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Sample records for identify fundamental differences

  1. Different Variants of Fundamental Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarczyński Waldemar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the fundamental portfolio of securities. This portfolio is an alternative for the classic Markowitz model, which combines fundamental analysis with portfolio analysis. The method’s main idea is based on the use of the TMAI1 synthetic measure and, in limiting conditions, the use of risk and the portfolio’s rate of return in the objective function. Different variants of fundamental portfolio have been considered under an empirical study. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions has been related to the classic portfolio constructed with the help of the Markowitz model and the WIG20 market index’s rate of return. All portfolios were constructed with data on rates of return for 2005. Their effectiveness in 2006- 2013 was then evaluated. The studied period comprises the end of the bull market, the 2007-2009 crisis, the 2010 bull market and the 2011 crisis. This allows for the evaluation of the solutions’ flexibility in various extreme situations. For the construction of the fundamental portfolio’s objective function and the TMAI, the study made use of financial and economic data on selected indicators retrieved from Notoria Serwis for 2005.

  2. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. On the importance of identifying, characterizing, and predicting fundamental phenomena towards microbial electrochemistry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, César Iván

    2014-06-01

    The development of microbial electrochemistry research toward technological applications has increased significantly in the past years, leading to many process configurations. This short review focuses on the need to identify and characterize the fundamental phenomena that control the performance of microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs). Specifically, it discusses the importance of recent efforts to discover and characterize novel microorganisms for MXC applications, as well as recent developments to understand transport limitations in MXCs. As we increase our understanding of how MXCs operate, it is imperative to continue modeling efforts in order to effectively predict their performance, design efficient MXC technologies, and implement them commercially. Thus, the success of MXC technologies largely depends on the path of identifying, understanding, and predicting fundamental phenomena that determine MXC performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T.; Banyard, Harry G.; McKeown, Ian; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Talent identification (TID) is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF). This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18) AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives) and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives). Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA), consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs), single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs), and a push up (six movement criterions). Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02). Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE) = -0.89(0.44); p talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent identification approaches in junior AF, as it may provide coaches

  5. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl T. Woods, Harry G. Banyard, Ian McKeown, Job Fransen, Sam Robertson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Talent identification (TID is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF. This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18 AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives. Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA, consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs, single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs, and a push up (six movement criterions. Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 – 0.87; p = 0.01 – 0.02. Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE = -0.89(0.44; p < 0.05, with a score of 4.5 classifying 64% and 88% of the talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent

  6. Discriminating Talent Identified Junior Australian Footballers Using a Fundamental Gross Athletic Movement Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Banyard, Harry G; McKeown, Ian; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam

    2016-09-01

    Talent identification (TID) is a pertinent component of the sports sciences, affording practitioners the opportunity to target developmental interventions to a select few; optimising financial investments. However, TID is multi-componential, requiring the recognition of immediate and prospective performance. The measurement of athletic movement skill may afford practitioners insight into the latter component given its augmented relationship with functional sport specific qualities. It is currently unknown whether athletic movement skill is a discriminant quality in junior Australian football (AF). This study aimed to discriminate talent identified junior AF players from their non-talent identified counterparts using a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment. From a total of 50 under 18 (U18) AF players; two groups were classified a priori based on selection level; talent identified (n = 25; state academy representatives) and non-talent identified (n = 25; state-based competition representatives). Players performed a fundamental gross athletic movement assessment based on the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA), consisting of an overhead squat, double lunge (left and right legs), single leg Romanian deadlift (left and right legs), and a push up (six movement criterions). Movements were scored across three assessment points using a three-point scale (resulting in a possible score of nine for each movement). A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant between group effects on four of the six movement criterions (d = 0.56 - 0.87; p = 0.01 - 0.02). Binary logistic regression models and a receiver operating characteristic curve inspection revealed that the overhead squat score provided the greatest group discrimination (β(SE) = -0.89(0.44); p talent identified and non-talent identified groups, respectively. Results support the integration of this assessment into contemporary talent identification approaches in junior AF, as it may provide coaches with

  7. The use of deconvolution techniques to identify the fundamental mixing characteristics of urban drainage structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovin, V R; Guymer, I; Chappell, M J; Hattersley, J G

    2010-01-01

    Mixing and dispersion processes affect the timing and concentration of contaminants transported within urban drainage systems. Hence, methods of characterising the mixing effects of specific hydraulic structures are of interest to drainage network modellers. Previous research, focusing on surcharged manholes, utilised the first-order Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) and Aggregated Dead Zone (ADZ) models to characterise dispersion. However, although systematic variations in travel time as a function of discharge and surcharge depth have been identified, the first order ADE and ADZ models do not provide particularly good fits to observed manhole data, which means that the derived parameter values are not independent of the upstream temporal concentration profile. An alternative, more robust, approach utilises the system's Cumulative Residence Time Distribution (CRTD), and the solute transport characteristics of a surcharged manhole have been shown to be characterised by just two dimensionless CRTDs, one for pre- and the other for post-threshold surcharge depths. Although CRTDs corresponding to instantaneous upstream injections can easily be generated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, the identification of CRTD characteristics from non-instantaneous and noisy laboratory data sets has been hampered by practical difficulties. This paper shows how a deconvolution approach derived from systems theory may be applied to identify the CRTDs associated with urban drainage structures.

  8. Evidence for the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis or Not?: Island Constraints Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikova, Alyona; White, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how changes in linguistic theory affect the debate between the fundamental difference hypothesis and the access-to-Universal Grammar (UG) approach to SLA. With a focus on subjacency (Chomsky, 1973), a principle of UG that places constraints on "wh"-movement and that has frequently been taken as a test case for verifying…

  9. Differences of Fundamental Motor Skills Stunting and Non Stunting Preschool Children in Kindergarten in North Padang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaini, A.; Mardela, R.

    2018-04-01

    The problem that emerged is based on the result of research done by the writer in kindergarten in North Padang Sub-district which concluded that: there were kindergarten students in this sub-district who were still lack of motor ability, research data shows that 59 people (37,34%) and then 34 people (21, 52%) were in very good category, 35 people (22.15%), were in moderate category, 22 people (13.92%) were in the poor category, and 5 (5,06%) were in the very poor category. Based on this data, the authors thought that the dominant factors that affect the above situation was a nutritional factor. It could be seen from the physical appearance of kindergarten children who tend to slow growth. The purpose of this study is to explain the description and differences in stunting and non stunting Fundamental motor skills capabilities in early childhood (preschool) children. This research is comparative study with cross sectional approach. The population in this study was the students of Kindergarten of Perwari II which consisted of 60 people consisting of 37 children of stunting and 23 non stunting children in Kindergarten of North Padang Sub district, the sample was taken as a whole. The data were collected with Fundamental motor skills tests including jumping, walking, running, balance exercises, throwing and catching the ball. Technique of data analysis in this research was descriptive statistic. The result of data analysis shows that there is difference of Fundamental motor skills between stunting and non stunting children. Fundamental motor skills of non stunting or normal children are better than those who were stunting or short. While the results of Fundamental motor skills of kindergarten children in North Padang District as a whole is at a good level.

  10. Constraints on Alternate Universes: Stars and habitable planets with different fundamental constants

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Fred C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops constraints on the values of the fundamental constants that allow universes to be habitable. We focus on the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and the gravitational structure constant $\\alpha_G$, and find the region in the $\\alpha$-$\\alpha_G$ plane that supports working stars and habitable planets. This work is motivated, in part, by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes. The following constraints are enforce...

  11. Theoretical and experimental study of fundamental differences in the noise suppression of high-speed SOA-based all-optical switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Suzuki, R.

    2005-01-01

    We identify a fundamental difference between the ASE noise filtering properties of different all-optical SOA-based switch configurations, and divide the switches into two classes. An in-band ASE suppression ratio quantifying the difference is derived theoretically and the impact of the ASE...

  12. Age and gender differences in fundamental motor skills (original version in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Jiménez Díaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental motor skills are the basis for participation in more advanced lifetime activities. Whereas considerable research has been reported on motor behavior of children, much less is known about performance in later years, especially adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine age and gender differences on fundamental motor skills (FMS ability across three age groups: children (M = 9.37 yr., SD = 1.26, adolescents (M = 14.80 yr., SD = 2.04 and young-adults (M = 19.88 yr., SD = 2.72. Participants (n = 114 were assessed on five locomotor skills (run, gallop, slide, hop, and distance jump and five object control skills (bounce, catch, overhand throw, strike and kick using the Test for Fundamental Motor Skills, which is a process-oriented instrument. ANOVA results comparing gender and group revealed no significant interactions. Moreover, main effects for group were found for three individual skills: galloping –adolescents and young-adults performed better than children (p < .01–, throwing –children and adolescents performed better than young-adults (p < .01 –, and kicking –young-adults performed better than children and adolescents (p < .05–. Also, we found main effects for gender for total FMS ability (p < .01, locomotor subscale (p < .05 and object control subscale (p < .01, and for six individual motor skills: run (p < .05, jump (p < .05, throw (p < .01, kick (p < .01, bounce (p < .01 and strike (p < .01; males outperformed females for all the skills. However, in view of total FMS ability, locomotor skills and object control skills results suggest similar performance across ages. Therefore, it is important to enhance fundamental motor skills at all ages, as an option to help individuals engage in physical activities.

  13. Gender differences in young children's interactions when learning fundamental motor skills.

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    Garcia, C

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine how young children interact in the context of learning fundamental motor skills. Twenty-nine preschool children were observed during a period of six consecutive months while they were participating in their daily motor skills program. Fieldwork research methodology was used and data were collected using participant observation techniques. During data analysis, emerging patterns were identified and cross-referenced against data collected from other sources (triangulation). Girls were found to interact in a cooperative, caring, and sharing manner. Boys were found to interact in a competitive, individualized, and egocentric manner. A cultural pattern of cooperative interaction among Asian children was found. In addition, both boys and girls tried to maintain their gender style of interaction when dealing with the opposite sex. This study reveals several aspects of the social environment that may need to be considered when teaching motor skills to young children.

  14. Are sex differences in fundamental motor skills uniform throughout the entire preschool period?

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    Kokštejn, Jakub; Musálek, Martin; Tufano, James J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in fundamental motor skills (FMS) proficiency between boys and girls of each age group, independently, across the entire preschool period. Using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition, FMS proficiency was tested in 325 preschoolers (4.9 ± 1.1 y, range 3-6) using a cross-sectional design. Compared to boys of the same age, 3- and 4-year-old girls had greater total (p skill (p < .01), and balance scores (p < .05). There were no sex differences for total test or balance scores in 5- and 6-year-olds, but 6-year-old boys outperformed girls in aiming and catching (p < .001). These data not only agree with previous research in that sex differences in FMS proficiency exist in preschool children, but the data also show that differences may not be uniform throughout the whole preschool period when analyzing by age. To avoid under- or overestimating FMS proficiency and subsequently prescribing inaccurate motor intervention programs, FMS proficiency normative values should be age- and sex-specific throughout the entire preschool period.

  15. Are sex differences in fundamental motor skills uniform throughout the entire preschool period?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess differences in fundamental motor skills (FMS proficiency between boys and girls of each age group, independently, across the entire preschool period. Using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition, FMS proficiency was tested in 325 preschoolers (4.9 ± 1.1 y, range 3-6 using a cross-sectional design. Compared to boys of the same age, 3- and 4-year-old girls had greater total (p < .01, fine motor skill (p < .01, and balance scores (p < .05. There were no sex differences for total test or balance scores in 5- and 6-year-olds, but 6-year-old boys outperformed girls in aiming and catching (p < .001. These data not only agree with previous research in that sex differences in FMS proficiency exist in preschool children, but the data also show that differences may not be uniform throughout the whole preschool period when analyzing by age. To avoid under- or overestimating FMS proficiency and subsequently prescribing inaccurate motor intervention programs, FMS proficiency normative values should be age- and sex-specific throughout the entire preschool period.

  16. Using Content-Aligned Assessments to Identify Weaknesses in Students' Understanding of Fundamental Weather and Climate Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, J.; Willard, S.

    2011-12-01

    ). But a much more prevalent issue is that most students lack schematic knowledge for any concept tested, as demonstrated by results indicative of random guessing on items that require cognitive demands beyond declarative knowledge. For example, 83% of students know that the maximum height of the sun in the sky above a given place can change during July, but only 32% know both that it changes continuously through the month and could correctly identify if it gets higher or lower. These basic elements of an accurate mental model are needed to explain annual temperature patterns. If students do not have an accurate understanding of processes controlling key elements of the climate system, it is unsurprising that they struggle to comprehend how these elements interact within the system itself. The results of this study underscore the need to 1) ensure that fundamentals are given the necessary attention, even as our expectations for students become increasingly sophisticated; 2) define grade appropriate, coherent, functioning conceptual models for each climate idea and for each grade level; and 3) develop instructional materials that build schematic knowledge.

  17. A comparative study of the mastery of fundamental movement skills between different cultures

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    Fernando Garbeloto dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that guidance, encouragement and opportunity are crucial factors for children’s motor development. They are especially important to promote the mastery of fundamental movement skills. The present study investigated the association between two elements related to those factors – proposed curriculum of physical education and the most popular sport in a given country – and the incidence of mastery in the FMS in children from 4 to 10 years of age. In order to carry out a cross-cultural comparison, three studies from different countries (Portugal, China and USA that used TGMD-II were selected. The results indicated association between proposed curriculum and the number of children mastering FMS. This association increases in older age groups of children from USA, the most structured curriculum related to FMS, presenting the highest average percentage of mastery.  Additionally, we did not find association of the most popular sports in a given country with the mastery of the related skill. These results are interpreted as evidence for the importance of guidance on the mastery of FMS.

  18. Drosophila Cancer Models Identify Functional Differences between Ret Fusions.

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    Levinson, Sarah; Cagan, Ross L

    2016-09-13

    We generated and compared Drosophila models of RET fusions CCDC6-RET and NCOA4-RET. Both RET fusions directed cells to migrate, delaminate, and undergo EMT, and both resulted in lethality when broadly expressed. In all phenotypes examined, NCOA4-RET was more severe than CCDC6-RET, mirroring their effects on patients. A functional screen against the Drosophila kinome and a library of cancer drugs found that CCDC6-RET and NCOA4-RET acted through different signaling networks and displayed distinct drug sensitivities. Combining data from the kinome and drug screens identified the WEE1 inhibitor AZD1775 plus the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib as a synergistic drug combination that is specific for NCOA4-RET. Our work emphasizes the importance of identifying and tailoring a patient's treatment to their specific RET fusion isoform and identifies a multi-targeted therapy that may prove effective against tumors containing the NCOA4-RET fusion. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Constraints on alternate universes: stars and habitable planets with different fundamental constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Fred C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops constraints on the values of the fundamental constants that allow universes to be habitable. We focus on the fine structure constant α and the gravitational structure constant α G , and find the region in the α-α G plane that supports working stars and habitable planets. This work is motivated, in part, by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes. The following constraints are enforced: [A] long-lived stable nuclear burning stars exist, [B] planetary surface temperatures are hot enough to support chemical reactions, [C] stellar lifetimes are long enough to allow biological evolution, [D] planets are massive enough to maintain atmospheres, [E] planets are small enough in mass to remain non-degenerate, [F] planets are massive enough to support sufficiently complex biospheres, [G] planets are smaller in mass than their host stars, and [H] stars are smaller in mass than their host galaxies. This paper delineates the portion of the α-α G plane that satisfies all of these constraints. The results indicate that viable universes—with working stars and habitable planets—can exist within a parameter space where the structure constants α and α G vary by several orders of magnitude. These constraints also provide upper bounds on the structure constants (α,α G ) and their ratio. We find the limit α G /α ∼< 10 −34 , which shows that habitable universes must have a large hierarchy between the strengths of the gravitational force and the electromagnetic force

  20. Constraints on alternate universes: stars and habitable planets with different fundamental constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Fred C., E-mail: fca@umich.edu [Physics Department, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This paper develops constraints on the values of the fundamental constants that allow universes to be habitable. We focus on the fine structure constant α and the gravitational structure constant α{sub G}, and find the region in the α-α{sub G} plane that supports working stars and habitable planets. This work is motivated, in part, by the possibility that different versions of the laws of physics could be realized within other universes. The following constraints are enforced: [A] long-lived stable nuclear burning stars exist, [B] planetary surface temperatures are hot enough to support chemical reactions, [C] stellar lifetimes are long enough to allow biological evolution, [D] planets are massive enough to maintain atmospheres, [E] planets are small enough in mass to remain non-degenerate, [F] planets are massive enough to support sufficiently complex biospheres, [G] planets are smaller in mass than their host stars, and [H] stars are smaller in mass than their host galaxies. This paper delineates the portion of the α-α{sub G} plane that satisfies all of these constraints. The results indicate that viable universes—with working stars and habitable planets—can exist within a parameter space where the structure constants α and α{sub G} vary by several orders of magnitude. These constraints also provide upper bounds on the structure constants (α,α{sub G}) and their ratio. We find the limit α{sub G}/α ∼< 10{sup −34}, which shows that habitable universes must have a large hierarchy between the strengths of the gravitational force and the electromagnetic force.

  1. Latent cluster analysis of ALS phenotypes identifies prognostically differing groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeban Ganesalingam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disease predominantly affecting motor neurons and manifesting as several different phenotypes. Whether these phenotypes correspond to different underlying disease processes is unknown. We used latent cluster analysis to identify groupings of clinical variables in an objective and unbiased way to improve phenotyping for clinical and research purposes.Latent class cluster analysis was applied to a large database consisting of 1467 records of people with ALS, using discrete variables which can be readily determined at the first clinic appointment. The model was tested for clinical relevance by survival analysis of the phenotypic groupings using the Kaplan-Meier method.The best model generated five distinct phenotypic classes that strongly predicted survival (p<0.0001. Eight variables were used for the latent class analysis, but a good estimate of the classification could be obtained using just two variables: site of first symptoms (bulbar or limb and time from symptom onset to diagnosis (p<0.00001.The five phenotypic classes identified using latent cluster analysis can predict prognosis. They could be used to stratify patients recruited into clinical trials and generating more homogeneous disease groups for genetic, proteomic and risk factor research.

  2. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  3. Atrioventricular depolarization differences identify coronary artery anomalies in Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Daniel; Sharma, Nandita; Jone, Pei-Ni

    2017-03-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children. Signal average electrocardiogram changes in patients during the acute phase of KD with coronary artery anomalies (CAA) include depolarization changes. We set out to determine if 12-lead-derived atrioventricular depolarization differences can identify CAA in patients with KD. A blinded, retrospective case-control study of patients with KD was performed. Deep Q waves, corrected QT-intervals (QTc), spatial QRS-T angles, T-wave vector magnitudes (RMS-T), and a novel parameter for assessment of atrioventricular depolarization difference (the spatial PR angle) and a two dimensional PR angle were assessed. Comparisons between groups were performed to test for significant differences. One hundred one patients with KD were evaluated, with 68 having CAA (67.3%, mean age 3.6 ± 3.0 years, 82.6% male), and 32 without CAA (31.7%, mean age 2.7 ± 3.2 years, 70.4% male). The spatial PR angle significantly discriminated KD patients with CAA from those without, 59.7° ± 31.1° versus 41.6° ± 11.5° (p differences, measured by the spatial or two dimensional PR angle differentiate KD patients with CAA versus those without. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Physical Education Teacher Training in Fundamental Movement Skills Makes a Difference to Instruction and Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Natalie Jayne; Barnett, Lisa M.; Brown, Helen; Telford, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate instruction and assessment of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) by Physical Education (PE) teachers of Year 7 girls. Of 168 secondary school PE teachers, many had received little FMSs professional development, and although most assessed student FMSs proficiency, the quality of assessment was variable.…

  5. Differences Awareness Model to Fundament Long Term Strategy Extension in a New Emerging Market

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    Elena Mădălina ŞERBAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization opened the opportunity for multinational companies to increase their businesses in emerging markets and also to local giants from developing countries to step in the western markets. The objective of this paper is to propose a model for analyzing the differences between operating businesses in emerging markets and developed markets. The model purpose is to be applied in the strategic process by mainly the multinationals or local giants intending to develop long term businesses outside their traditional geographies. The studies on emerging markets identified two main axes to be considered when appreciating the attractiveness of the markets: the business dynamics both inside and outside the company and the institutional environment, as facilitator of efficient encounter between sellers and buyers.

  6. Efficiency of different techniques to identify changes in land use

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    Zornoza, Raúl; Mateix-Solera, Jorge; Gerrero, César

    2013-04-01

    The need for the development of sensitive and efficient methodologies for soil quality evaluation is increasing. The ability to assess soil quality and identify key soil properties that serve as indicators of soil function is complicated by the multiplicity of physical, chemical and biological factors that control soil processes. In the mountain region of the Mediterranean Basin of Spain, almond trees have been cultivated in terraced orchards for centuries. These crops are immersed in the Mediterranean forest scenery, configuring a mosaic landscape where orchards are integrated in the forest masses. In the last decades, almond orchards are being abandoned, leading to an increase in vegetation cover, since abandoned fields are naturally colonized by the surrounded natural vegetation. Soil processes and properties are expected to be associated with vegetation successional dynamics. Thus, the establishment of suitable parameters to monitor soil quality related to land use changes is particularly important to guarantee the regeneration of the mature community. In this study, we selected three land uses, constituted by forest, almond trees orchards, and orchards abandoned between 10 and 15 years previously to sampling. Sampling was carried out in four different locations in SE Spain. The main purpose was to evaluate if changes in management have significantly influenced different sets of soil characteristics. For this purpose, we used a discriminant analysis (DA). The different sets of soil characteristics tested in this study were 1: physical, chemical and biochemical properties; 2: soil near infrared (NIR) spectra; and 3: phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). After the DA performed with the sets 1 and 2, the three land uses were clearly separated by the two first discriminant functions, and more than 85 % of the samples were correctly classified (grouped). Using the sets 3 and 4 for DA resulted in a slightly better separation of land uses, being more than 85% of the

  7. Effects of Traditional Gender Role Norms and Religious Fundamentalism on Self-Identified Heterosexual Men's Attitudes, Anger, and Aggression Toward Gay Men and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759

  8. Fundamental Tactical Principles of Soccer: A Comparison of Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Paulo Henrique; Guilherme, José; Rechenchosky, Leandro; da Costa, Luciane Cristina Arantes; Rinadi, Wilson

    2017-09-01

    The fundamental tactical principles of the game of soccer represent a set of action rules that guide behaviours related to the management of game space. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of fundamental offensive and defensive tactical principles among youth soccer players from 12 to 17 years old. The sample consisted of 3689 tactical actions performed by 48 soccer players in three age categories: under 13 (U-13), under 15 (U-15), and under 17 (U-17). Tactical performance was measured using the System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT). The Kruskal Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Friedman, Wilcoxon, and Cohen's Kappa tests were used in the study analysis. The results showed that the principles of "offensive coverage" (p = 0.01) and "concentration" (p = 0.04) were performed more frequently by the U-17 players than the U-13 players. The tactical principles "width and length" (p principles are performed varies between the gaming categories, which implies that there is valuation of defensive security and a progressive increase in "offensive coverage" caused by increased confidence and security in offensive actions.

  9. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Do silhouettes and photographs produce fundamentally different object-based correspondence effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert W; Lien, Mei-Ching; Thompson, Lane

    2017-12-01

    When participants classify pictures of objects as upright or inverted with a left or right keypress, responses are faster if the response location (left/right) corresponds with the location of a handle (left/right) than if it does not. This result has typically been attributed to a grasping affordance (automatic activation of muscles associated with grasping the object with the ipsilateral hand), but several findings have indicated instead that the effect is a spatial correspondence effect, much like the Simon effect for object location. Pappas (2014) reported evidence he interpreted as showing that spatial coding predominates with silhouettes of objects, whereas photographs of objects yield affordance-based effects. We conducted two experiments similar to those of Pappas, using frying pans as stimuli, with our two experiments differing in whether the entire object was centered on the display screen or the base was centered. When the objects were centered, a positive correspondence effect relative to the handle was evident for the silhouettes but a negative correspondence effect for the photographs. When the base was centered, the handle was clearly located to the left or right side of the display, and both silhouettes and photographs produced correspondence effects of similar size relative to the handle location. Despite the main results being counter to the grasping affordance hypothesis, response-time distribution analyses suggest that, instead of activating automatically at fast responses, an effector-specific component of the hypothesized type may come into play for responses that are selected after the handle location has been identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identifying and managing cross-cultural differences in the classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many learning institutions are now designed to cater to the needs of students and staff from different cultures. The United States International University (USIU) in. Kenya is no different. It provides learning opportunities to learners from different nations and regions of the world. When these learners and other staff come into ...

  12. Identifying Different Registers of Digital Literacy in Virtual Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Ola; Blasjo, Mona.; Hallsten, Stina; Karlstrom, Petter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper social semiotics, and systemic functional linguistics in particular, are used in order to identify registers of digital literacy in the use of virtual learning environments. The framework of social semiotics provides means to systemize and discuss digital literacy as a linguistic and semiotic issue. The following research question…

  13. Public and Private Sector IT Governance: Identifying Contextual Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights systemic contextual differences and the unique IT Governance issues that might arise in public and private sector organizations. Public sector organizations constitute a significant component of economic activity in most countries. Like their private sector counterparts, many public sector agencies are struggling to cope with reduced or inadequate IT budgets and are continuously looking for ways to extract maximum value from IT resources. While both sectors face similar managerial-level IT issues and challenges, we argue that there are systemic differences between private and public sector organizations suggesting that a one size fits all approach to IT Governance may not apply.

  14. Identifying the dominating perceptual differences in headphone reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volk, Christer Peter; Lavandier, Mathieu; Bech, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The perceptual differences between the sound reproductions of headphones were investigated in a pair-wise comparison study. Two musical excerpts were reproduced over 21 headphones positioned on a mannequin and recorded. The recordings were then processed and reproduced over one set of headphones ...

  15. Public and Private Sector IT Governance: Identifying Contextual Differences

    OpenAIRE

    John Campbell; Craig McDonald; Tsholofelo Sethibe

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights systemic contextual differences and the unique IT Governance issues that might arise in public and private sector organizations. Public sector organizations constitute a significant component of economic activity in most countries. Like their private sector counterparts, many public sector agencies are struggling to cope with reduced or inadequate IT budgets and are continuously looking for ways to extract maximum value from IT resources. While both sectors face similar ...

  16. Computational Approach to Identify Different Injuries by Firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sarah Teixeira; Freire, Alexandre Rodrigues; Matoso, Rodrigo Ivo; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo; Rossi, Ana Cláudia; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua

    2017-03-01

    Complications arise in the analysis of gunshot wounds to the maxillofacial region, when neither the projectile nor the gun is found at the crime scene. We simulated 5- and 15-cm firing distances at a human mandible to investigate the external morphology of entrance wounds based on fire range. The ammunition models, .40-caliber S&W, .380-caliber, and 9 × 19-mm Luger, were constructed with free-form NURBS surfaces. In a dynamic simulation, projectiles were fired against mandibular body 3D model at 5 and 15 cm. All entrance wounds presented oval aspect. Maximum diameter and von Mises stress values were 16.5 mm and 50.8 MPa, both for .40-caliber S&W fired at 5 cm. The maximum energy loss was 138.4 J for .40 S&W fired at 15 cm. In conclusion, the mandible was most affected by .40-caliber S&W and morphological differences were observable in holes caused by different incoming projectile calibers fired at different distances. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Gender differences in identifying emotions from auditory and visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2017-12-01

    The present study focused on gender differences in emotion identification from auditory and visual stimuli produced by two male and two female actors. Differences in emotion identification from nonsense samples, language samples and prolonged vowels were investigated. It was also studied whether auditory stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without visual stimuli, and whether visual stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without auditory stimuli. The aim was to get a better knowledge of vocal attributes and a more holistic understanding of the nonverbal communication of emotion. Females tended to be more accurate in emotion identification than males. Voice quality parameters played a role in emotion identification in both genders. The emotional content of the samples was best conveyed by nonsense sentences, better than by prolonged vowels or shared native language of the speakers and participants. Thus, vocal non-verbal communication tends to affect the interpretation of emotion even in the absence of language. The emotional stimuli were better recognized from visual stimuli than auditory stimuli by both genders. Visual information about speech may not be connected to the language; instead, it may be based on the human ability to understand the kinetic movements in speech production more readily than the characteristics of the acoustic cues.

  18. Identifying Gender Differences in an Australian Youth Offender Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane M. Shepherd

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined gender differences in risk factors for violence in a sample of 213 male and female youths held in Youth Justice Centres in Victoria, Australia. Although violence risk factors are considered to be commensurate across gender, a growing body of international literature is categorizing gender-specific criminal trajectories. The study aimed to investigate this concept in an Australian juvenile context. Through the use of a widely validated youth violence risk assessment inventory, the prevalence of salient risk items was compared across gender. Young female offenders were found to present with higher levels of family dysfunction, peer rejection and self-injurious behavior reflecting international female offending pathways literature.

  19. Identifying Controlling Nodes in Neuronal Networks in Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Zou, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have detected hubs in neuronal networks using degree, betweenness centrality, motif and synchronization and revealed the importance of hubs in their structural and functional roles. In addition, the analysis of complex networks in different scales are widely used in physics community. This can provide detailed insights into the intrinsic properties of networks. In this study, we focus on the identification of controlling regions in cortical networks of cats’ brain in microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales, based on single-objective evolutionary computation methods. The problem is investigated by considering two measures of controllability separately. The impact of the number of driver nodes on controllability is revealed and the properties of controlling nodes are shown in a statistical way. Our results show that the statistical properties of the controlling nodes display a concave or convex shape with an increase of the allowed number of controlling nodes, revealing a transition in choosing driver nodes from the areas with a large degree to the areas with a low degree. Interestingly, the community Auditory in cats’ brain, which has sparse connections with other communities, plays an important role in controlling the neuronal networks. PMID:22848475

  20. A fundamental research of growth, metabolism and product formation of tobacco suspension cells at different scales

    OpenAIRE

    Ullisch, David

    2012-01-01

    For over two decades, plant cell cultures have been promising hosts for the expression of recombinant proteins such as hormones, growth factors, full-size antibodies and antigens. So far, over 700 different plant cell cultures are stored in the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ) in Braunschweig. Among these plant cell cultures, the tobacco cell line Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) was chosen as a good host cell line for the production of recombinant proteins...

  1. Intuition and insight: Two processes that build on each other or fundamentally differ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Zander

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intuition and insight are intriguing phenomena of non-analytical mental functioning: Whereas intuition denotes ideas that have been reached by sensing the solution without any explicit representation of it, insight has been understood as the sudden and unexpected apprehension of the solution by recombining the single elements of a problem. By face validity, the two processes appear similar; according to a lay perspective, it is assumed that intuition precedes insight. Yet, predominant scientific conceptualizations of intuition and insight consider the two processes to differ with regard to their (dis-continuous unfolding. That is, intuition has been understood as an experience-based and gradual process, whereas insight is regarded as a genuinely discontinuous phenomenon. Unfortunately, both processes have been investigated differently and without much reference to each other. In this contribution, we therefore set out to fill this lacuna by examining the conceptualizations of the assumed underlying cognitive processes of both phenomena, and by also referring to the research traditions and paradigms of the respective field. Based on early work put forward by Bowers and colleagues (1990 and Bowers and colleagues (1995, we referred to semantic coherence tasks consisting of convergent word triads (i.e., the solution has the same meaning to all three clue words and/or divergent word triads (i.e., the solution means something different with respect to each clue word as an excellent kind of paradigm that may be used in the future to disentangle intuition and insight experimentally. By scrutinizing the underlying mechanisms of intuition and insight, with this theoretical contribution, we hope to launch lacking but needed experimental studies and to initiate scientific cooperation between the research fields of intuition and insight that are currently still separated from each other.

  2. Intuition and Insight: Two Processes That Build on Each Other or Fundamentally Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Thea; Öllinger, Michael; Volz, Kirsten G

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight are intriguing phenomena of non-analytical mental functioning: whereas intuition denotes ideas that have been reached by sensing the solution without any explicit representation of it, insight has been understood as the sudden and unexpected apprehension of the solution by recombining the single elements of a problem. By face validity, the two processes appear similar; according to a lay perspective, it is assumed that intuition precedes insight. Yet, predominant scientific conceptualizations of intuition and insight consider the two processes to differ with regard to their (dis-)continuous unfolding. That is, intuition has been understood as an experience-based and gradual process, whereas insight is regarded as a genuinely discontinuous phenomenon. Unfortunately, both processes have been investigated differently and without much reference to each other. In this contribution, we therefore set out to fill this lacuna by examining the conceptualizations of the assumed underlying cognitive processes of both phenomena, and by also referring to the research traditions and paradigms of the respective field. Based on early work put forward by Bowers et al. (1990, 1995), we referred to semantic coherence tasks consisting of convergent word triads (i.e., the solution has the same meaning to all three clue words) and/or divergent word triads (i.e., the solution means something different with respect to each clue word) as an excellent kind of paradigm that may be used in the future to disentangle intuition and insight experimentally. By scrutinizing the underlying mechanisms of intuition and insight, with this theoretical contribution, we hope to launch lacking but needed experimental studies and to initiate scientific cooperation between the research fields of intuition and insight that are currently still separated from each other.

  3. Gene Network for Identifying the Entropy Changes of Different Modules in Pediatric Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pediatric sepsis is a disease that threatens life of children. The incidence of pediatric sepsis is higher in developing countries due to various reasons, such as insufficient immunization and nutrition, water and air pollution, etc. Exploring the potential genes via different methods is of significance for the prevention and treatment of pediatric sepsis. This study aimed to identify potential genes associated with pediatric sepsis utilizing analysis of gene network and entropy. Methods: The mRNA expression in the blood samples collected from 20 septic children and 30 healthy controls was quantified by using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarray. Two condition-specific protein-protein interaction networks (PINs, one for the healthy control and the other one for the children with sepsis, were deduced by combining the fundamental human PINs with gene expression profiles in the two phenotypes. Subsequently, distinct modules from the two conditional networks were extracted by adopting a maximal clique-merging approach. Delta entropy (ΔS was calculated between sepsis and control modules. Results: Then, key genes displaying changes in gene composition were identified by matching the control and sepsis modules. Two objective modules were obtained, in which ribosomal protein RPL4 and RPL9 as well as TOP2A were probably considered as the key genes differentiating sepsis from healthy controls. Conclusion: According to previous reports and this work, TOP2A is the potential gene therapy target for pediatric sepsis. The relationship between pediatric sepsis and RPL4 and RPL9 needs further investigation.

  4. Direct dose mapping versus energy/mass transfer mapping for 4D dose accumulation: fundamental differences and dosimetric consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haisen S; Zhong, Hualiang; Kim, Jinkoo; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Gulam, Misbah; Nurushev, Teamour S; Chetty, Indrin J

    2014-01-06

    The direct dose mapping (DDM) and energy/mass transfer (EMT) mapping are two essential algorithms for accumulating the dose from different anatomic phases to the reference phase when there is organ motion or tumor/tissue deformation during the delivery of radiation therapy. DDM is based on interpolation of the dose values from one dose grid to another and thus lacks rigor in defining the dose when there are multiple dose values mapped to one dose voxel in the reference phase due to tissue/tumor deformation. On the other hand, EMT counts the total energy and mass transferred to each voxel in the reference phase and calculates the dose by dividing the energy by mass. Therefore it is based on fundamentally sound physics principles. In this study, we implemented the two algorithms and integrated them within the Eclipse treatment planning system. We then compared the clinical dosimetric difference between the two algorithms for ten lung cancer patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, by accumulating the delivered dose to the end-of-exhale (EE) phase. Specifically, the respiratory period was divided into ten phases and the dose to each phase was calculated and mapped to the EE phase and then accumulated. The displacement vector field generated by Demons-based registration of the source and reference images was used to transfer the dose and energy. The DDM and EMT algorithms produced noticeably different cumulative dose in the regions with sharp mass density variations and/or high dose gradients. For the planning target volume (PTV) and internal target volume (ITV) minimum dose, the difference was up to 11% and 4% respectively. This suggests that DDM might not be adequate for obtaining an accurate dose distribution of the cumulative plan, instead, EMT should be considered.

  5. From High Intellectual Potential to Asperger Syndrome: Evidence for Differences and a Fundamental Overlap – A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Boschi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: An increasing number of clinicians point to similar clinical features between some children with High Intellectual Potential (HIP or Giftedness = Total IQ > 2 SD, and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD without intellectual or language delay, formerly diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome. Some of these common features are social interaction impairments, special interests, and in some cases high-verbal abilities. The aim of this article is to determine whether theses similarities exist at more fundamental levels, other than clinical, and to explore the literature in order to provide empirical support for an overlap between ASD and HIP.Method: First, comparative studies between ASD and HIP children were sought. Because of a lack of data, the respective characteristics of ASD and HIP subjects were explored by a cross-sectional review of different areas of research. Emphasis was placed on psychometric and cognitive evaluations, experimental and developmental assessments, and neurobiological research, following a bottom-up procedure.Results: This review highlights the existence of similarities in the neurocognitive, developmental and neurobiological domains between these profiles, which require further study. In addition, the conclusions of several studies show that there are differences between HIP children with a homogeneous Intellectual Quotient profile and children with a heterogeneous Intellectual Quotient profile.Conclusion: HIP seems to cover different developmental profiles, one of which might share features with ASD. A new line of investigation providing a possible starting-point for future research is proposed. Its implications, interesting from both clinical and research perspectives, are discussed.

  6. Influence of fuel properties on fundamental spray characteristics and soot emissions using different tailor-made fuels from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Heuser, Benedikt; Jakob, Markus; Kremer, Florian; Pischinger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TMFB show clear potential to reduce soot emissions under mixing-controlled combustion. • The larger lift-off-length of 2-MTHF and 1-octanol promotes soot emissions reduction. • Oxidation process governs the improved soot emissions of DNBE. - Abstract: This work evaluates the potential of some new biomass-derived fuels as candidates for compression ignition operation. Thus, fundamental spray characteristics related to fuel vaporization and fuel/air mixing process for 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran, Di-n-butyl ether and 1-octanol has been studied and compared with conventional EN590 Diesel fuel. For this purpose, OH"∗ chemiluminescence and shadowgraphy measurements in a high pressure chamber as well as 1D simulations with a spray model have been carried out at different operating conditions representative of the NEDC driving cycle. Finally, measured soot emissions in the single-cylinder engine were presented and discussed. Results from the high pressure chamber presented very good agreement in terms of liquid length and vapor penetration with simulation results. Thus, some analytical expressions related to macroscopic spray characteristics have been proposed and validated experimentally for all four fuels. Finally, the single-cylinder engine results confirmed the relevant role of soot formation on final emissions for 1-octanol and 2-MTHF. In addition, DNBE showed greater soot oxidation potential than diesel and other TMFB candidates.

  7. Assessing fundamental motor skills in Belgian children aged 3-8 years highlights differences to US reference sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; Huyben, Floris; Lenoir, Matthieu; Seghers, Jan; De Martelaer, Kristine; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Deconinck, Frederik J A

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to understand the fundamental motor skills (FMS) of Belgian children using the process-oriented Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition (TGMD-2) and to investigate the suitability of using the United States (USA) test norms in Belgium. FMS were assessed using the TGMD-2. Gender, age and motor performance were examined in 1614 Belgian children aged 3-8 years (52.1% boys) and compared with the US reference sample. More proficient FMS performance was found with increasing age, from 3 to 6 years for locomotor skills and 3 to 7 years for object control skills. Gender differences were observed in object control skills, with boys performing better than girls. In general, Belgian children had lower levels of motor competence than the US reference sample, specifically for object control skills. The score distribution of the Belgian sample was skewed, with 37.4% scoring below average and only 6.9% scoring above average. This study supported the usefulness of the TGMD-2 as a process-oriented instrument to measure gross motor development in early childhood in Belgium. However, it also demonstrated that caution is warranted when using the US reference norms. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Application of representational difference analysis to identify genomic differences between Bradyrhizobium elkanii and B. Japonicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, René Arderius; Passaglia, Luciane Maria Pereira

    2010-10-01

    Bradyrhizobium elkanii is successfully used in the formulation of commercial inoculants and, together with B. japonicum, it fully supplies the plant nitrogen demands. Despite the similarity between B. japonicum and B. elkanii species, several works demonstrated genetic and physiological differences between them. In this work Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) was used for genomic comparison between B. elkanii SEMIA 587, a crop inoculant strain, and B. japonicum USDA 110, a reference strain. Two hundred sequences were obtained. From these, 46 sequences belonged exclusively to the genome of B. elkanii strain, and 154 showed similarity to sequences from B. japonicum genome. From the 46 sequences with no similarity to sequences from B. japonicum, 39 showed no similarity to sequences in public databases and seven showed similarity to sequences of genes coding for known proteins. These seven sequences were divided in three groups: similar to sequences from other Bradyrhizobium strains, similar to sequences from other nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and similar to sequences from non nitrogen-fixing bacteria. These new sequences could be used as DNA markers in order to investigate the rates of genetic material gain and loss in natural Bradyrhizobium strains.

  9. Sex Differences in Fundamental Movement Skills of a Selected Group of 6-Year-Old South African Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Anita E.; van Reenen, Irma; Weber, Angelique M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motor competence is emerging as an important marker of health, while adequate basic movement patterns, body control and body awareness are important building blocks of more specialized body movements and scholastic adjustment during early childhood. This study examined fundamental movement skill competency and explored sex differences…

  10. Fundamental differences in axial and appendicular bone density in stress fractured and uninjured Royal Marine recruits--a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Trish; Lanham-New, Susan A; Shaw, Anneliese M; Cobley, Rosalyn; Allsopp, Adrian J; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Arnett, Timothy R; Taylor, Pat; Cooper, Cyrus; Fallowfield, Joanne L

    2015-04-01

    Stress fracture is a common overuse injury within military training, resulting in significant economic losses to the military worldwide. Studies to date have failed to fully identify the bone density and bone structural differences between stress fractured personnel and controls due to inadequate adjustment for key confounding factors; namely age, body size and physical fitness; and poor sample size. The aim of this study was to investigate bone differences between male Royal Marine recruits who suffered a stress fracture during the 32 weeks of training and uninjured control recruits, matched for age, body weight, height and aerobic fitness. A total of 1090 recruits were followed through training and 78 recruits suffered at least one stress fracture. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and whole body (WB) using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in 62 matched pairs; tibial bone parameters were measured using peripheral Quantitative Computer Tomography in 51 matched pairs. Serum C-terminal peptide concentration was measured as a marker of bone resorption at baseline, week-15 and week-32. ANCOVA was used to determine differences between stress fractured recruits and controls. BMD at the LS, WB and FN sites was consistently lower in the stress fracture group (Pstress fracture recruits and controls were evident in all slices of the tibia, with the most prominent differences seen at the 38% tibial slice. There was a negative correlation between the bone cross-sectional area and BMD at the 38% tibial slice. There was no difference in serum CTx concentration between stress fracture recruits and matched controls at any stage of training. These results show evidence of fundamental differences in bone mass and structure in stress fracture recruits, and provide useful data on bone risk factor profiles for stress fracture within a healthy military population. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The phytoalexin camalexin induces fundamental changes in the proteome of Alternaria brassicicola different from those caused by brassinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Minic, Zoran; Abdoli, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Camalexin is the major phytoalexin produced by Alternaria thaliana, but is absent in Brassica species that usually produce phytoalexin blends containing brassinin and derivatives. The protein profiles of A. brassicicola treated with camalexin were evaluated using proteomics and metabolic analyses and compared with those treated with brassinin. Conidial germination and mycelial growth of A. brassicicola in liquid media amended with camalexin and brassinin showed that fungal growth was substantially slower in presence of camalexin than brassinin; chemical analyses revealed that A. brassicicola detoxified camalexin at much slower rate than brassinin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by tryptic digestion and capillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses identified 158 different proteins, of which 45 were up-regulated and 113 were down-regulated relative to controls. Venn diagram analyses of differentially expressed proteins in cultures of A. brassicicola incubated with camalexin and brassinin indicated clear differences in the effect of each phytoalexin, with camalexin causing down-regulation of a larger number of proteins than brassinin. Overall, results of this work suggest that each phytoalexin has several different targets in the cells of A. brassicicola, and that camalexin appears to have greater potential to protect cultivated Brassica species against A. brassicicola than brassinin. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  13. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  14. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  15. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  16. Musicians do not benefit from differences in fundamental frequency when listening to speech in competing speech backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sara Miay Kim; Whiteford, Kelly L.; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies disagree on whether musicians have an advantage over non-musicians in understanding speech in noise. However, it has been suggested that musicians may be able to use diferences in fundamental frequency (F0) to better understand target speech in the presence of interfering talkers....... Here we studied a relatively large (N=60) cohort of young adults, equally divided between nonmusicians and highly trained musicians, to test whether the musicians were better able to understand speech either in noise or in a two-talker competing speech masker. The target speech and competing speech...... were presented with either their natural F0 contours or on a monotone F0, and the F0 diference between the target and masker was systematically varied. As expected, speech intelligibility improved with increasing F0 diference between the target and the two-talker masker for both natural and monotone...

