were applied at BBCH 09 pear growth stage, several days before the beginning of hatching of the first generation larvae. The efficacy of azadirachtin was compared to that of mineral oil, abamectin and diflubenzuron. Efficacy evaluation 18 DAT showed total termination of egg laying by C. pyri after treatments with azadirachtin and abamectin, while some new (white eggs were found after treatment with mineral oil. Diflubenzuron treatment failed to fully stop egg laying, but the number of white eggs was significantly lower than it was in the control. Azadirachtin and abamectin achieved 100% efficacy, while the effectiveness of mineral oil was 97.4%, and that of diflubenzuron a mere 59%. All four insecticides significantly reduced the number of older (yellow eggs and larvae, the efficacy being 80.5-92.6% (yellow eggs, 69.8-79.3% (larvae I-III instar and 94.3-100% (larvae IV-V instar. In evaluation 38 DAT, azadirachtin,abamectin and mineral oil achieved 100% efficacy against white and yellow eggs, while diflubenzuron achieved 93% and 86.9% efficacy. All four insecticides were found to demonstrate high efficacy against I-III instar larvae (99.2-100%, but mineral oil treatmentalone achieved high efficacy against IV-V instar larvae (92.4% as well. Efficacy evaluation against P. ulmi was carried out in a commercial orchard of the Red Chief apple cultivar located at Morović (Šid. Azadirachtin efficacy in controlling a summerpopulation of European red mite was compared to a mineral oil, clofentezine and

  19. Controlled atmosphere pO2 alters ripening dynamics of 1-MCP treated ‘d’Anjou’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit (United States)

    Ripening and development of physiological disorders and decay were assessed in ‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit following 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and cold storage in air or controlled atmosphere (CA). Fruit were exposed after harvest to 0 or 12.6 µmol•L-1 1-MCP and then stored at 0.5 oC in air o...

  20. Pithy brown core in ‘d’Anjou’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit developing during controlled atmosphere storage at pO2 determined by monitoring chlorophyll fluorescense (United States)

    Physiological responses and fruit quality of ‘d’Anjou’ pear fruit from five orchard lots were evaluated after cold storage in air or controlled atmospheres (CA) with the oxygen (O2) concentration based on assessment of fruit chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) or standard conditions (1.5 kPa O2). The pCO2...

  1. The Relationship between the Morphology and Structure and the Quality of Fruits of Two Pear Cultivars (Pyrus communis L. during Their Development and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska


    Full Text Available The flavour and nutritional values of pears are appreciated by consumers worldwide, who, however, demand specific fruit quality, that is, attractive appearance, firmness and flavour, and health safety as well as long-term shelf life and storability. Pear cultivars differ in terms of the above-mentioned traits; therefore, we undertook investigations to demonstrate the differences in structure of fruits of two pear cultivars that determine fruit quality in its broadest sense. The micromorphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure of “Clapp’s Favourite” and “Conference” fruits in the fruit set stage and in the harvest maturity stage were investigated under light microscope and scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The fruits of “Clapp’s Favourite” and “Conference” in the fruit set stage exhibited distinct differences in the values of anatomical parameters only. Substantial differences in fruit structure were observed in the harvest maturity stage. The analyses indicate that firmness and durability of pear fruits are largely influenced by the presence of russeting, the proportion of closed lenticels and number of stone cells, and the content of starch grains and tannin compounds. The thickness of the cuticle and presence of epicuticular waxes as well as the number of lenticels and the number and depth of microcracks play a minor role.

  2. A Quarter Century of Variation in Color and Allometric Characteristics of Eggs from a Rain Forest Population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus). (United States)



    Egg color, size, and shape vary considerably within and among female Pearly-eyed Thrashers (Margarops fuscatus). Results of a 25-yr study (1979-2004) are presented to provide comparative data. In a sample of 4,128 eggs, typical shape was prolate spheroid; but several variations were observed, depending on the age, stature, and physiological condition of the female, as...

  3. Shell Properties, Water Vapor Loss, and Hatching Success of Eggs from a Rain Forest Population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) (United States)



    I calculated various shell properties, water vapor loss, and hatching success of eggs of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) using measurements obtained during a long-term study in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Empirical results were comparable to standard reference formulae, demonstrating that published formulae can be used with confidence by field...

  4. Changes in home range of breeding and post-breeding male Pearly-eyed Thrashers in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico (United States)

    Jose William Beltran; Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.; Wayne J. Arendt


    Food abundance, time of year, and stage of the reproductive cycle are important factors affecting home range size in birds. Between 23 January and 28 November 2003, we determined the home range and core area sizes for 10 radio-tagged male Pearly-eyed Thrashers (Margarops fuscatus; Mimidae) within the Luquillo Experimental Forest, northeastern Puerto Rico. We found...

  5. Impact of nest predators, competitors, and ectoparasites on Pearly-eyed Thrashers, with comments on the potential implications for Puerto Rican Parrot recovery (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt


    Over the past 17 years, research on a rain forest population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus), with additional observations on nesting Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) within the Sierra de Luquillo, Puerto Rico, has shown that reproductive success of thrashers and parrots is often greatly reduced as a result of the additive effects of a diverse...

  6. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment (United States)

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  7. The effect of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; O'Sullivan, Jack; Heneghan, Carl J


    Hundreds of dietary supplements are currently marketed as weight loss supplements. However, the advertised health claims of effectiveness for most of these have not been proven. The aim of this study was to critically appraise and evaluate the evidence for effectiveness of cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI), using data from published randomized clinical trials. We conducted electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library. No restrictions on age, time, or language were imposed. The risk for bias in the studies included was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria. Two reviewers independently determined the eligibility of included studies, assessed reporting quality, and extracted data. We identified seven eligible studies, of which five were included. The studies varied in design and reporting quality. Meta-analysis revealed a nonsignificant difference in body weight between OFI and controls (mean difference = -0.83 kg; 95% confidence interval, -2.49 to 0.83; I(2) = 93%). Significant reductions in body mass index, percentage body fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and total cholesterol were observed. Adverse events included gastric intolerance and flu symptoms. The evidence from randomized clinical trials does not indicate that supplementation with OFI generates statistically significant effects on body weight. Consumption of OFI can cause significant reductions in percentage body fat, blood pressure, and total cholesterol. Few clinical trials evaluating the effects of OFI have been published. They vary in design and methodology, and are characterized by inconsistent quality of reporting. Further clinical trials evaluating the effects of OFI on body composition and metabolic parameters are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Dehydration Resistance in a Highly Drought-Tolerant Pear, Pyrus betulaefolia, as through RNA-Seq. (United States)

    Li, Kong-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Yong; Huang, Xiao-San


    Drought is a major abiotic stress that affects plant growth, development and productivity. Pear is one of the most important deciduous fruit trees in the world, but the mechanisms of drought tolerance in this plant are still unclear. To better understand the molecular basis regarding drought stress response, RNA-seq was performed on samples collected before and after dehydration in Pyrus betulaefolia. In total, 19,532 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. These genes were annotated into 144 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 18 clusters of orthologous groups (COG) involved in 129 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) defined pathways. These DEGs comprised 49 (26 up-regulated, 23 down-regulated), 248 (166 up-regulated, 82 down-regulated), 3483 (1295 up-regulated, 2188 down-regulated), 1455 (1065 up-regulated, 390 down-regulated) genes from the 1 h, 3 h and 6 h dehydration-treated samples and a 24 h recovery samples, respectively. RNA-seq was validated by analyzing the expresson patterns of randomly selected 16 DEGs by quantitative real-time PCR. Photosynthesis, signal transduction, innate immune response, protein phosphorylation, response to water, response to biotic stimulus, and plant hormone signal transduction were the most significantly enriched GO categories amongst the DEGs. A total of 637 transcription factors were shown to be dehydration responsive. In addition, a number of genes involved in the metabolism and signaling of hormones were significantly affected by the dehydration stress. This dataset provides valuable information regarding the Pyrus betulaefolia transcriptome changes in response to dehydration and may promote identification and functional analysis of potential genes that could be used for improving drought tolerance via genetic engineering of non-model, but economically-important, perennial species.

  9. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Resensies / Reviews. 309 ... and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers from the International ... "Cambridge, Trinity College Library MS 0.5.4: A Fifteenth-century ... There are among others ten types of manuscript collections that need attention, ..... The collection is rounded off by a selective index, supplementing the Table.

  10. Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community with a bias towards ...

  11. HMI - historical flashback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, B.


    This brochure is based on a paper read at a HMI colloquium on 14 Juni 1993. The historical information is based on a detailed historical study published in book form under the title ''Industrial-scale Research in Berlin''. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Historizing epistemology in psychology. (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana


    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  13. Protein enrichment of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus - indica Mill using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de Fátima Araújo


    Full Text Available The microbial protein bioconversion of cactus pear by yeast in solid medium was studied. Three cultivation variables used were: inoculum's concentrations (5, 10 and 15 %, substrate layer thickness (2, 4 and 6 cm and temperature (30, 34 and 38 ºC. The rate of dry matter production and total protein were determined. Results obtained were variance analysis, gross energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The maximum protein amount achieved for the conditions studied in the present work was higher than 26 %, which was compatible or greater than those of conventional concentrates of protein supplements used for animal feed. The protein concentrate of cactus pear had a higher in vitro digestibility index (95.8 % and did not show any changes in the gross energy value when compared to that of the cactus pear in natura.A bioconversão da proteína microbiana através da levedura em meio sólido, foi estudada em palma forrageira cultivada em condições laboratoriais, sob três níveis de concentração do inóculo (5, 10 e 15%, espessuras distintas das camadas dos substratos (2, 4 e 6cm e temperaturas (30, 34 e 38ºC. Foram analisadas as taxas de produção de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, cujos resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, energia bruta (EB e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. O valor máximo de teor protéico, alcançado nas condições estudadas nesse trabalho, foi superior a 26%, sendo esse teor compatível ou maior do que os concentrados convencionais utilizados como suplemento protéico para a ração animal. O concentrado protéico da palma obteve um alto índice de digestibilidade in vitro (95,8% e não apresentou grande alteração no valor da energia bruta se comparada com a palma in natura.

  14. Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene. (United States)

    Gago, Custódia M L; Miguel, Maria G; Cavaco, Ana M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Antunes, Maria D C


    The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. 'Rocha' treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312 nl l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0 ℃ and 2.5 ℃ in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04 kPa O2+ 0.91 kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22 ℃ and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5 ℃. Levels of conjugated trienols and α-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5 ℃. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5 ℃. Pears in air at 2.5 ℃ were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0 ℃ under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated 'Rocha' pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0 ℃ to 2.5 ℃, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0 ℃ in air or at 2.5 ℃ under CA. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions:

  15. Ensacamento de frutos de pereira cv. Housui Bagging of nashi pear cv. Housui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dagoberto Faoro


    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a qualidade de frutos de pêra japonesa cv. Housui (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta ensacados com diferentes tipos de sacos de papel e em duas épocas: 34 e 83 dias após a florada. O ensacamento não influenciou na firmeza, no teor de sólidos solúveis totais e no peso médio dos frutos. Sacos vermelhos não induziram aumento do pH da polpa, mas o uso de sacos duplos, sacos marrons, sacos de papel kraft marrons e sacos de pipoca brancos aumentaram significativamente o pH. Ao buscar-se maior precocidade de colheita, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o uso de sacos pequenos de papel manteiga aos 34 dias após a floração e o uso de sacos grandes duplos ou sacos grandes marrons, 83 dias após a plena floração. O ensacamento 34 dias após a plena floração, com sacos grandes de papel duplo de cor marrom ou sacos de papel kraft marrons, ou ainda o uso de sacos pequenos parafinados transparentes de papel manteiga, aos 34 dias, seguidos pela colocação, aos 83 dias, dos dois tipos de sacos grandes citados anteriormente, resultaram em frutos de melhor qualidade externa (película de coloração homogênea e mais clara, lisa e com lenticelas pouco salientes. O uso de sacos vermelhos de papel manteiga e de sacos de pipoca brancos, com ou sem ensacamento prévio com sacos pequenos de papel manteiga parafinado, não resultaram em melhoria substancial da qualidade externa do fruto.The fruit quality of Nashi pears cv. Housui (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta have been evaluated after bagging with different paper bags at two bagging dates: 34 and 83 days after full bloom. The bagging did not affect the fruit firmness, the total soluble solids and the average fruit weight. Red bags did not affect the pH of the fruit flesh. However the fruit bagged with double bags of brown color, brown kraft paper and white popcorn paper increased the pH. In order to harvest precociously, the use of small transparent paraffin paper bags 34 days after full bloom

  16. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA. (United States)

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A


    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H


    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  18. Variability of some morphological traits of one-year old red oak, black walnut, birch and wild pear seedlings in the nurseries of Jastrebac region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun


    Full Text Available Five morphological and quantitative characteristics of one-year old seedlings of Red oak (Quercus rubra L, Black walnut (Juglans nigra L, Wild pear (Pyrus pygrowser Borkh and Birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh were studied. The seedlings were produced and cultivated in the controlled conditions of the nursery in the region of Jastrebac, by the classical method. Aboveground seedling height, root collar diameter, root length, number of secondary roots and the leaf assimilation area were analysed. Intraspecific and interspecific variability of morphological features of the above species were assessed by the comparative analysis and statistical methods The comparative analysis shows the great individual variability of seedlings, which can indicate their genetic potential, adaptation to environment conditions, further spontaneous selection and the development in natural conditions. This justifies the need of the quality assessment and the first selection already in the nursery, in order to ensure the quality planting material and to reduce the risk of afforestation failure One-year old birch seedlings have the lowest average height (18.8 cm. Black walnut and Wild pear seedlings are approximately twice as high, and Red oak about 2.5 times higher. At the same time Red oak seedlings have for about one-fourth greater height than Black walnut, and for one-third greater height than Wild pear. Wild pear seedlings attain the averagely twice larger root collar diameter than Birch (2.8 cm, Red oak seedlings about 2.5 times larger diameter, and Black walnut 3.5 times larger diameter. Black walnut has a larger root collar diameter than Red oak for about one third, and almost twice larger than Wild pear. Birch, Red oak and Wild pear have almost twice longer root (1.8-1.9 times, Black walnut about 2.25 times longer. The total assimilation area of a Birch seedling is averagely 89.0 cm2. Compared to birch, wild pear has approximately double assimilation area per tree, Red

  19. Emission-Line Galaxies from the PEARS Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A 2-D Detection Method and First Results (United States)

    Gardner, J. P.; Straughn, Amber N.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, james; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; hide


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism PEARS (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) survey provides a large dataset of low-resolution spectra from thousands of galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. One important subset of objects in these data are emission-line galaxies (ELGs), and we have investigated several different methods aimed at systematically selecting these galaxies. Here we present a new methodology and results of a search for these ELGs in the PEARS observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) using a 2D detection method that utilizes the observation that many emission lines originate from clumpy knots within galaxies. This 2D line-finding method proves to be useful in detecting emission lines from compact knots within galaxies that might not otherwise be detected using more traditional 1D line-finding techniques. We find in total 96 emission lines in the HUDF, originating from 81 distinct "knots" within 63 individual galaxies. We find in general that [0 1111 emitters are the most common, comprising 44% of the sample, and on average have high equivalent widths (70% of [0 1111 emitters having rest-frame EW> 100A). There are 12 galaxies with multiple emitting knots; several show evidence of variations in H-alpha flux in the knots, suggesting that the differing star formation properties across a single galaxy can in general be probed at redshifts approximately greater than 0.2 - 0.4. The most prevalent morphologies are large face-on spirals and clumpy interacting systems, many being unique detections owing to the 2D method described here, thus highlighting the strength of this technique.

  20. Premier Hospital Historical Data (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  1. Iowa Historic Cemeteries (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  2. VT Roadside Historic Markers (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  3. Historical Climatology Series (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  4. Influence of Calcium Chloride (CaCl/sub 2/) on Fruit Quality of Pear (Pyrus communis) cv. le conte During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M.; Mukhtiar, M.; Rab, M.; Shah, S.R.; Jan, I.


