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Sample records for identify fish species

  1. Development of standardized methodology for identifying toxins in clinical samples and fish species associated with tetrodotoxin-borne poisoning incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a naturally occurring toxin in food, especially in puffer fish. TTX poisoning is observed frequently in South East Asian regions. In TTX-derived food poisoning outbreaks, the amount of TTX recovered from suspicious fish samples or leftovers, and residual levels from biological fluids of victims are typically trace. However, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods have been demonstrated to qualitatively and quantitatively determine TTX in clinical samples from victims. Identification and validation of the TTX-originating seafood species responsible for a food poisoning incident is needed. A polymerase chain reaction-based method on mitochondrial DNA analysis is useful for identification of fish species. This review aims to collect pertinent information available on TTX-borne food poisoning incidents with a special emphasis on the analytical methods employed for TTX detection in clinical laboratories as well as for the identification of TTX-bearing species.

  2. Species-specific considerations in using the fish embryo test as an alternative to identify endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Viktoria; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hecker, Markus; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2014-10-01

    A number of regulations have been implemented that aim to control the release of potentially adverse endocrine disrupters into the aquatic environment based on evidence from laboratory studies. Currently, such studies rely on testing approaches with adult fish because reliable alternatives have not been validated so far. Fish embryo tests have been proposed as such an alternative, and here we compared two species (medaka and zebrafish) to determine their suitability for the assessment of substances with estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity. Changes in gene expression (in here the phrase gene expression is used synonymously to gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is additionally regulated, e.g., by translation and protein stability) patterns between the two species were compared in short term embryo exposure tests (medaka: 7-day post fertilization [dpf]; zebrafish: 48 and 96h post fertilization [hpf]) by using relative quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The tested genes were related to the hypothalamic-gonadal-axis and early steroidogenesis. Test chemicals included 17α-ethinylestradiol and flutamide as estrogenic and anti-androgenic reference compounds, respectively, as well as five additional substances with endocrine activities, namely bisphenol A, genistein, prochloraz, linuron and propanil. Estrogenic responses were comparable in 7-dpf medaka and 48/96-hpf zebrafish embryos and included transcriptional upregulation of aromatase b, vitellogenin 1 as well as steroidogenic genes, suggesting that both species reliably detected exposure to estrogenic compounds. However, anti-androgenic responses differed between the two species, with each species providing specific information concerning the mechanism of anti-androgenic disruption in fish embryos. Although small but significant changes in the expression of selected genes was observed in 48-hpf zebrafish embryos, exposure prolonged to 96hpf was necessary to obtain a response indicative

  3. Chemokines in teleost fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Alí; Tafalla, Carolina

    2011-12-01

    Chemokines are chemoattractant cytokines defined by the presence of four conserved cysteine residues which in mammals can be divided into four subfamilies depending on the arrangement of the first two conserved cysteines in their sequence: CXC (α), CC (β), C and CX(3)C classes. Evolutionarily, fish can be considered as an intermediate step between species which possess only innate immunity (invertebrates) and species with a fully developed acquired immune network such as mammals. Therefore, the functionality of their different immune cell types and molecules is sometimes also intermediate between innate and acquired responses. The first chemokine gene identified in a teleost was a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) chemokine designated as CK1 in 1998. Since then, many different chemokine genes have been identified in several fish species, but their role in homeostasis and immune response remains largely unknown. Extensive genomic duplication events and the fact that chemokines evolve more quickly than other immune genes, make it very difficult to establish true orthologues between fish and mammalian chemokines that would help us with the ascription of immune roles. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish, focusing mainly on which genes have been identified so far and highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation, due to the great lack of functional information available for them. As the number of chemokine genes begins to close down for some teleost species, there is an important need for functional assays that may elucidate the role of each of these molecules within the fish immune response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying Fishes through DNA Barcodes and Microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Kochzius

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available International fish trade reached an import value of 62.8 billion Euro in 2006, of which 44.6% are covered by the European Union. Species identification is a key problem throughout the life cycle of fishes: from eggs and larvae to adults in fisheries research and control, as well as processed fish products in consumer protection.This study aims to evaluate the applicability of the three mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S, cytochrome b (cyt b, and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI for the identification of 50 European marine fish species by combining techniques of "DNA barcoding" and microarrays. In a DNA barcoding approach, neighbour Joining (NJ phylogenetic trees of 369 16S, 212 cyt b, and 447 COI sequences indicated that cyt b and COI are suitable for unambiguous identification, whereas 16S failed to discriminate closely related flatfish and gurnard species. In course of probe design for DNA microarray development, each of the markers yielded a high number of potentially species-specific probes in silico, although many of them were rejected based on microarray hybridisation experiments. None of the markers provided probes to discriminate the sibling flatfish and gurnard species. However, since 16S-probes were less negatively influenced by the "position of label" effect and showed the lowest rejection rate and the highest mean signal intensity, 16S is more suitable for DNA microarray probe design than cty b and COI. The large portion of rejected COI-probes after hybridisation experiments (>90% renders the DNA barcoding marker as rather unsuitable for this high-throughput technology.Based on these data, a DNA microarray containing 64 functional oligonucleotide probes for the identification of 30 out of the 50 fish species investigated was developed. It represents the next step towards an automated and easy-to-handle method to identify fish, ichthyoplankton, and fish products.

  5. DNA barcode-based molecular identification system for fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungmin; Eo, Hae-Seok; Koo, Hyeyoung; Choi, Jun-Kil; Kim, Won

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we applied DNA barcoding to identify species using short DNA sequence analysis. We examined the utility of DNA barcoding by identifying 53 Korean freshwater fish species, 233 other freshwater fish species, and 1339 saltwater fish species. We successfully developed a web-based molecular identification system for fish (MISF) using a profile hidden Markov model. MISF facilitates efficient and reliable species identification, overcoming the limitations of conventional taxonomic approaches. MISF is freely accessible at http://bioinfosys.snu.ac.kr:8080/MISF/misf.jsp .

  6. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial spoilage profiles to identify irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alur, M.D.; Venugopal, V.; Nerkar, D.P.; Nair, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of low dose gamma-irradiation of fish product on spoilage potentials of bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas marinoglutinosa) and mixed flora were examined for ability to proliferate in radurized fish and produce volatile acids (TVA) and bases (TVBN). Bacteria proliferated well in unirradiated and irradiated fish, but formation of VA and VB were lower in irradiated than unirradiated counterparts. This was found in Bombay duck, Indian mackerel, white pomfret, seer and shrimp gamma-irradiated at 0 to 5 kGy under ice. TVA and TVBN produced by the organisms or mixed flora from fish were only 30-50% those of controls. A method for identifying radiation-processed fish could evolve based on lower susceptibility of irradiated fish to bacterial spoilage

  8. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes.

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    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L; Hanner, Robert H; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-06-28

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a more accessible molecular identification key for its application, we generated a standard reference library of mtDNA sequences (DNA barcodes) derived from expert-identified museum specimens for 752 North American freshwater fish species. This study demonstrates that 90% of known species can be delineated using barcodes. Moreover, it reveals numerous genetic discontinuities indicative of independently evolving lineages within described species, which points to the presence of morphologically cryptic diversity. From the 752 species analyzed, our survey flagged 138 named species that represent as many as 347 candidate species, which suggests a 28% increase in species diversity. In contrast, several species of parasitic and nonparasitic lampreys lack such discontinuity and may represent alternative life history strategies within single species. Therefore, it appears that the current North American freshwater fish taxonomy at the species level significantly conceals diversity in some groups, although artificially creating diversity in others. In addition to providing an easily accessible digital identification system, this study identifies 151 fish species for which taxonomic revision is required.

  9. Fisheries oceanography of northern pelagic fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula

    for marine organisms. One of the impacts will be the time that species start to spawn, and there is already evidence for earlier spawning in some North Sea fish species. A change like that may likely have a chain reaction, affecting larval stages and whether they will live in environments with high food...... of the species they consume now and increased availability of new species. In addition, there will likely be economic impacts on the local fishing communities. How species respond to climate change is a field of research that receives great attention because the responses will affect the management of fisheries......People are familiar with marine fish species and the great variety of different species that are available in the market, such as herring, cod and sole. What may not be well known is that every individual fish goes through a long, risky journey during its life before reaching maturity. Most...

  10. ABC transporters in fish species: a review

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    Marta eFerreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette (ABC proteins were first recognized for their role in multidrug resistance (MDR in chemotherapeutic treatments, which is a major impediment for the successful treatment of many forms of malignant tumors in humans. These proteins, highly conserved throughout vertebrate species, were later related to cellular detoxification and accounted as responsible for protecting aquatic organisms from xenobiotic insults in the so-called multixenobiotic resistance mechanism (MXR. In recent years, research on these proteins in aquatic species has highlighted their importance in the detoxification mechanisms in fish thus it is of extreme added value to continue these studies. Several transporters have been pointed out as relevant in the ecotoxicological context associated to the transport of xenobiotics, such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps, multidrug-resistance-associated proteins (MRPs 1-5 and breast resistance associated protein (BCRP. In mammals, several nuclear receptors have been identified as mediators of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and ABC transporters. In aquatic species, knowledge on co-regulation of detoxification mechanism is scarce and needs to be addressed. The interaction of emergent contaminants, with chemosensitizer potential, with ABC transporters in aquatic organisms can compromise detoxification processes and have population effects and should be studied in more detail. This review intends to summarize the recent advances in research on MXR mechanisms in fish species, focusing in 1 regulation and functioning of ABC proteins; 2 cooperation with phase I and II biotransformation enzymes; and 3 ecotoxicological relevance and information on emergent pollutants with ability to modulate ABC transporters expression and activity. Several lines of evidence are clear suggesting the important role of these transporters in detoxification mechanisms and must be further investigated in fish.

  11. DNA barcoding identifies Argentine fishes from marine and brackish waters.

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    Ezequiel Mabragaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding has been advanced as a promising tool to aid species identification and discovery through the use of short, standardized gene targets. Despite extensive taxonomic studies, for a variety of reasons the identification of fishes can be problematic, even for experts. DNA barcoding is proving to be a useful tool in this context. However, its broad application is impeded by the need to construct a comprehensive reference sequence library for all fish species. Here, we make a regional contribution to this grand challenge by calibrating the species discrimination efficiency of barcoding among 125 Argentine fish species, representing nearly one third of the known fauna, and examine the utility of these data to address several key taxonomic uncertainties pertaining to species in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Specimens were collected and morphologically identified during crusies conducted between 2005 and 2008. The standard BARCODE fragment of COI was amplified and bi-directionally sequenced from 577 specimens (mean of 5 specimens/species, and all specimens and sequence data were archived and interrogated using analytical tools available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org. Nearly all species exhibited discrete clusters of closely related haplogroups which permitted the discrimination of 95% of the species (i.e. 119/125 examined while cases of shared haplotypes were detected among just three species-pairs. Notably, barcoding aided the identification of a new species of skate, Dipturus argentinensis, permitted the recognition of Genypterus brasiliensis as a valid species and questions the generic assignment of Paralichthys isosceles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a significant contribution to the global barcode reference sequence library for fishes and demonstrates the utility of barcoding for regional species identification. As an independent assessment of alpha

  12. Identification of tetrodotoxin and fish species in a dried dressed fish fillet implicated in food poisoning.

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    Hwang, Deng-Fwu; Hsieh, Yu-Wen; Shiu, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Shu-Kong; Cheng, Chao-An

    2002-02-01

    There were five victims of neurotoxic food poisoning from a dried dressed fish fillet in Changhua County, Taiwan, in February 2000. The toxicity of the dried dressed fish fillets was 243 mouse units per g according to a tetrodotoxin bioassay. The partially purified toxin was identified as tetrodotoxin and anhydrotetrodotoxin. The sequence of the 376-nucleotide region in the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA exhibited the same genotype as that of the toxic puffer fish Lagocephalus lunaris. The same single restriction site for Hinfl was found in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from the dried dressed fish fillet and the muscle of L. lunaris, yielding two DNA fragments of 170 and 206 bp. However, no restriction site for Hinfl was found in the PCR products from other toxic puffer fishes, including Takifugu niphobles, Takifugu oblongus, and Takifugu rubripes. Therefore, the species of the dried dressed fish fillet was identified as L. lunaris and its causative agent was identified as tetrodotoxin.

  13. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation i...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species......Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...

  14. Genetic assessment of ornamental fish species from North East India.

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    Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-01-25

    Ornamental fishes are traded with multiple names from various parts around the world, including North East India. Most are collected from the wild, due to lack of species-specific culture or breeding, and therefore, such unmanaged collection of the wild and endemic species could lead to severe threats to biodiversity. Despite many regulatory policies, trade of threatened species, including the IUCN listed species have been largely uncontrolled, due to species identification problems arising from the utilization of multiple trade names. So, the development of species-specific DNA marker is indispensable where DNA Barcoding is proved to be helpful in species identification. Here, we investigated, through DNA Barcoding and morphological assessment, the identification of 128 ornamental fish specimens exported from NE India from different exporters. The generated sequences were subjected to similarity match in BOLD-IDS as well as BLASTN, and analysed using MEGA5.2 for species identification through Neighbour-Joining (NJ) clustering, and K2P distance based approach. The analysis revealed straightforward identification of 84 specimens into 35 species, while 44 specimens were difficult to distinguish based on CO1 barcode alone. However, these cases were resolved through morphology, NJ and distanced based method and found to be belonging to 16 species. Among the 51 identified species, 14 species represented multiple trade names; 17 species belonged to threatened category. Species-level identification through DNA Barcoding along with traditional morphotaxonomy reflects its efficacy in regulating ornamental fish trade and therefore, appeals for their conservation in nature. The use of trade names rather than the zoological name created the passage for trafficking of the threatened species and demands immediate attention for sustaining wildlife conservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 76 FR 57717 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permits Permit 15926... will be captured by fyke net, identified to species, enumerated and measured. Dead or moribund fish...

  16. Metazoan parasite species richness in Neotropical fishes: hotspots and the geography of biodiversity.

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    Luque, J L; Poulin, R

    2007-06-01

    Although research on parasite biodiversity has intensified recently, there are signs that parasites remain an underestimated component of total biodiversity in many regions of the planet. To identify geographical hotspots of parasite diversity, we performed qualitative and quantitative analyses of the parasite-host associations in fishes from Latin America and the Caribbean, a region that includes known hotspots of plant and animal biodiversity. The database included 10,904 metazoan parasite-host associations involving 1660 fish species. The number of host species with at least 1 parasite record was less than 10% of the total known fish species in the majority of countries. Associations involving adult endoparasites in actinopterygian fish hosts dominated the database. Across the whole region, no significant difference in parasite species richness was detected between marine and freshwater fishes. As a rule, host body size and study effort (number of studies per fish species) were good predictors of parasite species richness. Some interesting patterns emerged when we included only the regions with highest fish species biodiversity and study effort (Brazil, Mexico and the Caribbean Islands). Independently of differences in study effort or host body sizes, Mexico stands out as a hotspot of parasite diversity for freshwater fishes, as does Brasil for marine fishes. However, among 57 marine fish species common to all 3 regions, populations from the Caribbean consistently harboured more parasite species. These differences may reflect true biological patterns, or regional discrepancies in study effort and local priorities for fish parasitology research.

  17. Alien fish species in reservoir systems in Turkey: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Innal

    2012-01-01

    Turkey’s natural river systems have been anthropogenically altered in the past century. Native fish communities of river systems have comeunder increasing pressure from water engineering projects, pollution, overfishing and the movements of alien fish species. Introduction ofalien fishes is one of the main threats to the survival and genetic integrity of native fishes around the world. In Turkey, alien freshwater fish are continuing to increase in number of species, abundance, and distributio...

  18. The distribution, composition and abundance of fish species in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish composition and abundance of two Gold mine reservoir were investigated between May, 2008 and May, 2009. Seven fish families comprising of twelve species of fish were caught during the period of study. The families of fish caught included Anabantidae, Channidae, Clariidae, Cichlidae, Melanopluridae, Mormyridae ...

  19. Investigation of biological condition of fish species in lower Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the biological condition of fish species in lower Ogun River wetlands. A total of 175 individual fish belonging to 10 species were collected from artisanal fishermen using different types of fishing gears. Two biological indices; condition factor “K” and growth exponent “b” obtained from ...

  20. Fish species diversity and conservation in Beijing and adjacent areas

    OpenAIRE

    Chunguang Zhang; Yahui Zhao; Yingchun Xing; Ruilu Guo; Qing Zhang; Yun Feng; Enyuan Fan

    2011-01-01

    Based on field surveys between 2002 and 2010, and fish collections in the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a total of 93 wild fish species including 12 in-troduced species had been recorded in Beijing and adjacent areas. Eighty five of these species, including some migratory and estuarine fishes, are native to the region. Only 43 native wild species were collected in our field work from 2002 to 2010. Compared with the historical records, nearly 50...

  1. Phylogeny of Fish-Infecting Calyptospora species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are numerous species of apicomplexans that infect poikilothermic vertebrates such as fishes, and possess unique morphological features that provide insight into the evolution of this important phylum of parasites. Here the relationship of the fish-infecting Calyptospora spe...

  2. Alien fish species in reservoir systems in Turkey: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Innal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s natural river systems have been anthropogenically altered in the past century. Native fish communities of river systems have comeunder increasing pressure from water engineering projects, pollution, overfishing and the movements of alien fish species. Introduction ofalien fishes is one of the main threats to the survival and genetic integrity of native fishes around the world. In Turkey, alien freshwater fish are continuing to increase in number of species, abundance, and distribution. The present paper reviews fish stocking studies in Turkey’s reservoirs.

  3. Satellite lakes as reservoirs of fish species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nkalubo, W.; Wandera, S.B.; Namulemo, G.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite lakes and rivers in the Victoria and Kyoga basins provide a sanctuary for endangered native fish species. The structural heterogeneity of macrophyte covering these lakes has made it possible for most of the biodiversity to be kept intact. The Kyoga minor lakes have the highest fish species diversity especially of the haplochromines. Most fish communities of these satellite lakes are composed of native species.

  4. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

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    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  5. Hidden chromosomal abnormalities in pleuropulmonary blastomas identified by multiplex FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quilichini, Benoit; Andre, Nicolas; Bouvier, Corinne; Chrestian, Marie-Anne; Rome, Angelique; Intagliata, Dominique; Coze, Carole; Lena, Gabriel; Zattara, Helene

    2006-01-01

    Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare childhood dysontogenetic intrathoracic neoplasm associated with an unfavourable clinical behaviour. We report pathological and cytogenetic findings in two cases of PPB at initial diagnosis and recurrence. Both tumors were classified as type III pneumoblastoma and histological findings were similar at diagnosis and relapse. In both cases, conventional cytogenetic techniques revealed complex numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities. Molecular cytogenetic analysis (interphase/metaphase FISH and multicolor FISH) identified accurately chromosomal aberrations. In one case, TP53 gene deletion was detected on metaphase FISH. To date, only few cytogenetic data have been published about PPB. The PPB genetic profile remains to be established and compared to others embryonal neoplasia. Our cytogenetic data are discussed reviewing cytogenetics PPBs published cases, illustrating the contribution of multicolor FISH in order to identify pathogenetically important recurrent aberrations in PPB

  6. Endangered Fish Species in Kansas: Historic vs Contemporary Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Kansas state has more freshwater fish species than other states in the west and northern US. Based on recent count, more than 140 fishes have been documented in Kansas rivers. And at least five are categorized as endangered species in Kansas (and thre...

  7. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded salinity ranges of 96 fish species occurring in southern African estuaries are documented. Factors influen- cing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic ...

  8. Total mercury concentration in common fish species of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique. Mercury concentration in all fish species was generally lower than the WHO maximum allowable ...

  9. Identifying ambassador species for conservation marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Macdonald

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conservation relies heavily on external funding, much of it from a supportive public. Therefore it is important to know which species are most likely to catalyse such funding. Whilst previous work has looked at the physical attributes that contribute to a species' appeal, no previous studies have tried to examine the extent to which a species' sympatriots might contribute to it's potential as flagship for wider conservation. Therefore, here we estimate ‘flexibility’ and ‘appeal’ scores for all terrestrial mammals (n = 4320 and identify which of these might serve as ambassadors (defined as both highly appealing and flexible. Relatively few mammals (between 240 and 331 emerged as ambassadors, with carnivores featuring heavily in this group (representing 5% of terrestrial mammals but 39% of ambassadors. ‘Top ambassadors’ were defined as those with both flexibility and appeal scores greater than 1 standard deviation above the mean. Less than a quarter of the 20 most endangered and evolutionary distinct species in this study were classed as ambassadors, highlighting the need for surrogate species to catalyse conservation effort in areas with such priority species. This is the first global analysis bringing together flexibility and appeal for all terrestrial mammals, and demonstrates an approach for determining how best to market species in order to achieve maximal conservation gain in a world with urgent conservation need but limited resources.

  10. Barcoding and border biosecurity: identifying cyprinid fishes in the aquarium trade.

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    Rupert A Collins

    Full Text Available Poorly regulated international trade in ornamental fishes poses risks to both biodiversity and economic activity via invasive alien species and exotic pathogens. Border security officials need robust tools to confirm identifications, often requiring hard-to-obtain taxonomic literature and expertise. DNA barcoding offers a potentially attractive tool for quarantine inspection, but has yet to be scrutinised for aquarium fishes. Here, we present a barcoding approach for ornamental cyprinid fishes by: (1 expanding current barcode reference libraries; (2 assessing barcode congruence with morphological identifications under numerous scenarios (e.g. inclusion of GenBank data, presence of singleton species, choice of analytical method; and (3 providing supplementary information to identify difficult species.We sampled 172 ornamental cyprinid fish species from the international trade, and provide data for 91 species currently unrepresented in reference libraries (GenBank/Bold. DNA barcodes were found to be highly congruent with our morphological assignments, achieving success rates of 90-99%, depending on the method used (neighbour-joining monophyly, bootstrap, nearest neighbour, GMYC, percent threshold. Inclusion of data from GenBank (additional 157 spp. resulted in a more comprehensive library, but at a cost to success rate due to the increased number of singleton species. In addition to DNA barcodes, our study also provides supporting data in the form of specimen images, morphological characters, taxonomic bibliography, preserved vouchers, and nuclear rhodopsin sequences. Using this nuclear rhodopsin data we also uncovered evidence of interspecific hybridisation, and highlighted unrecognised diversity within popular aquarium species, including the endangered Indian barb Puntius denisonii.We demonstrate that DNA barcoding provides a highly effective biosecurity tool for rapidly identifying ornamental fishes. In cases where DNA barcodes are unable to

  11. Identification And Study Of Fish Species In Karkheh River (Iran

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    Khoshnood Zahra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For the investigation of fish from Karkheh River, sampling was performed in a six month period from August 2014 to January 2015. All sampled fish were measured for biometrical values (length and weight. General results of the sampling and identification of the fish showed the presence of 14 species from four fish families of Cyprinidae, Mugilidae, Siluridae and Macrostomidae, out of which the Cyprinidae family were the most frequent of the sampled fish. The most significant abundance belongs to Cyprinus carpio. The fish sampled in the present study were: Liza abu, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Barbel sp., Cyprinion macrostomum, Barbus sharpeyi, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Barbus esocinus, Barbus barbulus, Barbus luteus, Barbus grypus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus triostegus, Mastacembelus circumcinctus and Capoeta trutta. Shannon Index results showed that the fish biodiversity in the studyed area followed a uniform path and additionally that the considered area at the studied period has good fish biodiversity.

  12. Seasonal variation of assemblage and feeding guild structure of fish species in a boreal tidal basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellnreitner, Florian; Pockberger, Moritz; Asmus, Harald

    2012-08-01

    Species composition, abundance, feeding relationships and guild structure of the fish assemblage in the Sylt-Rømø bight, a tidal basin in the northern Wadden Sea, were investigated to show seasonal differences and the importance of functional groups in this area. The tidal flats and in shallow subtidal areas were sampled using a beach seine and a bottom trawl net was used for deeper subtidal areas and tidal gullies. Species richness of fish was highest in summer where 26 species were caught, while the lowest richness was recorded in winter (17 species). Clear differences in species richness and abundance were found between shallow areas and deeper parts of the bight. Clupea harengus and Ammodytes tobianus were the most abundant species in deeper areas, while Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus dominated shallower waters. Gut contents of 27 fish species were identified and the guild structure analyzed by UPGMA clustering of niche overlaps. Calanoid copepods (19.9%), Crangon crangon (18.2%) and mysid shrimps (8.4%) were the most abundant prey items of all fish species combined. Seven feeding guilds were present in the fall and winter, and eight and six in spring and summer, respectively. Fish feeding on calanoid copepods and C. crangon were present year round, whereas the occurrence of other guilds varied between seasons. Species composition of prey changed through seasons and, for some fish species, even the feeding mode itself varied with season. Most noticeable, 11 fish species changed guilds between seasons. We found a convergence in summer towards abundant prey items, whereas in winter diet overlap was lower. This is the first investigation of guild structure of almost all fish species present in a Wadden Sea area, and shows that consideration of seasonal differences is essential when determining feeding relationships of fish in temperate areas.

  13. Swimbladder Allometry of Selected Midwater Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-05

    Gibbs, R. II., Jr., 1971. "Notes on Fishes of the Genus Eustomias ( Stomiatoidei , Melanstomiatidae) in Bermuda Waters, With the Description of...N00140-70-C-0307, Smithsonian Institution. Goodyear, R. H. and R. H. Gibbs, Jr., 1970. "Systematics and Zoogeography of Stomiatoid Fishes of the

  14. Oral vaccination of fish: Lessons from humans and veterinary species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, Carmen W E; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-11-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines for mass vaccination of farmed fish species. Furthermore, using various examples from the human and veterinary vaccine development, we propose additional approaches to fish vaccine design also considering recent advances in fish mucosal immunology and novel molecular tools. Finally, we discuss the pros and cons of using the zebrafish as a pre-screening animal model to potentially speed up vaccine design and testing for aquaculture fish species. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of the Cultivable Gut Microflora in Wild-Caught 
Mediterranean Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammal, Ahmad; Bariche, Michel; Zu Dohna, Heinrich; Kambris, Zakaria

    2017-05-01

    Microflora of the gastrointestinal tract plays important roles in food digestion, nutrient absorption and in host defense against ingested pathogens. Several studies have focused on the microflora of farmed fishes, but the gut flora of wild fishes remains poorly characterized. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of the bacteria colonizing the gut of wild-caught fishes and to determine whether some bacterial species can be pathogenic. We isolated cultivable bacteria from fifteen wild-caught Mediterranean fish species corresponding to different habitat, diet and origin. Bacterial species identity was determined by 16s rRNA gene sequencing for the 61 isolates. The potential pathogenicity of isolated bacteria was investigated using fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) as model organisms. Two bacterial strains (Serratia sp. and Aeromonas salmonicida) were lethal when microinjected to Drosophila, while zebrafish did not develop any disease when exposed to any of 34 isolated bacterial strains. However, it was interesting to note that two bacterial strains (Shewanella and Arthrobacter) isolated from marine fishes were able to colonize the guts of freshwater zebrafish. The results of this study give an overview of the bacterial species found in the guts of wild fishes living off Beirut seashore. It shows that some parameters believed to be limiting factors to host-gut colonization by bacteria can be overcome by some species. This pilot study could be extended by sampling a larger number of fish species with several specimens per fish species, and by identifying uncultivable bacteria that reside in the fish guts. Our results may have implications for the utilization of certain bacterial species in fish farming or their use as bio-indicators for water and/or food quality.

  16. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  17. As multiple fish species in large marine ecosystems are harvested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CMPTMAC10

    and of other top predators such as marine mammals. This concern ... whereas single-species fishing theory implies that fishing leads to surplus by removing larger, older, less-productive ...... pools (the “cod is not a tuna” problem, Longhurst.

  18. Fish species composition, diversity and abundance of the lower New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A thirteen-week investigation to determine the fish species composition, diversity and abundance of the Lower New Calabar River, in Rivers State, aimed at providing information on the fish stock and their status for documentation, knowledge improvement, and development of conservation and management strategies was ...

  19. Alien fish species in upper Sakarya River and their distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the fact that the flood plains have been reclaimed, excessive hunting, destruction of the ecologic balance and invasion of the area by the alien fish species threatens the fish stocks in Sakarya River. In this study, we aimed to determine the dispersion area of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782), Oreochromis niloticus ...

  20. Listeria species in retail smoked fish at Jos, Nigeria | Chukwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Listeria species in 65 samples of smoked fish at the retail markets in Jos, Nigeria, is reported. The experimental samples which included 30 catfish (Clarias species) and 35 Tilapia were screened for Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species using a two-step enrichment method. Total Listeria ...

  1. Genetic calibration of species diversity among North America's freshwater fishes

    OpenAIRE

    April, Julien; Mayden, Richard L.; Hanner, Robert H.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are being heavily exploited and degraded by human activities all over the world, including in North America, where fishes and fisheries are strongly affected. Despite centuries of taxonomic inquiry, problems inherent to species identification continue to hamper the conservation of North American freshwater fishes. Indeed, nearly 10% of species diversity is thought to remain undescribed. To provide an independent calibration of taxonomic uncertainty and to establish a mor...

  2. Spawning and nursery habitats of neotropical fish species in the tributaries of a regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.

  3. Development of Solar Drying Model for Selected Cambodian Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubackova, Anna; Kucerova, Iva; Chrun, Rithy; Chaloupkova, Petra; Banout, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A solar drying was investigated as one of perspective techniques for fish processing in Cambodia. The solar drying was compared to conventional drying in electric oven. Five typical Cambodian fish species were selected for this study. Mean solar drying temperature and drying air relative humidity were 55.6°C and 19.9%, respectively. The overall solar dryer efficiency was 12.37%, which is typical for natural convection solar dryers. An average evaporative capacity of solar dryer was 0.049 kg·h−1. Based on coefficient of determination (R 2), chi-square (χ 2) test, and root-mean-square error (RMSE), the most suitable models describing natural convection solar drying kinetics were Logarithmic model, Diffusion approximate model, and Two-term model for climbing perch and Nile tilapia, swamp eel and walking catfish and Channa fish, respectively. In case of electric oven drying, the Modified Page 1 model shows the best results for all investigated fish species except Channa fish where the two-term model is the best one. Sensory evaluation shows that most preferable fish is climbing perch, followed by Nile tilapia and walking catfish. This study brings new knowledge about drying kinetics of fresh water fish species in Cambodia and confirms the solar drying as acceptable technology for fish processing. PMID:25250381

  4. Development of Solar Drying Model for Selected Cambodian Fish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hubackova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar drying was investigated as one of perspective techniques for fish processing in Cambodia. The solar drying was compared to conventional drying in electric oven. Five typical Cambodian fish species were selected for this study. Mean solar drying temperature and drying air relative humidity were 55.6°C and 19.9%, respectively. The overall solar dryer efficiency was 12.37%, which is typical for natural convection solar dryers. An average evaporative capacity of solar dryer was 0.049 kg·h−1. Based on coefficient of determination (R2, chi-square (χ2 test, and root-mean-square error (RMSE, the most suitable models describing natural convection solar drying kinetics were Logarithmic model, Diffusion approximate model, and Two-term model for climbing perch and Nile tilapia, swamp eel and walking catfish and Channa fish, respectively. In case of electric oven drying, the Modified Page 1 model shows the best results for all investigated fish species except Channa fish where the two-term model is the best one. Sensory evaluation shows that most preferable fish is climbing perch, followed by Nile tilapia and walking catfish. This study brings new knowledge about drying kinetics of fresh water fish species in Cambodia and confirms the solar drying as acceptable technology for fish processing.

  5. Identifying fish diversity hot-spots in data-poor situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinícius Prado; Pennino, Maria Grazia; de Nóbrega, Marcelo Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge Eduardo Lins; de Figueiredo Mendes, Liana

    2017-08-01

    One of the more challenging tasks in Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is identifying critical areas for management and conservation of fish stocks. However, this objective is difficult to achieve in data-poor situations with different sources of uncertainty. In the present study we propose a combination of hierarchical Bayesian spatial models and remotely sensed estimates of environmental variables to be used as flexible and reliable statistical tools to identify and map fish species richness and abundance hot-spots. Results show higher species aggregates in areas with higher sea floor rugosity and habitat complexity, and identify clear richness hot-spots. Our findings identify sensitive habitats through essential and easy-to-use interpretation tools, such as predictive maps, which can contribute to improving management and operability of the studied data-poor situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring of fish species in the Lamone river: distribution and morphometric measures of the populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish samplings were carried out monthly from spring to autumn during 2008, on the Lamone river and the Campigno stream by an electrofishing, in order to verify the presence of fish populations and the most common species represented. Barb, Barbus plebejus, Blageon, Leuciscus muticellus, Chub, Leuciscus cephalus, South European Nase, Chondrostoma genei were identified. A small population of Brown trout, Salmo trutta fario was also recognized. Barb is the most represented species in all the sites. The samplings highlight that Lamone river presented conditions suitable to fully guarantee the life of the fish populations.

  7. Radurization of commercial freshwater fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; McDougall, T.E.; Sprung, W.; Sullivan, V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of radurization on the shelf life of fresh Whitefish obtained through ordinary commercial channels has been determined. Whitefish fillets irradiated at 1.2 kGy and stored at 3 0 C have a shelf life three times longer than the unirradiated fish. When the fish was irradiated at 0.82 kGy a two fold shelf-life extension was obtained. The shelf life was estimated by sensory, chemical and microbiological evaluations. Sensory evaluation involved organoleptic assessment of raw and cooked samples. Since freshwater fish do not contain trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), alternate tests for freshness were required. It was found the determination of hypoxanthine and total volatile acid number (VAN) are excellent tests for freshness and quality of freshwater fish; thus, these analyses were adopted. The degree of radiation-induced lipid oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid test (TBA). It was found at doses of 0.82 and 1.2 kGy the TBA number remained within acceptable limits in all samples. Microbiological analyses consisted of the total microbial load assessment in the sample, as well as Pseudomonas and total psychrotrophic counts. The estimated shelf lives as determined by the three separate evaluations were in very good agreement. (author)

  8. Radurization of commercial freshwater fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; McDougall, T.E.; Sprung, W.; Sullivan, V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of radurization on the shelf life of fresh Whitefish obtained through ordinary commercial channels has been determined. Whitefish fillets irradiated at 1.2 kGy and stored at 3/sup 0/C have a shelf life three times longer than the unirradiated fish. When the fish was irradiated at 0.82 kGy a two fold shelf-life extension was obtained. The shelf life was estimated by sensory, chemical and microbiological evaluations. Sensory evaluation involved organoleptic assessment of raw and cooked samples. Since freshwater fish do not contain trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), alternate tests for freshness were required. It was found the determination of hypoxanthine and total volatile acid number (VAN) are excellent tests for freshness and quality of freshwater fish;thus, these analyses were adopted. The degree of radiation-induced lipid oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid test (TBA). It was found at doses of 0.82 and 1.2 kGy the TBA number remained within acceptable limits in all samples. Microbiological analyses consisted of the total microbial load assessment in the sample, as well as Pseudomonas and total psychrotrophic counts. The estimated shelf lives as determined by the three separate evaluations were in very good agreement

  9. Early life of key fish species, capelin Mallotus villosus and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malanski, Evandro

    for the fish larvae during the summer. The duration of the productive season is of great importance for the early life of fish. The present thesis investigates the diets of capelin and cod in the subarctic Kapisigdlit, as well as the feeding of non-commercial larval fish in the entire Godthåbsfjord system...... species were found in the area, and 3 main assemblages were identified according to their similarities, which are related to the hydrographic zones. Fish larvae may benefit from the estuarine circulation to distribute themselves from the spawning areas through the Godthåbsfjord. The diet of the larval...... fish species varied markedly along the fjord. Prey size preferences of fish larvae were positively correlated to their mouth sizes. American plaice and sandeel were probably do not compete for food with other fish species since these, contrary to other species, had high preference for microplankton...

  10. DNA barcoding for species assignment: the case of Mediterranean marine fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Landi

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding enhances the prospects for species-level identifications globally using a standardized and authenticated DNA-based approach. Reference libraries comprising validated DNA barcodes (COI constitute robust datasets for testing query sequences, providing considerable utility to identify marine fish and other organisms. Here we test the feasibility of using DNA barcoding to assign species to tissue samples from fish collected in the central Mediterranean Sea, a major contributor to the European marine ichthyofaunal diversity.A dataset of 1278 DNA barcodes, representing 218 marine fish species, was used to test the utility of DNA barcodes to assign species from query sequences. We tested query sequences against 1 a reference library of ranked DNA barcodes from the neighbouring North East Atlantic, and 2 the public databases BOLD and GenBank. In the first case, a reference library comprising DNA barcodes with reliability grades for 146 fish species was used as diagnostic dataset to screen 486 query DNA sequences from fish specimens collected in the central basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Of all query sequences suitable for comparisons 98% were unambiguously confirmed through complete match with reference DNA barcodes. In the second case, it was possible to assign species to 83% (BOLD-IDS and 72% (GenBank of the sequences from the Mediterranean. Relatively high intraspecific genetic distances were found in 7 species (2.2%-18.74%, most of them of high commercial relevance, suggesting possible cryptic species.We emphasize the discriminatory power of COI barcodes and their application to cases requiring species level resolution starting from query sequences. Results highlight the value of public reference libraries of reliability grade-annotated DNA barcodes, to identify species from different geographical origins. The ability to assign species with high precision from DNA samples of disparate quality and origin has major utility in several

  11. Predicting Fish Growth Potential and Identifying Water Quality Constraints: A Spatially-Explicit Bioenergetics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Baker, Matthew; Dahle, Samuel K.

    2011-10-01

    Anthropogenic impairment of water bodies represents a global environmental concern, yet few attempts have successfully linked fish performance to thermal habitat suitability and fewer have distinguished co-varying water quality constraints. We interfaced fish bioenergetics, field measurements, and Thermal Remote Imaging to generate a spatially-explicit, high-resolution surface of fish growth potential, and next employed a structured hypothesis to detect relationships among measures of fish performance and co-varying water quality constraints. Our thermal surface of fish performance captured the amount and spatial-temporal arrangement of thermally-suitable habitat for three focal species in an extremely heterogeneous reservoir, but interpretation of this pattern was initially confounded by seasonal covariation of water residence time and water quality. Subsequent path analysis revealed that in terms of seasonal patterns in growth potential, catfish and walleye responded to temperature, positively and negatively, respectively; crappie and walleye responded to eutrophy (negatively). At the high eutrophy levels observed in this system, some desired fishes appear to suffer from excessive cultural eutrophication within the context of elevated temperatures whereas others appear to be largely unaffected or even enhanced. Our overall findings do not lead to the conclusion that this system is degraded by pollution; however, they do highlight the need to use a sensitive focal species in the process of determining allowable nutrient loading and as integrators of habitat suitability across multiple spatial and temporal scales. We provide an integrated approach useful for quantifying fish growth potential and identifying water quality constraints on fish performance at spatial scales appropriate for whole-system management.

  12. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  13. Identifying Interacting Genetic Variations by Fish-Swarm Logic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aiyuan; Yan, Chunxia; Zhu, Feng; Zhao, Zhongmeng; Cao, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Understanding associations between genotypes and complex traits is a fundamental problem in human genetics. A major open problem in mapping phenotypes is that of identifying a set of interacting genetic variants, which might contribute to complex traits. Logic regression (LR) is a powerful multivariant association tool. Several LR-based approaches have been successfully applied to different datasets. However, these approaches are not adequate with regard to accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we propose a new LR-based approach, called fish-swarm logic regression (FSLR), which improves the logic regression process by incorporating swarm optimization. In our approach, a school of fish agents are conducted in parallel. Each fish agent holds a regression model, while the school searches for better models through various preset behaviors. A swarm algorithm improves the accuracy and the efficiency by speeding up the convergence and preventing it from dropping into local optimums. We apply our approach on a real screening dataset and a series of simulation scenarios. Compared to three existing LR-based approaches, our approach outperforms them by having lower type I and type II error rates, being able to identify more preset causal sites, and performing at faster speeds. PMID:23984382

  14. Identifying Interacting Genetic Variations by Fish-Swarm Logic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanping Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding associations between genotypes and complex traits is a fundamental problem in human genetics. A major open problem in mapping phenotypes is that of identifying a set of interacting genetic variants, which might contribute to complex traits. Logic regression (LR is a powerful multivariant association tool. Several LR-based approaches have been successfully applied to different datasets. However, these approaches are not adequate with regard to accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, we propose a new LR-based approach, called fish-swarm logic regression (FSLR, which improves the logic regression process by incorporating swarm optimization. In our approach, a school of fish agents are conducted in parallel. Each fish agent holds a regression model, while the school searches for better models through various preset behaviors. A swarm algorithm improves the accuracy and the efficiency by speeding up the convergence and preventing it from dropping into local optimums. We apply our approach on a real screening dataset and a series of simulation scenarios. Compared to three existing LR-based approaches, our approach outperforms them by having lower type I and type II error rates, being able to identify more preset causal sites, and performing at faster speeds.

  15. Endangered fish species of the world - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Hărşan; I. Valentin Petrescu-Mag

    2008-01-01

    The present paper summarizes a large part of the endangered and critically endangered fish species of the world. The list was constructed using the comprehensive IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (available in December 2008) and the well elaborated FISHBASE (available on the official website, in 2008) for taxonomy and accepted scientific names of the species. To these two important sources, many scientific papers and communications were added when recent and useful reports were found. Howev...

  16. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the

  17. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Certad

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%, distributed as follows: 13 (87% C. parvum, 1 (7% C. molnari, and 1 (7% mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari. C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60 was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by

  18. Trophic interactions between native and introduced fish species in a littoral fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, M; Maceda-Veiga, A; Caiola, N; De Sostoa, A

    2014-11-01

    The trophic interactions between 15 native and two introduced fish species, silverside Odontesthes bonariensis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, collected in a major fishery area at Lake Titicaca were explored by integrating traditional ecological knowledge and stable-isotope analyses (SIA). SIA suggested the existence of six trophic groups in this fish community based on δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures. This was supported by ecological evidence illustrating marked spatial segregation between groups, but a similar trophic level for most of the native groups. Based on Bayesian ellipse analyses, niche overlap appeared to occur between small O. bonariensis (<90 mm) and benthopelagic native species (31.6%), and between the native pelagic killifish Orestias ispi and large O. bonariensis (39%) or O. mykiss (19.7%). In addition, Bayesian mixing models suggested that O. ispi and epipelagic species are likely to be the main prey items for the two introduced fish species. This study reveals a trophic link between native and introduced fish species, and demonstrates the utility of combining both SIA and traditional ecological knowledge to understand trophic relationships between fish species with similar feeding habits. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Proteolytic activities in fillets of selected underutilized Australian fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Z; Donkor, O; Street, W A; Vasiljevic, T

    2013-09-01

    The hydrolytic activity of major endogenous proteases, responsible for proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins during post-mortem storage, may be an indicator of the textural quality of fish which influences consumer purchasing behaviour and thus market value of the final product. Furthermore, it may also influence the type and bioactive properties of the peptides released during post-mortem proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins. This study compared the activities of cathepsins B, B+L, D, H and calpain-like enzymes in crude muscle extracted from 16 Australian underutilized fish species. Fish species had a significant effect on the activity of these enzymes with barracouta showing the highest cathepsins B, B+L, D and H activities. Activities of cathepsins B and B+L were higher than cathepsin H for all studied species. The more commercially important rock ling and tiger flathead demonstrated higher cathepsin B+L activity, whereas gemfish and eastern school whiting showed higher activity towards cathepsin B. Underutilized fish species showing higher endogenous protease activities may be suitable for fish sauce production, whereas those with lower protease activities for surimi processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shape and Texture Based Classification of Fish Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we conduct a case study of ¯sh species classi- fication based on shape and texture. We consider three fish species: cod, haddock, and whiting. We derive shape and texture features from an appearance model of a set of training data. The fish in the training images were manual outlined......, and a few features including the eye and backbone contour were also annotated. From these annotations an optimal MDL curve correspondence and a subsequent image registration were derived. We have analyzed a series of shape and texture and combined shape and texture modes of variation for their ability...

  1. Regional and Seasonal Differences in Species Composition and Trophic Groups for Tidepool Fishes of a Western Pacific Island – Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin K. C. Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations in the species composition of assemblages are common in many marine organisms, including fishes. Variations in the fish species composition of subtidal coral reefs have been well documented, however much less is known about such differences for intertidal fish assemblages. This is surprising, given that intertidal fishes are more vulnerable to terrestrial human disturbances. It is critical to evaluate the ecology and biology of intertidal fishes before they are severely impacted by coastal development, especially in developing countries such as those in the tropical western Pacific region where coastal development is rapidly increasing. In this study, we investigated the species composition, abundance, biomass and species number (richness for intertidal fish assemblages in subtropical (northern and tropical (southern Taiwan across four seasons by collecting fishes from tidepools using clove oil. We also examined the gut contents of collected fishes to identify their trophic functional groups in order to investigate regional and seasonal variations for different trophic groups. We found significant differences in the species composition of tidepool fish assemblages between subtropical and tropical Taiwan. Bathygobius fuscus, Abudefduf vaigiensis and Istiblennius dussumieri were dominant species in subtropical Taiwan, whereas Bathygobius coalitus, Abudefduf septemfasciatus and Istiblennius lineatus were dominant in tropical Taiwan. Other species such as Bathygobius cocosensis, Abudefduf sordidus and Istiblennius edentulus were common in both regions. For trophic groups, omnivores and detritivores had or showed trends towards higher species numbers and abundances in the subtropical region, whereas herbivores, planktivores and general carnivores had or showed trends towards higher species numbers and biomass in the tropical region. Overall, many intertidal fish species and trophic groups showed differences in

  2. Helminth communities of four commercially important fish species from Chetumal Bay, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Vidal-Martínez, V M; González-Solís, D; Caballero, P I

    2007-03-01

    The relative importance of ecology and evolution as factors determining species richness and composition of the helminth communities of fish is a matter of current debate. Theoretical studies use host-parasite lists, but these do not include studies on a temporal or spatial scale. Local environmental conditions and host biological characteristics are shown to influence helminth species richness and composition in four fish species (Eugerres plumieri, Hexanematichthys assimilis, Oligoplites saurus, and Scomberomorus maculatus) in Chetumal Bay, Mexico. With the exception of H. assimilis, the helminth communities had not been previously studied and possible associations between environmental and host biological characteristics as factors determining helminth species richness and composition using redundancy analysis (RDA) are described. Thirty-four helminth species are identified, with the highest number of species (19 total (mean = 6.3 +/- 2.1)) and the lowest (9 (4.0 +/- 1.0)) occurring in H. assimilis and S. maculatus, respectively. The larval nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova sp. were not only the helminth species shared by all four host species but also were the most prevalent and abundant. Statistical associations between helminth community parameters and local ecological variables such as host habitat use, feeding habits, mobility, and time of residence in coastal lagoons are identified. Phylogeny is important because it clearly separates all four host species by their specialist parasites, although specific habitat and feeding habits also significantly influence the differentiation between the four fish species.