  17. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  18. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  19. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  20. Similar but Different: Dynamic Social Network Analysis Highlights Fundamental Differences between the Fission-Fusion Societies of Two Equid Species, the Onager and Grevy's Zebra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I Rubenstein

    Full Text Available Understanding why animal societies take on the form that they do has benefited from insights gained by applying social network analysis to patterns of individual associations. Such analyses typically aggregate data over long time periods even though most selective forces that shape sociality have strong temporal elements. By explicitly incorporating the temporal signal in social interaction data we re-examine the network dynamics of the social systems of the evolutionarily closely-related Grevy's zebras and wild asses that show broadly similar social organizations. By identifying dynamic communities, previously hidden differences emerge: Grevy's zebras show more modularity than wild asses and in wild asses most communities consist of solitary individuals; and in Grevy's zebras, lactating females show a greater propensity to switch communities than non-lactating females and males. Both patterns were missed by static network analyses and in general, adding a temporal dimension provides insights into differences associated with the size and persistence of communities as well as the frequency and synchrony of their formation. Dynamic network analysis provides insights into the functional significance of these social differences and highlights the way dynamic community analysis can be applied to other species.

  1. Self- and Peer-Identified Victims in Late Childhood: Differences in Perceptions of the School Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Molly; Chen, Chin-Chih; Farmer, Thomas W; Hamm, Jill V

    2017-11-01

    Patterns of adjustment for youth victimized by peers vary depending on whether youth are identified as victims through self-reports, peer-reports, or both. In order to provide more targeted strategies that may help mitigate negative consequences associated with specific victimization groups, more information is needed about how these youth perceive their school ecology (bullying and academic ecology), their feelings of school belonging, and their valuing of school. Based on the convergence of self- and peer-reports of victimization, we identified four victim groups from a sample of students in 5th grade classrooms (N = 1360; 52.8% girls, 53.1% White, 34.6% Black or Hispanic, 12.2% Native American, Asian, or other) using Latent Profile Analysis (LPA): convergent victims (high self- and peer-reports), self-identified victims (high self-, low peer-reports), peer-identified victims (low self-, high peer-reports), and nonvictims (low self- and peer-reports). Convergent victims' perceptions were similar to nonvictims with key differences being convergent victims' greater willingness to protect peers being bullied but lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Peer-identified and self-identified victims perceived differences in the bullying and academic ecology including peer-identified victims' greater willingness to protect peers and expectations for more peers to encourage bulling against them compared to self-identified victims. However, both peer- and self-identified victims perceived greater emotional risk of participating in class and had lower feelings of school belonging compared to nonvictims. Implications for supporting youth with divergent self- and peer-reported victimization status as they transition to middle school are discussed.

  2. Using reporter gene assays to identify cis regulatory differences between humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Adrien; Shrit, Ralla A; Blekhman, Ran; Gilad, Yoav

    2007-08-01

    Most phenotypic differences between human and chimpanzee are likely to result from differences in gene regulation, rather than changes to protein-coding regions. To date, however, only a handful of human-chimpanzee nucleotide differences leading to changes in gene regulation have been identified. To hone in on differences in regulatory elements between human and chimpanzee, we focused on 10 genes that were previously found to be differentially expressed between the two species. We then designed reporter gene assays for the putative human and chimpanzee promoters of the 10 genes. Of seven promoters that we found to be active in human liver cell lines, human and chimpanzee promoters had significantly different activity in four cases, three of which recapitulated the gene expression difference seen in the microarray experiment. For these three genes, we were therefore able to demonstrate that a change in cis influences expression differences between humans and chimpanzees. Moreover, using site-directed mutagenesis on one construct, the promoter for the DDA3 gene, we were able to identify three nucleotides that together lead to a cis regulatory difference between the species. High-throughput application of this approach can provide a map of regulatory element differences between humans and our close evolutionary relatives.

  3. Different Combinations of Perceived Autonomy Support and Control: Identifying the Most Optimal Motivating Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerens, L.; Vansteenkiste, M.; De Meester, A.; Delrue, J.; Tallir, I.; Vande Broek, G.; Goris, W.; Aelterman, N.

    2018-01-01

    Background: According to Self-Determination Theory, teachers and sport coaches can differ in the motivating style they rely upon to motivate young people. When endorsing an autonomy-supportive motivating style, instructors try to identify, vitalize, and nurture youngsters' inner motivational resources. In contrast, instructors with a dominant…

  4. Novel statistical framework to identify differentially expressed genes allowing transcriptomic background differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Yi; Mukaisho, Kenichi; Hattori, Takanori; Tatsuta, Takeshi; Ge, Ming-Hua; Jin, Li; Mao, Wei-Min; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    Tests of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from microarray experiments are based on the null hypothesis that genes that are irrelevant to the phenotype/stimulus are expressed equally in the target and control samples. However, this strict hypothesis is not always true, as there can be several transcriptomic background differences between target and control samples, including different cell/tissue types, different cell cycle stages and different biological donors. These differences lead to increased false positives, which have little biological/medical significance. In this article, we propose a statistical framework to identify DEGs between target and control samples from expression microarray data allowing transcriptomic background differences between these samples by introducing a modified null hypothesis that the gene expression background difference is normally distributed. We use an iterative procedure to perform robust estimation of the null hypothesis and identify DEGs as outliers. We evaluated our method using our own triplicate microarray experiment, followed by validations with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and on the MicroArray Quality Control dataset. The evaluations suggest that our technique (i) results in less false positive and false negative results, as measured by the degree of agreement with RT-PCR of the same samples, (ii) can be applied to different microarray platforms and results in better reproducibility as measured by the degree of DEG identification concordance both intra- and inter-platforms and (iii) can be applied efficiently with only a few microarray replicates. Based on these evaluations, we propose that this method not only identifies more reliable and biologically/medically significant DEG, but also reduces the power-cost tradeoff problem in the microarray field. Source code and binaries freely available for download at http://comonca.org.cn/fdca/resources/softwares/deg.zip.

  5. Identifying the ideal profile of French yogurts for different clusters of consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, M; Saint-Eve, A; Delarue, J; Blumenthal, D

    2016-05-01

    Identifying the sensory properties that affect consumer preferences for food products is an important feature of product development. Different methods, such as external preference mapping or partial least squares regression, are used to establish relationships between sensory data and consumer preferences and to identify sensory attributes that drive consumer preferences, by highlighting optimum products. Plain French yogurts were evaluated by a sensory profiling method performed by 12 trained judges. In parallel, 180 consumers were asked to score their overall liking and complete a cognitive restraint questionnaire. After hierarchical cluster analysis on the liking scores, preference mapping using a quadratic regression model was performed. Five clusters of consumers were identified as a function of different preference patterns. Contrary to our expectations, fat levels were not discriminating. For each cluster, the results of preference mapping enabled the identification of optimum products. A comparison of the 5 sensory profiles revealed numerous differences between key sensory attributes. For example, one consumer cluster had a strong preference for products perceived as very thick, grainy, but with a less flowing texture, less sticky, whey presence and color, in contrast to other clusters. In addition, each segment of consumers was characterized according to the results of the cognitive restraint questionnaire. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Latent Fundamentals Arbitrage with a Mixed Effects Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Salem Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a single-factor mixed effects panel data model to create an arbitrage portfolio that identifies differences in firm-level latent fundamentals. Furthermore, we show that even though the characteristics that affect returns are unknown variables, it is possible to identify the strength of the combination of these latent fundamentals for each stock by following a simple approach using historical data. As a result, a trading strategy that bought the stocks with the best fundamentals (strong fundamentals portfolio and sold the stocks with the worst ones (weak fundamentals portfolio realized significant risk-adjusted returns in the U.S. market for the period between July 1986 and June 2008. To ensure robustness, we performed sub period and seasonal analyses and adjusted for trading costs and we found further empirical evidence that using a simple investment rule, that identified these latent fundamentals from the structure of past returns, can lead to profit.

  8. A large-scale RNA interference screen identifies genes that regulate autophagy at different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Virbasius, Ching-Man; He, Bin; Zhang, Liqing; Varmark, Hanne; Green, Michael R; Sheng, Zhi

    2018-02-12

    Dysregulated autophagy is central to the pathogenesis and therapeutic development of cancer. However, how autophagy is regulated in cancer is not well understood and genes that modulate cancer autophagy are not fully defined. To gain more insights into autophagy regulation in cancer, we performed a large-scale RNA interference screen in K562 human chronic myeloid leukemia cells using monodansylcadaverine staining, an autophagy-detecting approach equivalent to immunoblotting of the autophagy marker LC3B or fluorescence microscopy of GFP-LC3B. By coupling monodansylcadaverine staining with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we successfully isolated autophagic K562 cells where we identified 336 short hairpin RNAs. After candidate validation using Cyto-ID fluorescence spectrophotometry, LC3B immunoblotting, and quantitative RT-PCR, 82 genes were identified as autophagy-regulating genes. 20 genes have been reported previously and the remaining 62 candidates are novel autophagy mediators. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most candidate genes were involved in molecular pathways regulating autophagy, rather than directly participating in the autophagy process. Further autophagy flux assays revealed that 57 autophagy-regulating genes suppressed autophagy initiation, whereas 21 candidates promoted autophagy maturation. Our RNA interference screen identifies identified genes that regulate autophagy at different stages, which helps decode autophagy regulation in cancer and offers novel avenues to develop autophagy-related therapies for cancer.

  9. Metallomics of two microorganisms relevant to heavy metal bioremediation reveal fundamental differences in metal assimilation and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Andrew [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Menon, Angeli [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Scott, Israel [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Poole, Farris [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Vaccaro, Brian [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Thorgersen, Michael P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Geller, Jil [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hurt Jr., Richard Ashley [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Steven D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Elias, Dwayne A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Adams, Michael W. W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2014-03-26

    Although as many as half of all proteins are thought to require a metal cofactor, the metalloproteomes of microorganisms remain relatively unexplored. Microorganisms from different environments are likely to vary greatly in the metals that they assimilate, not just among the metals with well-characterized roles but also those lacking any known function. Herein we investigated the metal utilization of two microorganisms that were isolated from very similar environments and are of interest because of potential roles in the immobilization of heavy metals, such as uranium and chromium. The metals assimilated and their concentrations in the cytoplasm of Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough (DvH) and Enterobacter cloacae strain Hanford (EcH) varied dramatically, with a larger number of metals present in Enterobacter. For example, a total of 9 and 19 metals were assimilated into their cytoplasmic fractions, respectively, and DvH did not assimilate significant amounts of zinc or copper whereas EcH assimilated both. However, bioinformatic analysis of their genome sequences revealed a comparable number of predicted metalloproteins, 813 in DvH and 953 in EcH. These allowed some rationalization of the types of metal assimilated in some cases (Fe, Cu, Mo, W, V) but not in others (Zn, Nd, Ce, Pr, Dy, Hf and Th). It was also shown that U binds an unknown soluble protein in EcH but this incorporation was the result of extracellular U binding to cytoplasmic components after cell lysis.

  10. Attitudinal and behavioral differences between cigarette users who do and do not identify as "smokers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Michael B; Lin, Linda; White, Madeleine; Alfonso-Barry, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The current research aimed to understand differences in smoking-related identity among college students and to illustrate the distinct characteristics of nonidentified smokers (NIS). Students from 2 colleges in Massachusetts (N = 538; April 2016). Respondents reported by online survey whether or not they had smoked a cigarette in the past 30 days and if they self-identified as smokers. Nonsmokers (NIS) and identified smokers (IS) were then compared on their smoking attitudes and behavior. NIS made up 12.5% of the sample and 64% of all tobacco users. NIS perceived themselves as less addicted and were more confident in their ability to quit smoking. They also were less likely to smoke alone, buy their own cigarettes, or have friends who smoked. College health officials can best motivate NIS to quit smoking by focusing on peer norms and the potential of long-term addiction.

  11. Identifying different transcribed proteins in the newly described Theraphosidae Pamphobeteus verdolaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Gómez, Sebastian; Vargas-Muñoz, Leidy Johana; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Cifuentes, Yeimy; Perafan, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Theraphosidae spider venoms are well known for possess a complex mixture of protein and non-protein compounds in their venom. The objective of this study was to report and identify different proteins translated from the venom gland DNA information of the recently described Theraphosidae spider Pamphobeteus verdolaga. Using a venom gland transcriptomic analysis, we reported a set of the first complete sequences of seven different proteins of the recenlty described Theraphosidae spider P. verdolaga. Protein analysis indicates the presence of different proteins on the venom composition of this new spider, some of them uncommon in the Theraphosidae family. MS/MS analysis of P. verdolaga showed different fragments matching sphingomyelinases (sicaritoxin), barytoxins, hexatoxins, latroinsectotoxins, and linear (zadotoxins) peptides. Only four of the MS/MS fragments showed 100% sequence similarity with one of the transcribed proteins. Transcriptomic analysis showed the presence of different groups of proteins like phospholipases, hyaluronidases, inhibitory cysteine knots (ICK) peptides among others. The three database of protein domains used in this study (Pfam, SMART and CDD) showed congruency in the search of unique conserved protein domain for only four of the translated proteins. Those proteins matched with EF-hand proteins, cysteine rich secretory proteins, jingzhaotoxins, theraphotoxins and hexatoxins, from different Mygalomorphae spiders belonging to the families Theraphosidae, Barychelidae and Hexathelidae. None of the analyzed sequences showed a complete 100% similarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín

    2016-01-01

    of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...

  13. Genomic suppression subtractive hybridization as a tool to identify differences in mycorrhizal fungal genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Vallino, Marta; Daghino, Stefania; Perotto, Silvia; Bonfante, Paola

    2011-05-01

    Characterization of genomic variation among different microbial species, or different strains of the same species, is a field of significant interest with a wide range of potential applications. We have investigated the genomic variation in mycorrhizal fungal genomes through genomic suppressive subtractive hybridization. The comparison was between phylogenetically distant and close truffle species (Tuber spp.), and between isolates of the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius featuring different degrees of metal tolerance. In the interspecies experiment, almost all the sequences that were identified in the Tuber melanosporum genome and absent in Tuber borchii and Tuber indicum corresponded to transposable elements. In the intraspecies comparison, some specific sequences corresponded to regions coding for enzymes, among them a glutathione synthetase known to be involved in metal tolerance. This approach is a quick and rather inexpensive tool to develop molecular markers for mycorrhizal fungi tracking and barcoding, to identify functional genes and to investigate the genome plasticity, adaptation and evolution. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in handgrip strength protocols to identify sarcopenia and frailty - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Santos, A R; Amaral, T F

    2017-10-16

    Hand grip strength (HGS) is used for the diagnosis of sarcopenia and frailty. Several factors have been shown to influence HGS values during measurement. Therefore, variations in the protocols used to assess HGS, as part of the diagnosis of sarcopenia and frailty, may lead to the identification of different individuals with low HGS, introducing bias. The aim of this systematic review is to gather all the relevant studies that measured HGS to diagnose sarcopenia and frailty and to identify the differences between the protocols used. A systematic review was carried out following the recommendations of The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. PubMed and Web of Science were systematically searched, until August 16, 2016. The evidence regarding HGS measurement protocols used to diagnose sarcopenia and frailty was summarised and the most recent protocols regarding the procedure were compared. From the described search 4393 articles were identified. Seventy-two studies were included in this systematic review, in which 37 referred to sarcopenia articles, 33 to frailty and two evaluated both conditions. Most studies presented limited information regarding the protocols used. The majority of the studies included did not describe a complete procedure of HGS measurement. The high heterogeneity between the protocols used, in sarcopenia and frailty studies, create an enormous difficulty in drawing comparative conclusions among them.

  15. Identifying dietary differences between Scotland and England: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie; Barton, Karen L; Albani, Viviana; Anderson, Annie S; Wrieden, Wendy L

    2017-10-01

    Rates of premature mortality have been higher in Scotland than in England since the 1970s. Given the known association of diet with chronic disease, the study objective was to identify and synthesise evidence on current and historical differences in food and nutrient intakes in Scotland and England. A rapid review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was carried out. After an initial scoping search, Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Relevant grey literature was also included. Inclusion criteria were: any date; measures of dietary intake; representative populations; cross-sectional or observational cohort studies; and English-language publications. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional Studies. A narrative synthesis of extracted information was conducted. Fifty publications and reports were included in the review. Results indicated that children and adults in Scotland had lower intakes of vegetables and vitamins compared with those living in England. Higher intakes of salt in Scotland were also identified. Data were limited by small Scottish samples, difficulty in finding England-level data, lack of statistical testing and adjustment for key confounders. Further investigation of adequately powered and analysed surveys is required to examine more fully dietary differences between Scotland and England. This would provide greater insight into potential causes of excess mortality in Scotland compared with England and suitable policy recommendations to address these inequalities.

  16. A new index for identifying different types of El Niño Modoki events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Tan, Wei; Wang, Chunzai

    2018-04-01

    El Niño Modoki events can be further classified into El Niño Modoki I and II in terms of their opposite impacts on southern China rainfall (Wang and Wang, J Clim 26:1322-1338, 2013) and the Indian Ocean dipole mode (Wang and Wang, Clim Dyn 42:991-1005, 2014). The present paper develops an index to identify the types of El Niño events. The El Niño Modoki II (MII) index is defined as the leading principle component of multivariate empirical orthogonal function analysis of the normalized El Niño Modoki index, Niño4 index and 850 hPa relative vorticity anomalies averaged near the Philippine Sea during autumn. The MII index exhibits dominant variations on interannual (2-3 and 4-5 years) and decadal (10-20 years) timescales. El Niño Modoki II events can be well identified by using the MII index value being larger than 1 standard deviation. Further analyses and numerical model experiments confirm that the MII index can portray the major oceanic and atmospheric features of El Niño Modoki II events. The constructed MII index along with previous ENSO indices can be used for classifying and identifying all types of El Niño events. Because of distinct impacts induced by different types of El Niño events, the implication of the present study is that climate prediction and future climate projection under global warming can be improved by using the MII index and other indices to identify the types of El Niño events.

  17. QM/MM simulations identify the determinants of catalytic activity differences between type II dehydroquinase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lence, Emilio; van der Kamp, Marc W; González-Bello, Concepción; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2018-05-16

    Type II dehydroquinase enzymes (DHQ2), recognized targets for antibiotic drug discovery, show significantly different activities dependent on the species: DHQ2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtDHQ2) and Helicobacter pylori (HpDHQ2) show a 50-fold difference in catalytic efficiency. Revealing the determinants of this activity difference is important for our understanding of biological catalysis and further offers the potential to contribute to tailoring specificity in drug design. Molecular dynamics simulations using a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics potential, with correlated ab initio single point corrections, identify and quantify the subtle determinants of the experimentally observed difference in efficiency. The rate-determining step involves the formation of an enolate intermediate: more efficient stabilization of the enolate and transition state of the key step in MtDHQ2, mainly by the essential residues Tyr24 and Arg19, makes it more efficient than HpDHQ2. Further, a water molecule, which is absent in MtDHQ2 but involved in generation of the catalytic Tyr22 tyrosinate in HpDHQ2, was found to destabilize both the transition state and the enolate intermediate. The quantification of the contribution of key residues and water molecules in the rate-determining step of the mechanism also leads to improved understanding of higher potencies and specificity of known inhibitors, which should aid ongoing inhibitor design.

  18. Ethics fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession.

  19. Competing endogenous RNA network analysis identifies critical genes among the different breast cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Xu, Juan; Li, Yongsheng; Zhang, Jinwen; Chen, Hong; Lu, Jianping; Wang, Zishan; Zhao, Xueying; Xu, Kang; Li, Yixue; Li, Xia; Zhang, Yan

    2017-02-07

    Although competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have been implicated in many solid tumors, their roles in breast cancer subtypes are not well understood. We therefore generated a ceRNA network for each subtype based on the significance of both, positive co-expression and the shared miRNAs, in the corresponding subtype miRNA dys-regulatory network, which was constructed based on negative regulations between differentially expressed miRNAs and targets. All four subtype ceRNA networks exhibited scale-free architecture and showed that the common ceRNAs were at the core of the networks. Furthermore, the common ceRNA hubs had greater connectivity than the subtype-specific hubs. Functional analysis of the common subtype ceRNA hubs highlighted factors involved in proliferation, MAPK signaling pathways and tube morphogenesis. Subtype-specific ceRNA hubs highlighted unique subtype-specific pathways, like the estrogen response and inflammatory pathways in the luminal subtypes or the factors involved in the coagulation process that participates in the basal-like subtype. Ultimately, we identified 29 critical subtype-specific ceRNA hubs that characterized the different breast cancer subtypes. Our study thus provides new insight into the common and specific subtype ceRNA interactions that define the different categories of breast cancer and enhances our understanding of the pathology underlying the different breast cancer subtypes, which can have prognostic and therapeutic implications in the future.

  20. Functional brain activation differences in stuttering identified with a rapid fMRI sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech motor and auditory brain activity in children who stutter closer to the age at which recovery from stuttering is documented. Rapid sequences may be preferred for individuals or populations who do not tolerate long scanning sessions. In this report, we document the application of a picture naming and phoneme monitoring task in three minute fMRI sequences with adults who stutter (AWS). If relevant brain differences are found in AWS with these approaches that conform to previous reports, then these approaches can be extended to younger populations. Pairwise contrasts of brain BOLD activity between AWS and normally fluent adults indicated the AWS showed higher BOLD activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right temporal lobe and sensorimotor cortices during picture naming and and higher activity in the right IFG during phoneme monitoring. The right lateralized pattern of BOLD activity together with higher activity in sensorimotor cortices is consistent with previous reports, which indicates rapid fMRI sequences can be considered for investigating stuttering in younger participants. PMID:22133409

  1. Identifying well-bleached quartz using the different bleaching rates of quartz and feldspar luminescence signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Masuda, N.

    2012-01-01

    When dating older sedimentary deposits using quartz, there are no unambiguous methods for identifying the presence of incomplete bleaching. Current statistical analysis of dose distributions depends entirely on the assumption that incomplete bleaching and mixing are the main causes of any excess...... dispersion in the distribution; the only existing way to test this assumption is using independent age control. Here we suggest a new approach to this question, based on the differential bleaching rates of quartz and feldspar luminescence signals. We first present data that confirm the differences...... in relative bleaching rates of quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and feldspar luminescence stimulated at 50 °C by infrared light (IR50) and feldspar luminescence stimulated at 290 °C by infrared light after a stimulation at 50 °C (pIRIR290), and use recently deposited samples to determine...

  2. Development of a model system to identify differences in spring and winter oat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawade, Aakash; Lindén, Pernilla; Bräutigam, Marcus; Jonsson, Rickard; Jonsson, Anders; Moritz, Thomas; Olsson, Olof

    2012-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop a Swedish winter oat (Avena sativa). To identify molecular differences that correlate with winter hardiness, a winter oat model comprising of both non-hardy spring lines and winter hardy lines is needed. To achieve this, we selected 294 oat breeding lines, originating from various Russian, German, and American winter oat breeding programs and tested them in the field in south- and western Sweden. By assaying for winter survival and agricultural properties during four consecutive seasons, we identified 14 breeding lines of different origins that not only survived the winter but also were agronomically better than the rest. Laboratory tests including electrolytic leakage, controlled crown freezing assay, expression analysis of the AsVrn1 gene and monitoring of flowering time suggested that the American lines had the highest freezing tolerance, although the German lines performed better in the field. Finally, six lines constituting the two most freezing tolerant lines, two intermediate lines and two spring cultivars were chosen to build a winter oat model system. Metabolic profiling of non-acclimated and cold acclimated leaf tissue samples isolated from the six selected lines revealed differential expression patterns of 245 metabolites including several sugars, amino acids, organic acids and 181 hitherto unknown metabolites. The expression patterns of 107 metabolites showed significant interactions with either a cultivar or a time-point. Further identification, characterisation and validation of these metabolites will lead to an increased understanding of the cold acclimation process in oats. Furthermore, by using the winter oat model system, differential sequencing of crown mRNA populations would lead to identification of various biomarkers to facilitate winter oat breeding.

  3. Fundamentals of turbomachines

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the working principles of all kinds of turbomachines. The same theoretical framework is used to analyse the different machine types. Fundamentals are first presented and theoretical concepts are then elaborated for particular machine types, starting with the simplest ones.For each machine type, the author strikes a balance between building basic understanding and exploring knowledge of practical aspects. Readers are invited through challenging exercises to consider how the theory applies to particular cases and how it can be generalised.   The book is primarily meant as a course book. It teaches fundamentals and explores applications. It will appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering and to professional engineers seeking to understand the operation of turbomachines. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of turbomachines. They will also be able to make a reasoned choice of turbomachine for a particular application and to understand its operation...

  4. Identifying rural-urban differences in the predictors of emergency ambulance service demand and misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ho Ting; Lin, Teng-Kang; Lin, Jen-Jia

    2018-06-13

    This study aims to assess rural-urban differences in the predictors of emergency ambulance service (EAS) demand and misuse in New Taipei City. Identifying the predictors of EAS demand will help the EAS service managing authority in formulating focused policies to maintain service quality. Over 160,000 electronic EAS usage records were used with a negative binomial regression model to assess rural-urban differences in the predictors of EAS demand and misuse. The factors of 1) ln-transformed population density, 2) percentage of residents who completed up to junior high school education, 3) accessibility of hospitals without an emergency room, and 4) accessibility of EAS were found to be predictors of EAS demand in rural areas, whereas only the factor of percentage of people aged above 65 was found to predict EAS demand in urban areas. For EAS misuse, only the factor of percentage of low-income households was found to be a predictor in rural areas, whereas no predictor was found in the urban areas. Results showed that the factors predicting EAS demand and misuse in rural areas were more complicated compared to urban areas and, therefore, formulating EAS policies for rural areas based on the results of urban studies may not be appropriate. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Ethnic differences in the ability of triglyceride levels to identify insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Cowie, Catherine C

    2008-02-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome is used to predict the onset of coronary artery disease and Type 2 diabetes. As the predictive value of the Metabolic Syndrome has been challenged, alternative syndromes have been developed. All of these syndromes were developed in populations that were predominantly non-Hispanic white (NHW). They include the Enlarged Waist Elevated Triglyceride Syndrome, the Overweight-Lipid Syndrome and the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Syndrome. The first applies to postmenopausal women, the second to overweight individuals (BMI> or =25 kg/m(2)), and the third to men. Each syndrome uses hypertriglyceridemia as a criterion. However, the definition of hypertriglyceridemia varies by syndrome i.e. TG> or =128 mg/dL for the Enlarged Waist Elevated Triglyceride Syndrome, TG> or =130 mg/dL for the Overweight-Lipid Syndrome, > or =150 mg/dL for the Metabolic Syndrome, and TG> or =176 mg/dL for the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Syndrome. Insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia are highly correlated. But as insulin resistant non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) often have triglyceride (TG) levels below the thresholds set by these syndromes, the ability of either TG or these syndromes to identify high risk NHB is unknown. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002, our goals were to determine by ethnicity: (1) the prevalence of each of these syndromes; (2) the ability of fasting TG concentrations to identify insulin resistance at cut-off levels established by these syndromes, specifically 130, 150 and 176 mg/dL. Participants were 2804 adults from NHANES 1999-2002. The cohort was divided into tertiles of homeostasis model assessment. Insulin resistance was defined as the upper tertile (> or =2.73). The prevalence of each syndrome was lower in NHB than NHW or Mexican Americans (MA) (all Pidentify individuals at high risk for conditions such as cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes, ethnic differences in TG levels should be considered.

  6. Kinematic analysis quantifies gait abnormalities associated with lameness in broiler chickens and identifies evolutionary gait differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Caplen

    Full Text Available This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10 would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12 and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult. Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated

  7. Identifying the causes of differences in ozone production from the CB05 and CBMIV chemical mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Saylor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to identify the mechanistic differences between two versions of the carbon bond gas-phase chemical mechanism (CB05 and CBMIV which consistently lead to larger ground-level ozone concentrations being produced in the CB05 version of the National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC modeling system even though the two parallel forecast systems utilize the same meteorology and base emissions and similar initial and boundary conditions. Box models of each of the mechanisms as they are implemented in the NAQFC were created and a set of 12 sensitivity simulations was designed. The sensitivity simulations independently probed the conceptual mechanistic differences between CB05 and CBMIV and were exercised over a 45-scenario simulation suite designed to emulate the wide range of chemical regimes encountered in a continental-scale atmospheric chemistry model. Results of the sensitivity simulations indicate that two sets of reactions that were included in the CB05 mechanism, but which were absent from the CBMIV mechanism, are the primary causes of the greater ozone production in the CB05 version of the NAQFC. One set of reactions recycles the higher organic peroxide species of CB05 (ROOH, resulting in additional photochemically reactive products that act to produce additional ozone in some chemical regimes. The other set of reactions recycles reactive nitrogen from less reactive forms back to NO2, increasing the effective NOx concentration of the system. In particular, the organic nitrate species (NTR, which was a terminal product for reactive nitrogen in the CBMIV mechanism, acts as a reservoir species in CB05 to redistribute NOx from major source areas to potentially NOx-sensitive areas where additional ozone may be produced in areas remote from direct NOx sources.

  8. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Five Mouse Models Identifies Similarities and Differences with Human Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, William R.; Johnston, Andrew; Carbajal, Steve; Han, Gangwen; Wohn, Christian; Lu, Jun; Xing, Xianying; Nair, Rajan P.; Voorhees, John J.; Elder, James T.; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Sano, Shigetoshi; Prens, Errol P.; DiGiovanni, John; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Ward, Nicole L.; Gudjonsson, Johann E.

    2011-01-01

    Development of a suitable mouse model would facilitate the investigation of pathomechanisms underlying human psoriasis and would also assist in development of therapeutic treatments. However, while many psoriasis mouse models have been proposed, no single model recapitulates all features of the human disease, and standardized validation criteria for psoriasis mouse models have not been widely applied. In this study, whole-genome transcriptional profiling is used to compare gene expression patterns manifested by human psoriatic skin lesions with those that occur in five psoriasis mouse models (K5-Tie2, imiquimod, K14-AREG, K5-Stat3C and K5-TGFbeta1). While the cutaneous gene expression profiles associated with each mouse phenotype exhibited statistically significant similarity to the expression profile of psoriasis in humans, each model displayed distinctive sets of similarities and differences in comparison to human psoriasis. For all five models, correspondence to the human disease was strong with respect to genes involved in epidermal development and keratinization. Immune and inflammation-associated gene expression, in contrast, was more variable between models as compared to the human disease. These findings support the value of all five models as research tools, each with identifiable areas of convergence to and divergence from the human disease. Additionally, the approach used in this paper provides an objective and quantitative method for evaluation of proposed mouse models of psoriasis, which can be strategically applied in future studies to score strengths of mouse phenotypes relative to specific aspects of human psoriasis. PMID:21483750

  9. Differences in fundamental and functional properties of HPMC co-processed fillers prepared by fluid-bed coating and spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, QianQian; Zhou, MiaoMiao; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi

    2018-07-01

    This study aimed to develop novel co-processed tablet fillers based on the principle of particle engineering for direct compaction and to compare the characteristics of co-processed products obtained by fluid-bed coating and co-spray drying, respectively. Water-soluble mannitol and water-insoluble calcium carbonate were selected as representative fillers for this study. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), serving as a surface property modifier, was distributed on the surface of primary filler particles via the two co-processing methods. Both fundamental and functional properties of the products were comparatively investigated. The results showed that functional properties of the fillers, like flowability, compactibility, and drug-loading capacity, were effectively improved by both co-processing methods. However, fluid-bed coating showed greater advantages over co-spray drying in some aspects, which was mainly attributed to the remarkable differences in some fundamental properties of co-processed powders, like particle size, surface topology, and particle structure. For example, the more irregular surface and porous structure induced by fluid-bed coating could contribute to better compaction properties and lower lubricant sensitivity due to the increasing contact area and mechanical interlocking between particles under pressure. More effective surface distribution of HPMC during fluid-bed coating was also a contributor. In addition, such a porous agglomerate structure could also reduce the separation of drug and excipients after mixing, resulting in the improvement in drug loading capacity and tablet uniformity. In summary, fluid-bed coating appears to be more promising for co-processing than spray drying in some aspects, and co-processed excipients produced by it have a great prospect for further investigations and development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying Genetic Differences Between Dongxiang Blue-Shelled and White Leghorn Chickens Using Sequencing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-bo Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken is one of the most valuable Chinese indigenous poultry breeds. However, compared to the Italian native White Leghorn, although this Chinese breed possesses numerous favorable characteristics, it also exhibits lower growth performance and fertility. Here, we utilized genotyping sequencing data obtained via genome reduction on a sequencing platform to detect 100,114 single nucleotide polymorphisms and perform further biological analysis and functional annotation. We employed cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity, eigenvector decomposition combined with genome-wide association studies (EigenGWAS, and efficient mixed-model association expedited methods to detect areas of the genome that are potential selected regions (PSR in both chicken breeds, and performed gene ontology (GO enrichment and quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses annotating using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The results of this study revealed a total of 2424 outlier loci (p-value <0.01, of which 2144 occur in the White Leghorn breed and 280 occur in the Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken. These correspond to 327 and 94 PSRs containing 297 and 54 genes, respectively. The most significantly selected genes in Blue-shelled chicken are TMEM141 and CLIC3, while the SLCO1B3 gene, related to eggshell color, was identified via EigenGWAS. We show that the White Leghorn genes JARID2, RBMS3, GPC3, TRIB2, ROBO1, SAMSN1, OSBP2, and IGFALS are involved in immunity, reproduction, and growth, and thus might represent footprints of the selection process. In contrast, we identified six significantly enriched pathways in the Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken that are related to amino acid and lipid metabolism as well as signal transduction. Our results also reveal the presence of a GO term associated with cell metabolism that occurs mainly in the White Leghorn breed, while the most significant QTL regions mapped to the Chicken QTL Database (GG_4

  11. Prenatal Particulate Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Urban Children. Identifying Sensitive Windows and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Coull, Brent A; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Lee, Alison; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-11-01

    The influence of particulate air pollution on respiratory health starts in utero. Fetal lung growth and structural development occurs in stages; thus, effects on postnatal respiratory disorders may differ based on timing of exposure. We implemented an innovative method to identify sensitive windows for effects of prenatal exposure to particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on children's asthma development in an urban pregnancy cohort. Analyses included 736 full-term (≥37 wk) children. Each mother's daily PM2.5 exposure was estimated over gestation using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporal resolved model. Using distributed lag models, we examined associations between weekly averaged PM2.5 levels over pregnancy and physician-diagnosed asthma in children by age 6 years. Effect modification by sex was also examined. Most mothers were ethnic minorities (54% Hispanic, 30% black), had 12 or fewer years of education (66%), and did not smoke in pregnancy (80%). In the sample as a whole, distributed lag models adjusting for child age, sex, and maternal factors (education, race and ethnicity, smoking, stress, atopy, prepregnancy obesity) showed that increased PM2.5 exposure levels at 16-25 weeks gestation were significantly associated with early childhood asthma development. An interaction between PM2.5 and sex was significant (P = 0.01) with sex-stratified analyses showing that the association exists only for boys. Higher prenatal PM2.5 exposure at midgestation was associated with asthma development by age 6 years in boys. Methods to better characterize vulnerable windows may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.

  12. Androgen receptors and serum testosterone levels identify different subsets of postmenopausal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secreto Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen receptors (AR are frequently expressed in breast cancers, but their implication in cancer growth is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the role of the androgen/AR pathway in breast cancer development. Methods AR expression was evaluated by immunochemistry in a cohort of 528 postmenopausal breast cancer patients previously examined for the association of serum testosterone levels with patient and tumor characteristics. AR expression was classified according to the percentage of stained cells: AR-absent (0% and AR-poorly (1%-30%, AR-moderately (>30%-60%, and AR-highly (>60% positive. Results Statistical analysis was performed in 451 patients who experienced natural menopause. AR-high expression was significantly related with low histologic grade and estrogen receptor (ER- and progesterone receptor (PR-positive status (P trendP=0.022, although a trend across the AR expression categories was not present. When women defined by ER status were analyzed separately, regression analysis in the ER-positive group showed a significant association of high testosterone levels with AR-highly-positive expression (OR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.10-3.16, but the association was essentially due to patients greater than or equal to 65 years (OR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82. In ER-positive group, elevated testosterone levels appeared also associated with AR-absent expression, although the small number of patients in this category limited the appearance of significant effects (OR 1.92; 95% CI, 0.73–5.02: the association was present in both age groups ( Conclusions The findings in the present study confirm that testosterone levels are a marker of hormone-dependent breast cancer and suggest that the contemporary evaluation of ER status, AR expression, and circulating testosterone levels may identify different subsets of cancers whose growth may be influenced by androgens.

  13. Hospital doctors behave differently, and only by respecting the fundamentals of professional organizations will managers be able to create common goals with professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijck, H

    2014-08-01

    Hospital doctors behave differently from other hospital workers. The general and specific characteristics of the doctors' behavior are described. As professionals, doctors want to make autonomous decisions and more specifically, they negotiate differently. The best description of their negotiation style is one that features multi-actor, multi-issue characteristics. They behave as actors in a network in never-ending rounds of negotiations with variable issues up for discussion: one time you lose, the next you win. A doctor's career starts with a long residency period in which he or she absorbs professional habits. His or her knowledge and way of organizing are implicit. It is hard for him or her to explicitly describe what he or she is doing. This makes it difficult for managers to discuss quality issues with doctors. Dealing with disruptive behavior is not easy either. The difficult tasks of the chief medical officer, who acts as a go-between, are highlighted. Only when managers respect the fundamentals of the professional organization will they be able to create common goals with the professionals. Common goals bring about better care in hospitals.

  14. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Rajani Ballav

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  15. Fundamental concepts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    The fundamental concepts on energy and the different forms in which it is manifested are presented. Since it is possible to transform energy in a way to other, the laws that govern these transformations are discussed. The energy transformation processes are an essential compound in the capacity humanizes to survive and be developed. The energy use brings important economic aspects, technical and political. Because this, any decision to administer energy system will be key for our future life

  16. Microarray analysis identifies a common set of cellular genes modulated by different HCV replicon clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerosolimo Germano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA synthesis and protein expression affect cell homeostasis by modulation of gene expression. The impact of HCV replication on global cell transcription has not been fully evaluated. Thus, we analysed the expression profiles of different clones of human hepatoma-derived Huh-7 cells carrying a self-replicating HCV RNA which express all viral proteins (HCV replicon system. Results First, we compared the expression profile of HCV replicon clone 21-5 with both the Huh-7 parental cells and the 21-5 cured (21-5c cells. In these latter, the HCV RNA has been eliminated by IFN-α treatment. To confirm data, we also analyzed microarray results from both the 21-5 and two other HCV replicon clones, 22-6 and 21-7, compared to the Huh-7 cells. The study was carried out by using the Applied Biosystems (AB Human Genome Survey Microarray v1.0 which provides 31,700 probes that correspond to 27,868 human genes. Microarray analysis revealed a specific transcriptional program induced by HCV in replicon cells respect to both IFN-α-cured and Huh-7 cells. From the original datasets of differentially expressed genes, we selected by Venn diagrams a final list of 38 genes modulated by HCV in all clones. Most of the 38 genes have never been described before and showed high fold-change associated with significant p-value, strongly supporting data reliability. Classification of the 38 genes by Panther System identified functional categories that were significantly enriched in this gene set, such as histones and ribosomal proteins as well as extracellular matrix and intracellular protein traffic. The dataset also included new genes involved in lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal network, which may be critical for HCV replication and pathogenesis. Conclusion Our data provide a comprehensive analysis of alterations in gene expression induced by HCV replication and reveal modulation of new genes potentially useful

  17. What is Fundamental?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...

  18. Gene Expression Differences between Noccaea caerulescens Ecotypes Help to Identify Candidate Genes for Metal Phytoremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halimaa, P.; Lin, Y.F.; Ahonen, V.H.; Blande, D.; Clemens, S.; Gyenesei, A.; Haikio, E.; Karenlampi, S.O.; Laiho, A.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Pursiheimo, J.P.; Schat, H.; Schmidt, H.; Tuomainen, M.H.; Tervahauta, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of Noccaea caerulescens show tremendous differences in their capacity to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals. To explore the differences that could contribute to these traits, we undertook SOLiD high-throughput sequencing of the root transcriptomes of three phenotypically

  19. Identifying the Individual Differences among Students during Learning and Teaching Process by Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubat, Ulas

    2018-01-01

    It is important for teachers to know variables such as physical characteristics, intelligence, perception, gender, ability, learning styles, which are individual differences of the learners. An effective and productive learning-teaching process can be planned by considering these individual differences of the students. Since the learners' own…

  20. A large-scale RNA interference screen identifies genes that regulate autophagy at different stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Virbasius, Ching-Man

    2018-01-01

    Dysregulated autophagy is central to the pathogenesis and therapeutic development of cancer. However, how autophagy is regulated in cancer is not well understood and genes that modulate cancer autophagy are not fully defined. To gain more insights into autophagy regulation in cancer, we performed...... with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we successfully isolated autophagic K562 cells where we identified 336 short hairpin RNAs. After candidate validation using Cyto-ID fluorescence spectrophotometry, LC3B immunoblotting, and quantitative RT-PCR, 82 genes were identified as autophagy-regulating genes. 20 genes...... have been reported previously and the remaining 62 candidates are novel autophagy mediators. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that most candidate genes were involved in molecular pathways regulating autophagy, rather than directly participating in the autophagy process. Further autophagy flux assays...

  1. Multiplatform serum metabolic phenotyping combined with pathway mapping to identify biochemical differences in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluarachchi, Manuja R; Boulangé, Claire L; Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Lindon, John C; Minet, Emmanuel F

    2016-10-01

    Determining perturbed biochemical functions associated with tobacco smoking should be helpful for establishing causal relationships between exposure and adverse events. A multiplatform comparison of serum of smokers (n = 55) and never-smokers (n = 57) using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, UPLC-MS and statistical modeling revealed clustering of the classes, distinguished by metabolic biomarkers. The identified metabolites were subjected to metabolic pathway enrichment, modeling adverse biological events using available databases. Perturbation of metabolites involved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular diseases and cancer were identified and discussed. Combining multiplatform metabolic phenotyping with knowledge-based mapping gives mechanistic insights into disease development, which can be applied to next-generation tobacco and nicotine products for comparative risk assessment.

  2. Identifying behavioural differences in working donkeys in response to analgesic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, F H; Hockenhull, J; Pritchard, J C; Waterman-Pearson, A E; Whay, H R

    2016-01-01

    To identify pain-related behaviour in working donkeys in order to assist their owners and veterinarians to recognise and manage pain. To identify general and specific behaviours associated with pain or its relief using a trial with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam (Metacam). Observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Forty adult male working donkeys with common clinical abnormalities were randomly assigned to receive either a single loading dose of meloxicam (1.2 mg/kg bwt per os; n = 20) or a placebo (30 mg honey/250 ml water per os; n = 20). Observation of postural and event behaviours was undertaken at 2 pretreatment time points followed by 4 post treatment time points, using scan (instantaneous) and focal sampling. In comparison to pretreatment baselines, donkeys receiving meloxicam were more alert post treatment than the placebo group. They were observed lying down less frequently (P = 0.007), with their eyes closed less frequently (P = 0.04) and having a high head carriage more frequently (P = 0.02). Dozing behaviour decreased after meloxicam compared with the pretreatment baseline (P = 0.03). Donkeys given meloxicam also showed more interest in their environment, turning to look at environmental stimuli more frequently (P = 0.05) than those in the placebo group post treatment. Neither the meloxicam nor the placebo group showed a significant post treatment improvement in lameness scores. Working donkeys receiving meloxicam were more active and alert compared with their pretreatment behaviour, confirming the potential value of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in identifying behaviours indicative of pain in working donkeys. Behavioural assessment of pain in working donkeys in field clinic conditions will enable veterinary staff and owners to identify welfare issues promptly and monitor response to analgesia. The Summary is available in Chinese--see Supporting information. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Critical differences between elective and emergency surgery: identifying domains for quality improvement in emergency general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Alexandra B; Morris, Megan A; Lilley, Elizabeth J; Harlow, Alyssa F; Haider, Adil H; Salim, Ali; Havens, Joaquim M

    2018-04-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize providers' impressions of factors contributing to disproportionate rates of morbidity and mortality in emergency general surgery to identify targets for care quality improvement. Emergency general surgery is characterized by a high-cost burden and disproportionate morbidity and mortality. Factors contributing to these observed disparities are not comprehensively understood and targets for quality improvement have not been formally developed. Using a grounded theory approach, emergency general surgery providers were recruited through purposive-criterion-based sampling to participate in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Participants were asked to identify contributors to emergency general surgery outcomes, to define effective care for EGS patients, and to describe operating room team structure. Interviews were performed to thematic saturation. Transcripts were iteratively coded and analyzed within and across cases to identify emergent themes. Member checking was performed to establish credibility of the findings. A total of 40 participants from 5 academic hospitals participated in either individual interviews (n = 25 [9 anesthesia, 12 surgery, 4 nursing]) or focus groups (n = 2 [15 nursing]). Emergency general surgery was characterized by an exceptionally high level of variability, which can be subcategorized as patient-variability (acute physiology and comorbidities) and system-variability (operating room resources and workforce). Multidisciplinary communication is identified as a modifier to variability in emergency general surgery; however, nursing is often left out of early communication exchanges. Critical variability in emergency general surgery may impact outcomes. Patient-variability and system-variability, with focus on multidisciplinary communication, represent potential domains for quality improvement in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Detecting and Identifying Industrial Gases by a Method Based on Olfactory Machine at Different Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yunlong; Luo, Dehan; Li, Hui; Zhu, Chuchu; Xu, Ou; Gholam Hosseini, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Gas sensors have been widely reported for industrial gas detection and monitoring. However, the rapid detection and identification of industrial gases are still a challenge. In this work, we measure four typical industrial gases including CO2, CH4, NH3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on electronic nose (EN) at different concentrations. To solve the problem of effective classification and identification of different industrial gases, we propose an algorithm based on the selective ...