    An experiment was conducted at Postharvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2010 to evaluate the 'Influence of calcium chloride (CaCl/sub 2/) on fruit quality of pear (Pyrus communis) cv. Le-conte'. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three factors i.e. (CaCl/sub 2/) concentration (0,3,6 and 9%), dipping time (5,10 and 15 minutes) and storage durations (0,10,20,30 and 40 days). The maximum ascorbic acid (7.93 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (5.86%), while the least percent weight loss (4.52%), pH of fruit juice (4.42), total soluble solids (TSS) (19.83%) and percent disease incidence (2.56%) were observed in fruits treated with 9% CaCl/sub 2/ solution. The dipping time also significantly influenced the quality attributes of pear fruits during storage. The more ascorbic acid (6.88 mg/100 g) and reducing sugar (5.44%) were recorded in the pear fruits dipped for 15 minutes. Storage duration significantly affected the fruit quality 40 days storage. The highest reducing sugar recorded in fresh pear fruits while the highest ascorbic acid (7.83 mg/100 g) were observed in pear fruit stored for 10 days storage duration, while more non-reducing sugar (7.03%) recorded in the fruits stored for 30 days. In the interaction of CaCl/sub 2/ concentration x dipping time, the highest total soluble solid (31.88%) noted in the fruits stored for 40 days and dipped for 5 minutes in CaCl/sub 2/ solution. It is concluded that pear fruit perform best in the postharvest life when treated with 9% CaCl/sub 2/ solution and dipped for 15 minutes. It retained most of the quality attributes up to 10 days storage at ambient temperature while a significant decline was recorded in fruit quality when extended the storage duration from 20 to 40 days. (author)

  5. Information field for historical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviatets, Yu. A.


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main information collision of historical knowledge, which consists in physical inaccessibility of events and phenomena of the past as an object of historical science for a historian as an investigator. The aim of the research is to formulate and discuss a working hypothesis about the information field of historical science. The article provides an analytical background on the main ideas and approaches in the field of modern information field theory. The author carries out the projection of the main provisions of the information field theory on historical research. It is shown that the information field is a really existing information carrier that provides its acquisition, transportation, storage and visualization, as well as provides information and knowledge recorded in various forms, realizes cultural communications. One of the manifestations of such a culture is the sign systems, which determine certain contexts. Signs are characterized by polysemy. Despite artificial origin, semiotic reality is objective. Simultaneously, signs provide intellectual activity of people. Mental signs in the historical process of use by society acquire additional meanings, generating new symbols. Polysemy shapes the problem of epistemological uncertainty of two stages – identifying the problem and solving it. Historians as researchers resort to cognitive models, which, thanks to the translational function, ensure the transfer of information from the known to the unknown. One of the explanations of polysemy is the theory of conceptual integration, according to which the structures of the original mental spaces are projected onto a new, constructed, mental space – blend. This is the result of a personʼs intellectual ability to create new meanings on the basis of the available ones. Since signs and symbols are multi-valued, they form a multiplicity of retrospective scenarios of historical research at the stage of problem formulation

  6. [Importance of accurate assessment of capillary blood glucose level in diagnosis: misleading results in handlers of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica)]. (United States)

    García Pantoja, José; Landróguez Salinas, Sergio; Barrero Luque, Susana; Pérez Pérez, José Antonio


    Hypoglycemia can cause symptoms of neuroglycopenia that can be easily confused with symptoms of greater clinical importance such as stroke. Appropriate differential diagnosis between these 2 processes will be essential for guiding the treatment approach. We report a case in which stroke was initially suspected because hypoglycemia was masked by the incorrect capillary blood glucose (CBG) measurement technique used in treating an itinerant vendor of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica). We studied the effects of prickly pear handling on the CBG levels in 11 vendors before and after they handled the fruit. CBG levels were noticeably higher after the fruit was handled in all cases. Our observations reveal the need to measure both capillary and venous blood glucose levels to rule out hypoglycemia in patients with acute neurological symptoms.

  7. Biochemical Basis of CO2-Related Internal Browning Disorders in Pears (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha) during Long-Term Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuchande, Teresa; Larrigaudière, Christian; Giné-bordonaba, Jordi; Pinto de Carvalho, Susana; Vasconcelos, Marta W.


    This study aimed at understanding the biochemical basis of internal browning disorders (IBDs) in ‘Rocha’ pear. For this purpose, the effects of storage under normal controlled atmosphere (CA) (3 kPa of O2 + 0.5 kPa of CO2) and IBD-inducing CA (1 kPa of O2 + 10 kPa of CO2) on the antioxidant and

  8. The impact of a cold chain break on the survival of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes on minimally processed 'Conference' pears during their shelf life. (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel


    In recent years, improved detection methods and increased fresh-cut processing of produce have led to an increased number of outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables. During fruit and vegetable processing, natural protective barriers are removed and tissues are cut, causing nutrient rich exudates and providing attachment sites for microbes. Consequently, fresh-cut produce is more susceptible to microbial proliferation than whole produce. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of storage temperature on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica on a fresh-cut 'Conference' pear over an 8 day storage period. Pears were cut, dipped in antioxidant solution, artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, packed under modified atmospheric conditions simulating commercial applications and stored in properly refrigerated conditions (constant storage at 4 °C for 8 days) or in temperature abuse conditions (3 days at 4 °C plus 5 days at 8 °C). After 8 days of storage, both conditions resulted in a significant decrease of S. enterica populations on pear wedges. In contrast, when samples were stored at 4 °C for 8 days, L. monocytogenes populations increased 1.6 logarithmic units, whereas under the temperature abuse conditions, L. monocytogenes populations increased 2.2 logarithmic units. Listeria monocytogenes was able to grow on fresh-cut pears processed under the conditions described here, despite low pH, refrigeration and use of modified atmosphere. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... writers such as Derrida and Wittgenstein, among others, lead biblical scholars today to view the texts of the Bible more as literary narratives than as sources for a history of Israel. Increased interest in archaeological and anthropological studies in writing the history of Palestine and the ancient Near...... and the commitment to a new approach to both the history of Palestine and the Bible’s place in ancient history. This volume features essays from a range of highly regarded scholars, and is divided into three sections: “Beyond Historicity”, which explores alternative historical roles for the Bible, “Greek Connections...

  10. Identification of candidate genes involved in the sugar metabolism and accumulation during pear fruit post-harvest ripening of 'Red Clapp's Favorite' (Pyrus communis L.) by transcriptome analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Long; Chen, Yun; Wang, Suke; Xue, Huabai; Su, Yanli; Yang, Jian; Li, Xiugen


    Pear ( Pyrus spp.) is a popular fruit that is commercially cultivated in most temperate regions. In fruits, sugar metabolism and accumulation are important factors for fruit organoleptic quality. Post-harvest ripening is a special feature of 'Red Clapp's Favorite'. In this study, transcriptome sequencing based on the Illumina platform generated 23.8 - 35.8 million unigenes of nine cDNA libraries constructed using RNAs from the 'Red Clapp's Favorite' pear variety with different treatments, in which 2629 new genes were discovered, and 2121 of them were annotated. A total of 2146 DEGs, 3650 DEGs, 1830 DEGs from each comparison were assembled. Moreover, the gene expression patterns of 8 unigenes related to sugar metabolism revealed by qPCR. The main constituents of soluble sugars were fructose and glucose after pear fruit post-harvest ripening, and five unigenes involved in sugar metabolism were discovered. Our study not only provides a large-scale assessment of transcriptome resources of 'Red Clapp's Favorite' but also lays the foundation for further research into genes correlated with sugar metabolism.

  11. Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Pear Pomace Can Prevent High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats Mainly by Improving the Structure of the Gut Microbiota. (United States)

    Chang, Shimin; Cui, Xingtian; Guo, Mingzhang; Tian, Yiling; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Yuxing


    Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) is regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long-term intake of a high-fat diet in the current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, whereas the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent a higher proportion in plant food, were mistakenly thought to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed. The preliminary study by real-time PCR and ELISA showed that this kind of IDF caused more changes in the gut microbiota compared with in satiety hormone or in hepatic metabolism. Further analysis of the gut microbiota by high-throughput amplicon sequencing showed IDF from pear pomace obviously improved the structure of the gut microbiota. Specifically, it promoted the growth of Bacteroidetes and inhibited the growth of Firmicutes. These results are coincident with previous hypothesis that the ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes is negatively related with obesity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated IDF from pear pomace could prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats mainly by improving the structure of the gut microbiota.

  12. Quantitative Multiclass Pesticide Residue Analysis in Apple, Pear, and Grape by Modified QuEChERS and Liquid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Viera, Mariela de S; Martins, Manoel L; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato


    Most of the analytical methods currently applied in food control laboratories are focused on the determination of target compounds using LC coupled to tandem MS, which is an effective technique, but low-resolution MS is limited. Thus, a method for determination of pesticide multiresidues in fruits (pear, apple, and grape) using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method and LC coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) MS was developed and validated. The proposed method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.99) from 1 to 100 μg/L. Recoveries for blank samples spiked at 0.01, 0.04, and 0.10 mg/kg were between 66 and 122%, with RSDs apple, pear, and grape matrixes were 0.01 mg/kg for 112, 120, and 118 compounds, and 0.04 mg/kg for 22, 12, and 17 compounds, and average mass accuracy error was 3.2 ppm. LC with Q-TOF MS detection using protonated molecular ion and/or adducts and mass accuracy provided reliability for the method. The proposed method is effective for pesticide residue determination in apple, pear, and grape samples, proving that high-resolution MS using full scan mode can be a powerful and reliable technique for quantification purposes, being adequate for application in the surveillance of maximum residue limits set by different legislations.

  13. Two pear glutathione S-transferases genes are regulated during fruit development and involved in response to salicylic acid, auxin, and glucose signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Shi

    Full Text Available Two genes encoding putative glutathione S-transferase proteins were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia and designated PpGST1 and PpGST2. The deduced PpGST1 and PpGST2 proteins contain conserved Glutathione S-transferase N-terminal domain (GST_N and Glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain (GST_C. Using PCR amplification technique, the genomic clones corresponding to PpGST1 and PpGST2 were isolated and shown to contain two introns and a singal intron respectively with typical GT/AG boundaries defining the splice junctions. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that PpGST1 belonged to Phi class of GST superfamilies and had high homology with apple MdGST, while PpGST2 was classified into the Tau class of GST superfamilies. The expression of PpGST1 and PpGST2 genes was developmentally regulated in fruit. Further study demonstrated that PpGST1 and PpGST2 expression was remarkably induced by glucose, salicylic acid (SA and indole-3-aceticacid (IAA treatments in pear fruit, and in diseased fruit. These data suggested that PpGST1 and PpGST2 might be involved in response to sugar, SA, and IAA signaling during fruit development of pear.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, identificar a profundidade de dormência e a velocidade de brotação em gemas de pereira, submetidas a diferentes períodos de frio à temperatura de 4ºC ±1. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa-Clima Temperado, em Pelotas, em 1999. Em 1º de junho, foram coletados 50 ramos, na cultivar Carrick, com aproximadamente 30 cm de comprimento. Após, foram divididos em 5 lotes de 10 ramos, sendo 4 mantidos a 4ºC± 1, e um em condições ambiente, constituindo, assim, 5 tratamentos: 0 (Testemunha; 272; 544; 816 e 1088 horas de frio (HF. No final de cada tratamento, os ramos foram divididos em pequenas estacas, contendo apenas uma única gema, sendo, após, armazenados em câmara climática a 25ºC ± 1. Avaliou-se a brotação, considerando-se o estádio de ponta verde. A partir destes dados, calculou-se o tempo médio de brotação (TMB, bem como a percentagem de gemas brotadas, em cada um dos tratamentos. Utilizou-se o índice de velocidade de brotação (IVB, para determinar a eficiência da temperatura na brotação das gemas. A profundidade de dormência, das gemas terminais, diminuiu à medida que se aumentou o período de frio. As gemas axilares não foram influenciadas pelo tempo de exposição ao frio. Com base nos dados do IVB e dos coeficientes angulares, as gemas terminais da cv. Carrick necessitam de 800 horas de frio para completar a brotação, nas condições que foram conduzidos os experimentos.The objective for this work was to identify the dormancy depth and the bud-sprouting rate of pear trees kept at chilling conditions (4ºC±1 for different periods. The experiment was carried out using buds of twigs of the previous growth season from a pear orchard of the Embrapa Clima Temperado Research Center. The twigs were collected on June 1, 1999. The treatments were five period of chilling: 0 (control; 272; 544; 816; or 1088 hours at 4ºC±1. At the end of each treatment, the twigs were cut into

  15. Efectiveness of Spirodiclofen in the Control of European Red Mite (Panonychus ulmi on Apple and Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić


    Full Text Available The effectiveness of spirodiclofen, an acaricide and insecticide with a novel mode of action, in protecting apple from the European red mite (Panonychus ulmi and pear from pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri was tested in field trials in four sites in Serbia in 2004, 2005 and2007. The efficacy of P. ulmi control was investigated at Morović(Šid, where the effects of spirodiclofen were compared with those of fenazaquin, clofentezine, fenpyroximate and bifenthrin. Applied in 2004 at a rate of 0.096 g a.i. L-1 against the overwintering eggs ofP. ulmi, spirodiclofen achieved 86% efficacy, while the efficacies of fenazaquin and clofentezine (25 days after treatment were 84.4% and 27.8%, respectively. In the same season, spirodiclofen displayed high and prolonged efficacy against a summer population of P. ulmi: the efficacy of this acaricide applied at concentrations of 0.096 and 0.144 g a.i. L-1 was 98% and 96.9%, respectively, while fenpyroximate, clofentezine and bifenthrin achieved 43%, 59.5% and 62% efficacy, respectively (45 days after treatment. This effect of spirodiclofen against the summer population was confirmed in the same site in 2005, when 94.9-95.7% efficacy was achieved (47 days after treatment. The efficacy of spirodiclofen, amitraz and abamectin against eggs and larvae of the first generation of C. pyri was examined at a Bela Crkva site in 2004, and in sites at Mandjelos (Sremska Mitrovica and Bela Crkva in 2005. Applied at a concentration of 0.144 g a.i. L-1 at the beginning of hatching, spirodiclofen was found to achieve 83.2-95% efficacy, abamectin 93.5-94.9% and amitraz 78.9-95.6% efficacy (14 days after treatment. Applied in a site at Borkovac (Ruma in 2007 at a rate of 0.096 g a.i.L-1 before hatching of the first generation larvae, spirodiclofen reduced the number of eggs and larvae of C. pyri by 72%, 82% and 89% in evaluations 18, 25 and 38 days after treatment, while abamectin and diflubenzuron achieved reductions of 92%, 95% and

  16. Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA metabolism enzymes during the fruit development and dehydration stress of pear 'Gold Nijisseiki'. (United States)

    Dai, Shengjie; Li, Ping; Chen, Pei; Li, Qian; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Sun, Yufei; Wang, Ya; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Liao, Yalan; Leng, Ping


    To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) in pear 'Gold Nijisseiki' during fruit ripening and under dehydration stress, two cDNAs (PpNCED1 and PpNCED2) which encode 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) (a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis), two cDNAs (PpCYP707A1 and PpCYP707A2) which encode 8'-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA), one cDNA (PpACS3) which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and one cDNA (PpACO1) which encodes ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis were cloned from 'Gold Nijisseiki' fruit. In the pulp, peel and seed, expressions of PpNCED1 and PpNCED2 rose in two stages which corresponded with the increase of ABA levels. The expression of PpCYP707A1 dramatically declined after 60-90 days after full bloom (DAFB) in contrast to the changes of ABA levels during this period, while PpCYP707A2 stayed low during the whole development of fruit. Application of exogenous ABA at 100 DAFB increased the soluble sugar content and the ethylene release but significantly decreased the titratable acid and chlorophyll contents in fruits. When fruits harvested at 100 DAFB were stored in the laboratory (25 °C, 50% relative humidity), the ABA content and the expressions of PpNCED1/2 and PpCYP707A1 in the pulp, peel and seed increased significantly, while ethylene reached its highest value after the maximum peak of ABA accompanied with the expressions of PpACS3 and PpACO1. In sum the endogenous ABA may play an important role in the fruit ripening and dehydration of pear 'Gold Nijisseiki' and the ABA level was regulated mainly by the dynamics of PpNCED1, PpNCED2 and PpCYP707A1 at the transcriptional level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Historical Collage Drawings (United States)

    Billington, Lisa


    Helping students learn how to interpret and analyze imagery is an important skill. With last year's historical election of the first African American president, it was an opportune time to explore where Americans are going as a nation and what kind of future they envision. Middle-school students are eager to give their opinions, but learning to…

  18. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti


    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  19. Political Correctness, Historically Speaking. (United States)

    Lipset, Seymour Martin


    This historical review examines conservative and liberal attitudes on U.S. campuses in terms of political, ethnic, racial, gender, and religious issues. Discussed are the era of protest (1960s), the era of quiescence and move toward conservatism (1970-84), reversing the trend via increasing faculty liberalism, and contemporary opinion (a…

  20. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen


    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  1. A historical overview (United States)

    Dan Scurlock; Deborah M. Finch


    This chapter reviews the historical: 1) occupancy, use of and impacts on ponderosa pine forests by early American Indians and European settlers; and 2) the human use of and impacts on birds in ponderosa pine forests. Contemporary ecology and human use of ponderosa pine forests are described in this publication by Moir et al. and Raish et al. Recent human impacts on...