  3. Fishing elevates variability in the abundance of exploited species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Hao; Reiss, Christian S; Hunter, John R; Beddington, John R; May, Robert M; Sugihara, George

    2006-10-19

    The separation of the effects of environmental variability from the impacts of fishing has been elusive, but is essential for sound fisheries management. We distinguish environmental effects from fishing effects by comparing the temporal variability of exploited versus unexploited fish stocks living in the same environments. Using the unique suite of 50-year-long larval fish surveys from the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations we analyse fishing as a treatment effect in a long-term ecological experiment. Here we present evidence from the marine environment that exploited species exhibit higher temporal variability in abundance than unexploited species. This remains true after accounting for life-history effects, abundance, ecological traits and phylogeny. The increased variability of exploited populations is probably caused by fishery-induced truncation of the age structure, which reduces the capacity of populations to buffer environmental events. Therefore, to avoid collapse, fisheries must be managed not only to sustain the total viable biomass but also to prevent the significant truncation of age structure. The double jeopardy of fishing to potentially deplete stock sizes and, more immediately, to amplify the peaks and valleys of population variability, calls for a precautionary management approach.

  4. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Orth, Dr. Donald J [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of

  5. Species specific anaesthetics for fish anaesthesia and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readman, Gareth D; Owen, Stewart F; Knowles, Toby G; Murrell, Joanna C

    2017-08-02

    There is a need to ensure that the care and welfare for fish maintained in the laboratory are to the highest standards. This extends to the use of anaesthetics for both scientific study, humane killing and euthanasia at end of life. An anaesthetic should not induce negative behaviours and fish should not seek to avoid the anaesthetic. Surprisingly little information is available to facilitate a humane choice of anaesthetic agent for fish despite over 100 years of use and the millions of fish currently held in thousands of laboratories worldwide. Using a chemotaxic choice chamber we found different species specific behavioural responses among four closely related fish species commonly held in the laboratory, exposed to three widely used anaesthetic agents. As previously found for zebrafish (Danio rerio), the use of MS-222 and benzocaine also appears to induce avoidance behaviours in medaka (Oryzias latipes); but etomidate could provide an alternative choice. Carp (Cyprinus carpio), although closely related to zebrafish showed avoidance behaviours to etomidate, but not benzocaine or MS-222; and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) showed no avoidance to the three agents tested. We were unable to ascertain avoidance responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and suggest different test paradigms are required for that species.

  6. Comparison of the Condition Factor of Five Fish Species of the Araguaia River Basin, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bastos Gonçalves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the condition factor (K of five fish species (Serrasalmus rhombeus, Psectrogaster amazonica, Loricaria cataphracta, Panaque nigrolineatus and Squaliforma emarginata. Samplings were conducted during the low-water period of 2007 and 2008 using gillnets and minnow traps. All equipments were placed along a stretch of 1000 m at 5 pm and retrieved at 7 am. Collected fish were taxonomically identified, weighed (g and measured (standard length; mm. The fish fitness was assessed by the condition factor (K=W/L³ and compared among groups of tributaries by a Kruskal-Wallis test. From the five species considered, two (S. emarginata and P. amazonica displayed significant differences of the condition factor among the groups of tributaries. The highest values of K correspond to fish located in the headwaters, while lowest values are observed in tributaries located in the floodplain.

  7. Phytoplankton IF-FISH: Species-specific labeling of cellular proteins by immunofluorescence (IF) with simultaneous species identification by fluorescence immunohybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Megan E; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2016-05-01

    Phytoplankton rarely occur as unialgal populations. Therefore, to study species-specific protein expression, indicative of physiological status in natural populations, methods are needed that will both assay for a protein of interest and identify the species expressing it. Here we describe a protocol for IF-FISH, a dual labeling procedure using immunofluorescence (IF) labeling of a protein of interest followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to identify the species expressing that protein. The protocol was developed to monitor expression of the cell cycle marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, using a large subunit (LSU) rRNA probe to identify K. brevis in a mixed population of morphologically similar Karenia species. We present this protocol as proof of concept that IF-FISH can be successfully applied to phytoplankton cells. This method is widely applicable for the analysis of single-cell protein expression of any protein of interest within phytoplankton communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of industrial processing on the immunogenicity of commonly ingested fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletten, Gaynour; Van Do, Thien; Lindvik, Helene; Egaas, Eliann; Florvaag, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Food-processing techniques may induce changes in fish protein immunogenicity. Allergens from >100 fish species have been identified, but little is known on the effects of processing on fish protein immunogenicity. IgE binding of sera of patients allergic to fresh and processed (smoked, salted/sugar-cured, canned, lye-treated and fermented) cod, haddock, salmon, trout, tuna, mackerel and herring and of hydrolysates based on salmon and whiting was investigated using immunoblot and inhibition ELISA. Parvalbumin oligomers were identified using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. IgE binding was seen in most sera at 12-14 kDa (parvalbumin), and at 17-60 kDa for all fish except tuna. Changes in IgE binding appeared to reflect altered parvalbumin monomers and oligomers. Smoked haddock, salmon and mackerel had increased IgE binding and novel bands at 30 kDa. Chemically processed cod, salmon, trout and pickled herring had reduced or abolished IgE binding. The serum of 1 subject, however, had increased IgE binding to these products and also inhibition of binding by both fish hydrolysates to their constituent fish species. Process-induced changes in fish protein immunogenicity were more dependent on process rather than species, although individual responses varied. Changes in the allergenicity of a product may depend on the net effect of processing on parvalbumin oligomerization patterns, which may also vary in different species. Chemical processes generally caused loss in IgE-binding activity, though sensitization may occur to modified or degraded rather than intact peptides as shown by increased binding by chemically processed fish and hydrolysates in 1 subject. The clinical significance of these findings remains to be established.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR FISH CANNED PATE'S COD-FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Efremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Fish and seafood play an important role in a balanced diet. The most reliable method of preservation is the production of canned fish. Cod fishery considered traditional objects of the North Basin, which catches in recent years stored at a consistently high level. They are represented, mainly cod, haddock, pollack, whiting. Lately there has been a tendency to increase yield loaves (polar bib. The aim of this work - the development of technology - canned pate's cod fish species with the addition of plant materials. We used the adopted research microbiological, chemical and physical methods. The weight proportion of water, lipids, protein, mineral raw determined according to State standard 7636-85. Developed a technology - canned pate's cod fish species with the addition of plant materials. Optimized formulation is set to sterilization. Experimentally determined parameters of quality canned and given comprehensive assessment nutritional value of new products, organoleptic, physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological tests showed that canned pates of Gadidae species of fish with vegetables, meet all safety requirements and are characterized, along with excellent consumer properties, high nutritional value. Based on the results of the research complex developed technical documentation for production of canned vegetables, pates of Gadidae species.

  10. PCR-RFLP Method to Identify Salmonid Species of Economic Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The identification of different fish species by molecular methods has become necessary to avoid both the incorrect labelling of individuals involved in repopulation programmes and the commercial frauds on the fish market. Different fish species of great economical importance, like the salmonids, which are very much requested for their meat, can be identified using molecular techniques such as PCR-RFLP. The method is based on the amplification of a target region from the genome by PCR reaction followed by endonucleases digestion to detect the polymorphism of restriction fragments. In our study we analysed the following salmonid species from Romania: Salmo trutta fario, Salmo labrax, Salvelinus fontinalis, Onchorhynchus mykiss, Thymallus thymallus and Hucho hucho. In order to discriminate between the analysed species we amplified a fragment of mitochondrial genome comprising tRNAGlu/ cytochrome b/ tRNAThr/ tRNAPro/ D-loop/ tRNAPhe, followed by digestion with a specific restriction enzyme. The direct digestion of unpurified PCR products generated species-specific restriction patterns and proved to be a simple, reliable, inexpensive and fast method. Thus, it may be successfully utilized in specialized laboratories for the correct identification of the fish species for multiple purposes, including the traceability of fish food products.

  11. SNP Discovery In Marine Fish Species By 454 Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panitz, Frank; Nielsen, Rasmus Ory; van Houdt, Jeroen K J

    2011-01-01

    Based on the 454 Next-Generation-Sequencing technology (Roche) a high throughput screening method was devised in order to generate novel genetic markers (SNPs). SNP discovery was performed for three target species of marine fish: hake (Merluccius merluccius), herring (Clupea harengus) and sole...

  12. Feeding ecology of three inshore fish species at Marion Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three species of fish occur in the shallow inshore waters of Marion Island. Notothenia ... and then expressed as a percentage of the sum of all R.1. values for each ... also spends much of its time lying motionless on the bot- tom. Up to three H.

  13. Fish species composition and abundance on a subtropical, artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition and abundance of fish species on a derelict rocky pier on the Durban beachfront, KwaZulu-. Natal, South Africa, were assessed by means of underwater visual census, using transects. A total of 74 spe- cies were recorded on the reef, with convict surgeons (Acanthurus triostegus), sash damsels ...

  14. Otolith Length-Fish Length Relationships of Eleven US Arctic Fish Species and Their Application to Ice Seal Diet Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K. L.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic ecosystem has moved into the spotlight of scientific research in recent years due to increased climate change and oil and gas exploration. Arctic fishes and Arctic marine mammals represent key parts of this ecosystem, with fish being a common part of ice seal diets in the Arctic. Determining sizes of fish consumed by ice seals is difficult because otoliths are often the only part left of the fish after digestion. Otolith length is known to be positively related to fish length. By developing species-specific otolith-body morphometric relationships for Arctic marine fishes, fish length can be determined for fish prey found in seal stomachs. Fish were collected during ice free months in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas 2009 - 2014, and the most prevalent species captured were chosen for analysis. Otoliths from eleven fish species from seven families were measured. All species had strong linear relationships between otolith length and fish total length. Nine species had coefficient of determination values over 0.75, indicating that most of the variability in the otolith to fish length relationship was explained by the linear regression. These relationships will be applied to otoliths found in stomachs of three species of ice seals (spotted Phoca largha, ringed Pusa hispida, and bearded Erignathus barbatus) and used to estimate fish total length at time of consumption. Fish lengths can in turn be used to calculate fish weight, enabling further investigation into ice seal energetic demands. This application will aid in understanding how ice seals interact with fish communities in the US Arctic and directly contribute to diet comparisons among and within ice seal species. A better understanding of predator-prey interactions in the US Arctic will aid in predicting how ice seal and fish species will adapt to a changing Arctic.

  15. Species succession and sustainability of the Great Lakes fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    This article concentrates on the sustainability of the offshore pelagic and deepwater fish communities that were historically dominated by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). The causes of alteration in these fish communities (i.e., overfishing, introductions, and cultural eutrophication) were identified by Loftus and Regier (1972). Here we look at the ecology of these altered communities in relation to sustainability and discuss the need for restoration.

  16. Identifying selectively important amino acid positions associated with alternative habitat environments in fish mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Hong Lian; Zhang, Yong; Meng, Zi Ning; Lin, Hao Ran

    2018-05-01

    Fish species inhabitating seawater (SW) or freshwater (FW) habitats have to develop genetic adaptations to alternative environment factors, especially salinity. Functional consequences of the protein variations associated with habitat environments in fish mitochondrial genomes have not yet received much attention. We analyzed 829 complete fish mitochondrial genomes and compared the amino acid differences of 13 mitochondrial protein families between FW and SW fish groups. We identified 47 specificity determining sites (SDS) that associated with FW or SW environments from 12 mitochondrial protein families. Thirty-two (68%) of the SDS sites are hydrophobic, 13 (28%) are neutral, and the remaining sites are acidic or basic. Seven of those SDS from ND1, ND2 and ND5 were scored as probably damaging to the protein structures. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree based Bayes Empirical Bayes analysis also detected 63 positive sites associated with alternative habitat environments across ten mtDNA proteins. These signatures could be important for studying mitochondrial genetic variation relevant to fish physiology and ecology.

  17. Expression levels of parvalbumins determine allergenicity of fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesmeier, U; Vázquez-Cortés, S; Bublin, M; Radauer, C; Ma, Y; Briza, P; Fernández-Rivas, M; Breiteneder, H

    2010-02-01

    Parvalbumins are the most important fish allergens. Polysensitization to various fish species is frequently reported and linked to the cross-reactivity of their parvalbumins. Studies on cross-reactivity and its association to the allergenicity of purified natural parvalbumins from different fish species are still lacking. In addition, some studies indicate that dark muscled fish such as tuna are less allergenic. Total protein extracts and purified parvalbumins from cod, whiff, and swordfish, all eaten frequently in Spain, were tested for their IgE-binding properties with 16 fish allergic patients' sera from Madrid. The extent of cross-reactivity of these parvalbumins was investigated by IgE ELISA inhibition assays. Additionally, the cDNA sequences of whiff and swordfish parvalbumins were determined. Extractable amounts of parvalbumins from cod were 20 times and from whiff 30 times higher than from swordfish. Parvalbumins were recognized by 94% of the patients in extracts of cod and whiff, but only by 60% in swordfish extracts. Nevertheless, a high cross-reactivity was determined for all purified parvalbumins by IgE inhibition. The amino acid sequence identities of the three parvalbumins were in a range of 62-74%. The parvalbumins of cod, whiff and swordfish are highly cross-reactive. The high amino acid sequence identity among cod, whiff and swordfish parvalbumins results in the observed IgE cross-reactivity. The low allergenicity of swordfish is due to the low expression levels of its parvalbumin.

  18. Liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline in edible fish fillets from six species of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The approved use of oxytetracycline (OTC) in U.S. Aquaculture is limited to specific diseases in salmonids and channel catfish. OTC may also be effective in controlling diseases in other fish species important to public aquaculture, but before approved use of OTC can be augmented, an analytical method for determining OTC in fillet tissue from multiple species of fish will be required to support residue depletion studies. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a liquid chromatographic (LC) method that is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in edible fillets from multiple species of fish. Homogenized fillet tissues from walleye, Atlantic salmon, striped bass, white sturgeon, rainbow trout, and channel catfish were fortified with OTC at nominal concentrations of 10, 20, 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g. In tissues fortified with OTC at 100, 1000, and 5000 ng/g, mean recoveries ranged from 83 to 90%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.9 to 5.8%. In all other tissues, mean recoveries ranged from 59 to 98%, and RSDs ranged from 3.3 to 20%. Method quantitation limits ranged from 6 to 22 ng/g for the 6 species. The LC parameters produced easily integratable OTC peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds. The method is accurate, precise, and sensitive for OTC in fillet tissue from 6 species of fish from 5 phylogenetically diverse groups.

  19. PIXE analysis of otoliths from several species of teleost fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Maeda, Kuniko.

    1994-01-01

    In-air PIXE was used to analyze trace elements in otoliths from several species of teleost fish in order to examine the correlation between the trace elements concentrations and environmental conditions. Mn, Fe, Zn and Sr were detected accurately in the order of ppm by using the in-air PIXE. It seemed that concentrations of Sr and Zn in red sea bream otoliths increased in proportion to higher seawater temperature. In addition, there were significant differences in trace element composition between that of reared red sea bream and rockfish and that of wild ones. Preliminary results indicate that the PIXE is a powerful technique to investigate fish otoliths. (author)

  20. Development of Solar Drying Model for Selected Cambodian Fish Species

    OpenAIRE

    Hubackova, Anna; Kucerova, Iva; Chrun, Rithy; Chaloupkova, Petra; Banout, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A solar drying was investigated as one of perspective techniques for fish processing in Cambodia. The solar drying was compared to conventional drying in electric oven. Five typical Cambodian fish species were selected for this study. Mean solar drying temperature and drying air relative humidity were 55.6°C and 19.9%, respectively. The overall solar dryer efficiency was 12.37%, which is typical for natural convection solar dryers. An average evaporative capacity of solar dryer was 0.049 kg·h...

  1. Mayfly and fish species identification and sex determination in bleak (Alburnus alburnus) by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasz, G; Takács, P; Boda, P; Varbiro, G; Pirger, Z

    2017-12-01

    Besides food quality control of fish or cephalopods, the novel mass spectrometry (MS) approaches could be effective and beneficial methods for the investigation of biodiversity in ecological research. Our aims were to verify the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS in the rapid identification of closely related species, and to further develop it for sex determination in phenotypically similar fish focusing on the low mass range. For MALDI-TOF MS spectra analysis, ClinProTools software was applied, but our observed classification was also confirmed by Self Organizing Map. For verifying the wide applicability of the method, brains from invertebrate and vertebrate species were used in order to detect the species related markers from two mayflies and eight fish as well as sex-related markers within bleak. Seven Ephemera larvae and sixty-one fish species related markers were observed and nineteen sex-related markers were identified in bleak. Similar patterns were observed between the individuals within one species. In contrast, there were markedly diverse patterns between the different species and sexes visualized by SOMs. Two different Ephemera species and male or female fish were identified with 100% accuracy. The various fish species were classified into 8 species with a high level of accuracy (96.2%). Based on MS data, dendrogram was generated from different fish species by using ClinProTools software. This MS-based dendrogram shows relatively high correspondence with the phylogenetic relationships of both the studied species and orders. In summary, MALDI-TOF MS provides a cheap, reliable, sensitive and fast identification tool for researchers in the case of closely related species using mass spectra acquired in a low mass range to define specific molecular profiles. Moreover, we presented evidence for the first time for determination of sex within one fish species by using this method. We conclude that it is a powerful tool that can revolutionize ecological and

  2. Multiple nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping identifies emperors and large-eye breams (Teleostei : Lethrinidae) from New Caledonia and reveals new large-eye bream species

    OpenAIRE

    Borsa, Philippe; Collet, Adeline; Carassou, Laure; Ponton, Dominique; Chen, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Species identification is fundamental to address questions about community ecology, biodiversity, conservation and resource management, at any life history stage. Current studies on fish larval ecology of tropical species are hampered by the lack of reliable and effective tools for identifying larvae at the species level. Emperors and large-eye breams comprise fish species from the perciform fish family Lethrinidae. They inhabit coastal and coral-reef habitats of the t...

  3. 76 FR 2663 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... and steelhead, and natural juvenile green sturgeon while carrying out a study measuring fish response... species, taking of length measurements), tissue sampling, release of moribund fish or fish carcasses back...

  4. Characterization of Ras k 1 a novel major allergen in Indian mackerel and identification of parvalbumin as the major fish allergen in 33 Asia-Pacific fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruethers, T; Raith, M; Sharp, M F; Koeberl, M; Stephen, J N; Nugraha, R; Le, T T K; Quirce, S; Nguyen, H X M; Kamath, S D; Mehr, S S; Campbell, D E; Bridges, C R; Taki, A C; Swoboda, I; Lopata, A L

    2018-04-01

    Fish is a well-recognized cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis. The evolutionary and taxonomic diversity of the various consumed fish species pose a challenge in the identification and characterization of the major fish allergens critical for reliable diagnostics. Globally, fish is a rising cause of food allergy complicated by a large under-investigated variety of species as well as increasing global tourism and trade. This is the first comprehensive study on allergen profiles of heat-processed fish from Vietnam. The aim of this study was to identify the major heat-stable allergens from frequently exported Asia-Pacific freshwater and marine fish and to characterize the major allergen parvalbumin (PV) from one of the most consumed and exported fish species from Asia, the Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta). Heated protein extracts from 33 fish species were separated by gel electrophoresis. PV isoforms were identified by immunoblotting utilizing 3 different PV-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and further characterized by mass spectrometry. IgE reactivity was investigated using sera from 21 patients with confirmed fish allergy. Heat-stable IgE-reactive PVs, with up to 5 isoforms per species, were identified in all 33 analysed fish species. In the Indian mackerel, 7 PV isoforms were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometric analyses. The amino acid sequence deduced from cDNA of the most expressed isoform showed a high identity (>90%) to PVs from 2 other mackerel species. Different PVs were identified as the major heat-stable allergens in all 33 analysed freshwater and marine fish species from Vietnam, many of which are exported world-wide and 21 species that have never been investigated before. The Indian mackerel PV represents a novel fish allergen, now officially registered as Ras k 1. Improved diagnostics for fish allergy against Asia-Pacific species should be developed with focus on PV. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Genetic diversity and species diversity of stream fishes covary across a land-use gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, M.J.; Bagley, M.J.; Walters, D.M.; Jackson, S.A.; Daniel, F.B.; Chaloud, D.J.; Cade, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity and species diversity are expected to covary according to area and isolation, but may not always covary with environmental heterogeneity. In this study, we examined how patterns of genetic and species diversity in stream fishes correspond to local and regional environmental conditions. To do so, we compared population size, genetic diversity and divergence in central stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) to measures of species diversity and turnover in stream fish assemblages among similarly sized watersheds across an agriculture-forest land-use gradient in the Little Miami River basin (Ohio, USA). Significant correlations were found in many, but not all, pair-wise comparisons. Allelic richness and species richness were strongly correlated, for example, but diversity measures based on allele frequencies and assemblage structure were not. In-stream conditions related to agricultural land use were identified as significant predictors of genetic diversity and species diversity. Comparisons to population size indicate, however, that genetic diversity and species diversity are not necessarily independent and that variation also corresponds to watershed location and glaciation history in the drainage basin. Our findings demonstrate that genetic diversity and species diversity can covary in stream fish assemblages, and illustrate the potential importance of scaling observations to capture responses to hierarchical environmental variation. More comparisons according to life history variation could further improve understanding of conditions that give rise to parallel variation in genetic diversity and species diversity, which in turn could improve diagnosis of anthropogenic influences on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Investigation of sensory profiles and hedonic drivers of emerging aquaculture fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexi, Niki; Byrne, Derek V; Nanou, Evangelia; Grigorakis, Kriton

    2018-02-01

    The aquaculture sector needs to increase the diversity fish species and their processed products to cover rising consumer demands. Candidates for this diversification have been identified to be meagre, greater amberjack, pikeperch and wreckfish. Yet scientific knowledge on their sensory profiles and consumer hedonic responses is scarce. The aim of the current study was to investigate these aspects, since they are essential for product development and market targeting. Species exhibited different sensory profiles with the exception of the odor/flavor profiles of meagre and greater amberjack, which were similar. Texture was more important than odor/flavor in explaining interspecies differences. Yet the hedonic responses were equally related to texture and odor/flavor. None of the species received negative hedonic scores. Both positive and negative hedonic drivers were identified within the odor/flavor and texture modalities. The distinct profiles of meagre, greater amberjack, pikeperch and wreckfish make these fish species valuable first materials for new product development and for covering markets with different sensory preferences. Differences in fish texture are more easily perceivable, yet small variations in fish odor/flavor can have a great impact on consumers' hedonic responses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. 75 FR 2106 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... NMFS regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. Species Covered in... steelhead not to exceed 2 percent of the total number of fish captured for each life stage and species...

  8. 76 FR 14923 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and help guide management and... harvested groundfish species. The survey would collect data on 90+ fish species in the ocean to fulfill the...

  9. DNA barcoding commercially important fish species of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskın, Emre; Atar, Hasan H

    2013-09-01

    DNA barcoding was used in the identification of 89 commercially important freshwater and marine fish species found in Turkish ichthyofauna. A total of 1765 DNA barcodes using a 654-bp-long fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were generated for 89 commercially important freshwater and marine fish species found in Turkish ichthyofauna. These species belong to 70 genera, 40 families and 19 orders from class Actinopterygii, and all were associated with a distinct DNA barcode. Nine and 12 of the COI barcode clusters represent the first species records submitted to the BOLD and GenBank databases, respectively. All COI barcodes (except sequences of first species records) were matched with reference sequences of expected species, according to morphological identification. Average nucleotide frequencies of the data set were calculated as T = 29.7%, C = 28.2%, A = 23.6% and G = 18.6%. Average pairwise genetic distance among individuals were estimated as 0.32%, 9.62%, 17,90% and 22.40% for conspecific, congeneric, confamilial and within order, respectively. Kimura 2-parameter genetic distance values were found to increase with taxonomic level. For most of the species analysed in our data set, there is a barcoding gap, and an overlap in the barcoding gap exists for only two genera. Neighbour-joining trees were drawn based on DNA barcodes and all the specimens clustered in agreement with their taxonomic classification at species level. Results of this study supported DNA barcoding as an efficient molecular tool for a better monitoring, conservation and management of fisheries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Marker chromosome 21 identified by microdissection and FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.; Palmer, C.G. [Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Rubinstein, J. [Univ. Affiliated Cincinnati Center for Developmental Disorders, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-27

    A child without Down`s syndrome but with developmental delay, short stature, and autistic behavior was found to be mosaic 46,XX/47,XX,+mar(21) de novo. The marker was a small ring or dot-like chromosome. Microdissection of the marker was performed. The dissected fragments were biotinylated with sequence-independent PCR as a probe pool for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH results suggested an acrocentric origin of the marker. Subsequent FISH with {alpha}-satellite DNA probes for acrocentric chromosomes and chromosome-specific 21 and 22 painting probes confirmed its origin from chromosome 21. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Anticholinesterase effect of eserine (physostigmine in fish and crustacean species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat José M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic characteristic (Km of cholinesterase from the crab Chasmagnathus granulata, the shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the fish Odontesthes bonaeriensis were compared and correlated with the anticholinesterasic effect of eserine (physostigmine. For the crustaceans, the estimated Km values were about 5-8 times higher than that estimated for the fish (0.04 mM. In the crab and the shrimp, the concentration of eserine which inhibited 50% of cholinesterase activity (IC50 was estimated as 5.33x10-4 and 4.33x10-4 mM, respectively. In both cases, it was significantly higher (P < 0.05 than that estimated for the fish larvae (7.43x10-5 mM. A high Km could reflect a lower affinity of the cholinesterase for its natural substrate, acetylcholine, or for substrate analogues such as carbamates and organophosphorous pesticides. If we consider the IC50 for eserine as an index of enzyme susceptibility to pesticide inhibition, the cholinesterase from the fish larvae may be a better useful tool in assays for pesticide biomonitoring than that from crustacean species.

  12. Fish species richness is associated with the availability of landscape components across seasons in the Amazonian floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edwar Carvalho Freitas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding environmental biodiversity drivers in freshwater systems continues to be a fundamental challenge in studies of their fish assemblages. The present study seeks to determine the degree to which landscape variables of Amazonian floodplain lakes influences fish assemblages in these environments. Fish species richness was estimated in 15 Amazonian floodplain lakes during the high and low-water phases and correlated with the areas of four inundated wetland classes: (i open water, (ii flooded herbaceous, (iii flooded shrubs and (iv flooded forest estimated in different radius circular areas around each sampling site. Data were analyzed using generalized linear models with fish species richness, total and guilds as the dependent variable and estimates of buffered landscape areas as explanatory variables. Our analysis identified the significance of landscape variables in determining the diversity of fish assemblages in Amazonian floodplain lakes. Spatial scale was also identified as a significant determinant of fish diversity as landscape effects were more evident at larger spatial scales. In particular, (1 total species richness was more sensitive to variations in the landscape areas than number of species within guilds and (2 the spatial extent of the wetland class of shrubs was consistently the more influential on fish species diversity.

  13. Effects of recreational fishing on three fish species from the Posidonia oceanica meadows off Minorca (Balearic archipelago, western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cardona

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental fishing and visual censuses were conducted at nine Posidonia oceanica sites off Minorca exposed to different levels of fishing intensity to assess the effects of recreational fishing on the species that dominate the catch. Total catch per unit effort (CPUE was highly seasonal and a statistically significant interaction term existed between the season and the level of fishing intensity. CPUE decreased everywhere at the end of the fishing season (autumn, but such a reduction was more intense at those sites exposed to the highest level of fishing. Visual censuses confirmed that there was a lower abundance of vulnerable fish in autumn. Differences vanished in spring probably because fish reshuffled between the considered sites throughout the winter, when the level of fishing intensity was extremely low. Although the average total lengths of Serranus scriba and Diplodus annularis were unaffected by the level of fishing intensity, the average total length of Coris julis was smaller at the most heavily fished sites. In conclusion, recreational fishing has a relevant impact on most of the exploited species and some of the seasonality reported for the Posidonia oceanica fish assemblages might be caused by the seasonality of the fishery.

  14. Preliminary list of endangered fish species (Pisces, Elasmobranchii , Actinopterygii) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Ricardo S; Menezes, Naércio A

    1996-01-01

    The Brazilian fish fauna is still poorly known with respect to its diversity and conservation status, particularly of freshwater species. Human activities and population growth are rapidly impacting this fauna to an unchecked extent, so that many fish species are presently threatened. Also, some areas have been so critically altered that their fish fauna can no longer be properly inventoried. There is an urgent need to evaluate the conservation status of Brazilian fish species, since none are...

  15. Levels of Mercury in Persian Gulf Frozen Fish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Ziarati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe discharge of sewage and industrial effluents into the Persian Gulf leads to the deposition of various types of heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, in the muscles of fish. Total mercury and methylmercury contents were determined in the edible parts (muscle tissue, fillet of two different most popular frozen fish species from the Persian Gulf to ascertain whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission or not. During the period from October 2015 to June 2016, a total of 150 frozen fish packaged samples were randomly collected from the recognized supermarkets in Tehran province, Iran. The mercury (Hg concentration of samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer using a mercuric hydride system (MHS 10 and also by direct mercury analyzer (DMA. High concentration of total Hg was found in a Carcharhinus dussumie brand (0.91 ± 0.12 μg/g while the lowest level was detected in Pomadasys furcatus (0.29 ± 0.02 μg/g. In current study the mean concentrations of Mercury in all studied frozen fish samples were 0.79 ± 0.11 µg/g that means Hg levels were above 0.5 μg/g, which is the maximum standard level recommended by Joint FAO/WHO/Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA. In 13% of Pomadasys and in 47.2 % of Carcharhinus fish samples total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission. All samples had also mean Hg concentrations that exceeded EPA's established safety level of 0.3 μg/g.

  16. Thermal tolerance of some important fish species from Kali river, Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyappan, S.; Pal, A.K.; Das, T.; Bagchi, S.; Dalvi, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fish catch composition of Kadra reservoir at three different sampling points, viz., end of the hot water discharge channel of the nuclear power station i.e. Mixing Zone (Mz), 500 meters away from mixing zone at Hartuga village (Hv) and 15 km away from mixing zone at Virgae village (Vv) and thermal tolerance studies viz., Critical temperature maximum (CTmax), Critical temperature minimum (CTmin), oxygen consumption rates of different fish were determined for acclimation temperatures of 26, 31, 33 and 36 degC. The enzyme activities viz., Acetylcholine esterase (AchE), Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Aspartate amino transferase (AST), Alanine amino transferase (ALT), Acid phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were studied in liver, gill, brain and muscle of Puntius ticto and Rasbora elanga at different acclimatized temperatures in a constant thermostatic aquarium. The fish catch composition varied at different sampling points. The predominant fish species identified from the three sampling points were Etroplus suratensis, Puntius sarana, Rasbora elanga, Chela argenta, Chela sardinella, Danio aequipinnatus at Mixing zone, Etroplus suratensis, Channa striatus, Channa micropeltes, Channa marulius, Ompok bimaculatus, Ompok malabarichus, Horabagrus brachysoma, Nemacheilus Sp., Mastacymbelus armastus at Hartuga village and Puntiu ticto, Labeo calbasu, Citrine cirrhosa, Ambasis dayi, Hemiramphus schlosseri, Periopthalmus limbatus at Virgae village. CT max varied from 38.5 degC to 42.6 degC in different fish species. Oxygen consumption rate of all species of fishes increased with increase in water temperature but magnitudes of increase was different in different species. The enzymatic activities increased concomitantly with increase in temperature up to 33 degC and followed a decrease at 36 degC. (author)

  17. SPECIES INVENTORY OF AMPHIBIOUS FISH IN INTERTIDAL ZONE OF NGRENEHAN, NGOBARAN AND NGUYAHAN COASTELS, GUNUNG KIDUL, YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukiya Sukiya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical region is high on faunal diversity including vertebrates and invertebrates. Research on diversity of amphibious fish in Intertidal zone of  Yogyakarta southern coast is still limited so there is no complete records regarding these unique fish. This research aimed to know the diversity of amphibious fish in three beaches of Yogyakarta southern coast, namely pantai Ngrenehan, Ngobaran dan Nguyahan. Fish sampling were conducted using random sampling method combined with observational method. Fish were collected using small nets then identified to species rank. The total length of each fish were measured and recorded. Few individuals of the same species were sacrificed as voucher specimens. The result showed that in pantai Ngrenehan, Ngobaran, and Nguyahan, five different species of amphibius fish were found, which are Cabillus lacertops, Bathygobius fuscus, Enneapterygus sp., Blenniella cyanostigma, and Blenniella caudolineata. Cabillus lacertops was found in all of sampling locations. Enneapterygus sp. was found in pantai Nguyahan while Bathigobius fuscus, and Blenniella caudolineata can only be found in pantai Ngrenehan. Further studies regarding the adaptation, ecological features, taxonomy and biological reproduction of Yogyakarta southern coast’s  amphibious fish are still needed.   Keywords: Inventarization, amphbious fish, intertidal zone, Yogyakarta southern coast

  18. possible stimuli for social behaviour in three species of freshwater fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social behaviour in fish is manifested in many situations and one form. of this phenomenon is especially interesting. Some species of fish have .... Experi- mental methods of study of fish behaviour, in Techniques lor the Investigation 0/ Fish. Physiology, ed. Pavlovskii, E. N., Oldbourne. Press, London. R ep rod u ced b y Sa b.

  19. 78 FR 59005 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... with Section 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish.... Applications Received Permit 1415 The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services' (USFWS) Red Bluff Fish and Wildlife...

  20. 78 FR 74116 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... plans and request for comment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Oregon Department of Fish and... River and Columbia River basins by providing hatchery fish to support fishing opportunities while...

  1. 77 FR 51520 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226... expect to kill any listed fish but a small number, up to 20 percent (equivalent to one fish), may die as...

  2. Specific IgE to fish extracts does not predict allergy to specific species within an adult fish allergic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkes, Karlijn Jg; Klemans, Rob Jb; Knigge, Lidy; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla Afm; Marknell deWitt, Asa; Lidholm, Jonas; Knulst, André C

    2014-01-01

    Fish is an important cause of food allergy. Studies on fish allergy are scarce and in most cases limited to serological evaluation. Our objective was to study patterns of self-reported allergy and tolerance to different commonly consumed fish species and its correlation to IgE sensitization to the same species. Thirty-eight adult fish allergic patients completed a questionnaire regarding atopy, age of onset and symptoms to 13 commonly consumed fish species in the Netherlands (pangasius, cod, herring, eel, hake, pollock, mackerel, tilapia, salmon, sardine, tuna, plaice and swordfish). Specific IgE to these fish extracts were analyzed by ImmunoCAP. Median age of onset of fish allergy was 8.5 years. Severe reactions were reported by the majority of patients (n = 20 (53%) respiratory and of these 20 patients, 6 also had cardiovascular symptoms). After diagnosis, 66% of the patients had eliminated all fish from their diet. Allergy to all species ever tried was reported by 59%. In relation to species ever tried, cod (84%) and herring (79%) were the most frequently reported culprit species while hake (57%) and swordfish (55%) were the least frequent. A positive sIgE (value ≥ 0.35 kUA/L) to the culprit species ranged between 50% (swordfish) and 100% (hake). In tolerant patients, a negative sIgE (value allergy or tolerance was 82% and 25%, respectively. Sensitization to cod parvalbumin (Gad c 1) was present in 77% of all patients. Serological cross-reactivity between fish species is frequent, but in a significant proportion of patients, clinical relevance appears to be limited to only certain species. A well-taken history or food challenge is required for discrimination between allergy to the different fish species.

  3. Integrative taxonomy detects cryptic and overlooked fish species in a neotropical river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Laís Carvalho; Pessali, Tiago Casarim; Sales, Naiara Guimarães; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso

    2015-10-01

    The great freshwater fish diversity found in the neotropical region makes management and conservation actions challenging. Due to shortage of taxonomists and insufficient infrastructure to deal with such great biodiversity (i.e. taxonomic impediment), proposed remedies to accelerate species identification and descriptions include techniques that combine DNA-based identification and concise morphological description. The building of a DNA barcode reference database correlating meristic and genetic data was developed for 75 % of the Mucuri River basin's freshwater fish. We obtained a total of 141 DNA barcode sequences from 37 species belonging to 30 genera, 19 families, and 5 orders. Genetic distances within species, genera, and families were 0.74, 9.5, and 18.86 %, respectively. All species could be clearly identified by the DNA barcodes. Divergences between meristic morphological characteristics and DNA barcodes revealed two cryptic species among the Cyphocharax gilbert and Astyanax gr. bimaculatus specimens, and helped to identify two overlooked species within the Gymnotus and Astyanax taxa. Therefore, using a simplified model of neotropical biodiversity, we tested the efficiency of an integrative taxonomy approach for species discovery, identification of cryptic diversity, and accelerating biodiversity descriptions.

  4. Microplastics as a vector for the transport of the bacterial fish pathogen species Aeromonas salmonicida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viršek, Manca Kovač; Lovšin, Marija Nika; Koren, Špela; Kržan, Andrej; Peterlin, Monika

    2017-12-15

    Microplastics is widespread in the marine environment where it can cause numerous negative effects. It can provide space for the growth of organisms and serves as a vector for the long distance transfer of marine microorganisms. In this study, we examined the sea surface concentrations of microplastics in the North Adriatic and characterized bacterial communities living on the microplastics. DNA from microplastics particles was isolated by three different methods, followed by PCR amplification of 16S rDNA, clone libraries preparation and phylogenetic analysis. 28 bacterial species were identified on the microplastics particles including Aeromonas spp. and hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species. Based on the 16S rDNA sequences the pathogenic fish bacteria Aeromonas salmonicida was identified for the first time on microplastics. Because A. salmonicida is responsible for illnesses in fish, it is crucial to get answers if and how microplastics pollution is responsible for spreading of diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 27016 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and help guide management and... during the species' upstream migration. Captured fish would be transported in a tanker truck and released...

  6. Occurrence and Intensity of Anisakid Nematode Larvae in Some Commercially Important Fish Species in Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam DADAR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses.Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil, Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus, crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus from the Persian Gulf of Iran.Result: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3 of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae. The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II.Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas.

  7. 78 FR 28806 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Resources (CDWR), Permit 17428 to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Permit 17777 to... NMFS regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. Species Covered in...

  8. 78 FR 60254 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR 222-226). NMFS issues permits based on findings... conduct water quality, [[Page 60255

  9. 78 FR 4836 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... steelhead promulgated under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The plan specifies fishery management...: January 17, 2013. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources...

  10. 78 FR 4834 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC444 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... species. Dated: January 16, 2013. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected...

  11. 77 FR 34349 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... and steelhead under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The HGMPs specify the operations of four... Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries...

  12. DNA barcoding discriminates freshwater fishes from southeastern Nigeria and provides river system-level phylogeographic resolution within some species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwani, Christopher D; Becker, Sven; Braid, Heather E; Ude, Emmanuel F; Okogwu, Okechukwu I; Hanner, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Fishes are the main animal protein source for human beings and play a vital role in aquatic ecosystems and food webs. Fish identification can be challenging, especially in the tropics (due to high diversity), and this is particularly true for larval forms or fragmentary remains. DNA barcoding, which uses the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) as a target gene, is an efficient method for standardized species-level identification for biodiversity assessment and conservation, pending the establishment of reference sequence libraries. In this study, fishes were collected from three rivers in southeastern Nigeria, identified morphologically, and imaged digitally. DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified, and the standard barcode region was bidirectionally sequenced for 363 individuals belonging to 70 species in 38 genera. All specimen provenance data and associated sequence information were recorded in the barcode of life data systems (BOLD; www.barcodinglife.org ). Analytical tools on BOLD were used to assess the performance of barcoding to identify species. Using neighbor-joining distance comparison, the average genetic distance was 60-fold higher between species than within species, as pairwise genetic distance estimates averaged 10.29% among congeners and only 0.17% among conspecifics. Despite low levels of divergence within species, we observed river system-specific haplotype partitioning within eight species (11.4% of all species). Our preliminary results suggest that DNA barcoding is very effective for species identification of Nigerian freshwater fishes.

  13. Endangered fish species of Kenya's inland waters with emphasis on Labeo spp

    OpenAIRE

    Kibaara, D.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of water masses, natural or otherwise, in supporting fisheries, and the importance of fish as human food, cannot be overemphasized. The inland waters of Kenya act as habitats for fish, harbouring many different fish species. It has been observed with interest that certain fish species have decreased in numbers over the years within the inland waters. The decline has been at a rate which, if left unchecked, will eventually cause total di...

  14. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo-Adriani, Esteban A; Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts.

  15. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Agudo-Adriani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height, structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc. and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae. We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts.

  16. Prevalence of listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Nihal; Balci, Senay

    2010-02-01

    A total of 78 raw retail fish samples from 30 freshwater and 48 marine fish were examined for the presence of Listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species. The overall incidence of Listeria spp. was 30% in freshwater samples and 10.4% in marine fish samples. Listeria monocytogenes (44.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in freshwater fish, and Listeria murrayi (83.5%) was the most commonly isolated species in marine fish samples. Motile aeromonads were more common in marine fish samples (93.7%) than in freshwater fish samples (10%). Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, and Vibrio damsela were isolated only in marine fish samples, representing 40.9, 38.6, and 36.3% of Vibrio isolates, respectively. In freshwater and marine fish, the highest incidences of Listeria and Aeromonas were found in skin samples; the highest incidence of Vibrio in marine fish was found in gill samples. The location of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in a fish was significantly different among freshwater fish. A high incidence of these bacterial pathogens was found in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Handling of contaminated fish, cross-contamination, or eating raw fish might pose a health hazard, especially in immunosuppressed individuals, elderly people, and children. This study highlights the importance of bacterial pathogens in fish intended for human consumption, but more study is needed.

  17. Flat and complex temperate reefs provide similar support for fish: Evidence for a unimodal species-habitat relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery B Paxton

    Full Text Available Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat surveys of thirty warm-temperate reefs on the southeastern US continental shelf to quantify how structural complexity influences fish communities. We found that intermediate complexity maximizes fish abundance on natural and artificial reefs, as well as species richness on natural reefs, challenging the current paradigm that abundance and other fish community metrics increase with increasing complexity. Naturally occurring rocky reefs of flat and complex morphologies supported equivalent abundance, biomass, species richness, and community composition of fishes. For flat and complex morphologies of rocky reefs to receive equal consideration as essential fish habitat (EFH, special attention should be given to detecting pavement type rocky reefs because their ephemeral nature makes them difficult to detect with typical seafloor mapping methods. Artificial reefs of intermediate complexity also maximized fish abundance, but human-made structures composed of low-lying concrete and metal ships differed in community types, with less complex, concrete structures supporting lower numbers of fishes classified largely as demersal species and metal ships protruding into the water column harboring higher numbers of fishes, including more pelagic species. Results of this study are essential to the process of evaluating habitat function provided by different types and shapes of

  18. Characterisation of purified parvalbumin from five fish species and nucleotide sequencing of this major allergen from Pacific pilchard, Sardinops sagax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Janine E; Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2009-09-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reaction to seafood is a common cause of food allergy including anaphylactic reactions. Parvalbumin, the major fish allergen, has been shown to display IgE cross-reactivity among fish species consumed predominantly in Europe and the Far East. However, cross-reactivity studies of parvalbumin from fish species widely consumed in the Southern hemisphere are limited as is data relating to immunological and molecular characterisation. In this study, antigenic cross-reactivity and the presence of oligomers and isomers of parvalbumin from five highly consumed fish species in Southern Africa were assessed by immunoblotting using purified parvalbumin and crude fish extracts. Pilchard (Sardinops sagax) parvalbumin was found to display the strongest IgE reactivity among 10 fish-allergic consumers. The cDNA sequence of the beta-form of pilchard parvalbumin was determined and designated Sar sa 1.0101 (accession number FM177701 EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases). Oligomeric forms of parvalbumin were observed in all fish species using a monoclonal anti-parvalbumin antibody and subject's sera. Isoforms varied between approximately 10-13 kDa. A highly cross-reactive allergenic isoform of parvalbumin was identified and sequenced, providing a successful primary step towards the generation of a recombinant form that could be used for diagnostic and potential therapeutic use in allergic individuals.

  19. Geographic variation in species richness, rarity, and the selection of areas for conservation: An integrative approach with Brazilian estuarine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Ciro C.; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Spach, Henry L.

    2017-09-01

    While the number of species is a key indicator of ecological assemblages, spatial conservation priorities solely identified from species richness are not necessarily efficient to protect other important biological assets. Hence, the results of spatial prioritization analysis would be greatly enhanced if richness were used in association to complementary biodiversity measures. In this study, geographic patterns in estuarine fish species rarity (i.e. the average range size in the study area), endemism and richness, were mapped and integrated to identify regions important for biodiversity conservation along the Brazilian coast. Furthermore, we analyzed the effectiveness of the national system of protected areas to represent these regions. Analyses were performed on presence/absence data of 412 fish species in 0.25° latitudinal bands covering the entire Brazilian biogeographical province. Species richness, rarity and endemism patterns differed and strongly reflected biogeographical limits and regions. However, among the existing 154 latitudinal bands, 48 were recognized as conservation priorities by concomitantly harboring high estuarine fish species richness and assemblages of geographically rare species. Priority areas identified for all estuarine fish species largely differed from those identified for Brazilian endemics. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between the different aspects of the fish assemblages considered (i.e. species richness, endemism or rarity), suggesting that designating reserves based on a single variable may lead to large gaps in the overall protection of biodiversity. Our results further revealed that the existing system of protected areas is insufficient for representing the priority bands we identified. This highlights the urgent need for expanding the national network of protected areas to maintain estuarine ecosystems with high conservation value.

  20. Reduction of herbivorous fish pressure can facilitate focal algal species forestation on artificial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Airoldi, Laura; Mangialajo, Luisa

    2018-07-01

    Coastal areas have been transformed worldwide by urbanization, so that artificial structures are now widespread. Current coastal development locally depletes many native marine species, while offering limited possibilities for their expansion. Eco-engineering interventions intend to identify ways to facilitate the presence of focal species and their associated functions on artificial habitats. An important but overlooked factor controlling restoration operations is overgrazing by herbivores. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of different potential feeders on Cystoseira amentacea, a native canopy-forming alga of the Mediterranean infralittoral fringe, and test whether manipulation of grazing pressure can facilitate the human-guided installation of this focal species on coastal structures. Results of laboratory tests and field experiments revealed that Sarpa salpa, the only strictly native herbivorous fish in the Western Mediterranean Sea, can be a very effective grazer of C. amentacea in artificial habitats, up to as far as the infralittoral fringe, which is generally considered less accessible to fishes. S. salpa can limit the success of forestation operations in artificial novel habitats, causing up to 90% of Cystoseira loss after a few days. Other grazers, such as limpets and crabs, had only a moderate impact. Future engineering operations,intended to perform forestation of canopy-forming algae on artificial structures, should consider relevant biotic factors, such as fish overgrazing, identifying cost-effective techniques to limit their impact, as is the usual practice in restoration programmes on land. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Connecting infrared spectra with plant traits to identify species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Maria F.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Groen, Thomas A.; Hecker, Christoph A.