  5. Ecosystem services and climate change: Understanding the differences and identifying opportunities for forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Crystal Raymond; David L. Peterson; Cindy. Glick

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of misunderstandings about “ecosystem services” and “climate change” and these terms are often used incorrectly to describe different concepts. These concepts address different issues and objectives but have some important integrating themes relating to carbon and carbon sequestration. In this paper, we provide definitions and distinctions between...

  6. Surface electromyographic amplitude does not identify differences in neural drive to synergistic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valdes, Eduardo; Negro, Francesco; Falla, Deborah; De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Farina, Dario

    2018-04-01

    Surface electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude is typically used to compare the neural drive to muscles. We experimentally investigated this association by studying the motor unit (MU) behavior and action potentials in the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles. Eighteen participants performed isometric knee extensions at four target torques [10, 30, 50, and 70% of the maximum torque (MVC)] while high-density EMG signals were recorded from the VM and VL. The absolute EMG amplitude was greater for VM than VL ( P differences in EMG amplitude can be due to both differences in the neural drive and in the size of the MU action potentials, we indirectly inferred the neural drives received by the two muscles by estimating the synaptic inputs received by the corresponding motor neuron pools. For this purpose, we analyzed the increase in discharge rate from recruitment to target torque for motor units matched by recruitment threshold in the two muscles. This analysis indicated that the two muscles received similar levels of neural drive. Nonetheless, the size of the MU action potentials was greater for VM than VL ( P difference explained most of the differences in EMG amplitude between the two muscles (~63% of explained variance). These results indicate that EMG amplitude, even following normalization, does not reflect the neural drive to synergistic muscles. Moreover, absolute EMG amplitude is mainly explained by the size of MU action potentials. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Electromyographic (EMG) amplitude is widely used to compare indirectly the strength of neural drive received by synergistic muscles. However, there are no studies validating this approach with motor unit data. Here, we compared between-muscles differences in surface EMG amplitude and motor unit behavior. The results clarify the limitations of surface EMG to interpret differences in neural drive between muscles.

  7. Application of otolith shape analysis in identifying different ecotypes of Coilia ectenes in the Yangtze Basin, China

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Radhakrishnan, K.V.; Li, Y.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Liu, M.; Murphy, B.R.; Xie, S.

    The variability in otolith shape of the tapertail anchovy Coilia ectenes was investigated as a tool for identifying its different ecotypes. The outlines of 350 sagittal otoliths of known ecotypes collected from seven sampling areas, covering most...

  8. Development of a non-destructive method to identify different grades of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2003-01-01

    One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyse a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels. Comparison of the results for certified reference standards obtained from this analysis and that of its certified value shows very small differences between them. (Author)

  9. Development of a non-destructive method to identify different grades of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2004-01-01

    One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyze a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no tedious sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels. Comparison of the results obtained from this analysis with certified reference standards show very small differences between them. (Author)

  10. Identifying the Generation Gap in Higher Education: Where Do the Differences Really Lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Paula; Qin, Jingjing

    2007-01-01

    The new generation of incoming college students come complete with new technological skills and, seemingly, new expectations for learning. Yet how different are these students from the ones educators have encountered in the past? Under the auspices of Northern Arizona University's e-Learning Center, Paula Garcia and Jingjing Qin investigated the…

  11. Involvement in Extracurricular Activities: Identifying Differences in Perceptions of School Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; McMahon, Susan D.; Cohen, Jonathan; Thapa, Amrit

    2016-01-01

    Many youth participate in extracurricular activities, and research has linked activity participation with school engagement and academic success. Social-ecological theory suggests that the social contexts of different types of extracurricular activities may differentially affect student outcomes. Yet, there is scant research examining the relation…

  12. Identifying consumer preference for beef produced with different levels of growth promotant technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Objectives of this study were to 1) evaluate growth performance and carcass characteristics, and 2) determine environmental and economic impacts of cattle raised with different levels of growth promoting technology. Materials and Methods: Angus' Simmental,and crossbred steer calves (n =...

  13. Identifying target groups for environmentally sustainable transport: assessment of different segmentation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Hunecke, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of attitude-based market segmentation to promote environmentally sustainable transport has significantly increased. The segmentation of the population into meaningful groups sharing similar attitudes and preferences provides valuable information about how green measures should...... and behavioural segmentations are compared regarding marketing criteria. Although none of the different approaches can claim absolute superiority, attitudinal approaches show advantages in providing startingpoints for interventions to reduce car use....

  14. Gene expression differences between Noccaea caerulescens ecotypes help to identify candidate genes for metal phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimaa, Pauliina; Lin, Ya-Fen; Ahonen, Viivi H; Blande, Daniel; Clemens, Stephan; Gyenesei, Attila; Häikiö, Elina; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O; Laiho, Asta; Aarts, Mark G M; Pursiheimo, Juha-Pekka; Schat, Henk; Schmidt, Holger; Tuomainen, Marjo H; Tervahauta, Arja I

    2014-03-18

    Populations of Noccaea caerulescens show tremendous differences in their capacity to hyperaccumulate and hypertolerate metals. To explore the differences that could contribute to these traits, we undertook SOLiD high-throughput sequencing of the root transcriptomes of three phenotypically well-characterized N. caerulescens accessions, i.e., Ganges, La Calamine, and Monte Prinzera. Genes with possible contribution to zinc, cadmium, and nickel hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance were predicted. The most significant differences between the accessions were related to metal ion (di-, trivalent inorganic cation) transmembrane transporter activity, iron and calcium ion binding, (inorganic) anion transmembrane transporter activity, and antioxidant activity. Analysis of correlation between the expression profile of each gene and the metal-related characteristics of the accessions disclosed both previously characterized (HMA4, HMA3) and new candidate genes (e.g., for nickel IRT1, ZIP10, and PDF2.3) as possible contributors to the hyperaccumulation/tolerance phenotype. A number of unknown Noccaea-specific transcripts also showed correlation with Zn(2+), Cd(2+), or Ni(2+) hyperaccumulation/tolerance. This study shows that N. caerulescens populations have evolved great diversity in the expression of metal-related genes, facilitating adaptation to various metalliferous soils. The information will be helpful in the development of improved plants for metal phytoremediation.

  15. Using freelisting to identify, assess, and characterize age differences in shared cultural domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Sanchez, Julia

    2008-11-01

    Freelisting is a brief, paper-and-pencil technique in which participants make lists of items that they believe belong in a particular domain. Where cultural domains are shared, as for young and old in the same society, subtle intracultural differences may be difficult to detect. This article presents a series of techniques for revealing and describing this intracultural variation in freelisted data among young versus old age groups. Older (N = 30) and younger (N = 31) Mexicans in Mexico City made freelists in four quotidian domains: animals, emotions, illnesses, and gendered occupations. We used minimum residual factor analysis (consensus analysis) to establish domain coherence and assess overall consensus concerning contents of the domains. We established subvariation within the overall consensus by comparing levels of observed versus predicted inter-informant agreement. Results showed divergent patterns of inter-informant agreement between young and old participants across domains. Qualitative examination of items with higher salience for young versus old revealed age differences consistent with prior findings in each domain. The concatenation of these techniques renders freelisting an accessible, easily administered tool for probing age and group differences in cultural domains.

  16. Identifying Different Transportation Modes from Trajectory Data Using Tree-Based Ensemble Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of transportation modes can be used in different applications including human behavior research, transport management and traffic control. Previous work on transportation mode recognition has often relied on using multiple sensors or matching Geographic Information System (GIS information, which is not possible in many cases. In this paper, an approach based on ensemble learning is proposed to infer hybrid transportation modes using only Global Position System (GPS data. First, in order to distinguish between different transportation modes, we used a statistical method to generate global features and extract several local features from sub-trajectories after trajectory segmentation, before these features were combined in the classification stage. Second, to obtain a better performance, we used tree-based ensemble models (Random Forest, Gradient Boosting Decision Tree, and XGBoost instead of traditional methods (K-Nearest Neighbor, Decision Tree, and Support Vector Machines to classify the different transportation modes. The experiment results on the later have shown the efficacy of our proposed approach. Among them, the XGBoost model produced the best performance with a classification accuracy of 90.77% obtained on the GEOLIFE dataset, and we used a tree-based ensemble method to ensure accurate feature selection to reduce the model complexity.

  17. Diagnosed, identified, current and complete depression among patients attending primary care in southern Catalonia: different aspects of the same concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesó-Curto, Pilar; Ferré-Grau, Carme; Lleixà-Fortuño, Mar; Albacar-Riobóo, Nuria; Lejeune, Marylene

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the prevalence and the conceptualizations of depression detected by the healthcare system, identified by the patient or classified/identified in the validated Goldberg's questionnaire in a community. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation of 317 patients. The different types of depression diagnosed, identified, current or total were stratified by age and gender groups. The difference in the conceptualization of depression from the medical or ordinary people point of view indicate that depression care requires the understanding of the lifestyle, beliefs, attitudes, family and social networks of the people the physicians and nurses care for. © 2014.

  18. Using sex differences in the developing brain to identify nodes of influence for seizure susceptibility and epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kight, Katherine E; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2014-12-01

    Sexual differentiation of the developing brain organizes the neural architecture differently between males and females, and the main influence on this process is exposure to gonadal steroids during sensitive periods of prenatal and early postnatal development. Many molecular and cellular processes are influenced by steroid hormones in the developing brain, including gene expression, cell birth and death, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, and synaptic activity. Perturbations in these processes can alter neuronal excitability and circuit activity, leading to increased seizure susceptibility and the promotion of pathological processes that constitute epileptogenesis. In this review, we will provide a general overview of sex differences in the early developing brain that may be relevant for altered seizure susceptibility in early life, focusing on limbic areas of the brain. Sex differences that have the potential to alter the progress of epileptogenesis are evident at molecular and cellular levels in the developing brain, and include differences in neuronal excitability, response to environmental insult, and epigenetic control of gene expression. Knowing how these processes differ between the sexes can help us understand fundamental mechanisms underlying gender differences in seizure susceptibility and epileptogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  20. Femoral head shape differences during development may identify hips at risk of degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S; Schwager, Steven J; Todhunter, Rory J; Reeves, Anthony P

    2011-12-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common cause of elevated contact stress and early onset osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that adaptation to focal loading during postnatal development would result in signature changes to the shape of the femoral head secondary center of ossification (SCO). SCO shape was evaluated in a canine model of DDH at ages 14 and 32 weeks. The evolving 3D morphology of the SCO was captured using serial quantitative computed tomography. A discrete medial representation shape model was fit to each SCO and served as the basis for quantitative thickness and bending measurements. Shape measurements were tested for associations with hip subluxation and degeneration. At 32 weeks, the SCO was thinner (flatter) in the perifoveal region, the site of focal loading; a greater bend to the SCO was present lateral to the site of thinning; SCO thinning and bending were associated with less femoral head coverage and with a higher probability of degeneration. Shape changes were not detected at 14 weeks. Measurement and visualization of SCO shape changes due to altered loading may provide a basis for identifying hips at risk of early onset OA and a tool for surgical planning of hip restructuring.

  1. Combination of FTIR and SEM for Identifying Freshwater-Cultured Pearls from Different Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satitkune, Somruedee; Monarumit, Natthapong; Boonmee, Chakkrich; Phlayrahan, Aumaparn; Promdee, Kittiphop; Won-in, Krit

    2016-03-01

    The freshwater-cultured pearl ( Chamberlainia hainesiana species) is an organic gemstone mainly composed of calcium carbonate mineral including calcite, aragonite and vaterite phases. Generally, the quality of freshwater-cultured pearl is based on its luster. The high luster pearl is full of the aragonite phase without vaterite phase. On the other hand, the low luster pearl consists of aragonite and vaterite phases. These data could be proved by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the results, the high luster pearl similarly shows the FTIR spectrum of aragonite phase, and also, it shows the hexagonal shape of aragonite for the SEM image. On the other hand, the FTIR spectrum of low luster pearl has been pointed to the mixture component among aragonite and vaterite phases, and based on the SEM image; the irregular form is also interpreted to the mixture of aragonite and vaterite phases. This research concludes that the quality of freshwater-cultured pearls can be identified by the combination data of FTIR spectra and SEM images. These techniques are suitable for applied gemology.

  2. Identifying and prioritizing different factors influencing the success of advertisement during the economic depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Rashidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the financial crisis of 2007, many businesses and banks faced unexpected circumstances and declared bankruptcy. Market mortgage crisis and the collapse of the economic system in United States created a substantial amount of damage in world economy. Within a few years, the economic downturn was transferred to developing countries such as Iran. The recession has created conditions for Iranian companies that have led them to focus more on the subject of advertising since this is the primary tool of communication and business customers business. Success and failure of many organizations and companies depend on their advertisement planning. In this study, the factors contributing to the success and effectiveness of advertising during the recession time are identified. This survey has been accomplished on investigating an Iranian dairy firm named “Kalle”. Using a questionnaire in Likert scale, the study determines the effects of various factors of advertisement on sales improvement in this firm using Pearson correlation ratio and rank them based on Freedman test. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.93. According to the results, factors that contribute to the success of advertising during a recession include: Responsiveness to customers’ needs, advertising tools, content factors, the amount of money spent and availability.

  3. Collecting and learning to identify edible fungi in southeastern Poland: age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczaj, Lukasz; Nieroda, Zofia

    2011-01-01

    The gathering of 17 folk taxa of edible fungi (most commonly Boletus edulis, Leccinum spp., Xerocomus spp., Suillus spp., Cantharellus cibarius, Armillaria spp., Russula spp., Lactarius salmonicolor, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus erythropus) was recorded in three villages in southeast Poland, but only 13 of them are gathered by children. Gender and age differences were small (apart from the fact that more adults than children collect non-Boletaceae species), and relatives of both sexes took part in teaching children about mushrooms, although fathers were most frequently mentioned as first teachers. Collecting mushrooms, mainly for own use, sometimes for sale, is still a culturally significant activity.

  4. DNA comet assay to identify different freezing temperatures of irradiated liver chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Renato C.; Mozeika, Michel A.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Marchioni, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The cold chain is a succession of steps which maintain the food at low temperature. The thawed food never be frozen again and the best solution being to consume it quickly to avoid the microorganism growth which causes decay and nutrients damage. One of most important point is that freezing process, unlike irradiation, do not destroy microorganisms, only inactive them as long as they remain in a frozen state. The Comet Assay is an original test used to detect irradiated foods that's recognize the DNA damage and can then be used to control the overall degradation of the food and in a certain extend to evaluate the damage caused by irradiation, different forms of freeze and storage time on liver chicken cells. Different freezing temperatures were used, deep freeze -196 deg C and slow freeze -10 deg C. Samples were irradiated in a 60 Co irradiator with 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy radiation doses. Fast freezing technique induces a low percent of DNA degradation comparing to slow freezing technique. This procedure could be a good choose to chicken freezing processing. (author)

  5. Detecting and Identifying Industrial Gases by a Method Based on Olfactory Machine at Different Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors have been widely reported for industrial gas detection and monitoring. However, the rapid detection and identification of industrial gases are still a challenge. In this work, we measure four typical industrial gases including CO2, CH4, NH3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs based on electronic nose (EN at different concentrations. To solve the problem of effective classification and identification of different industrial gases, we propose an algorithm based on the selective local linear embedding (SLLE to reduce the dimensionality and extract the features of high-dimensional data. Combining the Euclidean distance (ED formula with the proposed algorithm, we can achieve better classification and identification of four kinds of gases. We compared the classification and recognition results of classical principal component analysis (PCA, linear discriminate analysis (LDA, and PCA + LDA algorithms with the proposed SLLE algorithm after selecting the original data and performing feature extraction. The experimental results show that the recognition accuracy rate of the SLLE reaches 91.36%, which is better than the other three algorithms. In addition, the SLLE algorithm provides more efficient and accurate responses to high-dimensional industrial gas data. It can be used in real-time industrial gas detection and monitoring combined with gas sensor networks.

  6. Mixed models identify physic nut genotypes adapted to environments with different phosphorus availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Laviola, B G; Martins, L D; Amaral, J F T; Rodrigues, W N

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this study was to screen physic nut (Jatropha curcas) genotypes that differ in their phosphorous (P) use, using mixed models. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse located in the experimental area of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, in Alegre, ES, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, using a 10 x 3-factorial scheme, including ten physic nut genotypes and two environments that differed in their levels of soil P availability (10 and 60 mg/dm 3 ), each with four replications. After 100 days of cultivation, we evaluated the plant height, stem diameter, root volume, root dry matter, aerial part dry matter, total dry matter, as well as the efficiency of absorption, and use. The parameters were estimated for combined selection while considering the studied parameters: stability and adaptability for both environments were obtained using the harmonic mean of the relative performance of the predicted genotypic values. High genotype by environment interactions were observed for most physic nut traits, indicating considerable influences of P availability on the phenotypic value. The genotype Paraíso simultaneously presented high adaptability and stability for aerial part dry matter, total dry matter, and P translocation efficiency. The genotype CNPAE-C2 showed a positive response to P fertilization by increasing both the total and aerial part dry matter.

  7. Intraguild Predation Responses in Two Aphidophagous Coccinellids Identify Differences among Juvenile Stages and Aphid Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondoni, Gabriele; Ielo, Fulvio; Ricci, Carlo; Conti, Eric

    2014-12-08

    (1) Intraguild predation (IGP) can occur among aphidophagous predators thus reducing their effectiveness in controlling crop pests. Among ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata L. and Hippodamia variegata Goeze are the most effective predators upon Aphis gossypii Glov., which is an economically important pest of melon. Understanding their likelihood to engage in reciprocal predation is a key point for conservation of biological control. Here, we aim to investigate, under laboratory conditions, the level of IGP between the two above mentioned aphidophagous species. (2) Fourth-instars of the two species were isolated in petri dishes with combinations of different stages of the heterospecific ladybird and different densities of A. gossypii. The occurrence of IGP events was recorded after six hours. (3) C. septempunctata predated H. variegata at a higher rate than vice versa (70% vs. 43% overall). Higher density of the aphid or older juvenile stage of the IG-prey (22% of fourth instars vs. 74% of eggs and second instars) reduces the likelihood of predation. (4) To our knowledge, IGP between C. septempunctata and H. variegata was investigated for the first time. Results represent a baseline, necessary to predict the likelihood of IGP occurrence in the field.

  8. Size-matched alkyne-conjugated cyanine fluorophores to identify differences in protein glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham-Marusich, Amanda R; Plechaty, Anna M; Berninsone, Patricia M

    2014-09-01

    Currently, there are few methods to detect differences in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in a specific manner from complex mixtures. Thus, we developed an approach that combines the sensitivity and specificity of click chemistry with the resolution capabilities of 2D-DIGE. In "Click-DIGE", posttranslationally modified proteins are metabolically labeled with azido-substrate analogs, then size- and charge-matched alkyne-Cy3 or alkyne-Cy5 dyes are covalently attached to the azide of the PTM by click chemistry. The fluorescently-tagged protein samples are then multiplexed for 2DE analysis. Whereas standard DIGE labels all proteins, Click-DIGE focuses the analysis of protein differences to a targeted subset of posttranslationally modified proteins within a complex sample (i.e. specific labeling and analysis of azido glycoproteins within a cell lysate). Our data indicate that (i) Click-DIGE specifically labels azido proteins, (ii) the resulting Cy-protein conjugates are spectrally distinct, and (iii) the conjugates are size- and charge-matched at the level of 2DE. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by detecting multiple differentially expressed glycoproteins between a mutant cell line defective in UDP-galactose transport and the parental cell line. We anticipate that the diversity of azido substrates already available will enable Click-DIGE to be compatible with analysis of a wide range of PTMs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. DNA comet assay to identify different freezing temperatures of irradiated liver chicken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Renato C.; Mozeika, Michel A.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: renatocduarte@yahoo.com.br; Marchioni, Eric [Universite de Strasbourg, Illkirch (France). Faculte de Pharmacie. Lab. de Chimie Analytique et Sciences de l' Aliment

    2009-07-01

    The cold chain is a succession of steps which maintain the food at low temperature. The thawed food never be frozen again and the best solution being to consume it quickly to avoid the microorganism growth which causes decay and nutrients damage. One of most important point is that freezing process, unlike irradiation, do not destroy microorganisms, only inactive them as long as they remain in a frozen state. The Comet Assay is an original test used to detect irradiated foods that's recognize the DNA damage and can then be used to control the overall degradation of the food and in a certain extend to evaluate the damage caused by irradiation, different forms of freeze and storage time on liver chicken cells. Different freezing temperatures were used, deep freeze -196 deg C and slow freeze -10 deg C. Samples were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co irradiator with 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy radiation doses. Fast freezing technique induces a low percent of DNA degradation comparing to slow freezing technique. This procedure could be a good choose to chicken freezing processing. (author)

  10. Identifying different methods for creating knowledge from lessons learned in project oriented organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Norang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increase in competition has increased the relative importance of innovation for most firms and many managers believe a good innovation must be knowledge oriented. This paper has tried to determine different methods for creating knowledge in project oriented organizations. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 32 experts who were well informed about different methods of knowledge creation and lessons learned. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey were well above the desirable level. The study has detected 11 methods for knowledge creation and lessons learned. In terms of preliminary assessment, business transactions has received the highest impact while knowledge team has received the highest effect in terms of necessary assessment. The results of this survey have indicated that although there are several methods for detecting knowledge within organizations, in most cases, it is not easy to gain value added knowledge within an organization, quickly. The people who participated in our survey have indicated that organizational commitment, brainstorming, Delphi and storytelling also have played important role for creation of knowledge. The results have also shown that brainstorming, knowledge brokers, map knowledge and work experience were easier to use for knowledge creation and lessons learned compared with other forms of knowledge creation.

  11. Ability of Different Measures of Adiposity to Identify High Metabolic Risk in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the screening performance of different measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR for high metabolic risk in a sample of adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 517 adolescents aged 15–18, from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure. HOMA and TC/HDL-C ratio were calculated. For each of these variables, a Z-score was computed by age and sex. A metabolic risk score (MRS was constructed by summing the Z-scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered when the individual had ≥1SD of this score. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC were used. Results. Linear regression analyses showed that, after adjusting for age and pubertal stage, all different measures of adiposity are positively and significantly associated with MRS in both sexes, with exception of WHtR for boys. BMI, WC, and WHtR performed well in detecting high MRS, indicated by areas under the curve (AUC, with slightly greater AUC for BMI than for WC and WHtR in both sexes. Conclusion. All measures of adiposity were significantly associated with metabolic risk factors in a sample of Portuguese adolescents.

  12. Virtual and composite fundamentals in the ERM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knot, KHW; Sturm, JE

    1999-01-01

    A latent-variable approach is applied to identify the appropriate driving process for fundamental exchange rates in the ERM. From the time-series characteristics of so-called "virtual fundamentals" and "composite fundamentals", a significant degree of mean reversion can be asserted. The relative

  13. Previously identified patellar tendinopathy risk factors differ between elite and sub-elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Steele, J R; Munro, B J; Brown, N A T

    2015-06-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is the most common knee injury incurred in volleyball, with its prevalence in elite athletes more than three times that of their sub-elite counterparts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patellar tendinopathy risk factors differed between elite and sub-elite male volleyball players. Nine elite and nine sub-elite male volleyball players performed a lateral stop-jump block movement. Maximum vertical jump, training history, muscle extensibility and strength, three-dimensional landing kinematics (250 Hz), along with lower limb neuromuscular activation patterns (1500 Hz), and patellar tendon loading were collected during each trial. Multivariate analyses of variance (P volleyball players. Interventions designed to reduce landing frequency and improve quadriceps extensibility are recommended to reduce patellar tendinopathy prevalence in volleyball players. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Jayavel; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S; Narayanan, Krishna R; Srinivasa, Arun R

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin) using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve). In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features) using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  15. Not Just a Sum? Identifying Different Types of Interplay between Constituents in Combined Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, Katrijn; Thorrez, Lieven; van den Berg, Robert A; Smilde, Age K; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in which the effect of combined manipulations is compared with the effects of their pure constituents have received a great deal of attention. Examples include the study of combination therapies and the comparison of double and single knockout model organisms. Often the effect of the combined manipulation is not a mere addition of the effects of its constituents, with quite different forms of interplay between the constituents being possible. Yet, a well-formalized taxonomy of possible forms of interplay is lacking, let alone a statistical methodology to test for their presence in empirical data. Starting from a taxonomy of a broad range of forms of interplay between constituents of a combined manipulation, we propose a sound statistical hypothesis testing framework to test for the presence of each particular form of interplay. We illustrate the framework with analyses of public gene expression data on the combined treatment of dendritic cells with curdlan and GM-CSF and show that these lead to valuable insights into the mode of action of the constituent treatments and their combination. R code implementing the statistical testing procedure for microarray gene expression data is available as supplementary material. The data are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus with accession number GSE32986.

  16. Identifying resistance gene analogs associated with resistances to different pathogens in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Camilo E; Acosta, Iván F; Jara, Carlos; Pedraza, Fabio; Gaitán-Solís, Eliana; Gallego, Gerardo; Beebe, Steve; Tohme, Joe

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT A polymerase chain reaction approach using degenerate primers that targeted the conserved domains of cloned plant disease resistance genes (R genes) was used to isolate a set of 15 resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Eight different classes of RGAs were obtained from nucleotide binding site (NBS)-based primers and seven from not previously described Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor-like (TIR)-based primers. Putative amino acid sequences of RGAs were significantly similar to R genes and contained additional conserved motifs. The NBS-type RGAs were classified in two subgroups according to the expected final residue in the kinase-2 motif. Eleven RGAs were mapped at 19 loci on eight linkage groups of the common bean genetic map constructed at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical. Genetic linkage was shown for eight RGAs with partial resistance to anthracnose, angular leaf spot (ALS) and Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). RGA1 and RGA2 were associated with resistance loci to anthracnose and BGYMV and were part of two clusters of R genes previously described. A new major cluster was detected by RGA7 and explained up to 63.9% of resistance to ALS and has a putative contribution to anthracnose resistance. These results show the usefulness of RGAs as candidate genes to detect and eventually isolate numerous R genes in common bean.

  17. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayavel Arumugam

    Full Text Available Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve. In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  18. Difference gel electrophoresis (DiGE) identifies differentially expressed proteins in endoscopically-collected pancreatic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A.; Lee, Linda S.; Banks, Peter A.; Steen, Hanno; Conwell, Darwin L.

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in the pancreatic fluid proteome of individuals with chronic pancreatitis may offer insights into the development and progression of the disease. The endoscopic pancreas function test (ePFT) can safely collect large volumes of pancreatic fluid that are potentially amenable to proteomic analyses using difference gel electrophoresis (DiGE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Pancreatic fluid was collected endoscopically using the ePFT method following secretin stimulation from three individuals with severe chronic pancreatitis and three chronic abdominal pain controls. The fluid was processed to minimize protein degradation and the protein profiles of each cohort, as determined by DiGE and LC-MS/MS, were compared. This DiGE-LC-MS/MS analysis reveals proteins that are differentially expressed in chronic pancreatitis compared to chronic abdominal pain controls. Proteins with higher abundance in pancreatic fluid from chronic pancreatitis individuals include: actin, desmoplankin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, SNC73, and serotransferrin. Those of relatively lower abundance include carboxypeptidase B, lipase, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, Arp2/3 subunit 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and protein disulfide isomerase. Endoscopic collection (ePFT) in tandem with DiGE-LC-MS/MS is a suitable approach for pancreatic fluid proteome analysis, however, further optimization of our protocol, as outlined herein, may improve proteome coverage in future analyses. PMID:21792986

  19. Using cluster analysis to identify patterns in students’ responses to contextually different conceptual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stewart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the evolution of student responses to seven contextually different versions of two Force Concept Inventory questions in an introductory physics course at the University of Arkansas. The consistency in answering the closely related questions evolved little over the seven-question exam. A model for the state of student knowledge involving the probability of selecting one of the multiple-choice answers was developed. Criteria for using clustering algorithms to extract model parameters were explored and it was found that the overlap between the probability distributions of the model vectors was an important parameter in characterizing the cluster models. The course data were then clustered and the extracted model showed that students largely fit into two groups both pre- and postinstruction: one that answered all questions correctly with high probability and one that selected the distracter representing the same misconception with high probability. For the course studied, 14% of the students were left with persistent misconceptions post instruction on a static force problem and 30% on a dynamic Newton’s third law problem. These students selected the answer representing the predominant misconception slightly more consistently postinstruction, indicating that the course studied had been ineffective at moving this subgroup of students nearer a Newtonian force concept and had instead moved them slightly farther away from a correct conceptual understanding of these two problems. The consistency in answering pairs of problems with varied physical contexts is shown to be an important supplementary statistic to the score on the problems and suggests that the inclusion of such problem pairs in future conceptual inventories would be efficacious. Multiple, contextually varied questions further probe the structure of students’ knowledge. To allow working instructors to make use of the additional insight gained from cluster analysis, it

  20. Fundamentalization of the content of physical culture and health education of students in the largest medical schools of different professional orientation.

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlenko V.A.

    2017-01-01

    The content of competence of physical culture and health work reveals. It causes the affects the physical development of students, effective self-realization in the sphere of future professional activity, the need for physical activity, awareness and acceptance of the values of physical culture for the preservation and strengthening of individual health. The directions of the fundamentalization of education for the acquisition of basic knowledge in physical culture and sports, forming student...

  1. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  2. An interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on finite-order independence of structural difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Hikita, Shiro

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on the concept of finite-order independence of structural difference. This concept includes Dyer and Sarin's weak difference independence as special cases. The algorithm developed is composed of four major parts: 1) formulation of the problem 2) assessment of normalized conditional value functions and structural difference functions 3) assessment of corner values 4) assessment of the order of independence of structural difference and selection of the model. A hypothetical numerical example of a trade-off analysis for siting a nuclear power plant is included. (author)

  3. STEP and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-09-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

  4. STEP and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-01-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 10 13 to one part in 10 18 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels. (paper)

  5. Methods and Measures: Growth Mixture Modeling--A Method for Identifying Differences in Longitudinal Change among Unobserved Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nilam; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Growth mixture modeling (GMM) is a method for identifying multiple unobserved sub-populations, describing longitudinal change within each unobserved sub-population, and examining differences in change among unobserved sub-populations. We provide a practical primer that may be useful for researchers beginning to incorporate GMM analysis into their…

  6. Using benchmarking to identify inter-centre differences in persistent ductus arteriosus treatment: can we improve outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.J.; Dijkman, K.P.; Lingen, R.A. van; Vries, W.B. de; Vijlbrief, D.C.; Boode, W.P. de; Andriessen, P.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify inter-centre differences in persistent ductus arteriosus treatment and their related outcomes. Materials and methods We carried out a retrospective, multicentre study including infants between 24+0 and 27+6 weeks of gestation in the period between

  7. Using benchmarking to identify inter-centre differences in persistent ductus arteriosus treatment : can we improve outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Esther J. S.; Dijkman, Koen P.; Van Lingen, Richard A.; de Vries, Willem B; Vijlbrief, Daniel C; de Boode, Willem P; Andriessen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify inter-centre differences in persistent ductus arteriosus treatment and their related outcomes. Materials and methods: We carried out a retrospective, multicentre study including infants between 24+0 and 27+6 weeks of gestation in the period between

  8. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  9. Integrating fundamental movement skills in late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Roberto; Manoel, Edison de J; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa; Dantas, Luiz; Marques, Inara

    2012-04-01

    The study examined how children of different ages integrate fundamental movement skills, such as running and throwing, and whether their developmental status was related to the combination of these skills. Thirty children were divided into three groups (G1 = 6-year-olds, G2 = 9-year-olds, and G3 = 12-year-olds) and filmed performing three tasks: running, overarm throwing, and the combined task. Patterns were identified and described, and the efficiency of integration was calculated (distance differences of the ball thrown in two tasks, overarm throwing and combined task). Differences in integration were related to age: the 6-year-olds were less efficient in combining the two skills than the 9- and 12-year-olds. These differences may be indicative of a phase of integrating fundamental movement skills in the developmental sequence. This developmental status, particularly throwing, seems to be related to the competence to integrate skills, which suggests that fundamental movement skills may be developmental modules.

  10. Global metabolic analyses identify key differences in metabolite levels between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maifiah, Mohd Hafidz Mahamad; Cheah, Soon-Ee; Johnson, Matthew D; Han, Mei-Ling; Boyce, John D; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Forrest, Alan; Kaye, Keith S; Hertzog, Paul; Purcell, Anthony W; Song, Jiangning; Velkov, Tony; Creek, Darren J; Li, Jian

    2016-02-29

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii presents a global medical crisis and polymyxins are used as the last-line therapy. This study aimed to identify metabolic differences between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant A. baumannii using untargeted metabolomics. The metabolome of each A. baumannii strain was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate and univariate statistics and pathway analyses were employed to elucidate metabolic differences between the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. Significant differences were identified between the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) deficient, polymyxin-resistant 19606R showed perturbation in specific amino acid and carbohydrate metabolites, particularly pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Levels of nucleotides were lower in the LPS-deficient 19606R. Furthermore, 19606R exhibited a shift in its glycerophospholipid profile towards increased abundance of short-chain lipids compared to the parent polymyxin-susceptible ATCC 19606. In contrast, in a pair of clinical isolates 03-149.1 (polymyxin-susceptible) and 03-149.2 (polymyxin-resistant, due to modification of lipid A), minor metabolic differences were identified. Notably, peptidoglycan biosynthesis metabolites were significantly depleted in both of the aforementioned polymyxin-resistant strains. This is the first comparative untargeted metabolomics study to show substantial differences in the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii.

  11. Fundamentals of thinking, patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, O. M.; Gafurov, D. O.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The authors analyze the fundamentals of thinking and propose to consider a model of the brain based on the presence of magnetic properties of gliacytes (Schwann cells) because of their oxygen saturation (oxygen has paramagnetic properties). The authors also propose to take into account the motion of electrical discharges through synapses causing electric and magnetic fields as well as additional effects such as paramagnetic resonance, which allows combining multisensory object-related information located in different parts of the brain. Therefore, the events of the surrounding world are reflected and remembered in the cortex columns, thus, creating isolated subnets with altered magnetic properties (patterns) and subsequently participate in recognition of objects, form a memory, and so on. The possibilities for the pattern-based thinking are based on the practical experience of applying methods and technologies of artificial neural networks in the form of a neuroemulator and neuromorphic computing devices.

  12. Use of computed tomography to identify atrial fibrillation associated differences in left atrial wall thickness and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewland, Thomas A; Wintermark, Max; Vaysman, Anna; Smith, Lisa M; Tong, Elizabeth; Vittinghoff, Eric; Marcus, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Left atrial (LA) tissue characteristics may play an important role in atrial fibrillation (AF) induction and perpetuation. Although frequently used in clinical practice, computed tomography (CT) has not been employed to describe differences in LA wall properties between AF patients and controls. We sought to noninvasively characterize AF-associated differences in LA tissue using CT. CT images of the LA were obtained in 98 consecutive patients undergoing AF ablation and in 89 controls. A custom software algorithm was used to measure wall thickness and density in four prespecified regions of the LA. On average, LA walls were thinner (-15.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -23.2 to -7.8%, P identified significant thinning of the LA wall and regional alterations in tissue density in patients with a history of AF. These findings suggest differences in LA tissue composition can be noninvasively identified and quantified using CT. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Sandra L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia. Islamic fundamentalism is defined as the return to the foundations and principles of Islam including all movements based on the desire to create a more Islamic society. After describing the practices and beliefs of Islam, this thesis examines the three aspects of universal Islamic fundamentalism: revivalism, resurgence, and radicalism. It analyzes the role of Islam in Indonesia under Dutch colonial rule, an alien Christian imperialist po...

  14. Dynamic connectivity states estimated from resting fMRI Identify differences among Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barnaly; Damaraju, Eswar; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) share significant overlap in clinical symptoms, brain characteristics, and risk genes, and both are associated with dysconnectivity among large-scale brain networks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data facilitates studying macroscopic connectivity among distant brain regions. Standard approaches to identifying such connectivity include seed-based correlation and data-driven clustering methods such as independent component analysis (ICA) but typically focus on average connectivity. In this study, we utilize ICA on rsfMRI data to obtain intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and age matched SZ and BP patients. Subsequently, we investigated difference in functional network connectivity, defined as pairwise correlations among the timecourses of ICNs, between HCs and patients. We quantified differences in both static (average) and dynamic (windowed) connectivity during the entire scan duration. Disease-specific differences were identified in connectivity within different dynamic states. Notably, results suggest that patients make fewer transitions to some states (states 1, 2, and 4) compared to HCs, with most such differences confined to a single state. SZ patients showed more differences from healthy subjects than did bipolars, including both hyper and hypo connectivity in one common connectivity state (dynamic state 3). Also group differences between SZ and bipolar patients were identified in patterns (states) of connectivity involving the frontal (dynamic state 1) and frontal-parietal regions (dynamic state 3). Our results provide new information about these illnesses and strongly suggest that state-based analyses are critical to avoid averaging together important factors that can help distinguish these clinical groups.

  15. Using benchmarking to identify inter-centre differences in persistent ductus arteriosus treatment: can we improve outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Esther J S; Dijkman, Koen P; van Lingen, Richard A; de Vries, Willem B; Vijlbrief, Daniel C; de Boode, Willem P; Andriessen, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify inter-centre differences in persistent ductus arteriosus treatment and their related outcomes. Materials and methods We carried out a retrospective, multicentre study including infants between 24+0 and 27+6 weeks of gestation in the period between 2010 and 2011. In all centres, echocardiography was used as the standard procedure to diagnose a patent ductus arteriosus and to document ductal closure. In total, 367 preterm infants were included. All four participating neonatal ICU had a comparable number of preterm infants; however, differences were observed in the incidence of treatment (33-63%), choice and dosing of medication (ibuprofen or indomethacin), number of pharmacological courses (1-4), and the need for surgical ligation after failure of pharmacological treatment (8-52%). Despite the differences in treatment, we found no difference in short-term morbidity between the centres. Adjusted mortality showed independent risk contribution of gestational age, birth weight, ductal ligation, and perinatal centre. Using benchmarking as a tool identified inter-centre differences. In these four perinatal centres, the factors that explained the differences in patent ductus arteriosus treatment are quite complex. Timing, choice of medication, and dosing are probably important determinants for successful patent ductus arteriosus closure.

  16. Onset Dynamics of Action Potentials in Rat Neocortical Neurons and Identified Snail Neurons: Quantification of the Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Volgushev, Maxim; Malyshev, Aleksey; Balaban, Pavel; Chistiakova, Marina; Volgushev, Stanislav; Wolf, Fred

    2008-01-01

    The generation of action potentials (APs) is a key process in the operation of nerve cells and the communication between neurons. Action potentials in mammalian central neurons are characterized by an exceptionally fast onset dynamics, which differs from the typically slow and gradual onset dynamics seen in identified snail neurons. Here we describe a novel method of analysis which provides a quantitative measure of the onset dynamics of action potentials. This method captures the...

  17. A Comparison of Athletic Movement Among Talent-Identified Juniors From Different Football Codes in Australia: Implications for Talent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Keller, Brad S; McKeown, Ian; Robertson, Sam

    2016-09-01

    Woods, CT, Keller, BS, McKeown, I, and Robertson, S. A comparison of athletic movement among talent-identified juniors from different football codes in Australia: implications for talent development. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2440-2445, 2016-This study aimed to compare the athletic movement skill of talent-identified (TID) junior Australian Rules football (ARF) and soccer players. The athletic movement skill of 17 TID junior ARF players (17.5-18.3 years) was compared against 17 TID junior soccer players (17.9-18.7 years). Players in both groups were members of an elite junior talent development program within their respective football codes. All players performed an athletic movement assessment that included an overhead squat, double lunge, single-leg Romanian deadlift (both movements performed on right and left legs), a push-up, and a chin-up. Each movement was scored across 3 essential assessment criteria using a 3-point scale. The total score for each movement (maximum of 9) and the overall total score (maximum of 63) were used as the criterion variables for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of football code (2 levels) on the criterion variables, whereas a 1-way analysis of variance identified where differences occurred. A significant effect was noted, with the TID junior ARF players outscoring their soccer counterparts when performing the overhead squat and push-up. No other criterions significantly differed according to the main effect. Practitioners should be aware that specific sporting requirements may incur slight differences in athletic movement skill among TID juniors from different football codes. However, given the low athletic movement skill noted in both football codes, developmental coaches should address the underlying movement skill capabilities of juniors when prescribing physical training in both codes.

  18. Fundamental neutron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslattes, R.; Dombeck, T.; Greene, G.; Ramsey, N.; Rauch, H.; Werner, S.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental physics experiments of merit can be conducted at the proposed intense neutron sources. Areas of interest include: neutron particle properties, neutron wave properties, and fundamental physics utilizing reactor produced γ-rays. Such experiments require intense, full-time utilization of a beam station for periods ranging from several months to a year or more

  19. Use of solid phase microextraction to identify volatile organic compounds in brazilian wines from different grape varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristina Morais Fernandes

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian wine industry has shown significant growth in recent years and the insertion of new concepts, such as geographical indications as signs of quality, has placed Brazil in tune with the tendencies of world wine production. The aim of this work was to apply the Solid Phase Microextraction technique in combination with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to study Brazilian wines made from different grape varieties, in order to separate and identify their volatile organic compounds. These substances were identified by comparisons between the spectra obtained with those presented in the NIST library database, and by comparisons with linear retention indices and literature data. The amounts of the compounds were calculated based on the total peak areas of the chromatograms. Forty-seven volatile compounds were identified and grouped into alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones and terpenes. Most of them belonged to the ester function, conferring a fruity aroma on the wines. The alcohols may have originated from the yeast metabolism, contributing to the alcoholic and floral aromas. Ethyl lactate, 1-hexanol and diethyl maleate were identified in all the varieties, except Merlot. Decanal, methyl citronellate, (E-2-hexenyl-3-methylbutyrate were only found in Merlot, while 2,3-butanediol was only present in the Tannat wines. 2-Phenylethanol was present in all varieties and is recognized as giving pleasant rose and honey attributes to wines. This study showed that the volatile profile of red wines is mainly characterized by esters and higher alcohols. The statistical analysis of the comparison of averages showed a greater amount of averages significantly different in the relative areas of Merlot wine. The Principal Component Analysis showed one grouping composed only of the Merlot wine samples, and this was probably related to the existence of the volatile organic compounds that were specifically identified in

  20. Method and system employing finite state machine modeling to identify one of a plurality of different electric load types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Harley, Ronald Gordon; Habetler, Thomas G.; He, Dawei

    2016-08-09

    A system is for a plurality of different electric load types. The system includes a plurality of sensors structured to sense a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; and a processor. The processor acquires a voltage and current waveform from the sensors for a corresponding one of the different electric load types; calculates a power or current RMS profile of the waveform; quantizes the power or current RMS profile into a set of quantized state-values; evaluates a state-duration for each of the quantized state-values; evaluates a plurality of state-types based on the power or current RMS profile and the quantized state-values; generates a state-sequence that describes a corresponding finite state machine model of a generalized load start-up or transient profile for the corresponding electric load type; and identifies the corresponding electric load type.