  2. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M


    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  3. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun


    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  4. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes. (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais


    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Armazenamento de figo-da-índia em pó Storage of the prickly pear powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícera G. C. de Lisbôa


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas a estabilidade do figo-da-índia em pó acondicionado em embalagens laminadas durante 100 dias de armazenamento, sob condições controladas de temperatura e umidade relativa e as amostras a cada 20 dias, por meio do teor de água, atividade de água, acidez total titulável, açúcares redutores e cor (luminosidade, intensidade de vermelho e de amarelo. Observou-se que as embalagens laminadas não evitaram a absorção de água, enquanto a atividade de água aumentou e os açúcares redutores diminuíram com o tempo; por outro lado, a acidez total titulável diminuiu mas apenas nos primeiros vinte dias; enfim, todas as amostras sofreram escurecimento durante o armazenamento.The stability of the prickly pear power packed in laminated roll for 100 days storage under controlled temperature and relative humidity was evaluated. The material was evaluated every 20 days, through the moisture content, water activity, total acidity, sugars and color (brightness, red and yellow colour intensity. It was found during storage of powder samples, that the laminated packaging did not prevent the water absorption, while water activity increased and reduced sugars decreased with time, the total acidity decreased in the first twenty days, keeping stable thereafter in all samples and there was a darkening of the powder samples stored at 40 ºC.

  6. Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage. (United States)

    Vergara, Cristina; Saavedra, Jorge; Sáenz, Carmen; García, Paula; Robert, Paz


    Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 °C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. It’s About Valence: Historical Continuity or Historical Discontinuity as a Threat to Social Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Roth


    Full Text Available National identity is underpinned by historical representations. Recent research shows that narratives presenting an in-group’s history as discontinuous rather than continuous raise collective angst, suggesting that historical discontinuity threatens social identity. This previous research has focused on positive aspects of an in-group’s past. The present research aims to extend the findings to go beyond positive histories. We suggest that when the in-group’s actions in the past are presented as negative, historical continuity instead of discontinuity will increase perceived identity threat because a negative, continuous history threatens group members’ need for a positive social identity in the present. In an experiment with a sample size of N = 316, we manipulated the narrated valence of in-group actions during the historical event of the approval of the German constitutional law by framing the group’s actions in either positive or negative terms. In addition, we presented the in-group’s history as connected or disconnected to the in-group’s present. Results demonstrate that historical continuity only decreased identity threat compared to historical discontinuity when the in-group’s past behavior was presented as positive. When the in-group’s past was presented as negative, continuity even increased identity threat compared to historical discontinuity. These results were particularly pronounced for people who strongly identified with their national in-group. We discuss implications of the findings for political communication and managing a nation’s perception of social identity threat.

  8. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.; Atchinson, R.J.


    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  9. Historical review of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onai, Yoshio


    The techniques of radiotherapy have been improved by development of particle accelerators, radionuclides and computers. This paper presents a historical review of the physical and technical aspects of radiotherapy in Japan. Changes in the kinds of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and protons used for external radiotherapy, and the equipment involved are described chronologically, and historical changes in the quality of radiotherapy apparatus are outlined. Patient data acquisition equipment, such as X-ray simulator and X-ray CT, beam modifying devices, patient setup devices, and devices to verify treatment fields and patient doses are reviewed historically. Radiation sources for brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy, and remotely controlled afterloading systems are reviewed chronologically. Historical changes in methods to evaluate absorbed doses, dose monitor systems and beam data acquisition systems are outlined. Changes in methods of calculating dose distributions for external X-ray and electron therapy, brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy by unsealded radionuclides are described and calculation techniques for treatment planning system are reviewed. Annual figures in the numbers of radiotherapy equipment, such as telecobalt and telecesium units, linear accelerators, betatrons, microtrons, stereotactic gamma units, conformation radiotherapy units, remotely controlled afterloading systems, and associated equipment such as X-ray simulators and treatment planning systems are provided, as are changes in the number of accelerators by maximum X-ray energy and maximum electron energy, and in the number of licensed hospitals and clinics using small sealed sources. Changes in techniques of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy are described briefly from the point of view of dose distributions. (author)

  10. Historic timber roof structures


    Magina, Miguel Jorge


    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Civil – Estruturas e Geotecnia This dissertation covers the study of historic timber roof structures in Transylvania area - Romania, the structures type, its elements and connection variety between them. Procedures to study a structure of this category are approached. It is also referred semi and non-destructive tests that can be done to better understand the present wood characteristics, and potential reparation or strengthening...

  11. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis


    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  12. School Climate: Historical Review, Instrument Development, and School Assessment (United States)

    Zullig, Keith J.; Koopman, Tommy M.; Patton, Jon M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.


    This study's purpose is to examine the existing school climate literature in an attempt to constitute its definition from a historical context and to create a valid and reliable student-reported school climate instrument. Five historically common school climate domains and five measurement tools were identified, combined, and previewed by the…

  13. Wood-destroying Coleopteran species in the historical buildings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to identify the harmful insects causing damage in the historical wooden buildings of Kastamonu. Accordingly, 15 of those historical wooden buildings situated in the city were periodically controlled between the years 2002 and 2005. During those periodic controls, damages caused by insects were ...

  14. APFO Historical Availability of Imagery (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...

  15. USGS Historical Topographic Map Collection (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Historical Quadrangle in GeoPDF. The USGS Historical Quadrangle Scanning Project (HQSP) is scanning all scales and all editions of topographic maps published by...

  16. Intermediate Genre Study. Historical Fiction. (United States)

    Novelli, Joan; Lasky, Kathryn


    Students can learn to appreciate history as readers and writers of historical fiction. This section presents an introduction to historical fiction, a display idea, a mystery history game, discussion of character-building, charts for students to fill in with information on historical characters, suggestions for customizing writing centers and for…

  17. Treatment and conditioning of historical radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Ghe.; Dragolici, F.; Ionascu, L.; Rotarescu, Ghe.


    The paper describes the management of historical radioactive waste from the storage facility of Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant. The historical waste stored into storage facility of IFIN-HH consists of spent sealed radioactive sources, empty contaminated containers, wooden radioactive waste, low specific activity radioactive waste, contaminated waste as well as radioactive waste from operation of WWR-S research reactor. After decommissioning of temporary storage facility about 5000 packages with radioactive waste were produced and transferred to the disposal facility. A large amount of packages have been transferred and disposed of to repository but at the end of 2000 there were still about 800 packages containing cement conditioned radioactive waste in an advanced state of degradation declared by authorities as 'historical waste'. During the management of historical waste campaign there were identified: radium spent radioactive sources, containers containing other spent sealed radioactive sources, packages containing low specific activity waste consist of thorium scrap allow, 30 larger packages (316 L), packages with activity lower than activity limit for disposal, packages with activity higher than activity limit for disposal. At the end of 2008, the whole amount of historical waste which met the waste acceptance criteria has been conditioned and transferred to disposal facility. (authors)

  18. Identification and classification of Serbia's historic floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Stevan


    Full Text Available River flooding in Serbia is a natural phenomenon which largely exceeds the scope of water management and hydraulic engineering, and has considerable impact on the development of Serbian society. Today, the importance and value of areas threatened by floods are among the key considerations of sustainable development. As a result, flood protection techniques and procedures need to be continually refined and updated, following innovations in the fields of science and technology. Knowledge of high flows is key for sizing hydraulic structures and for gauging the cost-effectiveness and safety of the component structures of flood protection systems. However, sizing of hydraulic structures based on computed high flows does not ensure absolute safety; there is a residual flood risk and a risk of structural failure, if a flood exceeds computed levels. In hydrological practice, such floods are often referred to as historic/loads. The goal of this paper is to present a calculation procedure for the objective identification of historic floods, using long, multiple-year series of data on high flows of natural watercourses in Serbia. At its current stage of development, the calculation procedure is based on maximum annual discharges recorded at key monitoring stations of the Hydro-Meteorological Service of Serbia (HMS Serbia. When applied, the procedure results in the identification of specific historic maximum stages/floods (if any at all gauge sites included in the analysis. The probabilistic theory is then applied to assess the statistical significance of each identified historic flood and to classify the historic flood, as appropriate. At the end of the paper, the results of the applied methodology are shown in tabular and graphic form for various Serbian rivers. All identified historic floods are ranked based on their probability of occurrence (i.e., return period.

  19. Einstein: A Historical Perspective (United States)

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana


    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  20. [Historical roles of salt]. (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C


    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  1. Retrieving Historical Electrorefining Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Meagan Daniella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Pyrochemical Operations began at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during 1962 (1). Electrorefining (ER) has been implemented as a routine process since the 1980’s. The process data that went through the ER operation was recorded but had never been logged in an online database. Without a database new staff members are hindered in their work by the lack of information. To combat the issue a database in Access was created to collect the historical data. The years from 2000 onward were entered and queries were created to analyze trends. These trends will aid engineering and operations staff to reach optimal performance for the startup of the new lines.

  2. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David


    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that have...... ever appeared in the warehouse), the size of the portion of the data warehouse history needed to answer the queries is also bounded by a function of the active data do-main size and therefore does not depend on the age of the warehouse (the length of the history)....

  3. Comparative genomic analysis reveals multiple long terminal repeats, lineage-specific amplification, and frequent interelement recombination for Cassandra retrotransposon in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.). (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Du, Jianchang; Li, Leiting; Jin, Cong; Fan, Lian; Li, Meng; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling


    Cassandra transposable elements belong to a specific group of terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature (TRIM). Although Cassandra TRIM elements have been found in almost all vascular plants, detailed investigations on the nature, abundance, amplification timeframe, and evolution have not been performed in an individual genome. We therefore conducted a comprehensive analysis of Cassandra retrotransposons using the newly sequenced pear genome along with four other Rosaceae species, including apple, peach, mei, and woodland strawberry. Our data reveal several interesting findings for this particular retrotransposon family: 1) A large number of the intact copies contain three, four, or five long terminal repeats (LTRs) (∼20% in pear); 2) intact copies and solo LTRs with or without target site duplications are both common (∼80% vs. 20%) in each genome; 3) the elements exhibit an overall unbiased distribution among the chromosomes; 4) the elements are most successfully amplified in pear (5,032 copies); and 5) the evolutionary relationships of these elements vary among different lineages, species, and evolutionary time. These results indicate that Cassandra retrotransposons contain more complex structures (elements with multiple LTRs) than what we have known previously, and that frequent interelement unequal recombination followed by transposition may play a critical role in shaping and reshaping host genomes. Thus this study provides insights into the property, propensity, and molecular mechanisms governing the formation and amplification of Cassandra retrotransposons, and enhances our understanding of the structural variation, evolutionary history, and transposition process of LTR retrotransposons in plants. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Determination and confirmation of nicotinic acid and its analogues and derivates in pear and apple blossoms using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Paternoster, Thomas; Vrhovsek, Urska; Pertot, Ilaria; Duffy, Brion; Gessler, Cesare; Mattivi, Fulvio


    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, a serious disease of apple and pear. The bacterial pathogen colonizes the flower stigma and hypanthium, where it multiplies and then invades through natural openings (nectarthodes). E. amylovora requires nicotinic acid as growth factor, and competition for nicotinic acid is being explored as a novel biocontrol strategy. The ability of E. amylovora to substitute nicotinic acid with analogues or derivates as growth factors has not been investigated yet. Furthermore, the presence and/or variable concentration of nicotinic acid and its analogues/derivates in the hypanthium could be associated with the different susceptibilities to fire blight of hosts and nonhosts and with the differential sensitivity to the disease among apple and pear varieties. Currently, no methods to specifically quantify nicotinic acid and nicotinic acid analogues/derivates in the hypanthium of apple and pear blossoms are available. This study demonstrates that E. amylovora can grow using nicotinamide and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid as alternative growth factors to nicotinic acid, but not using 2-hydroxynicotinic acid. A novel HPLC/ES-MS method was developed for the detection and quantification of nicotinic acid and its analogues/derivates directly in the hypanthium of apple and pear blossoms. Analyses established the presence of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, whereas no detectable amounts of 6-hydroxynicotinic acid and 2-hydroxynicotinic acid were observed. Mean nicotinic acid content in the pear hypanthium was found to be approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than in the apple hypanthium, which may contribute to the differential susceptibility of these two host species to fire blight. Contents of nicotinamide were in contrast similar. Nicotinic acid can therefore be considered a relevant factor in the pathogen establishment in pear blossoms, whereas nicotinamide could cover a primary role in apple blossoms.

  5. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment. (United States)

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; León-Rivera, Jesús Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela


    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in color, betalain content, browning index, viscosity, physical stability, microbiological growth, antioxidant content and antioxidant activity of purple cactus pear juice during storage after thermoultrasonication at 80% amplitude level for 15 and 25 min in comparison with pasteurized juice. Thermoultrasound treatment for 25 min increased color stability and viscosity compared to treatment for 15 min (6.83 and 6.72 MPa, respectively), but this last parameter was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and pasteurized juices (22.47 and 26.32 MPa, respectively). Experimental treatment reduced significantly (p<0.05) sediment solids in juices. Total plate counts decreased from the first day of storage exhibiting values of 1.38 and 1.43 logCFU/mL, for 15 and 25 min treatment, respectively. Compared to the control, both treatments reduced enterobacteria counts (1.54 logCFU/mL), and compared to pasteurized juice decreased pectinmethylesterase activity (3.76 and 3.82 UPE/mL), maintained high values of ascorbic acid (252.05 and 257.18 mg AA/L) and antioxidant activity (by ABTS: 124.8 and 115.6 mg VCEAC/100 mL; and DPPH: 3114.2 and 2757.1 μmol TE/L). During storage thermoultrasonicated juices had a minimum increase in pectinmethylesterase activity (from day 14), and exhibited similar total plate counts to pasteurized juice. An increase of phenolic content was observed after 14 days of storage, particularly for treatment at 80%, 25 min, and an increase in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) by the end of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of different film packaging on microbial growth in minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). (United States)

    Palma, A; Mangia, N P; Fadda, A; Barberis, A; Schirra, M; D'Aquino, S


    Microorganisms are natural contaminants of fresh produce and minimally processed products, and contamination arises from a number of sources, including the environment, postharvest handling and processing. Fresh-cut products are particularly susceptible to microbial contaminations because of the changes occurring in the tissues during processing. In package gas composition of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in combination with low storage temperatures besides reducing physiological activity of packaged produce, can also delay pathogen growth. Present study investigated on the effect of MAPs, achieved with different plastic films, on microbial growth of minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntio ficus-indica) fruit. Five different plastic materials were used for packaging the manually peeled fruit. That is: a) polypropylene film (Termoplast MY 40 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 300 cc/m2/24h); b) polyethylene film (Bolphane BHE, 11 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 19000 cc/m2/24h); c) polypropylene laser-perforated films (Mach Packaging) with 8, 16 or 32 100-micron holes. Total aerobic psychrophilic, mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast, mould populations and in-package CO2, O2 and C2H4 were determined at each storage time. Different final gas compositions, ranging from 7.8 KPa to 17.1 KPa O2, and 12.7 KPa to 2.6 KPa CO2, were achieved with MY and micro perforated films, respectively. Differences were detected in the mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and yeast loads, while no difference was detected in psychrophilic microorganisms. At the end of storage, microbial load in fruits sealed with MY film was significantly lower than in those sealed with BHE and micro perforated films. Furthermore, fruits packed with micro-perforated films showed the highest microbial load. This occurrence may in part be related to in-package gas composition and in part to a continuous contamination of microorganisms through micro-holes.