    2018-05-01

    Plant traits are used to define species, but also to evaluate the health status of forests, plantations and crops. Conventional methods of measuring plant traits (e.g. wet chemistry), although accurate, are inefficient and costly when applied over large areas or with intensive sampling. Spectroscopic methods, as used in the food industry and mineralogy, are nowadays applied to identify plant traits, however, most studies analysed visible to near infrared, while infrared spectra of longer wavelengths have been little used for identifying the spectral differences between plant species. This study measured the infrared spectra (1.4-16.0 μm) on individual, fresh leaves of 19 species (from herbaceous to woody species), as well as 14 leaf traits for each leaf. The results describe at which wavelengths in the infrared the leaves' spectra can differentiate most effectively between these plant species. A Quadratic Discrimination Analysis (QDA) shows that using five bands in the SWIR or the LWIR is enough to accurately differentiate these species (Kappa: 0.93, 0.94 respectively), while the MWIR has a lower classification accuracy (Kappa: 0.84). This study also shows that in the infrared spectra of fresh leaves, the identified species-specific features are correlated with leaf traits as well as changes in their values. Spectral features in the SWIR (1.66, 1.89 and 2.00 μm) are common to all species and match the main features of pure cellulose and lignin spectra. The depth of these features varies with changes of cellulose and leaf water content and can be used to differentiate species in this region. In the MWIR and LWIR, the absorption spectra of leaves are formed by key species-specific traits including lignin, cellulose, water, nitrogen and leaf thickness. The connection found in this study between leaf traits, features and spectral signatures are novel tools to assist when identifying plant species by spectroscopy and remote sensing.

  2. Fishers' knowledge identifies environmental changes and fish abundance trends in impounded tropical rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila F; Juras, Anastácio A; Silvano, Renato A M

    2013-03-01

    The long-term impacts of large hydroelectric dams on small-scale fisheries in tropical rivers are poorly known. A promising way to investigate such impacts is to compare and integrate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of resource users with biological data for the same region. We analyzed the accuracy of fishers' LEK to investigate fisheries dynamics and environmental changes in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon) downstream from a large dam. We estimated fishers' LEK through interviews with 300 fishers in nine villages and collected data on 601 fish landings in five of these villages, 22 years after the dam's establishment (2006-2008). We compared these two databases with each other and with data on fish landings from before the dam's establishment (1981) gathered from the literature. The data obtained based on the fishers' LEK (interviews) and from fisheries agreed regarding the primary fish species caught, the most commonly used type of fishing gear (gill nets) and even the most often used gill net mesh sizes but disagreed regarding seasonal fish abundance. According to the interviewed fishers, the primary environmental changes that occurred after the impoundment were an overall decrease in fish abundance, an increase in the abundance of some fish species and, possibly, the local extinction of a commercial fish species (Semaprochilodus brama). These changes were corroborated by comparing fish landings sampled before and 22 years after the impoundment, which indicated changes in the composition of fish landings and a decrease in the total annual fish production. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that large dams may adversely affect small-scale fisheries downstream and establish a feasible approach for applying fishers' LEK to fisheries management, especially in regions with a low research capacity.

  3. 75 FR 16738 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... River fall Chinook salmon under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The FMEP specifies the future... fish, sturgeon, carp, and other species.'' The FMEP describes the management of recreational fisheries...

  4. 75 FR 14134 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... modifications, as required by the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531 1543) (ESA), is based on a... trap and beach seine, anesthesize and sample fish for species identification, tags, marks and fin clips...

  5. 77 FR 27186 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The applications may be... salmon, and LCR steelhead. The purpose of this research is to determine fish species presence and...

  6. 76 FR 51352 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), for a direct take permit pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Section 9 of the ESA and Federal regulations prohibit the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or...

  7. 75 FR 78226 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... permits and permit modifications, as required by the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543... electrofisher and dipnet; sample fish for species identification, tags, marks and finclips, lengths and weights...

  8. Analysis of endangered Kansas fish species distribution during historical and contemporary periods (pre- and post-1969)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Kansas has more freshwater fish species than other states in the west and northern US. More than 140 fishes have recently been documented in Kansas rivers; of these, at least five are categorized as endangered species in Kansas (and threatened species ...

  9. 77 FR 51763 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... INFORMATION: Authority The issuance of permits and permit modifications, as required by the Endangered Species... (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. Species Covered in This Notice This...

  10. 75 FR 33243 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) (ESA), is based on a finding that such permits... NMFS regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. Species Covered in...

  11. 75 FR 23671 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish; Research Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish; Research Permit Applications AGENCY: National Marine... listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The... capture, handle, and release juvenile fish from all the species covered by this notice. They would also...

  12. 76 FR 15946 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... research permit application request relating to salmonids listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA... research activities. The purpose of the research program is to collect warmwater fish species to analyze...

  13. The Species and Origin of Shark Fins in Taiwan's Fishing Ports, Markets, and Customs Detention: A DNA Barcoding Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Shun; Hung, Tzu-Chiao; Chang, Hung-An; Huang, Chien-Kang; Shiao, Jen-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The increasing consumption of shark products, along with the shark's fishing vulnerabilities, has led to the decrease in certain shark populations. In this study we used a DNA barcoding method to identify the species of shark landings at fishing ports, shark fin products in retail stores, and shark fins detained by Taiwan customs. In total we identified 23, 24, and 14 species from 231 fishing landings, 316 fin products, and 113 detained shark fins, respectively. All the three sample sources were dominated by Prionace glauca, which accounted for more than 30% of the collected samples. Over 60% of the species identified in the fin products also appeared in the port landings, suggesting the domestic-dominance of shark fin products in Taiwan. However, international trade also contributes a certain proportion of the fin product markets, as four species identified from the shark fin products are not found in Taiwan's waters, and some domestic-available species were also found in the customs-detained sample. In addition to the species identification, we also found geographical differentiation in the cox1 gene of the common thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus), the pelagic thresher shark (A. pelagicus), the smooth hammerhead shark (Sphyrna zygaena), and the scalloped hammerhead shark (S. lewini). This result might allow fishing authorities to more effectively trace the origins as well as enforce the management and conservation of these sharks.

  14. The Species and Origin of Shark Fins in Taiwan's Fishing Ports, Markets, and Customs Detention: A DNA Barcoding Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shun Chuang

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of shark products, along with the shark's fishing vulnerabilities, has led to the decrease in certain shark populations. In this study we used a DNA barcoding method to identify the species of shark landings at fishing ports, shark fin products in retail stores, and shark fins detained by Taiwan customs. In total we identified 23, 24, and 14 species from 231 fishing landings, 316 fin products, and 113 detained shark fins, respectively. All the three sample sources were dominated by Prionace glauca, which accounted for more than 30% of the collected samples. Over 60% of the species identified in the fin products also appeared in the port landings, suggesting the domestic-dominance of shark fin products in Taiwan. However, international trade also contributes a certain proportion of the fin product markets, as four species identified from the shark fin products are not found in Taiwan's waters, and some domestic-available species were also found in the customs-detained sample. In addition to the species identification, we also found geographical differentiation in the cox1 gene of the common thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus, the pelagic thresher shark (A. pelagicus, the smooth hammerhead shark (Sphyrna zygaena, and the scalloped hammerhead shark (S. lewini. This result might allow fishing authorities to more effectively trace the origins as well as enforce the management and conservation of these sharks.

  15. Physico-chemical thresholds in the distribution of fish species among French lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roubeix Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of lakes requires the definition of physico-chemical thresholds to be used for ecosystem preservation or restoration. According to the European Water Framework Directive, the limits between physico-chemical quality classes must be set consistently with biological quality elements. One way to do this consists in analyzing the response of aquatic communities to environmental gradients across monitoring sites and in identifying ecological community thresholds, i.e. zones in the gradients where the species turnover is the highest. In this study, fish data from 196 lakes in France were considered to derive ecological thresholds using the multivariate method of gradient forest. The analysis was performed on 25 species and 36 environmental parameters. The results revealed the highest importance of maximal water temperature in the distribution of fish species. Other important parameters included geographical factors, dissolved organic carbon concentration and water transparency, while nutrients appeared to have low influence. In spite of the diversity of species responses to the gradients, community thresholds were detected in the gradients of the most important physico-chemical parameters and of total phosphorus and nitrate concentrations as well. The thresholds identified in such macroecological study may highlight new patterns of species natural distribution and improve niche characterization. Moreover, when factors that may be influenced by human activities are involved, the thresholds could be used to set environmental standards for lake preservation.

  16. Genotoxic effects of water pollution on two fish species living in Karasu River, Erzurum, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazıcı, Zehra; Sişman, Turgay

    2014-11-01

    Karasu River, which is the only river in the Erzurum plain, is the source of the Euphrates River (Eastern Anatolia of Turkey). The river is in a serious environmental situation as a result of pollution by agricultural and industrial sewage and domestic discharges. The present study aims to evaluate genotoxic effects of toxic metals in chub, Leuciscus cephalus, and transcaucasian barb, Capoeta capoeta, collected from contaminated site of the Karasu River, in comparison with fish from an unpolluted reference site. Heavy metal concentrations in surface water of the river were determined. The condition factor (CF) was taken as a general biomarker of the health of the fish, and genotoxicity assays such as micronucleus (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (NA) were carried out on the fish species studied. MN and NA such as kidney-shaped nucleus, notched nucleus, binucleated, lobed nucleus, and blebbed nucleus were assessed in peripheral blood erythrocytes, gill epithelial cells, and liver cells of the fish. A significant decrease in CF values associated with a significant elevation in MN and NA frequencies was observed in fish collected from the polluted sites compared with those from the reference site. Results of the current study show the significance of integrating a set of biomarkers to identify the effects of anthropogenic pollution. High concentrations of heavy metals have a potential genotoxic effects, and the toxicity is possibly related to industrial, agricultural, and domestic activities.

  17. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present...

  18. Widespread hybridization and bidirectional introgression in sympatric species of coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2017-10-28

    Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, where numerous closely related species often coexist. How new species arise and are maintained in these high geneflow environments have been long-standing conundrums. Hybridization and patterns of introgression between sympatric species provide a unique insight into the mechanisms of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. In this study, we investigate the extent of hybridization between two closely related species of coral reef fish: the common coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) and the bar-cheek coral trout (Plectropomus maculatus). Using a complementary set of 25 microsatellite loci, we distinguish pure genotype classes from first- and later-generation hybrids, identifying 124 interspecific hybrids from a collection of 2,991 coral trout sampled in inshore and mid-shelf reefs of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Hybrids were ubiquitous among reefs, fertile and spanned multiple generations suggesting both ecological and evolutionary processes are acting to maintain species barriers. We elaborate on these finding to investigate the extent of genomic introgression and admixture from 2,271 SNP loci recovered from a ddRAD library of pure and hybrid individuals. An analysis of genomic clines on recovered loci indicates that 261 SNP loci deviate from a model of neutral introgression, of which 132 indicate a pattern of introgression consistent with selection favouring both hybrid and parental genotypes. Our findings indicate genome-wide, bidirectional introgression between two sympatric species of coral reef fishes and provide further support to a growing body of evidence for the role of hybridization in the evolution of coral reef fishes.

  19. Chemical composition, mineral content and amino acid and lipid profiles in bones from various fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppe, Jogeir; Albrektsen, Sissel; Hope, Britt; Aksnes, Anders

    2007-03-01

    The chemical composition, content of minerals and the profiles of amino acids and fatty acids were analyzed in fish bones from eight different species of fish. Fish bones varied significantly in chemical composition. The main difference was lipid content ranging from 23 g/kg in cod (Gadus morhua) to 509 g/kg in mackerel (Scomber scombrus). In general fatty fish species showed higher lipid levels in the bones compared to lean fish species. Similarly, lower levels of protein and ash were observed in bones from fatty fish species. Protein levels differed from 363 g/kg lipid free dry matter (dm) to 568 g/kg lipid free dm with a concomitant inverse difference in ash content. Ash to protein ratio differed from 0.78 to 1.71 with the lowest level in fish that naturally have highest swimming and physical activity. Saithe (Pollachius virens) and salmon (Salmo salar) were found to be significantly different in the levels of lipid, protein and ash, and ash/protein ratio in the bones. Only small differences were observed in the level of amino acids although species specific differences were observed. The levels of Ca and P in lipid free fish bones were about the same in all species analyzed. Fatty acid profile differed in relation to total lipid levels in the fish bones, but some minor differences between fish species were observed.

  20. Fish allergy in patients with parvalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E depends on parvalbumin content rather than molecular differences in the protein among fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Allergenic characteristics of purified parvalbumins from different fish species have not been thoroughly investigated. We revealed that purified parvalbumins from nine different fish species have identical IgE-reactivities and high cross-reactivities. We also showed that fish allergenicity is associated with the parvalbumin content of the fish species, rather than species-specific differences in the molecular characteristics of the individual parvalbumin proteins.

  1. Current status of non-native fish species in the St. Louis River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish community of the St. Louis River estuary is well characterized, thanks to fishery assessment and invasive species early detection monitoring by federal, state, and tribal agencies. This sampling includes long-standing adult/juvenile fish surveys, larval fish surveys beg...

  2. 77 FR 69593 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering Permits; Letters... intent to issue Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research Permits (SRPs), Display Permits... public display and scientific research that is exempt from regulations (e.g., fishing seasons, prohibited...

  3. 78 FR 43858 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... number of predicted adults increase, the number of fish escaping to the spawning grounds will also... fish; and (3) application of a sliding scale approach to determine appropriate ESA take limits on...

  4. 76 FR 2664 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...) and 14092 (applicant: California Department of Fish and Game). In that notice, the permit application... American green sturgeon associated with conducting surveys measuring fish response to initial and...

  5. 78 FR 28805 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., NMFS received an application, including an HGMP, from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, a section... the Snake River basin, rear juveniles, and release eggs, juveniles, and adult fish into upper Salmon...

  6. 78 FR 79674 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR.... Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) submitted an application and supporting documents to NMFS for a...

  7. 78 FR 31518 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC690 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and U.S. Bureau of...

  8. 78 FR 32378 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... application was provided by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and the Public Utility... Department of Fish and Wildlife submitted an application for an ESA permit to operate the Nason Creek spring...

  9. 77 FR 3743 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... with section 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish... listed fish but a small number may die as an unintended result of the research activities. The objectives...

  10. 76 FR 8713 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226... handling of fish is already covered under the Incidental Take Statement associated with the Biological...

  11. 78 FR 7755 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...)(A) of the ESA of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish and wildlife.... In situations where the SWFSC are unable to rely on collaborators to capture fish through rotary...

  12. 78 FR 52487 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    .... 130402317-3707-01] RIN 0648-XC611 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2014 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... management measures to provide, to the extent practicable, fishing opportunities for commercial shark...

  13. 77 FR 61562 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    .... 120706221-2481-01] RIN 0648-XC106 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2013 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... the 2011 and 2012 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. We propose to keep the porbeagle shark...

  14. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    .... 110913585-1625-01] RIN 0648-BB36 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing... establish opening dates and adjust quotas for the 2012 fishing season for the Atlantic commercial shark... 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS proposes season openings based on...

  15. Length-weight relationships for 13 fish species from the Gulf of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Length-weight relationships (LWR) were estimated for 13 fish species which are of economic relevance in the commercial fisheries of the Gulf of Gabes (southern Tunisia). A total of 2403 fish specimens were sampled with several fishing gears from October 2008 to September 2009. The sample size ranged from 65 ...

  16. 78 FR 17355 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... 10(a)(1)(A) of the ESA of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) and regulations governing listed fish and... expect to kill any listed fish but a small number may die as an unintended result of the research...

  17. 77 FR 63294 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Klallam Tribe and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife have submitted five Hatchery and Genetic... programs are currently operating, and all five hatchery programs raise fish native to the Elwha River basin...

  18. 78 FR 25954 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... 15, 2012, NMFS received an application, including an HGMP, from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game... salmon returning to the Snake River basin, rear juveniles, and release eggs, juveniles, and adult fish...

  19. 78 FR 18963 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226). NMFS issues permits based on findings... Administrator for Fisheries, NMFS. Applications Received Permit 17551 The California Department of Fish and...

  20. 77 FR 42278 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226). NMFS issues permits based on.... This project will examine predation by introduced fishes (striped bass, largemouth bass, smallmouth...

  1. 77 FR 76001 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits(50 CFR parts 222-226). NMFS issues permits based on... described below, researchers do not expect to kill any listed fish but a small number may die as an...

  2. Functional feeding traits as predictors of invasive success of alien freshwater fish species using a food-fish model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopold A J Nagelkerke

    Full Text Available Invasions of Ponto-Caspian fish species into north-western European river basins accelerated since the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal in 1992. Since 2002, at least five Ponto-Caspian alien fish species have arrived in The Netherlands. Four species belong to the Gobiidae family (Neogobius fluviatilis, Neogobius melanostomus, Ponticola kessleri, and Proterorhinus semilunaris and one to the Cyprinidae family (Romanogobio belingi. These species are expected to be potentially deleterious for the populations of four native benthic fish species: Gobio gobio (Cyprinidae, Barbatula barbatula (Nemacheilidae, Cottus perifretum, and C. rhenanus (Cottidae. Invasion success may be dependent on competitive trophic interactions with native species, which are enabled and/or constrained by feeding-related morphological traits. Twenty-two functional feeding traits were measured in nine species (in total 90 specimens. These traits were quantitatively linked to the mechanical, chemical and behavioral properties of a range of aquatic resource categories, using a previously developed food-fish model (FFM. The FFM was used to predict the trophic profile (TP of each fish: the combined capacities to feed on each of the resource types. The most extreme TPs belonged to three alien species, indicating that they were most specialized among the studied species. Of these three, only P. kessleri overlapped with the two native Cottus species, indicating potential trophic competition. N. fluviatilis and R. belingi did not show any overlap, indicating that there is low trophic competition. The two remaining alien goby species (N. melanostomus and P. semilunaris had average TPs and could be considered generalist feeders. They overlapped with each other and with G. gobio and B. barbatula, indicating potential trophic competition. This study suggests that both generalist and specialist species can be successful invaders. Since the FFM predicts potential interactions between

  3. Functional feeding traits as predictors of invasive success of alien freshwater fish species using a food-fish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerke, Leopold A J; van Onselen, Eline; van Kessel, Nils; Leuven, Rob S E W

    2018-01-01

    Invasions of Ponto-Caspian fish species into north-western European river basins accelerated since the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal in 1992. Since 2002, at least five Ponto-Caspian alien fish species have arrived in The Netherlands. Four species belong to the Gobiidae family (Neogobius fluviatilis, Neogobius melanostomus, Ponticola kessleri, and Proterorhinus semilunaris) and one to the Cyprinidae family (Romanogobio belingi). These species are expected to be potentially deleterious for the populations of four native benthic fish species: Gobio gobio (Cyprinidae), Barbatula barbatula (Nemacheilidae), Cottus perifretum, and C. rhenanus (Cottidae). Invasion success may be dependent on competitive trophic interactions with native species, which are enabled and/or constrained by feeding-related morphological traits. Twenty-two functional feeding traits were measured in nine species (in total 90 specimens). These traits were quantitatively linked to the mechanical, chemical and behavioral properties of a range of aquatic resource categories, using a previously developed food-fish model (FFM). The FFM was used to predict the trophic profile (TP) of each fish: the combined capacities to feed on each of the resource types. The most extreme TPs belonged to three alien species, indicating that they were most specialized among the studied species. Of these three, only P. kessleri overlapped with the two native Cottus species, indicating potential trophic competition. N. fluviatilis and R. belingi did not show any overlap, indicating that there is low trophic competition. The two remaining alien goby species (N. melanostomus and P. semilunaris) had average TPs and could be considered generalist feeders. They overlapped with each other and with G. gobio and B. barbatula, indicating potential trophic competition. This study suggests that both generalist and specialist species can be successful invaders. Since the FFM predicts potential interactions between species, it

  4. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  5. Identifying the Species Threat Hotspots from Global Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Identifying species threat hotspots has been a successful approach for setting conservation priorities. One major challenge in conservation is that in many hotspots export industries continue to drive overexploitation. Conservation measures must consider not just the point of impact, but also the consumer demand that ultimately drives resource use. To understand which species threat hotspots are driven by which consumers, we have developed a new approach to link a set of biodiversity footprin...

  6. Application of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) for the identification of fish: a new way to determine the composition of processed food containing multiple species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fresne, Sophie; Popova, Milena; Le Vacon, Françoise; Carton, Thomas

    2011-12-14

    The identification of fish species in transformed food products is difficult because the existing methods are not adapted to heat-processed products containing more than one species. Using a common to all vertebrates region of the cytochrome b gene, we have developed a denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) fingerprinting method, which allowed us to identify most of the species in commercial crab sticks. Whole fish and fillets were used for the creation of a library of referent DHPLC profiles. Crab sticks generated complex DHPLC profiles in which the number of contained fish species can be estimated by the number of major fluorescence peaks. The identity of some of the species was predicted by comparison of the peaks with the referent profiles, and others were identified after collection of the peak fractions, reamplification, and sequencing. DHPLC appears to be a quick and efficient method to analyze the species composition of complex heat-processed fish products.

  7. Keragaman Spesies Ikan Tuna di Pasar Ikan Kedonganan Bali dengan Analisis Sekuen Kontrol Daerah Mitokondria DNA (SPECIES DIVERSITY OF TUNA FISH USING MITOCHONDRIAL DNA CONTROL REGION SEQUENCE ANALYSIS AT KEDONGANAN FISH MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Steven Triyomi Hariyanto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is an export commodity which has very high economic value. However, some tuna speciesare threatened with extinction. The purpose of this study was to identify the tuna species that aresold in Kedonganan Fish Market. The research method was polymerase chain reaction technique(PCR using the marker sequence mitochondrial DNA control region. Samples were obtained fromthe Fish Market tuna Kedonganan, Kuta, Badung, Bali. The total number of samples are 28specimens. Sequence from each sample was obtained through sequencing techniques. Sequencesobtained were run in BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool and subsequently analyzed withMEGA 5 for species confirmation. Three species of tuna that are identified in the Kedonganan FishMarket is: Thunnus albacares, T. obesus, and Katsuwonus pelamis. All three species have highgenetic variation HD = 1. This study needed to be continued with more number of samples todetermine the species of tuna sold in Kedonganan Fish Market.

  8. Evaluation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes toxicity in two fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimbaluk, Giovani Valentin; Ramsdorf, Wanessa Algarte; Perussolo, Maiara Carolina; Santos, Hayanna Karla Felipe; Da Silva De Assis, Helena Cristina; Schnitzler, Mariane Cristina; Schnitzler, Danielle Caroline; Carneiro, Pedro Gontijo; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2018-04-15

    Carbon Nanotubes are among the most promising materials for the technology industry. Their unique physical and chemical proprieties may reduce the production costs and improve the efficiency of a large range of products. However, the same characteristics that have made nanomaterials interesting for industry may be responsible for inducing toxic effects on the aquatic organisms. Since the carbon nanotubes toxicity is still a controversial issue, we performed tests of acute and subchronic exposure to a commercial sample of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in two fish species, an exotic model (Danio rerio) and a native one (Astyanax altiparanae). Using the alkaline version of the comet assay on erythrocytes and the piscine micronucleous, also performed on erythrocytes, it was verified that the tested carbon nanotubes sample did not generate apparent genotoxicity by means of single/double DNA strand break or clastogenic/aneugenic effects over any of the species, independently of the exposure period. Although, our findings indicate the possibility of the occurrence of CNTs-DNA crosslinks. Apparently, the sample tested induces oxidative stress after subchronic exposure as shown by activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The data obtained by the activity levels of acetylcholinesterase suggests acute neurotoxicity in Astyanax altiparanae and subchronic neurotoxicity in Danio rerio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  10. 77 FR 31835 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC049 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., 2012. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine...

  11. 76 FR 49735 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA631 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... Therese Conant, Acting Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine...

  12. The Effect of Water Temperature on Argulus foliaceus L. 1758 (Crustacea; Branchiura on Different Fish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KOYUN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parasites belonging to Argulus genus, known as fish louse (Argulus foliaceus L. significantly affect in negative way both in natural and farming environment. In this study, the pathogenic effect of fish louse temperature on fish depending on water was investigated. In this research to estimate the effects of several factors such as water temperature, gender of the fish and the infection of fish louse were studied through Poisson regression method. As fish species, Alburnus alburnus (bleak, Carassius carassius (crucian carp and Carassius auratus (golden carp were caught periodically, starting from May during the year, and the parasites were counted. The gender and metrical measures of the examined fish were categorized separately. The degrees of water temperature of the dam were measured. Results from Poisson regression analysis showed that fish louse has harmful effect on the mentioned fish, depending on the water temperature.

  13. Quantification of major allergen parvalbumin in 22 species of fish by SDS-PAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Yang, Tao; Yu, Cheng-Tao; Ume, Chiaki; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuo; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Fish is an important causative material of food allergy. Although the allergenicity of fish is considered to correlate with the content of parvalbumin, the major fish allergen, available information about the parvalbumin content in fish is limited. In this study, a simple and reliable quantification method for fish parvalbumin by SDS-PAGE was first established. Application of the SDS-PAGE method to 22 species of fish revealed a marked variation in parvalbumin content among fish. Furthermore, the parvalbumin content was found to be higher in dorsal white muscle than in ventral white muscle, in rostral part of white muscle than in caudal part of white muscle and in white muscle than in dark muscle. IgE reactivity of fish was roughly proportional to parvalbumin content. Interestingly, large-sized migratory fish, such as salmon, swordfish and tuna, were commonly very low in both parvalbumin content and IgE reactivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DNA barcoding and microsatellites help species delimitation and hybrid identification in endangered galaxiid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaecke, Delphine; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Young, Kyle; Sanzana, Jose; Orellana, Gabriel; Fowler, Daniel; Howes, Paul; Monzon-Arguello, Catalina; Consuegra, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    The conservation of data deficient species is often hampered by inaccurate species delimitation. The galaxiid fishes Aplochiton zebra and Aplochiton taeniatus are endemic to Patagonia (and for A. zebra the Falkland Islands), where they are threatened by invasive salmonids. Conservation of Aplochiton is complicated because species identification is hampered by the presence of resident as well as migratory ecotypes that may confound morphological discrimination. We used DNA barcoding (COI, cytochrome b) and a new developed set of microsatellite markers to investigate the relationships between A. zebra and A. taeniatus and to assess their distributions and relative abundances in Chilean Patagonia and the Falkland Islands. Results from both DNA markers were 100% congruent and revealed that phenotypic misidentification was widespread, size-dependent, and highly asymmetric. While all the genetically classified A. zebra were correctly identified as such, 74% of A. taeniatus were incorrectly identified as A. zebra, the former species being more widespread than previously thought. Our results reveal, for the first time, the presence in sympatry of both species, not only in Chilean Patagonia, but also in the Falkland Islands, where A. taeniatus had not been previously described. We also found evidence of asymmetric hybridisation between female A. taeniatus and male A. zebra in areas where invasive salmonids have become widespread. Given the potential consequences that species misidentification and hybridisation can have for the conservation of these endangered species, we advocate the use of molecular markers in order to reduce epistemic uncertainty.

  15. Indigenous fish species in the modern ichthyofauna of the Balkhash basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Shamilevich Mamilov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fish fauna of the Balkhash basin was mostly formed in the postglacial period and consists of 10 species from Cyprinidae family, 5 from Balitoridae, and 1 from Percidae. More than 20 alien fish species were introduced here during XXth century that led to eradication of indigenous fishes from the Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. Our investigations of the fish fauna during last 25 years revealed permanent shortage of living area of indigenous fishes. Nowadays fish communities from only indigenous fish species exist in some remote and isolated water bodies. Areas of all indigenous fish species are become disconnected. Reduction of habitats goes relatively slow for naked osman Gymnodiptychus dybowskii (Kessler, 1874, spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, and gray loach Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler, 1872. Drastic reductions of areas were revealed for Ili marinka Schizothorax pseudoaksaiensis Herzenstein 1889, Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus Kessler 1874, Severtsov’s loach Triplophysa sewerzowii (G.Nikolskii, 1938, Seven River’s minnow Phoxinus brachyurus Berg 1912, Balkhsh minnow Rhynchocypris poljakowii Kessler 1879, and Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Marinkas, osmans and perch often become victims of overfishing and poaching of local people. In that region water resources usually are used by wasteful way and loaded with pollutants. Many indigenous fish species are able to bear relatively high level of environment pollution. Hence, the main threats for indigenous fishes are introductions of trout and sander, habitats lose and unstable hydrological regimen.

  16. Grades of 43 Fish Species in Japan Based on IgE-binding Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumi Koyama

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: A correlation was observed between IgE levels and expression of symptoms after fish ingestion. High consumption of salmon, tuna, scad (including saurel, skipper, yellowtail, sardine, bonita and mackerel in Japan might be the cause of the high IgE-binding activity of these species. The grades of fish species consumed widely in Japan are likely to be useful for nutritional instruction of fish-allergic patients.

  17. The differentiation of common species in a coral-reef fish assemblage for recreational scuba diving

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tsen-Chien; Ho, Cheng-Tze; Jan, Rong-Quen

    2016-01-01

    Background Recreational scuba diving is a popular activity of the coral reef tourism industry. In practice, local diving centers recommend interesting sites to help visiting divers make their plans. Fish are among the major attractions, but they need to be listed with care because the temporal occurrence of a fish species is difficult to predict. To address this issue, we propose methods to categorize each fish species based on its long-term occurrence and likelihood of being seen. Methods We...

  18. Jointness through fishing days input in a multi-species fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Carsten Lynge

    .g. translog, normalized quadratic). In this paper we argue that jointness in the latter, essentially separable fishery is caused by allocation of fishing days input among harvested species. We developed a structural model of a multi-species fishery where the allocation of fishing days input causes production...

  19. 78 FR 23222 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC630 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. Species Covered in This Notice This...

  20. Identification of Shewanella baltica as the most important H2S-producing species during iced storage of danish marine fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Venkateswaran, K.; Satomi, M.

    2005-01-01

    are important in fish spoilage. More than 500 H2S-producing strains were isolated from iced stored marine fish (cod, plaice, and flounder) caught in the Baltic Sea during winter or summer time. All strains were identified as Shewanella species by phenotypic tests. Different Shewanella species were present...... unchanged (i.e., trimethylamine-N-oxide reduction and H2S production); however, the main H2S-producing organism was identified as S. baltica....

  1. Identifying species threat hotspots from global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro

    2017-01-04

    Identifying hotspots of species threat has been a successful approach for setting conservation priorities. One important challenge in conservation is that, in many hotspots, export industries continue to drive overexploitation. Conservation measures must consider not just the point of impact, but also the consumer demand that ultimately drives resource use. To understand which species threat hotspots are driven by which consumers, we have developed a new approach to link a set of biodiversity footprint accounts to the hotspots of threatened species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The result is a map connecting consumption to spatially explicit hotspots driven by production on a global scale. Locating biodiversity threat hotspots driven by consumption of goods and services can help to connect conservationists, consumers, companies and governments in order to better target conservation actions.

  2. Exploited but Unevaluated: DNA Barcoding Reveals Skates and Stingrays (Chordata, Chondrichthyes Species Landed in the Indonesian Fish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawis Madduppa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and precise species identification is important to fisheries management and conservation. However, many rays and skates in Indonesia are currently being exploited and landed into traditional fish market without a proper identification. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify species of skates and stingrays that were landed and traded in three fish markets in Indonesia (Palabuhanratu, Muara Saban, and Lampung using molecular techniques and to determine the conservation status of the identified species based on IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources as well as defined by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using a pair of primer, fish-BCL and fish-BCH. Of 29 tissue samples collected from the study sites, a total of five species were successfully identified: Dipturus chilensis (4, Himantura walga (1, Neotrygon kuhlii (11, Taeniura lymma (9 and Rhinoptera javanica (4. The Neighbor Joining phylogeny of mitochondrial lineages, based on partial COI gene sequences, the ingroup haplotypes were clustered into five main clades representing each species. The identified stingrays were being listed as vulnerable (D. chilensis and R. javanica, near threatened (H. walga and T. lymma, and data deficient (N. kuhlii by IUCN, with two species (D. chilensis and H. walga population were indicated decreased. Unfortunately, all of identified species have not been evaluated by CITES regarding their trade status. As a consequences, a valuable effort should be placed to create a scientific network for monitoring programmes not only on a local scale, and to make pressure on governments for adopting molecular techniques as tools for controlling and avoiding misidentification. Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA, Phylogeny, Coral Triangle, Taxonomy, Fisheries

  3. Fish egg predation by Baltic sprat and herring: do species characteristics and development stage matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation of eggs by clupeids has been identified as a major factor contributing to early life stage mortality of Baltic cod. We used data from ichthyoplankton sampling and clupeid stomach analyses to investigate whether eggs of other fish species are to a similar extent subject to predation...... generally negatively selected by both predators, while fish eggs were non-selectively consumed in summer. Predation is suggested to account for a large fraction of mortality of cod eggs at older stages, i.e. those eggs, which have survived the often detrimentally low oxygen concentration in and below...... the permanent halocline. The consumption rates of sprat eggs at all development stages relative to production rates were considerably lower compared to cod, suggesting that egg predation is of lesser importance for sprat recruitment....

  4. A Mixed-Method Approach for Quantifying Illegal Fishing and Its Impact on an Endangered Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Christopher M; Jensen, Olaf P; Mendsaikhan, Bud

    2015-01-01

    Illegal harvest is recognized as a widespread problem in natural resource management. The use of multiple methods for quantifying illegal harvest has been widely recommended yet infrequently applied. We used a mixed-method approach to evaluate the extent, character, and motivations of illegal gillnet fishing in Lake Hovsgol National Park, Mongolia and its impact on the lake's fish populations, especially that of the endangered endemic Hovsgol grayling (Thymallus nigrescens). Surveys for derelict fishing gear indicate that gillnet fishing is widespread and increasing and that fishers generally use 3-4 cm mesh gillnet. Interviews with resident herders and park rangers suggest that many residents fish for subsistence during the spring grayling spawning migration and that some residents fish commercially year-round. Interviewed herders and rangers generally agree that fish population sizes are decreasing but are divided on the causes and solutions. Biological monitoring indicates that the gillnet mesh sizes used by fishers efficiently target Hovsgol grayling. Of the five species sampled in the monitoring program, only burbot (Lota lota) showed a significant decrease in population abundance from 2009-2013. However, grayling, burbot, and roach (Rutilus rutilus) all showed significant declines in average body size, suggesting a negative fishing impact. Data-poor stock assessment methods suggest that the fishing effort equivalent to each resident family fishing 50-m of gillnet 11-15 nights per year would be sufficient to overexploit the grayling population. Results from the derelict fishing gear survey and interviews suggest that this level of effort is not implausible. Overall, we demonstrate the ability for a mixed-method approach to effectively describe an illegal fishery and suggest that these methods be used to assess illegal fishing and its impacts in other protected areas.

  5. Different phylogenomic approaches to resolve the evolutionary relationships among model fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrisolo, Enrico; Kuhl, Heiner; Forcato, Claudio; Vitulo, Nicola; Reinhardt, Richard; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2010-12-01

    Comparative genomics holds the promise to magnify the information obtained from individual genome sequencing projects, revealing common features conserved across genomes and identifying lineage-specific characteristics. To implement such a comparative approach, a robust phylogenetic framework is required to accurately reconstruct evolution at the genome level. Among vertebrate taxa, teleosts represent the second best characterized group, with high-quality draft genome sequences for five model species (Danio rerio, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Oryzias latipes, Takifugu rubripes, and Tetraodon nigroviridis), and several others are in the finishing lane. However, the relationships among the acanthomorph teleost model fishes remain an unresolved taxonomic issue. Here, a genomic region spanning over 1.2 million base pairs was sequenced in the teleost fish Dicentrarchus labrax. Together with genomic data available for the above fish models, the new sequence was used to identify unique orthologous genomic regions shared across all target taxa. Different strategies were applied to produce robust multiple gene and genomic alignments spanning from 11,802 to 186,474 amino acid/nucleotide positions. Ten data sets were analyzed according to Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbor joining methods. Extensive analyses were performed to explore the influence of several factors (e.g., alignment methodology, substitution model, data set partitions, and long-branch attraction) on the tree topology. Although a general consensus was observed for a closer relationship between G. aculeatus (Gasterosteidae) and Di. labrax (Moronidae) with the atherinomorph O. latipes (Beloniformes) sister taxon of this clade, with the tetraodontiform group Ta. rubripes and Te. nigroviridis (Tetraodontiformes) representing a more distantly related taxon among acanthomorph model fish species, conflicting results were obtained between data sets and methods, especially with respect

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Pseudomonas Species Associated with Spoilage of Chilled Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osan Bahurmiz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from spoiled chilled tilapia (Oreochromis sp. was evaluated in this study. In the first stage of this study, red tilapia was subjected to chilled storage (4°C for 3 weeks, and spoilage bacteria were isolated and identified from the spoiled fish. Pseudomonas was the dominant bacteria isolated from the spoiled fish and further identification revealed that P. putida, P. fluorescens and Pseudomonas spp. were the main species of this group. In the second stage, methanolic extracts of 15 selected plant species were screened for their antimicrobial activity, by agar disc diffusion method, against the Pseudomonas isolates. Results indicated that most of the extracts had different degrees of activity against the bacterial isolates. The strongest activity was exhibited by bottlebrush flower (Callistemon viminalis extract. This was followed by extracts from guava bark (Psidium guajava and henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis. Moderate antimicrobial activities were observed in extracts of clove (Syzygium aromaticum, leaf and peel of tamarind (Tamarindus indica, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, wild betel leaf (Piper sarmentosum and fresh thyme (Thymus spp.. Weak or no antimicrobial activity was observed from the remaining extracts. The potential antimicrobial activity shown by some plant extracts in this study could significantly contribute to the fish preservation.

  7. Total mercury levels in commercial fish species from Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lena, Gabriella; Casini, Irene; Caproni, Roberto; Fusari, Andrea; Orban, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Total mercury levels were measured in 42 commercial fish species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy and in 6 aquaculture species. The study on wild fish covered species differing in living habitat and trophic level. The study on farmed fish covered marine and freshwater species from intensive and extensive aquaculture and their feed. Mercury levels were analysed by thermal decomposition-amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total mercury concentrations in the muscle of wild fish showed a high variability among species (0.025-2.20 mg kg -1 wet weight). The lowest levels were detected in low trophic-level demersal and pelagic-neritic fish and in young individuals of high trophic-level species. Levels exceeding the European Commission limits were found in large-size specimens of high trophic-level pelagic and demersal species. Fish from intensive farming showed low levels of total mercury (0.008-0.251 mg kg -1 ). Fish from extensive rearing showed variable contamination levels, depending on the area of provenience. An estimation of the human intake of mercury associated to the consumption of the studied fish and its comparison with the tolerable weekly intake is provided.

  8. Arsenic levels in ten species of fish from the east coat of the Arabian Sea, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffar, M.; Tariq, J.; Ashraf, M.

    1994-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations are estimated in ten marine fish species from the East Coast of the Arabian Sea, Pakistan, by the atomic absorption method. The following species are included in the study: Picnic seabream, Indian scad, Indian ariomma; Bigeye scad, Threadfins Cornet fish; Lefteye flounder, Goldband goatfish, Smooth dwarf monoclebream and half mourning coraker. A total of 716 fish samples within a preselected narrow weight range and comprising of 5-7 specimens of each species are analysed. Of all the species investigated the maximum concentration (17.602) micro g/g dry weight was found in goldband goatfish. (author)

  9. 78 FR 18273 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    .... FDA-2013-D-0269] Draft Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With... seafood processors who purchase reef fish how to minimize the risk of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) from...

  10. 77 FR 75611 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... promulgated under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The plans specify the propagation of five species of... 10, 2000). Dated: December 17, 2012. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of...

  11. 75 FR 50746 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... is intended to increase knowledge of species listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to..., Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine Fisheries Service...

  12. 78 FR 6298 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... listed species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. NMFS also announced the availability for public... provided above in the addresses section. Dated: January 24, 2013. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species...

  13. Species richness and patterns of invasion in plants, birds, and fishes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Stohlgren; David T. Barnett; Curtis H. Flather; Pam L. Fuller; Bruce G. Peterjohn; John T. Kartesz; Lawrence L. Master

    2006-01-01

    We quantified broad-scale patterns of species richness and species density (mean # species/km2) for native and non-indigenous plants, birds, and fishes in the continental USA and Hawaii. We hypothesized that the species density of native and non-indigenous taxa would generally decrease in northern latitudes and higher elevations following...

  14. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated.

  15. Explorations on Temperature, Oxygen, Nutrients and Habitat Demands of Fish Species Found in River Coruh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Akbulut

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available For the protection of our natural resources, fish species being economic and ecological richness of the natural in the basin of the Çoruh to know their request is extremely a vital important issue. In this study, temperature and oxygen demand, food and habitat of 18 fish species in six families found in river Çoruh assessed and discussed with the literature and database. Limiting the impact of water temperature on the reproductive, growth and nutrition emphasized. The fish species in the basin spawn at temperatures between 14-30°C according to database. Three species belonging to a family feed with animal food floating in the water. The species belonging to the other families more feed mixed with plant and animal foods diet in the floor or near the ground. Importance of their environmental demands has clarified for conservation and sustainable use of these fish species inhabiting in Çoruh River.

  16. Life history strategies of fish species and biodiversity in eastern USA streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael R.; Brown, Larry M.

    2015-01-01

    Predictive models have been used to determine fish species that occur less frequently than expected (decreasers) and those that occur more frequently than expected (increasers) in streams in the eastern U.S. Coupling life history traits with 51 decreaser and 38 increaser fish species provided the opportunity to examine potential mechanisms associated with predicted changes in fish species distributions in eastern streams. We assigned six life history traits – fecundity, longevity, maturation age, maximum total length, parental care, and spawning season duration – to each fish species. Decreaser species were significantly smaller in size and shorter-lived with reduced fecundity and shorter spawning seasons compared to increaser species. Cluster analysis of traits revealed correspondence with a life history model defining equilibrium (low fecundity, high parental care), opportunistic (early maturation, low parental care), and periodic (late maturation, high fecundity, low parental care) end-point strategies. Nearly 50 % of decreaser species were associated with an intermediate opportunistic-periodic strategy, suggesting that abiotic factors such as habitat specialization and streamflow alteration may serve as important influences on life history traits and strategies of decreaser species. In contrast, the percent of increaser species among life history strategy groups ranged from 21 to 32 %, suggesting that life history strategies of increaser species were more diverse than those of decreaser species. This study highlights the utility of linking life history theory to biodiversity to better understand mechanisms that contribute to fish species distributions in the eastern U.S.

  17. Integrative taxonomy supports new candidate fish species in a poorly studied neotropical region: the Jequitinhonha River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugedo, Marina Lages; de Andrade Neto, Francisco Ricardo; Pessali, Tiago Casarim; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso

    2016-06-01

    Molecular identification through DNA barcoding has been proposed as a way to standardize a global biodiversity identification system using a partial sequence of the mitochondrial COI gene. We applied an integrative approach using DNA barcoding and traditional morphology-based bioassessment to identify fish from a neotropical region possessing low taxonomic knowledge: the Jequitinhonha River Basin (Southeastern Brazil). The Jequitinhonha River Basin (JRB) has a high rate of endemism and is considered an area of high priority for fish conservation, with estimates indicating the presence of around 110 native and non-indigenous species. DNA barcodes were obtained from 260 individuals belonging to 52 species distributed among 35 genera, 21 families and 6 orders, including threatened and rare species such as Rhamdia jequitinhonha and Steindachneridion amblyurum. The mean Kimura two-parameter genetic distances within species, genera and families were: 0.44, 12.16 and 20.58 %, respectively. Mean intraspecific genetic variation ranged from 0 to 11.43 %, and high values (>2 %) were recovered for five species. Species with a deep intraspecific distance, possibly flagging overlooked taxa, were detected within the genus Pimelodella. Fifteen species, only identified to the genus level, had unique BINs, with a nearest neighbor distance over 2 % and therefore, potential new candidate species supported by DNA barcoding. The integrative taxonomy approach using DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy may be a remedy to taxonomy impediment, accelerating species identification by flagging potential new candidate species and to adequately conserve the megadiverse neotropical ichthyofauna.

  18. Species Interactions Drive Fish Biodiversity Loss in a High-CO2 World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Goldenberg, Silvan U; Ferreira, Camilo M; Russell, Bayden D; Connell, Sean D

    2017-07-24

    Accelerating climate change is eroding the functioning and stability of ecosystems by weakening the interactions among species that stabilize biological communities against change [1]. A key challenge to forecasting the future of ecosystems centers on how to extrapolate results from short-term, single-species studies to community-level responses that are mediated by key mechanisms such as competition, resource availability (bottom-up control), and predation (top-down control) [2]. We used CO 2 vents as potential analogs of ocean acidification combined with in situ experiments to test current predictions of fish biodiversity loss and community change due to elevated CO 2 [3] and to elucidate the potential mechanisms that drive such change. We show that high risk-taking behavior and competitive strength, combined with resource enrichment and collapse of predator populations, fostered already common species, enabling them to double their populations under acidified conditions. However, the release of these competitive dominants from predator control led to suppression of less common and subordinate competitors that did not benefit from resource enrichment and reduced predation. As a result, local biodiversity was lost and novel fish community compositions were created under elevated CO 2 . Our study identifies the species interactions most affected by ocean acidification, revealing potential sources of natural selection. We also reveal how diminished predator abundances can have cascading effects on local species diversity, mediated by complex species interactions. Reduced overfishing of predators could therefore act as a key action to stall diversity loss and ecosystem change in a high-CO 2 world. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional diversity measures revealed impacts of non-native species and habitat degradation on species-poor freshwater fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Nicole; Villéger, Sébastien; Wilkes, Martin; de Sostoa, Adolfo; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto

    2018-06-01

    Trait-based ecology has been developed for decades to infer ecosystem responses to stressors based on the functional structure of communities, yet its value in species-poor systems is largely unknown. Here, we used an extensive dataset in a Spanish region highly prone to non-native fish invasions (15 catchments, N=389 sites) to assess for the first time how species-poor communities respond to large-scale environmental gradients using a taxonomic and functional trait-based approach in riverine fish. We examined total species richness and three functional trait-based indices available when many sites have ≤3 species (specialization, FSpe; originality, FOri and entropy, FEnt). We assessed the responses of these taxonomic and functional indices along gradients of altitude, water pollution, physical habitat degradation and non-native fish biomass. Whilst species richness was relatively sensitive to spatial effects, functional diversity indices were responsive across natural and anthropogenic gradients. All four diversity measures declined with altitude but this decline was modulated by physical habitat degradation (richness, FSpe and FEnt) and the non-native:total fish biomass ratio (FSpe and FOri) in ways that varied between indices. Furthermore, FSpe and FOri were significantly correlated with Total Nitrogen. Non-native fish were a major component of the taxonomic and functional structure of fish communities, raising concerns about potential misdiagnosis between invaded and environmentally-degraded river reaches. Such misdiagnosis was evident in a regional fish index widely used in official monitoring programs. We recommend the application of FSpe and FOri to extensive datasets from monitoring programs in order to generate valuable cross-system information about the impacts of non-native species and habitat degradation, even in species-poor systems. Scoring non-native species apart from habitat degradation in the indices used to determine ecosystem health is

  20. The gut microbial community of Midas cichlid fish in repeatedly evolved limnetic-benthic species pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Paolo; Fruciano, Carmelo; Frickey, Tancred; Jones, Julia C; Meyer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Gut bacterial communities are now known to influence a range of fitness related aspects of organisms. But how different the microbial community is in closely related species, and if these differences can be interpreted as adaptive is still unclear. In this study we compared microbial communities in two sets of closely related sympatric crater lake cichlid fish species pairs that show similar adaptations along the limnetic-benthic axis. The gut microbial community composition differs in the species pair inhabiting the older of two crater lakes. One major difference, relative to other fish, is that in these cichlids that live in hypersaline crater lakes, the microbial community is largely made up of Oceanospirillales (52.28%) which are halotolerant or halophilic bacteria. This analysis opens up further avenues to identify candidate symbiotic or co-evolved bacteria playing a role in adaptation to similar diets and life-styles or even have a role in speciation. Future functional and phylosymbiotic analyses might help to address these issues.