  1. Predictive risk modelling under different data access scenarios: who is identified as high risk and for how long?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tracy L; Kaldor, Jill; Sutherland, Kim; Humphries, Jacob; Jorm, Louisa R; Levesque, Jean-Frederic

    2018-01-01

    Objective This observational study critically explored the performance of different predictive risk models simulating three data access scenarios, comparing: (1) sociodemographic and clinical profiles; (2) consistency in high-risk designation across models; and (3) persistence of high-risk status over time. Methods Cross-sectional health survey data (2006–2009) for more than 260 000 Australian adults 45+ years were linked to longitudinal individual hospital, primary care, pharmacy and mortality data. Three risk models predicting acute emergency hospitalisations were explored, simulating conditions where data are accessed through primary care practice management systems, or through hospital-based electronic records, or through a hypothetical ‘full’ model using a wider array of linked data. High-risk patients were identified using different risk score thresholds. Models were reapplied monthly for 24 months to assess persistence in high-risk categorisation. Results The three models displayed similar statistical performance. Three-quarters of patients in the high-risk quintile from the ‘full’ model were also identified using the primary care or hospital-based models, with the remaining patients differing according to age, frailty, multimorbidity, self-rated health, polypharmacy, prior hospitalisations and imminent mortality. The use of higher risk prediction thresholds resulted in lower levels of agreement in high-risk designation across models and greater morbidity and mortality in identified patient populations. Persistence of high-risk status varied across approaches according to updated information on utilisation history, with up to 25% of patients reassessed as lower risk within 1 year. Conclusion/implications Small differences in risk predictors or risk thresholds resulted in comparatively large differences in who was classified as high risk and for how long. Pragmatic predictive risk modelling design decisions based on data availability or projected

  2. Relativities of fundamentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kerry

    2017-08-01

    S-dualities have been held to have radical implications for our metaphysics of fundamentality. In particular, it has been claimed that they make the fundamentality status of a physical object theory-relative in an important new way. But what physicists have had to say on the issue has not been clear or consistent, and in particular seems to be ambiguous between whether S-dualities demand an anti-realist interpretation of fundamentality talk or merely a revised realism. This paper is an attempt to bring some clarity to the matter. After showing that even antecedently familiar fundamentality claims are true only relative to a raft of metaphysical, physical, and mathematical assumptions, I argue that the relativity of fundamentality inherent in S-duality nevertheless represents something new, and that part of the reason for this is that it has both realist and anti-realist implications for fundamentality talk. I close by discussing the broader significance that S-dualities have for structuralist metaphysics and for fundamentality metaphysics more generally.

  3. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  4. Laser capture microdissection-based in vivo genomic profiling of wound keratinocytes identifies similarities and differences to squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tanja Xenia; Leethanakul, Chidchanop; Patel, Vyomesh

    2003-01-01

    keratinocytes from incisional mouse skin wounds and adjacent normal skin keratinocytes. Changes in gene expression were determined by comparative cDNA array analyses, and the approach was validated by in situ hybridization. The analyses identified 48 candidate genes not previously associated with wound...... reepithelialization. Furthermore, the analyses revealed that the phenotypic resemblance of wound keratinocytes to squamous cell carcinoma is mimicked at the level of gene expression, but notable differences between the two tissue-remodeling processes were also observed. The combination of laser capture...

  5. Sex and gender differences in autism spectrum disorder: summarizing evidence gaps and identifying emerging areas of priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Alycia K; Bishop, Somer; Constantino, John N; Daniels, Amy M; Koenig, Katheen; Palmer, Kate; Messinger, Daniel; Pelphrey, Kevin; Sanders, Stephan J; Singer, Alison Tepper; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Szatmari, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research is a higher rate of ASD diagnosis in males than females. Despite this, remarkably little research has focused on the reasons for this disparity. Better understanding of this sex difference could lead to major advancements in the prevention or treatment of ASD in both males and females. In October of 2014, Autism Speaks and the Autism Science Foundation co-organized a meeting that brought together almost 60 clinicians, researchers, parents, and self-identified autistic individuals. Discussion at the meeting is summarized here with recommendations on directions of future research endeavors.

  6. Statistical Parametric Mapping to Identify Differences between Consensus-Based Joint Patterns during Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Papageorgiou, Eirini; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; De Laet, Tinne

    2017-01-01

    Experts recently identified 49 joint motion patterns in children with cerebral palsy during a Delphi consensus study. Pattern definitions were therefore the result of subjective expert opinion. The present study aims to provide objective, quantitative data supporting the identification of these consensus-based patterns. To do so, statistical parametric mapping was used to compare the mean kinematic waveforms of 154 trials of typically developing children (n = 56) to the mean kinematic waveforms of 1719 trials of children with cerebral palsy (n = 356), which were classified following the classification rules of the Delphi study. Three hypotheses stated that: (a) joint motion patterns with 'no or minor gait deviations' (n = 11 patterns) do not differ significantly from the gait pattern of typically developing children; (b) all other pathological joint motion patterns (n = 38 patterns) differ from typically developing gait and the locations of difference within the gait cycle, highlighted by statistical parametric mapping, concur with the consensus-based classification rules. (c) all joint motion patterns at the level of each joint (n = 49 patterns) differ from each other during at least one phase of the gait cycle. Results showed that: (a) ten patterns with 'no or minor gait deviations' differed somewhat unexpectedly from typically developing gait, but these differences were generally small (≤3°); (b) all other joint motion patterns (n = 38) differed from typically developing gait and the significant locations within the gait cycle that were indicated by the statistical analyses, coincided well with the classification rules; (c) joint motion patterns at the level of each joint significantly differed from each other, apart from two sagittal plane pelvic patterns. In addition to these results, for several joints, statistical analyses indicated other significant areas during the gait cycle that were not included in the pattern definitions of the consensus study

  7. Strings and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartl, Marco; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)

  8. Fundamentals of precision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon

    2018-01-01

    Imagine a world where clinicians make accurate diagnoses and provide targeted therapies to their patients according to well-defined, biologically-informed disease subtypes, accounting for individual differences in genetic make-up, behaviors, cultures, lifestyles and the environment. This is not as utopic as it may seem. Relatively recent advances in science and technology have led to an explosion of new information on what underlies health and what constitutes disease. These novel insights emanate from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, as well as epigenomics and exposomics—such ‘omics data can now be generated at unprecedented depth and scale, and at rapidly decreasing cost. Making sense and integrating these fundamental information domains to transform health care and improve health remains a challenge—an ambitious, laudable and high-yield goal. Precision dentistry is no longer a distant vision; it is becoming part of the rapidly evolving present. Insights from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and epigenomics and exposomics have reached an unprecedented depth and scale. Much more needs to be done, however, for the realization of precision medicine in the oral health domain. PMID:29227115

  9. Strings and fundamental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartl, Marco [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Brunner, Ilka; Haack, Michael (eds.) [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    2012-07-01

    The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)

  10. A typology of vaping: Identifying differing beliefs, motivations for use, identity and political interest amongst e-cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Hannah

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and differentiate socially shared accounts of e-cigarette use (vaping) using Q-methodology, combining factor analysis with qualitative comments. Seventy statements on e-cigarettes, drawn from media, academic and online discussions, were sorted by participants along a continuum of agreement/disagreement, commenting on strongly ranked items. Each participant thus created their own 'account' of their vaping. A by-person correlation matrix of the sorts was conducted, then factor analysed, to identify similar accounts (pmotivated to maintain the rights of adults to vape. In Factor Two, 'Vaping as Medical Treatment', vaping was understood as a pragmatic choice about how to medicate one's smoking addiction, with the aim being to treat and ultimately reduce nicotine dependence. In Factor Three, 'Ambivalent E-Cigarette Use', participants reported fewer benefits and harboured more negative beliefs about e-cigarettes; they also strongly rejected a vaper identity, having no interest in online forums or being labelled a 'vaper' themselves. The UK e-cigarette users in this sample were not a homogeneous group; differing in their beliefs, motivations for use, identity and political interest. In particular they diverged on whether they accepted a medicalized account of vaping and identified as a vaper. Public health messages targeted to one group of e-cigarette users may not resonate with others. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  12. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  13. Land Prices and Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...

  14. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R

    2006-01-01

    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  15. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  16. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  17. Fundamentals of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulholland, Henry

    1968-01-01

    Fundamentals of Statistics covers topics on the introduction, fundamentals, and science of statistics. The book discusses the collection, organization and representation of numerical data; elementary probability; the binomial Poisson distributions; and the measures of central tendency. The text describes measures of dispersion for measuring the spread of a distribution; continuous distributions for measuring on a continuous scale; the properties and use of normal distribution; and tests involving the normal or student's 't' distributions. The use of control charts for sample means; the ranges

  18. Fundamentalism and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pigliucci

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The many facets of fundamentalism. There has been much talk about fundamentalism of late. While most people's thought on the topic go to the 9/11 attacks against the United States, or to the ongoing war in Iraq, fundamentalism is affecting science and its relationship to society in a way that may have dire long-term consequences. Of course, religious fundamentalism has always had a history of antagonism with science, and – before the birth of modern science – with philosophy, the age-old vehicle of the human attempt to exercise critical thinking and rationality to solve problems and pursue knowledge. “Fundamentalism” is defined by the Oxford Dictionary of the Social Sciences1 as “A movement that asserts the primacy of religious values in social and political life and calls for a return to a 'fundamental' or pure form of religion.” In its broadest sense, however, fundamentalism is a form of ideological intransigence which is not limited to religion, but includes political positions as well (for example, in the case of some extreme forms of “environmentalism”.

  19. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Titze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size, range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1 laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2 nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid, so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers, increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations.

  20. AS DIFERENTES REPRESENTAÇÕES SEMIÓTICAS ELABORADAS POR CRIANÇAS DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL UTILIZANDO JOGOS DIGITAIS. DIFFERENT SEMIOTIC REPRESENTATIONS PRODUCED BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN FROM DIGITAL GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdinei Cezar Cardoso

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A Teoria das Representações Semióticas de Duval foi o referencial teórico norteador desta pesquisa, que teve como objetivo principal identificar, por meio de registros obtidos em atividades mediadas por jogos digitais, as possíveis representações mentais elaboradas por crianças do primeiro ano do Ensino Fundamental. A coleta de dados, feita durante o trabalho de conclusão de um curso de Pedagogia, deu-se por meio de gravações em vídeo e de registros escritos produzidos pelos estudantes. A análise dos dados identificou a elaboração e a manifestação de representações de conceitos matemáticos. Os dados foram analisados de acordo com a proposta de Henry (2006 e sob as lentes da teoria de Duval (2003. Os resultados apontam que os diversos registros apresentados pelos estudantes têm uma estreita relação com as competências desenvolvidas durante o jogo e a resolução de atividades escritas na mesma categoria. Dessa forma, esta pesquisa possibilita o estudo de situações nas quais os estudantes precisam interpretar e converter diferentes tipos de representações semióticas, a fim de compreender o complexo processo da construção de conceitos matemáticos pelas crianças. Duval’s Semiotic Representations Theory was the guiding theoretical reference to the present research, which mainly focused on identifying the possible mental representations elaborated by first grade students of Elementary School, by means of records obtained in activities mediated by digital games. The data collection methods, carried out as a research at the Pedagogy undergraduate level as a requirement for graduation were video recordings and written registers produced by students. The data analysis identified the formulation and manifestation of mathematical concepts representations. The data were analyzed according to the methodology proposed by Henry (2006, under Duval’s theory (2003, and the results indicated that the registers presented by

  1. Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán

    2017-09-01

    Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.

  2. Nonsphericity Index and Size Ratio Identify Morphologic Differences between Growing and Stable Aneurysms in a Longitudinal Study of 93 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, A; Xu, M; Yokota, H; Scalzo, F; Morimoto, E; Salamon, N

    2018-01-25

    Recent studies have strongly associated intracranial aneurysm growth with increased risk of rupture. Identifying aneurysms that are likely to grow would be beneficial to plan more effective monitoring and intervention strategies. Our hypothesis is that for unruptured intracranial aneurysms of similar size, morphologic characteristics differ between aneurysms that continue to grow and those that do not. From aneurysms in our medical center with follow-up imaging dates in 2015, ninety-three intracranial aneurysms (23 growing, 70 stable) were selected. All CTA images for the aneurysm diagnosis and follow-up were collected, a total of 348 3D imaging studies. Aneurysm 3D geometry for each imaging study was reconstructed, and morphologic characteristics, including volume, surface area, nonsphericity index, aspect ratio, and size ratio were calculated. Morphologic characteristics were found to differ between growing and stable groups. For aneurysms of 7 mm, volume ( P differ between those that are growing and those that are stable. The nonsphericity index, in particular, was found to be higher among growing aneurysms. The size ratio was found to be the second most significant parameter associated with growth. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Item difficulty of multiple choice tests dependant on different item response formats – An experiment in fundamental research on psychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLAUS D. KUBINGER

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple choice response formats are problematical as an item is often scored as solved simply because the test-taker is a lucky guesser. Instead of applying pertinent IRT models which take guessing effects into account, a pragmatic approach of re-conceptualizing multiple choice response formats to reduce the chance of lucky guessing is considered. This paper compares the free response format with two different multiple choice formats. A common multiple choice format with a single correct response option and five distractors (“1 of 6” is used, as well as a multiple choice format with five response options, of which any number of the five is correct and the item is only scored as mastered if all the correct response options and none of the wrong ones are marked (“x of 5”. An experiment was designed, using pairs of items with exactly the same content but different response formats. 173 test-takers were randomly assigned to two test booklets of 150 items altogether. Rasch model analyses adduced a fitting item pool, after the deletion of 39 items. The resulting item difficulty parameters were used for the comparison of the different formats. The multiple choice format “1 of 6” differs significantly from “x of 5”, with a relative effect of 1.63, while the multiple choice format “x of 5” does not significantly differ from the free response format. Therefore, the lower degree of difficulty of items with the “1 of 6” multiple choice format is an indicator of relevant guessing effects. In contrast the “x of 5” multiple choice format can be seen as an appropriate substitute for free response format.

  4. Microarray analysis to identify the similarities and differences of pathogenesis between aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guofu; Bi, Lechang; Wang, Gaofeng; Huang, Feilai; Lu, Mingjing; Zhu, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Expression profile of GSE57691 was analyzed to identify the similarities and differences between aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods The expression profile of GSE57691 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 20 small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, 29 large abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, 9 aortic occlusive disease samples, and 10 control samples. Using the limma package in R, the differentially expressed genes were screened. Followed by enrichment analysis was performed for the differentially expressed genes using database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery online tool. Based on string online tool and Cytoscape software, protein-protein interaction network and module analyses were carried out. Moreover, integrated TF platform database and Cytoscape software were used for constructing transcriptional regulatory networks. Results As a result, 1757, 354, and 396 differentially expressed genes separately were identified in aortic occlusive disease, large abdominal aortic aneurysm, and small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples. UBB was significantly enriched in proteolysis related pathways with a high degree in three groups. SPARCL1 was another gene shared by these groups and regulated by NFIA, which had a high degree in transcriptional regulatory network. ACTB, a significant upregulated gene in abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, could be regulated by CLIC4, which was significantly enriched in cell motions. ACLY and NFIB were separately identified in aortic occlusive disease and small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, and separately enriched in lipid metabolism and negative regulation of cell proliferation. Conclusions The downregulated UBB, NFIA, and SPARCL1 might play key roles in both aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, while the upregulated ACTB might only involve in abdominal aortic aneurysm. ACLY and NFIB were specifically involved in aortic occlusive

  5. Identifying barriers to remaining physically active after rehabilitation: differences in perception between physical therapists and older adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Kathryn; Alt, Carlynn; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna

    2014-06-01

    Cross-sectional study. To describe readiness for change and barriers to physical activity in older adults and to contrast perceptions of physical therapists and patients using the Barriers to Being Active Quiz. Regular physical activity is vital to recovery after discharge from physical therapy. Physical therapists are positioned to support change in physical activity habits for those transitioning to home care. Understanding of readiness for change and barriers to physical activity could optimize recovery. Thirteen physical therapists enrolled in the study and invited patients who met the inclusion criteria to enroll (79 patients enrolled). The physical therapists provided the ICD-9 code, the physical therapist diagnosis, and completed the Barriers to Being Active Quiz as they perceived their patients would. The enrolled patients provided demographics and filled out the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the stages-of-change scale for physical activity, and the Barriers to Being Active Quiz. Patients were predominantly in the early stages of readiness for change. Both patients and physical therapists identified lack of willpower as the primary barrier to physical activity. Patients identified lack of willpower and social influence as critical barriers more often than physical therapists, whereas physical therapists identified fear of injury and lack of time more often than their patients did. Differences between physical therapists and their patients were noted for fear of injury (z = 2.66, P = .008) and lack of time (z = 3.46, P = .001). The stage of change for physical activity impacted perception of social influence (χ2 = 9.64, Pbarriers to physical activity may allow physical therapists to better tailor intervention strategies to impact physical activity behavior change.

  6. Frameshift mutational target gene analysis identifies similarities and differences in constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency and Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletzki, Claudia; Huehns, Maja; Bauer, Ingrid; Ripperger, Tim; Mork, Maureen M; Vilar, Eduardo; Klöcking, Sabine; Zettl, Heike; Prall, Friedrich; Linnebacher, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Mismatch-repair deficient (MMR-D) malignancies include Lynch Syndrome (LS), which is secondary to germline mutations in one of the MMR genes, and the rare childhood-form of constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D); caused by bi-allelic MMR gene mutations. A hallmark of LS-associated cancers is microsatellite instability (MSI), characterized by coding frameshift mutations (cFSM) in target genes. By contrast, tumors arising in CMMR-D patients are thought to display a somatic mutation pattern differing from LS. This study has the main goal to identify cFSM in MSI target genes relevant in CMMR-D and to compare the spectrum of common somatic mutations, including alterations in DNA polymerases POLE and D1 between LS and CMMR-D. CMMR-D-associated tumors harbored more somatic mutations compared to LS cases, especially in the TP53 gene and in POLE and POLD1, where novel mutations were additionally identified. Strikingly, MSI in classical mononucleotide markers BAT40 and CAT25 was frequent in CMMR-D cases. MSI-target gene analysis revealed mutations in CMMR-D-associated tumors, some of them known to be frequently hit in LS, such as RNaseT2, HT001, and TGFβR2. Our results imply a general role for these cFSM as potential new drivers of MMR-D tumorigenesis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Identifies Infection-specific, Redox Associated Proteins and Insight into Adaptation to Different Plant Hosts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan P.; Hane, James K.; Stoll, Thomas; Pain, Nicholas; Hastie, Marcus L.; Kaur, Parwinder; Hoogland, Christine; Gorman, Jeffrey J.; Singh, Karam B.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about how R. solani causes disease. This study capitalizes on recent genomic studies by applying mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify soluble, membrane-bound and culture filtrate proteins produced under wheat infection and vegetative growth conditions. Many of the proteins found in the culture filtrate had predicted functions relating to modification of the plant cell wall, a major activity required for pathogenesis on the plant host, including a number found only under infection conditions. Other infection related proteins included a high proportion of proteins with redox associated functions and many novel proteins without functional classification. The majority of infection only proteins tested were confirmed to show transcript up-regulation during infection including a thaumatin which increased susceptibility to R. solani when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. In addition, analysis of expression during infection of different plant hosts highlighted how the infection strategy of this broad host range pathogen can be adapted to the particular host being encountered. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002806. PMID:26811357

  8. Anisotropic flow studies with identified particles with ALICE: a tool to probe different stages of a heavy-ion collision

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Anisotropic flow studies play a crucial role in the characterization of the nature of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) created in collisions of heavy ions at ultra-relativistic energies. These studies rely on measuring the coefficients vn of the Fourier expansion of the azimuthal particle distribution. They have been essential in establishing that the QGP is a strongly coupled, almost perfect fluid. In this seminar, I review the latest results from measurements of elliptic (v2), triangular (v3), quadrangular (v4) and pentagonal (v5) flow of identified particles at the LHC measured with ALICE. I will discuss how these results allow us to gain insight into the transport properties of the QGP and the initial conditions of a heavy-ion collision. In addition, they reveal the role of different hadronisation mechanisms as well as the highly dissipative hadronic rescattering phase to the development of vn.

  9. How powerful are summary-based methods for identifying expression-trait associations under different genetic architectures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veturi, Yogasudha; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2018-01-01

    Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have recently been employed as an approach that can draw upon the advantages of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene expression studies to identify genes associated with complex traits. Unlike standard GWAS, summary level data suffices for TWAS and offers improved statistical power. Two popular TWAS methods include either (a) imputing the cis genetic component of gene expression from smaller sized studies (using multi-SNP prediction or MP) into much larger effective sample sizes afforded by GWAS - TWAS-MP or (b) using summary-based Mendelian randomization - TWAS-SMR. Although these methods have been effective at detecting functional variants, it remains unclear how extensive variability in the genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases impacts TWAS results. Our goal was to investigate the different scenarios under which these methods yielded enough power to detect significant expression-trait associations. In this study, we conducted extensive simulations based on 6000 randomly chosen, unrelated Caucasian males from Geisinger's MyCode population to compare the power to detect cis expression-trait associations (within 500 kb of a gene) using the above-described approaches. To test TWAS across varying genetic backgrounds we simulated gene expression and phenotype using different quantitative trait loci per gene and cis-expression /trait heritability under genetic models that differentiate the effect of causality from that of pleiotropy. For each gene, on a training set ranging from 100 to 1000 individuals, we either (a) estimated regression coefficients with gene expression as the response using five different methods: LASSO, elastic net, Bayesian LASSO, Bayesian spike-slab, and Bayesian ridge regression or (b) performed eQTL analysis. We then sampled with replacement 50,000, 150,000, and 300,000 individuals respectively from the testing set of the remaining 5000 individuals and conducted GWAS on each

  10. Arguing against fundamentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kerry

    This paper aims to open up discussion on the relationship between fundamentality and naturalism, and in particular on the question of whether fundamentality may be denied on naturalistic grounds. A historico-inductive argument for an anti-fundamentalist conclusion, prominent within the contemporary metaphysical literature, is examined; finding it wanting, an alternative 'internal' strategy is proposed. By means of an example from the history of modern physics - namely S-matrix theory - it is demonstrated that (1) this strategy can generate similar (though not identical) anti-fundamentalist conclusions on more defensible naturalistic grounds, and (2) that fundamentality questions can be empirical questions. Some implications and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed.

  11. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles

    2005-03-01

    A total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed to date, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardio-vascular, bone, and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated, and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination of both the

  12. MDL, Collineations and the Fundamental Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Maybank , Steve; Sturm , Peter

    1999-01-01

    International audience; Scene geometry can be inferred from point correspondences between two images. The inference process includes the selection of a model. Four models are considered: background (or null), collineation, affine fundamental matrix and fundamental matrix. It is shown how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be used to compare the different models. The main result is that there is little reason for preferring the fundamental matrix model over the collineation model, even when ...

  13. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  14. Infosec management fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Infosec Management Fundamentals is a concise overview of the Information Security management concepts and techniques, providing a foundational template for both experienced professionals and those new to the industry. This brief volume will also appeal to business executives and managers outside of infosec who want to understand the fundamental concepts of Information Security and how it impacts their business decisions and daily activities. Teaches ISO/IEC 27000 best practices on information security management Discusses risks and controls within the context of an overall information securi

  15. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kunzman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately help strengthen the broader civic fabric.

  16. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  17. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  18. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-12-01

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  19. Genetic differences in transcript responses to low-dose ionizing radiation identify tissue functions associated with breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Antoine M; Marchetti, Francesco; Bhatnagar, Sandhya; Duru, Nadire; Han, Ju; Hu, Zhi; Mao, Jian-Hua; Gray, Joe W; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    High dose ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known risk factor for breast cancer but the health effects after low-dose (LD, differences in their sensitivity to radiation-induced mammary cancer (BALB/c and C57BL/6) for the purpose of identifying mechanisms of mammary cancer susceptibility. Unirradiated mammary and blood tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of DNA repair, tumor suppressor, and stress response genes. LD exposures of 7.5 cGy (weekly for 4 weeks) did not induce detectable genomic instability in either strain. However, the mammary glands of the sensitive strain but not the resistant strain showed early transcriptional responses involving: (a) diminished immune response, (b) increased cellular stress, (c) altered TGFβ-signaling, and (d) inappropriate expression of developmental genes. One month after LD exposure, the two strains showed opposing responses in transcriptional signatures linked to proliferation, senescence, and microenvironment functions. We also discovered a pre-exposure expression signature in both blood and mammary tissues that is predictive for poor survival among human cancer patients (p = 0.0001), and a post-LD-exposure signature also predictive for poor patient survival (pidentify genetic features that predispose or protect individuals from LD-induced breast cancer.

  20. Metabolic profiles of triple-negative and luminal A breast cancer subtypes in African-American identify key metabolic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyari, Fariba; Gowda, G A Nagana; Olopade, Olufunmilayo F; Berg, Richard; Yang, Howard H; Lee, Maxwell P; Ngwa, Wilfred F; Mittal, Suresh K; Raftery, Daniel; Mohammed, Sulma I

    2018-02-20

    Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease with variable pathophysiology and biology, is classified into four major subtypes. While hormonal- and antibody-targeted therapies are effective in the patients with luminal and HER-2 subtypes, the patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype do not benefit from these therapies. The incidence rates of TNBC subtype are higher in African-American women, and the evidence indicates that these women have worse prognosis compared to women of European descent. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear but are often attributed to TNBC biology. In this study, we performed metabolic analysis of breast tissues to identify how TNBC differs from luminal A breast cancer (LABC) subtypes within the African-American and Caucasian breast cancer patients, respectively. We used High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) 1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to perform the metabolomic analysis of breast cancer and adjacent normal tissues (total n=82 samples). TNBC and LABC subtypes in African American women exhibited different metabolic profiles. Metabolic profiles of these subtypes were also distinct from those revealed in Caucasian women. TNBC in African-American women expressed higher levels of glutathione, choline, and glutamine as well as profound metabolic alterations characterized by decreased mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis concomitant with decreased levels of ATP. TNBC in Caucasian women was associated with increased pyrimidine synthesis. These metabolic alterations could potentially be exploited as novel treatment targets for TNBC.

  1. Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Identifies Genetic Traits to Elucidate Their Different Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Jaakkola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are both etiological agents for intestinal infection known as yersiniosis, but their epidemiology and ecology bear many differences. Swine are the only known reservoir for Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains, which are the most common cause of human disease, while Y. pseudotuberculosis has been isolated from a variety of sources, including vegetables and wild animals. Infections caused by Y. enterocolitica mainly originate from swine, but fresh produce has been the source for widespread Y. pseudotuberculosis outbreaks within recent decades. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis with a DNA microarray based on three Yersinia enterocolitica and four Yersinia pseudotuberculosis genomes was conducted to shed light on the genomic differences between enteropathogenic Yersinia. The hybridization results identified Y. pseudotuberculosis strains to carry operons linked with the uptake and utilization of substances not found in living animal tissues but present in soil, plants, and rotting flesh. Y. pseudotuberculosis also harbors a selection of type VI secretion systems targeting other bacteria and eukaryotic cells. These genetic traits are not found in Y. enterocolitica, and it appears that while Y. pseudotuberculosis has many tools beneficial for survival in varied environments, the Y. enterocolitica genome is more streamlined and adapted to their preferred animal reservoir.

  2. Identifying differences in early literacy skills across subgroups of language-minority children: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Goodrich, J Marc; Farver, JoAnn M

    2018-04-01

    Despite acknowledgment that language-minority children come from a wide variety of home language backgrounds and have a wide range of proficiency in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages, it is unknown whether differences across language-minority children in relative and absolute levels of proficiency in L1 and L2 predict subsequent development of literacy-related skills. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of language-minority children and evaluate whether differences in level and rate of growth of early literacy skills differed across subgroups. Five-hundred and twenty-six children completed measures of Spanish and English language and early literacy skills at the beginning, middle, and end of the preschool year. Latent growth models indicated that children's early literacy skills were increasing over the course of the preschool year. Latent profile analysis indicated that language-minority children could be classified into nine distinct groups, each with unique patterns of absolute and relative levels of proficiency in L1 and L2. Results of three-step mixture models indicated that profiles were closely associated with level of early literacy skills at the beginning of the preschool year. Initial level of early literacy skills was positively associated with growth in code-related skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness) and inversely associated with growth in language skills. These findings suggest that language-minority children are a diverse group with regard to their L1 and L2 proficiencies and that growth in early literacy skills is most associated with level of proficiency in the same language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Dissolved gaseous mercury production in the dark: Evidence for the fundamental role of bacteria in different types of Mediterranean water bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantozzi, L. [CNR-Istituto di Biofisica, Area della Ricerca, Via Moruzzi 1, Pisa I-56100 (Italy)], E-mail: laura.fantozzi@pi.ibf.cnr.it; Ferrara, R. [CNR-Istituto di Biofisica, Area della Ricerca, Via Moruzzi 1, Pisa I-56100 (Italy); Frontini, F.P.; Dini, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Pisa, Via A. Volta 4, Pisa I-56100 (Italy)

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that the dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) production in waters is mainly driven by photochemical processes. The present paper provides evidence for a significant bacteria-mediated DGM production, occurring also under dark conditions in environmentally different types of coastal water bodies of the Mediterranean basin. The DGM production was laboratory determined in sea, lagoon-brackish and lake water samples, comparing the efficiency of the DGM production processes in darkness and in the light. This latter condition was established by exposing samples at solar radiation intensity in the Photosyntetical Active Radiation region (PAR) of 200 W m{sup -2}. Mercury reduction rate in the dark was of the order of 2-4% of the DGM production in lightness, depending on the total mercury concentration in the water, rather than the bacterial abundance in it. Support for the active bacterial role in mercury reduction rate under dark conditions was provided by: 1) absence of significant DGM production in sterilized water samples (following filtration treatment or autoclaving), 2) restored DGM production efficiency, following re-inoculation into the same water samples of representatives of their bacterial community, previously isolated and separately cultured. Notwithstanding the low bacteria-mediated vs. the high photo-induced DGM production, whatever natural water body was considered, it is worth stressing the significant contribution of this organismal-mediated process to oceanic mercury evasion, since it occurs continuously along the entire water column throughout the 24 h of the day.

  4. Dissolved gaseous mercury production in the dark: Evidence for the fundamental role of bacteria in different types of Mediterranean water bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, L.; Ferrara, R.; Frontini, F.P.; Dini, F.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that the dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) production in waters is mainly driven by photochemical processes. The present paper provides evidence for a significant bacteria-mediated DGM production, occurring also under dark conditions in environmentally different types of coastal water bodies of the Mediterranean basin. The DGM production was laboratory determined in sea, lagoon-brackish and lake water samples, comparing the efficiency of the DGM production processes in darkness and in the light. This latter condition was established by exposing samples at solar radiation intensity in the Photosyntetical Active Radiation region (PAR) of 200 W m -2 . Mercury reduction rate in the dark was of the order of 2-4% of the DGM production in lightness, depending on the total mercury concentration in the water, rather than the bacterial abundance in it. Support for the active bacterial role in mercury reduction rate under dark conditions was provided by: 1) absence of significant DGM production in sterilized water samples (following filtration treatment or autoclaving), 2) restored DGM production efficiency, following re-inoculation into the same water samples of representatives of their bacterial community, previously isolated and separately cultured. Notwithstanding the low bacteria-mediated vs. the high photo-induced DGM production, whatever natural water body was considered, it is worth stressing the significant contribution of this organismal-mediated process to oceanic mercury evasion, since it occurs continuously along the entire water column throughout the 24 h of the day

  5. Individual differences in the ability to identify, select and use appropriate frames of reference for perceptuo-motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isableu, B; Ohlmann, T; Cremieux, J; Vuillerme, N; Amblard, B; Gresty, M A

    2010-09-01

    The causes of the interindividual differences (IDs) in how we perceive and control spatial orientation are poorly understood. Here, we propose that IDs partly reflect preferred modes of spatial referencing and that these preferences or "styles" are maintained from the level of spatial perception to that of motor control. Two groups of experimental subjects, one with high visual field dependency (FD) and one with marked visual field independency (FI) were identified by the Rod and Frame Test, which identifies relative dependency on a visual frame of reference (VFoR). FD and FI subjects were tasked with standing still in conditions of increasing postural difficulty while visual cues of self-orientation (a visual frame tilted in roll) and self-motion (in stroboscopic illumination) were varied and in darkness to assess visual dependency. Postural stability, overall body orientation and modes of segmental stabilization relative to either external (space) or egocentric (adjacent segments) frames of reference in the roll plane were analysed. We hypothesized that a moderate challenge to balance should enhance subjects' reliance on VFoR, particularly in FD subjects, whereas a substantial challenge should constrain subjects to use a somatic-vestibular based FoR to prevent falling in which case IDs would vanish. The results showed that with increasing difficulty, FD subjects became more unstable and more disoriented shown by larger effects of the tilted visual frame on posture. Furthermore, their preference to coalign body/VFoR coordinate systems lead to greater fixation of the head-trunk articulation and stabilization of the hip in space, whereas the head and trunk remained more stabilized in space with the hip fixed on the leg in FI subjects. These results show that FD subjects have difficulties at identifying and/or adopting a more appropriate FoR based on proprioceptive and vestibular cues to regulate the coalignment of posturo/exocentric FoRs. The FI subjects' resistance

  6. Fundamentals of astrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the motion of the center of mass of a spacecraft; this discipline is generally called astrodynamics. The book focuses on an analytical treatment of the motion of spacecraft and provides insight into the fundamentals of spacecraft orbit dynamics. A large number of topics are

  7. Safety analysis fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.C.D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety analysis fundamentals in reactor design. This study includes safety analysis done to show consequences of postulated accidents are acceptable. Safety analysis is also used to set design of special safety systems and includes design assist analysis to support conceptual design. safety analysis is necessary for licensing a reactor, to maintain an operating license, support changes in plant operations

  8. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  9. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  10. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  11. Grenoble Fundamental Research Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A summary of the various activities of the Fundamental Research Institute, Grenoble, France is given. The following fields are covered: Nuclear physics, solid state physics, physical chemistry, biology and advanced techniques. Fore more detailed descriptions readers are referred to scientific literature [fr

  12. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  13. Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from...

  14. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  15. Introduction and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie the applied science of health physics and radiation protection. Risk assessments in nuclear medicine are made by defining the conditions of exposure, identification of adverse effects, relating exposure with effect, and estimation of the overall risk for ionizing radiations

  16. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, J A

    1986-01-01

    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  17. Fast fundamental frequency estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    Modelling signals as being periodic is common in many applications. Such periodic signals can be represented by a weighted sum of sinusoids with frequencies being an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. Due to its widespread use, numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the funda...

  18. Fundamental characteristics of the expressed immunoglobulin VH and VL repertoire in different canine breeds in comparison with those of humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiniger, Sebastian C J; Dunkle, William E; Bammert, Gary F; Wilson, Thomas L; Krishnan, Abhiram; Dunham, Steven A; Ippolito, Gregory C; Bainbridge, Graeme

    2014-05-01

    Complementarity determining regions (CDR) are responsible for binding antigen and provide substantial diversity to the antibody repertoire, with VH CDR3 of the immunoglobulin variable heavy (VH) domain playing a dominant role. In this study, we examined 1200 unique canine VH and 500 unique variable light (VL) sequences of large and small canine breeds derived from peripheral B cells. Unlike the human and murine repertoire, the canine repertoire is heavily dominated by the Canis lupus familiaris IGHV1 subgroup, evolutionarily closest to the human IGHV3 subgroup. Our studies clearly show that the productive canine repertoire of all analyzed breeds shows similarities to both human and mouse; however, there are distinct differences in terms of VH CDR3 length and amino acid paratope composition. In comparison with the human and murine antibody repertoire, canine VH CDR3 regions are shorter in length than the human counterparts, but longer than the murine VH CDR3. Similar to corresponding human and mouse VH CDR3, the amino acids at the base of the VH CDR3 loop are strictly conserved. For identical CDR positions, there were significant changes in chemical paratope composition. Similar to human and mouse repertoires, the neutral amino acids tyrosine, glycine and serine dominate the canine VH CDR3 interval (comprising 35%) although the interval is nonetheless relatively depleted of tyrosine when compared to human and mouse. Furthermore, canine VH CDR3 displays an overrepresentation of the neutral amino acid threonine and the negatively charged aspartic acid while proline content is similar to that in the human repertoire. In general, the canine repertoire shows a bias towards small, negatively charged amino acids. Overall, this analysis suggests that functional canine therapeutic antibodies can be obtained from human and mouse sequences by methods of speciation and affinity maturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Imaging Flow Cytometry Analysis to Identify Differences of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Expression in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Reiko; Arakawa, Masayuki; Kaneko, Kaori; Otsuki, Noriko; Aoki, Ryoko; Saito, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the deficient expression of survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons. A major goal of disease-modifying therapy is to increase survival motor neuron expression. Changes in survival motor neuron protein expression can be monitored via peripheral blood cells in patients; therefore we tested the sensitivity and utility of imaging flow cytometry for this purpose. After the immortalization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a human healthy control subject and two patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with two and three copies of SMN2 gene, respectively, we used imaging flow cytometry analysis to identify significant differences in survival motor neuron expression. A bright detail intensity analysis was used to investigate differences in the cellular localization of survival motor neuron protein. Survival motor neuron expression was significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. Moreover, survival motor neuron expression correlated with the clinical severity of spinal muscular atrophy according to SMN2 copy number. The cellular accumulation of survival motor neuron protein was also significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. The benefits of imaging flow cytometry for peripheral blood analysis include its capacities for analyzing heterogeneous cell populations; visualizing cell morphology; and evaluating the accumulation, localization, and expression of a target protein. Imaging flow cytometry analysis should be implemented in future studies to optimize its application as a tool for spinal muscular atrophy clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Penicillium citrinum Cultured with Different Carbon Sources Identifies Genes Involved in Citrinin Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taotao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin is a toxic secondary metabolite of Penicillium citrinum and its contamination in many food items has been widely reported. However, research on the citrinin biosynthesis pathway and its regulation mechanism in P. citrinum is rarely reported. In this study, we investigated the effect of different carbon sources on citrinin production by P. citrinum and used transcriptome analysis to study the underlying molecular mechanism. Our results indicated that glucose, used as the sole carbon source, could significantly promote citrinin production by P. citrinum in Czapek’s broth medium compared with sucrose. A total of 19,967 unigenes were annotated by BLAST in Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. Transcriptome comparison between P. citrinum cultured with sucrose and glucose revealed 1085 differentially expressed unigenes. Among them, 610 were upregulated while 475 were downregulated under glucose as compared to sucrose. KEGG pathway and Gene ontology (GO analysis indicated that many metabolic processes (e.g., carbohydrate, secondary metabolism, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism were affected, and potentially interesting genes that encoded putative components of signal transduction, stress response and transcription factor were identified. These genes obviously had important impacts on their regulation in citrinin biosynthesis, which provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of citrinin biosynthesis by P. citrinum.

  1. ASSOCIATION OF COSTUMER VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS TO QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT: DIFFERENT IDENTIFIED COSTUMERS AND REQUIREMENTS ON DEVELOPMENT OF CPM DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Leane Zenni Tanure

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present the differences between the use of QFD and its association with CVCA tool in the development of a CPM device for elbow and forearm rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, the study was divided into three steps. The development of a conceptual model that integrates the proposed CVCA + QFD tool for application in the health device development was done in the first step. The second step consisted of applying the proposed model, referring to the QFD method using 8 matrixes: quality matrix, product, characteristics of the parts, process, process parameters, human resources, infrastructure and costs matrix. The proposed conceptual model was employed fully in the third step, allowing the comparison between the methods. The results enabled to identify a discrepancy between the critical costumers in the use of mentioned methods. Customers were limited to the direct and indirect users in the QFD application: the patient, physician and physical therapist. This list got a considerable increase when CVCA was applied: the clinical engineering, product engineering, process and reliability engineering, project and product managers, financial sector, quality system and regulatory issues. These results show the importance of analyzing the supply chain systemically in order to consider all stakeholders to the CPM device development. Thus, needs and relationships delineation of all process customers can be done.

  2. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  3. Use of stable isotopes to identify dietary differences across subpopulations and sex for a free-ranging generalist herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W David

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen isotopes in tissues can be used to understand plants consumed by various taxa, but can they provide additional information about consumers? Values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N were assessed from tissue of free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) occupying disparate habitats of mixed prairie-oak savannah that contained C3 agricultural crops in a C4-dominated landscape and in key plants consumed by elk. Muscle and hoof samples were collected from female and male elk in two subpopulations (forested land and grassland) from private land and one subpopulation from the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge (refuge) in 2001-2006. Previous research identified differences between mean muscle δ(13)C and δ(15)N and mean hoof δ(13)C and δ(15)N indicating that isotopes differed between tissues of varying metabolic activity. Mean δ(13)C in hoof of elk on forested land and grassland were lower than hoof δ(13)C from elk in the refuge indicating greater long-term consumption of C3 plants by elk on forested land and grassland subpopulations. The δ(15)N in hoof was greater for elk outside the refuge than that for elk in the refuge. Interaction of sex and subpopulation only occurred for hoof δ(15)N suggesting that factors such as tissue type, sex, and habitat need to be considered to understand free-ranging ecology of generalist herbivores using stable isotopes. Availability of C3 agricultural crops high in percent nitrogen on a nearly annual basis in a C4-dominated landscape was likely driving differences in tissue δ(13)C and δ(15)N among subpopulations of free-ranging elk. An increase in tissue δ(15)N resulted from an increase in the consumption of higher δ(15)N in forage for sexes and subpopulations of a free-ranging ungulate in North America but δ(15)N should be further evaluated as an index of nutrition for subpopulations of generalist herbivores.

  4. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  5. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Choosing an intermediate-level geophysics text is always problematic: What should we teach students after they have had introductory courses in geology, math, and physics, but little else? Fundamentals of Geophysics is aimed specifically at these intermediate-level students, and the author's stated approach is to construct a text “using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and equations in which the student can follow each derivation step-by-step.” Moreover, for Lowrie, the Earth is round, not flat—the “fundamentals of geophysics” here are the essential properties of our Earth the planet, rather than useful techniques for finding oil and minerals. Thus this book is comparable in both level and approach to C. M. R. Fowler's The Solid Earth (Cambridge University Press, 1990).

  6. Fundamental superstrings as holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabholkar, A.; Murthy, S.

    2007-06-01

    The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d ( d = 3, . . . , 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings. (author)

  7. Fundamental superstrings as holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabholkar, Atish; Murthy, Sameer

    2008-01-01

    The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d (d = 3, ..., 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings

  8. Two fundamentally different classes of microbial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Yuri I; Makarova, Kira S; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Koonin, Eugene V

    2016-11-07

    The evolution of bacterial and archaeal genomes is highly dynamic and involves extensive horizontal gene transfer and gene loss 1-4 . Furthermore, many microbial species appear to have open pangenomes, where each newly sequenced genome contains more than 10% ORFans, that is, genes without detectable homologues in other species 5,6 . Here, we report a quantitative analysis of microbial genome evolution by fitting the parameters of a simple, steady-state evolutionary model to the comparative genomic data on the gene content and gene order similarity between archaeal genomes. The results reveal two sharply distinct classes of microbial genes, one of which is characterized by effectively instantaneous gene replacement, and the other consists of genes with finite, distributed replacement rates. These findings imply a conservative estimate of the size of the prokaryotic genomic universe, which appears to consist of at least a billion distinct genes. Furthermore, the same distribution of constraints is shown to govern the evolution of gene complement and gene order, without the need to invoke long-range conservation or the selfish operon concept 7 .

  9. Dispersive and erodible soils - fundamental differences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dispersive, erodible and slaking soils are prevalent over wide areas of South Africa. Each of these materials increases the cost of construction, but dispersive soils are likely to lead to far more serious problems, particularly in dam construction...

  10. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  11. Fundamentals of Filament Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0110 FUNDAMENTALS OF FILAMENT INTERACTION Martin Richardson UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Final Report 06/02/2017 DISTRIBUTION...of Filament Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA95501110001 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Richardson 5d. PROJECT...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Martin Richardson a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 407-823-6819 Standard Form

  12. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.

    1978-05-01

    The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  13. Fundamentals of queueing theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Donald; Thompson, James M; Harris, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented.""-IIE Transactions on Operations Engineering Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition continues to present the basic statistical principles that are necessary to analyze the probabilistic nature of queues. Rather than pre

  14. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  15. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  16. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton

    2016-01-01

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating @@), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  17. Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Qureshi, K.A.; Minhas, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    This book is being presented to introduce the fundamentals of technology of powder metallurgy. An attempt has been made to present an overall view of powder metallurgy technology in the first chapter, whereas chapter 2 to 8 deal with the production of metal powders. The basic commercial methods of powder production are briefly described with illustrations. Chapter 9 to 12 describes briefly metal powder characteristics and principles of testing, mixing, blending, conditioning, compaction and sintering. (orig./A.B.)