  7. Genome comparison of the epiphytic bacteria Erwinia billingiae and E. tasmaniensis with the pear pathogen E. pyrifoliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhl Heiner


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Erwinia includes plant-associated pathogenic and non-pathogenic Enterobacteria. Important pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight and E. pyrifoliae causing bacterial shoot blight of pear in Asia belong to this genus. The species E. tasmaniensis and E. billingiae are epiphytic bacteria and may represent antagonists for biocontrol of fire blight. The presence of genes that are putatively involved in virulence in E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae is of special interest for these species in consequence. Results Here we provide the complete genome sequences of the pathogenic E. pyrifoliae strain Ep1/96 with a size of 4.1 Mb and of the non-pathogenic species E. billingiae strain Eb661 with a size of 5.4 Mb, de novo determined by conventional Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing techniques. Genome comparison reveals large inversions resulting from homologous recombination events. Furthermore, comparison of deduced proteins highlights a relation of E. billingiae strain Eb661 to E. tasmaniensis strain Et1/99 and a distance to E. pyrifoliae for the overall gene content as well as for the presence of encoded proteins representing virulence factors for the pathogenic species. Pathogenicity of E. pyrifoliae is supposed to have evolved by accumulation of potential virulence factors. E. pyrifoliae carries factors for type III secretion and cell invasion. Other genes described as virulence factors for E. amylovora are involved in the production of exopolysaccharides, the utilization of plant metabolites such as sorbitol and sucrose. Some virulence-associated genes of the pathogenic species are present in E. tasmaniensis but mostly absent in E. billingiae. Conclusion The data of the genome analyses correspond to the pathogenic lifestyle of E. pyrifoliae and underlines the epiphytic localization of E. tasmaniensis and E. billingiae as a saprophyte.

  8. Aqueous extracts of avocado pear (Persea americana Mill.) leaves and seeds exhibit anti-cholinesterases and antioxidant activities in vitro. (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Odubanjo, Veronica O; Bello, Fatai; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Nwanna, Emem E; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O


    Avocado pear (Persea americana Mill.) leaves and seeds are used in traditional medicine for the treatment/management of Alzheimer disease (AD); however, information on the mechanism of actions is limited. This study sought to investigate the effect of P. americana leaf and seed aqueous extracts on some enzymes linked with AD (acetylcholinesterase [AChE] and butyrylcholinesterase [BChE] activities) and their antioxidant potentials in vitro. The inhibitory effects of extracts on AChE and BChE activities and antioxidant potentials (inhibition of Fe2+- and sodium nitroprusside-induced thiobarbiturate reactive species [TBARS] production in rat brain homogenates, radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide] scavenging and iron [Fe] chelation abilities) were investigated. Phenolic content and phytochemical screening were carried out. Alkaloid profile was also determined using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The extracts inhibited AChE and BChE activities and prooxidant-induced TBARS production in a dose-dependent manner, with the seed extract having the highest inhibitory effect and the leaf extract exhibiting higher phenolic content and radical scavenging abilities, but lower Fe chelation ability compared with that of the seed. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, and terpenoids in both extracts, whereas the total alkaloid profile was higher in the seed extract than in the leaf extract, as revealed by GC-FID. The anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activities of avocado leaf and seed could be linked to their phytoconstituents and might be the possible mechanisms underlying their use as a cheap and natural treatment/management of AD. However, these extracts should be further investigated in vivo.

  9. Balsam-Pear-Skin-Like Porous Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibrous Membranes Grafted with Polyethyleneimine for Postcombustion CO2 Capture. (United States)

    Zhang, Yufei; Guan, Jiming; Wang, Xianfeng; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin


    Amine-containing sorbents have been extensively studied for postcombustion carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture because of their ability to chemisorb CO 2 from the flue gas. However, most sorbents are in the form of powders currently, which is not the ideal configuration for the flue gas separation because of the fragile nature and poor mechanical properties, resulting in blocking of the flow pipes and difficult recycling. Herein, we present a novel approach for the facile fabrication of flexible, robust, and polyethyleneimine-grafted (PEI-grafted) hydrolyzed porous PAN nanofibrous membranes (HPPAN-PEI NFMs) through the combination of electrospinning, pore-forming process, hydrolysis reaction, and the subsequent grafting technique. Excitingly, we find that all the resultant porous PAN (PPAN) fibers exhibit a balsam-pear-skin-like porous structure due to the selective removal of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) from PAN/PVP fibers by water extraction. Significantly, the HPPAN-PEI NFMs retain their mesoporosity, as well as exhibit good thermal stability and prominent tensile strength (11.1 MPa) after grafting, guaranteeing their application in CO 2 trapping from the flue gas. When exposed to CO 2 at 40 °C, the HPPAN-PEI NFMs show an enhanced CO 2 adsorption capacity of 1.23 mmol g -1 (based on the overall quantity of the sample) or 6.15 mmol g -1 (based on the quantity of grafted PEI). Moreover, the developed HPPAN-PEI NFMs display significantly selective capture for CO 2 over N 2 and excellent recyclability. The CO 2 capacity retains 92% of the initial value after 20 adsorption-desorption cycle tests, indicating that the resultant HPPAN-PEI NFMs have good long-term stability. This work paves the way for fabricating NFM-based solid adsorption materials endowed with a porous structure applied to efficient postcombustion CO 2 capture.

  10. Changes in pectin methyl esterase activity with different packaging materials and stages of fruit harvesting during cold storage of pear cv. Punjab beauty


    Kaur, Kirandeep; Dhillon, W. S.; Mahajan, B. V. C.


    Pear cv. Punjab Beauty has become quite popular in Punjab. Excessive softening during cold storage leading to low shelf life is the major factor limiting its wider adoption. Studies were, therefore, conducted to determine the firmness and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity at 4 harvest dates (2nd, 3rd and 4th week of July, and 1st week of August). Various packaging materials i.e. corrugated fiber board boxes and crates with high and low density polyethylene liners, corrugated fiber board b...

  11. Morphology and stucture of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill..common pear (Pyrus cofnmunis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb Lindl. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Pelc


    Full Text Available The outer and inner structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill., common pear (Pyrus communis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb. Lindl. seeds was investigated. It was found that the outer structure exhibits good diagnostic features expressed in the first place in the relief of the seed coat and further in the arrangement and appearance of the site of attachment of the free end of the funiculus and the shape of the seeds. In ripe seeds there is, under the thick seed coat, an endosperm layer completely surrounding the embryo which has large cotyledons and a thick rootlet.

  12. Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Guenter; Schick, Fritz


    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2 * relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486 - 1874 ms, T2: 163 - 281 ms, T2 * : 2,3 - 3,2 ms; pears: T1: 1631 - 1969 ms, T2: 119 - 133 ms, T2 * : 10,1 - 10,6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055 - 2632 ms, T2: 497 - 998 ms, T2 * : 151 - 182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561 - 1669 ms, T2: 93 - 119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011 - 1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2 * : 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2 * values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes. (orig.)

  13. Cultural Historical Activity Theory, Expansive Learning and Agency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper reports on how Cultural Historical Activity Theory was used to identify and analyse ..... marketing and transport and the contradiction here is between the (surplus) production – ... We thought you could start by educating the.

  14. Rethinking historical trauma. (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua


    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  15. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec


    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  16. Apples and pears? A comparison of two sources of national lung cancer audit data in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Khakwani


    Full Text Available In 2014, the method of data collection from NHS trusts in England for the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA was changed from a bespoke dataset called LUCADA (Lung Cancer Data. Under the new contract, data are submitted via the Cancer Outcome and Service Dataset (COSD system and linked additional cancer registry datasets. In 2014, trusts were given opportunity to submit LUCADA data as well as registry data. 132 NHS trusts submitted LUCADA data, and all 151 trusts submitted COSD data. This transitional year therefore provided the opportunity to compare both datasets for data completeness and reliability. We linked the two datasets at the patient level to assess the completeness of key patient and treatment variables. We also assessed the interdata agreement of these variables using Cohen's kappa statistic, κ. We identified 26 001 patients in both datasets. Overall, the recording of sex, age, performance status and stage had more than 90% agreement between datasets, but there were more patients with missing performance status in the registry dataset. Although levels of agreement for surgery, chemotherapy and external-beam radiotherapy were high between datasets, the new COSD system identified more instances of active treatment. There seems to be a high agreement of data between the datasets, and the findings suggest that the registry dataset coupled with COSD provides a richer dataset than LUCADA. However, it lagged behind LUCADA in performance status recording, which needs to improve over time.

  17. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson


    Full Text Available El enfoque aquí desarrollado presupone una nueva visión del mundo civilizado (Weltanschauungen. La idea del historiador de los hechos históricos presupone una visión global del mundo, a excepción de las sociedades que carecen de un lenguaje escrito. Por eso, la razón histórica discutida aquí se limita al tipo de historia que trata de civilizaciones más elevadas. El análisis de visiones del mundo aquí utilizado presupone que los símbolos son muy importantes y que pierden su poder simbólico si se cristalizan en un único sentido. Como en la teoría de Jung, un símbolo tiene la capacidad de estar activo en la mente como un transformador de la conciencia, libre de asociarse con nuevas experiencias y pensamientos. Esta teoría presta especial atención al problema de Dilthey: es decir, el problema de la calidad racional de los hechos históricos. Las visiones del mundo, que dan un significado profundo a muchos hechos históricos, se componen de símbolos y metáforas, incluyendo ideas, imágenes, valores y emociones. Estos tipos de visiones son casi todos instintivos. Es cierto que los historiadores pueden haber formulado, consciente definiciones de estos tipos de visiones del mundo así como ocurrió por las civilizaciones griega y china. Dado que la actual Weltbilt es mucho más compleja e inconsciente, se necesita algo más que una definición lógica para entenderla. Este artículo indica la forma en que puede ser alcanzada una comprensión racional de estas visiones del mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The approach here entertained presupposes a fresh theory of world pictures (Weltanschauungen of higher civilizations. For the historian's idea of historical facts presupposes a world picture, except for societies which lack a written language. That is why the historical reason discussed here is limited to the kind of history which deals with higher civilizations. The analysis of world pictures used here itself presupposes that symbols are

  18. Basavarajeeyam: A historical perspective. (United States)

    Nishteswar, K


    Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12(th) cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15(th) century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of 'Ekanni'. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18(th)century.

  19. Influence of UV-B radiation on developmental changes, ethylene, CO2 flux and polyamines in cv. Doyenne d'Hiver pear shoots grown in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predieri, S.; Krizek, D.T.; Wang, C.Y.; Mirecki, R.M.; Zimmerman, R.H.


    In vitro shoots of cv. Doyenne d'Hiver pear (Pyrus communis L.) were irradiated under controlled environments for 6 h per day at 5 different levels of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B BE ). UV-B exposure caused a progressive increase in apical necrosis above background levels and stimulated leaf abscission. Shoots grown for 2 weeks at 7. 8 mol m −2 day −1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) and treated with 8. 4 or 12. 0 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE produced up to 4 times more ethylene than those given 2. 2 or 5. 1 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE or untreated controls. Exposure of shoots to 12 kJ m −2 day −1 of UV-BBE caused an increase in free putreseine content after 4 to 14 days of irradiation. Shoots showed a decrease in CO2 uptake after 3 days of UV-B: thereafter, they appeared to recover their photosynthetic capacity. Under typical PPF conditions used in micropropagation (90 μmol m −2 s −1 ). 8. 4 kJ m −2 day −1 of UV-B radiation was injurious to realatively tender tissues of in vitro pear shoots: increasing the level of UV-B BE to 12 kJ m −2 day −1 produced even more adverse effects. (author)

  20. Optimization of Ultrasound Extraction of Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus indica Seed Oil Based on Antioxidant Activity and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Ortega-Ortega


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the optimal ultrasound conditions (amplitude level and time for the extraction of cactus pear seed oil with the highest antioxidant activity using a closed system. Seed oil was analyzed for yield, antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH, and antimicrobial activity. Conventional extraction methods were assessed for comparison. Amplitude level significantly affected antioxidant activity in linear terms (p < 0.0001 DPPH and p < 0.001 ABTS, resp. so, at lower amplitudes, the higher antioxidant activity was achieved. The optimum ultrasound extraction conditions were of 78% amplitude for 10 min and yielded antioxidant activity values of 66.25 mg AAE/100 g and 289 µmol TE/100 g for ABTS and DPPH, respectively. Compared with conventional extraction methods, ultrasound exhibited lower oil yield and antioxidant activity but had the potential to achieve comparable results if multiple ultrasound extractions are performed in the time needed by conventional methods. Seed oils showed similar antimicrobial activity despite the extraction method and were more effective against Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that ultrasound can be an alternative extraction method of seed oils from fruits such as cactus pear.

  1. Expanding the Notion of Historical Text through Historic Building Analysis (United States)

    Baron, Christine; Dobbs, Christina


    Among the disciplinary skills necessary for understanding in the social studies classroom is the ability to determine context and build meaning from past events. Historical buildings are an important component of historical study, and they serve as a type of nontraditional text that students can decode and use to construct meaning about multiple…

  2. Historical consciousness - Contemporary history and the problem of historical perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hollander, JC


    Historical consciousness is an elusive concept, as long as we try to understand it from the narrow perspective of professional historians. Therefore, a wider perspective is needed. If we accept that historical understanding has become a general trait of modern culture, we may try to explain it in

  3. Historicity and theology, and the quest for historical Jesus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Geyser


    Full Text Available The issue of history and historicity is reviewed in this article. The efforts of New Historicism is brought to bear on this question in an effort to find a way out of the impasse created by the modernist demand for objectivity and the postmodern resignation to radical relativism. The possibility of historiography is explored in conjunction with the pragmatic approach and leads to the conclusion that a kind of historical knowledge is attainable which can be described as useful even if not perfect. The author concurs with Crossan and his working definition of history as the past reconstructed interactively by the present through argued evidence in public discourse. The intersubjective nature of any historical enterprise leads the author to the conclusion that the search for the historical Jesus can only be done in the dialectical approach of a both ... and: both the historical Jesus and the kerygmatic Christ

  4. Potential for Using Acetic Acid Plus Pear Ester Combination Lures to Monitor Codling Moth in an SIT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J. R. Judd


    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE, with either acetic acid (AA or sex pheromone, (E,E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone, might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L., in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT and mating disruption (MD. Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination. Sterile and wild codling moths responded similarly to these kairomone lures. For each moth sex and type (sterile and wild, AA-PE lures were significantly more attractive than AA or PE alone. Bisexual catches with AA-PE lures were compared with those of commercial bisexual lures containing 3 mg of codlemone plus 3 mg of PE (Pherocon CM-DA Combo lure, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, USA, and to catches of males with standard codlemone-loaded septa used in SIT (1 mg and MD (10 mg programmes, respectively. CM-DA lures caught the greatest number of sterile and wild male moths in orchards managed with SIT alone, or combined with MD, whereas AA-PE lures caught 2–3× more females than CM-DA lures under both management systems. Sterile to wild (S:W ratios for male versus female moths in catches with AA-PE lures were equivalent, whereas in the same orchards, male S:W ratios were significantly greater than female S:W ratios when measured with CM-DA lures. Male S:W ratios measured with CM-DA lures were similar to those with codlemone lures. CM-DA and codlemone lures appear to overestimate S:W ratios as measured by AA-PE lures, probably by attracting relatively more sterile males from long range. Using AA-PE lures to monitor codling moths in an SIT programme removes fewer functional sterile males and reduces the need for trap maintenance compared with using


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov


    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo


    This chapter outlines a methodology for the interpretation of historical sources, helping to realize their full potential for the study of organization, while overcoming their challenges in terms of distortions created by time, changes in context, and selective production or preservation. Drawing....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  7. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero


    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat

  8. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashkpour, Ashkan; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Mandemakers, Kees


    Historical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  9. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ashkpour (Ashkan); A. Meronõ-Peñuela (Albert); C.A. Mandemakers (Kees)


    textabstractHistorical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  10. The Return of Historical Fiction (United States)

    Rycik, Mary Taylor; Rosler, Brenda


    Recently, historical fiction has begun to dominate major children's book awards. This article describes the values of using high-quality historical fiction in the classroom and presents different ways to respond to this genre including using modern technology. Two tables, one of picture books and one of novels, with paired nonfiction texts, are…

  11. Historical WBAN ID Assignments (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 4"x6" index cards represent the first written assignments of Weather Bureau Army Navy (WBAN) station identifier numbers by the National Climatic Data Center....

  12. Dermatotoxicology: Historical perspective and advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Mai A.; Maibach, Howard I.


    The fundamental principles underlying the study of dermatotoxicology were developed by Arnold Lehman and John Draize over a half century ago and remain applicable today. This discipline has proven indispensable for addressing the problems associated with skin exposure to chemicals. The 55th anniversary of Lehman's landmark publication on safety factors presents the opportunity to reflect upon the historical beginnings of dermatotoxicology and the role of regulatory policies on the development of this field over the years. The complexity and sheer volume of information that has been collected makes it difficult to comprehensively cover all aspects of this vast discipline. This overview will touch upon the general concepts of ADME, the various forms of contact dermatitis, and transdermal drug delivery systems. The traditional tests performed in animals and humans to identify allergic or irritant potential of chemicals, in addition to alternative methods such as QSAR modeling will be discussed. The subspecialties of infant and occupational dermatotoxicology, as well as dermatotoxicology of aged and ethnic skin, and skin of the vulva and vagina will also be noted.