  1. [Seasonal changes of fish species composition and diversity in mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xing-huan; Zhang, Heng; Jiang, Ke-yi; Wu, Ming

    2010-12-01

    In order to understand the spatiotemporal variation of fish species composition and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay, thirty six surveys were conducted in the mudflat area, inning area, and aquaculture area in the south bank of the Bay in. March (early spring), May (spring), July (summer), and October (autumn), 2009. A total of 41 species belonging to 9 orders and 16 families were observed, among which, Cyprinid had the largest species number (14 species, 33.3% of the total), followed by Gobiidae (8 species, 19.1%). According to the lifestyle of fish, these 41 species could be divided into five ecological types, i.e., freshwater type (21 species), brackish-water type (16 species), inshore type (2 species), anadromous type (Coilia ectenes), and catadromios type (Anguilla japonica). The fish abundance was the highest (54. 5 fish per net) in summer, followed by in spring and autumn, and the lowest (17.7 fish per net) in early spring. In the three habitats, mudflat area and inning area had the similar seasonal change of fish abundance, i.e., the lowest in early spring, the highest in summer, and then decreased in autumn. Only two or three species were the dominant species in different seasons. In mudflat area, the dominant species were Mugil cephalus and Liza carinatus; while in inning and aquaculture areas, the dominant species were Carassius auratus, Hemiculter leucisculus, and Pseudorasbora parva. The values of Margalef's richness index (D), Pielou's evenness index (J), and Shannon index (H) were lower in March than in other months, but had no significant differences among May, July, and October (P > 0.05). The H value ranged in 0. 27-2. 13, being the lowest in March and higher in May and October (1.66 and 1.63, respectively). Overall, the fish abundance and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay had apparent seasonal changes.

  2. Introduction of non-native marine fish species to the Canary Islands waters through oil platforms as vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, José G.; González, José A.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Martín, José A.; Ruiz-Díaz, Raquel; Lorenzo, José M.; Luque, Ángel

    2016-11-01

    This work documents the introduction of non-native fish species to the Canary Islands (central-eastern Atlantic) through oil rigs. Methodological approaches have included surveys by underwater visual censuses around and under oil platforms and along the docking area of rigs at the Port of Las Palmas. Eleven non-native fish species were registered. Paranthias furcifer, Abudefduf hoefleri, Acanthurus bahianus, Acanthurus chirurgus, and Acanthurus coeruleus are first recorded from the Canaries herein. Other three species could not be identified, although they have never been observed in the Canaries. Cephalopholis taeniops, Abudefduf saxatilis, and Acanthurus monroviae had been previously recorded. Native areas of these species coincide with the areas of origin and the scale of oil rigs with destination the Port of Las Palmas. The absence of native species in the censuses at rigs and their presence at rigs docking area, together with the observation of non-native species after the departure of platforms, reject the possibility that these non-native species were already present in the area introduced by another vector. C. taeniops, A. hoefleri, A. saxatilis, A. chirurgus, A. coeruleus and A. monroviae are clearly seafarer species. A. bahianus seems to be a potential seafarer species. P. furcifer is a castaway species. For the moment, the number of individuals of the non-native species in marine ecosystems of the Canaries seems to be low, and more investigation is needed for controlling these translocations.

  3. Targeting Abundant Fish Stocks while Avoiding Overfished Species: Video and Fishing Surveys to Inform Management after Long-Term Fishery Closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Historically, it has been difficult to balance conservation goals and yield objectives when managing multispecies fisheries that include stocks with various vulnerabilities to fishing. As managers try to maximize yield in mixed-stock fisheries, exploitation rates can lead to less productive stocks becoming overfished. In the late 1990s, population declines of several U.S. West Coast groundfish species caused the U.S. Pacific Fishery Management Council to create coast-wide fishery closures, known as Rockfish Conservation Areas, to rebuild overfished species. The fishery closures and other management measures successfully reduced fishing mortality of these species, but constrained fishing opportunities on abundant stocks. Restrictive regulations also caused the unintended consequence of reducing fishery-dependent data available to assess population status of fished species. As stocks rebuild, managers are faced with the challenge of increasing fishing opportunities while minimizing fishing mortality on rebuilding species. We designed a camera system to evaluate fishes in coastal habitats and used experimental gear and fishing techniques paired with video surveys to determine if abundant species could be caught in rocky habitats with minimal catches of co-occurring rebuilding species. We fished a total of 58 days and completed 741 sets with vertical hook-and-line fishing gear. We also conducted 299 video surveys in the same locations where fishing occurred. Comparison of fishing and stereo-video surveys indicated that fishermen could fish with modified hook-and-line gear to catch abundant species while limiting bycatch of rebuilding species. As populations of overfished species continue to recover along the U.S. West Coast, it is important to improve data collection, and video and fishing surveys may be key to assessing species that occur in rocky habitats. PMID:28002499

  4. Species persistence: a re-look at the freshwater fish fauna of Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.M. Knight

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Loss of habitat is one of the prime reasons for species extinction. It is generally established that certain classes of animals are more prone to extinction than others due to their restricted use of available habitats. Freshwater fish are among these sensitive animals. While local extinctions have rendered some species rare throughout their geographical range, many others have demonstrated higher levels of persistence. This paper focuses on a recent in-depth study of the primary freshwater fishes in and around Chennai. The study that spanned a period of two years recorded a total of 75 species of primary freshwater fish, of which 17 are new reports.

  5. The diet and consumption of dominant fish species in the upper Scheldt estuary, Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maes, J.; De Brabandere, Loreto; Ollevier, F.

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the diet composition and trophic niche overlap were examined for the dominant members of the fish assemblage of the turbid low-salinity zone of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium). Samples of fish were taken in the cooling water of a power plant. Juveniles of eight species dominated...... of trophic niche overlap showed that, in general, niche overlap between individuals of the same species was significantly higher than overlap between individuals from different species, suggesting that the available food resources were partitioned. The total annual prey consumption by the dominant fish...

  6. Warming impacts on fish species composition in the Kattegat-Belt Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Karoline Minna; MacKenzie, Brian

    Sea temperatures have been rising in the waters near Denmark during the past 1-2 decades and are expected to affect marine populations, species, communities and foodwebs. Here we investigate whether and how the species richness and composition of the marine fish community in the Kattegat and Belt...... of the southern range limits of all species captured in the surveys shows that the mean southern latitudinal limit of the fish community has been decreasing and is also corrrelated with bottom temperatures; these patterns are consistent with immigration of fish from southerly zoogeographic regions. Warm...

  7. Tetrodotoxin detection and species identification of pufferfish in retail roasted fish fillet by DNA barcoding in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Shen, Qing; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Chunhui; Ji, Rong; Li, Fengqin; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the pufferfish species and detects tetrodotoxin (TTX) in roasted fish fillet samples collected in Beijing, Qingdao and Xiamen, China. The cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was used as the target gene for identification of the pufferfish species in the samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screened the TTX levels in samples that had been detected as containing pufferfish by DNA barcode. A total of 125 samples were identified by DNA barcodes; 32 (26%) samples contained pufferfish composition and, among them, 26 (81%) were the highly toxic species Lagocephalus lunaris. All 32 samples containing the pufferfish composition were positive for TTX with levels ranging from 100 to 63,800 ng g(-1). Most of the 32 samples contained the highly toxic L. lunaris. Based on the results, we suggest that the monitoring of roasted fish fillet should be strengthened and the processing procedures should be standardised to minimise TTX poisoning caused by pufferfish.

  8. Resource partitioning within major bottom fish species in a highly productive upwelling ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Souad; El Halouani, Hassan; Tai, Imane; Masski, Hicham

    2017-09-01

    The Saharan Bank (21-26°N) is a wide subtropical continental shelf and a highly productive upwelling ecosystem. The bottom communities are dominated by octopus and sparid fish, which are the main targets of bottom-trawl fishing fleets. To investigate resource partitioning within the bottom fish community, adult fish from 14 of the most abundant species were investigated for stomach content analysis. Samples were collected during two periods: October 2003 and May 2007. The diet of the analysed species showed more variation between periods than between size classes, suggesting that temporal or spatial variability in prey availability appears to play a significant role in their diet. Multivariate analysis and subsequent clustering led to a grouping of the species within five trophic guilds. Two species were fish feeders, and the others mainly fed on benthic invertebrates, where epibenthic crustaceans, lamellibranchs and fish were the most important groups in defining trophic guilds. We found that the studied species had a high rate of overlapping spatial distributions and overlapping trophic niches. In this highly productive upwelling ecosystem, where food resources may not be a limiting factor, inter-specific competition did not appear to be an important factor in structuring bottom fish communities. For the species that showed differences in the proportions of prey categories in comparison with other ecosystems, the rise of the proportion of epibenthic crustaceans in their diet was a common feature; a possible consequence of the benthic productivity of this highly productive upwelling ecosystem.

  9. Temporal comparison and predictors of fish species abundance and richness on undisturbed coral reef patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena L.E.S. Wagner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Large disturbances can cause rapid degradation of coral reef communities, but what baseline changes in species assemblages occur on undisturbed reefs through time? We surveyed live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness in 1997 and again in 2007 on 47 fringing patch reefs of varying size and depth at Mersa Bareika, Ras Mohammed National Park, Egypt. No major human or natural disturbance event occurred between these two survey periods in this remote protected area. In the absence of large disturbances, we found that live coral cover, reef fish abundance and fish species richness did not differ in 1997 compared to 2007. Fish abundance and species richness on patches was largely related to the presence of shelters (caves and/or holes, live coral cover and patch size (volume. The presence of the ectoparasite-eating cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, was also positively related to fish species richness. Our results underscore the importance of physical reef characteristics, such as patch size and shelter availability, in addition to biotic characteristics, such as live coral cover and cleaner wrasse abundance, in supporting reef fish species richness and abundance through time in a relatively undisturbed and understudied region.

  10. Fish species composition, density-distribution patterns, and impingement during upwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Sharma, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of cooling system intakes and discharges on Lake Michigan fishes are highly dependent on inshore species composition and spatial distribution which, in turn, are affected by natural hydrological conditions. Significant (5 to 10 C) short-term decreases in water temperature (due to upwelling) could cause cold shock in fish equilibrated to either ambient or plume temperatures; substantial changes in distribution due to avoidance or attraction responses; and resultant changes in susceptibility to impingement. The objectives of this study are to characterize the changes in fish species composition, density, and thermal distribution as a result of natural upwellings, and to relate these factors to intake and discharge effects. Day and night sampling was conducted in ambient (reference) and thermal plume waters near the Zion Nuclear Plant on four occasions between 17 July and 11 September 1975. Density-distribution patterns and species composition of fish were determined by means of gill nets, bottom trawls, seines, and a sonic fish locater

  11. [Species composition, diversity and density of small fishes in two different habitats in Niushan Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shao-Wen; Li, Zhong-Jie; Cao, Wen-Xuan

    2007-07-01

    This paper studied the spatial distribution of small fishes in a shallow macrophytic lake, Niushan Lake in spring 2003, and its relations with habitat heterogeneity. Based on the macrophyte cover condition, distance from lake shore and water depth, two representative habitat types in the lake were selected. Habitat A was near the shore with dense submersed macrophyte, while habitat B was far from the shore with sparse submersed macrophyte. Small fishes were sampled quantitatively by block net (180 m2), and their densities within the net area were estimated by multiple mark-recapture or Zippin's removal method. The results showed that there were some differences in species composition, biodiversity measurement, and estimated density of small fishes between the two habitats: 1) the catches in habitat A consisted of 14 small fish species from 5 families, among which, benthopelagic species Rhodeus ocellatus, Paracheilognathus imberbis and Pseudorasbora parva were considered as dominant species, while those in habitat B consisted of 9 small fish species from 3 families, among which, bottom species Rhinogobius giurinus and Micropercops swinhonis were dominant; 2) the Bray-Curtis index between the two small fish communities was 0.222, reflecting their low structure similarity, and no significant difference was observed between their rank/ abundance distributions, both of which belonged to log series distribution; 3) the total density of 9 major species in habitat A was 8.71 ind x m(-2), while that of 5 major species in habitat B was only 3.54 ind x m(-2). The fact that the spatial distribution of the small fishes differed with habitats might be related to their habitat need for escaping predators, feeding, and breeding, and thus, aquatic macrophyte habitat should be of significance in the rational exploitation of small fish resources as well as the conservation of fish resource diversity.

  12. Diversitas Dan Hilangnya Jenis-jenis Ikan Disungai Ciliwung Dan Sungai Cisadane [Study of Fish Diversity and the Lost of Fish Species of River Ciliwung and R. Cisadane

    OpenAIRE

    Hadiaty, Renny Kurnia

    2011-01-01

    The fish research in Indonesian waters has been begun since 16 century ago. Most of the research collected fish around Batavia.Many new species was described and the type specimens deposited at the museums in Europe or America.The study of fish diversity and the lost of fish species was conducted at River Ciliwung and R. Cisadane in 2009. The aim of this study is to describe the recent fish diversity in both river drainages, then make a comparison with the number of species recorded based on ...

  13. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region....

  14. Nutrient composition of important fish species in Bangladesh and potential contribution to recommended nutrient intakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogard, Jessica R.; Thilsted, Shakuntala H.; Marks, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Fish, in Bangladesh where malnutrition remains a significant development challenge, is an irreplaceable animal-source food in the diet of millions. However, existing data on the nutrient composition of fish do not reflect the large diversity available and have focused on only a few select nutrien...... indigenous species, which should guide policy and programmes to improve food and nutrition security in Bangladesh....

  15. Food and feeding habits of four selected fish species in Cross River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food and feeding habits of four fish species: Citharinus latus, Ethmalosa fimbriata, Hepsetus odoe and Trichiurus lepturus, from the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria were investigated. In studying the diets and feeding habits of the fishes, both the frequency of occurrence and numerical methods were used. Results show that ...

  16. The intertidal fish fauna of the west coast of South Africa - species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-11-05

    Nov 5, 1991 ... elucidated by means of stepwise multiple regression, both at the whole community and individual species levels. ... and were selected to represent the full range of pool parame- ... fish and the total mass of fish caught as dependent variables .... 'bi- and tri-modal' vertical zonation patterns at Groenrivier.

  17. 75 FR 75458 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering Permits; Letters... intent to issue Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research Permits (SRPs), Display Permits... of HMS for public display and scientific research that is exempt from regulations (e.g., seasons...

  18. 76 FR 5338 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA183 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. [[Page 5339

  19. 78 FR 77659 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XD040 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... NMFS regulations (50 CFR parts 222-226) governing listed fish and wildlife permits. [[Page 77660...

  20. 76 FR 5339 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA182 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... are issued in accordance with and are subject to the ESA and NMFS regulations governing listed fish...

  1. 77 FR 2037 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA928 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... advises the public that a direct take permit has been issued to the Washington Department of Fish and...

  2. 76 FR 6401 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA110 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife submitted to NMFS, pursuant to the protective...

  3. 77 FR 67796 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC342 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... NMFS regulations governing listed fish and wildlife permits (50 CFR parts 222-226). Those individuals...

  4. Projected shifts in fish species dominance in Wisconsin lakes under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Read, Jordan S; Hansen, Jonathan F; Winslow, Luke A

    2017-04-01

    Temperate lakes may contain both coolwater fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) and warmwater fish species such as largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Recent declining walleye and increasing largemouth bass populations have raised questions regarding the future trajectories and management actions for these species. We developed a thermodynamic model of water temperatures driven by downscaled climate data and lake-specific characteristics to estimate daily water temperature profiles for 2148 lakes in Wisconsin, US, under contemporary (1989-2014) and future (2040-2064 and 2065-2089) conditions. We correlated contemporary walleye recruitment and largemouth bass relative abundance to modeled water temperature, lake morphometry, and lake productivity, and projected lake-specific changes in each species under future climate conditions. Walleye recruitment success was negatively related and largemouth bass abundance was positively related to water temperature degree days. Both species exhibited a threshold response at the same degree day value, albeit in opposite directions. Degree days were predicted to increase in the future, although the magnitude of increase varied among lakes, time periods, and global circulation models (GCMs). Under future conditions, we predicted a loss of walleye recruitment in 33-75% of lakes where recruitment is currently supported and a 27-60% increase in the number of lakes suitable for high largemouth bass abundance. The percentage of lakes capable of supporting abundant largemouth bass but failed walleye recruitment was predicted to increase from 58% in contemporary conditions to 86% by mid-century and to 91% of lakes by late century, based on median projections across GCMs. Conversely, the percentage of lakes with successful walleye recruitment and low largemouth bass abundance was predicted to decline from 9% of lakes in contemporary conditions to only 1% of lakes in both future periods. Importantly, we identify up to 85

  5. The differentiation of common species in a coral-reef fish assemblage for recreational scuba diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsen-Chien; Ho, Cheng-Tze; Jan, Rong-Quen

    2016-01-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a popular activity of the coral reef tourism industry. In practice, local diving centers recommend interesting sites to help visiting divers make their plans. Fish are among the major attractions, but they need to be listed with care because the temporal occurrence of a fish species is difficult to predict. To address this issue, we propose methods to categorize each fish species based on its long-term occurrence and likelihood of being seen. We assume that there are K categories of occurrence of a fish assemblage and propose two methods [an arithmetic-mean method (AM) and a geometric-mean method (GM)] to define the range of species in each category. Experiments based on long term datasets collected at three underwater stations (each having 51-53 surveys and totals of 262-284 fish species) on coral reefs in southern Taiwan showed that when K = 4 (rare, occasional, frequent and common categories), 11-14 species were concurrently assigned to the common category by AM for data sets based on surveys 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, or 51-53 in contrast to the 18-26 species assigned as common by GM. If a similarity index of 0.7 (compared to the total pool of fish species) was the minimum threshold for diver satisfaction, then 20-25 surveys provide sufficient data for listing the common species at a given dive spot. Common fish species, are the most temporally stable, and thus are more appropriate for attracting divers. These can be effectively differentiated by either AM or GM with at least 25 surveys. We suggest regular updating of each fish's category through periodic surveys to assure the accuracy of information at a particular dive spot.

  6. 76 FR 43986 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., in the form of Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act... the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is defined under the...

  7. 77 FR 41168 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... available for review pursuant to section 10(c) of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). DATES: Comments and... the ESA. NMFS regulations governing permits for threatened and endangered species are promulgated at...

  8. 75 FR 14133 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., in the form of Hatchery and Genetic Management Plans (HGMPs) pursuant to the Endangered Species Act... the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is defined under the...

  9. 77 FR 21084 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The proposed research program is intended to increase knowledge.... Lisa Manning, Acting Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources, National Marine...

  10. 75 FR 82212 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Chinook salmon under Limit 6 of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) 4(d) Rule for salmon and steelhead, a.... Dated: December 22, 2010. Susan Pultz, Acting Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected...

  11. 76 FR 61344 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... modifications, as required by the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543) (ESA), is based on a.... Species Covered in This Notice This notice is relevant to federally endangered Central California Coast...

  12. 75 FR 14132 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). The proposed modification is to extend the existing permit... regulations prohibit the ``taking'' of a species listed as endangered or threatened. The term ``take'' is...

  13. 76 FR 39856 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... permits and permit modifications, as required by the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C. 1531-1543... and wildlife permits. Species Covered in This Notice This notice is relevant to federally endangered...

  14. 77 FR 27188 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations promulgated for Pacific salmon and steelhead under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The HGMPs...). Dated: May 3, 2012. Angela Somma, Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of Protected Resources...

  15. 76 FR 20956 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... regulations promulgated for salmon and steelhead listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The FMEP... July 10, 2000, Endangered Species Act (ESA) 4(d) rule for salmon and steelhead (65 FR 42422) and...

  16. BIOMETRY AND COMPOSITION OF FISH SPECIES IN OWENA RESERVOIR, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAPOHUNDA Olawumi Oluwafunmilola

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of fish species present in Owena reservoir was conducted between October 2004 and March 2005. Fish samples were taken from the catch of the fishermen operating in the reservoir. The results of the survey showed that 14 fish species belonging to seven families were recorded. Two families namely Characidae and Clariidae constituted the dominant fish families in the reservoir. Among the Characidae, Brycinus nurse (23.1% and among the Clariidae family, Clarias gariepinus (22.8% were dominant. Other fish species with significant abundance were Sarotherodon galilaeus (9.3%, Parachanna obscura (8.0%, Clarias anguillaris (7.7% and Oreochromis niloticus (6.4%. The meristic features of the two most abundant fish species caught are as follows: Brycinus nurse had two dorsal spines with eight dorsal fins, two anal spines with eleven anal fins, 25 caudal fins, one pectoral spine and 13 pectoral fins and two ventral spines with seven ventral fins. Clarias gariepinus had 75 dorsal fins, 31 anal fins, 10 caudal fins, six pectoral fins and five ventral fins. The morphometric features of the two most abundant fish species are: Brycinus nurse: total length: 312mm, standard length: 255mm, head length: 60mm, body length: 90mm and body girth: 190mm. Clarias gariepinus: total length: 265mm, standard length: 240mm, head length: 62mm, body length: 62mm and body girth: 130mm.

  17. Diversity of aquatic Pseudomonas species and their activity against the fish pathogenic oomycete Saprolegnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Rzeszutek, E.; Voort, van der M.; Wu, C.H.; Thoen, E.; Skaar, I.; Bulone, V.; Dorrestein, P.C.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruijn, de I.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens are increasingly threatening animals and plants globally. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species adversely affect wild and cultivated populations of amphibians and fish, leading to substantial reductions in biodiversity and food productivity. With the ban of

  18. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1981 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  19. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1985 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  20. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1994 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  1. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1998 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  2. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1993 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  3. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1996 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  4. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1982 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  5. 78 FR 43145 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC767 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This...

  6. 78 FR 34653 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC717 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of decision and availability of...

  7. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon and L. kasmira occupied the highest position (T=4.50), L. nebulosus occupied the lower one (TL=3.41). The role of the increasing abundance of small pelagic fish in the diet of many species after the upwelling event is evident, but also different feeding strategies are reported, according to fish ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Addressing species diversity in biotransformation: variability in expressed transcripts of hepatic biotransformation enzymes among fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increasing evidence that diverse xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes exist among fishes, potentially resulting in different chemical sensitivities and accumulation, but this has never been systematically evaluated. One concern is that model test species such as rainbow trou...

  9. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1984 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  10. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1989 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  11. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1997 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  12. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1983 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  13. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1980 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  14. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1988 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  15. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1992 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  16. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1990 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  17. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1991 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  18. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1986 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  19. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1987 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  20. Florida Reef Fish Visual Census 1979 Species Site Matrix (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida Keys. The...

  1. FishVis, A regional decision support tool for identifying vulnerabilities of riverine habitat and fishes to climate change in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jana S.; Covert, S. Alex; Estes, Nick J.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Krueger, Damon; Wieferich, Daniel J.; Slattery, Michael T.; Lyons, John D.; McKenna, James E.; Infante, Dana M.; Bruce, Jennifer L.

    2016-10-13

    Climate change is expected to alter the distributions and community composition of stream fishes in the Great Lakes region in the 21st century, in part as a result of altered hydrological systems (stream temperature, streamflow, and habitat). Resource managers need information and tools to understand where fish species and stream habitats are expected to change under future conditions. Fish sample collections and environmental variables from multiple sources across the United States Great Lakes Basin were integrated and used to develop empirical models to predict fish species occurrence under present-day climate conditions. Random Forests models were used to predict the probability of occurrence of 13 lotic fish species within each stream reach in the study area. Downscaled climate data from general circulation models were integrated with the fish species occurrence models to project fish species occurrence under future climate conditions. The 13 fish species represented three ecological guilds associated with water temperature (cold, cool, and warm), and the species were distributed in streams across the Great Lakes region. Vulnerability (loss of species) and opportunity (gain of species) scores were calculated for all stream reaches by evaluating changes in fish species occurrence from present-day to future climate conditions. The 13 fish species included 4 cold-water species, 5 cool-water species, and 4 warm-water species. Presently, the 4 cold-water species occupy from 15 percent (55,000 kilometers [km]) to 35 percent (130,000 km) of the total stream length (369,215 km) across the study area; the 5 cool-water species, from 9 percent (33,000 km) to 58 percent (215,000 km); and the 4 warm-water species, from 9 percent (33,000 km) to 38 percent (141,000 km).Fish models linked to projections from 13 downscaled climate models projected that in the mid to late 21st century (2046–65 and 2081–2100, respectively) habitats suitable for all 4 cold-water species and 4

  2. Impacts of species introductions on the health of fish communities receiving chronic radionuclide inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; Casselman, J.M.; Cornett, R.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    There is widespread interest in gaining further understanding of the relative influences of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystem structure and function. To address this, work has been done to evaluate the effects of the introduction of an efficient predator (northern pike) on a fish community in a small lake (Perch Lake, Chalk River, Ontario) receiving chronic inputs of radionuclides over a 50-year period. In general, large changes in fish community structure, with corresponding changes in fish health, occurred following the pike introduction. For example, several forage fish species were extirpated from the lake and densities of the past top predator, yellow perch, became greatly reduced, likely due to predation by northern pike and/or other species in the lake. The reduced perch numbers appeared to alleviate an ecological bottleneck, which resulted in significant increases in brown bullhead densities to levels that were much higher than observed in other water bodies under typical conditions. Corresponding changes in the health of the Perch Lake fish community could also be detected, and included decreased fish diversity, shifts in fish community size structure to smaller body sizes, significant reductions in fish condition factors, reduced hepato-somatic indices, depletion of fish internal fat reserves, hardening of the gastrointestinal tract, resorption of gonadal material, degradation of muscle tissue, emaciation and ultimately, mortality of northern pike and brown bullheads. Evaluation of data indicated that female fishes responded more quickly than did males in terms of condition loss, likely due to their higher energetic requirements. In addition, although pike and bullheads were detrimentally affected by the pike introduction, health of forage fish species, such as pumpkinseeds, did not appear to be greatly influenced. No clear relationships existed between fish community health and exposure to radionuclides in the lake. (author)

  3. Checklist of non-indigenous fish species of the River Danube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty non-indigenous fish species were recorded in the Danube River. The manner of their introduction, vectors, pathways, as well as invasive status are discussed. The major modes of introduction and translocation were found to be aquaculture and fish stocking. The main environmental consequences of the spread of alien fish are related to changes in the structure and functioning of the fish community and to the introduction of non-indigenous parasites. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 173025, TR 37009 and III 43002 and European Commission 6th Framework Program: Integrated Project ALARM (contract GOCE-CT-2003-506675

  4. The Bifurcation and Control of a Single-Species Fish Population Logistic Model with the Invasion of Alien Species

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Qiaoling; Li, Jinghao; Zhang, Qingling

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study systematically the bifurcation and control of a single-species fish population logistic model with the invasion of alien species based on the theory of singular system and bifurcation. It regards Spartina anglica as an invasive species, which invades the fisheries and aquaculture. Firstly, the stabilities of equilibria in this model are discussed. Moreover, the sufficient conditions for existence of the trans-critical bifurcation and the singularity ind...

  5. Reef fishes in biodiversity hotspots are at greatest risk from loss of coral species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally J Holbrook

    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems are under a variety of threats from global change and anthropogenic disturbances that are reducing the number and type of coral species on reefs. Coral reefs support upwards of one third of all marine species of fish, so the loss of coral habitat may have substantial consequences to local fish diversity. We posit that the effects of habitat degradation will be most severe in coral regions with highest biodiversity of fishes due to greater specialization by fishes for particular coral habitats. Our novel approach to this important but untested hypothesis was to conduct the same field experiment at three geographic locations across the Indo-Pacific biodiversity gradient (Papua New Guinea; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; French Polynesia. Specifically, we experimentally explored whether the response of local fish communities to identical changes in diversity of habitat-providing corals was independent of the size of the regional species pool of fishes. We found that the proportional reduction (sensitivity in fish biodiversity to loss of coral diversity was greater for regions with larger background species pools, reflecting variation in the degree of habitat specialization of fishes across the Indo-Pacific diversity gradient. This result implies that habitat-associated fish in diversity hotspots are at greater risk of local extinction to a given loss of habitat diversity compared to regions with lower species richness. This mechanism, related to the positive relationship between habitat specialization and regional biodiversity, and the elevated extinction risk this poses for biodiversity hotspots, may apply to species in other types of ecosystems.

  6. Reef fishes in biodiversity hotspots are at greatest risk from loss of coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Sally J; Schmitt, Russell J; Messmer, Vanessa; Brooks, Andrew J; Srinivasan, Maya; Munday, Philip L; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2015-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are under a variety of threats from global change and anthropogenic disturbances that are reducing the number and type of coral species on reefs. Coral reefs support upwards of one third of all marine species of fish, so the loss of coral habitat may have substantial consequences to local fish diversity. We posit that the effects of habitat degradation will be most severe in coral regions with highest biodiversity of fishes due to greater specialization by fishes for particular coral habitats. Our novel approach to this important but untested hypothesis was to conduct the same field experiment at three geographic locations across the Indo-Pacific biodiversity gradient (Papua New Guinea; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; French Polynesia). Specifically, we experimentally explored whether the response of local fish communities to identical changes in diversity of habitat-providing corals was independent of the size of the regional species pool of fishes. We found that the proportional reduction (sensitivity) in fish biodiversity to loss of coral diversity was greater for regions with larger background species pools, reflecting variation in the degree of habitat specialization of fishes across the Indo-Pacific diversity gradient. This result implies that habitat-associated fish in diversity hotspots are at greater risk of local extinction to a given loss of habitat diversity compared to regions with lower species richness. This mechanism, related to the positive relationship between habitat specialization and regional biodiversity, and the elevated extinction risk this poses for biodiversity hotspots, may apply to species in other types of ecosystems.

  7. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, H.B.

    2014-04-24

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, H.B.; Feldheim, K.A.; Jones, G.P.; Ma, K.; Mansour, H.; Perumal, S.; Williamson, D.H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Important variations in parvalbumin content in common fish species: a factor possibly contributing to variable allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, A; Scheuermann, T; Hilger, C; Hentges, F

    2010-01-01

    Although 95% of fish-allergic patients are sensitized to the major fish allergen parvalbumin, clinical reactions to different fish species vary considerably in symptoms, intensity and frequency in allergic subjects. This study aimed at the quantification of parvalbumin levels in salmon, trout, cod, carp, mackerel, herring, redfish and tuna. Fish muscle extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE and parvalbumin content was estimated by densitometric band quantification. Individual antisera were raised in BALB/c mice against parvalbumins purified from seven fish species. Parvalbumin content was quantified in fish (raw/processed) and skin prick test (SPT) solutions by ELISA using the corresponding anti-serum for detection and the purified parvalbumins as standards. Using SDS-PAGE scanning, parvalbumin contents were 2 mg for cod, carp, redfish and herring. Using ELISA, parvalbumin content ranged from 2.5 mg per gram raw muscle for carp, herring and redfish. The parvalbumin content of processed samples (cooked/commercial) was 20-60% lower. Allergen content in SPT samples ranged from 20 to 70 μg parvalbumin/ml of extract. No parvalbumin was found in tuna SPT solution. The parvalbumin content of most commonly consumed fish species varies considerably. Differences range from severalfold to one hundredfold. This has to be taken into account when designing food challenge tests and advising fish-allergic patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Detection of Listeria species in Gamma irradiated Fishes during Storage periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, W.S.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to detect the post irradiation recovery and growth of Listeria species encountered in frozen whole Tilapia fishes ,Tilapia fillet and frozen Hamour fillets fishes (-18 degree C) irradiated at 1, 2, 2.5 and 3 kGy. The pathogen was eliminated at a dose of 2.5 kGy of gamma radiation. The presence of the microorganism was monitored for sex months on appropriate selective media. The ability of recovery of the organism from irradiation damage was not influenced by the kind of fish. No increased counts of the organism in irradiated fishes at 2.5 kGy of gamma radiation was noticed during 6 months of freezing storage at -18 degree C. This study also aimed to evaluate the effect of different enrichment procedures on the detection of Listeria species in fishes

  11. Characterization of chitin extracted from fish scales of marine fish species purchased from local markets in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumengan, I. F. M.; Suptijah, P.; Wullur, S.; Talumepa, A.

    2017-10-01

    Chitin is a biodegradable biopolymer with a variety of commercial applications, including in the food food-supplement industries as a marine-derived nutraceutical. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular structure of chitin extracted from fish scales of important marine fish purchased from local markets in North Sulawesi. Chitin compound material was obtained from a specific fish scale, and then sequentially carrying out a boiling treatment to separate it from a complex with collagen. From the scales of two fish species, parrotfish (Chlorurus sordidus) and red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus), the rendemen of chitin obtained were 45 % and 33%, respectively. Structural characteristics of the chitin were discussed by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) analysis data. FTIR analysis was done using infrared spectroscopy, which is the resulting spectrum represents the molecular absorption and transmission, creating a molecular fingerprint of the sample. The molecular structure of chitin, C18H26N2O10, where the hydroxyl group on the second carbon replaced by acetyl amide, was shown by the infrared spectra. In the infrared spectra, chitin from parrot fish scales indicated the amide band at 1627.13 cm-1, and chitin from red snapper fish scales the amide band at 1648.09 cm-1 which are a typical one for marine chitin. The hydroxyl and amino bands at the ranged spectra up to 3500 cm-1. The yields of chitin isolated from fish scale were relatively huge. Some treatments are necessary to confirm the molecular conformation and deacetylation behavior. All products from the extraction of fish scales could be more accessible for structural modifications to develop biocompatible materials for pharmaceutical purposes.

  12. Impacts of species introductions on the health of fish communities receiving chronic radionuclide exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; Casselman, J.M.; Cornett, R.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential impacts of a northern pike introduction on the health of a fish community receiving chronic radionuclide exposure, primarily from 90 Sr. Overall, although significant changes occurred in the community composition and the health of fish populations following the pike introduction, these were not linked to radionuclide dose to fishes. This finding was further supported by assessing the health of forage fishes, which did not significantly change in the pre-versus post-pike fish communities and were comparable in condition to forage fishes inhabiting lakes with background radionuclide levels. Application of such resilient species as 'baseline organisms' can provide a useful tool in the routine monitoring of ecosystems affected by multiple stressors. (author)

  13. Farming a new economically viable fish species: Kisinja (Barbus altianalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Aruho, C.; Ondhoro, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Kisinja (Barbus altianalis)is an indigenous omnivorous fish, of high economic value in Uganda. It was widely distributed in most lakes and rivers in the country but its stocks were depleted due to overfishing and degradation of its natural habitat. 1t can grow up to a maximum length of 120m and a weight of 15kg in the wild and grows faster, attains larger size than commonly farmed fishes in Uganda, including the Nile tilapia, the African catfish, and mirror carp. Kisinja is a highly valuable ...

  14. 30 CFR 285.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protect essential fish habitats identified and described under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation... Act? (a) If, during the conduct of your approved activities, MMS finds that essential fish habitat or... adverse affects on Essential Fish Habitat will be incorporated as terms and conditions in the lease and...

  15. Strontium content in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, J-O.; Heselius, S-J.; Himberg, M.; Hagerstand, H.; Harju, L.; Lindroos, A.; Gunnelius, K.; Smâtt, J-H.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The salinity of water in the northern Baltic Sea forms a gradient as it receives fresh water from several large rivers in the north and salty water by infrequent inflows of North Sea water in the south. The salinity of brackish water in the north-south direction (700 km) changes from about 3 to 7%. In an attempt to use the salinity gradient to study migration patterns, sagittae otoliths were collected from common fish species caught at different locations along the Finnish west coast. Otoliths from fishes caught in fresh-water lakes in Finland and Estonia were also included in the study for comparison. Part of the otoliths was grind and the powder was pressed to pellets which were irradiated in air with an ion beam from the Abo Akademi cyclotron and the emitted X-rays were measured. Other otoliths were embedded in epoxy and polished to reveal the ring structure. These prepared otoliths were irradiated with the ion beam to determine elemental profiles. Furthermore, XRD was applied to study the crystal structure and to identify the minerals in the otoliths. The strontium level of water is usually related to its salinity, and as the strontium ions are able to replace calcium ions in fish otoliths [1], the strontium content in fish otoliths from the same locations is expected to be very similar. However, the PIXE analyses revealed large differences in the strontium content between otoliths from different species of fish caught at the same locations. The strontium concentration in otoliths of perch and pike from the Aland Islands was about 1600 μg/g and of common whitefish 3600 μg/g. The strontium concentration in perch otoliths from the Oravais archipelago, about 400 km north of the Aland Islands, was 1400 μg/g. Corresponding concentration in otoliths of perch and pike caught in fresh-water lakes was 200 μg/g and of common whitefish from Saadjarve 400 μg/g and from Lake Inari 1000 μg/g. Otoliths of perch contained no detectable amounts of zinc (Iower

  16. Strontium content in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, J-O.; Heselius, S-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Himberg, M.; Hagerstand, H. [Cell Biology, Department of Biosciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Harju, L. [Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Geology and Mineralogy, Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland); Gunnelius, K.; Smâtt, J-H. [Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Abo Akademi University, Turku (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The salinity of water in the northern Baltic Sea forms a gradient as it receives fresh water from several large rivers in the north and salty water by infrequent inflows of North Sea water in the south. The salinity of brackish water in the north-south direction (700 km) changes from about 3 to 7%. In an attempt to use the salinity gradient to study migration patterns, sagittae otoliths were collected from common fish species caught at different locations along the Finnish west coast. Otoliths from fishes caught in fresh-water lakes in Finland and Estonia were also included in the study for comparison. Part of the otoliths was grind and the powder was pressed to pellets which were irradiated in air with an ion beam from the Abo Akademi cyclotron and the emitted X-rays were measured. Other otoliths were embedded in epoxy and polished to reveal the ring structure. These prepared otoliths were irradiated with the ion beam to determine elemental profiles. Furthermore, XRD was applied to study the crystal structure and to identify the minerals in the otoliths. The strontium level of water is usually related to its salinity, and as the strontium ions are able to replace calcium ions in fish otoliths [1], the strontium content in fish otoliths from the same locations is expected to be very similar. However, the PIXE analyses revealed large differences in the strontium content between otoliths from different species of fish caught at the same locations. The strontium concentration in otoliths of perch and pike from the Aland Islands was about 1600 μg/g and of common whitefish 3600 μg/g. The strontium concentration in perch otoliths from the Oravais archipelago, about 400 km north of the Aland Islands, was 1400 μg/g. Corresponding concentration in otoliths of perch and pike caught in fresh-water lakes was 200 μg/g and of common whitefish from Saadjarve 400 μg/g and from Lake Inari 1000 μg/g. Otoliths of perch contained no detectable amounts of zinc (Iower

  17. Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in three commercial fish species in the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Hassanaghaei, Mina; Moore, Farid; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Soltanian, Siyavash; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmad Reza; Sorooshian, Armin

    2018-04-01

    Five heavy metals/metalloids and related potential health risks were investigated in three commercially important fish species (Anodontostoma chacunda, Belangerii, and Cynoglossurs arel) in Musa Estuary and Mahshahr Harbour of the Persian Gulf. A total of 116 fish samples were collected, and their liver and muscle organs were separately analyzed using ICP-MS. Results revealed that studied metals concentrations (with some exceptions) varied among sampling stations, fish species and their organs. Human health risk is evaluated using different indices. The results indicated that arsenic and mercury are the most hazardous elements. Estimated daily intake (EDI) for the metals exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) for all studied fish species. Also, target risk (TR) of arsenic indicated that consumption over a long period of time may result in a carcinogenic effect. The results are expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming food products grown in particular areas. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Trophic levels of fish species of commercial importance in the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo B García

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies on commercial important fish species are of great value to support resource management issues. This study calculated trophic levels of those Colombian Caribbean fish species whose diet has been locally described. Usable diet data of 119 species resulted in 164 trophic level estimates. An ordinary regression model relating trophic level and fish size was formulated. The regression slope was positive and significantly different from zero (p<0.05 suggesting a scaling of trophic level with fish size. Both the list of trophic levels and the regression model should be of help in the formulation of trophic indicators and models of neotropical ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1195-1203. Epub 2011 September 01.

  19. Distribution of Po-210 in two species of predatory marine fish from the Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mársico, E.T.; Ferreira, M.S.; São Clemente, S.C.; Gouvea, R.C.S.; Jesus, E.F.O.; Conti, C.C.; Conte Junior, C.A.; Kelecom, A.G.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) concentration was quantified in the muscle tissue and organs of two predatory marine fishes (Genypterus brasiliensis and Cynoscion microlepidotus) from Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species C. microlepidotus, a benthic carnivore, registered higher 210 Po in its tissue. The organs associated with digestion displayed the maximum radionuclide compared with other organs. The average activity was 2 mBq kg −1 for G. brasiliensis and it was 6 mBq kg −1 for C. microlepidotus. The activity concentrations varied significantly between the species and among organs. -- Highlights: • We analyzed the distribution of 210 Po in two species of predator marine fish. • 210 Po tends to accumulate in some organs, which make this radionuclide radiotoxic. • The consumption of small quantities of fish can represent high potential of 210 Po exposure. • Data about 210 Po bioaccumulation in tropical predator marine fish are limited

  20. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences for popul......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... differences in the patterns were identified between stocks located in the upper and lower thermal range. In the latter, strong year-classes occurred mainly during warmer seasons and vice versa. For stocks located in the warmer waters, however, no significant patterns were obtained, suggesting that increased......, to incorporate the influence of ecosystem factors, mainly temperature and habitat size, on model parameters representing cod maximum reproductive rate and carrying capacity. The pattern of temperature effects on cod productivity at the species level were identified and SR model parameters were estimated...

  1. length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Naeem

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Length-weight (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR) were determined for a freshwater catfish ... Key words: Mystus bleekeri, length-weight relationship, length-length relationship, predictive equations. INTRODUCTION. Mystus bleekeri (freshwater catfish Day, 1877), locally ..... fish farmers, Aquacult.

  2. Using a Popular Pet Fish Species to Study Territorial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abante, Maria E.

    2005-01-01

    The colourful, vigorous territorial display behaviour of the Siamese fighting fish, "Betta splendens", has great appeal for both pet enthusiasts and animal behaviourists. Their beauty, longevity, easy maintenance and rearing make them a popular pet and an ideal science laboratory specimen. This investigation utilises "B. splendens" to test for the…

  3. Mercury and lead concentrations in six cartilaginous fish species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury and lead concentrations in cartilaginous fishes from Lagos Lagoon and coastal waters of South-West Nigeria were investigated between May and August 2013. There are obvious discharges of toxic heavy metal substances into these waters and which can get to man by bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in ...

  4. Identifying a breeding habitat of a critically endangered fish, Acheilognathus typus, in a natural river in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masayuki K.; Maki, Nobutaka; Sugiyama, Hideki; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater biodiversity has been severely threatened in recent years, and to conserve endangered species, their distribution and breeding habitats need to be clarified. However, identifying breeding sites in a large area is generally difficult. Here, by combining the emerging environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis with subsequent traditional collection surveys, we successfully identified a breeding habitat for the critically endangered freshwater fish Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan, which is one of the original habitats of this species. Based on DNA cytochrome B sequences of A. typus and closely related species, we developed species-specific primers and a probe that were used in real-time PCR for detecting A. typus eDNA. After verifying the specificity and applicability of the primers and probe on water samples from known artificial habitats, eDNA analysis was applied to water samples collected at 99 sites along Omono River. Two of the samples were positive for A. typus eDNA, and thus, small fixed nets and bottle traps were set out to capture adult fish and verify egg deposition in bivalves (the preferred breeding substrate for A. typus) in the corresponding regions. Mature female and male individuals and bivalves containing laid eggs were collected at one of the eDNA-positive sites. This was the first record of adult A. typus in Omono River in 11 years. This study highlights the value of eDNA analysis to guide conventional monitoring surveys and shows that combining both methods can provide important information on breeding sites that is essential for species' conservation.

  5. Identifying a breeding habitat of a critically endangered fish, Acheilognathus typus, in a natural river in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masayuki K; Maki, Nobutaka; Sugiyama, Hideki; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2017-11-14

    Freshwater biodiversity has been severely threatened in recent years, and to conserve endangered species, their distribution and breeding habitats need to be clarified. However, identifying breeding sites in a large area is generally difficult. Here, by combining the emerging environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis with subsequent traditional collection surveys, we successfully identified a breeding habitat for the critically endangered freshwater fish Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan, which is one of the original habitats of this species. Based on DNA cytochrome B sequences of A. typus and closely related species, we developed species-specific primers and a probe that were used in real-time PCR for detecting A. typus eDNA. After verifying the specificity and applicability of the primers and probe on water samples from known artificial habitats, eDNA analysis was applied to water samples collected at 99 sites along Omono River. Two of the samples were positive for A. typus eDNA, and thus, small fixed nets and bottle traps were set out to capture adult fish and verify egg deposition in bivalves (the preferred breeding substrate for A. typus) in the corresponding regions. Mature female and male individuals and bivalves containing laid eggs were collected at one of the eDNA-positive sites. This was the first record of adult A. typus in Omono River in 11 years. This study highlights the value of eDNA analysis to guide conventional monitoring surveys and shows that combining both methods can provide important information on breeding sites that is essential for species' conservation.

  6. Use of fish parasite species richness indices in analyzing anthropogenically impacted coastal marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikowski, R.; Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.