  18. Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Bruce

    2010-04-01

    Fundamentals haunt me. Certain words ignite unavoidable trains of thought, trains that begin in a cascade, unexpectedly leaping chasm after chasm, rushing from single words to whole paragraphs to full books to men's lives. So it is with me with seeing the word “fundamental” in print. I cannot evade the euphoric excitement of thinking that someone has found something terribly original and simple, understandable by every journeyman, explaining everything.

  19. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1978-04-01

    A review is presented of basic radiation physics with particular relevance to radiological protection. The processes leading to the production and absorption of ionising radiation are outlined, and the important dosimetric quantities and their units of measurements. The review is the first of a series of reports presenting the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  20. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  1. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  2. Value of Fundamental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  3. Regional Differences of Proteins Expressing in Adipose Depots Isolated from Cows, Steers and Bulls as Identified by a Proteomic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyoung Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue in the loin muscle area of beef cattle as a marbling factor is directly associated with beef quality. To elucidate whether properties of proteins involved in depot specific adipose tissue were sex-dependent, we analyzed protein expression of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT and omental adipose tissue (OMAT from Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls of Korean native beef cattle by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS–based proteomic analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and western blot analysis. Two different adipose depots (i.e. intramuscular and omental were collected from cows (n = 7, steers (n = 7, or bulls (n = 7. LC-MS/MS revealed a total of 55 and 35 proteins in IMAT and OMAT, respectively. Of the 55 proteins identified, 44, 40, and 42 proteins were confirmed to be differentially expressed in IMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, respectively. In OMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, 33, 33, and 22 were confirmed to be differentially expressed, respectively. Tropomyosin (TPM 1, TPM 2, and TPM3 were subjected to verification by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis in IMAT and OMAT of Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls as key factors closely associated with muscle development. Both mRNA levels and protein levels of TPM1, TPM2, and TPM3 in IMAT were lower in bulls compared to in cows or steers suggesting that they were positively correlated with marbling score and quality grade. Our results may aid the regulation of marbling development and improvement of meat quality grades in beef cattle.

  4. Performance differences between male and female marines on standardized physical fitness tests and combat proxy tasks: identifying the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Jason; Pappa, Leon; McGuire, Brian; Kelly, Karen R

    2015-01-01

    For decades women have been restricted from direct assignment to certain military occupational specialties such as infantry. These restrictions can limit the advancement of women through the ranks of military leadership. Thus, the purpose of this effort was to identify those physical requirements most likely to serve as barriers for women wanting to enter closed combat arms positions, and to evaluate the quality of existing physical fitness tests as potential measures of assessment of combat readiness. Data were collected from 3 different sites within the US Marine Corps Training and Education Command. All participants (409 male, 379 femaile) were active-duty Marines who recently completed the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and Combat Fitness Test (CFT). Participants completed 6 physical tasks: 120-mm tank loading drill, 155-mm artillery round carry, negotiating an obstacle course wall while wearing a fighting load (≈30 lb), pull-ups, deadlift, and clean and press. Overall, there was a high rate of successful completion on the combat proxy tasks (men, ≈80% to 100%; women, ≈70% to 100%), with the notable exception being the clean and press (men, 80%; women, 9%) and pull-ups (men, 16±4; women, 4±2). The PFT and CFT components tasks were also related, strongly in some cases, with performance on combat-related proxy tasks (Spearman's ρ typically ranged from 0.60 to 0.80). Estimates of fat-free mass and VO2max were also strongly related to an overall measure of combat readiness (Spearman's ρ=0.77 and ρ=0.56, respectively). The primary physical obstacle for women is upper body strength. However, some women could successfully complete all of the proxy tasks and thus are physically capable of meeting the demands of closed combat occupations. The fact that some female Marines could complete the most challenging upper body strength tasks suggests that these barriers are not inherent but may be due to a lack of training specificity.

  5. Identifying Differences in Abiotic Stress Gene Networks between Lowland and Upland Ecotypes of Switchgrass (DE-SC0008338)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Kevin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Buell, Robin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Zhao, Bingyu [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zhang, Xunzhong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm-season C4 grass that is a target lignocellulosic biofuel species for use in the United States due to its local adaption capabilities and high biomass accumulation. Two ecotypes of switchgrass have been described. Members of the lowland ecotype are taller, have narrower leaf blades and generate more biomass compared to individuals from the upland ecotype. Additionally, lowland plants are generally found in the southern United States while upland switchgrass is more typically present in the northern United States. These differences are important as it is envisioned that switchgrass for biofuel production will typically be grown on marginal lands in the northern United States to supplement and diversify farmers' traditional crop incomes. While lowland switchgrass is more productive, it has poor winter survivability in northern latitudes where upland switchgrass is expected to be grown for biofuel use. Abiotic stresses likely to be encountered by switchgrass include drought and salinity. Despite initially being described as preferring wetter environments, members of the lowland ecotype have been characterized as being more drought tolerant than plants of the upland ecotype. Nonetheless, direct trials have indicated that variation for drought tolerance exists in both ecotypes, but prior to this project, only a relatively small number of switchgrass lines had been tested for drought responses. Similarly, switchgrass cultivars have not been widely tested for salt tolerance, but a few studies have shown that even mild salt stress can inhibit growth. The effects of drought and salt stress on plant growth are complex. Both drought and salinity affect the osmotic potential of plant cells and negatively affect plant growth due to reduced water potential and reduced photosynthesis that results from lower stomatal conductance of CO2. Plants respond to drought and salt stress by activating genes that directly attempt to

  6. Proteomic analysis identifies mitochondrial metabolic enzymes as major discriminators between different stages of the failing human myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbonavicius, Sigitas; Wiggers, Henrik; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM).......Our aim was to identify patterns in differentially regulated proteins associated with the progression of chronic heart failure. We specifically studied proteomics in chronic reversibly (RDM) and irreversibly dysfunctional myocardium (IRDM), as well as end-stage failing myocardium (ESFM)....

  7. Cross-sectional study to identify staphylococcal species isolated from teat and inguinal skin of different-aged dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, P R F; Dufour, S; Spain, J N; Calcutt, M J; Reilly, T J; Stewart, G C; Middleton, J R

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and distribution of staphylococcal species on the teat and inguinal skin of dairy heifers across the various stages of the heifer life cycle. The cross-sectional study included 106 Holstein heifers with an age range of 0 d to 27 mo that were selected from 11 different groups, based on housing type and age, on a single dairy operation. A composite swabbing sample including all 4 teats and a second composite sample including both inguinal regions of each heifer were collected using gas-sterilized electrostatic dusters (Swiffers; Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, OH). Swabbing samples were mixed with 10 mL of sterile saline, agitated, and cultured on mannitol salt agar plates. At 24 h, plates were read and up to 10 staphylococcal colonies were saved for further analysis. Staphylococcal isolates were speciated using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or PCR amplification and partial sequencing of rpoB or tuf. The prevalence of staphylococci was compared between the inguinal and teat regions using the chi-squared or Fisher's exact test, as applicable. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between a heifer's age (treated as a quantitative continuous variable) and the probability of isolating a given staphylococcal species from a given body site (inguinal region or teats). Overall, the most common species identified were Staphylococcus haemolyticus followed by Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus devriesei, and Staphylococcus sciuri. Staphylococcus aureus was more prevalent on the teat than in the inguinal region, whereas Staphylococcus arlettae was more prevalent in the inguinal region than on the teat. All other staphylococcal species were as likely to be found on the teat skin as the inguinal region skin. Isolation from the inguinal and teat skin was associated with age for Staphylococcus agnetis, S. chromogenes

  8. FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Knudson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones

  9. Mathematical analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bashirov, Agamirza

    2014-01-01

    The author's goal is a rigorous presentation of the fundamentals of analysis, starting from elementary level and moving to the advanced coursework. The curriculum of all mathematics (pure or applied) and physics programs include a compulsory course in mathematical analysis. This book will serve as can serve a main textbook of such (one semester) courses. The book can also serve as additional reading for such courses as real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis etc. For non-math major students requiring math beyond calculus, this is a more friendly approach than many math-centric o

  10. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  11. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.

    1978-04-01

    A brief review is presented of the early and late effects of ionising radiation on man, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance in radiological protection. The terminology and dose response curves, are explained. Early effects on cells, tissues and whole organs are discussed. Late somatic effects considered include cancer and life-span shortening. Genetic effects are examined. The review is the third of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria, such as those of the ICRP. (u.K.)

  12. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  13. Fundamental composite electroweak dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Using the recent joint results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on the Higgs boson, we determine the current status of composite electroweak dynamics models based on the expected scalar sector. Our analysis can be used as a minimal template for a wider class of models between the two limitin...... space at the effective Lagrangian level. We show that a wide class of models of fundamental composite electroweak dynamics are still compatible with the present constraints. The results are relevant for the ongoing and future searches at the Large Hadron Collider....

  14. Fundamentals of Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Heagney, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    With sales of more than 160,000 copies, Fundamentals of Project Management has helped generations of project managers navigate the ins and outs of every aspect of this complex discipline. Using a simple step-by-step approach, the book is the perfect introduction to project management tools, techniques, and concepts. Readers will learn how to: ò Develop a mission statement, vision, goals, and objectives ò Plan the project ò Create the work breakdown structure ò Produce a workable schedule ò Understand earned value analysis ò Manage a project team ò Control and evaluate progress at every stage.

  15. Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions

  16. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  17. Scientific and technological fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    Specific ultimate repositories in a given geological formation have to be assessed on the basis of a safety analysis, taking into account the site specifics of the repository system 'Overall geological situation - ultimate disposal facility - waste forms'. The fundamental possibilities and limits of waste disposal are outlined. Orientation values up to about 10 6 years are derived for the isolation potential of ultimate disposal mines, and about 10 4 years for the calculation of effects of emplaced radioactive wastes also on man. (DG) [de

  18. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  19. Fundamental formulas of physics

    CERN Document Server

    1960-01-01

    The republication of this book, unabridged and corrected, fills the need for a comprehensive work on fundamental formulas of mathematical physics. It ranges from simple operations to highly sophisticated ones, all presented most lucidly with terms carefully defined and formulas given completely. In addition to basic physics, pertinent areas of chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, biology, and electronics are also included.This is no mere listing of formulas, however. Mathematics is integrated into text, for the most part, so that each chapter stands as a brief summary or even short textbook of

  20. Fundamentals of Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.

  1. Fundamentals of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Getzlaff, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade a tremendous progress has taken place in understanding the basis of magnetism, especially in reduced dimensions. In the first part, the fundamentals of magnetism are conveyed for atoms and bulk-like solid-state systems providing a basis for the understanding of new phenomena which exclusively occur in low-dimensional systems as the giant magneto resistance. This wide field is discussed in the second part and illustrated by copious examples. This textbook is particularly suitable for graduate students in physical and materials sciences. It includes numerous examples, exercises, and references.

  2. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  3. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  4. Nanomachines fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This first-hand account by one of the pioneers of nanobiotechnology brings together a wealth of valuable material in a single source. It allows fascinating insights into motion at the nanoscale, showing how the proven principles of biological nanomotors are being transferred to artificial nanodevices.As such, the author provides engineers and scientists with the fundamental knowledge surrounding the design and operation of biological and synthetic nanomotors and the latest advances in nanomachines. He addresses such topics as nanoscale propulsions, natural biomotors, molecular-scale machin

  5. Fundamentals of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2007-01-01

    Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advan

  6. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  7. Identifying national security fundamentals in the big data of digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This conceptualization article discusses the impact of technology to society from various perspectives which relates on humanities aspect of social convention, hegemony, generation warfare and intelligence constructs.The narratives provide understandings of the current transition, emphasizing the changing need of ...

  8. Quivers, words and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study of holomorphic gauge invariant operators in general N=1 quiver gauge theories, with unitary gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, was recently presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2013)094. For large ranks a simple counting formula in terms of an infinite product was given. We extend this study to quiver gauge theories with fundamental matter fields, deriving an infinite product form for the refined counting in these cases. The infinite products are found to be obtained from substitutions in a simple building block expressed in terms of the weighted adjacency matrix of the quiver. In the case without fundamentals, it is a determinant which itself is found to have a counting interpretation in terms of words formed from partially commuting letters associated with simple closed loops in the quiver. This is a new relation between counting problems in gauge theory and the Cartier-Foata monoid. For finite ranks of the unitary gauge groups, the refined counting is given in terms of expressions involving Littlewood-Richardson coefficients.

  9. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  10. Fundamental Vibration of Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, G. D.; Niu, M. L.; Salumbides, E. J.; Komasa, J.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Pachucki, K.; Ubachs, W.

    2013-05-01

    The fundamental ground tone vibration of H2, HD, and D2 is determined to an accuracy of 2×10-4cm-1 from Doppler-free laser spectroscopy in the collisionless environment of a molecular beam. This rotationless vibrational splitting is derived from the combination difference between electronic excitation from the X1Σg+, v=0, and v=1 levels to a common EF1Σg+, v=0 level. Agreement within 1σ between the experimental result and a full ab initio calculation provides a stringent test of quantum electrodynamics in a chemically bound system.

  11. Fundamental volatility and stock returns : does fundamental volatility explain stock returns?

    OpenAIRE

    Selboe, Guner K.; Virdee, Jaspal Singh

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate whether the fundamental uncertainty can explain the crosssection of stock returns. To measure the fundamental uncertainty, we estimate rolling standard deviations and accounting betas of four different fundamentals: revenues, gross profit, earnings and cash flows. The standard deviation and the beta of revenues significantly explain returns in the Fama-Macbeth procedure, but only appears significant among smaller stocks in the portfolio formation ...

  12. Subtle differences in molecular recognition between modified glycopeptide antibiotics and bacterial receptor peptides identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Staroske, T; Roepstorff, P

    1999-01-01

    showing that electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) can be used in the rapid quantitative analysis of mixtures of vancomycin-group antibiotics and their bacterial cell-wall receptors allowing the identification of even subtle differences in binding constants. Differences in affinities...

  13. The morphology of saccular otoliths as a tool to identify different mugilid species from the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicó Fortunato, Roberta; Benedito Durà, Vicent; Volpedo, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    In the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea there are 8 species of the Mugilidae family: Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, Oedalechilus labeo, Chelon labrosus, Liza saliens, Liza carinata and Liza haematocheila. The identification of mugilids is very important for local fisheries management and regulations, but it is difficult using gross morphological characters. This work aims to contribute to the identification of mullets present in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using saccular otolith features of each species. Specimens of C. labrosus, L. aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens and M. cephalus were obtained from Delta del Ebro (40°38'N-0°44'E) in artisanal catches. For L. carinata and O. labeo photographs extracted from AFORO online database were used. L. haematocheila was not studied for lack of otolith samples. A general pattern of the saccular otoliths for this family was identified: the shape of the otoliths are rectangular to oblong with irregular margins; they present a heterosulcoid, ostial sulcus acusticus, with an open funnel-like ostium to the anterior margin and a closed, tubular cauda, ending towards the posterior ventral corner, always larger than the ostium. In the present study, the mugilid species could be recognized using their saccular otolith morphology. Here we give the first key to identify Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean mullets. The distinctive features between the species were the position and centrality of the sulcus, the curvature of the cauda, the presence of areal depositions and plateaus, and the type of anterior and posterior regions. These features could be used not only to reinforce the identification keys through morphological and meristic characters of the species, but also to identify the species consumed by piscivores, being the otoliths the only identifiable remains of the individuals.

  14. Fundamentals of Structural Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome J

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition  by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of  how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...

  15. Making physics more fundamental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-07-15

    The stellar death throes of supernovae have been seen and admired since time immemorial. However last year's was the first to come under the combined scrutiny of space-borne radiation detectors and underground neutrino monitors as well as terrestrial optical telescopes and even gravity wave antennae. The remarkable results underline the power of modern physics to explain and interrelate processes in the furthest reaches of the cosmos and the deep interior of nuclear particles. In recent years this common ground between 'Big Bang' cosmology and particle physics has been regularly trodden and retrodden in the light of fresh new insights and new experimental results, and thinking has steadily converged. In 1983, the first Symposium on Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, organized by CERN and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), was full of optimism, with new ideas ('inflation') to explain how the relatively small variations in the structure of the Universe could have arisen through the quantum structure of the initial cataclysm.

  16. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  17. Fundamentals of sustainable neighbourhoods

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avi

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments

  18. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-11-07

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  19. Theory of fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In the present article the theory of fundamental interactions is derived in a systematic way from the first principles. In the developed theory there is no separation between space-time and internal gauge space. Main equations for basic fields are derived. In is shown that the theory satisfies the correspondence principle and gives rise to new notions in the considered region. In particular, the conclusion is made about the existence of particles which are characterized not only by the mass, spin, charge but also by the moment of inertia. These are rotating particles, the particles which represent the notion of the rigid body on the microscopical level and give the key for understanding strong interactions. The main concepts and dynamical laws for these particles are formulated. The basic principles of the theory may be examined experimentally not in the distant future. 29 refs

  20. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, William

    1997-10-01

    This unique textbook presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental principles of geophysics. Unlike most geophysics textbooks, it combines both the applied and theoretical aspects to the subject. The author explains complex geophysical concepts using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and easy-to-follow equations. After placing the Earth in the context of the solar system, he describes each major branch of geophysics: gravitation, seismology, dating, thermal and electrical properties, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism and geodynamics. Each chapter begins with a summary of the basic physical principles, and a brief account of each topic's historical evolution. The book will satisfy the needs of intermediate-level earth science students from a variety of backgrounds, while at the same time preparing geophysics majors for continued study at a higher level.

  1. Fundamentals of PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keizo

    1997-01-01

    Elemental analysis based on the particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) is a novel technique to analyze trace elements. It is a very simple method, its sensitivity is very high, multiple elements in a sample can be simultaneously analyzed and a few 10 μg of a sample is enough to be analyzed. Owing to these characteristics, the PIXE analysis is now used in many fields (e.g. biology, medicine, dentistry, environmental pollution, archaeology, culture assets etc.). Fundamentals of the PIXE analysis are described here: the production of characteristic x-rays and inner shell ionization by heavy charged particles, the continuous background in PIXE spectrum, quantitative formulae of the PIXE analysis, the detection limit of PIXE analysis, etc. (author)

  2. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  3. Fundamental partial compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)_R-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  4. Fundamentals of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics, Third Edition is a clear and detailed introduction to quantum mechanics and its applications in chemistry and physics. All required math is clearly explained, including intermediate steps in derivations, and concise review of the math is included in the text at appropriate points. Most of the elementary quantum mechanical models-including particles in boxes, rigid rotor, harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, hydrogen atom-are clearly and completely presented. Applications of these models to selected “real world” topics are also included. This new edition includes many new topics such as band theory and heat capacity of solids, spectroscopy of molecules and complexes (including applications to ligand field theory), and small molecules of astrophysical interest.

  5. Fundamentals of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from the second edition of the best-selling Handbook of Phosphors, Fundamentals of Phosphors covers the principles and mechanisms of luminescence in detail and surveys the primary phosphor materials as well as their optical properties. The book addresses cutting-edge developments in phosphor science and technology including oxynitride phosphors and the impact of lanthanide level location on phosphor performance.Beginning with an explanation of the physics underlying luminescence mechanisms in solids, the book goes on to interpret various luminescence phenomena in inorganic and organic materials. This includes the interpretation of the luminescence of recently developed low-dimensional systems, such as quantum wells and dots. The book also discusses the excitation mechanisms by cathode-ray and ionizing radiation and by electric fields to produce electroluminescence. The book classifies phosphor materials according to the type of luminescence centers employed or the class of host materials used and inte...

  6. Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Hefzi, Hooman; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gao, Xin; Gojobori, Takashi; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Lewis, Nathan E.; Jamshidi, Neema

    2018-01-01

    and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species

  7. Identifying the Impact of Individual Differences on the Basis of Affect Intensity Measure on Consumers Response to Advertising Appeals

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This study aims (i) to find out the individuals scoring on Larsen Affect intensity measurement Scale (AIM) for emotional ads and (ii) to know whether the individual differences of response diminishes when they are exposed to the nonemotional (rational) advertisements, (iii) to know whether the cultural differences among other countries and Pakistan mediate the applicability and implications of AIM scale in the field of advertising research. Variety of researchers including consumers behavior,...

  8. Identifying gender differences in reported occupational information from three US population-based case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Sarah J; Colt, Joanne S; Stewart, Patricia A; Armenti, Karla R; Baris, Dalsu; Blair, Aaron; Cerhan, James R; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Faith; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Hartge, Patricia; Karagas, Margaret R; Johnson, Alison; Purdue, Mark P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Schwartz, Kendra; Schwenn, Molly; Severson, Richard; Silverman, Debra T; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that gender-blind assessment of exposure may introduce exposure misclassification, but few studies have characterised gender differences across occupations and industries. We pooled control responses to job-specific, industry-specific and exposure-specific questionnaires (modules) that asked detailed questions about work activities from three US population-based case-control studies to examine gender differences in work tasks and their frequencies. We calculated the ratio of female-to-male controls that completed each module. For four job modules (assembly worker, machinist, health professional, janitor/cleaner) and for subgroups of jobs that completed those modules, we evaluated gender differences in task prevalence and frequency using χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively. The 1360 female and 2245 male controls reported 6033 and 12 083 jobs, respectively. Gender differences in female:male module completion ratios were observed for 39 of 45 modules completed by ≥20 controls. Gender differences in task prevalence varied in direction and magnitude. For example, female janitors were significantly more likely to polish furniture (79% vs 44%), while male janitors were more likely to strip floors (73% vs 50%). Women usually reported more time spent on tasks than men. For example, the median hours per week spent degreasing for production workers in product manufacturing industries was 6.3 for women and 3.0 for men. Observed gender differences may reflect actual differences in tasks performed or differences in recall, reporting or perception, all of which contribute to exposure misclassification and impact relative risk estimates. Our findings reinforce the need to capture subject-specific information on work tasks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  10. Expression profiling of cervical cancers in Indian women at different stages to identify gene signatures during progression of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Asha; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Kannan, Sadhana; Deodhar, Kedar; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Mulherkar, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with developing countries accounting for >80% of the disease burden. Although in the West, active screening has been instrumental in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer, disease management is hampered due to lack of biomarkers for disease progression and defined therapeutic targets. Here we carried out gene expression profiling of 29 cervical cancer tissues from Indian women, spanning International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages of the disease from early lesion (IA and IIA) to progressive stages (IIB and IIIA–B), and identified distinct gene expression signatures. Overall, metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer and signaling pathways were found to be significantly upregulated, while focal adhesion, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction and WNT signaling were downregulated. Additionally, we identified candidate biomarkers of disease progression such as SPP1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), STK17A, and DUSP1 among others that were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the samples used for microarray studies as well in an independent set of 34 additional samples. Integrative analysis of our results with other cervical cancer profiling studies could facilitate the development of multiplex diagnostic markers of cervical cancer progression

  11. Transcriptional differences between normal and glioma-derived glial progenitor cells identify a core set of dysregulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvergne, Romane M; Sim, Fraser J; Wang, Su; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Burch, Jaclyn; Al Fanek, Yazan; Davis, Danielle; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Walter, Kevin; Achanta, Pragathi; Johnson, Mahlon; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Natesan, Sridaran; Ford, Heide L; Goldman, Steven A

    2013-06-27

    Glial progenitor cells (GPCs) are a potential source of malignant gliomas. We used A2B5-based sorting to extract tumorigenic GPCs from human gliomas spanning World Health Organization grades II-IV. Messenger RNA profiling identified a cohort of genes that distinguished A2B5+ glioma tumor progenitor cells (TPCs) from A2B5+ GPCs isolated from normal white matter. A core set of genes and pathways was substantially dysregulated in A2B5+ TPCs, which included the transcription factor SIX1 and its principal cofactors, EYA1 and DACH2. Small hairpin RNAi silencing of SIX1 inhibited the expansion of glioma TPCs in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a critical and unrecognized role of the SIX1-EYA1-DACH2 system in glioma genesis or progression. By comparing the expression patterns of glioma TPCs with those of normal GPCs, we have identified a discrete set of pathways by which glial tumorigenesis may be better understood and more specifically targeted. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1998-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... video pictures (400 Hz), a clear impact on the seam characteristics has been identified when a hump occurs.Finally, a clear correlation between the position of the focus point, the resultant process type and the corresponding signal intensity and signal variation has been found for sheets welded...

  13. Human exposure to brominated flame retardants through dust in different indoor environments: Identifying the sources of concentration differences in hair from men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqi; Dong, Zheng; Wang, Ying; Bao, Junsong; Yan, Yijun; Liu, Anming; Jin, Jun

    2018-08-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) can accumulate in humans and are associated with adverse health effects. The study was conducted to determine the differences in Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative brominated flame retardant (Alt-BFR) concentrations between men and women. We analyzed hair samples from 14 male and 20 female university students, paired dust samples from their dormitories (10 for males and 8 for females), and six dust samples from university teaching buildings. The total PBDE concentrations in hair from females were significantly (three times) higher (p = 0.012) than that from males (means 372 and 109 ng/g, respectively). The mean total PBDE concentrations in classroom and dormitory dust were 36100 and 2012 ng/g, respectively. The PBDE patterns were different in the male and female hair samples, as were the patterns in the classroom and dormitory dust. There are no reports concerning human exposure to BFRs through dust that was assessed considering academic and residential environments simultaneously. The differences between BFR exposure for males and females and the differences between BFR concentrations in hair samples from males and females were consistent for 71.4% of the compounds. However, using only dormitory dust in the calculations gave consistent differences only for 28.6% of the compounds, suggesting that the BFR concentration differences in hair were mainly because females spent much more time than males in classrooms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring Students Intentions to Study Computer Science and Identifying the Differences among ICT and Programming Based Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakos, Michail N.

    2014-01-01

    Computer Science (CS) courses comprise both Programming and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) issues; however these two areas have substantial differences, inter alia the attitudes and beliefs of the students regarding the intended learning content. In this research, factors from the Social Cognitive Theory and Unified Theory of…

  15. The use of differential item functioning analyses to identify cultural differences in responses to the EORTC QLQ-C30

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, N. W.; Fayers, P. M.; Aaronson, N. K.; Bottomley, A.; de Graeff, A.; Groenvold, M.; Koller, M.; Petersen, M. A.; Sprangers, M. A. G.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 is a widely used health-related quality of life instrument. The main aim of this study is to investigate whether there are international differences in response to the questionnaire that can be explained by

  16. Integrative genome-wide expression profiling identifies three distinct molecular subgroups of renal cell carcinoma with different patient outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleut Manfred

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is characterized by a number of diverse molecular aberrations that differ among individuals. Recent approaches to molecularly classify RCC were based on clinical, pathological as well as on single molecular parameters. As a consequence, gene expression patterns reflecting the sum of genetic aberrations in individual tumors may not have been recognized. In an attempt to uncover such molecular features in RCC, we used a novel, unbiased and integrative approach. Methods We integrated gene expression data from 97 primary RCC of different pathologic parameters, 15 RCC metastases as well as 34 cancer cell lines for two-way nonsupervised hierarchical clustering using gene groups suggested by the PANTHER Classification System. We depicted the genomic landscape of the resulted tumor groups by means of Single Nuclear Polymorphism (SNP technology. Finally, the achieved results were immunohistochemically analyzed using a tissue microarray (TMA composed of 254 RCC. Results We found robust, genome wide expression signatures, which split RCC into three distinct molecular subgroups. These groups remained stable even if randomly selected gene sets were clustered. Notably, the pattern obtained from RCC cell lines was clearly distinguishable from that of primary tumors. SNP array analysis demonstrated differing frequencies of chromosomal copy number alterations among RCC subgroups. TMA analysis with group-specific markers showed a prognostic significance of the different groups. Conclusion We propose the existence of characteristic and histologically independent genome-wide expression outputs in RCC with potential biological and clinical relevance.

  17. NmeSI restriction-modification system identified by representational difference analysis of a hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, A.; Pannekoek, Y.; Dankert, J.; van der Ende, A.

    2001-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a gram-negative bacterium that may cause meningitis, sepsis, or both. The increase in the incidence of meningococcal disease in various countries in the past 2 decades is mainly due the genotypically related lineage III meningococci. The chromosomal DNA differences between

  18. Identifying potential differences in ontogentic ages between modern and archaeological Nacella deaurata shells, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surge, D. M.; Godino, I. B. I.; Álvarez, M.; López, M. B. I.

    2017-12-01

    Patelloid limpet shells are common constituents of rocky shore habitats along the eastern Atlantic basin and are often found in archaeological shell middens. Nacella deaurata is an intertidal species found in the Magellanic Province along the southern tip of South America. Recent discoveries of archaeological shell middens in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, identify N. deaurata as one of the abundant shells in these deposits. Preliminary observations reveal that modern N. deaurata shells achieve larger sizes compared to those found in the archaeological middens. Here, we provide preliminary data to test the hypothesis that the larger, modern specimens grow to older ontogenetic ages than the smaller archaeological specimens. Our results may provide insights into harvesting pressures on this species during the time when the archaeological sites were inhabited. Understanding their annual growth patterns also has important implications for generating oxygen isotope proxy data to reconstruct seasonal variation in sea surface temperature.

  19. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yali; Bickhart, Derek M; Chung, Hoyoung; Hutchison, Jana L; Norman, H Duane; Connor, Erin E; Liu, George E

    2012-11-01

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intake (RFI). We detected 443 candidate CNV regions (CNVRs) that represent 18.4 Mb (0.6 %) of the genome. To investigate the functional impacts of CNVs, we created two groups of 30 individual animals with extremely low or high estimated breeding values (EBVs) for RFI, and referred to these groups as low intake (LI; more efficient) or high intake (HI; less efficient), respectively. We identified 240 (~9.0 Mb) and 274 (~10.2 Mb) CNVRs from LI and HI groups, respectively. Approximately 30-40 % of the CNVRs were specific to the LI group or HI group of animals. The 240 LI CNVRs overlapped with 137 Ensembl genes. Network analyses indicated that the LI-specific genes were predominantly enriched for those functioning in the inflammatory response and immunity. By contrast, the 274 HI CNVRs contained 177 Ensembl genes. Network analyses indicated that the HI-specific genes were particularly involved in the cell cycle, and organ and bone development. These results relate CNVs to two key variables, namely immune response and organ and bone development. The data indicate that greater feed efficiency relates more closely to immune response, whereas cattle with reduced feed efficiency may have a greater capacity for organ and bone development.

  20. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a

  1. Fundamental Physics with Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangst, J. S.

    Antihydrogen—the antimatter equivalent of the hydrogen atom—is of fundamental interest as a test bed for universal symmetries—such as CPT and the Weak Equivalence Principle for gravitation. Invariance under CPT requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Antimatter is of course intriguing because of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe—currently unexplained by the Standard Model. At the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) [1], several groups have been working diligently since 1999 to produce, trap, and study the structure and behaviour of the antihydrogen atom. One of the main thrusts of the AD experimental program is to apply precision techniques from atomic physics to the study of antimatter. Such experiments complement the high-energy searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Antihydrogen is the only atom of antimatter to be produced in the laboratory. This is not so unfortunate, as its matter equivalent, hydrogen, is one of the most well-understood and accurately measured systems in all of physics. It is thus very compelling to undertake experimental examinations of the structure of antihydrogen. As experimental spectroscopy of antihydrogen has yet to begin in earnest, I will give here a brief introduction to some of the ion and atom trap developments necessary for synthesizing and trapping antihydrogen, so that it can be studied.

  2. Fundamentals of klystron testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.W. Jr.

    1978-08-01

    Fundamentals of klystron testing is a text primarily intended for the indoctrination of new klystron group test stand operators. It should significantly reduce the familiarization time of a new operator, making him an asset to the group sooner than has been experienced in the past. The new employee must appreciate the mission of SLAC before he can rightfully be expected to make a meaningful contribution to the group's effort. Thus, the introductory section acquaints the reader with basic concepts of accelerators in general, then briefly describes major physical aspects of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Only then is his attention directed to the klystron, with its auxiliary systems, and the rudiments of klystron tube performance checks. It is presumed that the reader is acquainted with basic principles of electronics and scientific notation. However, to preserve the integrity of an indoctrination guide, tedious technical discussions and mathematical analysis have been studiously avoided. It is hoped that the new operator will continue to use the text for reference long after his indoctrination period is completed. Even the more experienced operator should find that particular sections will refresh his understanding of basic principles of klystron testing

  3. Making physics more fundamental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The stellar death throes of supernovae have been seen and admired since time immemorial. However last year's was the first to come under the combined scrutiny of space-borne radiation detectors and underground neutrino monitors as well as terrestrial optical telescopes and even gravity wave antennae. The remarkable results underline the power of modern physics to explain and interrelate processes in the furthest reaches of the cosmos and the deep interior of nuclear particles. In recent years this common ground between 'Big Bang' cosmology and particle physics has been regularly trodden and retrodden in the light of fresh new insights and new experimental results, and thinking has steadily converged. In 1983, the first Symposium on Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, organized by CERN and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), was full of optimism, with new ideas ('inflation') to explain how the relatively small variations in the structure of the Universe could have arisen through the quantum structure of the initial cataclysm

  4. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  5. Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. L.

    2005-06-01

    Quantum mechanics has evolved from a subject of study in pure physics to one with a wide range of applications in many diverse fields. The basic concepts of quantum mechanics are explained in this book in a concise and easy-to-read manner emphasising applications in solid state electronics and modern optics. Following a logical sequence, the book is focused on the key ideas and is conceptually and mathematically self-contained. The fundamental principles of quantum mechanics are illustrated by showing their application to systems such as the hydrogen atom, multi-electron ions and atoms, the formation of simple organic molecules and crystalline solids of practical importance. It leads on from these basic concepts to discuss some of the most important applications in modern semiconductor electronics and optics. Containing many homework problems and worked examples, the book is suitable for senior-level undergraduate and graduate level students in electrical engineering, materials science and applied physics. Clear exposition of quantum mechanics written in a concise and accessible style Precise physical interpretation of the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics Illustrates the important concepts and results by reference to real-world examples in electronics and optoelectronics Contains homeworks and worked examples, with solutions available for instructors

  6. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  7. Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale metabolic models (GeMMs of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species revealed differences in thiamine (vitamin B1, choline, and pantothenate (vitamin B5 metabolism. Thus, we show that genome-scale analysis of multiple stages and species of Plasmodium can prioritize potential drug targets that could be both anti-malarials and transmission blocking agents, in addition to guiding translation from non-human experimental disease models.

  8. Functional interrogation of Plasmodium genus metabolism identifies species- and stage-specific differences in nutrient essentiality and drug targeting

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.

    2018-01-04

    Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages. The species-specific models further highlight differences between experimental animal models and the human-infecting species. Comparisons between human- and rodent-infecting species revealed differences in thiamine (vitamin B1), choline, and pantothenate (vitamin B5) metabolism. Thus, we show that genome-scale analysis of multiple stages and species of Plasmodium can prioritize potential drug targets that could be both anti-malarials and transmission blocking agents, in addition to guiding translation from non-human experimental disease models.

  9. Lipidomic approach to identify patterns in phospholipid profiles and define class differences in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, M Luísa; Cotrim, Zita; Macedo, Bárbara; Simões, Cláudia; Domingues, Pedro; Helguero, Luisa; Domingues, M Rosário

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Altered cellular functions of cancer cells lead to uncontrolled cellular growth and morphological changes. Cellular biomembranes are intimately involved in the regulation of cell signaling; however, they remain largely understudied. Phospholipids (PLs) are the main constituents of biological membranes and play important functional, structural and metabolic roles. The aim of this study was to establish if patterns in the PL profiles of mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells differ in relation to degree of differentiation and metastatic potential. For this purpose, PLs were analyzed using a lipidomic approach. In brief, PLs were extracted using Bligh and Dyer method, followed by a separation of PL classes by thin layer chromatography, and subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry (MS). Differences and similarities were found in the relative levels of PL content between mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells and between breast cancer cells with different levels of aggressiveness. When compared to the total PL content, phosphatidylcholine levels were reduced and lysophosphatydilcholines increased in the more aggressive cancer cells; while phosphatidylserine levels remained unchanged. MS analysis showed alterations in the classes of phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylinositides. In particular, the phosphatidylinositides, which are signaling molecules that affect proliferation, survival, and migration, showed dramatic alterations in their profile, where an increase of phosphatdylinositides saturated fatty acids chains and a decrease in C20 fatty acids in cancer cells compared with mammary epithelial cells was observed. At present, information about PL changes in cancer progression is lacking. Therefore, these data will be useful as a starting point to define possible PLs with prospective as biomarkers and disclose metabolic pathways with potential

  10. Metabolomics Analysis of Hormone-Responsive and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Responses to Paclitaxel Identify Key Metabolic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Delisha A; Winnike, Jason H; McRitchie, Susan L; Clark, Robert F; Pathmasiri, Wimal W; Sumner, Susan J

    2016-09-02

    To date, no targeted therapies are available to treat triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), while other breast cancer subtypes are responsive to current therapeutic treatment. Metabolomics was conducted to reveal differences in two hormone receptor-negative TNBC cell lines and two hormone receptor-positive Luminal A cell lines. Studies were conducted in the presence and absence of paclitaxel (Taxol). TNBC cell lines had higher levels of amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, nucleotides, and nucleotide sugars and lower levels of proliferation-related metabolites like choline compared with Luminal A cell lines. In the presence of paclitaxel, each cell line showed unique metabolic responses, with some similarities by type. For example, in the Luminal A cell lines, levels of lactate and creatine decreased while certain choline metabolites and myo-inositol increased with paclitaxel. In the TNBC cell lines levels of glutamine, glutamate, and glutathione increased, whereas lysine, proline, and valine decreased in the presence of drug. Profiling secreted inflammatory cytokines in the conditioned media demonstrated a greater response to paclitaxel in the hormone-positive Luminal cells compared with a secretion profile that suggested greater drug resistance in the TNBC cells. The most significant differences distinguishing the cell types based on pathway enrichment analyses were related to amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways, whereas several biological pathways were differentiated between the cell lines following treatment.

  11. Is it possible to rapidly and noninvasively identify different plants from Asteraceae using electronic nose with multiple mathematical algorithms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Zou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many plants originating from the Asteraceae family are applied as herbal medicines and also beverage ingredients in Asian areas, particularly in China. However, they may be confused due to their similar odor, especially when ground into powder, losing their typical macroscopic characteristics. In this paper, 11 different multiple mathematical algorithms, which are commonly used in data processing, were utilized and compared to analyze the electronic nose (E-nose response signals of different plants from Asteraceae family. Results demonstrate that three-dimensional plot scatter figure of principal component analysis with less extracted components could offer the identification results more visually; simultaneously, all nine kinds of artificial neural network could give classification accuracies at 100%. This paper presents a rapid, accurate, and effective method to distinguish Asteraceae plants based on their response signals in E-nose. It also gives insights to further studies, such as to find unique sensors that are more sensitive and exclusive to volatile components in Chinese herbal medicines and to improve the identification ability of E-nose. Screening sensors made by other novel materials would be also an interesting way to improve identification capability of E-nose.

  12. Fundamentals - longitudinal motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    There are many ways to accelerate charged particles to high energy for physics research. Each has served its purpose but eventually has encountered fundamental limitations of one kind or another. Looking at the famous Livingston curve, the initial birth and final level-off of all types of accelerators is seen. In fact, in the mid-80s we personally witnessed the creation of a new type of collider - the Stanford Linear Collider. Also witnessed, was the resurgence of study into novel methods of acceleration. This paper will cover acceleration and longitudinal motion in a synchrotron. A synchrotron is a circular accelerator with the following three characteristics: (1) Magnetic guiding (dipole) and confinement (quadrupole) components are placed in a small neighborhood around the equilibrium orbit. (2) Particles are kept in resonance with the radio-frequency electric field indefinitely to achieve acceleration to higher energies. (3) Magnetic fields are varied adiabatically with the energy of the particle. D. Edwards described the transverse oscillations of particles in a synchrotron. Here the author talks about the longitudinal oscillations of particles. The phase stability principle was invented by V. Veksler and E. McMillan independently in 1945. The phase stability and strong focusing principle, invented by Courant and Livingston in 1952, enabled the steady energy gain of accelerators and storage rings witnessed during the past 30 years. This paper is a unified overview of the related rf subjects in an accelerator and a close coupling between accelerator physics and engineering practices, which is essential for the major progress in areas such as high intensity synchrotrons, a multistage accelerator complex, and anti-proton production and cooling, made possible in the past 20 years

  13. Combining Temporal and Spectral Information with Spatial Mapping to Identify Differences between Phonological and Semantic Networks: A Magnetoencephalographic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Fiona; Hillebrand, Arjan; Swithenby, Stephen J; Rippon, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Early, lesion-based models of language processing suggested that semantic and phonological processes are associated with distinct temporal and parietal regions respectively, with frontal areas more indirectly involved. Contemporary spatial brain mapping techniques have not supported such clear-cut segregation, with strong evidence of activation in left temporal areas by both processes and disputed evidence of involvement of frontal areas in both processes. We suggest that combining spatial information with temporal and spectral data may allow a closer scrutiny of the differential involvement of closely overlapping cortical areas in language processing. Using beamforming techniques to analyze magnetoencephalography data, we localized the neuronal substrates underlying primed responses to nouns requiring either phonological or semantic processing, and examined the associated measures of time and frequency in those areas where activation was common to both tasks. Power changes in the beta (14-30 Hz) and gamma (30-50 Hz) frequency bands were analyzed in pre-selected time windows of 350-550 and 500-700 ms In left temporal regions, both tasks elicited power changes in the same time window (350-550 ms), but with different spectral characteristics, low beta (14-20 Hz) for the phonological task and high beta (20-30 Hz) for the semantic task. In frontal areas (BA10), both tasks elicited power changes in the gamma band (30-50 Hz), but in different time windows, 500-700 ms for the phonological task and 350-550 ms for the semantic task. In the left inferior parietal area (BA40), both tasks elicited changes in the 20-30 Hz beta frequency band but in different time windows, 350-550 ms for the phonological task and 500-700 ms for the semantic task. Our findings suggest that, where spatial measures may indicate overlapping areas of involvement, additional beamforming techniques can demonstrate differential activation in time and frequency domains.

  14. Using stable isotopes and functional wood anatomy to identify underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance in different provenances of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Renton, Miriam; Montwé, David; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich; Cherubini, Paolo; Treydte, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Choosing drought-tolerant seed sources for reforestation may help adapt forests to climate change. By combining dendroecological growth analysis with a long-term provenance trial, we assessed growth and drought tolerance of different populations of a wide-ranging conifer, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). This experimental design simulated a climate warming scenario through southward seed transfer, and an exceptional drought also occurred in 2002. We felled over 500 trees, representing 23 seed sources, which were grown for 32 years at three warm, dry sites in southern British Columbia, Canada. Northern populations showed poor growth and drought tolerance. These seed sources therefore appear to be especially at risk under climate change. Before recommending assisted migration of southern seeds towards the north, however, it is important to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these responses. We combine functional wood anatomy with a dual-isotope approach to evaluate these mechanisms to drought response.

  15. Analysis of dental erosion induced by different beverages and validity of equipment for identifying early dental erosion, in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Rafey Ahmad; Khan, Shah Salman; Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Hj; Bakri, Marina Mohd; Siddiqui, Saima

    2016-07-01

    To understand early dental erosion induced by different beverages and the equipment for its detection. The study was conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from June to September 2014, and comprised single-rooted, unpolished teeth divided into six groups. Electron micrographs and other baseline readings for further analyses were taken before and after the exposure to different beverages. The teeth were exposed to the beverages using a modified Nordini's artificial mouth model. The positioning of the teeth on the motorised stage of the equipment was standardised. Of the several beverages used, CocaCola had the lowest pH value of 2.53, while tap water had the highest pH of 5.4. Deionised distilled water, which was used as a reference, had a pH near to neutral /alkaline of 7.3. The fluoride content ranged between 9.38ppm in tea and 0.005ppm in orange juice. Teeth exposed to beverages with low pH and considerably high fluoride underwent slight remineralisation (roughness increase 8% from tea), while beverages with no fluoride content and low pH roughened the enamel surface (Coca Cola roughened upto 37%). Quantitative analyses of tooth erosion, micro-hardness, surface-roughness, and surface-height showed that all beverages exhibited positive erosive effect on the tooth enamel surface (pCocaCola was found to be the most erosive agent among both hot and cold beverages (37%), while coffee was more erosive among the hot beverages (29%).

  16. Identifying Differences Between Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) and Non-OHV User Groups for Recreation Resource Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Namyun; Holland, Stephen M.; Stein, Taylor V.