  13. Historical emissions critical for mapping decarbonization pathways (United States)

    Majkut, J.; Kopp, R. E.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Oppenheimer, M.


    Policymakers have set a goal of limiting temperature increase from human influence on the climate. This motivates the identification of decarbonization pathways to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2. In this context, the future behavior of CO2 sources and sinks define the CO2 emissions necessary to meet warming thresholds with specified probabilities. We adopt a simple model of the atmosphere-land-ocean carbon balance to reflect uncertainty in how natural CO2 sinks will respond to increasing atmospheric CO2 and temperature. Bayesian inversion is used to estimate the probability distributions of selected parameters of the carbon model. Prior probability distributions are chosen to reflect the behavior of CMIP5 models. We then update these prior distributions by running historical simulations of the global carbon cycle and inverting with observationally-based inventories and fluxes of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean and atmosphere. The result is a best-estimate of historical CO2 sources and sinks and a model of how CO2 sources and sinks will vary in the future under various emissions scenarios, with uncertainty. By linking the carbon model to a simple climate model, we calculate emissions pathways and carbon budgets consistent with meeting specific temperature thresholds and identify key factors that contribute to remaining uncertainty. In particular, we show how the assumed history of CO2 emissions from land use change (LUC) critically impacts estimates of the strength of the land CO2 sink via CO2 fertilization. Different estimates of historical LUC emissions taken from the literature lead to significantly different parameterizations of the carbon system. High historical CO2 emissions from LUC lead to a more robust CO2 fertilization effect, significantly lower future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and an increased amount of CO2 that can be emitted to satisfy temperature stabilization targets. Thus, in our model, historical LUC emissions have a

  14. Preserving the acoustical heritage of historical buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger


    with the present state building. Next step is to identify what historic conditions that should be reconstructions, especially architectural details, surface materials, obstacles, textiles, performing persons and audience, and typical sounds or music. The computer model is then modified according to these data......The use of virtual reality and auralization techniques has opened new possibilities for the study of acoustical conditions in historic buildings. With reference to some recent and current projects the paper describes the steps in the process and how new technology may be used to overcome some...... of the difficulties involved. If the building exists as a whole or partly the first step is collection of geometrical and architectural data from the site. The level of detail may be huge, e.g. if laser scanning is used for providing the geometrical data, and some degree of simplification may be necessary...

  15. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. = Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Costa Ribeiro Neto


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma Orelhade-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergenteácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto comalimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que aeficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioralobservations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time spent with

  16. 'Dangshansuli' pear leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi


    Dec 19, 2011 ... metabolism of these two organic acids, including citrate synthase (CS), cytoplast aconitase ... malate dehydrogenase (MDH) (Miller et al., 1998), and ... a pH of 6.28, a soil organic matter content of 0.54% (w·w-1), a total.

  17. Comparing apples and pears?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waite, Sue; Bølling, Mads; Bentsen, Peter


    Using a conceptual model focused on purposes, aims, content, pedagogy, outcomes, and barriers, we review and interpret literature on two forms of outdoor learning: Forest Schools in England and udeskole in Denmark. We examine pedagogical principles within a comparative analytical framework and co...... to pedagogical principles are necessary to ensure better alignment of purpose and practice to elicit specific outcomes and enable comparison between different types.......Using a conceptual model focused on purposes, aims, content, pedagogy, outcomes, and barriers, we review and interpret literature on two forms of outdoor learning: Forest Schools in England and udeskole in Denmark. We examine pedagogical principles within a comparative analytical framework...... and consider how adopted pedagogies reflect and refract the culture in which they are embedded. Despite different national educational and cultural contexts, English Forest Schools and Danish udeskole share several commonalities within a naturalistic/progressive pedagogical tradition; differences appear...

  18. The pear thrips problem (United States)

    Bruce L. Parker


    As entomologists, we sometimes like to think of an insect pest problem as simply a problem with an insect and its host. Our jobs would be much easier if that were the case, but of course, it is never that simple. There are many other factors besides the insect, and each one must be fully considered to understand the problem and develop effective management solutions....

  19. Systematic musicology meets historical musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.

    findings for Austro-German (linear increase, Adj. R2 = .489, F(1, 19) = 20.138, p analysis, we provide quantitative support for music-historical accounts of an Italian-dominated Baroque (composer birth years 1600...

  20. Historical and Documentary Data Sets (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and environment from historical references and documentary evidence such as church records, harvest dates, and diaries. Parameter keywords...

  1. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair


    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  2. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  3. Influence of post-harvest treatments with fludioxonil and soy lecithin co-application in controlling blue and grey mould and fludioxonil residues in Coscia pears. (United States)

    Schirra, M; D'Aquino, S; Migheli, Q; Pirisi, F M; Angioni, A


    The residue levels of fludioxonil (FLU) were determined in Coscia pear following a 1-, 2- or 4-min dip in an aqueous mixture of FLU containing 300 or 100 mg l(-1) (active ingredient, a.i.) at 20 and 50 degrees C, respectively, with or without 2% soy lecithin. The efficacy of heat treatment with water and FLU mixtures was investigated on artificially inoculated pears for the control of post-harvest decay caused by blue (Penicillium expansum Link) and grey (Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr.) mould. Treatment with 300 mg l(-1) FLU at 20 degrees C increased residues significantly when treatment time rose from 1 to 2 min; no further increase was recorded when dip time raised from 2 to 4 min. FLU residue rates were unaffected by treatment time when 300 mg l(-1) a.i. was applied in combination with lecithin at 20 degrees C. While treatment with 100 mg l(-1) a.i. at 50 degrees C for 1 and 2 min resulted in similar residue levels, significantly higher residues were detected when dip time increased from 1 to 4 min. Co-application of lecithin significantly decreased FLU residues with respect to fruit treated with FLU alone. Treatments with FLU at 20 or 50 degrees C effectively controlled decay over 10 days of incubation. While co-application of lecithin did not affect the efficacy of FLU at 300 mg l(-1)and 20 degrees C, treatment efficacy decreased when lecithin was applied in combination with 100 mg l(-1) FLU and 50 degrees C for 4 min and to a greater extent when dip time was 1-2 min.

  4. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl


    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism – particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann – stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  5. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl


    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism - particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann - stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  6. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years

  7. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana. (United States)

    Soelberg, J; Asase, A; Akwetey, G; Jäger, A K


    Three extraordinary, historical documents stemming from observations made in 1697, 1803 and 1817 quote medicinal plant uses among the Fante, Ga and Ashanti people of present-day Ghana, and can be linked to original botanical specimens in European herbaria. This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses the scale of change and loss of medicinal plant knowledge in Ghana over time. The study provides the foundation to reconstruct lost or discontinued Ghanaian plant uses in local or ethnopharmacological contexts. Historical botanical specimens were located in the herbaria of University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica were (re-)collected to aid in semi-structured interviews. The interviews aimed to document the contemporary uses and names of the plants among the Ga, and to determine to what extent the historical medicinal uses and names are extant. The study identified 100 species in historical medicinal use in Ghana, which could be linked to 134 unique uses and 105 vernacular names in Twi (Ashanti/Fante) and Ga. Most of the plants are common in Ghana. At least 52% of the historical vernacular names appear to still be in use today. Of the specific historical uses, 41 (31%) were traced among contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana and represent some of the most important Ghanaian medicinal plant species. However, 93 (69%) of the historical uses could not be traced and appears to be discontinued or forgotten. Among the Ga, two medicinal

  8. Arctic development and historical analysis: the use of historical methodology in addressing current issues in the Arctic. (United States)

    Douglas, Vasiliki Kravariotis


    To demonstrate the applicability of historical methodology to current issues in the Canadian Arctic. This is a literature-based analytical historical study, which draws on material from database searches of MEDLINE, Anthropology Plus, POLARInfo, the Arctic Blue Books and Historical Abstracts. Material was also obtained from physical searches of the University of Alberta Libraries and Library and Archives Canada collections, as well as from field research in the records of the Inuulitsivik Maternities. The historical technique of tracing epistemological change over time, pioneered by Michel Foucault and further developed by Ian Hacking, was applied to the history of Canadian authority in the Arctic. This was linked with epistemological changes occurring throughout Western/Southern culture in this period. The applicability of this historical analysis for current issues in the region was then evaluated. An epistemological shift in Western society has moved authority from traditional human actors in government, medicine and, increasingly, science to statistics, which is seen as both impartial and accurate. Human authorities now routinely appeal to statistical authority to validate policy decisions. This change is as apparent in the Arctic as elsewhere, but it has also opened a space for Inuit practices, rooted in traditional Inuit epistemology, to reassert themselves, provided they can satisfy demands for statistical validity. Historical analysis provides a means to identify the spaces which epistemological change and historical contingency have opened in which social and cultural change can occur.

  9. Historical earthquake research in Austria (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa


    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  10. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property to... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way...

  11. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos


    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  12. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.


    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer trademark, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made

  13. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.


    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  14. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul


    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  15. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk Ryan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. Results From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs and societal importance (e.g., world wars. The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Conclusion Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  16. Methodology and assumptions for evaluating heating and cooling energy requirements in new single-family residential buildings: Technical support document for the PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) microcomputer program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Wilson, D.; Hsui, C.; Foley, D.


    This report provides technical documentation for a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) developed by LBL. PEAR offers an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy savings associated with various energy conservation measures used in site-built, single-family homes. This program was designed for use by non-technical groups such as home builders, home buyers or others in the buildings industry, and developed as an integral part of a set of voluntary guidelines entitled Affordable Housing Through Energy Conservation: A Guide to Designing and Constructing Energy Efficient Homes. These guidelines provide a method for selecting and evaluating cost-effective energy conservation measures based on the energy savings estimated by PEAR. This work is part of a Department of Energy program aimed at conducting research that will improve the energy efficiency of the nation's stock of conventionally-built and manufactured homes, and presenting the results to the public in a simplified format.

  17. Use of cartography in historical seismicity analysis: a reliable tool to better apprehend the contextualization of the historical documents (United States)

    Thibault, Fradet; Grégory, Quenet; Kevin, Manchuel


    Historical studies, including historical seismicity analysis, deal with historical documents. Numerous factors, such as culture, social condition, demography, political situations and opinions or religious ones influence the way the events are transcribed in the archives. As a consequence, it is crucial to contextualize and compare the historical documents reporting on a given event in order to reduce the uncertainties affecting their analysis and interpretation. When studying historical seismic events it is often tricky to have a global view of all the information provided by the historical documents. It is also difficult to extract cross-correlated information from the documents and draw a precise historical context. Use of cartographic and geographic tools in GIS software is the best tool for the synthesis, interpretation and contextualization of the historical material. The main goal is to produce the most complete dataset of available information, in order to take into account all the components of the historical context and consequently improve the macroseismic analysis. The Entre-Deux-Mers earthquake (1759, Iepc= VII-VIII) [SISFRANCE 2013 - EDF-IRSN-BRGM] is well documented but has never benefited from a cross-analysis of historical documents and historical context elements. The map of available intensity data from SISFRANCE highlights a gap in macroseismic information within the estimated epicentral area. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of this gap by making a cartographic compilation of both, archive information and historical context elements. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of documents and macroseismic data in the epicentral area is related to a low human activity rather than low seismic effects in this zone. Topographic features, geographical position, flood hazard, roads and pathways locations, vineyards distribution and the forester coverage, mentioned in the archives and reported on the Cassini's map confirm this

  18. Fenologia da figueira-da-índia em Selvíria - MS Phenology of cactus pear in Selvíria - MS State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini


    Full Text Available A figueira-da-índia é uma cactácea de origem mexicana, com grande potencial produtivo para as condições edafoclimáticas do Brasil, porém a falta de conhecimento faz com que a cultura seja pouco cultivada. Com o objetivo de avaliar a fenologia da figueira-da-índia, o presente trabalho foi realizado em plantas com 4 anos de idade, no espaçamento de 1,0 x 2,5 m, na área experimental da Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão da Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira - UNESP, localizada no município de Selvíria - MS, de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições, com uma planta por parcela experimental, ocasião em que foram avaliados a fenologia e o crescimento dos frutos. O período de emissão das gemas concentrou-se nos meses de setembro e outubro. O florescimento, ocorreu 30 dias após a emissão da gema florífera. Os frutos atingiram a maturidade fisiológica (ponto de colheita aos 66 dias após o florescimento e aos 72 dias apresentavam-se maduros, aptos para o consumo. O período de desenvolvimento dos frutos, desde a emissão da gema florífera até a maturidade fisiológica, foi de 96 dias. A curva de crescimento dos frutos foi do tipo quadrática. A cultura da figueira-da-índia pode tornar-se uma alternativa principalmente para pequenos produtores, visto que não exige grandes investimentos para sua implantação e condução, além de se adaptar bem às condições ambientais de nosso País. Seus frutos possuem excelentes preços tanto no mercado nacional como no internacional, e o aproveitamento na forma de doces e geleias pode incrementar a renda dos produtores.The cactus pear is a cactaceous with Mexican origin and great productive potential for the edaphoclimatic conditions in Brazil, but for lack of knowledge, the culture is still little cultivated. With the objective to evaluate the phenology of cactus pear, the present research was


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach. The Alexandrians tried to solve the problem of the interpretation .... classified the psalms in four groups, namely historical, prophetical and ethical, as well as .... This is the case, he says ..... H.W. Havelaar & L. Teugels (eds.), The use ...

  20. Modern Time as Historical Artifact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin


    Explores different aspects of how Americans have understood and used time since the late eighteenth century through the historical transition that has led to the present 24/7 world, where time-keeping is built into a myriad of devices that record and to some degree direct our actions....

  1. The Structure of Historical Inquiry (United States)

    Retz, Tyson


    History educators find themselves in the peculiar situation of wishing to introduce students to the history discipline while lacking a clear conception of the features intrinsic to historical inquiry across its various specialisations and subject matters. In affirming that no one methodological charter hangs in the corridors of academic history…

  2. Maintenance Planning for Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian


    Full Text Available The key to good maintenance of historic buildings is a long-range maintenance plan. Long-range planning recognizes a responsibility to the future to prolong the useful life of a building by preserving it in its present condition and preventing or slowing deterioration and damage from natural or other causes.

  3. Non-Destructive Evaluation of the Leaf Nitrogen Concentration by In-Field Visible/Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Pear Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang


    Full Text Available Non-destructive and timely determination of leaf nitrogen (N concentration is urgently needed for N management in pear orchards. A two-year field experiment was conducted in a commercial pear orchard with five N application rates: 0 (N0, 165 (N1, 330 (N2, 660 (N3, and 990 (N4 kg·N·ha−1. The mid-portion leaves on the year’s shoot were selected for the spectral measurement first and then N concentration determination in the laboratory at 50 and 80 days after full bloom (DAB. Three methods of in-field spectral measurement (25° bare fibre under solar conditions, black background attached to plant probe, and white background attached to plant probe were compared. We also investigated the modelling performances of four chemometric techniques (principal components regression, PCR; partial least squares regression, PLSR; stepwise multiple linear regression, SMLR; and back propagation neural network, BPNN and three vegetation indices (difference spectral index, normalized difference spectral index, and ratio spectral index. Due to the low correlation of reflectance obtained by the 25° field of view method, all of the modelling was performed on two spectral datasets—both acquired by a plant probe. Results showed that the best modelling and prediction accuracy were found in the model established by PLSR and spectra measured with a black background. The randomly-separated subsets of calibration (n = 1000 and validation (n = 420 of this model resulted in high R2 values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively, as well as a low mean relative error (<6%. Furthermore, a higher coefficient of determination between the leaf N concentration and fruit yield was found at 50 DAB samplings in both 2015 (R2 = 0.77 and 2014 (R2 = 0.59. Thus, the leaf N concentration was suggested to be determined at 50 DAB by visible/near-infrared spectroscopy and the threshold should be 24–27 g/kg.