    2003-10-01

    The diversity of fish parasite life history strategies makes these species sensitive bioindicators of aquatic ecosystem health. While monoxenous (single-host) species may persist in highly perturbed, extreme environments, this is not necessarily true for heteroxenous (multiple-host) species. As many parasites possess complex life cycles and are transmitted through a chain of host species, their dependency on the latter to complete their life cycles renders them sensitive to perturbed environments. In the present study, parasite communities of grey mullet Liza aurata and Liza ramada (Mugilidae) were investigated at two Mediterranean coastal sites in northern Israel: the highly polluted Kishon Harbor (KH) and the relatively unspoiled reference site, Ma'agan Michael (MM). Both are estuarine sites in which grey mullet are one of the most common fish species. The results indicate that fish at the polluted site had significantly less trematode metacercariae than fish at the reference site. Heteroxenous gut helminths were completely absent at the polluted sampling site. Consequently, KH fish displayed lower mean parasite species richness. At the same time, KH fish mean monoxenous parasite richness was higher, although the prevalence of different monoxenous taxa was variable. Copepods had an increased prevalence while monogenean prevalence was significantly reduced at the polluted site. This variability may be attributed to the differential susceptibility of the parasites to the toxicity of different pollutants, their concentration, the exposure time and possible synergistic effects. In this study, we used the cumulative species curve model that extrapolates "true" species richness of a given habitat as a function of increasing sample size. We considered the heteroxenous and monoxenous species separately for each site, and comparison of curves yielded significant results. It is proposed to employ this approach, originally developed for estimating the "true" parasite

  7. Fish and phytoplankton exhibit contrasting temporal species abundance patterns in a dynamic north temperate lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen J A Hansen

    Full Text Available Temporal patterns of species abundance, although less well-studied than spatial patterns, provide valuable insight to the processes governing community assembly. We compared temporal abundance distributions of two communities, phytoplankton and fish, in a north temperate lake. We used both 17 years of observed relative abundance data as well as resampled data from Monte Carlo simulations to account for the possible effects of non-detection of rare species. Similar to what has been found in other communities, phytoplankton and fish species that appeared more frequently were generally more abundant than rare species. However, neither community exhibited two distinct groups of "core" (common occurrence and high abundance and "occasional" (rare occurrence and low abundance species. Both observed and resampled data show that the phytoplankton community was dominated by occasional species appearing in only one year that exhibited large variation in their abundances, while the fish community was dominated by core species occurring in all 17 years at high abundances. We hypothesize that the life-history traits that enable phytoplankton to persist in highly dynamic environments may result in communities dominated by occasional species capable of reaching high abundances when conditions allow. Conversely, longer turnover times and broad environmental tolerances of fish may result in communities dominated by core species structured primarily by competitive interactions.

  8. Fish and Phytoplankton Exhibit Contrasting Temporal Species Abundance Patterns in a Dynamic North Temperate Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Carey, Cayelan C.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal patterns of species abundance, although less well-studied than spatial patterns, provide valuable insight to the processes governing community assembly. We compared temporal abundance distributions of two communities, phytoplankton and fish, in a north temperate lake. We used both 17 years of observed relative abundance data as well as resampled data from Monte Carlo simulations to account for the possible effects of non-detection of rare species. Similar to what has been found in other communities, phytoplankton and fish species that appeared more frequently were generally more abundant than rare species. However, neither community exhibited two distinct groups of “core” (common occurrence and high abundance) and “occasional” (rare occurrence and low abundance) species. Both observed and resampled data show that the phytoplankton community was dominated by occasional species appearing in only one year that exhibited large variation in their abundances, while the fish community was dominated by core species occurring in all 17 years at high abundances. We hypothesize that the life-history traits that enable phytoplankton to persist in highly dynamic environments may result in communities dominated by occasional species capable of reaching high abundances when conditions allow. Conversely, longer turnover times and broad environmental tolerances of fish may result in communities dominated by core species structured primarily by competitive interactions. PMID:25651399

  9. DNA barcoding of freshwater fishes and the development of a quantitative qPCR assay for the species-specific detection and quantification of fish larvae from plankton samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, W K W; Bond, P; Ashton, K J; Roberts, D T; Tibbetts, I R

    2014-08-01

    The barcoding of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coI) gene was amplified and sequenced from 16 species of freshwater fishes found in Lake Wivenhoe (south-eastern Queensland, Australia) to support monitoring of reservoir fish populations, ecosystem function and water health. In this study, 630-650 bp sequences of the coI barcoding gene from 100 specimens representing 15 genera, 13 families and two subclasses of fishes allowed 14 of the 16 species to be identified and differentiated. The mean ± s.e. Kimura 2 parameter divergence within and between species was 0.52 ± 0.10 and 23.8 ± 2.20% respectively, indicating that barcodes can be used to discriminate most of the fish species accurately. The two terapontids, Amniataba percoides and Leiopotherapon unicolor, however, shared coI DNA sequences and could not be differentiated using this gene. A barcoding database was established and a qPCR assay was developed using coI sequences to identify and quantify proportional abundances of fish species in ichthyoplankton samples from Lake Wivenhoe. These methods provide a viable alternative to the time-consuming process of manually enumerating and identifying ichthyoplankton samples. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Distribution Species Composition And Size Of Flying Fish Exocoetidae In The Ceram Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friesland Tuapetel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ceram Sea is new resources area of catching flying fish. The purpose of study is to determine the species composition size and distribution of flying fish caught by drifting baits. Flying fish data collection was conducted in June until October 2013 in three locations i.e Kaimana East Ceram and Fak-Fak. There are three flying fish species collected namely Hirundichthys oxycephalus Torani Cypselurus poecilopterus Banggulung and Chellopogon abeia yellow wing. The results was showed that in Fak-Fak and Kaimana there are two types of fly fishing that H. oxycephalus andC. poecilopterus whereas in East Ceram found three types including H. oxycephalus C. poecilopterus and C. abeia. The dominant type of flying fish in three locations is H. oxycephalus. Flying fish has a variety size range of body size from 195.6 to 243.6 mm in Kaimana East Ceram range from 206.3 to 284.3 mm while Fak-Fak range from 187.1 to 243.1 mm. The result is expected to be a reference literature as basic data for the management and sustainable utilization of flyling fish in Ceram sea.

  11. Prevalence of salmonella species in fishes and its control using irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, W. S.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella species infecting frozen Tilapia fish fillets and whole fishes was determined, during the summer seasons of years 2006 and 2007.Elimination of Salmonella species in Tilapia fishes with different doses of γ-rays was investigated. Doses of 1, 2, 3, 3.5, 5, 4 and 5 kGy were used to find out the least dose that will be sufficient to eliminate the pathogen from the examined samples. Two hundred fish fillet samples and 200 whole fishes were subjected for bacteriological examination for the incidence of Salmonella infection. Out of them 19 fillets and 8 whole fishes were infected with the pathogen in a percentage of 9.5 % and 4 % respectively. The serological determination detected the infection with Salmonella typhimurium in all the affected samples. A dose of 3.5 kGy γ-rays was determined to be the least appropriate dose for elimination of Salmonella typhimurium from Tilapia fishes. The best appearance characteristics were obtained at 3.5 kGy of γ-irradiation. There was a gradual decrease in the count of the micro-organism as the dose of irradiation increased (linear regression). So a dose of 3.5 kGy of γ-irradiation is recommended for healthy, good looking and economic fishes for public health benefits.

  12. Spatial Scaling of Environmental Variables Improves Species-Habitat Models of Fishes in a Small, Sand-Bed Lowland River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Radinger

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability and the distinct mobility of species depict fundamental keys for explaining and understanding the distribution of river fishes. In recent years, comprehensive data on river hydromorphology has been mapped at spatial scales down to 100 m, potentially serving high resolution species-habitat models, e.g., for fish. However, the relative importance of specific hydromorphological and in-stream habitat variables and their spatial scales of influence is poorly understood. Applying boosted regression trees, we developed species-habitat models for 13 fish species in a sand-bed lowland river based on river morphological and in-stream habitat data. First, we calculated mean values for the predictor variables in five distance classes (from the sampling site up to 4000 m up- and downstream to identify the spatial scale that best predicts the presence of fish species. Second, we compared the suitability of measured variables and assessment scores related to natural reference conditions. Third, we identified variables which best explained the presence of fish species. The mean model quality (AUC = 0.78, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased when information on the habitat conditions up- and downstream of a sampling site (maximum AUC at 2500 m distance class, +0.049 and topological variables (e.g., stream order were included (AUC = +0.014. Both measured and assessed variables were similarly well suited to predict species' presence. Stream order variables and measured cross section features (e.g., width, depth, velocity were best-suited predictors. In addition, measured channel-bed characteristics (e.g., substrate types and assessed longitudinal channel features (e.g., naturalness of river planform were also good predictors. These findings demonstrate (i the applicability of high resolution river morphological and instream-habitat data (measured and assessed variables to predict fish presence, (ii the

  13. Species richness and distribution of chondrichthyan fishes in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynghammar, A.; Christiansen, J. S.; Mecklenburg, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The sea ice cover decreases and human activity increases in Arctic waters. Fisheries and bycatch issues, shipping and petroleum exploitation (pollution issues) make it imperative to establish biological baselines for the marine fishes inhabiting the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas (AOAS). Species...... richness, zoogeographic affiliations and Red List statuses among chondrichthyan fishes (Chondrichthyes) were examined across 16 AOAS regions as a first step towards credible conservation actions. Published literature and museum vouchers were consulted for presence/absence data. Although many regions...... are poorly sampled, 49 chondrichthyan species have been reported from the AOAS. Skates and rays are the most species-rich taxon, represented by 27 species in family Rajidae and one species in family Dasyatidae. The sharks comprise 20 species in 13 families and the chimaeras one species in family Chimaeridae...

  14. Meta-analysis of carrying capacity and abundance-area relationships in marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantzouni, Irene

    investigated also across the north Atlantic distribution of haddock. The major motivations were first, to provide an evaluation of potential thermal effects on haddock recruitment productivity across its distribution, since the species is relatively less investigated on this regard compared to cod. In addition......Knowledge on the carrying capacity and the abundance-area relationships of fish is critical to evaluate the impacts of exploitation and climate on the sustainability and also the recovery potential of the populations. Of particular interest is climate change, inducing major consequences...... morhua), herring (Clupea harengus) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), in order to identify the effects of temperature, habitat size and life-history on their productivity patterns. The first objective was to investigate how production and survival indices of cod recruitment (i.e. the number of new...

  15. 76 FR 71315 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... species and population level abundance and timing, (2) determine growth rate, size, food habits, and... benefit listed species by helping managers at the power facility tailor their operations to cause the... research would benefit the fish by helping managers at the power facility determine the best way to conduct...

  16. Temporal variations in the food habits of some fish species in Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stomach contents of the 12 most abundant fish species in Lake Nokoué, Benin, collected between 2003 and 2005, were analysed for temporal variations in their diet. Several species showed seasonal shifts in their diets based on benthic prey abundance and biomass variation, which are influenced by physico-chemical ...

  17. 76 FR 78242 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA866 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to help guide management and conservation efforts. The application may be...

  18. 75 FR 25205 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW33 Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish AGENCY: NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... permit. Dated: May 4, 2010. Therese Conant, Acting Chief, Endangered Species Division, Office of...

  19. Occurrence of three leech species (Annelida: Hirudinida) on fishes in the Kentucky River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeches were collected from six fish species distributed among four of ten sites sampled. The leech species observed were Myzobdella reducta (Meyer, 1940) and Myzobdella lugubris Leidy, 1851 of the family Piscicolidae and Placobdella pediculata Hemingway, 1908 of the family Gloss...

  20. Total mercury of selected fish species from Laguna de Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relon, Milagros Lontoc

    1996-01-01

    Dalag Ophicephalus striatus Block, kanduli Arius thalassinus Ruppell, bia Amblygobius phalaena Cuvier et Valenciennes and tilapia Tilapia nilotica Linnnaeus collected from Laguna de Bay between Taguig and Binangonan area in August 1989 to July 1990 were analyzed for total mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest metal concentration in soft muscle tissue was observed in Dalag followed by kanduli, less in bia and least in tilapia with mean values of 0.021, 0.020, 0.013, and 0.008 ug/g, respectively. Analysis using two-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in the mean total mercury in ug/g in the difference fish samples, among the different months and the interaction between these two variables. Mean total mercury of the four fish samples were significantly higher in April than in October. The results show that the levels of total mercury in the fish samples are below the World Health Organization maximum tolerable consumption of mercury in food of 300 ug or 0.03 mg of total mercury per week. (author)

  1. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the analysis of six fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J. H.; Oh, M.; Kim, S. H.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to the meeting report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), annual food fish supply per capita has increased from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s to 18.4 kg in 2009, and fish consumption was lowest in Africans (9.1 kg per capita), while Asians consumed 20.7 kg per capita. From the viewpoint of food safety, fish accumulates environmental contaminants and an analysis of hazardous chemical species including toxic heavy metals is important for human health. The aims of this study were to determine the inorganic elemental content in six popular fish species of Korea by NAA and to aid in the evaluation of dietary intake levels in terms of toxic and essential elements. An INAA for the six fish species that are popular in Korea was performed, and sixteen elemental contents were determined. Based on these analytical data and survey data in 2010, intake levels for 3 toxic heavy metals by each fish species are evaluated for Koreans. These dietary intake values for heavy metals can be used for an assessment of human health risk.

  2. Bioaccumulation of PCB Contaminants in Five Fish Species in Utah Lake as Affected by Carp Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjinez-Guzmán, V. A.; Cadet, E. L.; Crandall, T.; Chamberlain, T.; Rakotoarisaona, H.; Morris, P.

    2017-12-01

    State reports published by the Utah Department of Health (2005) and the Utah Department of Water Quality (2008) determined that there were elevated levels of PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls) that exceeded the EPA's cancer (0.02 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) and non-cancer screening levels (0.08 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) in two fish species from Utah Lake, the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fish consumption advisories were issued for both of these fish species due to their health effects of PCBs. The Common Carp is a non-native predatory species that comprise 90% of the biomass in Utah Lake. As of September 2009, an extensive carp removal program was instituted by the Department of Natural Resources and began the removal of 75% of the carp population. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of carp removal on PCB levels in five sport fish species consumed by Utah citizens. The fish being analyzed are the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Black Bullhead (Ameiurus melas), Walleye (Sander vitreus), and White Bass (Morone chrysops). One-hundred twenty (120) fish were collected from Utah Lake and subcategorized by their gender, tissue type (fillet and offal), weight, and size: small (under 33 cm), medium (33 cm - 43 cm), and large (greater than 43 cm). This was done in order to determine the variation of contaminant levels in each subcategory. PCB analysis was performed by Utility Testing Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah. Results show there has been a significant increase in PCB levels in all fish species in comparison with the state reports (2008). All fish species have exceeded the EPA cancer screening level, except for the fillet tissue of the White Bass species. In Common Carp fillet, and offal decreased concentrations of 11.80% and 23.72%, respectively. In Channel catfish: the PCB levels in the fillet increase by 87.93%, however, the offal levels

  3. Heavy metals in wild marine fish from South China Sea: levels, tissue- and species-specific accumulation and potential risk to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Ling; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Ding, Zhen-Hua; Peng, Jia-Xi; Jin, Ming-Hua; Wang, You-Shao; Hong, Yi-Guo; Yue, Wei-Zhong

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution in marine fish has become an important worldwide concern, not only because of the threat to fish in general, but also due to human health risks associated with fish consumption. To investigate the occurrence of heavy metals in marine fish species from the South China Sea, 14 fish species were collected along the coastline of Hainan China during the spring of 2012 and examined for species- and tissue-specific accumulation. The median concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in muscle tissue of the examined fish species were not detectable (ND), 2.02, 0.24, 2.64, 0.025, and 1.13 mg kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. Levels of Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr were found to be higher in the liver and gills than in muscle, while Pb was preferentially accumulated in the gills. Differing from other heavy metals, As did not exhibit tissue-specific accumulation. Inter-species differences of heavy metal accumulation were attributed to the different habitat and diet characteristics of marine fish. Human dietary exposure assessment suggested that the amounts of both Cr and As in marine wild fish collected from the sites around Hainan, China were not compliant with the safety standard of less than 79.2 g d(-1) for wild marine fish set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Further research to identify the explicit sources of Cr and As in marine fish from South China Sea should be established.

  4. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, Linda M.; Foerlin, Lars; Karlsson, Goeran; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Larsson, D.G. Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used 1 H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE 2 ) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE 2 , which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants

  5. A data-mining framework for exploring the multi-relation between fish species and water quality through self-organizing map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ping; Huang, Shih-Pin; Cheng, Su-Ting; Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Chang, Fi-John

    2017-02-01

    The steep slopes of rivers can easily lead to large variations in river water quality during typhoon seasons in Taiwan, which may poses significant impacts on riverine eco-hydrological environments. This study aims to investigate the relationship between fish communities and water quality by using artificial neural networks (ANNs) for comprehending the upstream eco-hydrological system in northern Taiwan. We collected a total of 276 heterogeneous datasets with 8 water quality parameters and 25 fish species from 10 sampling sites. The self-organizing feature map (SOM) was used to cluster, analyze and visualize the heterogeneous datasets. Furthermore, the structuring index (SI) was adopted to determine the relative importance of each input variable of the SOM and identify the indicator factors. The clustering results showed that the SOM could suitably reflect the spatial characteristics of fishery sampling sites. Besides, the patterns of water quality parameters and fish species could be distinguishably (visually) classified into three eco-water quality groups: 1) typical upstream freshwater fishes that depended the most on dissolved oxygen (DO); 2) typical middle-lower reach riverine freshwater fishes that depended the most on total phosphorus (TP) and ammonia nitrogen; and 3) low lands or pond (reservoirs) freshwater fishes that depended the most on water temperature, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand. According to the results of the SI, the representative indicators of water quality parameters and fish species consisted of DO, TP and Onychostoma barbatulum. This grouping result suggested that the methodology can be used as a guiding reference to comprehensively relate ecology to water quality. Our methods offer a cost-effective alternative to more traditional methods for identifying key water quality factors relating to fish species. In addition, visualizing the constructed topological maps of the SOM could produce detailed inter-relation between water

  6. A massive invasion of fish species after eliminating a natural barrier in the upper rio Paraná basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Ferreira Júlio Júnior

    Full Text Available Based on long-term studies in the upper rio Paraná basin, in addition to a broad review of literature and other information, we were able to identify 33 species of native fishes in the lower rio Paraná basin that successfully colonized the upper rio Paraná after Itaipu impoundment, that flooded the natural geographic barrier constituted by the Sete Quedas Falls. These species belong to six Orders, encompassing two of Myliobatiformes, six of Characiformes, 17 of Siluriformes, six of Gymnotiformes, one of Perciformes, and one of Pleuronectiformes. Extensive remarks regarding each species, including their influence upon the native assemblage, in addition to comments on other non-indigenous species, are also provided. We conclude that, in spite of its widespread neglected by environmental impact studies, massive invasion of species is a real possibility when natural barriers are suppressed by reservoirs.

  7. Study on trace elements of ten kinds of fish species at Beijing market by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guojun; Xiao Caijin; Jin Xiangchun; Yang Wei; Zhang Guiying; Wang Pingsheng; Hua Long; Ni Bangfa

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the improvement of the living standard, the safety of food becomes more and more concerned currently. The fish is healthy food with more protein but less fat. Purpose: We bought ten species of fish from the market, which are often eaten by Chinese, and analyzed the trace elements of them by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). So some detecting methods should be applied to give some suggestions for human. Methods: First of all, we choose six species of fresh water fish, including grass carp, weever, Wuchang Fish, tilapia, crucian, carp, and four species of frozen sea fish, including hairtail, yellow croaker, salmon, ling. All of them were collected from a supermarket in Beijing. Secondly, we remove the squama by Teflon coated scissor, wash the fish with de-ionized water and use ashless filter paper to absorb the water on the fish. Then we cut the squama-less part with titanium knife for about 10 g, put them into plastic bags separately and sealed, balance the net weight, use a tablet machine to press them into slice and freeze at -18℃ for 12 h. And then we put them into a vacuum desiccator to pump for 72 h, balance dry fish, calculate the ratio of moisture and triturate the sample into about 40 meshes in agate. Finally, we prepare three sub-samples about 300 mg with each packed by plastic bag for analysis. We put the samples, NIST-1632a and chemical standard material together, irradiate in micro neutron source reactor (MNSR) for 16 h, measure the radioactivity by Ge detector after cooling 5 d or 10 d, and calculate the contents of 16 elements by the ko-NAA and the relative method. Results: The contents of trace elements are different between fresh water fish and sea fish. The contents of As, Hg, Br: Na, Se in sea fish are apparently higher than fresh water fish, but the contents of Rb and Zn are contrary. Considering most fresh water fishes are feed, Zn was probably added in fodder. The content of As in weever is 2.4 μg·g -1 , the

  8. Some peculiarities of fish abundance, species and sizes distribution, and spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrauskas, A.; Bernotas, E.; Jovaisha, R.

    1995-01-01

    During the construction and exploitation process of Ignalina NPP the abundance of fishes has dropped, and especially stenothermic species (smelt and vendace). The general increase of fish abundance is observed in recent years (1992-1994). This is linked with changes of fish species and their adaptation to the new environmental conditions. Now the partial renovation of vendace abundance is observed, too. It is a result of free feeding recess coming out as the smelt dramatically decreased. Before now the ecosystem of the lake is greatly disbalanced due to antropogenetic impact of the NPP. It's partial stabilisation (but on the essentially high level) is possible only in some generations of fish living in the lake. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs

  9. Determination of chromium, mercury, selenium and zinc in marine fish species of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah Salim; Wee, B.S.; Ezwiza Sanuri; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Mohd Suhaimi Elias, Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Azian Hashim

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Concentrations of chromium, mercury, selenium and zinc were determined in eight commonly edible marine fish species; mackerel, red snapper, thread fin, tuna, hard tail scads, val, doubled spotted queen fish and shark. This study was based on market basket method were those species were collected from two locations of Kuala Selangor and Kuala Terengganu. All elements were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The accuracy and precision analysis were checked by analyzing Certified Reference Material (CRM) namely DORM-3 and MAA-2. Elements of interest in the edible parts of the investigated fish were mostly in the permissible safety levels for human consumption based on national and international safety guideline except for mercury where some fishes showed slightly higher concentrations than the guidelines. (author)

  10. Abundance, distribution and species composition of fish larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improving our knowledge of the abundance, distribution and species diversity ... banks as well as in the mid-channel, thus eliminating any bias that might have .... cond method (Table 2) may bias the importance of a single species due to one, ...

  11. Identity and distribution of southern African sciaenid fish species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Umbrina species, U. canariensis Valenciennes 1843 and U. robinsoni Gilchrist and Thompson 1908, are recognised from southern Africa. The latter species was hitherto believed to be a synonym of Umbrina ronchus Valenciennes 1843 (type locality Canary Islands). U. canariensis is distributed along the South Africa ...

  12. TOXICITY OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL TO ENDANGERED AND SURROGATE FISH SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality criteria (WQC) generally are based on the responses of easily cultured and tested surrogate species. Little is known about the relative sensitivity of surrogate and endangered species. The objective of this study was to compare acute and chronic (early life-stage) ...

  13. Target strength of some European fish species and its dependence on fish body parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouzová, Jaroslava; Kubečka, Jan; Balk, H.; Frouz, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 75, 1-3 (2005), s. 86-96 ISSN 0165-7836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : target strength * freshwater fish * acoustics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2005

  14. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) Crangonid Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Engineers, TR EL-82-4. 18 pp. PREFACE This species profile is one of a series on coastal aquatic organisms, principally fish, of sport , commercial, or...in the spring documented. These shrimp are often the and summer in coastal embayments but are predominant food of the principal sport and abundant...inhibit gonadogenesis and Department of Fish and Game 1987), suggesting castrated male shrimp would take on feminizing that environmental conditions

  15. Salinity and temperature tolerance of an emergent alien species, the Amazon fish Astronotus ocellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrel, Silvia M M; Schofield, Pam; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Astronotus ocellatus (oscar), is native to the Amazon basin and, although it has been introduced to many countries, little is known regarding its tolerances for salinity and temperature. In this report, we provide data on the tolerance of A. ocellatus to abrupt and gradual changes in salinity, its high and low temperature tolerance, and information on how salinity, temperature, and fish size interact to affect survival. Fish were able to survive abrupt transfer to salinities as high as 16 ppt with no mortality. When salinity change was gradual (2 ppt/day), fish in the warm-temperature experiment (28°C) survived longer than fish in the cool-temperature experiment (18°C). Larger fish survived longer than smaller ones at the higher salinities when the temperature was warm, but when the temperature was cool fish size had little effect on survival. In the temperature-tolerance experiments, fish survived from 9 to 41°C for short periods of time. Overall, the species showed a wide range of temperature and salinity tolerance. Thus, in spite of the tropical freshwater origin of this species, physiological stress is not likely to hinder its dispersal to brackish waters, especially when temperatures are warm.

  16. Alien species of fish parasites in the coastal lakes and lagoons of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Morozińska-Gogol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Alien species are now found all over the world. New fish parasites have been unintentionally introduced with infected alien fish imported for aquaculture or have sometimes spread with their intermediate invertebrate hosts transported in the ballast waters of ships. Four alien fish parasites have been recorded in Polish coastal lakes and lagoons, all parasitising eels. Three were introduced with the final host - the Japanese eel - introduced for aquaculture (Anguillicola crassus, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and Pseudodactylogyrus bini and one (Paratenuisentis ambiguus with its sole intermediate host (Gammarus tigrinus.

  17. Accumulation of /sup 210/Po in selected species of Baltic fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarzec, B

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented here for the /sup 210/Po contents of selected species of Baltic fish. It is shown that /sup 210/Po is non-uniformly distributed within these fish, the highest levels being found in the digestive organs, particularly within the intestine. It is found that the proportional contribution by the digestive organs to the total accumulation of /sup 210/Po is correlated with the degree of repletion of the stomach and that this decreases if food is lacking. Moreover, it is observed that fish represent an important source of supply of /sup 210/Po to humans.

  18. Radioactive contamination of the significant fish species in fish-ponds and in natural waters with particular respect to the accumulation of Sr-90 Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, D.; Szentjobi, O.

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive contamination of omnivorous fish species (Cyprinus carpio, Hypophtalmictys nobilis Richardson), of herbivorous fish species (Hypophtalmictys molitrix Valenciennes) and carnivorous fish species (Silurus glanis L., Esox Lucius L.) has been investigated. Orientative data have been obtained by analyzing samples originating from various sites. Though differences appeared between the analyzed samples, no incorporations of outstanding nature have been observed. In accordance with experiences described in literature, the isotope Sr-90 is accumulated in an increased degree in the skeleton of fish living in ponds. This is valid in all cases when the vital processes are regulated artificially by fishery methods. A particularly important factor is that the individual fish living in ponds are 2-3 or at most 4 years of age i.e. from the aspect of their ontogenesis their organism is in a strongly build-up phase. Sr-90 proved to be accumulated in a relatively greater amount in the organisms of herbivorous fish. (P.J.)

  19. Nutritive values of some food plants, fresh and processed fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of four edible plant foods species, three fish species and one prawn were analyzed in Food Chemistry Laboratory of Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Behbahan, Iran in 2014. The analysis of fatty acid and sugars composition were performed by gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Protein and lipid content were founded higher in baked and fried in fish S. commersonnianus (74.29%, (20.20%, fish Sphyraena helleri (88.12% and (17.77%, respectively. Ash content in fish S. commersonnianus varies from 9.80% to 15.34%, and in fish S. helleri from 5.83% to 7.68%. Based on the proximate analysis, it can be calculated that an edible portion of 100 g of studied edible plant foods provides, on average, around 303.9±1.04 kcal. The plant Portulaca neglecta is suitable for high temperature food processes. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild plant foods were with rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. The highest protein, the lowest fat and energy contents were found in boiled in both fish species; therefore, boiling can be recommended as the best cooking method for healthy diet.

  20. Fish, fans and hydroids: host species of pygmy seahorses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Reijnen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the octocoral and hydrozoa host species of pygmy seahorses is provided, based on recently collected data for H. bargibanti, H. denise and H. pontohi and literature records. Seven new interspecific host-species associations are recognized, and an overview of the so far documented number of host species is given. Detailed re-examination of octocoral type material and a review of the taxonomic history are included, as a baseline for further studies. The host-specificity and colour morphs of pygmy seahorses are discussed, as well as the validity of (previous identifications and conservations issues.

  1. A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mingyue; He, Jia; Lu, Haibing; Liu, Yajing; Deng, Yingrui; Zhu, Lisai; Guo, Changming; Tu, Changchun; Wang, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. While enterovirus infection has been increasingly reported in cattle and swine, the enterovirus infections in small...

  2. The Species and Origin of Shark Fins in Taiwan’s Fishing Ports, Markets, and Customs Detention: A DNA Barcoding Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Po-Shun; Hung, Tzu-Chiao; Chang, Hung-An; Huang, Chien-Kang; Shiao, Jen-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The increasing consumption of shark products, along with the shark’s fishing vulnerabilities, has led to the decrease in certain shark populations. In this study we used a DNA barcoding method to identify the species of shark landings at fishing ports, shark fin products in retail stores, and shark fins detained by Taiwan customs. In total we identified 23, 24, and 14 species from 231 fishing landings, 316 fin products, and 113 detained shark fins, respectively. All the three sample sources were dominated by Prionace glauca, which accounted for more than 30% of the collected samples. Over 60% of the species identified in the fin products also appeared in the port landings, suggesting the domestic-dominance of shark fin products in Taiwan. However, international trade also contributes a certain proportion of the fin product markets, as four species identified from the shark fin products are not found in Taiwan’s waters, and some domestic-available species were also found in the customs-detained sample. In addition to the species identification, we also found geographical differentiation in the cox1 gene of the common thresher sharks (Alopias vulpinus), the pelagic thresher shark (A. pelagicus), the smooth hammerhead shark (Sphyrna zygaena), and the scalloped hammerhead shark (S. lewini). This result might allow fishing authorities to more effectively trace the origins as well as enforce the management and conservation of these sharks. PMID:26799827

  3. Underappreciated species in ecology: "ugly fish" in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jason S

    2007-10-01

    Species shifts and replacements are common in ecological studies. Observations thereof serve as the impetus for many ecological endeavors. Many of the species now known to dominate ecosystem functioning were largely ignored until studies of those underappreciated species elucidated their critical roles. Recognizing the potential importance of underappreciated species has implications for functional redundancies in ecosystems and should alter our approach to long-term monitoring. One example of an applied ecological system containing species shifts, underappreciated species, and potential changes in functional redundancies is the topic of fisheries. The demersal component of many fish communities usually consists of high-profile and commercially valuable species that are targets of fisheries, plus a diverse group of lesser known species that have minimal commercial value and focus. Yet ecologically these traditionally nontargeted species are often a major biomass sink in marine ecosystems and can also be critical in the functioning of bentho-demersal food webs. I examined the biomass trajectories of several species of skates, cottids, lophiids, anarhichadids, zooarcids, and similar species in the northeast U.S. Atlantic ecosystem to determine whether their relative abundance has changed across the past four decades. Distribution and stomach contents of these species were also evaluated over time to further elucidate the relative importance of these species. Landings of these underappreciated bentho-demersal fish were also examined in comparison to those species that historically have been commercially targeted. Of particular emphasis was the evaluation of evidence for sequential stock depletion and the ramifications for functional redundancy for this ecosystem. Results indicate that some of these fish species are now the dominant piscivores, benthivores, and scavengers in this ecosystem. These formerly under-studied species generally have either maintained a

  4. Distribution of the three major species of fish in the Hartbeespoort ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1985-08-05

    Aug 5, 1985 ... important variable determining catch. Gill-net ... describe the distribution and identify some of the factors causing the heterogenous distribution. Methods ..... preferentially fish in deeper channels close to the shore where.

  5. The commercial viability of any intensively cultured fish species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    acids. It is, however, the protein in the diet that pro- vides the amino acids. Inadequate protein in the ..... nivorous species such as Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and striped bass Morone ... tailed investigations on essential fatty acid and amino.

  6. Characterization of Vibrio species isolated from freshwater fishes by ribotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, P.; Samanta, M.; Mohanty, S.; Maiti, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Three Vibrio species from the resident microflora of gastrointestinal tract of freshwater carps and prawns were isolated and confirmed biochemically as V. fluvialis from Cyprinus carpio/Labeo rohita; V. parahaemolyticus from Macrobrachium rosenbergii and V. harveyi from Macrobrachium malcomsoni. The genetic relationship among these Vibrio species was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA gene followed by restriction digestion with Hae III, Bam HI and Pst I. ...

  7. DNA barcoding coupled to HRM analysis as a new and simple tool for the authentication of Gadidae fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Telmo J R; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2017-09-01

    This work aimed to exploit the use of DNA mini-barcodes combined with high resolution melting (HRM) for the authentication of gadoid species: Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and saithe (Pollachius virens). Two DNA barcode regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (cytb), were analysed in silico to identify genetic variability among the four species and used, subsequently, to develop a real-time PCR method coupled with HRM analysis. The cytb mini-barcode enabled best discrimination of the target species with a high level of confidence (99.3%). The approach was applied successfully to identify gadoid species in 30 fish-containing foods, 30% of which were not as declared on the label. Herein, a novel approach for rapid, simple and cost-effective discrimination/clustering, as a tool to authenticate Gadidae fish species, according to their genetic relationship, is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Evaluation of PNA-FISH method for direct identification of Candida species in blood culture samples and its potential impact on guidance of antifungal therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Özlem; İnkaya, Ahmet Çağkan; Gülmez, Dolunay; Uzun, Ömrüm; Akova, Murat; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2016-10-01

    Early antifungal therapy has a major influence on survival in candidemia. Rapid identification of the species has importance for the treatment, prediction of the species-specific primary resistance and variable antifungal susceptibility. Recently, molecular-based methods attempt to reduce the time between the positive signal of a blood culture and identification of the fungus. PNA-FISH (Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization) assay distinguishes a number of frequently isolated Candida species in groups following the growth in blood culture. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the species identified by PNA-FISH with conventional identification methods in yeast positive blood cultures and its influence on the selection of antifungal therapy. Specimens of adult patients diagnosed as yeast with Gram stain in signal-positive blood cultures between August to December 2013, were included in the study. The strains were concomitantly cultivated by subculturing from the blood culture bottles onto solid media and identified by conventional methods (germ tube test, ID32C and morphology on cornmeal Tween 80 agar). Rapid species identification was performed by Yeast Traffic Light PNA-FISH, which generates green flourescence for Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, yellow for Candida tropicalis, and red for Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. C.tropicalis was identified as a single species whereas the others were identified in pairs. The time points when the yeast positive blood culture bottle was received by the mycology laboratory and reporting of the species identification results by PNA-FISH and the conventional methods were recorded. Seven C.albicans, six C.glabrata, three C.parapsilosis, one C.tropicalis, one C.krusei, one Cryptococcus neoformans, one Saprochaete capitata (Blastoschizomyces capitatus), one C.albicans and Candida dubliniensis, one C.krusei and C.dubliniensis, and one C.glabrata and C.parapsilosis were

  9. [Dietary composition and food competition of six main fish species in rocky reef habitat off Gouqi Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Shou-Yu; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Min; Lin, Jun

    2012-02-01

    Based on the monthly investigation data of fish resources in the rocky reef habitat off Gouqi Island from March 2009 to February 2010, this paper studied the dietary composition of three native fish species (Sebasticus marmoratus, Hexagrammos otakii and Hexagrammos agrammus) and three non-native fish species (Lateolabrax japonica, Nibea albiflora and Larimichthys polyactis). The analysis of gut content indicated that the main prey items of these six dominant fish species were Caprellidae, Gammaridea, juvenile S. marmoratus, Engraulis japonicas and Acetes chinensis and the dietary composition of each of the 6 fish species had obvious seasonal variation. There was an intense food competition between native species H. otakii and H. agrammus in autumn, between non-native species N. albiflora and L. polyactis in summer, between non-native species N. albiflora and native species S. marmoratus in autumn, and between non-native species N. albiflora and native species H. otakii in winter. It was suggested the non-native species N. albiflora was the key species in the food competition among the six dominant fish species in this rocky reef habitat, and thus the feeding behaviors of these six fish species could have definite effects on the resource capacity of juvenile S. marmoratus.

  10. Hierarchical faunal filters: An approach to assessing effects of habitat and nonnative species on native fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Rahel, F.J.; Hubert, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding factors related to the occurrence of species across multiple spatial and temporal scales is critical to the conservation and management of native fishes, especially for those species at the edge of their natural distribution. We used the concept of hierarchical faunal filters to provide a framework for investigating the influence of habitat characteristics and normative piscivores on the occurrence of 10 native fishes in streams of the North Platte River watershed in Wyoming. Three faunal filters were developed for each species: (i) large-scale biogeographic, (ii) local abiotic, and (iii) biotic. The large-scale biogeographic filter, composed of elevation and stream-size thresholds, was used to determine the boundaries within which each species might be expected to occur. Then, a local abiotic filter (i.e., habitat associations), developed using binary logistic-regression analysis, estimated the probability of occurrence of each species from features such as maximum depth, substrate composition, submergent aquatic vegetation, woody debris, and channel morphology (e.g., amount of pool habitat). Lastly, a biotic faunal filter was developed using binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of occurrence of each species relative to the abundance of nonnative piscivores in a reach. Conceptualising fish assemblages within a framework of hierarchical faunal filters is simple and logical, helps direct conservation and management activities, and provides important information on the ecology of fishes in the western Great Plains of North America. ?? Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  11. Trace elements in muscle of three fish species from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Carolina Oliveira; de Jesus, Taíse Bomfim; de Aguiar, William Moura; de Jesus Sant'anna Franca-Rocha, Washington; Soares, Carlos Alberto Caroso

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an analysis was performed on the concentrations of the trace elements Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in muscle of two carnivorous and one planktivorous fish species collected at Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The accumulation order of the trace elements in Lutjanus analis was Al >Zn >Fe >Cr >Ba >Ni. In Cetengraulis edentulus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >As. In the species Diapterus rhombeus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >Cd. To determine the risk related to the consumption of fish, toxicity guidelines were used as standard references. It was observed that the species C. edentulus contained concentrations of As exceeding WHO limits, but these concentrations were acceptable according to the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) guidelines. Cd levels were found only in D. rhombeus and in low concentrations according to the determinations of WHO and ANVISA. Pb levels were not detected in any of the three fish species. The analyzed elements did not differ statistically according to the species and feeding habits. The results point to possible risks of human contamination by As related to the consumption of the fish species C. edentulus from the BTS.

  12. Science evaluation of the environmental impact statement for the lower Churchill hydroelectric generation project to identify deficiencies with respect to fish and fish habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, K.

    2009-01-01

    This report evaluated an environmental impact statement (EIS) submitted by a company proposing to develop a hydroelectric generation project in the lower Churchill River in Labrador. Construction of the facilities will alter the aquatic environment of the river as well as the receiving environment of lakes. The alterations are expected to have an impact on fish and fish habitats. The study evaluated the methods used to describe and predict impacts in the aquatic environment and examined models used for predictions in order to assess uncertainty levels. Results of the evaluation demonstrated that additional efforts are needed to document local knowledge of fish use and fish habitat, and that the magnitude of expected changes to fish habitat must be considered relative to the loss of fish habitat. The study also highlighted areas within the EIS that will require further clarification. A number of the studies used in the EIS had small sample sizes that increased the uncertainty of predictions made using the data. Uncertainties related to potential changes in flushing rates and morphological features was also needed. The impact of direct fish mortality from turbine operations was not addressed in a population context, and further information is needed to evaluate potential project-related effects on a species-by-species basis. 3 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Identifying biodiversity hotspots for threatened mammal species in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farashi, Azita; Shariati Najafabadi, Mitra; Hosseini, Mahshid

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biology has much more attention for biodiversity hot spots than before. In order to recognize the hotspots for Iranian terrestrial mammal species that are listed in any red list, nationally or globally, ten Species Distribution Models (SDMs) have been applied. The SDMs evaluation

  14. Quantifying tolerance indicator values for common stream fish species of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, M.R.; Carlisle, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The classification of fish species tolerance to environmental disturbance is often used as a means to assess ecosystem conditions. Its use, however, may be problematic because the approach to tolerance classification is based on subjective judgment. We analyzed fish and physicochemical data from 773 stream sites collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program to calculate tolerance indicator values for 10 physicochemical variables using weighted averaging. Tolerance indicator values (TIVs) for ammonia, chloride, dissolved oxygen, nitrite plus nitrate, pH, phosphorus, specific conductance, sulfate, suspended sediment, and water temperature were calculated for 105 common fish species of the United States. Tolerance indicator values for specific conductance and sulfate were correlated (rho = 0.87), and thus, fish species may be co-tolerant to these water-quality variables. We integrated TIVs for each species into an overall tolerance classification for comparisons with judgment-based tolerance classifications. Principal components analysis indicated that the distinction between tolerant and intolerant classifications was determined largely by tolerance to suspended sediment, specific conductance, chloride, and total phosphorus. Factors such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH may not be as important in distinguishing between tolerant and intolerant classifications, but may help to segregate species classified as moderate. Empirically derived tolerance classifications were 58.8% in agreement with judgment-derived tolerance classifications. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed that few TIVs, primarily chloride, could discriminate among judgment-derived tolerance classifications of tolerant, moderate, and intolerant. To our knowledge, this is the first empirically based understanding of fish species tolerance for stream fishes in the United States.

  15. Multi-scale approach for predicting fish species distributions across coral reef seascapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Pittman

    Full Text Available Two of the major limitations to effective management of coral reef ecosystems are a lack of information on the spatial distribution of marine species and a paucity of data on the interacting environmental variables that drive distributional patterns. Advances in marine remote sensing, together with the novel integration of landscape ecology and advanced niche modelling techniques provide an unprecedented opportunity to reliably model and map marine species distributions across many kilometres of coral reef ecosystems. We developed a multi-scale approach using three-dimensional seafloor morphology and across-shelf location to predict spatial distributions for five common Caribbean fish species. Seascape topography was quantified from high resolution bathymetry at five spatial scales (5-300 m radii surrounding fish survey sites. Model performance and map accuracy was assessed for two high performing machine-learning algorithms: Boosted Regression Trees (BRT and Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modelling (MaxEnt. The three most important predictors were geographical location across the shelf, followed by a measure of topographic complexity. Predictor contribution differed among species, yet rarely changed across spatial scales. BRT provided 'outstanding' model predictions (AUC = >0.9 for three of five fish species. MaxEnt provided 'outstanding' model predictions for two of five species, with the remaining three models considered 'excellent' (AUC = 0.8-0.9. In contrast, MaxEnt spatial predictions were markedly more accurate (92% map accuracy than BRT (68% map accuracy. We demonstrate that reliable spatial predictions for a range of key fish species can be achieved by modelling the interaction between the geographical location across the shelf and the topographic heterogeneity of seafloor structure. This multi-scale, analytic approach is an important new cost-effective tool to accurately delineate essential fish habitat and support

  16. Comparison of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production of Ectothermic and Endothermic Fish Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Wiens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently we demonstrated that the capacity of isolated muscle mitochondria to produce reactive oxygen species, measured as H2O2 efflux, is temperature-sensitive in isolated muscle mitochondria of ectothermic fish and the rat, a representative endothermic mammal. However, at physiological temperatures (15° and 37°C for the fish and rat, respectively, the fraction of total mitochondrial electron flux that generated H2O2, the fractional electron leak (FEL, was far lower in the rat than in fish. Those results suggested that the elevated body temperatures associated with endothermy may lead to a compensatory decrease in mitochondrial ROS production relative to respiratory capacity. To test this hypothesis we compare slow twitch (red muscle mitochondria from the endothermic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis with mitochondria from three ectothermic fishes [rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens] and the rat. At a common assay temperature (25°C rates of mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 efflux were similar in tuna and the other fishes. The thermal sensitivity of fish mitochondria was similar irrespective of ectothermy or endothermy. Comparing tuna to the rat at a common temperature, respiration rates were similar, or lower depending on mitochondrial substrates. FEL was not different across fish species at a common assay temperature (25°C but was markedly higher in fishes than in rat. Overall, endothermy and warming of Pacific Bluefin tuna red muscle may increase the potential for ROS production by muscle mitochondria but the evolution of endothermy in this species is not necessarily associated with a compensatory reduction of ROS production relative to the respiratory capacity of mitochondria.

  17. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh F. Afzali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  18. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  19. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  20. Context-dependent interactions and the regulation of species richness in freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Andrew S.; Harvey, Eric; McCune, Jenny L.; Nilsson, Karin A.; Bennett, Joseph; Firn, Jennifer; Bartley, Timothy; Grace, James B.; Kelly, Jocelyn; Tunney, Tyler D.; McMeans, Bailey; Matsuzaki, Shin-Ichiro S.; Kadoya, Taku; Esch, Ellen; Cazelles, Kevin; Lester, Nigel; McCann, Kevin S.

    2018-01-01

    Species richness is regulated by a complex network of scale-dependent processes. This complexity can obscure the influence of limiting species interactions, making it difficult to determine if abiotic or biotic drivers are more predominant regulators of richness. Using integrative modeling of freshwater fish richness from 721 lakes along an 11olatitudinal gradient, we find negative interactions to be a relatively minor independent predictor of species richness in lakes despite the widespread presence of predators. Instead, interaction effects, when detectable among major functional groups and 231 species pairs, were strong, often positive, but contextually dependent on environment. These results are consistent with the idea that negative interactions internally structure lake communities but do not consistently ‘scale-up’ to regulate richness independently of the environment. The importance of environment for interaction outcomes and its role in the regulation of species richness highlights the potential sensitivity of fish communities to the environmental changes affecting lakes globally.

  1. Photoactivated toxicity of PAH to endangered fishes and standard laboratory test species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, D.R.; Mount, D.R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been detected in water and sediment from the San Juan River Basin, located in the Four Corners area of the southwestern US. In addition to possessing extensive oil and gas deposits, the San Juan contains several threatened or endangered fish species such as Colorado squawfish and razorback suckers. Proposed expansion of oil and gas development in the basin has sparked concerns that potential increases in PAH loading may jeopardize these and other native fishes. In response, the authors conducted laboratory exposures of threatened and endangered species to various PAH both with and without accompanying exposure to UV light. As predicted from the literature, exposure to UV light caused a marked photo-activated toxicity response in all species; however, the sensitivity to PAH both with and without UV exposure varied among species and lifestages. Supplemental studies were conducted to evaluate the physiological mechanisms for variation in sensitivity between species and lifestage

  2. Derived concentration factors for caesium-137 in edible species of North Sea fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Concentration factor (CF=Bq kg -1 fillet/Bg kg -1 filtered sea water) values for 137 Cs in fillets of cod (Gadus morhua), haddock (Merlanogrammus aeglefinus), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and whiting (Merlangius merlangius), were derived from fish and filtered seawater concentrations. Samples were collected in twelve sampling boxes in the North Sea over an eight-year period - 1978-1985. The range of results with species, between species, and between surveys are discussed. Mean CF values of 92, 58, 39 and 150 were found in cod, haddock, plaice and whiting respectively. These support the International Atomic Energy Authority recommended CF value of 100 for fish in generalised dose assessments. (author)

  3. Artificial marine habitats favour a single fish species on a long-term scale: the dominance of Boops boops around off-shore fish cages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Riera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Off-shore fish cages are new artificial habitats that can affect pelagic fish assemblages and constitute an important food source for wild fish assemblages. This aggregation has noticeable ecological consequences in cage areas in impoverished ecosystems such as those in the Canary archipelago (NE Atlantic Ocean. However, this new habitat could be dominated by a single species, reducing its positive ecological effects. Wild fish assemblages associated with an off-shore fish lease on the northeastern coast of Tenerife (Canary Islands were sampled for six years. Fish assemblage structure beneath fish cages and at controls ( > 500 m from cages differed significantly between locations, with 13 times greater abundance at cage locations. These differences were mainly explained by the dominance of bogue (Boops boops around fish cages. This trend was consistent in the long-term throughout the study period (2004-2009, affecting local fisheries. The presence of fish cages significantly altered wild fish assemblages in the study area, enhancing mainly biomass and abundance of one species, bogue, and causing shifts in species composition.