    2012-09-01

    Off-highway vehicle (OHV) riding is among the fastest growing recreational activities in the United States. However, little research exists about the central components of outcomes-focused management (OFM) as it relates to motorized recreation. Utilizing a two-activity dichotomy, OHV and non-OHV centric user groups were compared on several key concepts associated with OFM, including desired experiences, perceived and desired recreation opportunity spectrum-type settings, and intentional behaviors (i.e., place-protective behavior, spending-time intentions) toward potential changes in settings. Results indicated that the two groups were different in terms of intensity and relative rankings of their perceived experiences and settings. Although both groups preferred social bonding, stress relief, nostalgia and learning experiences, the OHV user group ranked using equipment and achieving physical fitness experiences as more important than the non-OHV group. The non-OHV user group preferred enjoying nature and solitude/tranquility experiences more strongly than the OHV user group. Further analysis found that both groups perceived settings that they recreated in to be pristine and preferred such conditions, and both groups preferred moderate levels of rules and regulations. Finally, the OHV user group was more reactive to rules and regulations, while the non-OHV user group expressed stronger intentions to protect the environmental quality of recreation areas. The results suggest that planners and managers who understand OHV user's perceptions and behaviors could provide enhanced recreation opportunities potentially providing additional beneficial outcomes for motorized and non-motorized groups in spatially different zones. Additional implications for planners and managers and future studies are discussed.

  17. Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J.L.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Collar, J.; de Gouvea, A.; Essig, R.; Grossman, Y.; Haxton, W.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Pitts, K.; Ligeti, Z.; Patterson, J.R.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.; Ritchie, J.L.; Roodman, A.; Scholberg, K.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Zeller, G.P.; Aefsky, S.; Afanasev, A.; Agashe, K.; Albright, C.; Alonso, J.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Aoki, M.; Arguelles, C.A.; Arkani-Hamed, N.; Armendariz, J.R.; Armendariz-Picon, C.; Arrieta Diaz, E.; Asaadi, J.; Asner, D.M.; Babu, K.S.; Bailey, K.; Baker, O.; Balantekin, B.; Baller, B.; Bass, M.; Batell, B.; Beacham, J.; Behr, J.; Berger, N.; Bergevin, M.; Berman, E.; Bernstein, R.; Bevan, A.J.; Bishai, M.; Blanke, M.; Blessing, S.; Blondel, A.; Blum, T.; Bock, G.; Bodek, A.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Boyce, J.; Breedon, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Brice, S.J.; Briere, R.A.; Brodsky, S.; Bromberg, C.; Bross, A.; Browder, T.E.; Bryman, D.A.; Buckley, M.; Burnstein, R.; Caden, E.; Campana, P.; Carlini, R.; Carosi, G.; Castromonte, C.; Cenci, R.; Chakaberia, I.; Chen, Mu-Chun; Cheng, C.H.; Choudhary, B.; Christ, N.H.; Christensen, E.; Christy, M.E.; Chupp, T.E.; Church, E.; Cline, D.B.; Coan, T.E.; Coloma, P.; Comfort, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, J.; Cooper, R.J.; Cowan, R.; Cowen, D.F.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Datta, A.; Davies, G.S.; Demarteau, M.; DeMille, D.P.; Denig, A.; Dermisek, R.; Deshpande, A.; Dewey, M.S.; Dharmapalan, R.; Dhooghe, J.; Dietrich, M.R.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dobbs, S.; Duraisamy, M.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Duyang, H.; Dwyer, D.A.; Eads, M.; Echenard, B.; Elliott, S.R.; Escobar, C.; Fajans, J.; Farooq, S.; Faroughy, C.; Fast, J.E.; Feinberg, B.; Felde, J.; Feldman, G.; Fierlinger, P.; Fileviez Perez, P.; Filippone, B.; Fisher, P.; Flemming, B.T.; Flood, K.T.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.J.; Freyberger, A.; Friedland, A.; Gandhi, R.; Ganezer, K.S.; Garcia, A.; Garcia, F.G.; Gardner, S.; Garrison, L.; Gasparian, A.; Geer, S.; Gehman, V.M.; Gershon, T.; Gilchriese, M.; Ginsberg, C.; Gogoladze, I.; Gonderinger, M.; Goodman, M.; Gould, H.; Graham, M.; Graham, P.W.; Gran, R.; Grange, J.; Gratta, G.; Green, J.P.; Greenlee, H.; Group, R.C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gudkov, V.; Guenette, R.; Haas, A.; Hahn, A.; Han, T.; Handler, T.; Hardy, J.C.; Harnik, R.; Harris, D.A.; Harris, F.A.; Harris, P.G.; Hartnett, J.; He, B.; Heckel, B.R.; Heeger, K.M.; Henderson, S.; Hertzog, D.; Hill, R.; Hinds, E.A.; Hitlin, D.G.; Holt, R.J.; Holtkamp, N.; Horton-Smith, G.; Huber, P.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imber, J.; Irastorza, I.; Jaeckel, J.; Jaegle, I.; James, C.; Jawahery, A.; Jensen, D.; Jessop, C.P.; Jones, B.; Jostlein, H.; Junk, T.; Kagan, A.L.; Kalita, M.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kaplan, D.M.; Karagiorgi, G.; Karle, A.; Katori, T.; Kayser, B.; Kephart, R.; Kettell, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Kirby, M.; Kirch, K.; Klein, J.; Kneller, J.; Kobach, A.; Kohl, M.; Kopp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Korsch, W.; Kourbanis, I.; Krisch, A.D.; Krizan, P.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, K.S.; Kuno, Y.; Kutter, T.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lamm, M.; Lancaster, J.; Lancaster, M.; Lane, C.; Lang, K.; Langacker, P.; Lazarevic, S.; Le, T.; Lee, K.; Lesko, K.T.; Li, Y.; Lindgren, M.; Lindner, A.; Link, J.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.S.; Littlejohn, B.; Liu, C.Y.; Loinaz, W.; Lorenzon, W.; Louis, W.C.; Lozier, J.; Ludovici, L.; Lueking, L.; Lunardini, C.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Machado, P.A.N.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Maloney, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Marsh, W.; Marshak, M.; Martin, J.W.; Mauger, C.; McFarland, K.S.; McGrew, C.; McLaughlin, G.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Meadows, B.T.; Mehdiyev, R.; Melconian, D.; Merkel, H.; Messier, M.; Miller, J.P.; Mills, G.; Minamisono, U.K.; Mishra, S.R.; Mocioiu, I.; Sher, S.Moed; Mohapatra, R.N.; Monreal, B.; Moore, C.D.; Morfin, J.G.; Mousseau, J.; Moustakas, L.A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, P.; Muether, M.; Mumm, H.P.; Munger, C.; Murayama, H.; Nath, P.; Naviliat-Cuncin, O.; Nelson, J.K.; Neuffer, D.; Nico, J.S.; Norman, A.; Nygren, D.; Obayashi, Y.; O'Connor, T.P.; Okada, Y.; Olsen, J.; Orozco, L.; Orrell, J.L.; Osta, J.; Pahlka, B.; Paley, J.; Papadimitriou, V.; Papucci, M.; Parke, S.; Parker, R.H.; Parsa, Z.; Partyka, K.; Patch, A.; Pati, J.C.; Patterson, R.B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Paz, Gil; Perdue, G.N.; Perevalov, D.; Perez, G.; Petti, R.; Pettus, W.; Piepke, A.; Pivovaroff, M.; Plunkett, R.; Polly, C.C.; Pospelov, M.; Povey, R.; Prakesh, A.; Purohit, M.V.; Raby, S.; Raaf, J.L.; Rajendran, R.; Rajendran, S.; Rameika, G.; Ramsey, R.; Rashed, A.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Rebel, B.; Redondo, J.; Reimer, P.; Reitzner, D.; Ringer, F.; Ringwald, A.; Riordan, S.; Roberts, B.L.; Roberts, D.A.; Robertson, R.; Robicheaux, F.; Rominsky, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J.L.; Rott, C.; Rubin, P.; Saito, N.; Sanchez, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schellman, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmitt, M.; Schmitz, D.W.; Schneps, J.; Schopper, A.; Schuster, P.; Schwartz, A.J.; Schwarz, M.; Seeman, J.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Seth, K.K.; Shafi, Q.; Shanahan, P.; Sharma, R.; Sharpe, S.R.; Shiozawa, M.; Shiltsev, V.; Sigurdson, K.; Sikivie, P.; Singh, J.; Sivers, D.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.; Sobczyk, J.; Sobel, H.; Soderberg, M.; Song, Y.H.; Soni, A.; Souder, P.; Sousa, A.; Spitz, J.; Stancari, M.; Stavenga, G.C.; Steffen, J.H.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoeckinger, D.; Stone, S.; Strait, J.; Strassler, M.; Sulai, I.A.; Sundrum, R.; Svoboda, R.; Szczerbinska, B.; Szelc, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Tanedo, P.; Taneja, S.; Tang, J.; Tanner, D.B.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I.; Thomas, J.; Thorn, C.; Tian, X.; Tice, B.G.; Tobar, M.; Tolich, N.; Toro, N.; Towner, I.S.; Tsai, Y.; Tschirhart, R.; Tunnell, C.D.; Tzanov, M.; Upadhye, A.; Urheim, J.; Vahsen, S.; Vainshtein, A.; Valencia, E.; Van de Water, R.G.; Van de Water, R.S.; Velasco, M.; Vogel, J.; Vogel, P.; Vogelsang, W.; Wah, Y.W.; Walker, D.; Weiner, N.; Weltman, A.; Wendell, R.; Wester, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitmore, J.; Widmann, E.; Wiedemann, G.; Wilkerson, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R.J.; Winter, W.; Wise, M.B.; Wodin, J.; Wojcicki, S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wongjirad, T.; Worcester, E.; Wurtele, J.; Xin, T.; Xu, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yavin, I.; Yeck, J.; Yeh, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Young, A.; Zimmerman, E.; Zioutas, K.; Zisman, M.; Zupan, J.; Zwaska, R.; Intensity Frontier Workshop

    2012-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  18. Characterisation of different forms of the accessory gp3 canine coronavirus type I protein identified in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Orengiani, Anne-Laure Pham-Hung d'Alexandry; Duarte, Lidia; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie

    2015-04-16

    ORF3 is a supplemental open reading frame coding for an accessory glycoprotein gp3 of unknown function, only present in genotype I canine strain (CCoV-I) and some atypical feline FCoV strains. In these latter hosts, the ORF3 gene systematically displays one or two identical deletions leading to the synthesis of truncated proteins gp3-Δ1 and gp3-Δ2. As deletions in CoV accessory proteins have already been involved in tissue or host switch, studies of these different gp3 proteins were conducted in canine and feline cell. All proteins oligomerise through covalent bonds, are N-glycosylated and are maintained in the ER in non-infected but also in CCoV-II infected cells, without any specific retention signal. However, deletions influence their level of expression. In canine cells, all proteins are expressed with similar level whereas in feline cells, the expression of gp3-Δ1 is higher than the two other forms of gp3. None of the gp3 proteins modulate the viral replication cycle of heterologous genotype II CCoV in canine cell line, leading to the conclusion that the gp3 proteins are probably advantageous only for CCoV-I and atypical FCoV strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Predatory functional response and prey choice identify predation differences between native/invasive and parasitised/unparasitised crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal R; Wilcox, Ruth H; Heptonstall, Rachael E A; Griffiths, Hannah M; Mortimer, Robert J G; Christmas, Martin; Dunn, Alison M

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators may change the structure of invaded communities through predation and competition with native species. In Europe, the invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is excluding the native white clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. This study compared the predatory functional responses and prey choice of native and invasive crayfish and measured impacts of parasitism on the predatory strength of the native species. Invasive crayfish showed a higher (>10%) prey (Gammarus pulex) intake rate than (size matched) natives, reflecting a shorter (16%) prey handling time. The native crayfish also showed greater selection for crustacean prey over molluscs and bloodworm, whereas the invasive species was a more generalist predator. A. pallipes parasitised by the microsporidian parasite Thelohania contejeani showed a 30% reduction in prey intake. We suggest that this results from parasite-induced muscle damage, and this is supported by a reduced (38%) attack rate and increased (30%) prey handling time. Our results indicate that the per capita (i.e., functional response) difference between the species may contribute to success of the invader and extinction of the native species, as well as decreased biodiversity and biomass in invaded rivers. In addition, the reduced predatory strength of parasitized natives may impair their competitive abilities, facilitating exclusion by the invader.

  20. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  1. Identifying disordered eating behaviours in adolescents: how do parent and adolescent reports differ by sex and age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, Savani; Allen, Karina; Hodsoll, John; O'Daly, Owen G; Campbell, Iain C; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Mennigen, Eva; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of disordered eating cognitions and behaviours across mid-adolescence in a large European sample, and explored the extent to which prevalence ratings were affected by informant (parent/adolescent), or the sex or age of the adolescent. The Development and Well-Being Assessment was completed by parent-adolescent dyads at age 14 (n = 2225) and again at age 16 (n = 1607) to explore the prevalence of 7 eating disorder symptoms (binge eating, purging, fear of weight gain, distress over shape/weight, avoidance of fattening foods, food restriction, and exercise for weight loss). Informant agreement was assessed using kappa coefficients. Generalised estimating equations were performed to explore the impact of age, sex and informant on symptom prevalence. Slight to fair agreement was observed between parent and adolescent reports (kappa estimates between 0.045 and 0.318); however, this was largely driven by agreement on the absence of behaviours. Disordered eating behaviours were more consistently endorsed amongst girls compared to boys (odds ratios: 2.96-5.90) and by adolescents compared to their parents (odds ratios: 2.71-9.05). Our data are consistent with previous findings in epidemiological studies. The findings suggest that sex-related differences in the prevalence of disordered eating behaviour are established by mid-adolescence. The greater prevalence rates obtained from adolescent compared to parent reports may be due to the secretive nature of the behaviours and/or lack of awareness by parents. If adolescent reports are overlooked, the disordered behaviour may have a greater opportunity to become more entrenched.

  2. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  3. Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Ahmad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...

  4. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...

  5. Evaluating bronchodilator response in pediatric patients with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans: use of different criteria for identifying airway reversibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Rita; Vidal, Paula Cristina; Sarria, Edgar Enrique; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Mocelin, Helena Teresinha; Fischer, Gilberto Bueno; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Pinto, Leonardo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a clinical entity that has been classified as constrictive, fixed obstruction of the lumen by fibrotic tissue. However, recent studies using impulse oscillometry have reported bronchodilator responses in PIBO patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate bronchodilator responses in pediatric PIBO patients, comparing different criteria to define the response. We evaluated pediatric patients diagnosed with PIBO and treated at one of two pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinics in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Spirometric parameters were measured in accordance with international recommendations. We included a total of 72 pediatric PIBO patients. The mean pre- and post-bronchodilator values were clearly lower than the reference values for all parameters, especially FEF25-75%. There were post-bronchodilator improvements. When measured as mean percent increases, FEV1 and FEF25-75%, improved by 11% and 20%, respectively. However, when the absolute values were calculated, the mean FEV1 and FEF25-75% both increased by only 0.1 L. We found that age at viral aggression, a family history of asthma, and allergy had no significant effects on bronchodilator responses. Pediatric patients with PIBO have peripheral airway obstruction that is responsive to treatment but is not completely reversible with a bronchodilator. The concept of PIBO as fixed, irreversible obstruction does not seem to apply to this population. Our data suggest that airway obstruction is variable in PIBO patients, a finding that could have major clinical implications. A bronquiolite obliterante pós-infecciosa (BOPI) é uma entidade clínica que tem sido classificada como obstrução fixa e constritiva do lúmen por tecido fibrótico. Entretanto, estudos recentes utilizando oscilometria de impulso relataram resposta ao broncodilatador em pacientes com BOPI. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resposta broncodilatadora em pacientes pediátricos com

  6. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  7. A view of dyslexia in context: implications for understanding differences in essay writing experience amongst higher education students identified as dyslexic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christine; Sellman, Edward

    2013-08-01

    This article applies socio-cultural theories to explore how differences in essay writing experience are constituted for a group of students identified as dyslexic. It reports on a qualitative study with eleven student writers, seven of whom are formally identified as dyslexic, from the schools of archaeology, history and philosophy in a 'traditional' UK university. Semi-structured interviews before, during and after writing a coursework essay revealed well-documented dyslexia-related difficulties and also strong differences in how writing was experienced. The multiple and fluid dimensions that construct these differences suggest the importance of position within the context, previous and developing writing and learning experience, and metacognitive, meta-affective and metalinguistic awareness. They also suggest tensions between specialist and inclusive policies in relation to writing pedagogy for students identified as dyslexic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  9. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    OpenAIRE

    Schiele, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a new theoretical framework for analyzing physical human robot interaction (pHRI) with exoskeletons, and (2) a clear set of design rules of how to build wearable, portable exoskeletons to easily and...

  10. Fundamentals of structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome J

    2016-01-01

    This book-presents new methods and tools for the integration and simulation of smart devices. The design approach described in this book explicitly accounts for integration of Smart Systems components and subsystems as a specific constraint. It includes methodologies and EDA tools to enable multi-disciplinary and multi-scale modeling and design, simulation of multi-domain systems, subsystems and components at all levels of abstraction, system integration and exploration for optimization of functional and non-functional metrics. By covering theoretical and practical aspects of smart device design, this book targets people who are working and studying on hardware/software modelling, component integration and simulation under different positions (system integrators, designers, developers, researchers, teachers, students etc.). In particular, it is a good introduction to people who have interest in managing heterogeneous components in an efficient and effective way on different domains and different abstraction l...

  11. CVD diamond - fundamental phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, W.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical processes involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.

  12. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  13. A new fundamental type of conformational isomerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Peter J.; Blake, Iain M.; Cai, Zheng-Li; Luck, Ian J.; Krausz, Elmars; Kobayashi, Rika; Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Crossley, Maxwell J.

    2018-06-01

    Isomerism is a fundamental chemical concept, reflecting the fact that the arrangement of atoms in a molecular entity has a profound influence on its chemical and physical properties. Here we describe a previously unclassified fundamental form of conformational isomerism through four resolved stereoisomers of a transoid (BF)O(BF)-quinoxalinoporphyrin. These comprise two pairs of enantiomers that manifest structural relationships not describable within existing IUPAC nomenclature and terminology. They undergo thermal diastereomeric interconversion over a barrier of 104 ± 2 kJ mol-1, which we term `akamptisomerization'. Feasible interconversion processes between conceivable synthesis products and reaction intermediates were mapped out by density functional theory calculations, identifying bond-angle inversion (BAI) at a singly bonded atom as the reaction mechanism. We also introduce the necessary BAI stereodescriptors parvo and amplo. Based on an extended polytope formalism of molecular structure and stereoisomerization, BAI-driven akamptisomerization is shown to be the final fundamental type of conformational isomerization.

  14. Cloud Computing Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furht, Borko

    In the introductory chapter we define the concept of cloud computing and cloud services, and we introduce layers and types of cloud computing. We discuss the differences between cloud computing and cloud services. New technologies that enabled cloud computing are presented next. We also discuss cloud computing features, standards, and security issues. We introduce the key cloud computing platforms, their vendors, and their offerings. We discuss cloud computing challenges and the future of cloud computing.

  15. Fundamental volatility is regime specific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; MacDonald, R.; Vries, de C.G.

    2006-01-01

    A widely held notion holds that freely floating exchange rates are excessively volatile when judged against fundamentals and when moving from fixed to floating exchange rates. We re-examine the data and conclude that the disparity between the fundamentals and exchange rate volatility is more

  16. Fundamentals of university mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    McGregor, C M; Stothers, W W

    2010-01-01

    The third edition of this popular and effective textbook provides in one volume a unified treatment of topics essential for first year university students studying for degrees in mathematics. Students of computer science, physics and statistics will also find this book a helpful guide to all the basic mathematics they require. It clearly and comprehensively covers much of the material that other textbooks tend to assume, assisting students in the transition to university-level mathematics.Expertly revised and updated, the chapters cover topics such as number systems, set and functions, differe

  17. Connecting Fundamental Constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mario, D.

    2008-01-01

    A model for a black hole electron is built from three basic constants only: h, c and G. The result is a description of the electron with its mass and charge. The nature of this black hole seems to fit the properties of the Planck particle and new relationships among basic constants are possible. The time dilation factor in a black hole associated with a variable gravitational field would appear to us as a charge; on the other hand the Planck time is acting as a time gap drastically limiting what we are able to measure and its dimension will appear in some quantities. This is why the Planck time is numerically very close to the gravitational/electric force ratio in an electron: its difference, disregarding a π√(2) factor, is only 0.2%. This is not a coincidence, it is always the same particle and the small difference is between a rotating and a non-rotating particle. The determination of its rotational speed yields accurate numbers for many quantities, including the fine structure constant and the electron magnetic moment

  18. Fundamentals of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Erkoc, Sakir

    2006-01-01

    HISTORICAL EXPERIMENTS AND THEORIESDates of Important Discoveries and Events Blackbody RadiationPhotoelectrice Effect Quantum Theory of Spectra TheComptone Effect Matterwaves, the de Broglie HypothesisThe Davisson -Germer Experiment Heisenberg's Uncertainity PrincipleDifference Between Particles and Waves Interpretation of the Wavefunction AXIOMATIC STRUCTURE OF QUANTUM MECHANICSThe Necessity of Quantum TheoryFunction Spaces Postulates of Quantum Mechanics The Kronecker Delta and the Dirac Delta Function Dirac Notation OBSERVABLES AND SUPERPOSITIONFree Particle Particle In A Box Ensemble Average Hilbert -Space Interpretation The Initial Square Wave Particle Beam Superposition and Uncertainty Degeneracy of States Commutators and Uncertainty TIME DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION THEOREMSTime Development of State Functions, The Discrete Case The Continuous Case, Wave Packets Particle Beam Gaussian Wave Packet Free Particle Propagator The Limiting Cases of the Gaussian Wave Packets Time Development of Expectation Val...

  19. Fundamentals of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Numai, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    This book explains physics under the operating principles of semiconductor lasers in detail based on the experience of the author, dealing with the first manufacturing of phase-shifted DFB-LDs and recent research on transverse modes.   The book also bridges a wide gap between journal papers and textbooks, requiring only an undergraduate-level knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and helps readers to understand journal papers where definitions of some technical terms vary, depending on the paper. Two definitions of the photon density in the rate equations and two definitions of the phase-shift in the phase-shifted DFB-LD are explained, and differences in the calculated results are indicated, depending on the definitions.    Readers can understand the physics of semiconductor lasers and analytical tools for Fabry-Perot LDs, DFB-LDs, and VCSELs and will be stimulated to develop semiconductor lasers themselves.

  20. Stakeholders identify similar barriers but different strategies to facilitate return-to-work: A vignette of a worker with an upper extremity condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan E; Truong, Anthony P; Johnston, Venerina

    2018-01-01

    Stakeholders involved in the return-to-work (RTW) process have different roles and qualificationsOBJECTIVE:To explore the perspectives of Australian stakeholders of the RTW barriers and strategies for a worker with an upper extremity condition and a complex workers' compensation case. Using a case vignette, stakeholders were asked to identify barriers and recommend strategies to facilitate RTW. Content analysis was performed on the open-ended responses. The responses were categorised into RTW barriers and strategies using the biopsychosocial model. Pearson's Chi Square and ANOVA were performed to establish group differences. 621 participants (488 healthcare providers (HCPs), 62 employers, 55 insurers and 16 lawyers) identified 36 barriers (31 modifiable): 4 demographic; 8 biological; 15 psychological and 9 social barriers. 484 participants reported 16 RTW strategies: 4 biological; 6 psychological and 6 social strategies. 'Work relationship stressors' (83.4%) and 'Personal relationship stressors' (64.7%) were the most frequently nominated barriers. HCPs most frequently nominated 'Pain management' (49.6%), while employers, insurers and lawyers nominated 'RTW planning/Suitable duties programs' (40.5%; 42.9%; 80%). Stakeholders perceived similar barriers for RTW but recommended different strategies. Stakeholders appeared to be more proficient in identifying barriers than recommending strategies. Future research should focus on tools to both identify RTW barriers and direct intervention.

  1. The implications of fundamental cause theory for priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel S

    2014-10-01

    Application of fundamental cause theory to Powers and Faden's model of social justice highlights the ethical superiority of upstream public health interventions. In this article, I assess the ramifications of fundamental cause theory specifically in context of public health priority setting. Ethically optimal public health policy simultaneously maximizes overall population health and compresses health inequalities. The fundamental cause theory is an important framework in helping to identify which categories of public health interventions are most likely to advance these twin goals.

  2. Utility of Neck Circumference for Identifying Metabolic Syndrome by Different Definitions in Chinese Subjects over 50 Years Old: A Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Whether neck circumference (NC could be used as a valuable tool for identifying metabolic syndrome (MS by different criteria in Chinese is still unclear. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey from October 2010 to January 2011 in Shipai community, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. A total of 1473 subjects aged over 50 years were investigated. We measured height, weight, NC, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids in all subjects. MS was identified by criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III, Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS, and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Results. Mean NC was 38.0 ± 2.7 cm in men and 34.2 ± 2.5 cm in women. By using receiver operating characteristic curves, the area under the curve (AUC of NC for identifying MS (IDF was 0.823 in men and 0.777 in women, while for identifying MS (CDS, it was 0.788 in men and 0.762 in women. The AUC of NC for diagnosing MS (ATP III was 0.776 in men and 0.752 in women. The optimal cut points of NC for MS were 38.5 cm by three definitions in men, while those were 34.2 cm, 33.4 cm, and 34.0 cm in women by IDF, ATP III, and CDS definitions, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the AUC of NC and BMI for diagnosing MS by using different criteria (all p>0.05. Conclusions. NC is associated with MS by different definitions in Chinese subjects over 50 years old. It may be a useful tool to identify MS in a community population.

  3. Combinatorial evaluation of systems including decomposition of a system representation into fundamental cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joseph S [Richland, WA; Jones-Oliveira, Janet B [Richland, WA; Bailey, Colin G [Wellington, NZ; Gull, Dean W [Seattle, WA

    2008-07-01

    One embodiment of the present invention includes a computer operable to represent a physical system with a graphical data structure corresponding to a matroid. The graphical data structure corresponds to a number of vertices and a number of edges that each correspond to two of the vertices. The computer is further operable to define a closed pathway arrangement with the graphical data structure and identify each different one of a number of fundamental cycles by evaluating a different respective one of the edges with a spanning tree representation. The fundamental cycles each include three or more of the vertices.

  4. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Hernandez, X.; Postnikov, S.; Nagataki, S.; O’brien, P.; Willingale, R.; Striegel, S.

    2017-01-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obey a 3D relation, between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, T a , its corresponding X-ray luminosity, L a , and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, L peak . This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we here confirm. Here we include the most recent GRBs observed by Swift to define a “gold sample” (45 GRBs) and obtain an intrinsic scatter about the plane compatible within 1 σ with the previous result. We compare GRB categories, such as short GRBs with extended emission (SEE), X-ray flashes, GRBs associated with supernovae, a sample of only long-duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We find that the relation planes for each of these categories are not statistically different from the gold fundamental plane, with the exception of the SSE, which are hence identified as a physically distinct class. The gold fundamental plane has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. Thus, the distance of any particular GRB category from this plane becomes a key parameter. We computed the several category planes with T a as a dependent parameter obtaining for each category smaller intrinsic scatters (reaching a reduction of 24% for the long GRBs). The fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.

  5. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dainotti, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stanford University, Via Pueblo Mall 382, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, México (Mexico); Postnikov, S. [The Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Nagataki, S. [RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako Saitama (Japan); O’brien, P.; Willingale, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Road Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Striegel, S., E-mail: mdainott@stanford.edu, E-mail: dainotti@oa.uj.edu.pl, E-mail: mariagiovannadainotti@yahoo.it, E-mail: xavier@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: postsergey@gmail.com, E-mail: shigehiro.nagataki@riken.jp, E-mail: zrw@le.ac.uk, E-mail: stephanie.striegel@sjsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obey a 3D relation, between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, T {sub a} , its corresponding X-ray luminosity, L {sub a} , and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, L {sub peak}. This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we here confirm. Here we include the most recent GRBs observed by Swift to define a “gold sample” (45 GRBs) and obtain an intrinsic scatter about the plane compatible within 1 σ with the previous result. We compare GRB categories, such as short GRBs with extended emission (SEE), X-ray flashes, GRBs associated with supernovae, a sample of only long-duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We find that the relation planes for each of these categories are not statistically different from the gold fundamental plane, with the exception of the SSE, which are hence identified as a physically distinct class. The gold fundamental plane has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. Thus, the distance of any particular GRB category from this plane becomes a key parameter. We computed the several category planes with T {sub a} as a dependent parameter obtaining for each category smaller intrinsic scatters (reaching a reduction of 24% for the long GRBs). The fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.

  6. A Point Source of a Different Color: Identifying a Gap in United States Regulatory Policy for “Green” CSO Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno F. Levy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 850 billion gallons of untreated combined sewer overflow (CSO is discharged into waters of the United States each year. Recent changes in CSO management policy support green infrastructure (GI technologies as “front of the pipe” approaches to discharge mitigation by detention/reduction of urban stormwater runoff. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment have been considered among suites of GI solutions. However, these wetlands differ fundamentally from other GI technologies in that they are “end of the pipe” treatment systems that discharge from a point source, and are therefore regulated in the U.S. under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES. We use a comparative regulatory analysis to examine the U.S. policy framework for CSO treatment wetlands. We find in all cases that permitting authorities have used best professional judgment to determine effluent limits and compliance monitoring requirements, referencing technology and water quality-based standards originally developed for traditional “grey” treatment systems. A qualitative comparison with Europe shows less stringent regulatory requirements, perhaps due to institutionalized design parameters. We recommend that permitting authorities develop technical guidance documents for evaluation of “green” CSO treatment systems that account for their unique operational concerns and benefits with respect to sustainable development.

  7. Fundamentals of Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cargill, P J

    2007-01-01

    The widespread importance of plasmas in many areas of contemporary physics makes good textbooks in the field that are both introductory and comprehensive invaluable. This new book by Paul Bellen from CalTech by and large meets these goals. It covers the traditional textbook topics such as particle orbits, the derivation of the MHD equations from Vlasov theory, cold and warm plasma waves, Landau damping, as well as in the later chapters less common subjects such as magnetic helicity, nonlinear processes and dusty plasmas. The book is clearly written, neatly presented, and each chapter has a number of exercises or problems at their end. The author has also thankfully steered clear of the pitfall of filling the book with his own research results. The preface notes that the book is designed to provide an introduction to plasma physics for final year undergraduate and post-graduate students. However, it is difficult to see many physics undergraduates now at UK universities getting to grips with much of the content since their mathematics is not of a high enough standard. Students in Applied Mathematics departments would certainly fare better. An additional problem for the beginner is that some of the chapters do not lead the reader gently into a subject, but begin with quite advanced concepts. Being a multi-disciplinary subject, beginners tend to find plasma physics quite hard enough even when done simply. For postgraduate students these criticisms fade away and this book provides an excellent introduction. More senior researchers should also enjoy the book, especially Chapters 11-17 where more advanced topics are discussed. I found myself continually comparing the book with my favourite text for many years, 'The Physics of Plasmas' by T J M Boyd and J J Sanderson, reissued by Cambridge University Press in 2003. Researchers would want both books on their shelves, both for the different ways basic plasma physics is covered, and the diversity of more advanced topics. For

  8. Fundamentals of Pharmacogenetics in Personalized, Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Roland; Yin, DeLu Tyler

    2016-09-01

    This article introduces fundamental principles of pharmacogenetics as applied to personalized and precision medicine. Pharmacogenetics establishes relationships between pharmacology and genetics by connecting phenotypes and genotypes in predicting the response of therapeutics in individual patients. We describe differences between precision and personalized medicine and relate principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to applications in laboratory medicine. We also review basic principles of pharmacogenetics, including its evolution, how it enables the practice of personalized therapeutics, and the role of the clinical laboratory. These fundamentals are a segue for understanding specific clinical applications of pharmacogenetics described in subsequent articles in this issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  10. Fundamental number theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mollin, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    An update of the most accessible introductory number theory text available, Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition presents a mathematically rigorous yet easy-to-follow treatment of the fundamentals and applications of the subject. The substantial amount of reorganizing makes this edition clearer and more elementary in its coverage. New to the Second Edition           Removal of all advanced material to be even more accessible in scope           New fundamental material, including partition theory, generating functions, and combinatorial number theory           Expa

  11. Fundamental structures of algebra and discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Foldes, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Introduces and clarifies the basic theories of 12 structural concepts, offering a fundamental theory of groups, rings and other algebraic structures. Identifies essentials and describes interrelationships between particular theories. Selected classical theorems and results relevant to current research are proved rigorously within the theory of each structure. Throughout the text the reader is frequently prompted to perform integrated exercises of verification and to explore examples.

  12. Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L ± S → T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived. (author)

  13. Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental principles)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehrer, B.

    1985-06-01

    Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A large, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental principles of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''

  14. Nanostructured metals. Fundamentals to applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivel, J.-C.; Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Juul Jensen, D.; Mishin, O.V.; Nielsen, S.F.; Pantleon, W.; Toftegaard, H.; Winther, G.; Yu, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the today's world, materials science and engineering must as other technical fields focus on sustainability. Raw materials and energy have to be conserved and metals with improved or new structural and functional properties must be invented, developed and brought to application. In this endeavour a very promising route is to reduce the structural scale of metallic materials, thereby bridging industrial metals of today with emerging nanometals of tomorrow, i.e. structural scales ranging from a few micrometres to the nanometre regime. While taking a focus on metals with structures in this scale regime the symposium spans from fundamental aspects towards applications, uniting materials scientists and technologists. A holistic approach characterizes the themes of the symposium encompassing synthesis, characterization, modelling and performance where in each area significant progress has been made in recent years. Synthesis now covers top-down processes, e.g. plastic deformation, and bottom-up processes, e.g. chemical and physical synthesis. In the area of structural and mechanical characterization advanced techniques are now widely applied and in-situ techniques for structural characterization under mechanical or thermal loading are under rapid development in both 2D and 3D. Progress in characterization techniques has led to a precise description of different boundaries (grain, dislocation, twin, phase), and of how they form and evolve, also including theoretical modelling and simulations of structures, properties and performance. (au)

  15. Quantum mechanics I the fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals provides a graduate-level account of the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular, atomic, nuclear, and sub-nuclear levels. It covers basic concepts, mathematical formalism, and applications to physically important systems.

  16. Are fundamental constants really constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Reasons for suspecting that fundamental constants might change with time are reviewed. Possible consequences of such variations are examined. The present status of experimental tests of these ideas is discussed

  17. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gülçat, Ülgen

    2010-01-01

    This introduction to the principles of unsteady aerodynamics covers all the core concepts, provides readers with a review of the fundamental physics, terminology and basic equations, and covers hot new topics such as the use of flapping wings for propulsion.

  18. Fundamentals of electronic image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Weeks, Arthur R

    1996-01-01

    This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.

  19. Qualitative insights on fundamental mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Mardari, G. N.

    2002-01-01

    The gap between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics has an important interpretive implication: the Universe must have an irreducible fundamental level, which determines the properties of matter at higher levels of organization. We show that the main parameters of any fundamental model must be theory-independent. They cannot be predicted, because they cannot have internal causes. However, it is possible to describe them in the language of classical mechanics. We invoke philosophical reas...

  20. EcoIP: An Open Source Image Analysis Toolkit to Identify Different Stages of Plant Phenology for Multiple Species with Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Joel; Bonnet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Because of the increased number of cameras employed in environmental sensing and the tremendous image output they produce, we have created a flexible, open-source software solution called EcoIP to help automatically determine different phenophases for different species from digital image sequences....... Onset and ending dates are calculated through an iterative process: (1) training images are chosen and areas of interest identified, (2) separation of foreground and background is accomplished based on a naive Bayesian method, (3) a signal is created based on the separation model and (4) it is then fit...... to a sigmoid that contains the dates of interest. Results using different phenological events of different species indicate that estimated dates fall within a few days of the observed dates for most cases. Our experiments indicate that color separability and scene illumination are contributing factors...

  1. An Allometric Modelling Approach to Identify the Optimal Body Shape Associated with, and Differences between Brazilian and Peruvian Youth Motor Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonete Silva

    Full Text Available Children from developed and developing countries differ in their body size and shape due to marked differences across their life history caused by social, economic and cultural differences which are also linked to their motor performance (MP. We used allometric models to identify size/shape characteristics associated with MP tests between Brazilian and Peruvian schoolchildren. A total of 4,560 subjects, 2,385 girls and 2,175 boys aged 9-15 years were studied. Height and weight were measured; biological maturation was estimated with the maturity offset technique; MP measures included the 12 minute run (12MR, handgrip strength (HG, standing long jump (SLJ and the shuttle run speed (SR tests; physical activity (PA was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. A multiplicative allometric model was adopted to adjust for body size differences across countries. Reciprocal ponderal index (RPI was found to be the most suitable body shape indicator associated with the 12MR, SLJ, HG and SR performance. A positive maturation offset parameter was also associated with a better performance in SLJ, HG and SR tests. Sex differences were found in all motor tests. Brazilian youth showed better scores in MP than their Peruvian peers, even when controlling for their body size differences The current study identified the key body size associated with four body mass-dependent MP tests. Biological maturation and PA were associated with strength and motor performance. Sex differences were found in all motor tests, as well as across countries favoring Brazilian children even when accounting for their body size/shape differences.

  2. An Allometric Modelling Approach to Identify the Optimal Body Shape Associated with, and Differences between Brazilian and Peruvian Youth Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simonete; Bustamante, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Freitas, Duarte; Prista, António; Maia, José

    2016-01-01

    Children from developed and developing countries differ in their body size and shape due to marked differences across their life history caused by social, economic and cultural differences which are also linked to their motor performance (MP). We used allometric models to identify size/shape characteristics associated with MP tests between Brazilian and Peruvian schoolchildren. A total of 4,560 subjects, 2,385 girls and 2,175 boys aged 9–15 years were studied. Height and weight were measured; biological maturation was estimated with the maturity offset technique; MP measures included the 12 minute run (12MR), handgrip strength (HG), standing long jump (SLJ) and the shuttle run speed (SR) tests; physical activity (PA) was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. A multiplicative allometric model was adopted to adjust for body size differences across countries. Reciprocal ponderal index (RPI) was found to be the most suitable body shape indicator associated with the 12MR, SLJ, HG and SR performance. A positive maturation offset parameter was also associated with a better performance in SLJ, HG and SR tests. Sex differences were found in all motor tests. Brazilian youth showed better scores in MP than their Peruvian peers, even when controlling for their body size differences The current study identified the key body size associated with four body mass-dependent MP tests. Biological maturation and PA were associated with strength and motor performance. Sex differences were found in all motor tests, as well as across countries favoring Brazilian children even when accounting for their body size/shape differences. PMID:26939118

  3. An Allometric Modelling Approach to Identify the Optimal Body Shape Associated with, and Differences between Brazilian and Peruvian Youth Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simonete; Bustamante, Alcibíades; Nevill, Alan; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Freitas, Duarte; Prista, António; Maia, José

    2016-01-01

    Children from developed and developing countries differ in their body size and shape due to marked differences across their life history caused by social, economic and cultural differences which are also linked to their motor performance (MP). We used allometric models to identify size/shape characteristics associated with MP tests between Brazilian and Peruvian schoolchildren. A total of 4,560 subjects, 2,385 girls and 2,175 boys aged 9-15 years were studied. Height and weight were measured; biological maturation was estimated with the maturity offset technique; MP measures included the 12 minute run (12MR), handgrip strength (HG), standing long jump (SLJ) and the shuttle run speed (SR) tests; physical activity (PA) was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. A multiplicative allometric model was adopted to adjust for body size differences across countries. Reciprocal ponderal index (RPI) was found to be the most suitable body shape indicator associated with the 12MR, SLJ, HG and SR performance. A positive maturation offset parameter was also associated with a better performance in SLJ, HG and SR tests. Sex differences were found in all motor tests. Brazilian youth showed better scores in MP than their Peruvian peers, even when controlling for their body size differences The current study identified the key body size associated with four body mass-dependent MP tests. Biological maturation and PA were associated with strength and motor performance. Sex differences were found in all motor tests, as well as across countries favoring Brazilian children even when accounting for their body size/shape differences.

  4. State Public Health Enabling Authorities: Results of a Fundamental Activities Assessment Examining Core and Essential Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Context Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. Objective The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. Design In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Results Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Conclusions Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework. PMID

  5. State Public Health Enabling Authorities: Results of a Fundamental Activities Assessment Examining Core and Essential Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Aila; Menon, Akshara; Corso, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Public health enabling authorities establish the legal foundation for financing, organizing, and delivering public health services. State laws vary in terms of the content, depth, and breadth of these fundamental public health activities. Given this variance, the Institute of Medicine has identified state public health laws as an area that requires further examination. To respond to this call for further examination, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Law Program conducted a fundamental activities legal assessment on state public health laws. The goal of the legal assessment was to examine state laws referencing frameworks representing public health department fundamental activities (ie, core and essential services) in an effort to identify, catalog, and describe enabling authorities of state governmental public health systems. In 2013, Public Health Law Program staff compiled a list of state statutes and regulations referencing different commonly-recognized public health frameworks of fundamental activities. The legal assessment included state fundamental activities laws available on WestlawNext as of July 2013. The results related to the 10 essential public health services and the 3 core public health functions were confirmed and updated in June 2016. Eighteen states reference commonly-recognized frameworks of fundamental activities in their laws. Thirteen states have listed the 10 essential public health services in their laws. Eight of these states have also referenced the 3 core public health functions in their laws. Five states reference only the core public health functions. Several states reference fundamental activities in their state laws, particularly through use of the essential services framework. Further work is needed to capture the public health laws and practices of states that may be performing fundamental activities but without reference to a common framework.

  6. Metabolomics and transcriptomics identify pathway differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in colorectal cancer patients: the ColoCare study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesenfeld, David B; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes F; Salou, Mariam; Scherer, Dominique; Toth, Reka; Habermann, Nina; Böhm, Jürgen; Schrotz-King, Petra; Gigic, Biljana; Schneider, Martin; Ulrich, Alexis; Herpel, Esther; Schirmacher, Peter; Fiehn, Oliver; Lampe, Johanna W; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic and transcriptomic differences between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments, particularly in the context of obesity, may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated the differential functions of their metabolic compositions. Biochemical differences between adipose tissues (VAT compared with SAT) in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were investigated by using mass spectrometry metabolomics and gene expression profiling. Metabolite compositions were compared between VAT, SAT, and serum metabolites. The relation between patients' tumor stage and metabolic profiles was assessed. Presurgery blood and paired VAT and SAT samples during tumor surgery were obtained from 59 CRC patients (tumor stages I-IV) of the ColoCare cohort. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to measure 1065 metabolites in adipose tissue (333 identified compounds) and 1810 metabolites in serum (467 identified compounds). Adipose tissue gene expression was measured by using Illumina's HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChips. Compared with SAT, VAT displayed elevated markers of inflammatory lipid metabolism, free arachidonic acid, phospholipases (PLA2G10), and prostaglandin synthesis-related enzymes (PTGD/PTGS2S). Plasmalogen concentrations were lower in VAT than in SAT, which was supported by lower gene expression of FAR1, the rate-limiting enzyme for ether-lipid synthesis in VAT. Serum sphingomyelin concentrations were inversely correlated (P = 0.0001) with SAT adipose triglycerides. Logistic regression identified lipids in patients' adipose tissues, which were associated with CRC tumor stage. As one of the first studies, we comprehensively assessed differences in metabolic, lipidomic, and transcriptomic profiles between paired human VAT and SAT and their association with CRC tumor stage. We identified markers of inflammation in VAT, which

  7. Gamma-rays attenuation of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa at different energies: A new technique for identifying the origin of gemstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the gamma-rays interaction properties of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa have been studied. The densities of Cambodian and South African’s zircons are 4.6716±0.0040 g/cm 3 and 4.5505±0.0018 g/cm 3 , respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number of gemstones were measured with the gamma-ray in energies range 223–662 keV using the Compton scattering technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of both zircons decreased with the increasing of gamma-rays energies. The different mass attenuation coefficients between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV are attributed to the differences in the photoelectric interaction. The effective atomic number of zircons was decreased with the increasing of gamma-ray energies and showed totally different values between the Cambodia and South Africa sources. The origins of the two zircons could be successfully identified by the method based on gamma-rays interaction with matter with advantage of being a non-destructive testing. - Highlights: • Gamma-rays interaction of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa studied. • Measured energy is during 223–662 keV. • Different μ m between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV. • The origins the two zircons could be successfully identified

  8. Differences in health insurance and health service utilization among Asian Americans: method for using the NHIS to identify unique patterns between ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruy, Hosihn; Young, Wendy B; Kwak, Hoil

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to outline a method to identify the characteristics of socioeconomic variables in determining the differences in health insurance coverage and health services utilization patterns for different ethnic groups, using the behavioural model of health service utilization. A sample drawn from Asian American adult respondents to the 1992, 1993, and 1994 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) in the USA formed the data set. The results showed Asian Americans as not being homogeneous. There were distinctly different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics between six Asian American ethnic groups that affect health insurance coverage and health service utilization. The study method is useful for constructing health policy and services to address the general public need without adversely affecting smaller minority groups. Secondary analysis of well-constructed national data sets such as the specific Asian ethnic groups in NHIS, offers a rich method for predicting the differential impact of specific health policies on various ethnic groups.