  4. Combination of Garcinia cambogia Extract and Pear Pomace Extract Additively Suppresses Adipogenesis and Enhances Lipolysis in 3T3-L1 Cells. (United States)

    Sharma, Kushal; Kang, Siwon; Gong, Dalseong; Oh, Sung-Hwa; Park, Eun-Young; Oak, Min-Ho; Yi, Eunyoung


    Inhibition of adipogenesis has been a therapeutic target for reducing obesity and obesity-related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. For decades, anti-adipogenic potential of many herbal extracts has been investigated. One example is Garcinia cambogia extract (GE) containing (-)-hydroxycitric acid as an active ingredient. GE is currently marketed as a weight loss supplement, used alone or with other ingredients. Pear pomace extract (PE), another natural product, has been also shown to have anti-adipogenic activity in a recent report. It was tested if the mixture of PE and GE (MIX) would produce more effective anti-adipogenic activity than PE or GE alone. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte was induced by adding insulin, dexamethasone, and isobutylmethylxanthine and lipid accumulation was measured by Oil Red O staining. Cellular markers for adipogenesis and lipolysis such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was measured using immunocytochemistry. MIX, compared to PE or GE alone, showed greater inhibition of lipid accumulation. Furthermore, MIX reduced the expression of adipogenesis-related factors C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and FAS more than PE or GE alone did. In contrast, the expression of HSL the enzyme required for lipolysis was further enhanced in MIX-treated adipocytes compared to the PE or GE alone treated groups. Anti-adipogenic effect of PE and GE appears synergistic, and the MIX may be a useful therapeutic combination for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PE and GE efficiently inhibited adipocyte differentiation by suppressing the expression of adipogenic transcription factor CEBP-α and PPAR-γ.PE and GE significantly decreased the expression of adipogenic enzyme FAS.PE and GE increased the expression of lipid degrading enzyme HSL.Mixture of PE and GE exhibited additive or

  5. Effects of dormancy progression and low-temperature response on changes in the sorbitol concentration in xylem sap of Japanese pear during winter season. (United States)

    Ito, Akiko; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Moriguchi, Takaya


    In order to elucidate which physiological event(s) are involved in the seasonal changes of carbohydrate dynamics during winter, we examined the effects of different low temperatures on the carbohydrate concentrations of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai). For four winter seasons, large increases in the sorbitol concentration of shoot xylem sap occurred during mid- to late December, possibly due to the endodormancy completion and low-temperature responses. When trees were kept at 15 °C from 3 November to 3 December in order to postpone the initiation and completion of chilling accumulation that would break endodormancy, sorbitol accumulation in xylem sap was always higher from trees with sufficient chilling accumulation than from trees that received insufficient chilling. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred around late December in trees regardless of whether their chilling accumulation naturally progressed or was postponed. To examine different temperature effects more closely, we compared the carbohydrate concentrations of trees subjected to either 6 or 0 °C treatment. The sorbitol concentration in xylem sap tremendously increased at 0 °C treatment compared with 6 °C treatment. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred at both the temperatures when sufficient chilling accumulated with a peak coinciding with the peak expression in shoots of the sorbitol transporter gene (PpSOT2). Interestingly, the total carbohydrate concentration of shoots tremendously increased with exposure to 0 °C compared with exposure to 6 °C, but was not affected by the amount of accumulated chilling. Instead, as chilling accumulated the ratio of sorbitol to total soluble sugars in shoots increased. We presumed that carbohydrates in the shoot tissues may be converted to sorbitol and loaded into the xylem sap so that the sorbitol accumulation patterns were synchronized with the progression of dormancy, whereas the total

  6. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on pear and apple flowers are not limiting factors for Erwinia amylovora growth when these chemicals are considered in relation to cultivar and flower age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of pear (Pyrus communis and apple (Malus × domestica in many areas of the world. The disease is often initiated by epiphytic populations that multiply on flowers and colonize the hypanthia. In vitro, E. amylovora requires nicotinic acid (NicAc and/or nicotinamide (NicNH2 as essential growth factors. The amount of NicAc on pear hypanthia was positively correlated with the altitude of the growing site and was inversely correlated with the sum of the maximum temperatures in the 30 days before flowering. The sum of the amounts of NicAc and NicNH2 on the hypanthia was about 6 to 23 times higher in pear, and about 1.2 to 3.5 times higher in apple, than the amounts of NicAc or NicNH2 necessary to support maximum E. amylovora growth  in vitro. No correlation was found between the amounts of NicAc and NicNH2 on the hypanthia of different pear and apple cultivars and at different growth stages and the growth of E. amylovora after experimental inoculation. In conclusion, NicAc and NicNH2 are essential for E. amylovora growth but the amounts of these chemicals on pear and apple flowers do not limit the establishment of the pathogen when competing bacteria

  7. Memory and historical Jesus studies: Formgeschichte in a new dress?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 18, 2015 ... 'authentic' (earlier) units of tradition in the Synoptic. Gospels. Firstly, more on the criteria approach's ... comprise the Synoptic Gospels, Formgeschichte developed a methodology to identify the oral (earlier) ...... historical Jesus).21 As such, the picture of the disciples in Mark most probably mirrors the lack of ...

  8. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.


    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  9. Biological control of fire blight in pear orchards with a formulation of Pantoea agglomerans strain Eh 24 Controle biológico de fire blight em pereiras empregando uma formulação de Pantoea agglomerans Eh 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Özaktan


    Full Text Available Biological control by using epiphytic bacteria against Erwinia amylovora has been considered as an alternative method for controlling the disease. Talc-based formulation of Pantoea agglomerans strain Eh-24 was applied at 30% and 100% bloom on two pear orchards which were selected from different locations in the Aegean Region in Turkey. Pear orchard trials were replicated for two years (1999 and 2000 in each place. Talc-based formulation of P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 was sprayed on pear trees which were naturally infected with E. amylovora. In the orchard trials conducted in 1999 and 2000, talc-based formulation of P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 reduced the percentage of blighted blossoms on pear orchards by 63% to 76%, approximately. Copper oxychloride+maneb was less effective in reducing the incidence of blossom infection by E. amylovora in each pear orchard than the bioformulation treatment. P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 labelled with StrR+ was applied at 30% and 100% bloom to monitor the colonization and population dynamics of P. agglomerans on pear blossoms. The population size of P. agglomerans strain Eh-24 strR+ on pear blossoms increased from 2x10(4 to 1.3x10(6 cfu per blossom over 18 days.Controle biológico de Erwinia amylovora através do uso de bactérias epifíticas tem sido considerado um método alternativo para o controle de "fire blight". Uma formulação de Pantoea agglomerans Eh 24 em talco foi utilizada em pereiras a 30% e a 100% de floração, em duas plantações selecionadas na região Aegean da Turquia. Os experimentos foram repetidos duas vezes (1999 e 2000 em cada plantação. A formulação de P. agglomerans foi aspergida nas pereiras naturalmente infectadas com E. amylovora. Nos experimentos de 1999 e 2000, a redução da porcentagem de ocorrência de "fire blight" foi reduzida aproximadamente em 63% e em 76%, respectivamente. Oxicloreto de cobre + maneb foi menos eficiente na redução da infecção por E. amylovora do

  10. 75 FR 6406 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    ... County Asbury Grove Historic District, Around Asbury St., Hamilton, 09000935, Listed, 11/18/09 Middlesex County Middlesex Canal Historic and Archaeological District, Address Restricted, Boston vicinity...

  11. 75 FR 1075 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    ...: January 4, 2010. J. Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks... VIRGINIA Logan County Blair Mountain Battlefield, Address Restricted, Logan vicinity, 08000496, REMOVED...

  12. The Historical Evolution of Dental Impression Materials. (United States)

    Papadiochos, Ioannis; Papadiochou, Sofia; Emmanouil, Ioannis

    The concept of impression making process in dentistry began in the mid 1800s. Dentists realized that the construction of a prosthetic restoration required both a detailed capture of the oral tissues along with stone cast fabrications. To accomplish these goals, impression materials were essential. Beeswax represents the first impression material, while important bechmarks during the historical evolution of dental impression materials are considered to be the introduction of dental trays in the early 1800s and the invention of the gutta-percha, thermoplastic resins and plaster of Paris. The double (corrective) impression technique, along with the functional impression concept that was established after mid 1800s, are also identified as pivotal innovations. During the 20th century, the advances in material development slowed significantly since the majority of the current impression materials had already been invented. However, the introduction of elastomeric impression materials in the field of prosthodontics that offered the advantages of accuracy and dimensional stability substantially upgraded both the impression accuracy and the quality of the final restoration. Presently, the dental practitioner has access to a variety of impression materials and should be aware of their properties, indications and limitations as well. Futhermore, while continuous attempts are being made to enhance these materials, the ideal impression material has yet to be developed. The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive review about the historical development of impression dental materials. Copyright American Academy of the History of Dentistry.

  13. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario


    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  14. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario


    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  15. Evaluation of protective effect of cactus pear seed oil (Opuntia ficus-indica L. MILL.) against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice. (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abderrahim, Ziyyat; Hassane, Mekhfi; Abdelkhaleq, Legssyer; Mohammed, Aziz; Mohamed, Bnouham


    To evaluate the in vitro antioxidant power of cactus pear seed oil [Opuntia ficus-indica L. MILL. (CPSO)] and its protective effect against chemically induced diabetes mellitus in mice. The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPSO was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. The preventive effect was conducted on Swiss albino mice treated with CPSO (2 mL/kg, per os), before and after a single intraperitoneal alloxan administration (100 mg/kg). Survival rate, body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured and histopathological analysis of pancreas was performed to evaluate alloxan-induced tissue injuries. CPSO exhibited an antioxidant effect in DPPH scavenging assay. Moreover, the administration of CPSO (2 mL/kg) significantly attenuated alloxan-induced death and hyperglycemia (P < 0.001) in treated mice. Morphometric study of pancreas revealed that CPSO significantly protected islets of langerhans against alloxan induced-tissue alterations. Based on theses results, CPSO can prevente alloxan-induced-diabetes by quenching free radicals produced by alloxan and inhibiting tissue injuries in pancreatic β-cells. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima


    Full Text Available Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  17. Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group (United States)


    This special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten contains the proceedings of a session of the Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group of the International Astronomical Union that took place during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU in Prague on 17th August 2006. In addition to the talks presented in Prague some contributions were solicited to give a more complete overview of `The Early History of European Radio Astronomy'.

  18. Historical overview of immunological tolerance. (United States)

    Schwartz, Ronald H


    A fundamental property of the immune system is its ability to mediate self-defense with a minimal amount of collateral damage to the host. The system uses several different mechanisms to achieve this goal, which is collectively referred to as the "process of immunological tolerance." This article provides an introductory historical overview to these various mechanisms, which are discussed in greater detail throughout this collection, and then briefly describes what happens when this process fails, a state referred to as "autoimmunity."

  19. Understanding the 'historical' electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    At the time of the debates about the French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law, it is interesting to analyse the principles which have led to elaborate the 'historical' electricity tariffs in France, in order to better understand the stakes around their recasting. Today, there exists 2 categories of tariffs: the regulated selling prices and the market offers. The regulated selling prices are different depending on the client (individuals, small professionals, companies)

  20. Historical spaces of social psychology


    Kalampalikis , Nikos; Delouvée , Sylvain; Pétard , Jean-Pierre


    International audience; An extensive analysis of all social psychology textbooks published, in french, between 1947 and 2001, including a history chapter, provides a rich corpus for the study of the history of social psychology. In this article we choose to study the historical spaces of social psychology, in order to show how the discipline was located in geographical, urban, institutional and collective spaces. We argue that, into this specific corpus, spaces are essentially related to some...



    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA


    Choosing depreciation of assets; revaluation of tangible or keeping their historical cost; registration, whilst the tangible assets are entered in the conservation of amortization expenses or a corresponding adjustment to depreciation expense ascertained; choosing the method of evaluating stocks is accounting policies. IAS 40 is significant because it was the first time the International Accounting Standards Board has introduced a fair value accounting model for non-financial assets. All firm...

  2. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Keun Song


    Full Text Available Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine.

  3. Mind's historicity: its hidden history. (United States)

    Pizarroso, Noemí


    Whereas psychological research can hardly accept the idea of a changing psychological architecture, mind's historicity seems to be commonplace among historians of psychology, at least in recent decades. Attempts to promote a convergence between psychology and history have always existed, though mainly in the margins of both disciplines. Among these attempts, there is a tradition in French psychology that remains quite marginal even to the history of the discipline and is practically unknown out of the French context. Our goal is to introduce this approach, through the work of its main architect, Ignace Meyerson, to an English speaking reader, in the light of current pleas for historicity. Developed within the core of the discipline of psychology, though in dialogue with many others disciplines, Meyerson's historical psychology appears to be more ambitious than other attempts, as it aims at studying psychological activity itself, beyond the history of its conceptualizations. It is concerned not with the analysis of fragmented, isolated, and mechanistic behaviors or cognitive process, but with the study of mind in its functioning through the multiple and changing fields of experience where human beings are involved.

  4. Historical Analyses of Disordered Handwriting (United States)

    Schiegg, Markus; Thorpe, Deborah


    Handwritten texts carry significant information, extending beyond the meaning of their words. Modern neurology, for example, benefits from the interpretation of the graphic features of writing and drawing for the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases and disorders. This article examines how handwriting analysis can be used, and has been used historically, as a methodological tool for the assessment of medical conditions and how this enhances our understanding of historical contexts of writing. We analyze handwritten material, writing tests and letters, from patients in an early 20th-century psychiatric hospital in southern Germany (Irsee/Kaufbeuren). In this institution, early psychiatrists assessed handwriting features, providing us novel insights into the earliest practices of psychiatric handwriting analysis, which can be connected to Berkenkotter’s research on medical admission records. We finally consider the degree to which historical handwriting bears semiotic potential to explain the psychological state and personality of a writer, and how future research in written communication should approach these sources. PMID:28408774

  5. 76 FR 35013 - Minor Boundary Revision of Boston National Historical Park (United States)


    ... Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notification of Boundary Revision. SUMMARY... Historical Park is modified to include 0.50 acre of adjacent land identified as Tract 101-13. This tract is... United States of America without cost by enactment of Chapter 37 of the Laws of 2009, on July 23, 2009...

  6. Structure and composition of historical longleaf pine ccosystems in Mississippi, USA (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; Keith Coursey; John S. Kush


    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) historically was a widespread ecosystem composed of a simple tree canopy and grasslands ground layer. After widespread loss of this ecosystem due to logging and fire exclusion, little quantitative information exists about historical structure for restoration goals. We identified composition in De Soto National Forest and Pearl River...

  7. International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature collection (formerly known as the Discovery and Access of Historic Literature from the IPYs (DAHLI)...

  8. Historical ecology: past, present and future


    Szabó, Péter


    The term ‘historical ecology’ has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and c...

  9. Chronic pancreatitis. Some important historical aspects. (United States)

    Navarro, Salvador


    Since ancient times the increase of size and hardness sometimes presented by the abdominal structure known as the pancreas has attracted attention. Portal was the first to describe the clinical signs of chronic pancreatitis in 1803. In 1815, Fleischman speculated about the potential role of excessive alcohol consumption. Comfort coined the term "chronic relapsing pancreatitis" in 1946 and described hereditary pancreatitis 6 years later. Zuidema defined tropical pancreatitis in 1959 and 2 years later Sarles described another form of pancreatitis to which Yoshida gave the name autoimmune pancreatitis in 1995. Groove pancreatitis was described by Potet in 1970. Obstructive pancreatitis was defined in 1984 and Ammann identified idiopathic pancreatitis 3 years later. This article gives a historical account of the pioneers who developed the knowledge of how to assess the characteristics that allowed the different forms of chronic pancreatitis to be defined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Latin America; Recent History; Democracy; Historical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo MIRA DELLI-ZOTTI


    Full Text Available This article identifies the restoration of the democracy and its persistence as one of the most remarkable facts of the recent history of Latin America. Nevertheless, in the experience of the subcontinent, democracy does not appear like synonymous of democratization. Starting off with the transitions, this article is led toward a periodic analysis of the so-called democratic crossing of Latin America. At the same time, it studies the unequal incidence that the impact of the «historical memory» has had in the public sphere of countries like Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, El Salvador and Guatemala, contrasting with the case of Brazil.

  11. Teaching English and History through Historical Fiction. (United States)

    Hicks, Alun; Martin, Dave


    Explores the appeal of historical fiction for young readers and describes its place within any school curriculum. Describes a project in Dorset Middle Schools which used historical fiction to teach medieval history and English. Notes that students' historical thinking was improved, their knowledge of medieval world advanced, and their writing was…

  12. Principles Of Researching In The Historical Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatmusaev Tokhir Shaydulovich


    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to researches of historical places also are seen the special phrases used in town planning and architecture component of historical cities historical framework linear system and the significance of centers in the development of cities also researches of dwellings which are the basic component of cities.