  4. Fish, fans and hydroids: host species of pygmy seahorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnen, Bastian T; van der Meij, Sancia E T; van Ofwegen, Leen P

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the octocoral and hydrozoan host species of pygmy seahorses is provided based on literature records and recently collected field data for Hippocampus bargibanti, Hippocampus denise and Hippocampus pontohi. Seven new associations are recognized and an overview of the so far documented host species is given. A detailed re-examination of octocoral type material and a review of the taxonomic history of the alcyonacean genera Annella (Subergorgiidae) and Muricella (Acanthogorgiidae) are included as baseline for future revisions. The host specificity and colour morphs of pygmy seahorses are discussed, as well as the reliability of (previous) identifications and conservation issues.

  5. The fish fauna of Anambra river basin, Nigeria: species abundance and morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Ejikeme Odo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish yields of most Nigeria inland waters are generally on the decline for causes that may range from inadequate management of the fisheries to degradation of the water bodies. Sustainable exploitation requires knowledge of the ichthyofaunal composition in the water bodies. We did a survey of fish species in Anambra river basin for 22 months. Fish samples were collected using four different gears -hook and line of size 13, caste nets, gill nets, and cages of mesh sizes of 50mm, 75mm, and 100mm each. We recorded 52 fish species belonging to 17 families: 171, 236, and 169 individuals at Ogurugu, Otuocha, and Nsugbe stations respectively. Two families, Characidae, 19.5 %, and Mochokidae, 11.8%, constituted the dominant fish families in the river. The dominant fish species were Citherinus citherius, 9.02%, and Alestes nurse, 7.1%. Other fish species with significant abundance were Synodontis clarias 6.9%, Macrolepidotus curvier 5.7%, Labeo coubie 5.4%, Distichodus rostrtus 4.9%, and Schilbe mystus 4.5%. The meristic features of the two most abundant fish species caught are as follows: Citharinus citharius dorsal fins 20, anal fins 30, caudal fins 21, pectoral fins, 9 and 8 ventral fins, and Alestes nurse 10 dorsal fins, 14 anal fins, 31 caudal fins, 7 pectoral fins and 6 ventral fins. The morphometric features of the two most abundant fish species are Citharinus citharius total length 300mm, standard length 231mm, head length 69mm, body length 101mm, body girth 176 mm, body weight 900mg. Alestes nurse total length 200, standard length 140mm, head length 60mm, body length 80mm, body girth120mm, body weight 400mg. The most abundant animal utilizing the basin was Ardea cinerea(D3 with 22.2% occurrence (D4 and this was followed by Caprini with 13.51%, and Varanus niloticus, 10.04%. The least abundant animals utilizing basin were Chephalophus rufilatus, and Erythrocebus patas, with 0.58% each of occurrence. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 177-186. Epub

  6. fish species and size distribution and abundance in different areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larger individuals dominated in deep waters recording a mode at 45.5 cm TL. ... as a result of trophic interactions with introduced species ... sea level. The climate is equatorial with two wet seasons, one between October and. December, the ...

  7. A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyue; He, Jia; Lu, Haibing; Liu, Yajing; Deng, Yingrui; Zhu, Lisai; Guo, Changming; Tu, Changchun; Wang, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. While enterovirus infection has been increasingly reported in cattle and swine, the enterovirus infections in small ruminants remain largely unknown. Virology, molecular and bioinformatics methods were employed to characterize a novel enterovirus CEV-JL14 from goats manifesting severe diarrhea with morbidity and mortality respectively up to 84% and 54% in China. CEV-JL14 was defined and proposed as a new Enterovirus species L within the genus of Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. CEV-JL14 had a complete genome sequence of 7461 nucleotides with an ORF encoding 2172 amino acids, and shared 77.1% of genomic sequence identity with TB4-OEV, an ovine enterovirus. Comparison of 5'-UTR and structural genes of CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species revealed highly genetic variations among CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species. VP1 nucleotide sequence identities of CEV-14 were 51.8%-53.5% with those of Enterovirus E and F, 30.9%-65.3% with Enterovirus G, and 43.8-51. 5% with Enterovirus A-D, respectively. CEV-JL14 was proposed as a novel species within the genus of Enterovirus according to the current ICTV demarcation criteria of enteroviruses. CEV-JL14 clustered phylogenetically to neither Enterovirus E and F, nor to Enterovirus G. It was defined and proposed as novel species L within the genus of Enterovirus. This is the first report of caprine enterovirus in China, the first complete genomic sequence of a caprine enterovirus revealed, and the unveiling of significant genetic variations between ovine enterovirus and caprine enterovirus, thus broadening the current understanding of enteroviruses.

  8. Sperm quality and cryopreservation of Brazilian freshwater fish species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, A T M; Godinho, H P

    2009-03-01

    The Brazilian freshwater fish diversity is the richest in the world. Only 0.7% of all Brazilian species have had any aspect of their sperm biology addressed up to this date. The majority of the fish species described in this review migrate during the spawning season (a phenomenon known as piracema). Urbanization, pollution, hydroelectric dams and deforestation are some of the causes of stock depletion or even local extinction of some of these species. The knowledge concerning sperm quality and minimum sperm:egg ratio is important to maximize the use of males without reducing hatching rates. Furthermore, sperm cryopreservation and gene banking can guarantee the conservation of genetic diversity and development of adequate breeding programs of native fish species. In this review, we present and evaluate the existing information on Brazilian fish species that have been subject to sperm quality and cryopreservation studies. The following parameters were evaluated: volume of extractable sperm, sperm motility, sperm concentration, freezing media, freezing methods, and post-thaw sperm quality. Although the existing protocols yield relatively high post-thaw motility and fertilization rates, the use of cryopreserved sperm in routine hatchery production is still limited in Brazil.

  9. Trophodynamics and diet overlap of small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, E; Irigoien, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Small pelagic fish are the link between planktonic production and higher trophic levels. Competition for resources may play a role in the population dynamics of species, some of them probably standing out from the others due to greater feeding success. It is therefore important to understand the trophic niche of species overlapping both spatially and temporally. In this study, we have investigated the diet, prey preference, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap of the 8 major small pelagic species (anchovy, sardine, sprat, Atlantic and Mediterranean horse mackerel, bogue, Atlantic mackerel and Atlantic chub mackerel) inhabiting the Bay of Biscay. Results indicate that all fish feed mainly on calanoid copepods, incorporating larger prey like euphausiids and decapods to complete their diet. Differences in ingested prey diversity seem to be more limited by the available zooplankton at sea than by a specific diet preference by fish species, resulting in an overall high diet overlap, especially within clupeids but also between clupeids and other (larger) predator species. Consumption estimations for different prey groups could therefore determine whether such a large diet overlap between small pelagic fish, together with spatial co-occurrence, results in competition or enhances the effects of intraguild predation, which is important in terms of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

  10. Trophodynamics and diet overlap of small pelagic fish species in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, E

    2015-08-27

    Small pelagic fish are the link between planktonic production and higher trophic levels. Competition for resources may play a role in the population dynamics of species, some of them probably standing out from the others due to greater feeding success. It is therefore important to understand the trophic niche of species overlapping both spatially and temporally. In this study, we have investigated the diet, prey preference, trophic niche breadth and diet overlap of the 8 major small pelagic species (anchovy, sardine, sprat, Atlantic and Mediterranean horse mackerel, bogue, Atlantic mackerel and Atlantic chub mackerel) inhabiting the Bay of Biscay. Results indicate that all fish feed mainly on calanoid copepods, incorporating larger prey like euphausiids and decapods to complete their diet. Differences in ingested prey diversity seem to be more limited by the available zooplankton at sea than by a specific diet preference by fish species, resulting in an overall high diet overlap, especially within clupeids but also between clupeids and other (larger) predator species. Consumption estimations for different prey groups could therefore determine whether such a large diet overlap between small pelagic fish, together with spatial co-occurrence, results in competition or enhances the effects of intraguild predation, which is important in terms of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

  11. Species differences in contaminants in fish on and adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Campbell, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    Risks to humans and other organisms from consuming fish have become a national concern in the USA. In this paper, we examine the concentrations of 137 Cs, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium in three species of fish from two river reaches adjacent to the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. We were interested in whether there were species and locational differences in radiocesium and metal concentrations and whether concentrations were sufficiently high to pose a potential health risk to humans or other receptors. Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) were significantly larger than white bass (M. chrysops), and crappie (Pomoxis spp.) were the smallest fish. Lead was significantly lower in striped bass, mercury was significantly higher in striped bass, and selenium was significantly higher in white bass compared to the other species. There were no other species differences in contaminants. White bass, the only species that was sufficiently abundant for a comparison, had significantly higher concentrations of cadmium, lead, and selenium in fillets from the Clinch River and significantly higher concentrations of mercury in fillets from Poplar Creek. The low concentrations of most contaminants in fish from the Clinch River do not appear to present a risk to humans or other consumers, although mercury concentrations in striped bass ranged as high as 0.79 ppm, well above the 0.5-ppm action level for human consumption of some US states

  12. Adaptation of the fish juvenile growth test (OECD TG 215, 2000) to the marine species Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornambè, A; Manfra, L; Canepa, S; Oteri, F; Martuccio, G; Cicero, A M; Magaletti, E

    2018-02-01

    The OECD TG 215 method (2000) (C.14 method of EC Regulation 440/2008) was developed on the rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) to assess chronic toxicity (28d) of chemicals on fish juveniles. It contemplates to use other well documented species identifying suitable conditions to evaluate their growth. OECD proposes the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. 1758) as Mediterranean species among vertebrates recommended in the OECD guidelines for the toxicity testing of chemicals. In this context, our study is aimed to proposing the adaptation of the growth test (OECD TG 215, 2000) to D. labrax. For this purpose toxicity tests were performed with sodium dodecyl sulfate, a reference toxicant commonly used in fish toxicity assays. The main aspects of the testing procedure were reviewed: fish size (weight), environmental conditions, dilution water type, experimental design, loading rate and stocking density, feeding (food type and ration), test validity criteria. The experience gained from growth tests with the sea bass allows to promote its inclusion among the species to be used for the C.14 method. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Biota monitoring under the Water Framework Directive: On tissue choice and fish species selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, Annette; Rüdel, Heinz; Lohmann, Nina; Buchmeier, Georgia; Koschorreck, Jan

    2018-04-01

    The study addresses the topic of suitable matrices for chemical analysis in fish monitoring and discusses the effects of data normalization in the context of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Differences between species are considered by comparing three frequently monitored species of different trophic levels, i.e., chub (Squalius cephalus, n = 28), (bream, Abramis brama, n = 11), and perch (Perca fluviatilis, n = 19) sampled in the German Danube. The WFD priority substances dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCDD/F + dl-PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mercury (Hg), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) as well as non-dioxin-like (ndl)-PCB were analyzed separately in fillet and carcass and whole body concentrations were calculated. Hg was analyzed in individual fish fillets and carcasses, all other substances were determined in pool samples, which were compiled on the basis of fish size (3 chub pools, 1 bream pool, 2 perch pools). The data were normalized to 5% lipid weight (or 26% dry mass in the case of Hg and PFOS) for comparison between matrices and species. Hg concentrations were generally higher in fillet than in whole fish (mean whole fish-to-fillet ratio: 0.7) whereas all other substances were mostly higher in whole fish. In the case of lipophilic substances these differences leveled after lipid normalization. Significant correlations (p ≤ .05) were detected between Hg and fish weight and age. Hg concentrations varied least among younger fish. PCDD/F, dl-PCB, ndl-PCB, PBDE, α-HBCDD and HCB correlated significantly (p ≤ .05) with lipid concentrations. Fillet-to-whole fish conversion equations and/or conversion factors were derived for all substances except α-HCBDD. Although more data also for individual fish would be desirable the results are nevertheless a step on the way to translate fillet concentrations of priority

  14. Design of character-based DNA barcode motif for species identification: A computational approach and its validation in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2017-11-01

    The DNA barcodes are generally interpreted using distance-based and character-based methods. The former uses clustering of comparable groups, based on the relative genetic distance, while the latter is based on the presence or absence of discrete nucleotide substitutions. The distance-based approach has a limitation in defining a universal species boundary across the taxa as the rate of mtDNA evolution is not constant throughout the taxa. However, character-based approach more accurately defines this using a unique set of nucleotide characters. The character-based analysis of full-length barcode has some inherent limitations, like sequencing of the full-length barcode, use of a sparse-data matrix and lack of a uniform diagnostic position for each group. A short continuous stretch of a fragment can be used to resolve the limitations. Here, we observe that a 154-bp fragment, from the transversion-rich domain of 1367 COI barcode sequences can successfully delimit species in the three most diverse orders of freshwater fishes. This fragment is used to design species-specific barcode motifs for 109 species by the character-based method, which successfully identifies the correct species using a pattern-matching program. The motifs also correctly identify geographically isolated population of the Cypriniformes species. Further, this region is validated as a species-specific mini-barcode for freshwater fishes by successful PCR amplification and sequencing of the motif (154 bp) using the designed primers. We anticipate that use of such motifs will enhance the diagnostic power of DNA barcode, and the mini-barcode approach will greatly benefit the field-based system of rapid species identification. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The importance of live-feed traps - farming marine fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Max; Abate, Tenaw Gedefaw

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the challenges of different live-feed regimes for the rearing of marine finfish larvae and discusses the potential alternative live feeds to avert a future live-feed trap. Live feeds are indispensable for the successful rearing of larvae of most marine fish species. Brine...... shrimps (Artemia) and rotifers comprise the live feeds of choice in marine aquaculture today. However, their nutritional composition is deficient in especially essential fatty acids, and enrichment with fish oil is needed. Fish oil is considered a limited resource owing to its origin in fully exploited...... wild fish stocks. Moreover, fluctuations of the natural population of Artemia will, most likely, influence future availability and prices. This emphasizes the need for optimal exploitation of available live-feed resources and development of new sustainable alternatives, such as copepods. An array...

  16. Development of computational fluid dynamics--habitat suitability (CFD-HSI) models to identify potential passage--Challenge zones for migratory fishes in the Penobscot River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alexander J.; Dudley, Robert W.; Chelminski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics-habitat suitability (CFD–HSI) model was developed to identify potential zones of shallow depth and high water velocity that may present passage challenges for five anadromous fish species in the Penobscot River, Maine, upstream from two existing dams and as a result of the proposed future removal of the dams. Potential depth-challenge zones were predicted for larger species at the lowest flow modeled in the dam-removal scenario. Increasing flows under both scenarios increased the number and size of potential velocity-challenge zones, especially for smaller species. This application of the two-dimensional CFD–HSI model demonstrated its capabilities to estimate the potential effects of flow and hydraulic alteration on the passage of migratory fish.

  17. Relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasina, Gabriela; Molina, Juan; Lopez Cazorla, Andrea; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan

    This study explores the relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) that are known to differ in their trophic habits. Only adult specimens were analyzed: 103 Cynoscion guatucupa, 77 Pogonias cromis, 61 Micropogonias furnieri, and 48 Menticirrhus americanus. The four species presented divergent ecomorphological traits related to swimming agility, prey spotting and capture, and the potential size of prey they were able to swallow. Results suggest that these sciaenid species can partition the food resources, even though they completely overlap in space. Differences in their ecomorphological traits appear to correlate closely with the diet and consequently could explain the trophic differentiation observed. Arguably, these ecomorphological differences play a significant role in the coexistence of the adults of these sympatric fish species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of protected, threatened, and endangered fish species in Upper Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, M.G.

    1998-07-01

    The East Bear Creek Site for the proposed centralized waste facility on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation was evaluated for potential rare, threatened or endangered (T and E) fish species in the six primary tributaries and the main stem of Bear Creek that are within or adjacent to the facility footprint. These tributaries and portion of Bear Creek comprise the upper Bear Creek watershed. One T and E fish species, the Tennessee dace (Phoxinus tennesseensis), was located in these streams. The Tennessee dace is listed by the State of Tennessee as being in need of management, and as such its habitat is afforded some protection. Surveys indicated that Tennessee dace occupy the northern tributaries NT-1, NT-4, and NT-5, as well as Bear Creek. Several specimens of the dace were gravid females, indicating that the streams may function as reproductive habitat for the species. The implications of impacts on the species are discussed and mitigation objectives are included

  19. Physiological and ecological factors influencing the radiocaesium contamination of fish species from Kiev reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulikov, A.O. [A.N. Severtzov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-23

    The monitoring of {sup 137}Cs contamination of fish from the northern part of the Kiev reservoir between 1987 and 1992 indicated systematic differences in the long-term average contamination levels of different species, which are closely related to their trophic levels. The average contamination of the predatory species: perch (Perca fluviatilis) and pike (Esox lucius) were roughly factors of 6.3 and 4.4 respectively, higher than those of the nonpredatory species: bream (Abramis brama), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophothalmus). For tench (Tinca tinca) and goldfish (Carassius sp.), this factor is 2. The solution of the caesium balance equation in fish obtained for equilibrium conditions, which is applicable to the long-term contamination, provides some explanations for these accumulation differences between the species with respect to influences by different ecological and physiological factors.

  20. Ecomorphology and resource use by dominant species of tropical estuarine juvenile fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Machado Pessanha

    Full Text Available Eleven ecomorphological attributes and diet of seventeen juvenile fish species were examined to test the hypothesis that morphological patterns determine resource uses in estuarine habitats. Species were separated according to the apparatus to food capture and habitat use (benthic or pelagic in three different groups: (1 a group with depressed fish body, strong caudal peduncle and enlarged pectoral fins; (2 a second group laterally flattened with a wide protruding mouth, and (3 a third group strongly flattened with small pectorals fins. The following six trophic groups were organized based on prey categories: Zooplanktivores, Benthivores, Omnivores, Detritivores, Macrocarnivores and Insectivores. Significant results (PERMANOVA between ecomorphological indices and habitat and between ecomorphological indices and trophic groups were found. These data indicate that similarity of ecomorphological forms, which minimize the influence of environment and partitioning of food, would help facilitate the co-existence of these fish when they are abundant in this tropical estuary.

  1. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish.

  2. A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Wang

    Full Text Available The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. While enterovirus infection has been increasingly reported in cattle and swine, the enterovirus infections in small ruminants remain largely unknown.Virology, molecular and bioinformatics methods were employed to characterize a novel enterovirus CEV-JL14 from goats manifesting severe diarrhea with morbidity and mortality respectively up to 84% and 54% in China.CEV-JL14 was defined and proposed as a new Enterovirus species L within the genus of Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. CEV-JL14 had a complete genome sequence of 7461 nucleotides with an ORF encoding 2172 amino acids, and shared 77.1% of genomic sequence identity with TB4-OEV, an ovine enterovirus. Comparison of 5'-UTR and structural genes of CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species revealed highly genetic variations among CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species. VP1 nucleotide sequence identities of CEV-14 were 51.8%-53.5% with those of Enterovirus E and F, 30.9%-65.3% with Enterovirus G, and 43.8-51. 5% with Enterovirus A-D, respectively. CEV-JL14 was proposed as a novel species within the genus of Enterovirus according to the current ICTV demarcation criteria of enteroviruses.CEV-JL14 clustered phylogenetically to neither Enterovirus E and F, nor to Enterovirus G. It was defined and proposed as novel species L within the genus of Enterovirus. This is the first report of caprine enterovirus in China, the first complete genomic sequence of a caprine enterovirus revealed, and the unveiling of significant genetic variations between ovine enterovirus and caprine enterovirus, thus broadening the current understanding of

  3. A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Deng, Yingrui; Zhu, Lisai; Guo, Changming; Tu, Changchun; Wang, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. While enterovirus infection has been increasingly reported in cattle and swine, the enterovirus infections in small ruminants remain largely unknown. Methods Virology, molecular and bioinformatics methods were employed to characterize a novel enterovirus CEV-JL14 from goats manifesting severe diarrhea with morbidity and mortality respectively up to 84% and 54% in China. Results CEV-JL14 was defined and proposed as a new Enterovirus species L within the genus of Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. CEV-JL14 had a complete genome sequence of 7461 nucleotides with an ORF encoding 2172 amino acids, and shared 77.1% of genomic sequence identity with TB4-OEV, an ovine enterovirus. Comparison of 5’-UTR and structural genes of CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species revealed highly genetic variations among CEV-JL14 with known Enterovirus species. VP1 nucleotide sequence identities of CEV-14 were 51.8%-53.5% with those of Enterovirus E and F, 30.9%-65.3% with Enterovirus G, and 43.8–51. 5% with Enterovirus A-D, respectively. CEV-JL14 was proposed as a novel species within the genus of Enterovirus according to the current ICTV demarcation criteria of enteroviruses. Conclusions CEV-JL14 clustered phylogenetically to neither Enterovirus E and F, nor to Enterovirus G. It was defined and proposed as novel species L within the genus of Enterovirus. This is the first report of caprine enterovirus in China, the first complete genomic sequence of a caprine enterovirus revealed, and the unveiling of significant genetic variations between ovine enterovirus and caprine enterovirus, thus broadening the

  4. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the endangered fish, the slender shiner Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa and cross-species amplification across five related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K S; Moon, S J; Han, S H; Kim, K Y; Bang, I C

    2016-09-02

    The slender shiner Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa (Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae; Gobioninae) is an endangered freshwater fish species endemic to Korea. The current strategies for its conservation involve the study of population genetic characters and identification of management units. These strategies require suitable molecular markers to study genetic diversity and genetic structure. Here, we developed nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for P. tenuicorpa for the first time by applying an enrichment method from a size-selected genomic library. The developed microsatellite markers produced a total of 101 alleles (average 11.2). The observed and expected heterozygosities averaged 0.805 and 0.835, respectively. Among the nine identified markers, five markers showed successful amplification across five related Korean Gobioninae species. Thus, the microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful to establish conservation strategies for both P. tenuicorpa and other related species.

  5. Diel vertical migration of major fish-species in Lake Victoria, East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, P.C.; Wanink, J.H.; Witte, F.; Katunzi, E.F.B.; Berger, M.R.; Postma, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of migration patterns is essential in the interpretation of hydro-acoustic stock assessment data of partly demersal partly pelagic fish stocks. In this paper we provide this kind of information for some species that were common in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria in the 1980s, before

  6. Diel vertical migration of major fish-species in Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, KPC; Wanink, JH; Witte, F; Katunzi, EFB; Berger, MR; Postma, DJ

    2004-01-01

    Understanding of migration patterns is essential in the interpretation of hydro-acoustic stock assessment data of partly demersal partly pelagic fish stocks. In this paper we provide this kind of information for some species that were common in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria in the 1980s, before

  7. Short Note Flood effects on trophic linkages of selected fish species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The St Lucia Estuary, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, has experienced prolonged mouth closure since 2002. Until recently it was hypersaline, but heavy rainfall between October 2010 and January 2011 led to a large overall decrease in salinity. A stable isotope study was conducted in March 2011 on selected fish species ...

  8. Divergent mating preferences and nuptial coloration in sibling species of cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Inke van der

    2008-01-01

    Mate choice by female cichlid fish from Lake Victoria plays an important role in speciation and the maintenance of species. Females are expected to select against males that are intermediate in their phenotype during the process of speciation driven by sexual selection. To test this, we hybridized

  9. 78 FR 24382 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... design forest management activities (e.g., timber sales, grazing plans, road building) in such a way as to conserve listed species. The USFS does not intend to kill any of the listed fish being captured... projects. The researchers do not propose to kill any of the listed salmonids being captured, but a small...

  10. The finfish species caught with various fishing gear in Odi River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The finfish species caught with various fishing gear in Odi River was studied in the Kolokuma/Opokuma axis of River Nun for six months (November – December 2011 and January, 2012 for dry season and May, June and July 2012 for wet season) to enhance management of its and similar water bodies fishery. Drift gillnet ...

  11. Analysing environmental and fishing effects on a short-lived species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-lived species are extremely dependent on the seasonal and interannual variability of environmental conditions, and determining their stock status is often difficult. This study investigates the effects of environmental variability and fishing pressure on the stock of octopus Octopus vulgaris in Senegalese waters over a ...

  12. 76 FR 72678 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... require scientists to report their activities associated with these tags. Examples of research conducted... stock assessments. The public display and scientific research quotas for sandbar sharks are now limited... Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering Permits; Letters...

  13. Genetic characterization of fin fish species from the Warri River at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... Genetic characterization of fin fish species from the. Warri River at Ubeji, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Asagbra ..... Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis and Steindachneridion scripta) from Uruguay River basin. Brazilian Archives Biol. Tech. 49(4):589-598. Saad YM, Shaden-Hanafi M, Essa MA, Guerges AA ...

  14. 78 FR 13864 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Highly Migratory Species; Exempted Fishing, Scientific Research, Display, and Chartering Permits; Letters... Permits (EFPs), Scientific Research Permits (SRPs), Display Permits, Letters of Acknowledgment (LOAs), and... scientific research, the acquisition of information and data, the enhancement of safety at sea, the purpose...

  15. 76 FR 31590 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... online at: https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov/preview/preview_open_for_comment.cfm . These documents are also... to the disadvantage of the listed species which are the subject of the permits; and (3) are... included in the annual California Department of Fish and Game research program under the ESA 4(d) rule for...

  16. 77 FR 24469 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... be viewed online at: https://apps.nmfs.noaa.gov/preview/preview_open_for_comment.cfm . These... operate to the disadvantage of the listed species which are the subject of the permits; and (3) are... Fisheries, NMFS. Applications Received Permit 14808 The California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) is...

  17. Cooking process evaluation on micronutrient and total mercury content in fish species in Manaus, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Vaconcellos, Marina B.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated different cooking processes (roasted, cooked and fried) on micronutrient (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and total Hg content in fish species most consumed by Manaus residents and surrounding communities. Twelve different fresh water fish species were purchased at the central receiving market (CEASA) in Manaus and prepared at the INPA Food and Nutrition Laboratory. In total 64 fish samples were analysed. Analytical determinations were performed by Neutron Activation Analysis Technique (NAA) for micronutrients and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) for total Hg. All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference material analyses with certified values for the elements determined. The concentration variation of the analyzed elements was: Hg (2392 to 19 μ kg -1 ); K (19187 to 1185 mg kg -1 ); Ca (14590 to 994 mg kg -1 ); Na (18386 to 12850 mg kg -1 ); Fe (5580 to 4 mg kg -1 ); Se (5249 to 129 μg kg -1 ) and Zn (684 to 15 mg kg -1 ). The effect of the different cooking processes on the variation of micronutrient composition was quite significant. On the other hand Hg composition variation seems to be more related to fish species rather than the cooking process itself. As was expected, predatory species presented higher Hg and Se levels. (author)

  18. The South American freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus (Actinopterygii: Characiformes: Prochilodontidae): new species in Vietnamese aquaculture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, L.; Bui, A.T.; Petrtýl, M.; Bohlen, Jörg; Chaloupková, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 6 (2012), 955-958 ISSN 1355-557X Grant - others:MZe(CZ) 29/MZe/B/08-10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : exotic species * aquaculture * Prochilodus lineatus Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2012

  19. Amount and qualities of carotenoids in fillets of fish species fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using column (CC), thin- layer (TLC) and high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), carotenoid content was examined in the fillets (muscles with skin) of 16 fish species from the fisheries of West African Coast. 15 carotenoids, including 6 ketocarotenoids (4'- hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, phoenicopterone, ...

  20. Fish Species Observed in the Hawaii Exclusive Economic Zone from the 1750s through 2003 (NODC Accession 0001486)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A list of Hawaiian fish species was created from contemporary and historical documents dating back to 1758. For each species, the name of the person who described...

  1. Freshwater fishes in Greek lakes: Species richness and body size patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Oikonomou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater ecosystems are widely recognised as hotspots of biodiversity and endemism; thus they are of great value for conservation biogeography. Amongst the taxa found in freshwater ecosystems, fish are the ideal biological model for testing biogeographical patterns and have often been used in large-scale ecological and biogeographical analyses. Lakes of Greece provide a unique opportunity to test biogeographical theories, however, biogeographical studies in Greece at broader, regional, scales, based on the distribution of freshwater species, species richness and endemism, are scarce. The aim of the current study is to test the effect of key environmental factors and spatial variables on species richness of lacustrine fishes and to test their effect on species’ size distributions. We assembled datasets of species richness and body size and environmental (predictor factors for 13 Greek lakes. Model selection procedures revealed that fish species richness increased with ecosystem area and decreased with altitude. In addition, our results showed that latitude per se is a good predictor of body size. Indeed, the mean size of lacustrine communities in the northern and southern lake ecosystems differed significantly. These patterns reflect the biogeographical history of these areas and highlight the crucial role connectivity plays in communities’ species composition.

  2. Human Health Risk from Metals in Fish from Saudi Arabia: Consumption Patterns for Some Species Exceed Allowable Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-10-06

    ABSTRACT: Fish are a healthful source of protein, but contaminants in some fish pose a risk. While there are multiple risk assessments from Europe and North America, there are far fewer for other parts of the world. We examined the risks from mercury, arsenic, lead, and other metals in fish consumed by people in Jeddah area, Saudi Arabia, using site-specific data on consumption patterns and metal levels in fish. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency\\'s Hazard Quotient (HQ) and cumulative Hazard Index (HI) for non-cancer endpoints and Carcinogenic Index for cancer were used to determine the health risk based on fish consumption rates. Of the 13 fish species examined, HQ was greater than 1 (indicating elevated risk) in two species for arsenic, and seven species for methylmercury. The cumulative HI for all metals was above 1 for all but three species of fish at the mean consumption rates. Generally, fish species with HI above 1 for one sampling location, had HI above 1 for all sampling locations. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of strategies for reducing risk from fish consumption while encouraging dietary intakes of fish with low mercury and arsenic levels.

  3. Concentration of arsenic in water, sediments and fish species from naturally contaminated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Juan José; Schenone, Nahuel F; Pérez Carrera, Alejo; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Arsenic (As) may occur in surface freshwater ecosystems as a consequence of both natural contamination and anthropogenic activities. In this paper, As concentrations in muscle samples of 10 fish species, sediments and surface water from three naturally contaminated rivers in a central region of Argentina are reported. The study area is one of the largest regions in the world with high As concentrations in groundwater. However, information of As in freshwater ecosystems and associated biota is scarce. An extensive spatial variability of As concentrations in water and sediments of sampled ecosystems was observed. Geochemical indices indicated that sediments ranged from mostly unpolluted to strongly polluted. The concentration of As in sediments averaged 6.58 μg/g ranging from 0.23 to 59.53 μg/g. Arsenic in sediments barely followed (r = 0.361; p = 0.118) the level of contamination of water. All rivers showed high concentrations of As in surface waters, ranging from 55 to 195 μg/L. The average concentration of As in fish was 1.76 μg/g. The level of contamination with As differed significantly between species. Moreover, the level of bioaccumulation of As in fish species related to the concentration of As in water and sediments also differed between species. Whilst some fish species seemed to be able to regulate the uptake of this metalloid, the concentration of As in the large catfish Rhamdia quelen mostly followed the concentration of As in abiotic compartments. The erratic pattern of As concentrations in fish and sediments regardless of the invariable high levels in surface waters suggests the existence of complex biogeochemical processes behind the distribution patterns of As in these naturally contaminated ecosystems.

  4. Identifying of meat species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foong, Chow Ming; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Meat has been widely consumed as an important protein source in daily life of human. Furthermore, with busy and intense urban lifestyle, processed food is now one of the main protein sources of one’s diet. Consumers rely on the food labeling to decide if the meat product purchased is safe and reliable. Therefore, it is important to ensure the food labeling is done in a correct manner to avoid consumer fraud. More consumers are now concern about the food quality and safety as compared to before. This study described the meat species identification and detection method using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 8 types of meats (cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, chicken, duck, pork and horse). The objective of this study is to decide on the specificity of oligonucleotide sequences obtained from previous study. There were 5 proposed oligonucleotide primer in this study. The main important finding in this work is the specificity of oligonucleotide primers to raw meats. It if found that the oligonucleotide primers proposed were not specific to the local raw meat species. Therefore, further study is needed to obtain a species-specific oligonucletide primers for PCR, in order to be applied in food product testing

  5. Identifying of meat species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foong, Chow Ming; Sani, Norrakiah Abdullah [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Meat has been widely consumed as an important protein source in daily life of human. Furthermore, with busy and intense urban lifestyle, processed food is now one of the main protein sources of one’s diet. Consumers rely on the food labeling to decide if the meat product purchased is safe and reliable. Therefore, it is important to ensure the food labeling is done in a correct manner to avoid consumer fraud. More consumers are now concern about the food quality and safety as compared to before. This study described the meat species identification and detection method using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 8 types of meats (cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, chicken, duck, pork and horse). The objective of this study is to decide on the specificity of oligonucleotide sequences obtained from previous study. There were 5 proposed oligonucleotide primer in this study. The main important finding in this work is the specificity of oligonucleotide primers to raw meats. It if found that the oligonucleotide primers proposed were not specific to the local raw meat species. Therefore, further study is needed to obtain a species-specific oligonucletide primers for PCR, in order to be applied in food product testing.

  6. Pollution Problem in River Kabul: Accumulation Estimates of Heavy Metals in Native Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Habib; Yousafzai, Ali Muhammad; Siraj, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Ahmad, Israr; Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Waqar; Akbar, Nazia; Muhammad, Khushi

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic systems with heavy metals is affecting the fish population and hence results in a decline of productivity rate. River Kabul is a transcountry river originating at Paghman province in Afghanistan and inters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and it is the major source of irrigation and more than 54 fish species have been reported in the river. Present study aimed at the estimation of heavy metals load in the fish living in River Kabul. Heavy metals including chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer after tissue digestion by adopting standard procedures. Concentrations of these metals were recorded in muscles and liver of five native fish species, namely, Wallago attu, Aorichthys seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo dyocheilus, and Ompok bimaculatus. The concentrations of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were higher in both of the tissues, whereas the concentration of cadmium was comparatively low. However, the concentration of metals was exceeding the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance of USA) limits. Hence, continuous fish consumption may create health problems for the consumers. The results of the present study are alarming and suggest implementing environmental laws and initiation of a biomonitoring program of the river.

  7. Risk-benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zdu@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, Jian [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing [Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Froyland, Livar [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-02-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk-benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB{sub 7}, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80-100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk-benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected 24 fish species with more than

  8. Risk–benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Frøyland, Livar

    2012-01-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk–benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB 7 , arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80–100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk–benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: ► We collected 24 fish species with more than 400 individual samples

  9. Nutritional evaluation of commercially important fish species of Lakshadweep archipelago, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottila Veettil Dhaneesh

    Full Text Available Estimation of nutrition profile of edible fishes is essential and thus a bio-monitoring study was carried out to find out the nutritional composition of commonly available fishes in Agatti Island water of Lakshadweep Sea. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid composition in the muscle of ten edible fish species were studied. Proximate analysis revealed that the protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash contents were high in Thunnus albacares (13.69%, Parupeneus bifasciatus (6.12%, Hyporhamphus dussumieri (6.97% and T. albacares (1.65%, respectively. Major amino acids were lysine, leucine and methionine, registering 2.84-4.56%, 2.67-4.18% and 2.64-3.91%, respectively. Fatty acid compositions ranged from 31.63% to 38.97% saturated (SFA, 21.99-26.30% monounsaturated (MUFAs, 30.32-35.11% polyunsaturated acids (PUFAs and 2.86-7.79% branched fatty acids of the total fatty acids. The ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs were ranged 13.05-21.14% and 6.88-9.82% of the total fatty acids, respectively. Hence, the fishes of Lakshadweep Sea are highly recommended for consumption, since these fishes are highly enriched with nutrition. The results can be used as a baseline data for comparing the various nutritional profiles of fishes in future.

  10. Allergy to fish collagen: Thermostability of collagen and IgE reactivity of patients' sera with extracts of 11 species of bony and cartilaginous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kuriyama, Takuma; Nakagawara, Ryoko; Aihara, Michiko; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2016-10-01

    Parvalbumin was identified as a major fish allergen, and has been well investigated. Collagen was identified as a second allergen; however, its allergenic properties remain uncharacterized. Although fish is an important staple in coastal countries, its thermostability is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine the thermostability of fish collagen as an allergen. Meat of seven bony and four cartilaginous fishes was heated at various temperatures and times, and extracts were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, IgE-ELISA, and SPTs. Collagen was dissolved from heated meat of Pacific mackerel into a crude extract. Collagen in the extracts was degraded at a high heating load-140 °C (10 min) or 100 °C (320 min). However, ELISA revealed the IgE reactivities of patients' sera with the extracts were unchanged even after heating the samples. Patients strongly reacted to extract proteins of other bony fish, which were detected by patients' IgE even after heating at 100 °C (320 min). In contrast, reactivities of the extracts of cartilaginous fish were lower than those of bony fish. SPTs in one patient revealed that all bony and cartilaginous fish extracts prepared from heated meat elicited allergic reactions. The IgE reactivity of patients' sera to fish collagen in extracts was retained even when fish meat was treated by a high heating load. As for the fish collagen, the IgE reactivities to cartilaginous fish were lower than that to bony fish. Reducing IgE reactivity to fish meat using heat is difficult, and other modalities will be required to produce hypoallergenic fish meat. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in ten commercial fish species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Raja, P; Sudhakar, S; Rajeswari, V; Asanulla, R Mohamed; Mohan, R; Sutharsan, P

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in ten commercial fish species and water samples in three estuaries along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India. Fish and water samples collected from Tamilnadu coast, India, were extracted and analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons by ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF) spectroscopy. The petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (PHC) in coastal waters and fish species varied between 2.28 and 14.02 μg/l and 0.52 and 2.05 μg/g, respectively. The highest PHC concentration was obtained in Uppanar estuarine waters (14.02 ± 0.83) and the lowest was observed in Vellar estuarine waters (2.28 ± 0.25). Among the ten fish species, Sardinella longiceps have high PHC concentration from all the locations. This study suggests that S. longiceps can be used as a good biological indicator for petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in water. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters along Tamilnadu coast is markedly higher than that in the background, but there is no evidence for its increase in fish of this region. From a public health point, petroleum hydrocarbon residue levels in all fish samples analyzed in this study are considerably lower than the hazardous levels. At present, as Tamilnadu coastal area is in a rapid development stage of new harbour, chemical industries, power plants, oil exploration and other large-scale industries, further assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons and the various hydrodynamic conditions acting in the region are to be studied in detail and continuous pollution monitoring studies should be conducted for improving the aquatic environment. The results will also be useful for pollution monitoring program along the coastal region and also to check the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  12. Assessing historical fish community composition using surveys, historical collection data, and species distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labay, Ben; Cohen, Adam E; Sissel, Blake; Hendrickson, Dean A; Martin, F Douglas; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2011-01-01

    Accurate establishment of baseline conditions is critical to successful management and habitat restoration. We demonstrate the ability to robustly estimate historical fish community composition and assess the current status of the urbanized Barton Creek watershed in central Texas, U.S.A. Fish species were surveyed in 2008 and the resulting data compared to three sources of fish occurrence information: (i) historical records from a museum specimen database and literature searches; (ii) a nearly identical survey conducted 15 years earlier; and (iii) a modeled historical community constructed with species distribution models (SDMs). This holistic approach, and especially the application of SDMs, allowed us to discover that the fish community in Barton Creek was more diverse than the historical data and survey methods alone indicated. Sixteen native species with high modeled probability of occurrence within the watershed were not found in the 2008 survey, seven of these were not found in either survey or in any of the historical collection records. Our approach allowed us to more rigorously establish the true baseline for the pre-development fish fauna and then to more accurately assess trends and develop hypotheses regarding factors driving current fish community composition to better inform management decisions and future restoration efforts. Smaller, urbanized freshwater systems, like Barton Creek, typically have a relatively poor historical biodiversity inventory coupled with long histories of alteration, and thus there is a propensity for land managers and researchers to apply inaccurate baseline standards. Our methods provide a way around that limitation by using SDMs derived from larger and richer biodiversity databases of a broader geographic scope. Broadly applied, we propose that this technique has potential to overcome limitations of popular bioassessment metrics (e.g., IBI) to become a versatile and robust management tool for determining status of

  13. Metal concentrations in demersal fish species from Santa Maria Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico (Pacific coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, M P; Aurioles-Gamboa, David; Villegas, Lorena Elizabeth Campos; Bohórquez-Herrera, Jimena; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J; Sujitha, S B

    2015-10-15

    Concentrations of 11 trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg) in 40 fish species from Santa Maria Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, the strategically important area for marine mammals and organisms were analyzed. Based on their concentrations the ranking of metals Fe>Zn>Ni>Cr>Mn>Pb>Cu>Co>As>Cd>Hg suggests that organism size, metabolism and feeding habits are correlated with metal concentrations. Local geological formations affect the concentrations of different metals in the aquatic environment and are subsequently transferred to fishes. The correlation analysis suggests that metabolism and nurturing habits impact the concentration of metals. Concentrations of Fe and Mn appear to be influenced by scavenging and absorption processes, which vary by species. The considerable variability in the metal concentrations obtained in different species underscores the importance of regular monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative study of infection with Tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharon, G.; Leibowitz, M. Pimenta; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order....... These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species...... of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish...

  15. Biology and early development of eight fish species from the Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivantsoff, W.; Crowley, L.E.L.M.; Howe, E.; Semple, G.

    1988-01-01

    The following fish were studied: Melanotaenia nigrans, Melanotaenia splendida australis, Melanotaenia splendida inornata, Pseudomugil gertrudae, Pseudomugil tenellus, Craterocephalus nov. sp., Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum stercusmuscarum, and Ambassis macleavi. Coloration, other specific attributes, sexual dichromatism and dimorphism were recorded whenever possible so that the sexes could be easily recognised. Mating and other behaviour patterns were noted to facilitate recognition of breeding pairs. Spawning patterns and occurrence of cannibalism were recorded, as was the effect of the presence of more than one breeding pair in a tank. Egg numbers at each spawning were recorded and the main breeding season for each of the species was determined. No single stimulus to spawning could be determined. Spawning appeared to be sporadic but continuous throughout the year, with a peak during late spring/early summer. Detailed records of embryonic development were kept for all species except Ambassis macleayi. Time of development to hatching, at constant temperature, was recorded. Larval development of rainbow-fishes was recorded in detail and times to particular developmental stages noted and compared. For other species, the times to particular developmental stages were recorded and representative larval stages described and drawn. General recommendations are made in regard to the requirements to breed and maintain fish, the numbers that can be produced for further study and the constraints that may be present when working with selected fish. 46 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs

  16. Metal contents in common edible fish species and evaluation of potential health risks to consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa Farag Soliman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a health risk assessment of some heavy metals attributed to consumption of common edible fish species available for consumers. Methods: Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in muscles, gills, livers, bones and skins of six common edible fish species, namely Oreochromis niloticus, Mugil cephalus, Sardinella aurita, Mullus barbatus, Boops boops, Pagrus pagrus. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and expressed as µg/g of wet tissue. Results: Results showed that iron and zinc were the most abundant among all fish tissues under investigation. The data obtained in the present work were compared well with the counterpart data reported internationally. The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the permissible limits. Moreover, the potential health risks of metals to human via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimating daily intake and target heath quotient. Generally, risk values for the measured metals do not pose unacceptable risks at mean ingestion rate for muscles. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the investigated metals in edible parts of the examined species have no health problems for consumers.

  17. Biology and early development of eight fish species from the Alligator Rivers Region. Technical memorandum 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivantsoff, W; Crowley, L E.L.M.; Howe, E; Semple, G

    1988-01-01

    The following fish were studied: Melanotaenia nigrans, Melanotaenia splendida australis, Melanotaenia splendida inornata, Pseudomugil gertrudae, Pseudomugil tenellus, Craterocephalus nov. sp., Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum stercusmuscarum, and Ambassis macleavi. Coloration, other specific attributes, sexual dichromatism and dimorphism were recorded whenever possible so that the sexes could be easily recognised. Mating and other behaviour patterns were noted to facilitate recognition of breeding pairs. Spawning patterns and occurrence of cannibalism were recorded, as was the effect of the presence of more than one breeding pair in a tank. Egg numbers at each spawning were recorded and the main breeding season for each of the species was determined. No single stimulus to spawning could be determined. Spawning appeared to be sporadic but continuous throughout the year, with a peak during late spring/early summer. Detailed records of embryonic development were kept for all species except Ambassis macleayi. Time of development to hatching, at constant temperature, was recorded. Larval development of rainbow-fishes was recorded in detail and times to particular developmental stages noted and compared. For other species, the times to particular developmental stages were recorded and representative larval stages described and drawn. General recommendations are made in regard to the requirements to breed and maintain fish, the numbers that can be produced for further study and the constraints that may be present when working with selected fish. 46 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Transcriptome discovery in non-model wild fish species for the development of quantitative transcript abundance assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Blazer, Vicki S.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental studies increasingly identify the presence of both contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and legacy contaminants in aquatic environments; however, the biological effects of these compounds on resident fishes remain largely unknown. High throughput methodologies were employed to establish partial transcriptomes for three wild-caught, non-model fish species; smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Sequences from these transcriptome databases were utilized in the development of a custom nCounter CodeSet that allowed for direct multiplexed measurement of 50 transcript abundance endpoints in liver tissue. Sequence information was also utilized in the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) primers. Cross-species hybridization allowed the smallmouth bass nCounter CodeSet to be used for quantitative transcript abundance analysis of an additional non-model species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). We validated the nCounter analysis data system with qPCR for a subset of genes and confirmed concordant results. Changes in transcript abundance biomarkers between sexes and seasons were evaluated to provide baseline data on transcript modulation for each species of interest.

  19. Transcriptome discovery in non-model wild fish species for the development of quantitative transcript abundance assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Cornman, Robert S; Mazik, Patricia M; Blazer, Vicki S

    2016-12-01

    Environmental studies increasingly identify the presence of both contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and legacy contaminants in aquatic environments; however, the biological effects of these compounds on resident fishes remain largely unknown. High throughput methodologies were employed to establish partial transcriptomes for three wild-caught, non-model fish species; smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Sequences from these transcriptome databases were utilized in the development of a custom nCounter CodeSet that allowed for direct multiplexed measurement of 50 transcript abundance endpoints in liver tissue. Sequence information was also utilized in the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) primers. Cross-species hybridization allowed the smallmouth bass nCounter CodeSet to be used for quantitative transcript abundance analysis of an additional non-model species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). We validated the nCounter analysis data system with qPCR for a subset of genes and confirmed concordant results. Changes in transcript abundance biomarkers between sexes and seasons were evaluated to provide baseline data on transcript modulation for each species of interest. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Climate and Physiography Predict Mercury Concentrations in Game Fish Species in Quebec Lakes Better than Anthropogenic Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucotte, Marc; Paquet, Serge; Moingt, Matthieu

    2016-05-01

    The fluctuations of mercury levels (Hg) in fish consumed by sport fishers in North-Eastern America depend upon a plethora of interrelated biological and abiological factors. To identify the dominant factors ultimately controlling fish Hg concentrations, we compiled mercury levels (Hg) during the 1976-2010 period in 90 large natural lakes in Quebec (Canada) for two major game species: northern pike (Esox lucius) and walleye (Sander vitreus). Our statistical analysis included 28 geographic information system variables and 15 climatic variables, including sulfate deposition. Higher winter temperatures explained 36% of the variability in higher walleye growth rates, in turn accounting for 54% of the variability in lower Hg concentrations. For northern pike, the dominance of a flat topography in the watershed explained 31% of the variability in lower Hg concentrations. Higher mean annual temperatures explained 27% of the variability in higher pike Hg concentrations. Pelagic versus littoral preferred habitats for walleye and pike respectively could explain the contrasted effect of temperature between the two species. Heavy logging could only explain 2% of the increase in walleye Hg concentrations. The influence of mining on fish Hg concentrations appeared to be masked by climatic effects.