  9. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  10. Gender-differences in risk factors for suicidal behaviour identified by perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability: cross-sectional analysis from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, Tara; Batterham, Philip J; Van Orden, Kimberly A; Christensen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPT) is supported by recent epidemiological data. Unique risk factors for the IPT constructs have been identified in community epidemiological studies. Gender differences in these risk factors may contribute substantially to our understanding of suicidal risk, and require further investigation. The present study explores gender differences in the predictors and correlates of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability for suicide. Participants (547 males, 739 females) aged 32-38 from the PATH through Life study, an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort study (n=1,177) were assessed on perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and acquired capability for suicide using the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire and Acquired Capability for Suicide Survey, and on a range of demographic, social support, psychological, mental health and physical health measures. Gender differences in the predictors of the IPT constructs were assessed using linear regression analyses. Higher perceived burdensomeness increased suicide ideation in both genders, while higher thwarted belongingness increased suicide ideation only in females. In females, thwarted belongingness was uniquely related to perceived burdensomeness, while greater physical health was significantly associated with greater thwarted belongingness in males but not in females. There were trends suggesting greater effects of being single and greater perceived burdensomeness for men, and stronger effects of less positive friendship support for women associated with greater thwarted belongingness. Men and women differ in the pattern of psychological characteristics that predict suicide ideation, and in the factors predicting vulnerability. Suicide prevention strategies need to take account of gender differences.

  11. RFID design fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    2010-01-01

    RFID is an increasingly pervasive tool that is now used in a wide range of fields. It is employed to substantiate adherence to food preservation and safety standards, combat the circulation of counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and verify authenticity and history of critical parts used in aircraft and other machinery-and these are just a few of its uses. Goes beyond deployment, focusing on exactly how RFID actually worksRFID Design Fundamentals and Applications systematically explores the fundamental principles involved in the design and characterization of RFID technologies. The RFID market is expl

  12. Fundamentals of multicore software development

    CERN Document Server

    Pankratius, Victor; Tichy, Walter F

    2011-01-01

    With multicore processors now in every computer, server, and embedded device, the need for cost-effective, reliable parallel software has never been greater. By explaining key aspects of multicore programming, Fundamentals of Multicore Software Development helps software engineers understand parallel programming and master the multicore challenge. Accessible to newcomers to the field, the book captures the state of the art of multicore programming in computer science. It covers the fundamentals of multicore hardware, parallel design patterns, and parallel programming in C++, .NET, and Java. It

  13. Qualitative insights on fundamental mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardari, Ghenadie N

    2007-01-01

    The gap between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics has an important interpretive implication: the Universe must have an irreducible fundamental level, which determines the properties of matter at higher levels of organization. We show that the main parameters of any fundamental model must be theory-independent. Moreover, such models must also contain discrete identical entities with constant properties. These conclusions appear to support the work of Kaniadakis on subquantum mechanics. A qualitative analysis is offered to suggest compatibility with relevant phenomena, as well as to propose new means for verification

  14. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C.J.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  15. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  16. The fundamentals of mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fikhtengol'ts, G M

    1965-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Mathematical Analysis, Volume 1 is a textbook that provides a systematic and rigorous treatment of the fundamentals of mathematical analysis. Emphasis is placed on the concept of limit which plays a principal role in mathematical analysis. Examples of the application of mathematical analysis to geometry, mechanics, physics, and engineering are given. This volume is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with a discussion on real numbers, their properties and applications, and arithmetical operations over real numbers. The reader is then introduced to the concept of function, i

  17. The fundamental interactions of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falla, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    Elementary particles are here discussed, in the context of the extent to which the fundamental interactions are related to the elementary constituents of matter. The field quanta related to the four fundamental interactions (electromagnetic, strong,weak and gravitational) are discussed within an historical context beginning with the conception of the photon. The discovery of the mesons and discoveries relevant to the nature of the heavy vector boson are considered. Finally a few recent speculations on the properties of the graviton are examined. (U.K.)

  18. Clinical characteristics and persistence of bovine mastitis caused by different species of coagulase-negative staphylococci identified with API or AFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taponen, S.; Simojoki, H.; Haveri, M.

    2006-01-01

    The coagulase-negative staphylococcal species causing mastitis in lactating cattle were identified and possible differences in the clinical characteristics or persistence of mastitis caused by different CNS were evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial treatment was also assessed. In addition, AFLP...... of these species. Approximately half of the mastitis cases were clinical, and in the majority clinical signs were mild. The severity and persistence of intramammary infection were unaffected by CNS species. Fifty-nine percent of the quarter cases were treated with antimicrobials, and the rest were left without...... treatment. Mastitis due to P-lactamase-negative CNS was treated with penicillin G and that due to beta-lactamase-positive CNS with cloxacillin. Nineteen percent of the isolates were P-lactamase-positive. The bacterial cure rate for quarters treated with antimicrobials was high, 85.9%, as opposed to only 45...

  19. Mobile NBM - Android medical mobile application designed to help in learning how to identify the different regions of interest in the brain's white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rola, Iskander; Zapirain, Begoña García

    2014-07-18

    One of the most critical tasks when conducting neurological studies is identifying the different regions of interest in the brain's white matter. Currently few programs or applications are available that serve as an interactive guide in this process. This is why a mobile application has been designed and developed in order to teach users how to identify the referred regions of the brain. It also enables users to share the results obtained and take an examination on the knowledge thus learnt. In order to provide direct user-user or user-developer contact, the project includes a website and a Twitter account. An application has been designed with a basic, minimalist look, which anyone can access easily in order to learn to identify a specific region in the brain's white matter. A survey has also been conducted on people who have used it, which has shown that the application is attractive both in the student (final mean satisfaction of 4.2/5) and in the professional (final mean satisfaction of 4.3/5) environment. The response obtained in the online part of the project reflects the high practical value and quality of the application, as shown by the fact that the website has seen a large number of visitors (over 1000 visitors) and the Twitter account has a high number of followers (over 280 followers). Mobile NBM is the first mobile application to be used as a guide in the process of identifying a region of interest in the brain's white matter. Although initially not many areas are available in the application, new ones can be added as required by users in their respective studies. Apart from the application itself, the online resources provided (website and Twitter account) significantly enhance users' experience.

  20. Another argument against fundamental scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    An argument, perhaps not as strong, which is based on the inclusion of interaction with external gravity into a theory describing strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions is presented. The argument is related to the basis of the common belief which favours a renormalizable action against a non-renormalizable action as a candidate for a fundamental theory. (author). 12 refs

  1. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    These instructional materials assist teachers in improving instruction on the fundamentals of welding. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; and 27 references. Seven units of…

  2. Composing Europe's Fundamental Rights Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    The article offers a perspective on how the objective of a strong and coherent European protection standard pursued by the fundamental rights amendments of the Lisbon Treaty can be achieved, as it proposes a discursive pluralistic framework to understand and guide the relationship between the EU...

  3. Summary: fundamental interactions and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koltun, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    The subjects of the talks of the first day of the workshop are discussed in terms of fundamental interactions, dynamical theory, and relevant degrees of freedom. Some general considerations are introduced and are used to confront the various approaches taken in the earlier talks

  4. Fundamental Composite (Goldstone) Higgs Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cacciapaglia, G.; Sannino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We provide a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian level, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation of the conden...... searches of new physics at the Large Hadron Collider....

  5. Fundamentals of Biomass pellet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens Kai; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2005-01-01

    Pelletizing experiments along with modelling of the pelletizing process have been carried out with the aim of understanding the fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms that control the quality and durability of biomass pellets. A small-scale California pellet mill (25 kg/h) located with the Biomass...

  6. Experiments in Fundamental Neutron Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Nico, J. S.; Snow, W. M.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments using slow neutrons address a growing range of scientific issues spanning nuclear physics, particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The field of fundamental physics using neutrons has experienced a significant increase in activity over the last two decades. This review summarizes some of the recent developments in the field and outlines some of the prospects for future research.

  7. Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Larry; And Others

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

  8. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  9. Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gozalvez, Javier; Haerri, Jerome; Hartenstein, Hannes; Heijenk, Geert; Kargl, Frank; Petit, Jonathan; Scheuermann, Björn; Tieler, Tessa; Altintas, O.; Dressler, F.; Hartenstein, H.; Tonguz, O.K.

    The working group on “Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science‿ discussed the lasting value of achieved research results as well as potential future directions in the field of inter- vehicular communication. Two major themes ‘with variations’ were the dependence on a specific technology (particularly

  10. Credit cycles and macro fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.

    2009-01-01

    We use an intensity-based framework to study the relation between macroeconomic fundamentals and cycles in defaults and rating activity. Using Standard and Poor's U.S. corporate rating transition and default data over the period 1980-2005, we directly estimate the default and rating cycle from micro

  11. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  12. Experimental tests of fundamental symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing experiments and projects to test our understanding of fundamental inter- actions and symmetries in nature have progressed significantly in the past few years. At high energies the long searched for Higgs boson has been found; tests of gravity for antimatter have come closer to reality;

  13. Escola de ensino fundamental(s em movimento – movimento na escola de ensino fundamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Hildebrandt-Stramann

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A escola de ensino fundamental na Alemanha sofreu movimento nos últimos 15 anos, porque, entre outros motivos, entrou movimento nessas escolas. Esse jogo de palavras chama atenção a duas linhas de trabalho que determinam a discussão na atual pedagogia escolar. O presente trabalho revela essas duas perspectivas. Uma das linhas está relacionada ao atual processo de mudança na pedagogia escolar. Essa prediz que a escola de ensino fundamental deve ser um lugar de aprendizagem e de vivência para as crianças. A outra linha tem a ver com o jogo de palavras ancorado a esses processos da pedagogia do movimento, a qual ganha cada vez maiores dimensões. A escola de ensino fundamental deve ser vista sob a perspectiva do movimento e transformada em um lugar de movimento.

  14. Identifying specific profiles in patients with different degrees of painful knee osteoarthritis based on serological biochemical and mechanistic pain biomarkers: a diagnostic approach based on cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Eskehave, Thomas Navndrup; Bay-Jensen, Anne C; Hoeck, Hans Christian; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical and pain biomarkers can be applied to patients with painful osteoarthritis profiles and may provide more details compared with conventional clinical tools. The aim of this study was to identify an optimal combination of biochemical and pain biomarkers for classification of patients with different degrees of knee pain and joint damage. Such profiling may provide new diagnostic and therapeutic options. A total of 216 patients with different degrees of knee pain (maximal pain during the last 24 hours rated on a visual analog scale [VAS]) (VAS 0-100) and 64 controls (VAS 0-9) were recruited. Patients were separated into 3 groups: VAS 10 to 39 (N = 81), VAS 40 to 69 (N = 70), and VAS 70 to 100 (N = 65). Pressure pain thresholds, temporal summation to pressure stimuli, and conditioning pain modulation were measured from the peripatellar and extrasegmental sites. Biochemical markers indicative for autoinflammation and immunity (VICM, CRP, and CRPM), synovial inflammation (CIIIM), cartilage loss (CIIM), and bone degradation (CIM) were analyzed. WOMAC, Lequesne, and pain catastrophizing scores were collected. Principal component analysis was applied to select the optimal variable subset, and cluster analysis was applied to this subset to create distinctly different knee pain profiles. Four distinct knee pain profiles were identified: profile A (N = 27), profile B (N = 59), profile C (N = 85), and profile D (N = 41). Each knee pain profile had a unique combination of biochemical markers, pain biomarkers, physical impairments, and psychological factors that may provide the basis for mechanism-based diagnosis, individualized treatment, and selection of patients for clinical trials evaluating analgesic compounds. These results introduce a new profiling for knee OA and should be regarded as preliminary.

  15. An integrative transcriptomic approach to identify depot differences in genes and microRNAs in adipose tissues from high fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayatunga, Nadeeja N; Pahlavani, Mandana; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Coarfa, Cristian; Ramalingam, Latha; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2018-02-06

    Obesity contributes to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Characterization of differences between the main adipose tissue depots, white (WAT) [including subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps to identify their roles in obesity. Thus, we studied depot-specific differences in whole transcriptome and miRNA profiles of SAT, VAT and BAT from high fat diet (HFD/45% of calories from fat) fed mice using RNA sequencing and small RNA-Seq. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we validated depot-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes and miRNAs using mice fed a HFD vs. low fat diet (LFD/10% of calories from fat). According to the transcriptomic analysis, lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were higher in VAT compared to BAT, whereas energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation were higher in BAT than in VAT of the HFD fed mice. In contrast to BAT, ER stress marker genes were significantly upregulated in VAT of HFD fed mice than the LFD fed mice. For the first time, we report depot specific differences in ER stress related miRNAs including; downregulation of miR-125b-5p, upregulation miR-143-3p, and miR-222-3p in VAT following HFD and upregulation of miR-30c-2-3p only in BAT following a HFD in mice than the LFD mice. In conclusion, HFD differentially regulates miRNAs and genes in different adipose depots with significant induction of genes related to lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, ER stress, and UPR in WAT compared to BAT.

  16. The use of a responder analysis to identify clinically meaningful differences in chronic urticaria patients following placebo- controlled treatment with rupatadine 10 and 20 mg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Arnau, A; Izquierdo, I; Maurer, M

    2009-09-01

    According to the EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF guidelines for urticaria management, modern non-sedating H1-antihistamines are the first-line symptomatic treatment for chronic urticaria. Two previous randomized clinical trials demonstrated rupatadine efficacy and safety in chronic urticaria treatment. However, a responder analysis to identify clinically meaningful differences in patients with chronic urticaria has not yet been performed. This analysis includes the pooled data from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre studies in which chronic urticaria patients were treated with rupatadine at different doses. Responder rates were defined as the percentage of patients after 4 weeks of treatment who exhibited a reduction of symptoms by at least 50% or 75% as compared to baseline. The variables analysed were as follows: Mean Pruritus Score (MPS), Mean Number of Wheals (MNW), and Mean Urticaria Activity Score (UAS). A total of 538 patients were included. This responder analysis, using different response levels, shows that the efficacy of rupatadine 10 mg and 20 mg is significantly better as compared to placebo in the treatment of chronic urticaria patients. Notably, treatment with rupatadine 20 mg daily resulted in a higher percentage of patients with response of 75% symptom reduction or better than rupatadine 10 mg. Our results support the use of higher than standard doses of non sedating antihistamines in chronic urticaria. We strongly recommend performing and reporting responder analyses for established and new drugs used by patients with chronic urticaria.

  17. Gamma-rays attenuation of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa at different energies: A new technique for identifying the origin of gemstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the gamma-rays interaction properties of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa have been studied. The densities of Cambodian and South African's zircons are 4.6716±0.0040 g/cm3 and 4.5505±0.0018 g/cm3, respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number of gemstones were measured with the gamma-ray in energies range 223-662 keV using the Compton scattering technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of both zircons decreased with the increasing of gamma-rays energies. The different mass attenuation coefficients between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV are attributed to the differences in the photoelectric interaction. The effective atomic number of zircons was decreased with the increasing of gamma-ray energies and showed totally different values between the Cambodia and South Africa sources. The origins of the two zircons could be successfully identified by the method based on gamma-rays interaction with matter with advantage of being a non-destructive testing.

  18. Optimal screening of children with acute malnutrition requires a change in current WHO guidelines as MUAC and WHZ identify different patient groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Prak, Sophonneary; de Groot, Richard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Timely treatment of acute malnutrition in children 500,000 deaths annually. Screening at community level is essential to identify children with malnutrition. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for malnutrition recommend a Mid Upper Arm...... Circumference (MUAC) of malnutrition (SAM). However, it is currently unclear how MUAC relates to the other indicator used to define acute malnutrition: weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ). METHODS: Secondary data from >11,000 Cambodian children, obtained by different surveys between...... 2010 and 2012, was used to calculate sensitivity and ROC curves for MUAC and WHZ. FINDINGS: The secondary analysis showed that using the current WHO cut-off of 115 mm for screening for severe acute malnutrition over 90% of children with a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ)

  19. Genome Sequencing Identifies Two Nearly Unchanged Strains of Persistent Listeria monocytogenes Isolated at Two Different Fish Processing Plants Sampled 6 Years Apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holch, Anne; Webb, Kristen; Lukjancenko, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne human-pathogenic bacterium that can cause infections with a high mortality rate. It has a remarkable ability to persist in food processing facilities. Here we report the genome sequences for two L. monocytogenes strains (N53-1 and La111) that were isolated 6...... that has been isolated as a persistent subtype in several European countries. The purpose of this study was to use genome analyses to identify genes or proteins that could contribute to persistence. In a genome comparison, the two persistent strains were extremely similar and collectively differed from...... are required to determine if the absence of these genes promotes persistence. While the genome comparison did not point to a clear physiological explanation of the persistent phenotype, the remarkable similarity between the two strains indicates that subtypes with specific traits are selected for in the food...

  20. SRBreak: A read-depth and split-read framework to identify breakpoints of different events inside simple copy-number variable regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOANG T NGUYEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Copy-number variation (CNV has been associated with increased risk of complex diseases. High throughput sequencing (HTS technologies facilitate the detection of copy-number variable regions (CNVRs and their breakpoints. This helps in understanding genome structures of genomes as well as their evolution process. Various approaches have been proposed for detecting CNV breakpoints, but currently it is still challenging for tools based on a single analysis method to identify breakpoints of CNVs. It has been shown, however, that pipelines which integrate multiple approaches are able to report more reliable breakpoints. Here, based on HTS data, we have developed a pipeline to identify approximate breakpoints (±10 bp relating to different ancestral events within a specific CNVR. The pipeline combines read-depth and split-read information to infer breakpoints, using information from multiple samples to allow an imputation approach to be taken. The main steps involve using a normal mixture model to cluster samples into different groups, followed by simple kernel-based approaches to maximise information obtained from read-depth and split-read approaches, after which common breakpoints of groups are inferred. The pipeline uses split-read information directly from CIGAR strings of BAM files, without using a re-alignment step. On simulated data sets, it was able to report breakpoints for very low-coverage samples including those for which only single-end reads were available. When applied to three loci from existing human resequencing data sets (NEGR1, LCE3, IRGM the pipeline obtained good concordance with results from the 1000 Genomes Project (92%, 100% and 82%, respectively.The package is available at https://github.com/hoangtn/SRBreak, and also as a docker-based application at https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/hoangtn/srbreak/.

  1. Spontaneous bacteriocin resistance in Listeria monocytogenes as a susceptibility screen for identifying different mechanisms of resistance and modes of action by bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macwana, Sunita; Muriana, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    A practical system was devised for grouping bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) based on mode of action as determined by changes in inhibitory activity to spontaneously-acquired bacteriocin resistance (Bac(R)). Wild type Listeria monocytogenes 39-2 was sensitive to five bacteriocins produced by 3 genera of LAB: pediocin PA-1 and pediocin Bac3 (Pediococcus), lacticin FS97 and lacticin FS56 (Lactococcus), and curvaticin FS47 (Lactobacillus). A spontaneous Bac(R) derivative of L. monocytogenes 39-2 obtained by selective recovery against lacticin FS56 provided complete resistance to the bacteriocin made by Lactococcus lactis FS56. The lacticin FS56-resistant strain of L. monocyotgenes 39-2 was also cross-resistant to curvaticin FS47 and pediocin PA-1, but not to lacticin FS97 or pediocin Bac3. The same pattern of cross-resistance was also observed with Bac(R) isolates obtained with L. monocytogenes Scott A-2. A spontaneous mutation that renders a strain cross-resistant to different bacteriocins indicates that they share a common mechanism of resistance due to similar modes of action of the bacteriocins. Spontaneous resistance was acquired to other bacteriocins (in aggregate) by following the same procedure against which the Bac(R) strain was still sensitive. In subsequent challenge assays, mixtures of bacteriocins of different modes of action provided greater inhibition than mixtures of bacteriocins of the same mode of action (as determined by our screening method). This study identifies a methodical approach to classify bacteriocins into functional groups based on mechanism of resistance (i.e., mode of action) that could be used for identifying the best mixture of bacteriocins for use as biopreservatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  3. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment

  4. Fundamentals of estuarine physical oceanography

    CERN Document Server

    Bruner de Miranda, Luiz; Kjerfve, Björn; Castro Filho, Belmiro Mendes de

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.

  5. Protection of fundamental rights today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Abich, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Technical developments can both change the methods of dealing with existing conflicts, and cause new conflicts. Meyer-Abich analyzes five conflicts caused by the technological development in the solution of which the constitutional, liberal, and democratic protection of fundamental rights is not at all guaranteed. Meyer-Abich thinks that these new conflicts can be solved in the framework of the liberal constitutional state, if legal and political consequences are taken in order to guarantee the uncharged protection of fundamental rights under changing conditions. The necessary reforms can, however, only be realized if the way how state and science see themselves changes. Both have to give up their one-sidedness into which have been pushed by conflict which havbe been caused by the scientific and technical development. Only then it will be possible to solve the jemerging conflicts without eopardizing the integritiy of the society. (orig.) [de

  6. THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.

  7. Modern measurements fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, D; Carbone, P; Catelani, M

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the modern role of measurement science for both the technically most advanced applications and in everyday and will help readers gain the necessary skills to specialize their knowledge for a specific field in measurement. Modern Measurements is divided into two parts. Part I (Fundamentals) presents a model of the modern measurement activity and the already recalled fundamental bricks. It starts with a general description that introduces these bricks and the uncertainty concept. The next chapters provide an overview of these bricks and finishes (Chapter 7) with a more general and complex model that encompasses both traditional (hard) measurements and (soft) measurements, aimed at quantifying non-physical concepts, such as quality, satisfaction, comfort, etc. Part II (Applications) is aimed at showing how the concepts presented in Part I can be usefully applied to design and implement measurements in some very impor ant and broad fields. The editors cover System Identification (Chapter 8...

  8. Fundamental investigations of catalyst nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Christian Fink

    and economic development in the 20th century. There is however a downside to this development and we are seeing significant pollution and pressure on resources. Catalysis therefore has an increasingly important role in limiting pollution and optimizing the use of resources. This development will depend on our...... fundamental understanding of catalytic processes and our ability to make use of that understanding. This thesis presents fundamental studies of catalyst nanoparticles with particular focus on dynamic processes. Such studies often require atomic-scale characterization, because the catalytic conversion takes...... important that we only study intrinsic structures and phenomena and not those that may be induced by the high energy electrons used to image the specimen. This requires careful consideration of the influence of the electron beam in order to understand, control and minimize that influence. I present four...

  9. Fundamentals of electronic systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Lienig, Jens

    2017-01-01

    This textbook covers the design of electronic systems from the ground up, from drawing and CAD essentials to recycling requirements. Chapter by chapter, it deals with the challenges any modern system designer faces: the design process and its fundamentals, such as technical drawings and CAD, electronic system levels, assembly and packaging issues and appliance protection classes, reliability analysis, thermal management and cooling, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), all the way to recycling requirements and environmental-friendly design principles. Enables readers to face various challenges of designing electronic systems, including coverage from various engineering disciplines; Written to be accessible to readers of varying backgrounds; Uses illustrations extensively to reinforce fundamental concepts; Organized to follow essential design process, although chapters are self-contained and can be read in any order.

  10. Fundamental research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravesik, M.J.

    1964-01-01

    Technical assistance is today a widespread activity. Large numbers of persons with special qualifications in the applied sciences go to the developing countries to work on specific research and development projects, as do educationists on Fulbright or other programmes - usually to teach elementary or intermediate courses. But I believe that until now it has been rare for a person primarily interested in fundamental research to go to one of these countries to help build up advanced education and pure research work. Having recently returned from such an assignment, and having found it a most stimulating and enlightening experience, I feel moved to urge strongly upon others who may be in a position to do so that they should seek similar experience themselves. The first step is to show that advanced education and fundamental research are badly needed in the under-developed countries.

  11. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Loreto; Melo, Ricardo; Montero, Ruth; Maisey, Kevin; Mendoza, Leonora; Wilkens, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6-375 μg/mL antibiotics). Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the currently unused

  12. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Sanhueza

    Full Text Available Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6-375 μg/mL antibiotics. Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the

  13. Fundamentals of plastic optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever.This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed,

  14. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the two modules: structure of metals (bonding, common lattic types, grain structure/boundary, polymorphis, alloys, imperfections in metals) and properties of metals (stress, strain, Young modulus, stress-strain relation, physical properties, working of metals, corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, tritium/material compatibility)

  15. Fundamental requirements for petrochemical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, G. B.

    1999-01-01

    The development of NOVA Chemicals over the past 20 years is described as an illustration of how the petrochemical industry provides markets for natural gas, natural gas liquids and the products of crude oil distillation, and functions as a conduit for upgrading products which would otherwise be sold into the fuel market. Some fundamental characteristics of the business which are foundations for competitiveness are reviewed in the process. These fundamentals help to understand why the industry locates in certain geographic regions of the world, which are often remote from end-use markets. Chief among these fundamentals is access to an adequate supply of appropriately priced feedstock; this is the single most important reason why chemical companies continue to emphasize developments in areas of the world where feedstock are advantageously priced. The cost of operations is equally significant. Cost depends not so much on location but on the scale of operations, hence the tendency towards large scale plants. Plant and product rationalization, technology and product development synergies and leverage with suppliers are all opportunities for cost reduction throughout the product supply chain. The combination of lower natural gas cost in Alberta, the lower fixed cost of extraction and the economies of scale achieved by large scale operation (five billion pounds per year of polyethylene production capacity) are the crucial factors that will enable NOVA Chemicals to maintain its competitive position and to weather the highs and lows in industry price fluctuations

  16. Fundamental trends in fluid-structure interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni P

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of a fluid with a solid body is a widespread phenomenon in nature, occurring at different scales and different applied disciplines. Interestingly enough, even though the mathematical theory of the motion of bodies in a liquid is one of the oldest and most classical problems in fluid mechanics, mathematicians have, only very recently, become interested in a systematic study of the basic problems related to fluid-structure interaction, from both analytical and numerical viewpoints. ""Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction"" is a unique collection of important papers wr

  17. A de novo transcriptomic approach to identify flavonoids and anthocyanins switch-off in olive (Olea europaea L. drupes at different stages of maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico eIaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During ripening, the fruits of the olive tree (Olea europaea L. undergo a progressive chromatic change characterized by the formation of a red-brown spot which gradually extends on the epidermis and in the innermost part of the mesocarp. This event finds an exception in the Leucocarpa cultivar, in which we observe a destabilized equilibrium between the metabolisms of chlorophyll and other pigments, particularly the anthocyanins whose switch-off during maturation promotes the white coloration of fruits. Despite its importance, genomic information on the olive tree is still lacking. Different RNA-seq libraries were generated from drupes of ‘Leucocarpa’ and ‘Cassanese’ olive genotypes, sampled at 100 and 130 days after flowering (DAF, and were used in order to identify transcripts involved in the main phenotypic changes of fruits during maturation and their corresponding expression patterns. A total of 103,359 transcripts were obtained and 3792 and 3064 were differentially expressed in ‘Leucocarpa’ and ‘Cassanese’ genotypes, respectively, during 100-130 DAF transition. Among them flavonoid and anthocyanin related transcripts such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL, chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, flavonol 3’-hydrogenase (F3'H, flavonol 3’5’-hydrogenase (F3'5'H, flavonol synthase (FLS, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS, UDP-glucose:anthocianidin:flavonoid glucosyltransferase (UFGT were identified.These results contribute to reducing the current gap in information regarding metabolic processes, including those linked to fruit pigmentation in the olive.

  18. Type III bursts in interplanetary space - Fundamental or harmonic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulk, G. A.; Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.

    1984-01-01

    ISEE-3 spacecraft observation of 120 relatively simple, isolated bursts in the 30-1980 kHz range are the basis of the present study of Type III bursts in the solar wind. Several characteristics are identified for many of these bursts which imply that the mode of emission changes from predominantly fundamental plasma radiation during the rise phase to predominantly second harmonic during decay. The fundamental emission begins in time coincidence with the start of Langmuir waves, confirming the conventional belief in these waves' causation of Type III bursts. Attention is given to the characteristics of fundamental components, by comparison to harmonics, at km-wavelengths.

  19. Validation study of medicare claims to identify older US adults with CKD using the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Zhao, Hong; Fox, Caroline S; Wright, Nicole C; Curtis, Jeffrey R; McClellan, William; Wang, Henry; Kilgore, Meredith; Warnock, David G; Bowling, C Barrett

    2015-02-01

    Health care claims data may provide a cost-efficient approach for studying chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort study. We compared characteristics and outcomes for individuals with CKD defined using laboratory measurements versus claims data from 6,982 REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study participants who had Medicare fee-for-service coverage. Presence of CKD as defined by both the REGARDS Study (CKDREGARDS) and Medicare data (CKDMedicare), presence of CKDREGARDS but not CKDMedicare, and presence of CKDMedicare but not CKDREGARDS, and absence of both CKDREGARDS and CKDMedicare. Mortality and incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The research study definition of CKD (CKDREGARDS) included estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)  30mg/g at the REGARDS Study visit. CKD in Medicare (CKDMedicare) was identified during the 2 years before each participant's REGARDS visit using a claims-based algorithm. Overall, 32% of participants had CKDREGARDS and 6% had CKDMedicare. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of CKDMedicare for identifying CKDREGARDS were 15.5% (95% CI, 14.0%-17.1%), 97.7% (95% CI, 97.2%-98.1%), 75.6% (95% CI, 71.4%-79.5%), and 71.5% (95% CI, 70.4%-72.6%), respectively. Mortality and ESRD incidence rates, expressed per 1,000 person-years, were higher for participants with versus without CKDMedicare (mortality: 72.5 [95% CI, 61.3-83.7] vs 33.3 [95% CI, 31.5-35.2]; ESRD: 16.4 [95% CI, 11.2-21.6] vs 1.3 [95% CI, 0.9-1.6]) and with versus without CKDREGARDS (mortality: 59.9 [95% CI, 55.4-64.4] vs 25.5 [95% CI, 23.6-27.4]; ESRD: 6.8 [95% CI, 5.4-8.3] vs 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.3]). Among participants with CKDREGARDS, those with abdominal obesity, diabetes, anemia, lower eGFR, more outpatient visits, hospitalization, and a nephrologist visit in the 2 years before their REGARDS visit were more likely to have CKDMedicare. CKDREGARDS relied on eGFR and albuminuria assessed at a single

  20. Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selesi, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. → Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. → Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. → Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. → Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P(ω, D) ◊ u(x, ω) = A(x, ω) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P(ω, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A ◊ I ◊(-1) , where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.

  1. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2014-01-01

    A classic now in its 14th edition, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best resource for students and professionals looking to brush up on how these technologies have developed, grown, and converged, as well as what's in store for the future. It begins by developing the communication technology framework-the history, ecosystem, and structure-then delves into each type of technology, including everything from mass media, to computers and consumer electronics, to networking technologies. Each chapter is written by faculty and industry experts who p

  2. Quantum Uncertainty and Fundamental Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosto S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simplified theoretical approach to infer some essential concepts on the fundamental interactions between charged particles and their relative strengths at comparable energies by exploiting the quantum uncertainty only. The worth of the present approach relies on the way of obtaining the results, rather than on the results themselves: concepts today acknowledged as fingerprints of the electroweak and strong interactions appear indeed rooted in the same theoretical frame including also the basic principles of special and general relativity along with the gravity force.

  3. Photovoltaics fundamentals, technology and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mertens, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic measurement techniques, and grid connected systems, overviewing the potential of photovoltaic electricity for students and engineers new to the topic After a brief introduction to the topic of photovoltaics' history and the most important facts, Chapter 1 presents the subject of radiation, covering properties of solar radiation, radiation offer, and world energy consumption. Chapter 2 looks at the fundamentals of semiconductor physics. It discusses the build-up of semiconducto

  4. Plasma expansion: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeln, R; Mazouffre, S; Vankan, P; Bakker, I; Schram, D C

    2002-01-01

    The study of plasma expansion is interesting from a fundamental point of view as well as from a more applied point of view. We here give a short overview of the way properties like density, velocity and temperature behave in an expanding thermal plasma. Experimental data show that the basic phenomena of plasma expansion are to some extent similar to those of the expansion of a hot neutral gas. From the application point of view, we present first results on the use of an expanding thermal plasma in the plasma-activated catalysis of ammonia, from N 2 -H 2 mixtures

  5. Fundamentals of gas particle flow

    CERN Document Server

    Rudinger, G

    1980-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow is an edited, updated, and expanded version of a number of lectures presented on the "Gas-Solid Suspensions” course organized by the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Materials presented in this book are mostly analytical in nature, but some experimental techniques are included. The book focuses on relaxation processes, including the viscous drag of single particles, drag in gas-particles flow, gas-particle heat transfer, equilibrium, and frozen flow. It also discusses the dynamics of single particles, such as particles in an arbitrary flow, in a r

  6. Testing Fundamental Gravitation in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    2013-10-15

    General theory of relativity is a standard theory of gravitation; as such, it is used to describe gravity when the problems in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. The theory is also relied upon in many modern applications involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. Here we review the foundations of general relativity and discuss its current empirical status. We describe both the theoretical motivation and the scientific progress that may result from the new generation of high-precision tests that are anticipated in the near future.

  7. Current challenges in fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egana Ugrinovic, Daniel

    The discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics. The Standard Model is a remarkably successful theory of fundamental physics, but it suffers from severe problems. It does not provide an explanation for the origin or stability of the electroweak scale nor for the origin and structure of flavor and CP violation. It predicts vanishing neutrino masses, in disagreement with experimental observations. It also fails to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, and it does not provide a particle candidate for dark matter. In this thesis we provide experimentally testable solutions for most of these problems and we study their phenomenology.

  8. Fundamentals of affinity cell separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lyons, Veronica; Pappas, Dimitri

    2018-03-01

    Cell separations using affinity methods continue to be an enabling science for a wide variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of affinity separation, including the competing forces for cell capture and elution, cell-surface interactions, and models for cell adhesion. Factors affecting separation performance such as bond affinity, contact area, and temperature are presented. We also discuss and demonstrate the effects of nonspecific binding on separation performance. Metrics for evaluating cell separations are presented, along with methods of comparing separation techniques for cell isolation using affinity capture. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Revised throughout to cover the latest developments in the fast moving area of display technology, this 2nd edition of Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, will continue to be a valuable resource for those wishing to understand the operation of liquid crystal displays. Significant updates include new material on display components, 3D LCDs and blue-phase displays which is one of the most promising new technologies within the field of displays and it is expected that this new LC-technology will reduce the response time and the number of optical components of LC-modules. Prof. Yang is a pion

  10. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the following modules: thermal shock (thermal stress, pressurized thermal shock), brittle fracture (mechanism, minimum pressurization-temperature curves, heatup/cooldown rate limits), and plant materials (properties considered when selecting materials, fuel materials, cladding and reflectors, control materials, nuclear reactor core problems, plant material problems, atomic displacement due to irradiation, thermal and displacement spikes due to irradiation, neutron capture effect, radiation effects in organic compounds, reactor use of aluminum)

  11. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  12. Fundamental aspects of cathodic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, R.

    1979-01-01

    The main fundamental aspects and problems of cathodic sputtering used mainly for thin film deposition and sputter etching are discussed. Among many types of known sputtering techniques the radiofrequency /RF/ diode sputtering is the most universal one and is used for deposition of metals, alloys, metallic compounds, semiconductors and insulators. It seems that nowadays the largest number of working sputtering systems is of diode type. Sometimes also the dc or rf triode sputtering systems are used. The problems in these processes are practically equivalent and comparable with the problems in the diode method and therefore our discussion will be, in most cases applicable for both, the diode and triode methods

  13. Computing fundamentals digital literacy edition

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    Computing Fundamentals has been tailor made to help you get up to speed on your Computing Basics and help you get proficient in entry level computing skills. Covering all the key topics, it starts at the beginning and takes you through basic set-up so that you'll be competent on a computer in no time.You'll cover: Computer Basics & HardwareSoftwareIntroduction to Windows 7Microsoft OfficeWord processing with Microsoft Word 2010Creating Spreadsheets with Microsoft ExcelCreating Presentation Graphics with PowerPointConnectivity and CommunicationWeb BasicsNetwork and Internet Privacy and Securit

  14. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  15. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugajski, S.

    1980-01-01

    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  16. Macroscopic fundamental strings in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharonov, Y; Englert, F; Orloff, J

    1987-12-24

    We show that, when D greater than or equal to 4, theories of closed strings of closed strings in D, non-compact space-time dimensions exhibit a phase transition. The high-temperature phase is characterized by a condensate of arbitrarily long strings with Hausdorff dimension two (area filling curves). We suggest that this stringy phase is the ancestor of the adiabatic era. Fundamental strings could then both drive the inflation and seed, in a way reminiscent of the cosmic string mechanism, the large structures in the universe.

  17. Optimal screening of children with acute malnutrition requires a change in current WHO guidelines as MUAC and WHZ identify different patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Prak, Sophonneary; de Groot, Richard; Whitney, Sophie; Conkle, Joel; Horton, Lindsey; Un, Sam Oeurn; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Wieringa, Frank T

    2014-01-01

    Timely treatment of acute malnutrition in children 500,000 deaths annually. Screening at community level is essential to identify children with malnutrition. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for malnutrition recommend a Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) of malnutrition (SAM). However, it is currently unclear how MUAC relates to the other indicator used to define acute malnutrition: weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ). Secondary data from >11,000 Cambodian children, obtained by different surveys between 2010 and 2012, was used to calculate sensitivity and ROC curves for MUAC and WHZ. The secondary analysis showed that using the current WHO cut-off of 115 mm for screening for severe acute malnutrition over 90% of children with a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) children with a MUAC65% of children with a WHZchildren with acute malnutrition, therefore these 2 indicators should be regarded as independent from each other. We suggest a 2-step model with MUAC used a screening at community level, followed by MUAC and WHZ measured at a primary health care unit, with both indicators used independently to diagnose severe acute malnutrition. Current guidelines should be changed to reflect this, with treatment initiated when either MUAC <115 mm or WHZ<-3.

  18. A NEW APPROACH FOR IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY TO IDENTIFY A TYPE OF INTERACTION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA IN CONSORTIUMS OF DIFFERENT STAGES OF CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kondratenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing approaches for evaluation of types of interactions between individual monocultures in consortiums allow obtaining only qualitative results (synergistic, antagonistic, additive interaction as a whole, without regarding to changes in the cultivation process. Therefore, the development of a new approach for the quantitative determination of this indicator as a continuous function defined during the all period of cultivation is in need. In the course of the research a two-component consortium of lactic acid microorganisms cultivated on different mediums according to directed fermentation process in vegetable products was chosen to analyze types of interaction. As a result, the an original approach that was based on comparison of grow speed of biomass of microorganisms with calculated additive curve determined by results of dynamic analysis of titre of microorganism participating in consortium in monoculture during their cultivation has been elaborated. This approach is a convenient tool to identify complex regularity in changes of types of microorganism interaction in consortium represented by continuous function defined during all cultivation period.

  19. Use of Anisotropy, 3D Segmented Atlas, and Computational Analysis to Identify Gray Matter Subcortical Lesions Common to Concussive Injury from Different Sites on the Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can occur anywhere along the cortical mantel. While the cortical contusions may be random and disparate in their locations, the clinical outcomes are often similar and difficult to explain. Thus a question that arises is, do concussions at different sites on the cortex affect similar subcortical brain regions? To address this question we used a fluid percussion model to concuss the right caudal or rostral cortices in rats. Five days later, diffusion tensor MRI data were acquired for indices of anisotropy (IA for use in a novel method of analysis to detect changes in gray matter microarchitecture. IA values from over 20,000 voxels were registered into a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas covering 150 brain areas. Comparisons between left and right hemispheres revealed a small population of subcortical sites with altered IA values. Rostral and caudal concussions were of striking similarity in the impacted subcortical locations, particularly the central nucleus of the amygdala, laterodorsal thalamus, and hippocampal complex. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis of these sites showed significant neuroinflammation. This study presents three significant findings that advance our understanding and evaluation of TBI: 1 the introduction of a new method to identify highly localized disturbances in discrete gray matter, subcortical brain nuclei without postmortem histology, 2 the use of this method to demonstrate that separate injuries to the rostral and caudal cortex produce the same subcortical, disturbances, and 3 the central nucleus of the amygdala, critical in the regulation of emotion, is vulnerable to concussion.

  20. Optimal Screening of Children with Acute Malnutrition Requires a Change in Current WHO Guidelines as MUAC and WHZ Identify Different Patient Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Prak, Sophonneary; de Groot, Richard; Whitney, Sophie; Conkle, Joel; Horton, Lindsey; Un, Sam Oeurn; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A.; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Timely treatment of acute malnutrition in children 500,000 deaths annually. Screening at community level is essential to identify children with malnutrition. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for malnutrition recommend a Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) of malnutrition (SAM). However, it is currently unclear how MUAC relates to the other indicator used to define acute malnutrition: weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ). Methods Secondary data from >11,000 Cambodian children, obtained by different surveys between 2010 and 2012, was used to calculate sensitivity and ROC curves for MUAC and WHZ. Findings The secondary analysis showed that using the current WHO cut-off of 115 mm for screening for severe acute malnutrition over 90% of children with a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) 65% of children with a WHZmalnutrition, therefore these 2 indicators should be regarded as independent from each other. We suggest a 2-step model with MUAC used a screening at community level, followed by MUAC and WHZ measured at a primary health care unit, with both indicators used independently to diagnose severe acute malnutrition. Current guidelines should be changed to reflect this, with treatment initiated when either MUAC <115 mm or WHZ<−3. PMID:24983995

  1. Identifying similar and different factors effecting long-term cardiac exercise rehabilitation behavior modification between New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Stephanie; Lark, Sally; Fallows, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) programs are the most cost-effective measure for reducing morbidity associated with Coronary Vascular Disease (CVD). To be more effective there is a need to understand what influences the maintenance of healthy behaviors. This study identifies similar and different influences in CR of the United Kingdom (UK) and New Zealand (NZ). A retrospective study. Participants had previously been discharged from CR for 6 to 12+ months within the UK (n = 22) and NZ (n = 21). Participant's attended a focus group. Discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed then thematically analyzed. The CR programs were observed over 2 months to enable comment on findings relating to 'theory in practice.' Similar positive patient experiences influencing behavior between groups and countries were; support, education, positive attitude, and motivation. Companionship and exercising alongside people with similar health problems was the major determinant for positive exercise behavior. Barriers to maintaining exercise included; physical disabilities, time constraints, and weather conditions. NZ participants were more affected by external factors (eg, opportunity, access, and time). Both CR programs were successful in facilitating the maintenance of healthy lifestyles. Exercising with other cardiac patients for support in a structured environment was the strongest influence in maintaining healthy lifestyles beyond CR programs.

  2. A laboratory scale fundamental time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, R.V.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a fundamental time (or fundamental length) has been conjectured in many contexts. However, the ''stability of physical theories principle'' seems to be the one that provides, through the tools of algebraic deformation theory, an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. It is well-known that c and ℎ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and the Poisson algebra. When the stability principle is applied to the Poincare-Heisenberg algebra, two deformation parameters emerge which define two time (or length) scales. In addition there are, for each of them, a plus or minus sign possibility in the relevant commutators. One of the deformation length scales, related to non-commutativity of momenta, is probably related to the Planck length scale but the other might be much larger and already detectable in laboratory experiments. In this paper, this is used as a working hypothesis to look for physical effects that might settle this question. Phase-space modifications, resonances, interference, electron spin resonance and non-commutative QED are considered. (orig.)