  13. Historical Image Registration and Land-Use Land-Cover Change Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ju Jao


    Full Text Available Historical aerial images are important to retain past ground surface information. The land-use land-cover change in the past can be identified using historical aerial images. Automatic historical image registration and stitching is essential because the historical image pose information was usually lost. In this study, the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm was used for feature extraction. Subsequently, the present study used the automatic affine transformation algorithm for historical image registration, based on SIFT features and control points. This study automatically determined image affine parameters and simultaneously transformed from an image coordinate system to a ground coordinate system. After historical aerial image registration, the land-use land-cover change was analyzed between two different years (1947 and 1975 at the Tseng Wen River estuary. Results show that sandbars and water zones were transformed into a large number of fish ponds between 1947 and 1975.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Ю. Соколов


    history - in the dissemination and popularization of historical knowledge, as well as the impact on the formation of the Russian historical science. Identified the causes and factors that contributed to the popularity of historical writing in the first half of the XVIII century. Revealed the importance of translation and historiographical activity Gabriel (Gavriil Buzhinsky - as a translator and author of the preface to the publication of works by W. Stratemanna - to familiarize readers with the achievements of Russian Protestant historical thought and dissemination of information on world history. The basic idea of how historical works W. Stratemanna and G. Buzhinsky preface, as well as their influence on the development of historical thought in Russia during the study period. On the basis of analysis of the sources and historiographical material reveals reasons prohibition and destruction of publications W. Stratemanna in 1749 The article gives a brief description of publishing printing Alexander Nevsky Monastery in St. Petersburg. Analyzed rates of the test edition, its presence in the libraries and book collections of individuals. The author attempts to bibliographic analysis of the copies of the publication W. Stratemanna that are stored in the collections of rare books of the largest libraries of Kiev: characterized printing features of these printed works, the state of frames and prints the contents provenientsy, marginalia and so forth.

  15. Historical Astrolexicography and Old Publications (United States)

    Mahoney, Terry J.

    I describe how the principles of lexicography have been applied in limited ways in astronomy and look at the revision work under way for the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, which, when completed, will contain the widest and most detailed coverage of the astronomical lexicon in the English language. Finally, I argue the need for a dedicated historical dictionary of astronomy based rigorously on a corpus of quotations from sources published in English from the beginnings of written English to the present day.

  16. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.


    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  17. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.


    for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement......A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA


    Full Text Available Choosing depreciation of assets; revaluation of tangible or keeping their historical cost; registration, whilst the tangible assets are entered in the conservation of amortization expenses or a corresponding adjustment to depreciation expense ascertained; choosing the method of evaluating stocks is accounting policies. IAS 40 is significant because it was the first time the International Accounting Standards Board has introduced a fair value accounting model for non-financial assets. All firms must provide fair value for their real estate assets either directly in the balance sheet in accordance with the fair value model choice, either in the footnotes below cost model selection.

  19. A Historical Approach to Assertiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Peneva


    Full Text Available A very important personal quality is to be able to advocate for yourself - your own positions, to achieve your objectives, to overcome difficulties,to be determined, but without harming the rights of others and to be able to control the aggressive impulses. The concept, which expressesthese personal characteristics, is called "assertiveness". Assertiveness is a part of the personal potential. It is a prerequisite for self-actualization.The goal we set in this historical-psychological paper is to explore the genesis, development and stabilization of the term "assertiveness". Inthis context, we will examine, compare and analyze the positions of the leading authors on this issue.

  20. Summary inside IBM's historic turnaround

    CERN Document Server


    This work offers a summary of the book "WHO SAYS ELEPHANTS CAN'T DANCE? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround" by Louis Gerstner.In nine years as the chairman and CEO of International Business Machine Corporation (IBM), Louis Gerstner brought about a dramatic change in the company's fortunes. When he took charge, IBM was on the verge of extinction as the victim of rapid changes in the computer industry. However, instead of breaking up IBM as most analysts were suggesting, Gerstner and his management team turned the company around and restored it to a position of power and influence within the indu

  1. Gondeshapur Revisited; What Historical Evidence? (United States)

    Nayernouri, Touraj


    In recent years, in European academic circles, there has been a trend to dismiss Gondeshapur as a myth perpetrated by the Bokhtishu family in early Islamic era, despite many historiographical attestations. The writings of Islamic historians such as Al-Qifti and Ibn Abi Usaibia have been discounted as exaggerations by non-contemporary historians, and the lack of primary Pahlavi sources blamed for historical hyperbole. In this essay, I have attempted to show through primary Syriac Christian texts, that there was both a medical school and a bimarestan in Gondeshapur in pre-Islamic Sassanid era, and that Galenic medical texts had been translated and taught in that institution.

  2. A record linkage study of outcomes in patients with mild primary hyperparathyroidism: the Parathyroid Epidemiology and Audit Research Study (PEARS). (United States)

    Yu, Ning; Donnan, Peter T; Leese, Graham P


    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder, but the majority of cases are perceived to be mild and remain untreated. To determine the risk of mortality and morbidities in patients with mild PHPT. Tayside, Scotland, 1997-2006. A historical, prospective, record-linkage, population-based, matched cohort study. All patients with diagnosed but untreated, mild PHPT. METHOD AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Each patient with PHPT was matched with five population-based comparators, by age, gender and calendar year of PHPT diagnosis, selected from the general population. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD). Secondary outcomes were cancer-related deaths and other hospital admitted morbidities, including cerebrovascular disease, fractures, hypertension, psychiatric disease, renal complications, cancer and diabetes. The risk was assessed using the Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for confounding factors of pre-existing co-morbidities, previous prescription of bisphosphonates, socio-economic deprivation score and the probability of having a calcium check. Compared to the matched cohort, the risk of all cause mortality, fatal and nonfatal CVD was increased in patients with asymptomatic PHPT: adjusted hazard ratios (HR) 1·64 (95% CI: 1·43-1·87), 1·64 (95% CI: 1·32-2·04) and 2·48 (95% CI: 2·13-2·89), respectively. The risk was also increased in all secondary outcomes, with the risk of renal failure and renal stones being the highest, adjusted HRs being 13·83 (95% CI: 10·41-18·37) and 5·15 (95% CI: 2·69-9·83), respectively. Patients with mild PHPT had an increased risk of mortality, fatal and nonfatal CVD, and the risk of developing other co-morbidities was also increased. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Anomalies and contradictions in an airport construction project: a historical analysis based on Cultural-Historical Activity Theory. (United States)

    Lopes, Manoela Gomes Reis; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Querol, Marco Antônio Pereira


    Large construction projects involve the functioning of a complex activity system (AS) in network format. Anomalies such as accidents, delays, reworks, etc., can be explained by contradictions that emerge historically in the system. The aim of this study was to analyze the history of an airport construction project to understand the current contradictions and anomalies in the AS and how they emerged. A case study was conducted for this purpose, combining Collective Work Analysis, interviews, observations, and analysis of documents that provided the basis for sessions in the Change Laboratory, where a participant timeline was elaborated with the principal events during the construction project. Based on the timeline, a historical analysis of the airport's AS revealed critical historical events and contradictions that explained the anomalies that occurred during the project. The analysis showed that the airport had been planned for construction with politically determined deadlines that were insufficient and inconsistent with the project's complexity. The choice of the contract modality, which assigned responsibility to a joint venture for all of the project's phases, was another critical historical event, because it allowed launching the construction before a definitive executive project had been drafted. There were also different cultures in companies working together for the first time in the context of a project with time pressures and outsourcing of activities without the necessary coordination. Identifying these contradictions and their historical origins proved essential for understanding the current situation and efforts to prevent similar situations in the future.

  4. Historical transformation and epistemological discontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močnik Rastko


    Full Text Available Starting from recent formulas of EU bureaucracy for subordinating scientific and educational apparatuses to the needs of the capital and to the requests of its political representatives, the article analyses the interconnection between the historical transformation of the ideological state apparatuses (universities, higher education institutions, research institutes etc. and the epistemological discontinuity provoked by the triumph of technosciences. The hypothesis to be tested is the following: While the crisis of West European-North American capitalism requires an ever tighter submission of ideological state apparatuses, and especially of scientific and academic apparatuses to the needs of the capital, theoretical practices in the humanities and social sciences have come to the point where they entered into an open conflict with the domination of the capital and have, as a consequence, started to subvert their own institutional supports in the ideological apparatuses of the capitalist state. For this purpose, the article reconsiders social sciences as a compromise formation and, eventually, reassesses the historical materialism as a non-Cartesian modern science.

  5. Characterization of apple stem grooving virus and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus identified in a crab apple tree. (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Bian, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi


    Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), and prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were identified in a crab apple tree by small RNA deep sequencing. The complete genome sequence of ACLSV isolate BJ (ACLSV-BJ) was 7554 nucleotides and shared 67.0%-83.0% nucleotide sequence identity with other ACLSV isolates. A phylogenetic tree based on the complete genome sequence of all available ACLSV isolates showed that ACLSV-BJ clustered with the isolates SY01 from hawthorn, MO5 from apple, and JB, KMS and YH from pear. The complete nucleotide sequence of ASGV-BJ was 6509 nucleotides (nt) long and shared 78.2%-80.7% nucleotide sequence identity with other isolates. ASGV-BJ and the isolate ASGV_kfp clustered together in the phylogenetic tree as an independent clade. Recombination analysis showed that isolate ASGV-BJ was a naturally occurring recombinant.

  6. Changes in pectin methyl esterase activity with different packaging materials and stages of fruit harvesting during cold storage of pear cv. Punjab beauty. (United States)

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Dhillon, W S; Mahajan, B V C


    Pear cv. Punjab Beauty has become quite popular in Punjab. Excessive softening during cold storage leading to low shelf life is the major factor limiting its wider adoption. Studies were, therefore, conducted to determine the firmness and pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity at 4 harvest dates (2nd, 3rd and 4th week of July, and 1st week of August). Various packaging materials i.e. corrugated fiber board boxes and crates with high and low density polyethylene liners, corrugated fiber board boxes, crates and wooden boxes were also evaluated for their role in extending the shelf life of fruits. The enzyme activity and fruit firmness was evaluated periodically after 30, 45, 60 and 75 days of storage at 0-1 °C and 90-95 % RH. The firmness of the fruits decreased with the increase in storage intervals but the enzyme activity increased with the storage period up to 60 days and declined thereafter. Ripening-related changes in all the harvests were characterized mainly by an increase in the solubilization of pectin with a concomitant decrease in the degree of firmness. There was a continuous increase in enzyme activity with the advancement in harvesting dates and then fell sharply in the advanced ripening stages. Highest pectin methyl esterase activity was in fruits packed in crates followed by wooden boxes and corrugated fiber board boxes while the lowest was recorded in fruits packed in corrugated fiber board boxes with high density polyethylene liners. Therefore, high density polyethylene lined CFB boxes proved to be most effective in preventing the loss in firmness.

  7. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of cladodes of the two varieties of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica grown in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haile


    Full Text Available In this study, young cladodes corresponding to two (thorn-less and thorn-containing varieties of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica from four different areas of Tigray region, Ethiopia, were investigated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Quantitative estimation of total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities in the cladodes was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. A 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging assay was used for the determination of the antioxidant activities, while Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, aluminum chloride and protein (albumin precipitation methods were used for the determination of total polyphenol, flavonoid and tannin contents, respectively. The cladodes were found to be rich in polyphenols, with values in the range 18.0-71.4 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g of dry weight (DW. The predominant part of the polyphenols is represented by tannins, 9.00-41.2 mg GAE/g of DW, followed by flavonoids, 6.40-25.0 mg catchin equivalent (CE/g of DW. The cladodes showed strong antioxidant activities, 59.3-85.8% inhibition compared to ascorbic acid. Application of paired t-test on the overall mean total polyphenol contents of samples collected from the different areas revealed the presence of significant variation between the thorn-less (31.6 GAE/g of DW and thorn-containing (47.7 GAE/g of DW varieties. One-way ANOVA also revealed that there are significant variations among samples from the same variety but collected from different areas.

  8. The Historical Optimism of Boris Mironov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Khoros


    Full Text Available The article attempts to assess the contribution of B.N. Mironov’s monograph “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity” to historiography. The author has reviewed other books by Mironov. While the reviewer’s assessment is positive overall, a number of points defended by the author call for a rejoinder. The reviewer agrees with the main idea of the book: there was no permanent crisis and impoverishment of the working population in the history of imperial Russia in the 18th to the beginning of 20th centuries. On the contrary, there was some progress and achievements in terms of modernization. The revolutions in the beginning of the 20th century must be explained through other reasons. Credit undoubtedly belongs to Mironov for proof of this thesis. In such an approach, the Russian past appears more complicated and realistic than in many of the preceding investigations by Russian as well as by foreign scholars. An interesting feature of Mironov’s approach is historical optimism, that is, an interpretation of Russian historical evolution as successful. However, sometimes this optimism seems excessive. Key observations are the following. First, overcoming one extreme (the permanent crisis in Russia, Mironov, to some extent, ends up at another extreme – an underestimation of those social and cultural problems in Russian society that stimulated the revolutionary climate. Second, there is an overestimation of the role of the intelligentsia as an agent of revolution, its characteristics are excessively negative, and there is an underestimation of the impulse to protest from below and the popular character of the Russian revolution of 1917. Third, despite a number of interesting ideas concerning the process of modernization in Russia, Mironov identifies this modernization with Westernization (“Europeanization”. But the author himself rightly demonstrates the difference between Russian and European civilizational values. This

  9. 06491 Summary -- Digital Historical Corpora- Architecture, Annotation, and Retrieval


    Burnard, Lou; Dobreva, Milena; Fuhr, Norbert; Lüdeling, Anke


    The seminar "Digital Historical Corpora" brought together scholars from (historical) linguistics, (historical) philology, computational linguistics and computer science who work with collections of historical texts. The issues that were discussed include digitization, corpus design, corpus architecture, annotation, search, and retrieval.

  10. Assessing and Valuing Historical Geospatial Data for Decisions (United States)

    Sylak-Glassman, E.; Gallo, J.


    We will present a method for assessing the use and valuation of historical geospatial data and information products derived from Earth observations (EO). Historical data is widely used in the establishment of baseline reference cases, time-series analysis, and Earth system modeling. Historical geospatial data is used in diverse application areas, such as risk assessment in the insurance and reinsurance industry, disaster preparedness and response planning, historical demography, land-use change analysis, and paleoclimate research, among others. Establishing the current value of previously collected data, often from EO systems that are no longer operating, is difficult since the costs associated with their preservation, maintenance, and dissemination are current, while the costs associated with their original collection are sunk. Understanding their current use and value can aid in funding decisions about the data management infrastructure and workforce allocation required to maintain their availability. Using a value-tree framework to trace the application of data from EO systems, sensors, networks, and surveys, to weighted key Federal objectives, we are able to estimate relative contribution of individual EO systems, sensors, networks, and surveys to meeting those objectives. The analysis relies on a modified Delphi method to elicit relative levels of reliance on individual EO data inputs, including historical data, from subject matter experts. This results in the identification of a representative portfolio of all EO data used to meet key Federal objectives. Because historical data is collected in conjunction with all other EO data within a weighted framework, its contribution to meeting key Federal objectives can be specifically identified and evaluated in relationship to other EO data. The results of this method could be applied better understanding and projecting the long-term value of data from current and future EO systems.

  11. Historical review of the causes of cancer. (United States)

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian


    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer.

  12. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution (United States)

    Schuster, Peter


    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  13. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transformers (PTs are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The initial concept of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer was proposed by Charles A. Rosen in 1954. Since then, the evolution of piezoelectric transformers through history has been linked to the relevant work of some excellent researchers as well as to the evolution in materials, manufacturing processes, and driving circuit techniques. This paper summarizes the historical evolution of the technology.

  14. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario


    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  15. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  16. Democracy is a historical urgency (United States)

    Synek, Miroslav


    Survival of humanity, on this planet, may depend, heavily, on coping with advancing technology of nuclear missiles. Let us consider critical alternatives of powerful governments: democracy, as an alternative to dictatorship. Democracy is based on free elections, as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of inter-continental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a very powerful, miscalculating and/or insane, dictator, capable of producing global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy, together with supporting activities, should be utilized, to help, in important steps, at this time, for achieving democracy in critical areas.

  17. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila


    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  18. Historical Literature in the ADS (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.