  1. Feeding habits and trophic levels of some demersal fish species in the Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province) using Ecopath model

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabnezhad, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    A trophic study was carried out in February of 2012 to January 2013 on the ecosystem in the Persian Gulf, Bushehr provience. A total of 2,948 samples of stomach contents were analyzed based on the weight and number of food items and were identified about 40 preys. Crustacean and bony fish were as a main prey in most of the stomach contents . The mean average trophic level was estimated at 3.6 by Ecopath software. In this research, the mean level were studied between eight species varied fr...

  2. Characterizing fish responses to a river restoration over 21 years based on species' traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckendorff, Stefanie; Tonkin, Jonathan D; Haase, Peter; Bunzel-Drüke, Margret; Zimball, Olaf; Scharf, Matthias; Stoll, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Understanding restoration effectiveness is often impaired by a lack of high-quality, long-term monitoring data and, to date, few researchers have used species' trait information to gain insight into the processes that drive the reaction of fish communities to restoration. We examined fish-community responses with a highly resolved data set from 21 consecutive years of electrofishing (4 years prerestoration and 17 years postrestoration) at multiple restored and unrestored reaches from a river restoration project on the Lippe River, Germany. Fish abundance peaked in the third year after the restoration; abundance was 6 times higher than before the restoration. After 5-7 years, species richness and abundance stabilized at 2 and 3.5 times higher levels relative to the prerestoration level, respectively. However, interannual variability of species richness and abundance remained considerable, illustrating the challenge of reliably assessing restoration outcomes based on data from individual samplings, especially in the first years following restoration. Life-history and reproduction-related traits best explained differences in species' responses to restoration. Opportunistic short-lived species with early female maturity and multiple spawning runs per year exhibited the strongest increase in abundance, which reflected their ability to rapidly colonize new habitats. These often small-bodied and fusiform fishes typically live in dynamic and ephemeral instream and floodplain areas that river-habitat restorations often aim to create, and in this case their increases in abundance indicated successful restoration. Our results suggest that a greater consideration of species' traits may enhance the causal understanding of community processes and the coupling of restoration to functional ecology. Trait-based assessments of restoration outcomes would furthermore allow for easier transfer of knowledge across biogeographic borders than studies based on taxonomy. © 2017 Society for

  3. Optimising invasive fish management in the context of invasive species legislation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darragh J. Woodford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa hosts a large number of non-native freshwater fishes that were introduced for various industries. Many of these species are now listed under the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEM:BA Alien and Invasive Species (A&IS lists and regulations, though the practical options available to conservation agencies to effectively manage these fishes vary greatly among species and regions. Objectives & methods: We assessed the history and status of national legislation pertaining to invasive freshwater fishes, and the practical implications of the legislation for managing different species with contrasting distributions, impacts and utilisation value. Results: The smallmouth bass, despite being a potential conflict-generating species, is fairly straightforward to manage based on current legislation. Two species of trout, which remain absent from the NEM:BA A&IS lists because of ongoing consultation with stakeholders, continue to be managed in regions like the Western Cape province using existing provincial legislation. To maximise the limited capacity for management within conservation agencies, we proposed a decision-support tool that prioritises invasive fish populations that represent high environmental risk and low potential for conflict with stakeholders. Using three case studies, we demonstrated how the tool can be used to set management goals of ‘eradicate’, ‘manage against impacts and further spread’ and ‘continue to monitor population’ as the most pragmatic solutions given the state of an invasion, its socio-economic impact and the capacity of the responsible agency to act. Conclusion: By choosing a pragmatic management strategy, conservation agencies can maximise the effective deployment of limited resources, while minimising avoidable conflicts with stakeholders.

  4. Feeding habits of four species of mesopelagic fishes from the Northern Chilean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva A, Eduardo; Ulloa H, Raúl; Bleck Z, Jorge

    2006-06-01

    The feeding habits of four species of mesopelagic fishes from northern Chile are described: Triphoturus mexicanus, Diogenichtys atlanticus, Vinciguerria lucetia and Cyclothone acclinidens. Samples were captured in September 1988 between 18 degrees 25' and 19 degrees 09'S in the South West Pacific. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the stomach content showed that the species have a zooplanktophagous opportunistic behavior, mainly predating on Crustaceans, especially on Copepods. The evaluation of the trophic spectrum and diversity of T. mexicanus and C. acclinidens suggests that these are nictoepipelagic species, while D. atlanticus and V. lucetia would be typical mesopelagic.

  5. Global and Regional Patterns in Riverine Fish Species Richness: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Oberdorff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We integrate the respective role of global and regional factors driving riverine fish species richness patterns, to develop a synthetic model of potential mechanisms and processes generating these patterns. This framework allows species richness to be broken down into different components specific to each spatial extent and to establish links between these components and the processes involved. This framework should help to answer the questions that are currently being asked by society, including the effects of species invasions, habitat loss, or fragmentation and climate change on freshwater biodiversity.

  6. Cyanobacteria species identified in the Weija and Kpong reservoirs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Kpong and Weija reservoirs supply drinking water to Accra, Ghana. This study was conducted to identify the cyanobacteria present in these reservoirs and to ascertain whether current treatment processes remove whole cyanobacteria cells from the drinking water produced. Cyanotoxins are mostly cell bound and could ...

  7. Impact of genetically improved fish species and technology on selected hatchery and fish production in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Islam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in IAPP commanding areas from July to September 2015. A total of 8 hatchery and 240 farmers were selected for this study from Rangpur and Barisal region. About 153% Tilapia production increased which was from 34 to 86 lakh, which was 148% in Rangpur district. Thai koi production was increased about 320% in Rangpur and it was 152% in Barisal. It was observed that, per hatchery Tilapia profit was Tk. 17.35 lakh and Tk. 17.18 lakh in Rangpur and Barisal, respectively. While, total profit was 3.9 times more for Thai koi in Rangpur and it was about 1.7 times more in Barisal after IAPP-BFRI project implementation. Impact of improved germplasm on grow out system was estimated. Finding shows that before IAPP-BFRI project the average harvesting weight of tilapia fish was 122g but after using IAPP-BFRI germplasm, it increased to 194g in Rangpur district. In case of Thai Koi, the harvesting weight gain was 26% in Rangpur district and it was statistically significant at 1% level. Survey results also show that per acre profit was only Tk.86671 for Tilapia farming before IAPP whereas it was increased to Tk. 234853 after IAPP-BFRI intervention. At the same time, profit from Thai Koi was increased about 189% after IAPPBFRI activities. Similarly, profit was increased about 86% in case of Pangus farming and this positive impact was statistically significant at 1% level. Therefore, it may conclude that, farmers can significantly increase Tilapia, Thai Koi and Pangus production as well as can maximize profit using IAPP technology.

  8. Haematozoans from deep water fishes trawled off the Cape Verde Islands and over the Porcupine Seabight, with a revision of species within the genus Desseria (Adeleorina: Haemogregarinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Angela J; Hosein, Shazia; Merrett, Nigel R

    2012-02-01

    Archived blood smears from 32 of 113 fishes in 18 families and 12 orders, trawled from deep North Atlantic waters off the Cape Verde Islands in 1999 and over the Porcupine Seabight in 2001 were found to harbour haematozoans. These included four species of haemogregarines (Adeleorina, Haemogregarinidae) and a species of trypanosome (Trypanosomatina, Trypanosomatidae) located in Porcupine Seabight fishes. Also present were Haemohormidium-like structures of uncertain status found in samples from this location and from the Cape Verde Islands. Although material was limited, two of the haemogregarines were provisionally named Desseria harriottae sp. n. from Harriotta raleighana Goode et Bean (Chimaeriformes, Rhinochimaeridae), and Haemogregarina bathysauri sp. n. from Bathysaurus ferox Günther (Aulopiformes, Bathysauridae). The two remaining haemogregarines were identified as Desseria marshalllairdi (Khan, Threlfall et Whitty, 1992) from Halosauropsis macrochir (Günther) (Notacanthiformes, Halosauridae), and Haemogregarina michaeljohnstoni (Davies et Merrett, 2000) from Cataetyx laticeps Koefoed (Ophidiformes, Bythitidae). The name H. michaeljohnstoni was proposed to replace Haemogregarinajohnstoni Davies et Merrett, 2000 from C. laticeps and to avoid confusion with Hepatozoon johnstoni (Mackerras, 1961) Smith, 1996 from varanid lizards, originally named Haemogregarina johnstoni Mackerras, 1961. The trypanosome formed a mixed parasitaemia with D. harriottae in H. raleighana and was provisionally named Trypanosoma harriottae sp. n. No blood parasites had been described previously from cartilaginous fishes of the Holocephali, making the finds in H. raleighana unique. Haemohormidium-like structures were located in erythrocytes in one fish, Coryphaenoides armatus (Hector), among the Cape Verde Islands samples and in 12 species of fishes from the Porcupine Seabight; all these hosts were bony fishes. Finally, the haemogregarine species listed in the genus Desseria Siddall

  9. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutte, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.goutte@ephe.sorbonne.fr [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UMR 7372, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Ponthus, Jean-Pierre [École Pratique des Hautes Études (EPHE), SPL, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7619 METIS, F-75005, 4 place Jussieu, Paris (France); Massé, Guillaume [Unité Mixte Internationale Takuvik, Pavillon Alexandre-Vachon, Université Laval, QC, Québec (Canada); Bustamante, Paco [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-12-15

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ{sup 13}C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  10. Trace elements in Antarctic fish species and the influence of foraging habitats and dietary habits on mercury levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, Aurélie; Cherel, Yves; Churlaud, Carine; Ponthus, Jean-Pierre; Massé, Guillaume; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at describing and interpreting concentration profiles of trace elements in seven Antarctic fish species (N = 132 specimens) off Adélie Land. Ichthyofauna plays a key role in the Antarctic ecosystem, as they occupy various ecological niches, including cryopelagic (ice-associated), pelagic, and benthic habitats. Firstly, trace element levels in the studied specimens were similar to those previously observed in fish from the Southern Ocean. Apart from manganese and zinc, concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, mercury (Hg), nickel, selenium and silver differed among fish species. Muscle δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values were determined to investigate whether the fish foraging habitats and dietary habits could explain Hg levels. Species and foraging habitat (δ"1"3C) were strong predictors for variations of Hg concentrations in muscle tissues. The highest Hg contamination was found in shallow benthic fish compared to cryopelagic and pelagic fish. This pattern was likely due to the methylation of Hg in the coastal sediment and the photodemethylation by ultraviolet radiation in surface waters. - Highlights: • Trace elements and stable isotopes were analyzed in seven Antarctic fish species. • Levels of trace elements in liver and in muscle differed among species. • Hg load was higher in benthic fish than in cryopelagic and pelagic fish. • These findings could be due to the high methylation rate of Hg in the sediment.

  11. Native freshwater species get out of the way: Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) impacts both fish and benthic invertebrate communities in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Docherty, Cassandra; Neufeld, Kenton; Hamilton, Kyle; MacPherson, Laura; Poesch, Mark S

    2017-10-01

    Prussian carp ( Carassius gibelio ) are one of the most noxious non-native species in Eurasia. Recently, Prussian carp, a non-native freshwater fish species, were genetically confirmed in Alberta, Canada and have been rapidly expanding their range in North America since establishment. Given their rapid range expansion, there is an increasing need to determine how Prussian carp may impact native species. We assessed the severity of the Prussian carp invasion by (i) determining their impact on fish communities, (ii) assessing their impact on benthic invertebrate communities, (iii) evaluating if Prussian carp alter abiotic conditions, and (iv) identifying where we find higher abundances of Prussian carp. When Prussian carp were established, we found significant changes to the fish community. Correspondingly, the degree of impact to benthic invertebrate communities was related to the stage of invasion (none, early or recent), where changes in fish communities were significantly concordant with changes in benthic invertebrate communities. Finally, we found that higher abundances of Prussian carp were significantly associated with lower abundances of a majority of native fish species. Altogether, using three lines of evidence, we determine that Prussian carp can have wide-ranging impacts on freshwater ecosystems in North America, pressing the need for management intervention.

  12. The Bifurcation and Control of a Single-Species Fish Population Logistic Model with the Invasion of Alien Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study systematically the bifurcation and control of a single-species fish population logistic model with the invasion of alien species based on the theory of singular system and bifurcation. It regards Spartina anglica as an invasive species, which invades the fisheries and aquaculture. Firstly, the stabilities of equilibria in this model are discussed. Moreover, the sufficient conditions for existence of the trans-critical bifurcation and the singularity induced bifurcation are obtained. Secondly, the state feedback controller is designed to eliminate the unexpected singularity induced bifurcation by combining harvested effort with the purification capacity. It obviously inhibits the switch of population and makes the system stable. Finally, the numerical simulation is proposed to show the practical significance of the bifurcation and control from the biological point of view.

  13. Identifying the principal driving factors of water ecosystem dependence and the corresponding indicator species in a pilot City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Shao, N. F.; Yang, S. T.; Xiang, H.; Lou, H. Z.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Zhang, C. B.; Yu, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The world's aquatic ecosystems yield numerous vital services, which are essential to human existence but have deteriorated seriously in recent years. By studying the mechanisms of interaction between ecosystems and habitat processes, the constraining factors can be identified, and this knowledge can be used to improve the success rate of ecological restoration initiatives. At present, there is insufficient data on the link between hydrological, water quality factors and the changes in the structure of aquatic communities to allow any meaningful study of driving factors of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the typical monitoring stations were selected by fuzzy clustering analysis based on the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of water ecology in Jinan City, the first pilot city for the construction of civilized aquatic ecosystems in China. The dominant species identification model was used to identify the dominant species of the aquatic community. The driving effect of hydrological and water quality factors on dominant species was analyzed by Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Then, the principal factors of aquatic ecosystem dependence were selected. The results showed that there were 10 typical monitoring stations out of 59 monitoring sites, which were representative of aquatic ecosystems, 9 dominant fish species, and 20 dominant invertebrate species. The selection of factors for aquatic ecosystem dependence in Jinan were highly influenced by its regional conditions. Chemical environmental parameters influence the temporal and spatial variation of invertebrate much more than that of fish in Jinan City. However, the methodologies coupling typical monitoring stations selection, dominant species determination and driving factors identification were certified to be a cost-effective way, which can provide in-deep theoretical and technical directions for the restoration of aquatic ecosystems elsewhere.

  14. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (south Florida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jory, D.E.; Iversen, E.S. (Miami Univ., FL (USA). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1989-08-01

    Black, red, and Nassau groupers (Mycteroperca bonaci, Epinephelus morio, and E. striatus, respectively) are widely distributed on rocky bottoms and reefs along the south Florida coast. They are the most valuable marine finfish group in Florida, comprising about 25% of the total value of landings in 1984. The three species can be distinguished by morphometric, meristic, and body color characteristics. Younger fish are typically found in shallow, inshore grass beds, and larger, older fish are generally restricted to deep waters. The three species are protogynous hermaphrodites. Sexual transition can occur at any length over about 300 mm SL. An offshore movement apparently coincides with the onset of sexual maturity. Spawning aggregations have been observed throughout the year, but occur mostly between late spring and early summer. Fecundity estimates range from about 800,000 to 5,000,000 eggs per female. Both the eggs and the larvae are planktonic. Their early life history is poorly known. Larvae probably leave the plankton and become benthic at around 20--30 mm SL. Growth rates range from about 2 to 10 mm/month. The three species are unspecialized carnivores, feeding on a variety of fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks. Interspecific competition for food and shelter may be common because of the overlap in distribution, habitat, size, and food habitats. For the three species, a number of predators and parasites have been reported. Both the black and red groupers have been implicated in ciguatera poisonings in south Florida. 70 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  16. Susceptibility of Japanese Cyprininae fish species to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takafumi; Maeno, Yukio

    2014-03-14

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is known as the causative agent of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Recently, the virus has also been detected from Prussian carp (C. gibelio) and crucian carp (C. carassius) from European and Asian countries. To analyze the risk of spreading to new host species, the susceptibility of other fish species to the virus is essential. In this study experimental infections of indigenous Cyprininae species in Japan were performed by immersion in and intraperitoneal injection of a CyHV-2 isolate. Although Edonishiki, a variety of goldfish, immersed with the virus showed a cumulative mortality of 90%, no mortality was observed in ginbuna C. auratus langsdorfii, nagabuna C. auratus buergeri, nigorobuna C. auratus grandoculis and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Cumulative mortality was 100, 20 and 10% in intraperitoneally injected Edonishiki, ginbuna and nagabuna, respectively. Furthermore all Edonishiki immersed with the virus died. However, even after stimuli of sudden temperature changes, the immersed ginbuna and nagabuna did not die. Moreover no mortality was observed in co-reared Ranchu, another variety of goldfish, with immersed ginbuna and nagabuna although all three Ranchu co-reared with immersed Edonishiki died. CyHV-2 DNA was detected and the virus was re-isolated from all dead fish. Moreover CyHV-2 DNA was detected from some of the surviving Carassius spp. These results revealed that susceptibility of Japanese indigenous Cyprininae fish species to CyHV-2 is much lower than for goldfish. In addition, ability of replication of CyHV-2 might be different among Carassius fish species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON EFFECTS OF FREEZING ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLETS TWO FISH SPECIES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of fishes Sparidentex hasta and Pampus argenteus in the southern of Iran are consumed abundant in a particular season and it should be frozen for consumption throughout the year. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the effects of freezing on some of the physicochemical properties of fillets the fishes. Factors such as fat with chloroform-methanol method, amount of TBA (Thiobarbituric acid in fish muscle accordance method of Pearson, pH using a pH meter, FFA (Free fatty acids with titration in the presence of phenolphthalein was determined based on the percentage of oleic acid, peroxide value according to AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, in fresh samples at time zero and after different periods of freezing were tested respectively. Result showd that TBA (Thiobarbituric acid content in fish fillet, found Pampus argenteus and Sparidentex hasta 0.65 and 0.53 respectively. The results showed that the highest percentage of fat found for Pampus argenteus at 95 days 24.2(%2 and for Sparidentex hasta at 35 days (25.19%, free fatty acids contents found highest (0.9% and (0.97% for Sparidentex hasta and Pampus argenteus after 95 days. It can conclude that the TBA (Thiobarbituric acid, FFA (Free fatty acids  contents and pH of both fish species during storage in freezer were increased. Peroxide value in fish Pampus argenteus was reduced but, in Sparidentex hasta showed no significant differently.  The best time of storage of fishes Pampus argenteus and Sparidentex hasta at -18 °C was 35 days freezing, but nutritional value of fillets and fatty acids greatly reduced

  19. Ocean acidification alters the otoliths of a pantropical fish species with implications for sensory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignami, Sean; Enochs, Ian C; Manzello, Derek P; Sponaugle, Su; Cowen, Robert K

    2013-04-30

    Ocean acidification affects a wide diversity of marine organisms and is of particular concern for vulnerable larval stages critical to population replenishment and connectivity. Whereas it is well known that ocean acidification will negatively affect a range of calcareous taxa, the study of fishes is more limited in both depth of understanding and diversity of study species. We used new 3D microcomputed tomography to conduct in situ analysis of the impact of ocean acidification on otolith (ear stone) size and density of larval cobia (Rachycentron canadum), a large, economically important, pantropical fish species that shares many life history traits with a diversity of high-value, tropical pelagic fishes. We show that 2,100 μatm partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) significantly increased not only otolith size (up to 49% greater volume and 58% greater relative mass) but also otolith density (6% higher). Estimated relative mass in 800 μatm pCO2 treatments was 14% greater, and there was a similar but nonsignificant trend for otolith size. Using a modeling approach, we demonstrate that these changes could affect auditory sensitivity including a ∼50% increase in hearing range at 2,100 μatm pCO2, which may alter the perception of auditory information by larval cobia in a high-CO2 ocean. Our results indicate that ocean acidification has a graded effect on cobia otoliths, with the potential to substantially influence the dispersal, survival, and recruitment of a pelagic fish species. These results have important implications for population maintenance/replenishment, connectivity, and conservation efforts for other valuable fish stocks that are already being deleteriously impacted by overfishing.

  20. Effects of fishing technique on assessing species composition in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESF Medeiros

    Full Text Available In most ecological field research, appropriate sampling is critical for the understanding of processes underlying fish populations and communities, and is even more important in heterogeneous environments such as the aquatic systems of the semi-arid region of Brazil. This study intends to make a contribution to the development of sampling programs and gear selection in aquatic systems of semi-arid Brazil by evaluating the effects of different fishing techniques on the assessment of richness and composition of the fish fauna in selected aquatic environments. Six sites were selected to represent typical artificial (reservoirs and natural (intermittent streams environments and four different types of sampling gear were applied to each site during four occasions. The present study shows that when selecting sampling techniques to be used in aquatic systems in semi-arid Brazil, one must consider the objectives of the study, e.g. ecological or taxonomic, in order to decide on inclusion of rare species in the sampling population. Also, the effect of the sampling gear on natural abundances of fish must be considered given that some sampling techniques are highly detrimental to fish population numbers.

  1. An eDNA Assay to Monitor a Globally Invasive Fish Species from Flowing Freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Ponto-Caspian gobies are a flock of five invasive fish species that have colonized freshwaters and brackish waters in Europe and North America. One of them, the round goby Neogobius melanostomus, figures among the 100 worst invaders in Europe. Current methods to detect the presence of Ponto-Caspian gobies involve catching or sighting the fish. These approaches are labor intense and not very sensitive. Consequently, populations are usually detected only when they have reached high densities and when management or containment efforts are futile. To improve monitoring, we developed an assay based on the detection of DNA traces (environmental DNA, or eDNA) of Ponto-Caspian gobies in river water. The assay specifically detects invasive goby DNA and does not react to any native fish species. We apply the assay to environmental samples and demonstrate that parameters such as sampling depth, sampling location, extraction protocol, PCR protocol and PCR inhibition greatly impact detection. We further successfully outline the invasion front of Ponto-Caspian gobies in a large river, the High Rhine in Switzerland, and thus demonstrate the applicability of the assay to lotic environments. The eDNA assay requires less time, equipment, manpower, skills, and financial resources than the conventional monitoring methods such as electrofishing, angling or diving. Samples can be taken by untrained individuals, and the assay can be performed by any molecular biologist on a conventional PCR machine. Therefore, this assay enables environment managers to map invaded areas independently of fishermen's' reports and fish community monitorings.

  2. Evaluation of a Method for Quantifying Eugenol Concentrations in the Fillet Tissue from Freshwater Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, Jeffery R; Schreier, Theresa M; Porcher, Scott T; Smerud, Justin R

    2016-01-01

    AQUI-S 20E(®) (active ingredient, eugenol; AQUI-S New Zealand Ltd, Lower Hutt, New Zealand) is being pursued for approval as an immediate-release sedative in the United States. A validated method to quantify the primary residue (the marker residue) in fillet tissue from AQUI-S 20E-exposed fish was needed. A method was evaluated for determining concentrations of the AQUI-S 20E marker residue, eugenol, in freshwater fish fillet tissue. Method accuracies from fillet tissue fortified at nominal concentrations of 0.15, 1, and 60 μg/g from six fish species ranged from 88-102%. Within-day and between-day method precisions (% CV) from the fortified tissue were ≤8.4% CV. There were no coextracted compounds from the control fillet tissue of seven fish species that interfered with eugenol analyses. Six compounds used as aquaculture drugs did not interfere with eugenol analyses. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 0.012 μg/g. The method was robust, i.e., in most cases, minor changes to the method did not impact method performance. Eugenol was stable in acetonitrile-water (3 + 7, v/v) for at least 14 days, in fillet tissue extracts for 4 days, and in fillet tissue stored at ~ -80°C for at least 84 days.

  3. Identifying species conservation strategies to reduce disease-associated declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Brian D.; Converse, Sarah J.; Muths, Erin L.; Crockett, Harry J.; Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a salient threat to many animal taxa, causing local and global extinctions, altering communities and ecosystem function. The EID chytridiomycosis is a prominent driver of amphibian declines, which is caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). To guide conservation policy, we developed a predictive decision-analytic model that combines empirical knowledge of host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics with expert judgment regarding effects of management actions, to select from potential conservation strategies. We apply our approach to a boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) and Bd system, identifying optimal strategies that balance tradeoffs in maximizing toad population persistence and landscape-level distribution, while considering costs. The most robust strategy is expected to reduce the decline of toad breeding sites from 53% to 21% over 50 years. Our findings are incorporated into management policy to guide conservation planning. Our online modeling application provides a template for managers of other systems challenged by EIDs.

  4. Light microscopic study of four plagiorchiid trematodes infecting marine fish in the south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Alexandria City, with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Maher, Sherein

    2018-05-01

    During the present investigation, a total of 220 fish specimens belonging to three different species, namely, little tunny Euthynnus alletteratus, African snook Lates niloticus, and striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus, were collected from January-November 2016 from the coasts off Abu Qir landing site, Alexandria City, south-eastern Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. The collected fish samples were dissected and examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Twenty-three out of 220 (10.45%) fish specimens were found to be naturally infected with four species of trematode parasites belonging to three different families of the order Plagiorchiida. The recovered parasite species were collected and identified by applying light microscopic examinations. The present study recorded two new parasite species, namely, Stephanostomum alletterani sp. nov. and Bathycreadium mulli sp. nov., belonging to the families Acanthocolpidae and Opecoelidae and infecting E. alletteratus and M. surmuletus, respectively and re-descriptions of the two remaining species, namely, Acanthostomum spiniceps and Aponurus mulli of the families Acanthostomatidae and Opecoelidae, respectively, to clarify the measurements of some body parts. Morphological and morphometric characterizations revealed some differences between the present species and other related species detected previously. Future studies are recommended to include advanced molecular characteristics for these species.

  5. Historical change in fish species distribution: shifting reference conditions and global warming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Didier; Logez, M; Carrel, G; Rogers, C; Haidvogl, G

    Species distributions models (SDM) that rely on estimated relationships between present environmental conditions and species presence-absence are widely used to forecast changes of species distributions caused by global warming but far less to reconstruct historical assemblages. By compiling historical fish data from the turn to the middle of the twentieth century in a similar way for several European catchments (Rhône, Danube), and using already published SDMs based on current observations, we: (1) tested the predictive accuracy of such models for past climatic conditions, (2) compared observed and expected cumulated historical species occurrences at sub-catchment level, and (3) compared the annual variability in the predictions within one sub-catchment (Salzach) under a future climate scenario to the long-term variability of occurrences reconstructed during an extended historical period (1800-2000). We finally discuss the potential of these SDMs to define a "reference condition", the possibility of a shift in baseline condition in relation with anthropogenic pressures, and past and future climate variability. The results of this study clearly highlight the potential of SDM to reconstruct the past composition of European fish assemblages and to analyze the historical ecological status of European rivers. Assessing the uncertainty associated with species distribution projections is of primary importance before evaluating and comparing the past and future distribution of species within a given catchment.

  6. Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C Bagley

    Full Text Available Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including 'non-adaptive radiations' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the

  7. Fully-automated identification of fish species based on otolith contour: using short-time Fourier transform and discriminant analysis (STFT-DA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Nima; Loh, Kar Hoe; Kaur Dhillon, Sarinder; Chong, Ving Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fish species may be identified based on their unique otolith shape or contour. Several pattern recognition methods have been proposed to classify fish species through morphological features of the otolith contours. However, there has been no fully-automated species identification model with the accuracy higher than 80%. The purpose of the current study is to develop a fully-automated model, based on the otolith contours, to identify the fish species with the high classification accuracy. Methods. Images of the right sagittal otoliths of 14 fish species from three families namely Sciaenidae, Ariidae, and Engraulidae were used to develop the proposed identification model. Short-time Fourier transform (STFT) was used, for the first time in the area of otolith shape analysis, to extract important features of the otolith contours. Discriminant Analysis (DA), as a classification technique, was used to train and test the model based on the extracted features. Results. Performance of the model was demonstrated using species from three families separately, as well as all species combined. Overall classification accuracy of the model was greater than 90% for all cases. In addition, effects of STFT variables on the performance of the identification model were explored in this study. Conclusions. Short-time Fourier transform could determine important features of the otolith outlines. The fully-automated model proposed in this study (STFT-DA) could predict species of an unknown specimen with acceptable identification accuracy. The model codes can be accessed at http://mybiodiversityontologies.um.edu.my/Otolith/ and https://peerj.com/preprints/1517/. The current model has flexibility to be used for more species and families in future studies.

  8. Mercury and selenium levels in 19 species of saltwater fish from New Jersey as a function of species, size, and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There are few data on risks to biota and humans from mercury levels in saltwater fish. This paper examines mercury and selenium levels in muscle of 19 species of fish caught by recreational fisherfolk off the New Jersey shore, as a function of species of fish, size, and season, and risk of mercury to consumers. Average mercury levels ranged from 0.01 ppm (wet weight) (Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus) to 1.83 ppm (Mako Shark Isurus oxyrinchus). There were four categories of mercury levels: very high (only Mako), high (averaging 0.3–0.5 ppm, 3 species), medium (0.14–0.20 ppm, 10 species), and low (below 0.13 ppm, 5 species). Average selenium levels for the fish species ranged from 0.18 ppm to 0.58 ppm, and had lower variability than mercury (coefficient of variation=38.3 vs 69.1%), consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential element. The correlation between mercury and selenium was significantly positive for five and negative for two species. Mercury levels showed significant positive correlations with fish size for ten species. Size was the best predictor of mercury levels. Selenium showed no consistent relationship to fish length. Over half of the fish species had some individual fish with mercury levels over 0.3 ppm, and a third had fish with levels over 0.5 ppm, levels that pose a human health risk for high end consumers. Conversely several fish species had no individuals above 0.5 ppm, and few above 0.3 ppm, suggesting that people who eat fish frequently, can reduce their risk from mercury by selecting which species (and which size) to consume. Overall, with the exception of shark, Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), the species sampled are generally medium to low in mercury concentration. Selenium:mercury molar ratios were generally above 1:1, except for the Mako shark. PMID:21292311

  9. Improvement scheme for the determination of arsenic species in mussel and fish tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, F.; Amran, M. B.; Leroy, M. J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Six interlaboratory studies were organised by the Standard, Measurement and Testing Programme of the European Commission on the determination of arsenic species (arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, As(III) and As(V)) in marine matrices and soil. A step-by-s...... and at the end of the six campaigns allowed the certification of a reference material of tuna-fish tissue (BCR-CRM 627) for its total arsenic, arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid contents....

  10. Critically endangered fish species of Turkish Seas (Mediterranean and Aegean): Longfin gurnard, Chelidonichthys obscurus (Walbaum, 1792)

    OpenAIRE

    Cemal Turan; Deniz Ergüden; Mevlüt Gürlek

    2016-01-01

    Longfin gurnard Chelidonichthys obscurus (Walbaum, 1792) is reported several times from various researchers in the checklist of Turkish marine fishes. However, last three decades, the species is not occurred in the distributional range, comprising the northeastern Mediterranean Sea and Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. It is possibly critically endangered or absent in the Turkish Seas. Moreover, there has no any biological study been carried out on C. obscurus in Turkey. C. obscurus is considered t...

  11. Non-native fish introductions in the Czech Republic – species inventory, facts and future perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, J.; Jurajda, Pavel; Adámek, Z.; Horký, P.; Slavík, O.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 26, Suppl. 2 (2010), s. 38-45 ISSN 0175-8659. [International Conference and Workshop on Managing Alien Species for Sustainable Development of Aquaculture and Fisheries. Florence, 05.11.2008-07.11.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : freshwater fish * fisheries management * invasion success Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2010

  12. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from New Jersey: Individual and species variability complicate use in human health fish consumption advisories☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Balancing risk versus benefits to humans and other organisms from consuming fish is a national concern in the USA, as well as in many other parts of the world. Protecting public health is both a federal and state responsibility, and states respond by issuing fish consumption advisories, particularly for mercury. Recently it has been emphasized that the protective role of selenium against mercury toxicity depends on their molar ratios, which should be evaluated as an indication of selenium’s protective capacity, and incorporated in risk assessments for fish consumption. However, there is no single “protective” ratio agreed upon. In this paper we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in a wide range of saltwater fish caught and eaten by recreational fishers along the New Jersey coast. We were particularly interested in interspecific and intraspecific variability, and whether the molar ratios were consistent within a species, allowing for its use in managing risk. The selenium–mercury molar ratio showed significant variation among and within fish species. The molar ratio decreased with the size of the fish species, decreased with the mercury levels, and within a fish species, the selenium:mercury ratio decreased with fish size. As an essential element, selenium undergoes some homeostatic regulation, but it is also highly toxic. Within species, mercury level tends to increase with size, accounting for the negative relationship between size and ratio. This variability may make it difficult to use the selenium:mercury molar ratio in risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication at this time, and more information is needed on how mercury and selenium actually interact and on the relationship between the molar ratios and health outcomes. PMID:22405995

  13. Life history and biogeographic diversification of an endemic western North American freshwater fish clade using a comparative species tree approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumsteiger, Jason; Kinziger, Andrew P; Aguilar, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The west coast of North America contains a number of biogeographic freshwater provinces which reflect an ever-changing aquatic landscape. Clues to understanding this complex structure are often encapsulated genetically in the ichthyofauna, though frequently as unresolved evolutionary relationships and putative cryptic species. Advances in molecular phylogenetics through species tree analyses now allow for improved exploration of these relationships. Using a comprehensive approach, we analyzed two mitochondrial and nine nuclear loci for a group of endemic freshwater fish (sculpin-Cottus) known for a wide ranging distribution and complex species structure in this region. Species delimitation techniques identified three novel cryptic lineages, all well supported by phylogenetic analyses. Comparative phylogenetic analyses consistently found five distinct clades reflecting a number of unique biogeographic provinces. Some internal node relationships varied by species tree reconstruction method, and were associated with either Bayesian or maximum likelihood statistical approaches or between mitochondrial, nuclear, and combined datasets. Limited cases of mitochondrial capture were also evident, suggestive of putative ancestral hybridization between species. Biogeographic diversification was associated with four major regions and revealed historical faunal exchanges across regions. Mapping of an important life-history character (amphidromy) revealed two separate instances of trait evolution, a transition that has occurred repeatedly in Cottus. This study demonstrates the power of current phylogenetic methods, the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic approach, and the potential for sculpin to serve as an indicator of biogeographic history for native ichthyofauna in the region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome analysis of Betanodavirus from cultured marine fish species in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransangan, Julian; Manin, Benny Obrain

    2012-04-23

    Betanodavirus is the causative agent of the viral nervous necrosis (VNN) or viral encephalopathy and retinopathy disease in marine fish. This disease is responsible for most of the mass mortalities that occurred in marine fish hatcheries in Malaysia. The genome of this virus consists of two positive-sense RNA molecules which are the RNA1 and RNA2. The RNA1 molecule contains the RdRp gene which encodes for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the RNA2 molecule contains the Cp gene which encodes for the viral coat protein. In this study, total RNAs were extracted from 32 fish specimens representing the four most cultured marine fish species in Malaysia. The fish specimens were collected from different hatcheries and aquaculture farms in Malaysia. The RNA1 was successfully amplified using three pairs of overlapping PCR primers whereas the RNA2 was amplified using a pair of primers. The nucleotide analysis of RdRp gene revealed that the Betanodavirus in Malaysia were 94.5-99.7% similar to the RGNNV genotype, 79.8-82.1% similar to SJNNV genotype, 81.5-82.4% similar to BFNNV genotype and 79.8-80.7% similar to TPNNV genotype. However, they showed lower similarities to FHV (9.4-14.2%) and BBV (7.2-15.7%), respectively. Similarly, the Cp gene revealed that the viruses showed high nucleotide similarity to RGNNV (95.9-99.8%), SJNNV (72.2-77.4%), BFNNV (80.9-83.5%), TPNNV (77.2-78.1%) and TNV (75.1-76.5%). However, as in the RdRp gene, the coat protein gene was highly dissimilar to FHV (3.0%) and BBV (2.6-4.1%), respectively. Based on the genome analysis, the Betanodavirus infecting cultured marine fish species in Malaysia belong to the RGNNV genotype. However, the phylogenetic analysis of the genes revealed that the viruses can be further divided into nine sub-groups. This has been expected since various marine fish species of different origins are cultured in Malaysia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of trace metals and analysis of arsenic species in tropical marine fishes from Spratly islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxi; Sun, Chengjun; Zheng, Li; Jiang, Fenghua; Wang, Shuai; Zhuang, Zhixia; Wang, Xiaoru

    2017-09-15

    Trace metal contents in 38 species of tropical marine fishes harvested from the Spratly islands of China were determined by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The average levels of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and U in the fish samples were 1.683, 0.350, 0.367, 2.954, 36.615, 0.087, 0.319, 1.566, 21.946, 20.845, 2.526, 3.583, 0.225, 0.140, and 0.061mg·kg -1 , respectively; Fe, Zn, and As were found at high concentrations. The trace metals exhibited significant positive correlation between each other, with r value of 0.610-0.852. Further analysis indicated that AsB (8.560-31.020mg·kg -1 ) was the dominant arsenic species in the fish samples and accounted for 31.48% to 47.24% of the total arsenic. As(III) and As(V) were detected at low concentrations, indicating minimal arsenic toxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Endoparasite fauna of five Gadiformes fish species from the coast of Chile: host ecology versus phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, R A; González, M T; Oliva, M E; Valdivia, I M

    2012-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare, using multivariate analyses, the degree of similarity of the endoparasite fauna of five fish species belonging to the order Gadiformes: Merluccius gayi, Merluccius australis, Macruronus magellanicus (Gadoidei) and Micromesistius australis and Nezumia pulchella (Macrouroidei), from the southern and central Chilean coast, and to evaluate whether the composition of the endoparasite fauna was determined by phylogenetic or ecological relationships. We employed our database of Merluccius australis, M. magellanicus and Micromesistius australis, which was complemented with published information for M. magellanicus, Merluccius australis, Micromesistius australis, M. gayi and N. pulchella. A higher number of endoparasite species was recorded for Merluccius australis, Micromesistius australis and M. magellanicus, namely Anisakis sp. and Hepatoxylon trichiuri, which is the most prevalent parasite among these hosts. Aporocotyle wilhelmi and Hysterothylacium sp. were detected only in M. gayi, whereas Lepidapedon sp. was found exclusively in N. pulchella. These results suggest that fish ecology rather than host phylogeny was the most important factor for the determination of similarity in parasite composition. This result could be explained by the similar trophic patterns of hosts and by the predominance of generalist larval species among these fish parasite communities.

  17. Evidence of population resistance to extreme low flows in a fluvial-dependent fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rachel A.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme low streamflows are natural disturbances to aquatic populations. Species in naturally intermittent streams display adaptations that enhance persistence during extreme events; however, the fate of populations in perennial streams during unprecedented low-flow periods is not well-understood. Biota requiring swift-flowing habitats may be especially vulnerable to flow reductions. We estimated the abundance and local survival of a native fluvial-dependent fish species (Etheostoma inscriptum) across 5 years encompassing historic low flows in a sixth-order southeastern USA perennial river. Based on capturemark-recapture data, the study shoal may have acted as a refuge during severe drought, with increased young-of-the-year (YOY) recruitment and occasionally high adult immigration. Contrary to expectations, summer and autumn survival rates (30 days) were not strongly depressed during low-flow periods, despite 25%-80% reductions in monthly discharge. Instead, YOY survival increased with lower minimum discharge and in response to small rain events that increased low-flow variability. Age-1+ fish showed the opposite pattern, with survival decreasing in response to increasing low-flow variability. Results from this population dynamics study of a small fish in a perennial river suggest that fluvial-dependent species can be resistant to extreme flow reductions through enhanced YOY recruitment and high survival

  18. Rapidly shifting baselines in Yangtze fishing communities and local memory of extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Samuel T; Barrett, Leigh A; Yujiang, Hao; Lei, Zhang; Xinqiao, Zhang; Xianyan, Wang; Yadong, Huang; Kaiya, Zhou; Hart, Tom; Ding, Wang

    2010-06-01

    Local ecological knowledge can provide a unique source of data for conservation, especially in efforts to investigate the status of rare or possibly extinct species, but it is unlikely to remain constant over time. Loss of perspective about past ecological conditions caused by lack of communication between generations may create "shifting baseline syndrome," in which younger generations are less aware of local species diversity or abundance in the recent past. This phenomenon has been widely discussed, but has rarely been examined quantitatively. We present new evidence of shifting baselines in local perception of regional species declines and on the duration of "community memory" of extinct species on the basis of extensive interviews with fishers in communities across the middle-lower Yangtze basin. Many Yangtze species have experienced major declines in recent decades, and the Yangtze River dolphin or baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) and Yangtze paddlefish (Psephurus gladius) may have become extinct during the 21(st) century. Although informants across all age classes were strongly aware of the Yangtze ecosystem's escalating resource depletion and environmental degradation, older informants were more likely to recognize declines in two commercially important fish species, Reeves' shad (Tenualosa reevesii) and Yangtze pufferfish (Takifugu fasciatus), and to have encountered baiji and paddlefish in the past. Age was also a strong predictor of whether informants had even heard of baiji or paddlefish, with younger informants being substantially less likely to recognize either species. A marked decrease in local knowledge about the Yangtze freshwater megafauna matched the time of major population declines of these species from the 1970s onwards, and paddlefish were already unknown to over 70% of all informants below the age of 40 and to those who first started fishing after 1995. This rapid rate of cultural baseline shift suggests that once even megafaunal species cease to

  19. Ecomorphological correlates of twenty dominant fish species of Amazonian floodplain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Siqueira-Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Fishes inhabiting Amazonian floodplain lakes exhibits a great variety of body shape, which was a key advantage to colonize the several habitats that compose these areas adjacent to the large Amazon rivers. In this paper, we did an ecomorphological analysis of twenty abundant species, sampled in May and August 2011, into two floodplain lakes of the lower stretch of the Solimões River. The analysis detected differences among species, which could be probably associated with swimming ability and habitat use preferences.

  20. [Species and size composition of fishes in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Mexican central Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sansón, Gaspar; Aguilar-Betancourt, Consuelo; Kosonoy-Aceves, Daniel; Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Flores-Ortega, Juan Ramón; Hinojosa-Larios, Angel; de Asís Silva-Bátiz, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered important nursery areas for many coastal fishes. Barra de Navidad coastal lagoon (3.76km2) is important for local economy as it supports tourism development and artisanal fisheries. However, the role of this lagoon in the dynamics of coastal fish populations is scarcely known. Thus, the objectives of this research were: to characterize the water of the lagoon and related weather conditions, to develop a systematic list of the ichthyofauna, and to estimate the proportion of juveniles in the total number of individuals captured of most abundant species. Water and fish samples were collected between March 2011 and February 2012. Physical and chemical variables were measured in rainy and dry seasons. Several fishing gears were used including a cast net, beach purse seine and gillnets of four different mesh sizes. Our results showed that the lagoon is most of the time euhaline (salinity 30-40ups), although it can be mixopolyhaline (salinity 18-30ups) during short periods. Chlorophyll and nutrients concentrations suggested eutrophication in the lagoon. Mean water temperature changed seasonally from 24.9 degrees C (April, high tide) to 31.4 degrees C (October, low tide). Considering ichthyofauna species, a total of 36 448 individuals of 92 species were collected, 31 of them adding up to 95% of the total of individuals caught. Dominant species were Anchoa spp. (44.6%), Diapterus peruvianus (10.5%), Eucinostomus currani (8.1%), Cetengraulis mysticetus (7.8%), Mugil curema (5.2%) and Opisthonema libertate (4.5%). The lagoon is an important juvenile habitat for 22 of the 31 most abundant species. These included several species of commercial importance such as snappers (Lutjanus argentiventris, L. colorado and L. novemfasciatus), snook (Centropomus nigrescens) and white mullet (Mugil curema). Other four species seem to use the lagoon mainly as adults. This paper is the first contribution on the composition of estuarine ichthyofauna in Jalisco

  1. A survey of ichthyofauna of Lake Kanyaboli and other small waterbodies in Kenya: alternative refugia for endangered fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Maithya, J.

    1998-01-01

    In 1988, the World Conservation Union (WCU) Red Book of Endangered Species listed hundreds of endemic fishes of Lake Victoria under a single heading - "ENDANGERED". Most of the endemic native food fishes are either endangered or extinct. However, a survey of the fauna of Lake Kanyaboli, revealed that a few remaining samples of these native fishes are actually thriving. These include several unidentified Haplochromis spp., Oreochromis esculentus and Oreochromis variabilis. As a resul...

  2. Identifying the rooted species tree from the distribution of unrooted gene trees under the coalescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Elizabeth S; Degnan, James H; Rhodes, John A

    2011-06-01

    Gene trees are evolutionary trees representing the ancestry of genes sampled from multiple populations. Species trees represent populations of individuals-each with many genes-splitting into new populations or species. The coalescent process, which models ancestry of gene copies within populations, is often used to model the probability distribution of gene trees given a fixed species tree. This multispecies coalescent model provides a framework for phylogeneticists to infer species trees from gene trees using maximum likelihood or Bayesian approaches. Because the coalescent models a branching process over time, all trees are typically assumed to be rooted in this setting. Often, however, gene trees inferred by traditional phylogenetic methods are unrooted. We investigate probabilities of unrooted gene trees under the multispecies coalescent model. We show that when there are four species with one gene sampled per species, the distribution of unrooted gene tree topologies identifies the unrooted species tree topology and some, but not all, information in the species tree edges (branch lengths). The location of the root on the species tree is not identifiable in this situation. However, for 5 or more species with one gene sampled per species, we show that the distribution of unrooted gene tree topologies identifies the rooted species tree topology and all its internal branch lengths. The length of any pendant branch leading to a leaf of the species tree is also identifiable for any species from which more than one gene is sampled.