  3. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Junjun; Lei, Bo; Niu, Mengliang; Huang, Yuan; Kong, Qiusheng; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch.) and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch.), with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs) were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small RNAs in the

  4. High Throughput Sequencing of Small RNAs in the Two Cucurbita Germplasm with Different Sodium Accumulation Patterns Identifies Novel MicroRNAs Involved in Salt Stress Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Xie

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, recognize their mRNA targets based on perfect sequence complementarity. MiRNAs lead to broader changes in gene expression after plants are exposed to stress. High-throughput sequencing is an effective method to identify and profile small RNA populations in non-model plants under salt stresses, significantly improving our knowledge regarding miRNA functions in salt tolerance. Cucurbits are sensitive to soil salinity, and the Cucurbita genus is used as the rootstock of other cucurbits to enhance salt tolerance. Several cucurbit crops have been used for miRNA sequencing but salt stress-related miRNAs in cucurbit species have not been reported. In this study, we subjected two Cucurbita germplasm, namely, N12 (Cucurbita. maxima Duch. and N15 (Cucurbita. moschata Duch., with different sodium accumulation patterns, to Illumina sequencing to determine small RNA populations in root tissues after 4 h of salt treatment and control. A total of 21,548,326 and 19,394,108 reads were generated from the control and salt-treated N12 root tissues, respectively. By contrast, 19,108,240 and 20,546,052 reads were obtained from the control and salt-treated N15 root tissues, respectively. Fifty-eight conserved miRNA families and 33 novel miRNAs were identified in the two Cucurbita germplasm. Seven miRNAs (six conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNAs were up-regulated in salt-treated N12 and N15 samples. Most target genes of differentially expressed novel miRNAs were transcription factors and salt stress-responsive proteins, including dehydration-induced protein, cation/H+ antiporter 18, and CBL-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase. The differential expression of miRNAs between the two Cucurbita germplasm under salt stress conditions and their target genes demonstrated that novel miRNAs play an important role in the response of the two Cucurbita germplasm to salt stress. The present study initially explored small

  5. A systems biology approach identified different regulatory networks targeted by KSHV miR-K12-11 in B cells and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yajie; Boss, Isaac W; McIntyre, Lauren M; Renne, Rolf

    2014-08-08

    Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpes virus (KSHV) is associated with tumors of endothelial and lymphoid origin. During latent infection, KSHV expresses miR-K12-11, an ortholog of the human tumor gene hsa-miR-155. Both gene products are microRNAs (miRNAs), which are important post-transcriptional regulators that contribute to tissue specific gene expression. Advances in target identification technologies and molecular interaction databases have allowed a systems biology approach to unravel the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) triggered by miR-K12-11 in endothelial and lymphoid cells. Understanding the tissue specific function of miR-K12-11 will help to elucidate underlying mechanisms of KSHV pathogenesis. Ectopic expression of miR-K12-11 differentially affected gene expression in BJAB cells of lymphoid origin and TIVE cells of endothelial origin. Direct miRNA targeting accounted for a small fraction of the observed transcriptome changes: only 29 genes were identified as putative direct targets of miR-K12-11 in both cell types. However, a number of commonly affected biological pathways, such as carbohydrate metabolism and interferon response related signaling, were revealed by gene ontology analysis. Integration of transcriptome profiling, bioinformatic algorithms, and databases of protein-protein interactome from the ENCODE project identified different nodes of GRNs utilized by miR-K12-11 in a tissue-specific fashion. These effector genes, including cancer associated transcription factors and signaling proteins, amplified the regulatory potential of a single miRNA, from a small set of putative direct targets to a larger set of genes. This is the first comparative analysis of miRNA-K12-11's effects in endothelial and B cells, from tissues infected with KSHV in vivo. MiR-K12-11 was able to broadly modulate gene expression in both cell types. Using a systems biology approach, we inferred that miR-K12-11 establishes its GRN by both repressing master TFs and influencing

  6. Fundamentals of information theory and coding design

    CERN Document Server

    Togneri, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In a clear, concise, and modular format, this book introduces the fundamental concepts and mathematics of information and coding theory. The authors emphasize how a code is designed and discuss the main properties and characteristics of different coding algorithms along with strategies for selecting the appropriate codes to meet specific requirements. They provide comprehensive coverage of source and channel coding, address arithmetic, BCH, and Reed-Solomon codes and explore some more advanced topics such as PPM compression and turbo codes. Worked examples and sets of basic and advanced exercises in each chapter reinforce the text's clear explanations of all concepts and methodologies.

  7. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  8. Genome-wide association study of glioma subtypes identifies specific differences in genetic susceptibility to glioblastoma and non-glioblastoma tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Beatrice S; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have transformed our understanding of glioma susceptibility, but individual studies have had limited power to identify risk loci. We performed a meta-analysis of existing GWAS and two new GWAS, which totaled 12,496 cases and 18,190 controls. We identified fi...

  9. Near Identifiability of Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaegh, F. Y.; Bekey, G. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts regarding approximate mathematical models treated rigorously. Paper presents new results in analysis of structural identifiability, equivalence, and near equivalence between mathematical models and physical processes they represent. Helps establish rigorous mathematical basis for concepts related to structural identifiability and equivalence revealing fundamental requirements, tacit assumptions, and sources of error. "Structural identifiability," as used by workers in this field, loosely translates as meaning ability to specify unique mathematical model and set of model parameters that accurately predict behavior of corresponding physical system.

  10. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  11. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  12. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  13. Materials Fundamentals of Gate Dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Demkov, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    This book presents materials fundamentals of novel gate dielectrics that are being introduced into semiconductor manufacturing to ensure the continuous scalling of the CMOS devices. This is a very fast evolving field of research so we choose to focus on the basic understanding of the structure, thermodunamics, and electronic properties of these materials that determine their performance in device applications. Most of these materials are transition metal oxides. Ironically, the d-orbitals responsible for the high dielectric constant cause sever integration difficulties thus intrinsically limiting high-k dielectrics. Though new in the electronics industry many of these materials are wel known in the field of ceramics, and we describe this unique connection. The complexity of the structure-property relations in TM oxides makes the use of the state of the art first-principles calculations necessary. Several chapters give a detailed description of the modern theory of polarization, and heterojunction band discont...

  14. Queueing networks a fundamental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    This handbook aims to highlight fundamental, methodological and computational aspects of networks of queues to provide insights and to unify results that can be applied in a more general manner.  The handbook is organized into five parts: Part 1 considers exact analytical results such as of product form type. Topics include characterization of product forms by physical balance concepts and simple traffic flow equations, classes of service and queue disciplines that allow a product form, a unified description of product forms for discrete time queueing networks, insights for insensitivity, and aggregation and decomposition results that allow subnetworks to be aggregated into single nodes to reduce computational burden. Part 2 looks at monotonicity and comparison results such as for computational simplification by either of two approaches: stochastic monotonicity and ordering results based on the ordering of the proces generators, and comparison results and explicit error bounds based on an underlying Markov r...

  15. The fundamentals of stellar astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.W. II.

    1989-01-01

    A broad overview of theoretical stellar astrophysics is presented in a textbook intended for graduate students. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, assumptions, theorems, and polytropes; energy sources and sinks; the flow of energy through the star and the construction of stellar models; the theory of stellar evolution; relativistic stellar structure; the structure of distorted stars; stellar pulsation and oscillation. Also discussed are the flow of radiation through the stellar atmosphere, the solution of the radiative-transfer equation, the environment of the radiation field, the construction of a stellar model atmosphere, the formation and shape of spectral lines, LTE breakdown, illuminated and extended stellar atmospheres, and the transfer of polarized radiation. Diagrams, graphs, and sample problems are provided. 164 refs

  16. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  17. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  18. Fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chubb, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    This is a text book presenting the fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion suitable for an upper undergraduate or first year graduate course. In addition it can serve as a reference or design aid for engineers developing TPV systems. Mathematica design programs for interference filters and a planar TPV system are included on a CD-Rom disk. Each chapter includes a summary and concludes with a set of problems. The first chapter presents the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of the components in a TPV optical cavity. Using a simplified model, Chapter 2 develops expressions for the maximum efficiency and power density for an ideal TPV system. The next three chapters consider the three major components in a TPV system; the emitter, filter and photovoltaic(PV) array. Chapter 3 applies the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory presented in Chapter 1 in the calculation of spectral emittance. From the spectral emittance t...

  19. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gülçat, Ülgen

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the author introduces the concept of unsteady aerodynamics and its underlying principles. He provides the readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamental physics of free and forced unsteadiness, the terminology and basic equations of aerodynamics ranging from incompressible flow to hypersonics. The book also covers modern topics related to the developments made in recent years, especially in relation to wing flapping for propulsion. The book is written for graduate and senior year undergraduate students in aerodynamics and also serves as a reference for experienced researchers. Each chapter includes ample examples, questions, problems and relevant references.   The treatment of these modern topics has been completely revised end expanded for the new edition. It now includes new numerical examples, a section on the ground effect, and state-space representation.

  20. Fundamental aspects of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorini, V.; Frigerio, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: general problems and crucial experiments; the classical behavior of measuring instruments; quantum interference effect for two atoms radiating a single photon; quantization and stochastic processes; quantum Markov processes driven by Bose noise; chaotic behavior in quantum mechanics; quantum ergodicity and chaos; microscopic and macroscopic levels of description; fundamental properties of the ground state of atoms and molecules; n-level systems interacting with Bosons - semiclassical limits; general aspects of gauge theories; adiabatic phase shifts for neutrons and photons; the spins of cyons and dyons; round-table discussion the the Aharonov-Bohm effect; gravity in quantum mechanics; the gravitational phase transition; anomalies and their cancellation; a new gauge without any ghost for Yang-Mills Theory; and energy density and roughening in the 3-D Ising ferromagnet

  1. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  2. Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Adibi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.

  3. Multiphase flow dynamics 1 fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    Multi-phase flows are part of our natural environment such as tornadoes, typhoons, air and water pollution and volcanic activities as well as part of industrial technology such as power plants, combustion engines, propulsion systems, or chemical and biological industry. The industrial use of multi-phase systems requires analytical and numerical strategies for predicting their behavior. In its third extended edition this monograph contains theory, methods and practical experience for describing complex transient multi-phase processes in arbitrary geometrical configurations, providing a systematic presentation of the theory and practice of numerical multi-phase fluid dynamics. In the present first volume the fundamentals of multiphase dynamics are provided. This third edition includes various updates, extensions and improvements in all book chapters.

  4. Islamic Fundamentalism in Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena F. Parubochaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Islam takes the stage of recovery associated with the peculiar issues associated with the Muslim society. These characteristics are expressed in the spread of ideas of Islamic fundamentalism and its supporters’ confrontation with the rest of the world. This process has affected the Russian Muslims as well, the trend developed after the collapse of the Soviet Union when the post soviet muslims began to realize themselves as part of one of the Muslim Ummah, coming into conflict with the secular law of the Russian Federation. After the Soviet Union’s disintegration, the radical Islamic ideas have begun to appear in Russia, in the conditions of the growth of nationalism these thoughts found a fertile ground. One of these ideas was associated with the construction of Sharia state in the Muslim autonomous republics of the Russian Federation and their subsequent withdrawal from Russian’s membership. The situation for the Russian state in the Muslim republics aggravated the war in Chechnya. Through Chechnya mercenaries from Arab countries started to penetrate to the Russian territory, they also brought the money for the destabilization of the internal situation in Russia. Nevertheless, separatism did not find the mass support in neighboring regions such as Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Ingushetia. It is evidently that international Jihad ideas were supported financially from abroad. The issue of funding is a key part of the development of Islamic fundamentalism in Russia, the international Islamic funds and organizations gave huge financial assistance to them. At the present moment Russian authorities lead a fruitful and a successful fight against terrorism. In the future, after the completion of the antiterrorist operation in the Middle East hundreds of terrorists may return to Russia with huge experience that can threaten the security of the Russian state.

  5. Race Differences: Use of Walking Speed to Identify Community-Dwelling Women at Risk for Poor Health Outcomes--Osteoarthritis Initiative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkness, Carmen S; Ren, Jinma

    2015-07-01

    Onset of disability, risk for future falls, frailty, functional decline, and mortality are strongly associated with a walking speed of less than 1.0 m/s. The study objective was to determine whether there were differences in slow walking speed (differences in walking speed can be attributed to age, obesity, socioeconomic factors, disease severity, or comorbidities. A cross-sectional design was used. Community-dwelling adults were recruited from Baltimore, Maryland; Columbus, Ohio; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Participants were 2,648 women (23% African American) who were 45 to 79 years of age and had a self-selected baseline walking speed of 20 m/s in the Osteoarthritis Initiative Study. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to examine racial differences in walking speed (<1.0 m/s versus ≥1.0 m/s), with adjustments for demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, disease severity, and comorbidities. Walking speed was significantly slower for African American women than for white American women (mean walking speed=1.19 and 1.33 m/s, respectively). The prevalence of a walking speed of less than 1.0 m/s in this cohort of middle-aged women was 9%; about 50% of the women with a walking speed of less than 1.0 m/s were younger than 65 years. Women with a walking speed of less than 1.0 m/s had lower values for socioeconomic factors, higher values for disease severity, and higher prevalences of obesity and comorbidities than those with a walking speed of ≥1.0 m/s. After controlling for these covariates, it was found that African American women were 3 times (odds ratio=2.9; 95% confidence interval=2.0, 4.1) more likely to have a walking speed of less than 1.0 m/s than white American women. The study design made it impossible to know whether a walking speed of less than 1.0 m/s in women who were 45 years of age or older was a predictor of future poor health outcomes. In this study, race was independently associated with a walking speed

  6. Identifying and Reconciling Risk Across Sectors: The implications of differing views of risk in climate policy, environmental conservation, and the finance sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, T.; Henderson, I.; Thoumi, G.

    2014-12-01

    The presence and valuation of risk are commonalities that link the diverse fields of climate change science and policy, environmental conservation, and the financial/investment sector. However, the definition and perception of risks vary widely across these critically linked fields. The "Stranded Asset" concept developed by organizations like the Carbon Tracker Initiative begins to elucidate the links between climate change risk and financial risk. Stranded assets are those that may lose some or all value from climate disruption, changes in demand-side dynamics and/or a more stringent regulatory environment. In order to shift financial flows toward climate change mitigation, emissions-heavy activities that present finance and investment opportunities must also be assessed for their GHG-asset risk attributes in terms of their contribution and vulnerability to climate disruption, as well as other environmental externalities. Until the concept of GHG-asset risk in investment is reconciled with the risks of climate change and environmental conservation, it will not be possible to shift business and financial practices, and unlock private sector resources to address the climate change and conservation challenge. UNEP-FI is researching the application of the concept of Value-atRisk (VaR) to explore links between the financial sector and deforestation/REDD+. The research will test the hypothesis that climate risk is a financial risk, and propose tools to identify and quantify risks associated with unsustainable land-use investments. The tools developed in this research will help investors, managers and governments assess their exposures to the material REDD-related risks in their portfolios. This will inform the development of 'zero net deforestation' investment indices to allow investors to lower the 'deforestation' exposure of 'benchmark' financial indices used by many of the largest money managers. A VaR analysis will be performed, combining the notion of externality

  7. Uncertainty about fundamentals and herding behavior in the FOREX market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Pablo Rovira

    2010-03-01

    It is traditionally assumed in finance models that the fundamental value of assets is known with certainty. Although this is an appealing simplifying assumption it is by no means based on empirical evidence. A simple heterogeneous agent model of the exchange rate is presented. In the model, traders do not observe the true underlying fundamental exchange rate and as a consequence they base their trades on beliefs about this variable. Despite the fact that only fundamentalist traders operate in the market, the model belongs to the heterogeneous agent literature, as traders have different beliefs about the fundamental rate.

  8. PRESSURE ULCER PREVENTION: FUNDAMENTALS FOR BEST PRACTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This introduction has highlighted both the complex nature of the aetiology of pressure ulcer development and the complex nature of the assessment process intended to identify those patients who are or might be at an enhanced risk of pressure ulcer development. The latter statement assumes that all patients cared for in any healthcare setting are vulnerable to pressure ulcer development. Whilst it is acknowledged that the use of a risk assessment tool can be important in an overall pressure ulcer prevention strategy, it is important that the limitations of these tools are acknowledged and that they are not an finite assessment in themselves and that they should be used by a practitioner with a fundamental breadth of relevant knowledge and an appreciation of the range of appropriate preventative equipment/techniques available and the role of the multi-disciplinary team in the prevention of all avoidable pressure ulcers.

  9. An experimental test of a fundamental food web motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rip, Jason M K; McCann, Kevin S; Lynn, Denis H; Fawcett, Sonia

    2010-06-07

    Large-scale changes to the world's ecosystem are resulting in the deterioration of biostructure-the complex web of species interactions that make up ecological communities. A difficult, yet crucial task is to identify food web structures, or food web motifs, that are the building blocks of this baroque network of interactions. Once identified, these food web motifs can then be examined through experiments and theory to provide mechanistic explanations for how structure governs ecosystem stability. Here, we synthesize recent ecological research to show that generalist consumers coupling resources with different interaction strengths, is one such motif. This motif amazingly occurs across an enormous range of spatial scales, and so acts to distribute coupled weak and strong interactions throughout food webs. We then perform an experiment that illustrates the importance of this motif to ecological stability. We find that weak interactions coupled to strong interactions by generalist consumers dampen strong interaction strengths and increase community stability. This study takes a critical step by isolating a common food web motif and through clear, experimental manipulation, identifies the fundamental stabilizing consequences of this structure for ecological communities.

  10. Fundamentals and Techniques of Nonimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    2003-07-10

    This is the final report describing a long term basic research program in nonimaging optics that has led to major advances in important areas, including solar energy, fiber optics, illumination techniques, light detectors, and a great many other applications. The term ''nonimaging optics'' refers to the optics of extended sources in systems for which image forming is not important, but effective and efficient collection, concentration, transport, and distribution of light energy is. Although some of the most widely known developments of the early concepts have been in the field of solar energy, a broad variety of other uses have emerged. Most important, under the auspices of this program in fundamental research in nonimaging optics established at the University of Chicago with support from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences at the Department of Energy, the field has become very dynamic, with new ideas and concepts continuing to develop, while applications of the early concepts continue to be pursued. While the subject began as part of classical geometrical optics, it has been extended subsequently to the wave optics domain. Particularly relevant to potential new research directions are recent developments in the formalism of statistical and wave optics, which may be important in understanding energy transport on the nanoscale. Nonimaging optics permits the design of optical systems that achieve the maximum possible concentration allowed by physical conservation laws. The earliest designs were constructed by optimizing the collection of the extreme rays from a source to the desired target: the so-called ''edge-ray'' principle. Later, new concentrator types were generated by placing reflectors along the flow lines of the ''vector flux'' emanating from lambertian emitters in various geometries. A few years ago, a new development occurred with the discovery that making the design edge-ray a functional of some

  11. Identifying nitrate sources and transformations in surface water by combining dual isotopes of nitrate and stable isotope mixing model in a watershed with different land uses and multi-tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Lu, Baohong

    2017-04-01

    Nitrate is essential for the growth and survival of plants, animals and humans. However, excess nitrate in drinking water is regarded as a health hazard as it is linked to infant methemoglobinemia and esophageal cancer. Revealing nitrate characteristics and identifying its sources are fundamental for making effective water management strategies, but nitrate sources in multi-tributaries and mixed land covered watersheds remain unclear. It is difficult to determine the predominant NO3- sources using conventional water quality monitoring techniques. In our study, based on 20 surface water sampling sites for more than two years' monitoring from April 2012 to December 2014, water chemical and dual isotopic approaches (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-) were integrated for the first time to evaluate nitrate characteristics and sources in the Huashan watershed, Jianghuai hilly region, East China. The results demonstrated that nitrate content in surface water was relatively low in the downstream (nitrate was observed at the source of the river in one of the sub-watersheds, which exhibited an exponential decline along the stream due to dilution, absorption by aquatic plants, and high forest cover. Although dramatically decline of nitrate occurred along the stream, denitrification was not found in surface water by analyzing δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- relationship. Proportional contributions of five potential nitrate sources (i.e., precipitation; manure and sewage; soil nitrogen; nitrate fertilizer; nitrate derived from ammonia fertilizer and rainfall) were estimated using a Bayesian isotope mixing model. Model results indicated nitrate sources varied significantly among different rainfall conditions, land use types, as well as anthropologic activities. In summary, coupling dual isotopes of nitrate (δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3-, simultaneously) with a Bayesian isotope mixing model offers a useful and practical way to qualitatively analyze nitrate sources and transformations as well as

  12. Teaching the Politics of Islamic Fundamentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Masoud

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the rise of Islamic fundamentalism since the Iranian Revolution has generated a number of issues of analytical significance for political science. Describes three main models in teaching and research on Islamic fundamentalism: Islamic exceptionalism, comparative fundamentalisms, and class analysis. Discusses the construction of a…

  13. Fundamentals of the DIGES code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simos, N.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1994-08-01

    Recently the authors have completed the development of the DIGES code (Direct GEneration of Spectra) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents the fundamental theoretical aspects of the code. The basic modeling involves a representation of typical building-foundation configurations as multi degree-of-freedom dynamic which are subjected to dynamic inputs in the form of applied forces or pressure at the superstructure or in the form of ground motions. Both the deterministic as well as the probabilistic aspects of DIGES are described. Alternate ways of defining the seismic input for the estimation of in-structure spectra and their consequences in terms of realistically appraising the variability of the structural response is discussed in detaiL These include definitions of the seismic input by ground acceleration time histories, ground response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra or power spectral densities. Conversions of one of these forms to another due to requirements imposed by certain analysis techniques have been shown to lead, in certain cases, in controversial results. Further considerations include the definition of the seismic input as the excitation which is directly applied at the foundation of a structure or as the ground motion of the site of interest at a given point. In the latter case issues related to the transferring of this motion to the foundation through convolution/deconvolution and generally through kinematic interaction approaches are considered.

  14. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The major portion of this program is devoted to critical ICH phenomena. The topics include edge physics, fast wave propagation, ICH induced high frequency instabilities, and a preliminary antenna design for Ignitor. This research was strongly coordinated with the world's experimental and design teams at JET, Culham, ORNL, and Ignitor. The results have been widely publicized at both general scientific meetings and topical workshops including the speciality workshop on ICRF design and physics sponsored by Lodestar in April 1992. The combination of theory, empirical modeling, and engineering design in this program makes this research particularly important for the design of future devices and for the understanding and performance projections of present tokamak devices. Additionally, the development of a diagnostic of runaway electrons on TEXT has proven particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of energetic electron confinement. This work has led to a better quantitative basis for quasilinear theory and the role of magnetic vs. electrostatic field fluctuations on electron transport. An APS invited talk was given on this subject and collaboration with PPPL personnel was also initiated. Ongoing research on these topics will continue for the remainder fo the contract period and the strong collaborations are expected to continue, enhancing both the relevance of the work and its immediate impact on areas needing critical understanding

  15. Levitated Optomechanics for Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muddassar; Bateman, James; Vovrosh, Jamie; Hempston, David; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-05-01

    Optomechanics with levitated nano- and microparticles is believed to form a platform for testing fundamental principles of quantum physics, as well as find applications in sensing. We will report on a new scheme to trap nanoparticles, which is based on a parabolic mirror with a numerical aperture of 1. Combined with achromatic focussing, the setup is a cheap and readily straightforward solution to trapping nanoparticles for further study. Here, we report on the latest progress made in experimentation with levitated nanoparticles; these include the trapping of 100 nm nanodiamonds (with NV-centres) down to 1 mbar as well as the trapping of 50 nm Silica spheres down to 10?4 mbar without any form of feedback cooling. We will also report on the progress to implement feedback stabilisation of the centre of mass motion of the trapped particle using digital electronics. Finally, we argue that such a stabilised particle trap can be the particle source for a nanoparticle matterwave interferometer. We will present our Talbot interferometer scheme, which holds promise to test the quantum superposition principle in the new mass range of 106 amu. EPSRC, John Templeton Foundation.

  16. The water, fundamental ecological base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, Luis Humberto

    1994-01-01

    To speak of ecology and the man's interaction with the environment takes, in fact implicit many elements that, actuating harmoniously generates a conducive entropy to a better to be, however it is necessary to hierarchy the importance of these elements, finding that the water, not alone to constitute sixty five percent of the total volume of the planet, or sixty percent of the human body, but to be the well called molecule of the life, it is constituted in the main element to consider in the study of the ecology. The water circulates continually through the endless hydrological cycle of condensation, precipitation, filtration, retention, evaporation, precipitation and so forth; however, due to the quick growth of the cities, its expansion of the green areas or its border lands, result of a demographic behavior and of inadequate social establishment; or of the advance industrial excessive, they produce irreparable alterations in the continuous processes of the water production, for this reason it is fundamental to know some inherent problems to the sources of water. The water, the most important in the renewable natural resources, essential for the life and for the achievement of good part of the man's goals in their productive function, it is direct or indirectly the natural resource more threatened by the human action

  17. Fundamentals of neurogastroenterology: basic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, David; Al-Chaer, Elie D; Aziz, Qasim; Collins, Stephen M; Ke, Meiyun; Taché, Yvette; Wood, Jackie D

    2006-04-01

    The focus of neurogastroenterology in Rome II was the enteric nervous system (ENS). To avoid duplication with Rome II, only advances in ENS neurobiology after Rome II are reviewed together with stronger emphasis on interactions of the brain, spinal cord, and the gut in terms of relevance for abdominal pain and disordered gastrointestinal function. A committee with expertise in selective aspects of neurogastroenterology was invited to evaluate the literature and provide a consensus overview of the Fundamentals of Neurogastroenterology textbook as they relate to functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This review is an abbreviated version of a fuller account that appears in the forthcoming book, Rome III. This report reviews current basic science understanding of visceral sensation and its modulation by inflammation and stress and advances in the neurophysiology of the ENS. Many of the concepts are derived from animal studies in which the physiologic mechanisms underlying visceral sensitivity and neural control of motility, secretion, and blood flow are examined. Impact of inflammation and stress in experimental models relative to FGIDs is reviewed as is human brain imaging, which provides a means for translating basic science to understanding FGID symptoms. Investigative evidence and emerging concepts implicate dysfunction in the nervous system as a significant factor underlying patient symptoms in FGIDs. Continued focus on neurogastroenterologic factors that underlie the development of symptoms will lead to mechanistic understanding that is expected to directly benefit the large contingent of patients and care-givers who deal with FGIDs.

  18. Fundamentals of Financial Statements Audit

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. The objective of an audit of financial statements is to enable an auditor to express an opinion as to whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards or another identified financial reporting fr...

  19. Fundamental Tradeoffs among Reliability, Latency and Throughput in Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Mogensen, Preben; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2014-01-01

    We address the fundamental tradeoffs among latency, reliability and throughput in a cellular network. The most important elements influencing the KPIs in a 4G network are identified, and the inter-relationships among them is discussed. We use the effective bandwidth and the effective capacity......, in which latency and reliability will be two of the principal KPIs....

  20. Statistical competencies for medical research learners: What is fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Felicity T; Lindsell, Christopher J; Welty, Leah J; Benn, Emma K T; Perkins, Susan M; Mayo, Matthew S; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Kidwell, Kelley M; Thurston, Sally W; Spratt, Heidi; Grambow, Steven C; Larson, Joseph; Carter, Rickey E; Pollock, Brad H; Oster, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    It is increasingly essential for medical researchers to be literate in statistics, but the requisite degree of literacy is not the same for every statistical competency in translational research. Statistical competency can range from 'fundamental' (necessary for all) to 'specialized' (necessary for only some). In this study, we determine the degree to which each competency is fundamental or specialized. We surveyed members of 4 professional organizations, targeting doctorally trained biostatisticians and epidemiologists who taught statistics to medical research learners in the past 5 years. Respondents rated 24 educational competencies on a 5-point Likert scale anchored by 'fundamental' and 'specialized.' There were 112 responses. Nineteen of 24 competencies were fundamental. The competencies considered most fundamental were assessing sources of bias and variation (95%), recognizing one's own limits with regard to statistics (93%), identifying the strengths, and limitations of study designs (93%). The least endorsed items were meta-analysis (34%) and stopping rules (18%). We have identified the statistical competencies needed by all medical researchers. These competencies should be considered when designing statistical curricula for medical researchers and should inform which topics are taught in graduate programs and evidence-based medicine courses where learners need to read and understand the medical research literature.

  1. BOOK REVIEWS: Quantum Mechanics: Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A.

    2004-02-01

    mechanics, which is assumed, but to examine whether it gives a consistent account of measurement. The conclusion is that after a measurement, interference terms are ‘effectively’ absent; the set of ‘one-to-one correlations between states of the apparatus and the object’ has the same form as that of everyday statistics and is thus a probability distribution. This probability distribution refers to potentialities, only one of which is actually realized in any one trial. Opinions may differ on whether their treatment is any less vulnerable to criticisms such as those of Bell. To sum up, Gottfried and Yan’s book contains a vast amount of knowledge and understanding. As well as explaining the way in which quantum theory works, it attempts to illuminate fundamental aspects of the theory. A typical example is the ‘fable’ elaborated in Gottfried’s article in Nature cited above, that if Newton were shown Maxwell’s equations and the Lorentz force law, he could deduce the meaning of E and B, but if Maxwell were shown Schrödinger’s equation, he could not deduce the meaning of Psi. For use with a well-constructed course (and, of course, this is the avowed purpose of the book; a useful range of problems is provided for each chapter), or for the relative expert getting to grips with particular aspects of the subject or aiming for a deeper understanding, the book is certainly ideal. It might be suggested, though, that, even compared to the first edition, the isolated learner might find the wide range of topics, and the very large number of mathematical and conceptual techniques, introduced in necessarily limited space, somewhat overwhelming. The second book under consideration, that of Schwabl, contains ‘Advanced’ elements of quantum theory; it is designed for a course following on from one for which Gottfried and Yan, or Schwabl’s own `Quantum Mechanics' might be recommended. It is the second edition in English, and is a translation of the third German edition

  2. Fundamental Aspects of Selective Melting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Certain details of the additive manufacturing process known as selective laser melting (SLM) affect the performance of the final metal part. To unleash the full potential of SLM it is crucial that the process engineer in the field receives guidance about how to select values for a multitude of process variables employed in the building process. These include, for example, the type of powder (e.g., size distribution, shape, type of alloy), orientation of the build axis, the beam scan rate, the beam power density, the scan pattern and scan rate. The science-based selection of these settings con- stitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy, reactive, dynamic wetting followed by re-solidification. In addition, inherent to the process is its considerable variability that stems from the powder packing. Each time a limited number of powder particles are placed, the stacking is intrinsically different from the previous, possessing a different geometry, and having a different set of contact areas with the surrounding particles. As a result, even if all other process parameters (scan rate, etc) are exactly the same, the shape and contact geometry and area of the final melt pool will be unique to that particular configuration. This report identifies the most important issues facing SLM, discusses the fundamental physics associated with it and points out how modeling can support the additive manufacturing efforts.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis identifies gene networks regulated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ that control distinct effects of different botanical estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Li, Jilong; Cheng, Jianlin; Greenlief, C. Michael; Helferich, William G.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The estrogen receptors (ERs) ERα and ERβ mediate the actions of endogenous estrogens as well as those of botanical estrogens (BEs) present in plants. BEs are ingested in the diet and also widely consumed by postmenopausal women as dietary supplements, often as a substitute for the loss of endogenous estrogens at menopause. However, their activities and efficacies, and similarities and differences in gene expression programs with respect to endogenous estrogens such as estradiol (E2) are not fully understood. Because gene expression patterns underlie and control the broad physiological effects of estrogens, we have investigated and compared the gene networks that are regulated by different BEs and by E2. Our aim was to determine if the soy and licorice BEs control similar or different gene expression programs and to compare their gene regulations with that of E2. Gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq in human breast cancer (MCF7) cells treated with control vehicle, BE or E2. These cells contained three different complements of ERs, ERα only, ERα+ERβ, or ERβ only, reflecting the different ratios of these two receptors in different human breast cancers and in different estrogen target cells. Using principal component, hierarchical clustering, and gene ontology and interactome analyses, we found that BEs regulated many of the same genes as did E2. The genes regulated by each BE, however, were somewhat different from one another, with some genes being regulated uniquely by each compound. The overlap with E2 in regulated genes was greatest for the soy isoflavones genistein and S-equol, while the greatest difference from E2 in gene expression pattern was observed for the licorice root BE liquiritigenin. The gene expression pattern of each ligand depended greatly on the cell background of ERs present. Despite similarities in gene expression pattern with E2, the BEs were generally less stimulatory of genes promoting proliferation and were more pro-apoptotic in their

  4. Astronomia Motivadora no Ensino Fundamental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, J.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    O objetivo principal deste trabalho é procurar desenvolver o interesse dos alunos pelas ciências através da Astronomia. Uma pesquisa com perguntas sobre Astronomia foi realizada junto a 161 alunos do Ensino Fundamental, com o intuito de descobrir conhecimentos prévios dos alunos sobre o assunto. Constatou-se, por exemplo, que 29,3% da 6ª série responderam corretamente o que é eclipse, 30,0% da 8ª série acertaram o que a Astronomia estuda, enquanto 42,3% dos alunos da 5ª série souberam definir o Sol. Pretende-se ampliar as turmas participantes e trabalhar, principalmente de forma prática com: dimensões e escalas no Sistema Solar, construção de luneta, questões como dia e noite, estações do ano e eclipses. Busca-se abordar, também, outros conteúdos de Física tais como a óptica na construção da luneta, e a mecânica no trabalho com escalas e medidas, e ao utilizar uma luminária para representar o Sol na questão do eclipse, e de outras disciplinas como a Matemática na transformação de unidades, regras de três; Artes na modelagem ou desenho dos planetas; a própria História com relação à busca pela origem do universo, e a Informática que possibilita a busca mais rápida por informações, além de permitir simulações e visualizações de imagens importantes. Acredita-se que a Astronomia é importante no processo ensino aprendizagem, pois permite a discussão de temas curiosos como, por exemplo, a origem do universo, viagens espaciais a existência ou não de vida em outros planetas, além de temas atuais como as novas tecnologias.

  5. Theoretical Fundamentals of Human Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Maria Ienciu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the theoretical approaches presented by the literature on the human factor. In order to achieve such objective we have performed a qualitative research by analyzing the content of several papers published in internationally renowned journals, classified according to the list of journals' ranking provided by the Association of Business Schools (UK), in relation to the theories that have been approached within it. Our findings suggest that from all ident...

  6. Fundamentals of the administrative decentralization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lupăncescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration, as an activity carried out by the administrative authorities, can be achieved through several forms of organization. In this sense, centralization, deconcentration and decentralization, together with its corollary, local autonomy, constitute in organizational regimes of an administrative nature, more or less democratic, and with characteristics that vary according to the degree of dependence between the authorities of the public administration institutions at the central level and local public administration authorities.There is no single form of organization that incorporates the characteristics of a particular regime. The complex expectations of modern society have led to the blending of features of different forms of organization in order to create a balance of activity within the public administration, in order to exercise the functions of executive power for the benefit of citizens, not by conferring unlimited autonomy but by considering the fundamental principle of legality.

  7. Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...

  8. Fundamentals of analytical chemistry, 5th edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoog, D.A.; West, D.M.; Holler, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry is divided into three roughly equal parts. The first 14 chapters cover classical methods of analysis, including titrimetry and gravimetry as well as solution equilibria and statistical analysis. The next 11 chapters address electroanalytical, optical, and chromatographic methods of analysis. The remainder of the text is devoted to discussions of sample manipulation and pretreatment, good laboratory practices, and detailed directions for performing examples of 17 different types of classical and instrumental analyses. Like its predecessors, this fifth edition provides comprehensive coverage of classical analytical methods and the major instrumental ones in a literary style that is clear, straightforward, and readable. New terms are carefully defined as they are introduced, and each term is italicized for emphasis and for ease of relocation by the student who may forget its meaning. The chapters on analyses of real-world samples, on avoiding interferences, and on techniques for sample preparation should prove especially useful for the practicing chemist

  9. Fundamental rights and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1979-01-01

    Resume: The law must have the force to do away with the seemingly inevitable pressure of facts, and to control the process of economic and technical development according to its own, legal standards of value, with the quality of life and the dignity of man being applied as the supreme standard in accordance with our constitution. Within the framework of our system of public competences within which socially important power of decision is assigned to different public authorities, the courts of administration are at present the only organs which are able and prepared to measure the real results of the technical development by applying standards of value based upon social responsibility. This is why the task of defending the inviolability of the fundamental rights also against the claims of modern large-scale technology tests with these courts. (orig.HP) [de

  10. What Does It Take to Change an Editor's Mind? Identifying Minimally Important Difference Thresholds for Peer Reviewer Rating Scores of Scientific Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaham, Michael; John, Leslie K

    2018-01-05

    We define a minimally important difference for the Likert-type scores frequently used in scientific peer review (similar to existing minimally important differences for scores in clinical medicine). The magnitude of score change required to change editorial decisions has not been studied, to our knowledge. Experienced editors at a journal in the top 6% by impact factor were asked how large a change of rating in "overall desirability for publication" was required to trigger a change in their initial decision on an article. Minimally important differences were assessed twice for each editor: once assessing the rating change required to shift the editor away from an initial decision to accept, and the other assessing the magnitude required to shift away from an initial rejection decision. Forty-one editors completed the survey (89% response rate). In the acceptance frame, the median minimally important difference was 0.4 points on a scale of 1 to 5. Editors required a greater rating change to shift from an initial rejection decision; in the rejection frame, the median minimally important difference was 1.2 points. Within each frame, there was considerable heterogeneity: in the acceptance frame, 38% of editors did not change their decision within the maximum available range; in the rejection frame, 51% did not. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the minimally important difference for Likert-type ratings of research article quality, or in fact any nonclinical scientific assessment variable. Our findings may be useful for future research assessing whether changes to the peer review process produce clinically meaningful differences in editorial decisionmaking. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Partial protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX gene deletions, due to different Alu-mediated mechanisms, identified by MLPA analysis in patients with variegate porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaro Michela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Variegate porphyria (VP is an autosomal dominantly inherited hepatic porphyria. The genetic defect in the PPOX gene leads to a partial defect of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme of heme biosynthesis. Affected individuals can develop cutaneous symptoms in sun-exposed areas of the skin and/or neuropsychiatric acute attacks. The identification of the genetic defect in VP families is of crucial importance to detect the carrier status which allows counseling to prevent potentially life threatening neurovisceral attacks, usually triggered by factors such as certain drugs, alcohol or fasting. In a total of 31 Swedish VP families sequence analysis had identified a genetic defect in 26. In the remaining five families an extended genetic investigation was necessary. After the development of a synthetic probe set, MLPA analysis to screen for single exon deletions/duplications was performed. We describe here, for the first time, two partial deletions within the PPOX gene detected by MLPA analysis. One deletion affects exon 5 and 6 (c.339-197_616+320del1099 and has been identified in four families, most probably after a founder effect. The other extends from exon 5 to exon 9 (c.339-350_987+229del2609 and was found in one family. We show that both deletions are mediated by Alu repeats. Our findings emphasize the usefulness of MLPA analysis as a complement to PPOX gene sequencing analysis for comprehensive genetic diagnostics in patients with VP.

  12. A Three-Step Latent Class Analysis to Identify How Different Patterns of Teen Dating Violence and Psychosocial Factors Influence Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Weston, Rebecca; Temple, Jeff R

    2017-04-01

    Although multiple forms (i.e., physical, threatening, psychological, sexual, and relational abuse) and patterns (i.e., perpetration and victimization) of violence can co-occur, most existing research examines these experiences individually. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate: (1) homogenous subgroups based on victimization and perpetration of multiple forms of teen dating violence; (2) predictors of membership in these subgroups; and (3) mental health consequences associated with membership in each subgroup. Nine hundred eighteen adolescents in the 9 th or 10 th grade at seven public high schools in Texas participated in the survey (56 % female, White: 30 %, Hispanic: 32 %, African American: 29 %, others: 9 %). A three-step latent class analysis was employed. Five latent teen dating violence classes were identified: (1) nonviolence; (2) emotional/verbal abuse; (3) forced sexual contact; (4) psychological + physical violence; and (5) psychological abuse. Females, African Americans, and youth who had higher acceptance of couple violence scores and whose parents had less education were more likely to members of dating violence classes compared with the nonviolence class. Adolescents who experienced multiple types of dating violence reported greater mental health concerns. Prevention programs may benefit by identifying the homogenous subgroups of teen dating violence and targeting adolescent teen dating violence accordingly.

  13. Fundamental differences in change detection between vision and audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demany, Laurent; Semal, Catherine; Cazalets, Jean-René; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    We compared auditory change detection to visual change detection using closely matched stimuli and tasks in the two modalities. On each trial, participants were presented with a test stimulus consisting of ten elements: pure tones with various frequencies for audition, or dots with various spatial positions for vision. The test stimulus was preceded or followed by a probe stimulus consisting of a single element, and two change-detection tasks were performed. In the "present/absent" task, the probe either matched one randomly selected element of the test stimulus or none of them; participants reported present or absent. In the "direction-judgment" task, the probe was always slightly shifted relative to one randomly selected element of the test stimulus; participants reported the direction of the shift. Whereas visual performance was systematically better in the present/absent task than in the direction-judgment task, the opposite was true for auditory performance. Moreover, whereas visual performance was strongly dependent on selective attention and on the time interval separating the probe from the test stimulus, this was not the case for auditory performance. Our results show that small auditory changes can be detected automatically across relatively long temporal gaps, using an implicit memory system that seems to have no similar counterpart in the visual domain.

  14. Comparison of silicon nanocrystals prepared by two fundamentally different methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cibulka, Ondřej; Vorkotter, C.; Purkrt, Adam; Holovský, Jakub; Benedikt, J.; Herynková, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, Oct (2016), s. 1-7, č. článku 445. ISSN 1556-276X Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) DAAD-16-18 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon nanocrystals * electrochemical etching * low-pressure plasma * photoluminescence * size distribution * surface passivation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2016

  15. Short sales, differences of opinion and fundamental value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Porras Prado, M.; Ling, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the role of short sale constraints in explaining the variation in premiums to Net Asset Value (NAV) in REIT pricing. We use proprietary information on short sales between June 2006 and September 2008 to examine how short sales and short sale constraints affect the variation in

  16. From incremental to fundamental substitution in chemical alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Weber, Roland; Scheringer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    to similarity in chemical structures and, hence, similar hazard profiles between phase-out and substitute chemicals, leading to a rather incremental than fundamental substitution. A hampered phase-out process, the lack of implementing Green Chemistry principles in chemicals design, and lack of Sustainable...... an integrated approach of all stakeholders involved toward more fundamental and function-based substitution by greener and more sustainable alternatives. Our recommendations finally constitute a starting point for identifying further research needs and for improving current alternatives assessment practice....

  17. Fundamental dilemmas in contemporary psychotherapy: a transtheoretical concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturo, Douglas J

    2002-01-01

    The transtheoretical nature of fundamental dilemmas in contemporary psychotherapy is explored. The basic distinction between technical and ethical dilemmas in clinical practice is discussed, as well as the ramifications for the psychotherapist. Clinical dilemmas identified by survey research studies and interviews with master psychotherapists are reviewed. In addition to dilemmas relevant to circumscribed areas of psychotherapy, such as brief therapy, managed mental health care, sexual questions, feminist therapy, dilemmas fundamental to the psychotherapeutic process as a whole are examined. Finally, clinical examples are provided that include such issues as hospitalization of the suicidal patient, dealing with known contraindications, treating the intractable patient, and self-care of the psychotherapist.

  18. Electricity Futures Prices : Time Varying Sensitivity to Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-E. Fleten (Stein-Erik); R. Huisman (Ronald); M. Kilic (Mehtap); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico); S. Westgaard (Sjur)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides insight in the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of prices of contracts for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the

  19. Systemic analysis of different colorectal cancer cell lines and TCGA datasets identified IGF-1R/EGFR-PPAR-CASPASE axis as important indicator for radiotherapy sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Zhe; Gao, Wei; Jiang, Qixin; Yu, Jiangming; Fu, Chuangang

    2017-09-05

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is proved to contribute the development of many types of cancers. But, little is known about its roles in radio-resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we demonstrated that low IGF-1R expression value was associated with the better radiotherapy sensitivity of CRC. Besides, through Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), the elevated expression value of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was observed in CRC cell lines (HT29, RKO) with high radio-sensitivity compared with those with low sensitivity (SW480, LOVO). The irradiation induced apoptosis rates of wild type and EGFR agonist (EGF) or IGF-1R inhibitor (NVP-ADW742) treated HT29 and SW480 cells were quantified by flow cytometry. As a result, the apoptosis rate of EGF and NVP-ADW742 treated HT29 cells was significantly higher than that of those wild type ones, which indicated that high EGFR and low IGF-1R expression level in CRC was associated with the high sensitivity to radiotherapy. We next conducted systemic bioinformatics analysis of genome-wide expression profiles of CRC samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential expression analysis between IGF-1R and EGFR abnormal CRC samples, i.e. CRC samples with higher IGF-1R and lower EGFR expression levels based on their median expression values, and the rest of CRC samples identified potential genes contribute to radiotherapy sensitivity. Functional enrichment of analysis of those differential expression genes (DEGs) in the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) indicated PPAR signaling pathway as an important pathway for the radio-resistance of CRC. Our study identified the potential biomarkers for the rational selection of radiotherapy for CRC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying intelligent Building Management Systems (BMS) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying intelligent Building Management Systems (BMS) in sustainable housing. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... attention to the principles of sustainability of energy and organized approach to sustainable development.