    The Astrophysics Data System at is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at

  19. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  20. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server


    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  1. Historical ESWT Paradigms Are Overcome: A Narrative Review


    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos


    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a conservative treatment modality with still growing interest in musculoskeletal disorders. This narrative review aims to present an overview covering 20-year development in the field of musculoskeletal ESWT. Eight historical paradigms have been identified and put under question from a current perspective: energy intensity, focus size, anesthesia, imaging, growth plates, acuteness, calcifications, and number of sessions. All paradigms as set in a hi...

  2. ACHP | Sustainability and Historic Preservation Links (United States)

    Preservation) Solar Panels Incorporating Solar Panels in a Rehabilitation Project (National Park Service ) Installing Solar Panels on Historic Buildings: A Survey of the Regulatory Environment (Department of Energy

  3. The historical universal: the role of cultural value in the historical sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. (United States)

    Bennett, Tony


    Best known for his pioneering study Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, in which the aesthetic attitude of disinterestedness is accounted for as the expression of a class ethos, Bourdieu has become something of an icon of relativism. In thus effecting a Bakhtinian 'discrowning' of official hierarchies of the arts, he is often celebrated for his concern to place all tastes, popular and high, on a similar footing, equally rooted in specific class practices. Only a careless inattention could support such a conclusion. From his early interventions in French cultural policy debates up to and including The Rules of Art and Pascalian Meditations (1996), Bourdieu has consistently repudiated the view that a sociological approach to questions of aesthetic judgment must result in a levelling form of relativism. In exploring why this should be so, this paper considers the issues at stake in the forms of 'historical universalism' that are associated with Bourdieu's account of the autonomy of the aesthetic sphere. It does so with a view to identifying some of the difficulties underlying his understanding of sociology as a historical practice.

  4. Constructing New World Views: Learning Science in a Historical Context (United States)

    Becker, B. J.


    Recent research has shown that children, like scientists, can tolerate a wide range of observations that do not match their expectations, or that even directly conflict with them, without abandoning their personally constructed system of beliefs about the natural world. Traditional approaches -- even laboratory experiences that support textbook presentations of theories -- do not guarantee students will alter their convictions concerning how things "ought" to work. In contrast, a history-grounded approach to presenting scientific concepts has the potential for doing precisely that. In this paper, the author argues that embedding science learning in a historical context engages students in thinking about science in a way that complements and enriches a "hands-on" approach to inquiry learning. It conveys the creative and very human character of scientific explanation -- its tentative, probabilistic, and serendipitous nature. By integrating well-chosen historical images and ideas into traditional content-centered science units, educators can stimulate productive classroom discussion and establish a classroom atmosphere that nurtures students to think critically about the meaning of scientific activity in different cultures and times More importantly, the use of historic episodes in teaching science opens up opportunities for students to identify their own untutored beliefs about the workings of the natural world, to examine them critically in the light of considered historical debate, and to confront these beliefs in a way that results in positive, long-lasting conceptual change.

  5. Recovery and evaluation of historical environmental monitoring data at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.


    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from the nuclear operations at the Hanford site since 1944. The Environmental Monitoring Data Task within HEDR is charged with assembling, evaluating, and summarizing key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment on and around the Hanford site. The recovery and evaluation of historical environmental monitoring data are integral parts of the environmental dose reconstruction process. The data generated through historical environmental monitoring programs may be critical in the development of dose modeling codes and in performing a meaningful environmental pathway analysis. In addition, environmental monitoring data are essential in the verification of model calculations and in the validation of the model itself. The paper a task logic flowchart illustrating how the process evolves within the Environmental Monitoring Data Task and the interaction with other project tasks. The reconstruction of such data presents numerous challenges, many of which are not generally encountered in typical scientific studies. This paper discusses the process of reconstructing historical environmental monitoring data at Hanford. Several of the difficulties encountered during this process are presented. Items that may be beneficial and should be considered in performing such a task are identified

  6. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear). (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice


    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  7. 75 FR 17766 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    .... Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. KEY..., LISTED, 1/21/10 (World War II Home Front Efforts in Arkansas, MPS) Logan County Liberty Schoolhouse...

  8. 75 FR 4415 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    .... Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. KEY.... by W. Cherry on the South by W. Court, on the E. by S. Throgmorton and the W. by Clay, Piggott...

  9. 75 FR 8109 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    .... Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. KEY.... Cherry Ln., Greensboro vicinity, 09000963, LISTED, 12/02/09 Leverton, Jacob and Hannah, House, 3531...

  10. 75 FR 10814 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties (United States)


    ..., 2010. J. Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program...., Garner vicinity, 09001106, LISTED, 12/16/09 UTAH San Juan County Neck and Cabin Spings Grazing Area...

  11. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  12. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes (United States)


    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  13. Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Environments in Historic Places to Scaffold Historical Empathy (United States)

    Sweeney, Sara K.; Newbill, Phyllis; Ogle, Todd; Terry, Krista


    The authors explore how 3D visualizations of historical sites can be used as pedagogical tools to support historical empathy. They provide three visualizations created by a team at Virginia Tech as examples. They discuss virtual environments and how the digital restoration process is applied. They also define historical empathy, explain why it is…

  14. The INIS Thesaurus: historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duresa, Bekele Negeri; Vakula, Olga


    The INIS Thesaurus is a controlled terminological knowledge base that has been developed over the years through the contribution of INIS Member States in all areas of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology, which is also the subject scope of the INIS Collection. The thesaurus is primarily used for subject indexing of input into the INIS system and for retrieval of information from the database. Thanks to the vital support of INIS Member States, the thesaurus has been translated into eight languages (i.e. all IAEA official languages plus German and Japanese) and is available online to assist our global users as a tool for retrieval and for general reference. It is a dynamic information resource that is continually updated to cater to new developments of terminologies in nuclear science and technology. Since its inception in the 1960’s, it was decided that the subject analysis for INIS input preparation be based on its own subject categories, which also determines its scope, and keyword indexing using a thesaurus. This article briefly describes the development of the INIS Thesaurus from a historical perspective

  15. Historical model evaluation data requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; McCain, D.J.


    Several studies about tank waste contents have been published using historical records of tank transactions and various analytical measurements. While these records offer a wealth of information, the results are questionable until error estimates associated with the results can be established. However, they do provide a direction for investigation. Two principal observations from the studies are: (1) Large quantities of individual waste types from the various separations processes were widely distributed throughout the tank farms, and (2) The compositions of many of these waste types are quite distinct from one another. A key assumption associated with these observations is that the effects of time and location on the tank wastes are either nominal or not discernable. Since each waste type has a distinct composition, it would benefit all programs to better quantify that composition, and establish an uncertainty for each element of that composition. Various process, disposal, or other decisions could then be made based on current information reducing the need for extended sampling and analysis

  16. Historic physics reprints come home

    CERN Multimedia


    In a surprise happy ending, six boxes of historic reprints have returned home to CERN - more than 30 years after they went missing! The 146 items had been part of the personal library of the Nobel prize-winning physicist, Wolfgang Pauli. After his death in 1958, Pauli's widow bequeathed his scientific legacy to CERN, and part of this valuable archival collection was stored in Salle Pauli, the room dedicated to his memory. In those trustful days the room was always left open so that Pauli's Library could be freely consulted; but then 170 preprints by Born, Bohr, Heisenberg and others - some with dedications to Pauli from the author - disappeared in 1972. Regretfully, the room was then locked. Use of the collection was henceforth ‘by appointment only', but it was assumed that the damage was done and the missing items had gone forever. However, in 2002 the CERN Archivist was surprised by a phone call from a representative of Christie's, New York, who explained that some reprints bearing the stamp of the CERN...

  17. Detection capabilities. Some historical footnotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.


    Part I Summary of relevant topics from 1923 to present-including: Currie (Anal Chem 40:586-593, 1968) detection concepts and capabilities; International detection and uncertainty standards; Failure of classical "1"4C dating and birth of new scientific disciplines; Exploratory nuclear data analysis of "8"5Kr monitors found coincident with the collapse of the Iron Curtain (1989); Faulty statistics proved responsible for mistaken assertions that Currie's LC yields excessive false positives; Low-level counting and AMS for atmospheric "3"7Ar and µmolar fossil/biomass carbon in the environment; Erroneous assumption that our low-level background is a Poisson Process, linked to ∼8 % spurious anticoincidence events. Part II. Exact treatment of bivariate Poisson data-solved in 1930s by Przyborowski and Wilenski, Krakow University, for detecting extreme trace amounts of a malicious contaminant (dodder) in high purity seed standards. We adapted their treatment to detection capabilities in ultra-low-level nuclear counting. The timing of their work had great historical significance, marking the start of World War II, with the invasion of Poland (1939). (author)

  18. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry. (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor


    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  19. Historical Drawbacks of Limited Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Boyle


    Full Text Available Limited liability is a human invention which has facilitated enormous economic growth around the world, particularly since the time of its general application in advanced countries during the nineteenth century. The individual legal identity of companies, coupled with the limited liability of their owners, has provided protection for investors from the risks associated with their investments. It has thus contributed to increase the sources of capital available to finance projects which might otherwise have been considered unviable. However, the legal protection offered to investors has negative consequences for other participants in economies. Speculation in stock markets often damages society. It is very important to study the drawbacks of limited liability and to suggest modifications to achieve a more stable, less volatile, economic growth in the world. Although this article goes to some lengths to recognise the work of authors who emphasise the positive historical economic contribution of limited lability, its main objective is to provoke a reflection around texts which point out the drawbacks and propose solutions.



    Magdalena Paulina Wiśniewska; Agnieszka Pusz


    This article shows a way of dealing with the industrial areas, where historical contamination of the earth’s surface occurred, together with an indication of the proper remediation method selection. Public Administration authorities, including the Regional Director of Environmental Protection (RDOŚ) and the governor are responsible, among others, for identifying areas where historical contamination or potential historical contamination of the earth's surface occurred. General Director of Envi...

  1. ACHP | Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Publications (United States)

    Integrating NEPA and Section 106 (2013) Measuring Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation (2013) Celebrating Enhancing Federal Management of Historic Properties (2004) Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government : Summit II—Report of Proceedings (2003) Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Summit I—Report of

  2. ACHP | Federal Highway Administration Historic Preservation Program (United States)

    arrow FHWA Case Study - Kentucky and Indiana Heritage Tourism and Economic Support is the Focus of avoidance of impacts to historic Madison is not possible. In addition to FHWA, KYTC, INDOT, the Kentucky and remains economically viable and that construction impacts on historic buildings are minimized. The MOA

  3. Historical events of the Chemical Processing Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.A.


    The purpose of this report is to summarize and document the significant historical events pertinent to the operation of the Chemical Processing facilities at Hanford. The report covers, in chronological order, the major construction activities and historical events from 1944 to September, 1965. Also included are the production records achieved and a history of the department`s unit cost performance.

  4. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J


    Full Text Available This report gives the results of a workshop held on historical sites at the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward islands, southern Indian Ocean. All known visits and sojourns on the Prince Edward islands up to 1948 are tabulated. All known historical sites...

  5. Negotiating the Process of Historical Empathy (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.


    Historical empathy scholarship has evolved to the point where further progress necessitates empirical examinations from a variety of perspectives. Prior studies on historical empathy have largely focused on teachers' pedagogical approach and student outcomes. This qualitative study focuses on students as they engage in the process of historical…

  6. Short Historical Fiction To Get Children Reading. (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen


    Provides an annotated bibliography of short historical fiction and picture books for readers in grades K-8. Includes a list of selected Caldecott and Newbery winners with historical themes or backgrounds and a list of activity books featuring Spanish exploration in Mexico, Roman art and fashion, medieval Europe, and cowboys. (PEN)

  7. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Historical preservation. 638.304 Section 638.304 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM... § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register of...

  8. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 910.32... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.32 Historic preservation... Preservation Plan of the Corporation, are specified for preservation, shall be acomplished (a) in accordance...

  9. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources (United States)

    Williams, Stacy D.


    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

  10. Open source software development : some historical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuvolari, A.


    In this paper we suggest that historical studies of technology can help us to account for some, perplexing (at least for traditional economic reasoning) features of open source software development. From a historical perspective, open source software seems to be a particular case of what Robert C.

  11. Open source software development : some historical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuvolari, A.


    In this paper we suggest that historical studies of technology can help us to account for some, perplexing (at least for traditional economic reasoning) features of open source software development. When looked in historical perspective, open source software seems to be a particular case of what

  12. Historical and Conceptual Foundation of Diagrammatical Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Uckelman, Sara L.; Schärfe, Henrik


    During the Renaissance there was a growing interest for the use of diagrams within conceptual studies. This paper investigates the historical and philosophical foundation of this renewed use of diagrams in ontology as well as the modern relevance of this foundation. We discuss the historical and ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA


    Full Text Available There is a huge interest in accounting harmonization and historical costs accounting, in what they offer us. In this article, different valuation models are discussed. Although one notices the movement from historical cost accounting to fair value accounting, each one has its advantages.

  14. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair


    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  15. Raising the energy performance of historical dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krugten, L.T.F.; Hermans, L.M.C.; Havinga, L.C.; Pereira Roders, A.R.; Schellen, H.L.


    Purpose: Earlier studies assume that historical dwellings and post-war dwellings in particular, are less sustainable than modern dwellings, justifying its demolition. Over time, historical buildings have been transformed and their energy performance improved. However, there is little known on the

  16. Hermeneutics and the Historicity of Human Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jamshidnia


    Full Text Available Whether objectivity in the understanding of history is achivable? Putting  in another way, whether it is possible to account a historical event purely objectively, and free of one's own values, attitudes, and interests? Whether it is possible to have a "complete history'' and a complete explanation of any historical matter? If it is not possible, then it necessarily leads to a relativistic approach which finds any historical narrative acceptable? Are there any criteria according to which one could compare truthfulness of various historical narratives? The present study approach these questions hermeneutically. However, not all hermeneutical approaches answer them alike. Denying the relativist approach, this study attempts to analyze historicity of the human understanding and that of the interpreter him/herself.

  17. Newly identified historical tornadoes in the Czech Republic from 16th to the 20th centuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacinová, M.; Munzar, Jan; Franc, M.

    -, č. 83 (2007), s. 488-492 ISSN 0169-8095 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : tornado * history * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.786, year: 2007

  18. Tapping the US historic sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm (United States)

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has gained an important role as a viable alternative to fossil fuels and a more profitable option than maize and sugarcane. Nevertheless, the actual narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum breeding programs is limiting the development of new biofuel varietie...

  19. Collapse of a historic oyster fishery: diagnosing causes and identifying paths toward increased resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward V. Camp


    Full Text Available Diagnosing causal factors of change at the ecosystem level is challenging because multiple drivers often interact at various spatial and temporal scales. We employ an integrated natural and social science approach to assess potential mechanisms leading to the collapse of an estuarine social-ecological system, and recommend future paths to increased system resilience. Our case study is the collapse of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica fishery in Apalachicola Bay, Florida, USA, and the associated impacts on local resource dependent communities. The oyster fishery collapse is the most recent in a series of environmental stressors to this region, which have included hurricanes and tropical storms, drought, and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We found it likely that the oyster collapse was not related to contamination from the recent oil spill, but rather to factors affecting oyster recruitment and survival, which may have been mediated by both human, e.g., fishing-related habitat alteration, and environmental, e.g., increased natural mortality from predators and disease, factors. The relative impact of each of these factors is likely to increase in the future because of changing climate and increased demand for fishery, water, and petroleum resources. Successful restoration and persistence of a viable oyster fishery will depend on: (1 implementation of some minimal best management practices, e.g., extensive habitat restoration via shell addition, and some spatial closures to harvest, (2 improving environmental knowledge and promoting episodic learning through enhanced monitoring and experimental management, and (3 continued community engagement necessary to produce adaptable governance suitable to responding to future unexpected challenges.

  20. Historical milestones of a long pathway. (United States)

    Roy, Thomas


    Hemodiafiltration (HDF), developed from the combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration, is considered to be the most effective current procedure to remove uremic toxins from the blood of kidney patients. Historically, the clinical use of HDF was for many years limited due to the cost burden related to the large amount of sterile volume replacement fluid needed. The solution offered was on-line preparation of replacement fluid from standard dialysate by means of membrane filtration. Industry opened to this concept quite early and worked on various technical solutions between the early 1980s and the late 1990s before real state-of-the-art systems became commercially available on a broad basis. This article reviews in particular the activities of initially Fresenius and later Fresenius Medical Care in this field and identifies major concepts and prototypes up to today's commercially available high-end product--the 5008 therapy system--where on-line HDF finally became integrated as a standard component. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.