  3. Projected risk of population declines for native fish species in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, S.M.; Boma, P.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Conservationists are in need of objective metrics for prioritizing the management of habitats. For individual species, the threat of extinction is often used to prioritize what species are in need of conservation action. Using long-term monitoring data, we applied a Bayesian diffusion approximation to estimate quasi-extinction risk for 54 native fish species within six commercial navigation reaches along a 1350-km gradient of the upper Mississippi River system. We found a strong negative linear relationship between quasi-extinction risk and distance upstream. For some species, quasi-extinction estimates ranged from nearly zero in some reaches to one in others, suggesting substantial variability in threats facing individual river reaches. We found no evidence that species traits affected quasi-extinction risk across the entire system. Our results indicate that fishes within the upper Mississippi River system face localized threats that vary across river impact gradients. This suggests that conservation actions should be focused on local habitat scales but should also consider the additive effects on downstream conditions. We also emphasize the need for identification of proximate mechanisms behind observed and predicted population declines, as conservation actions will require mitigation of such mechanisms. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Food and habitat resource partitioning between three estuarine fish species on the Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1983-12-01

    In 1978 the food and habitat resource partitioning of three small and common fish species, viz. Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.) and Pungitius pungitius (L.) were studied in river Broälven estuary on the Swedish west coast (58°22'N, 11°29'E). The area was divided into three habitats, based on environmental features. In July, September, and October stomach contents and size distribution of each species present were analysed. In July there was high food and habitat overlap between the species. Interference interactions probably occurred between some size classes of P. microps and the other two species. P. pungitius was exposed to both intra- and interspecific interactions. In September the food and habitat overlaps between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were high, while both had low food and habitat overlaps in relation to P. microps. Interactions between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were probably influenced by more severe abiotic conditions in one habitat, which caused lower abundances there, and higher abundances in the other two habitats. In October no interactions were observed. These results indicate that competition for food at least temporarily determines the species distribution in a temperate estuary, and that estuarine fish populations are sometimes food limited.

  5. Paternal identity impacts embryonic development for two species of freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Linhart, Otomar; Krejszeff, Sławomir; Żarski, Daniel; Pitcher, Trevor E; Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest

    2017-05-01

    Paternal, compared to maternal, contributions were believed to have only a limited influence on embryonic development and larval fitness traits in fishes. Therefore, the perspective of male influence on early life history traits has come under scrutiny. This study was conducted to determine parental effects on the rate of eyed embryos of Ide Leuciscus idus and Northern pike Esox lucius. Five sires and five dams from each species were crossed using a quantitative genetic breeding design and the resulting 25 sib groups of each species were reared to the embryonic eyed stage. We then partition variation in embryonic phenotypic performance to maternal, paternal, and parental interactions using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) model. Results showed that paternal, maternal, and the paternal×maternal interaction terms were highly significant for both species; clearly demonstrating that certain family combinations were more compatible than others. Paternal effects explained 20.24% of the total variance, which was 2-fold higher than the maternal effects (10.73%) in Ide, while paternal effects explained 18.9% of the total variance, which was 15-fold higher than the maternal effects (1.3%) in Northern pike. Together, these results indicate that male effects are of major importance during embryonic development for these species. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that genetic compatibility between sires and dams plays an important role and needs to be taken into consideration for reproduction of these and likely other economically important fish species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fish species of greatest conservation need in wadeable Iowa streams: current status and effectiveness of Aquatic Gap Program distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Anthony R.; Pierce, Clay; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation of fish species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) requires an understanding of species–habitat relationships and distributional trends. Thus, modeling the distribution of fish species across large spatial scales may be a valuable tool for conservation planning. Our goals were to evaluate the status of 10 fish SGCN in wadeable Iowa streams and to test the effectiveness of Iowa Aquatic Gap Analysis Project (IAGAP) species distribution models. We sampled fish assemblages from 86 wadeable stream segments in the Mississippi River drainage of Iowa during 2009 and 2010 to provide contemporary, independent fish species presence–absence data. The frequencies of occurrence in stream segments where species were historically documented varied from 0.0% for redfin shiner Lythrurus umbratilis to 100.0% for American brook lampreyLampetra appendix, with a mean of 53.0%, suggesting that the status of Iowa fish SGCN is highly variable. Cohen's kappa values and other model performance measures were calculated by comparing field-collected presence–absence data with IAGAP model–predicted presences and absences for 12 fish SGCN. Kappa values varied from 0.00 to 0.50, with a mean of 0.15. The models only predicted the occurrences of banded darterEtheostoma zonale, southern redbelly dace Phoxinus erythrogaster, and longnose daceRhinichthys cataractae more accurately than would be expected by chance. Overall, the accuracy of the twelve models was low, with a mean correct classification rate of 58.3%. Poor model performance probably reflects the difficulties associated with modeling the distribution of rare species and the inability of the large-scale habitat variables used in IAGAP models to explain the variation in fish species occurrences. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the confidence in species distribution model predictions with an independent data set and the need for long-term monitoring to better understand the

  7. Host range, host ecology, and distribution of more than 11800 fish parasite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Palomares, Maria Lourdes D.; Bailly, Nicholas; Galli, Paolo; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Our data set includes 38 008 fish parasite records (for Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, Trematoda) compiled from the scientific literature, Internet databases, and museum collections paired to the corresponding host ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic traits (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, habitat preference, geographical range size, taxonomy). The data focus on host features, because specific parasite traits are not consistently available across records. For this reason, the data set is intended as a flexible resource able to extend the principles of ecological niche modeling to the host–parasite system, providing researchers with the data to model parasite niches based on their distribution in host species and the associated host features. In this sense, the database offers a framework for testing general ecological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic hypotheses based on the identification of hosts as parasite habitat. Potential applications of the data set are, for example, the investigation of species–area relationships or the taxonomic distribution of host-specificity. The provided host–parasite list is that currently used by Fish Parasite Ecology Software Tool (FishPEST, http://purl.oclc.org/fishpest), which is a website that allows researchers to model several aspects of the relationships between fish parasites and their hosts. The database is intended for researchers who wish to have more freedom to analyze the database than currently possible with FishPEST. However, for readers who have not seen FishPEST, we recommend using this as a starting point for interacting with the database.

  8. FRESHWATER FISH AND DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN POPULATIONS ON RÉUNION ISLAND, WITH AN ASSESSMENT OF SPECIES INTRODUCTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEITH P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Streams of Réunion Island shelter with 26 fish species and 11 decapod crustacean species. Some species have been introduced (18%, some other are endemic to the island or to the Madagascar-Mascarenes region (16.2%, are originated from Indo-Pacific area (35.2% or from Indo-African area (27%. Gobiidae and Palaemonidae are the prevailing family in freshwaters, with the highest number of species. 16 species were introduced, mainly fishes, beginning at the turn of the 19th century, but only 4 of those have become acclimatised, while 7 have disappeared and the status of the other is uncertain.

  9. Utilization of the fish ladder at the Engenheiro Sergio Motta Dam, Brazil, by long distance migrating potamodromous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Makrakis

    Full Text Available Utilization of the fish ladder installed at the Engenheiro Sergio Motta Dam (also known as Porto Primavera on the Paraná River, Southern Brazil, by long-distance migrating potamodromous species (sampling Protocol I, and ascending and descending movements (Protocol II were evaluated. Three pools along the fish ladder (designated as lower, middle, and upper were sampled monthly between December, 2004 and March, 2005 to determine the abundance of species in the ladder. The ascending and descending movements of the species in the ladder were also analyzed in the same period. In the samples for both protocols, 37 species representing 17 families and 5 orders (Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes, Gymnotiformes, and Myliobatiformes were recorded. Characiformes were represented by 21 species. Long- distance migratory species (11 species predominated in the ladder (60% of the total number of individuals, with high abundance of Rhinelepis aspera (5645 individuals. For protocol I, mean abundance varied greatly among the months and pools, with lowest values in December and March for all pools, and highest in January for the lower pool due to high capture of R. aspera. Fish abundance declined from the lower to the upper pool, especially for R. aspera and Rhaphiodon vulpinus. For Protocol II, 17 species were recorded ascending the ladder, where Astyanax altiparanae and Leporinus friderici were the most abundant species (684 and 111 individuals, respectively. However, 18 species showed descending movements, with high captures of Metynnis maculatus and A. altiparanae (339 and 319 individuals, respectively. Twelve species (52% moved in both directions, and among the seven migratory species sampled, four were recorded ascending and descending, and three species only ascending the ladder. The fish ladder appears to selectively favor species with high swimming capabilities. A discussion is presented on the requirements for future research on attraction to the

  10. Biometric indices and size at first sexual maturity of eight alien fish species from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yeamin Hossain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The biometric indices and size at first sexual maturity of eight alien fish species from several water bodies in Bangladesh were studied for the first time. A total of 273 individuals of eight alien fish species (Barbonymus gonionotus, Clarias gariepinus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, H. nobilis, Oreochromis niloticus and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were collected using traditional fishing gears from June 2014 to May 2015. Among the four condition factors (Allometric condition factor, Fulton’s condition factor, Relative condition factor, and Relative weight studied, Fulton’s condition factor was the best for assessing the well-being of these alien species in their natural habitat, based on the relationships of condition factors with body weight and total length. The calculated form factor was 0.0270 for B. gonionotus, 0.0077 for C. gariepinus, 0.0119 for C. idella, 0.0194 for C. carpio, 0.0101 for H. molitrix, 0.0092 for H. nobilis, 0.0158 for O. niloticus and 0.0105 for P. hypophthalmus. The size at first sexual maturity was estimated in TL as 12.30 cm for B. gonionotus, 25.53 cm for C. gariepinus, 32.80 cm for C. idella, 18.22 cm for C. carpio, 23.92 cm for H. molitrix, 30.18 cm for H. nobilis, 21.78 cm for O. niloticus, and 21.32 cm for P. hypophthalmus. The present study also calculates form factor and first sexual maturity of these alien species from different water-bodies world over. The findings of this study can be very helpful for sustainable management of these alien species in Bangladesh and similar ecosystems.

  11. Functional roles of an engineer species for coastal benthic invertebrates and demersal fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaalali, Aurélie; Brind'Amour, Anik; Dubois, Stanislas F; Le Bris, Hervé

    2017-08-01

    Through their tissues or activities, engineer species create, modify, or maintain habitats and alter the distribution and abundance of many plants and animals. This study investigates key ecological functions performed by an engineer species that colonizes coastal ecosystems. The gregarious tubiculous amphipod Haploops nirae is used as a biological model. According to previous studies, the habitat engineered by H. nirae (i.e., Haploops habitat) could provide food and natural shelter for several benthic species such as benthic diatoms belonging to the gender Navicula , the micrograzer Geitodoris planata, or the bivalve Polititapes virgineus . Using data from scientific surveys conducted in two bays, this study explored whether (1) the Haploops sandy-mud community modifies invertebrate and ichthyologic community structure (diversity and biomass); (2) H. nirae creates a preferential feeding ground; and (3) this habitat serves as a refuge for juvenile fish. Available Benthic Energy Coefficients, coupled with more traditional diversity indices, indicated higher energy available in Haploops habitat than in two nearby habitats (i.e., Sternaspis scutata and Amphiura filiformis/Owenia fusiformis habitats). The use of isotopic functional indices (IFIs) indicated (1) a higher functional richness in the Haploops habitat, related to greater diversity in food sources and longer food chains; and (2) a higher functional divergence, associated with greater consumption of a secondary food source. At the invertebrate-prey level, IFIs indicated little specialization and little trophic redundancy in the engineered habitat, as expected for homogenous habitats. Our results partly support empirical knowledge about engineered versus nonengineered habitats and also add new perspectives on habitat use by fish and invertebrate species. Our analyses validated the refuge-area hypothesis for a few fish species. Although unique benthic prey assemblages are associated with Haploops habitat, the

  12. Assessment of Genetic Connectivity between Sudan and Saudi Arabia for Commercially Important Fish Species

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, Sara N.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns of genetic connectivity can help answer key questions about the evolutionary ecology of fishes. This knowledge is particularly useful when considering the management and conservation of species that are impacted by fisheries. Population connectivity in ocean habitats is heavily influenced by environmental and oceanographic factors. These factors can lead to strong genetic differences within populations, causing fragmentation into smaller subpopulations. The Red Sea exhibits pronounced oceanographic gradients in temperature, chlorophyll, and salinity, which have been assessed in various species’ populations and which have been found to have potential impacts on gene flow. The Red Sea also features strong cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies that may facilitate, or possibly inhibit, the transport of larvae throughout the Red Sea, potentially influencing gene flow themselves. The ability of oceanographic factors like eddies to structure wild fisheries populations in this region has yet to be fully determined. To address this, the genetic composition of two of the most highly fished species, (Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus pessuliferus marisrubri), in the Red Sea were evaluated utilizing genetic markers (polymorphic microsatellite loci). Samples from three geographically separate regions along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline, as well as from Sudan, were analyzed to address latitudinal and cross-sea connectivity. I was able to determine that little genetic differentiation exists within Plectropomus species across all regions of the Red Sea, indicating high gene flow for these species throughout. These findings highlight the ability of currents and eddies to transport larvae along and across the Red Sea. The results from this study also indicate that a single population of P. areolatus and a single population of P. pessuliferus marisrubri occurs in the Red Sea. The high degree of genetic flow suggests that each species should be managed as individual

  13. Three new Species and six new Records of small Serranoid Fishes from Curaçao and Puerto Rico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, John E.

    1963-01-01

    Among the fishes taken during a recent collecting trip to Curaçao are three very colorful small serranoids which represent undescribed species. Two of the three new fishes are grammids of the previously monotypic genus Lipogramma, and their discovery necessitates a slight modification of the generic

  14. Effects of light and presence of fish on lure display and larval release behaviours in two species of freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    2000-01-01

    We investigated how two sympatric species of freshwater mussels transmit their parasitic larvae to fish hosts. We found that Villosa nebulosa and V. vibex both display large mantle lures to attract potential host fish, but V. nebulosa displayed only at night and V....

  15. 50 CFR 222.309 - Permits for listed species of sea turtles involving the Fish and Wildlife Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for listed species of sea turtles... species of sea turtles involving the Fish and Wildlife Service. (a) This section establishes specific... survival of endangered or threatened species of sea turtles; zoological exhibition or educational purposes...

  16. Effects of dredging and macrophyte management on the fish species composition in an old Neotropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Henríques Esguícero

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim: As part of the remodeling of an almost century-old dam, in the Rio Jacaré-Guaçu, the dredging and management of macrophytes were carried out in the Gavião Peixoto Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil. Data for the reservoir and a river stretch upstream the reservoir were compared, for evaluating the effects of the management procedures. Methods The fish fauna and physical and chemical factors were studied during five years, before (2005-2006 and after the recovery procedures (2007-2009, once a year, during the rainy season. Fishes were caught by gill nets, 10 m long and 1.5, 4, and 6 cm-mesh between adjacent knots. Results After the management procedures, the values of pH and dissolved oxygen increased in the reservoir, whereas conductivity decreased, bringing them closer to those of the upstream stretch. Species richness, diversity, and Catch per Unit Effort in number and biomass, increased in the reservoir after the management. Conclusions After the recovery procedures, the composition of the fish fauna in the reservoir was similar to that of the upstream stretch. The dredging and management of macrophytes in the reservoir benefited the fish fauna diversity, through improvement in water quality and space expansion.

  17. Coral reef fish species survey data GIS from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (NODC Accession 0001394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of an ArcView shapefile set that contains locations of sampled coral reef fish species at the National Marine Sanctuary along the Florida...

  18. Elucidating the diversity of aquatic Microdochium and Trichoderma species and their activity against the fish pathogen Saprolegnia diclina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, J.M.; De Bruijn, I.

    2016-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food security.

  19. Elucidating the diversity of aquatic microdochium and trichoderma species and their activity against the fish pathogen Saprolegnia diclina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yiying; Zachow, Christin; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruijn, De Irene

    2016-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly threatened by emerging fungal and oomycete diseases. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause population declines in aquatic animals, especially fish and amphibians, resulting in significant perturbation in biodiversity, ecological balance and food

  20. Size, time, and asynchrony matter: the species-area relationship for parasites of freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelmer, Derek A

    2014-10-01

    The tendency to attribute species-area relationships to "island biogeography" effectively bypasses the examination of specific mechanisms that act to structure parasite communities. Positive covariation between fish size and infrapopulation richness should not be examined within the typical extinction-based paradigm, but rather should be addressed from the standpoint of differences in colonization potential among individual hosts. Although most mechanisms producing the aforementioned pattern constitute some variation of passive sampling, the deterministic aspects of the accumulation of parasite individuals by fish hosts makes untenable the suggestion that infracommunities of freshwater fishes are stochastic assemblages. At the component community level, application of extinction-dependent mechanisms might be appropriate, given sufficient time for colonization, but these structuring forces likely act indirectly through their effects on the host community to increase the probability of parasite persistence. At all levels, the passive sampling hypothesis is a relevant null model. The tendency for mechanisms that produce species-area relationships to produce nested subset patterns means that for most systems, the passive sampling hypothesis can be addressed through the application of appropriate null models of nested subset structure.

  1. Diastereoisomer- and species-specific distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in fish and marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Jongchul; Shin, Eun-Su; Seo, Sung-Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-30

    The levels and distributional characteristics of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereoisomers have been largely reported for various fish and select shellfish. In this study, we reclassified a number and variety of marine invertebrates, including shellfish, to further contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the effects and assessment of human exposure to HBCD. Overall, 30 marine invertebrate species (n=188) were investigated and the following order of ∑2HBCD (α- and γ-HBCD) was observed: fish>chordata>cephalopoda>echinodermata>bivalve>crustacea. The marine invertebrates that were reclassified into nektonic and benthic organisms showed similar concentration of ∑2HBCD. The feeding habits and modes of the marine organisms were considered to compare the degree of bioaccumulation and diastereoisomer-specific distribution of HBCD due to the effects of the environment in and around pollution sources, as well as the organisms' metabolic capacities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the species-specific distribution patterns of HBCD for both fish and marine invertebrates. We expect to significantly expand the understanding of the environmental fate of HBCD for marine organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Trace elements in two marine fish species during estuarine residency: Non-essential versus essential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieiro, C.L.; Coelho, J.P.; Pacheco, M.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We assessed essential and non-essential trace elements loads in two marine fish. ► We found similarly low levels of Zn, Cr, and As in both sites and species. ► We compared recommended daily allowances with the estimated daily intake. ► Arsenic was higher than tolerable commercial levels and USA average daily intake. - Abstract: Trace element levels in fish are of particular interest, owing the potential risk to human health. In accordance, juveniles of Dicentrarchus labrax and of Liza aurata were sampled and arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium and zinc were determined in the muscle. The levels of trace elements in muscle demonstrated to be similar for both species and sites, with the exception of selenium levels at reference, which seemed to be higher in D. labrax. Moreover, apart from arsenic levels in muscle, all elements were in conformity with the existent regulatory guidelines for fish consumption. The dietary intake of each element was also calculated, with arsenic and selenium showing intakes above the recommended dietary allowances. Nevertheless, no arsenic speciation was carried out and thus no accurate risk evaluation could be established. Additionally, selenium levels never exceeded the dietary allowances more than five times, which are considered safe.

  3. Cyanobacteria blooms induce embryonic heart failure in an endangered fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Jinmei; Pan, Xiaofu; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Yang, Junxing; Xu, Runbing; Chen, Shanyuan; Chang, Xuexiu

    2018-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms drive water-quality and aquatic-ecosystem deterioration in eutrophic lakes worldwide, mainly owing to their harmful, secondary metabolites. The response of fish exposed to these cyanobacterial chemicals, however, remains largely unknown. In this paper, we employed an endangered fish species (Sinocyclocheilus grahami) in Dianchi Lake, China to evaluate the risks of cell-free exudates (MaE) produced by a dominant cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) on embryo development, as well as the molecular mechanisms responsible. MaE (3d cultured) caused a reduction of fertilization (35.4%) and hatching (15.5%) rates, and increased mortality rates (≤90.0%) and malformation rate (27.6%), typically accompanied by heart failure. Proteomics analysis revealed that two greatest changed proteins - protein S100A1 (over-expressed 26 times compared with control) and myosin light chain (under-expressed 25 fold) - are closely associated with heart function. Further study revealed that heart failure was due to calcium ion imbalance and malformed cardiac structure. We conclude that harmful secondary metabolites from cyanobacteria may adversely affect embryo development in this endangered fish, and possibly contribute to its disappearance and unsuccessful recovery in Dianchi Lake. Hazardous consequences of substances released by cyanobacteria should raise concerns for managers addressing recovery of this and other imperiled species in affected lakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Diet of two species of fish family Cichlidae (Astronotus ocellatus and Cichla pinima introduced in the Paraguaçu River, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rogério Godinho dos Reis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the diet of introduced fish species allows us to understand their trophic position in the community, their level of predation, and possibly to identify the if and when they act as competitors and/or predators. This paper aims to describe the diet of the tucunaré, Cichla pinima, and of the apanhari, Astronotus ocellatus. Both species originated from the Amazon basin and were introduced into the Paraguaçu River. Ninety-two specimens were analyzed, and both species showed a diversified diet composed of 20 different food types. For C. pinima, fish (IAi = 35.2% Ephemeroptera insects (IAi = 31.7% and molluscs (IAi = 21.2% were the most important food types. Ephemeropteran insects were highly prevalent in the diet of A. ocellatus, corresponding to over 98% of IAi. The high prevalence of insects in the diet may be related to the high number of juveniles among the specimens analyzed. The presence of native fish in the stomach contents of tucunarés deserves particular attention, because the voracity of this fish can lead to extinction of native species.

  6. Comparative ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish species in the North Atlantic: Implications for modelling climate and fisheries impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkel, V. M.; Huse, G.; MacKenzie, B. R.; Alvarez, P.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Castonguay, M.; Goñi, N.; Grégoire, F.; Hátún, H.; Jansen, T.; Jacobsen, J. A.; Lehodey, P.; Lutcavage, M.; Mariani, P.; Melvin, G. D.; Neilson, J. D.; Nøttestad, L.; Óskarsson, G. J.; Payne, M. R.; Richardson, D. E.; Senina, I.; Speirs, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish stocks in the North Atlantic basin with emphasis on their role in the food web and the factors determining their relationship with the environment. We consider herring (Clupea harengus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus), capelin (Mallotus villosus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), which have distributions extending beyond the continental shelf and predominantly occur on both sides of the North Atlantic. We also include albacore (Thunnus alalunga), bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), which, by contrast, show large-scale migrations at the basin scale. We focus on the links between life history processes and the environment, horizontal and vertical distribution, spatial structure and trophic role. Many of these species carry out extensive migrations from spawning grounds to nursery and feeding areas. Large oceanographic features such as the North Atlantic subpolar gyre play an important role in determining spatial distributions and driving variations in stock size. Given the large biomasses of especially the smaller species considered here, these stocks can exert significant top-down pressures on the food web and are important in supporting higher trophic levels. The review reveals commonalities and differences between the ecology of widely distributed pelagic fish in the NE and NW Atlantic basins, identifies knowledge gaps and modelling needs that the EURO-BASIN project attempts to address.

  7. ACOUSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK: EVALUATION OF THE MODEL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnaen Fahmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroacoustic techniques are a valuable tool for the stock assessments of many fish species. Nonetheless, such techniques are limited by problems of species identification. Several methods and techniques have been used in addressing the problem of acoustic identification species and one of them is Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs. In this paper, Back propagation (BP and Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP of the Artificial Neural Network were used to classify carp (Cyprinus carpio, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and catfish (Pangasius hypothalmus. Classification was done using a set of descriptors extracted from the acoustic data records, i.e. Volume Back scattering (Sv, Target Strength (TS, Area Back scattering Strength, Skewness, Kurtosis, Depth, Height and Relative altitude. The results showed that the Multi Layer Perceptron approach performed better than the Back propagation. The classification rates was 85.7% with the multi layer perceptron (MLP compared to 84.8% with back propagation (BP ANN.

  8. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    . The Colombian pisciculture is based on red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. (Linnaeus), Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier), which currently represent around 96% of the total national production. The remaining 4% comes from other farmed species such as bocachico......In Colombia and the rest of the world, the decrease in capture fisheries production has turned the aquaculture into an alternative source of protein for the populations food security as well as an important productive activity, generating employment and income for the rural communities...... Prochilodus magdalenae (Steindachner), carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) and yamu Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz). From the three main fish species, cachama blanca is the only native species, which has shown excellent performance in pond farming due to its rusticity, omnivorous habits, docility, meat quality...

  9. Liquid chromatographic determination of para-toluenesulfonamide in edible fillet tissues from three species of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Schmidt, L.J.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chloramine-T (N-sodium-N-chloro-p-toluene-sulfonamide) is a candidate therapeutic drug for treating bacterial gill disease, a predominant disease of a variety of fish species. Research has been initiated to obtain the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approval for the use of chloramine-T on a variety of fish species. An attribute of a therapeutic aquaculture drug that must be characterized before the FDA approves its use is depletion of the drug's marker residue (the drug's parent compound or metabolite of highest concentration in an edible tissue). Para-Toluenesulfonamide (p-TSA) is the primary degradation product and marker residue for chloramine-T in rainbow trout. To conduct residue depletion studies for chloramine-T in fish, a robust analytical method sensitive and specific for p-TSA residues in edible fillet tissue from a variety of fish was required. Homogenized fillet tissues from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were fortified at nominal p-TSA concentrations of 17, 67, 200, 333, and 1000 ng/g. Samples were analyzed by isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) with absorbance detection at 226 nm. Mean recoveries of p-TSA ranged from 77 to 93.17%; relative standard deviations ranged from 1.5 to 14%; method quantitation limits ranged from 13 to 18 ng/g; and method detection limits ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 ng/g. The LC parameters produced p-TSA peaks without coelution of endogenous compounds and excluded chromatographic interference from at least 20 chemicals and drugs of potential use in aquaculture.

  10. Assessing three fish species ecological status in Colorado River, Grand Canyon based on physical habitat and population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weiwei; Chen, Yuansheng

    2018-04-01

    Colorado River is a unique ecosystem and provides important ecological services such as habitat for fish species as well as water power energy supplies. River management for this ecosystem requires assessment and decision support tools for fish which involves protecting, restoring as well as forecasting of future conditions. In this paper, a habitat and population model was developed and used to determine the levels of fish habitat suitability and population density in Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead. The short term target fish populations are also predicted based on native fish recovery strategy. This model has been developed by combining hydrodynamics, heat transfer and sediment transport models with a habitat suitability index model and then coupling with habitat model into life stage population model. The fish were divided into four life stages according to the fish length. Three most abundant and typical native and non-native fish were selected as target species, which are rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown trout (Salmo trutta) and flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis). Flow velocity, water depth, water temperature and substrates were used as the suitability indicators in habitat model and overall suitability index (OSI) as well as weight usable area (WUA) was used as an indicator in population model. A comparison was made between simulated fish population alteration and surveyed fish number fluctuation during 2000 to 2009. The application of this habitat and population model indicates that this model can be accurate present habitat situation and targets fish population dynamics of in the study areas. The analysis also indicates the flannelmouth sucker population will steadily increase while the rainbow trout will decrease based on the native fish recovery scheme. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  12. Five new species of philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Walter, Thorsten; Yuniar, Asri Trisnani

    2012-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following five species of the Philometridae (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female specimens collected from marine fishes off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia: Philometra lobotidis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch) (Lobotidae, Perciformes); Philometra javaensis sp. n. from the abdominal cavity of the immaculate puffer Arothron immaculatus (Bloch et Schneider) (Tetraodontidae, Tetraodontiformes); Philometra psettoditis sp. n. from the musculature of the Indian spiny turbot Psettodes erumei (Bloch et Schneider) (Psettodidae, Pleuronectiformes); Philometroides indonesiensis sp. n. from the musculature of the hound needlefish Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (Péron et Lesueur) (Belonidae, Beloniformes); and Philometroides trichiuri sp. n. from the dorsal fin of the largehead hairtail Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus (type host) and the savalai hairtail Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) (both Trichiuridae, Perciformes). All these new species are distinguished from their congeners parasitizing marine fishes by morphological (mainly the shape and structure of the cephalic and caudal ends and of the oesophagus) and biometrical features. Besides previously known Philometra pellucida (Jägerskiöld, 1893) and Philometra ocularis Moravec, Ogawa, Suzuki, Miyazaki et Donai, 2002, they are the only nominal philometrid species recorded from Indonesian waters.

  13. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: A comparison of six species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDadda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki, when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of 6 poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, Gambusia holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii and Xiphophorus mayae that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females’ social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  14. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  15. Regiospecific Analysis of Fatty Acids and Calculation of Triglyceride Molecular Species in Marine Fish Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The regiospecific distribution of fatty acids (FAs and composition of triglyceride (TAG molecular species of fishes were analyzed and calculated by pancreatic lipase (PL hydrolysis and Visual Basic (VB program. DHA was preferentially located at sn-2 position in TAG molecule, whereas EPA was almost equally distributed in each position of glycerol backbone. DOP, DPP, EPP, PoPP, PPO, and PPP were the predominant TAG species. MPP in anchovy, DDP, DOP, DPP in tuna, and EOO and OOO in salmon were the characteristic TAG molecules, which were meaningful to differentiate marine fish oils. Furthermore, the data management, according to TCN and ECN, was firstly applied to classify the TAG molecular species. The ECN42, ECN46, and ECN48 groups were rich in TAGs. The lower ECN values, compared to the higher TCN values, indicated that the most abundant TAGs exhibited a higher unsaturated degree. Therefore, our study not only offered a simple and feasible approach for the analysis of TAG composition but also firstly summarized the information by data management within ECN and TCN.

  16. Agonistic behavior among three stocked trout species in a novel reservoir fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Hafen, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of reservoirs to support sport fisheries has led to the stocking of species that did not co-evolve, creating novel reservoir fish communities. In Utah, the Bear Lake strain of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah and tiger trout (female Brown Trout Salmo trutta × male Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis) are being more frequently added to a traditional stocking regimen consisting primarily of Rainbow TroutO. mykiss. Interactions between these three predatory species are not well understood, and studies evaluating community interactions have raised concern for an overall decrease of trout condition. To evaluate the potential for negative interactions among these species, we tested aggression in laboratory aquaria using three-species and pairwise combinations at three densities. Treatments were replicated before and after feeding. During the three-species trials Rainbow Trout initiated 24.8 times more aggressive interactions than Cutthroat Trout and 10.2 times more aggressive interactions than tiger trout, and tiger trout exhibited slightly (1.9 times) more aggressive initiations than Cutthroat Trout. There was no significant difference in behavior before versus after feeding for any species, and no indication of increased aggression at higher densities. Although Rainbow Trout in aquaria may benefit from their bold, aggressive behavior, given observations of decreased relative survival in the field, these benefits may be outweighed in reservoirs, possibly through unnecessary energy expenditure and exposure to predators.

  17. Predicting establishment of non-native fishes in Greece: identifying key features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Gkenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-native fishes are known to cause economic damage to human society and are considered a major threat to biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. The growing concern about these impacts has driven to an investigation of the biological traits that facilitate the establishment of non-native fish. However, invalid assessment in choosing the appropriate statistical model can lead researchers to ambiguous conclusions. Here, we present a comprehensive comparison of traditional and alternative statistical methods for predicting fish invasions using logistic regression, classification trees, multicorrespondence analysis and random forest analysis to determine characteristics of successful and failed non-native fishes in Hellenic Peninsula through establishment. We defined fifteen categorical predictor variables with biological relevance and measures of human interest. Our study showed that accuracy differed according to the model and the number of factors considered. Among all the models tested, random forest and logistic regression performed best, although all approaches predicted non-native fish establishment with moderate to excellent results. Detailed evaluation among the models corresponded with differences in variables importance, with three biological variables (parental care, distance from nearest native source and maximum size and two variables of human interest (prior invasion success and propagule pressure being important in predicting establishment. The analyzed statistical methods presented have a high predictive power and can be used as a risk assessment tool to prevent future freshwater fish invasions in this region with an imperiled fish fauna.

  18. Development of DNA-based Identification methods to track the species composition of fish larvae within nearshore areas of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to track the identity and abundance of larval fish, which are ubiquitous during spawning season, may lead to a greater understanding of fish species distributions in Great Lakes nearshore areas including early-detection of invasive fish species before they become esta...

  19. Levels and distribution of organohalogenated contaminants in 5 fish species from Sir Dam Lake, Kahramanmaras, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogrul, Oe [Faculty of Agriculture, Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Food Engineering; Covaci, A; Schepens, P [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Toxicological Center

    2004-09-15

    In Turkey, OCPs have been used since 1945, with large quantities of these chemicals being used during the 1960s and 1970s. Since 1983, the usage of OCPs has been severely restricted or banned. Only few studies have investigated the presence of OCPs in Turkish aquatic environment, where they have been evidenced in relatively high concentrations. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels and distribution of organohalogenated contaminants in several fish species from Syr Dam Lake (Kahramanmarab, Turkey), an artificial lake with great economical importance for the region.

  20. How many species of cichlid fishes are there in African lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G F; Seehausen, O; Knight, M E; Allender, C J; Robinson, R L

    2001-03-01

    The endemic cichlid fishes of Lakes Malawi, Tanganyika and Victoria are textbook examples of explosive speciation and adaptive radiation, and their study promises to yield important insights into these processes. Accurate estimates of species richness of lineages in these lakes, and elsewhere, will be a necessary prerequisite for a thorough comparative analysis of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing rates of diversification. This review presents recent findings on the discoveries of new species and species flocks and critically appraises the relevant evidence on species richness from recent studies of polymorphism and assortative mating, generally using behavioural and molecular methods. Within the haplochromines, the most species-rich lineage, there are few reported cases of postzygotic isolation, and these are generally among allopatric taxa that are likely to have diverged a relatively long time in the past. However, many taxa, including many which occur sympatrically and do not interbreed in nature, produce viable, fertile hybrids. Prezygotic barriers are more important, and persist in laboratory conditions in which environmental factors have been controlled, indicating the primary importance of direct mate preferences. Studies to date indicate that estimates of alpha (within-site) diversity appear to be robust. Although within-species colour polymorphisms are common, these have been taken into account in previous estimates of species richness. However, overall estimates of species richness in Lakes Malawi and Victoria are heavily dependent on the assignation of species status to allopatric populations differing in male colour. Appropriate methods for testing the specific status of allopatric cichlid taxa are reviewed and preliminary results presented.

  1. Preliminary notes on brain weight variation across labrid fish species with different levels of cooperative behaviour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta C.SOARES; Gon(c)alo I.ANDR(E); José R.PAULA

    2015-01-01

    Brain size and weight vary tremendously in the animal kingdom.It has been suggested that brain structural development must evolve balanced between the advantages of dealing with greater social challenges and the energetic costs of maintaining and developing larger brains.Here we ask if interspecific differences in cooperative behaviour (i.e.cleaning behaviour) are related to brain weight variations in four close-related species of Labrid fish:two are obligatory cleanerfish throughout their entire life (Labroides dimidiatus and L.bicolor),one facultative cleaner fish Labropsis australis and one last species that never engage in cleaning Labrichthys unilineatus.We first search for the link between the rate of species' cooperation and its relative brain weight,and finally,if the degree of social complexity and cooperation are reflected in the weight of its major brain substructures.Overall,no differences were found in relative brain weight (in relation to body weight) across species.Fine-scale differences were solely demonstrated for the facultative cleaner L.australis,at the brainstem level.Furthermore,data visual examination indicates that the average cerebellum and brainstem weights appear to be larger for L.dimidiatus.Because variation was solely found at specific brain areas (such as cerebellum and brainstem) and not for the whole brain weight values,it suggests that species social-ecological and cognitive demands may be directly contributing to a selective investment in relevant brain areas.This study provides first preliminary evidence that links potential differences in cognitive ability in cooperative behaviour to how these may mediate the evolution of brain structural development in non-mammal vertebrate groups [Current Zoology 61 (2):274-280,2015].

  2. Application of CHD1 Gene and EE0.6 Sequences to Identify Sexes of Several Protected Bird Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-C. Lin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many bird species, for example: Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela hoya, Collared Scops (Owl Otus bakkamoena, Tawny Fish Owl (Ketupa flavipes, Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus, and Grass Owl (Tyto longimembris... etc, are monomorphic, which is difficult to identify their sex simply by their outward appearance. Especially for those monomorphic endangered species, finding an effective tool to identify their sex beside outward appearance is needed for further captive breeding programs or other conservation plans. In this study, we collected samples of Black Swan (Cygmus atratus and Nicobar Pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica, two aviaries introduced monomorphic species served as control group, and Crested Serpent Eagle, Collared Scops Owl, Tawny Fish Owl, Crested Goshawk, and Grass Owl, five protected monomorphic species in Taiwan. We used sex-specific primers of avian CHD1 (chromo-helicase-DNA-binding gene and EE0.6 (EcoRI 0.6-kb fragment sequences to identify the sex of these birds. The results showed that CHD1 gene primers could be used to correctly identify the sex of Black Swans, Nicobar Pigeons and Crested Serpent Eagles, but it could not be used to correctly identify sex in Collared Scops Owls, Tawny Fish Owls, and Crested Goshawks. In the sex identification using EE0.6 sequence fragment, A, C, D and E primer sets could be used for sexing Black Swans; A, B, C, and D primer sets could be used for sexing Crested Serpent Eagles; and E primer set could be used for sexing Nicobar Pigeons and the two owl species. Correct determination of sex is the first step if a captive breeding measure is required. We have demonstrated that several of the existing primer sets can be used for sex determination of several captive breeding and indigenous bird species.

  3. Molecular signatures of transgenerational response to ocean acidification in a species of reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Schunter, Celia Marei; Welch, Megan J.; Ryu, Tae Woo; Zhang, Huoming; Berumen, Michael L.; Nilsson, Gö ran E.; Munday, Philip L.; Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems will depend on species capacity to adapt. Recent studies show that the behaviour of reef fishes is impaired at projected CO levels; however, individual variation exists that might promote adaptation. Here, we show a clear signature of parental sensitivity to high CO in the brain molecular phenotype of juvenile spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, primarily driven by circadian rhythm genes. Offspring of CO -tolerant and CO -sensitive parents were reared at near-future CO (754 μatm) or present-day control levels (414 μatm). By integrating 33 brain transcriptomes and proteomes with a de novo assembled genome we investigate the molecular responses of the fish brain to increased CO and the expression of parental tolerance to high CO in the offspring molecular phenotype. Exposure to high CO resulted in differential regulation of 173 and 62 genes and 109 and 68 proteins in the tolerant and sensitive groups, respectively. Importantly, the majority of differences between offspring of tolerant and sensitive parents occurred in high CO conditions. This transgenerational molecular signature suggests that individual variation in CO sensitivity could facilitate adaptation of fish populations to ocean acidification.

  4. Molecular signatures of transgenerational response to ocean acidification in a species of reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Schunter, Celia Marei

    2016-07-29

    The impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems will depend on species capacity to adapt. Recent studies show that the behaviour of reef fishes is impaired at projected CO levels; however, individual variation exists that might promote adaptation. Here, we show a clear signature of parental sensitivity to high CO in the brain molecular phenotype of juvenile spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, primarily driven by circadian rhythm genes. Offspring of CO -tolerant and CO -sensitive parents were reared at near-future CO (754 μatm) or present-day control levels (414 μatm). By integrating 33 brain transcriptomes and proteomes with a de novo assembled genome we investigate the molecular responses of the fish brain to increased CO and the expression of parental tolerance to high CO in the offspring molecular phenotype. Exposure to high CO resulted in differential regulation of 173 and 62 genes and 109 and 68 proteins in the tolerant and sensitive groups, respectively. Importantly, the majority of differences between offspring of tolerant and sensitive parents occurred in high CO conditions. This transgenerational molecular signature suggests that individual variation in CO sensitivity could facilitate adaptation of fish populations to ocean acidification.

  5. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    - high fat diet that is thought to contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome - a condition that is strongly associated with diabetes, obesity and heart failure. Fish oil and TTA are known to have beneficial effects for the fatty acid metabolism and have been shown to alleviate some...... expression in a long-term study (50weeks) in male Wistar rats fed 5 different diets. The diets were as follows: low fat diet; high fat diet; and three diets that combined high fat diet with fish oil, TTA or combination of those two as food supplements. We used two different proteomics techniques: a protein...... antioxidant properties of TTA. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA...

  6. Novel contaminants identified in fish kills in the Red River watershed, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provisional molecular weights and chemical formulas were assigned to four significant previously unidentified contaminants present during active fish kills in the Red River region of Oklahoma. The provisional identifications of these contaminants were determined using high-resolu...

  7. Species distribution models of two critically endangered deep-sea octocorals reveal fishing impacts on vulnerable marine ecosystems in central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, V; Garofalo, G; Fiorentino, F; Massi, D; Milisenda, G; Piraino, S; Russo, T; Gristina, M

    2017-08-14

    Deep-sea coral assemblages are key components of marine ecosystems that generate habitats for fish and invertebrate communities and act as marine biodiversity hot spots. Because of their life history traits, deep-sea corals are highly vulnerable to human impacts such as fishing. They are an indicator of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs), therefore their conservation is essential to preserve marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean Sea deep-sea coral habitats are associated with commercially important crustaceans, consequently their abundance has dramatically declined due to the effects of trawling. Marine spatial planning is required to ensure that the conservation of these habitats is achieved. Species distribution models were used to investigate the distribution of two critically endangered octocorals (Funiculina quadrangularis and Isidella elongata) in the central Mediterranean as a function of environmental and fisheries variables. Results show that both species exhibit species-specific habitat preferences and spatial patterns in response to environmental variables, but the impact of trawling on their distribution differed. In particular F. quadrangularis can overlap with fishing activities, whereas I. elongata occurs exclusively where fishing is low or absent. This study represents the first attempt to identify key areas for the protection of soft and compact mud VMEs in the central Mediterranean Sea.

  8. DNA barcoding of shark meats identify species composition and CITES-listed species from the markets in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yin Vanson Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing awareness of the vulnerability of sharks to exploitation by shark finning has contributed to a growing concern about an unsustainable shark fishery. Taiwan's fleet has the 4th largest shark catch in the world, accounting for almost 6% of the global figures. Revealing the diversity of sharks consumed by Taiwanese is important in designing conservation plans. However, fins make up less than 5% of the total body weight of a shark, and their bodies are sold as filets in the market, making it difficult or impossible to identify species using morphological traits. METHODS: In the present study, we adopted a DNA barcoding technique using a 391-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene to examine the diversity of shark filets and fins collected from markets and restaurants island-wide in Taiwan. RESULTS: Amongst the 548 tissue samples collected and sequenced, 20 major clusters were apparent by phylogenetic analyses, each of them containing individuals belonging to the same species (most with more than 95% bootstrap values, corresponding to 20 species of sharks. Additionally, Alopias pelagicus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Isurus oxyrinchus, and Prionace glauca consisted of 80% of the samples we collected, indicating that these species might be heavily consumed in Taiwan. Approximately 5% of the tissue samples used in this study were identified as species listed in CITES Appendix II, including two species of Sphyrna, C. longimanus and Carcharodon carcharias. CONCLUSION: DNA barcoding provides an alternative method for understanding shark species composition when species-specific data is unavailable. Considering the global population decline, stock assessments of Appendix II species and highly consumed species are needed to accomplish the ultimate goal of shark conservation.

  9. DNA barcoding of shark meats identify species composition and CITES-listed species from the markets in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang-Yin Vanson; Chan, Chia-Ling Carynn; Lin, Oceana; Hu, Chieh-Shen; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2013-01-01

    An increasing awareness of the vulnerability of sharks to exploitation by shark finning has contributed to a growing concern about an unsustainable shark fishery. Taiwan's fleet has the 4th largest shark catch in the world, accounting for almost 6% of the global figures. Revealing the diversity of sharks consumed by Taiwanese is important in designing conservation plans. However, fins make up less than 5% of the total body weight of a shark, and their bodies are sold as filets in the market, making it difficult or impossible to identify species using morphological traits. In the present study, we adopted a DNA barcoding technique using a 391-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene to examine the diversity of shark filets and fins collected from markets and restaurants island-wide in Taiwan. Amongst the 548 tissue samples collected and sequenced, 20 major clusters were apparent by phylogenetic analyses, each of them containing individuals belonging to the same species (most with more than 95% bootstrap values), corresponding to 20 species of sharks. Additionally, Alopias pelagicus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Isurus oxyrinchus, and Prionace glauca consisted of 80% of the samples we collected, indicating that these species might be heavily consumed in Taiwan. Approximately 5% of the tissue samples used in this study were identified as species listed in CITES Appendix II, including two species of Sphyrna, C. longimanus and Carcharodon carcharias. DNA barcoding provides an alternative method for understanding shark species composition when species-specific data is unavailable. Considering the global population decline, stock assessments of Appendix II species and highly consumed species are needed to accomplish the ultimate goal of shark conservation.

  10. Species-specific impacts of a small marine reserve on reef fish production and fishing productivity in the Turks and Caicos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupper, M.H.; Rudd, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Marine reserves are widely considered to potentially benefit reef fisheries through emigration, yet the empirical basis for predicting the extent of this for small reserves is weak. The effects of fishing pressure and habitat on biomass and catch per unit effort (CPUE) of three species of exploited

  11. Quantitative Cross-Species Extrapolation between Humans and Fish: The Case of the Anti-Depressant Fluoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta-Casaluci, Luigi; Owen, Stewart F.; Cumming, Rob I.; de Polo, Anna; Winter, Matthew J.; Panter, Grace H.; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; Sumpter, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Fish are an important model for the pharmacological and toxicological characterization of human pharmaceuticals in drug discovery, drug safety assessment and environmental toxicology. However, do fish respond to pharmaceuticals as humans do? To address this question, we provide a novel quantitative cross-species extrapolation approach (qCSE) based on the hypothesis that similar plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals cause comparable target-mediated effects in both humans and fish at similar level of biological organization (Read-Across Hypothesis). To validate this hypothesis, the behavioural effects of the anti-depressant drug fluoxetine on the fish model fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) were used as test case. Fish were exposed for 28 days to a range of measured water concentrations of fluoxetine (0.1, 1.0, 8.0, 16, 32, 64 µg/L) to produce plasma concentrations below, equal and above the range of Human Therapeutic Plasma Concentrations (HTPCs). Fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, were quantified in the plasma of individual fish and linked to behavioural anxiety-related endpoints. The minimum drug plasma concentrations that elicited anxiolytic responses in fish were above the upper value of the HTPC range, whereas no effects were observed at plasma concentrations below the HTPCs. In vivo metabolism of fluoxetine in humans and fish was similar, and displayed bi-phasic concentration-dependent kinetics driven by the auto-inhibitory dynamics and saturation of the enzymes that convert fluoxetine into norfluoxetine. The sensitivity of fish to fluoxetine was not so dissimilar from that of patients affected by general anxiety disorders. These results represent the first direct evidence of measured internal dose response effect of a pharmaceutical in fish, hence validating the Read-Across hypothesis applied to fluoxetine. Overall, this study demonstrates that the qCSE approach, anchored to internal drug concentrations, is a powerful tool to guide the

  12. Factors influencing tropical island freshwater fishes:Species, status, and management implications in puerto rico [Factores que influencian a los peces tropicales de agua dulce: Especies, estado actual e implicaciones para el manejo en Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Neal J.; Lilyestrom, Craig G.; Kwak, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects including river regulation, watershed development, contamination, and fish introductions have substantially affected the majority of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America. This pattern of resource development and degradation is widespread in the tropics, and often little is known about the resources before they are lost. This article describes the freshwater resources of Puerto Rico and identifies factors that threaten conservation of native fishes. The fishes found in freshwater habitats of Puerto Rico represent a moderately diverse assemblage composed of 14 orders, 29 families, and 82 species. There are fewer than 10 species of native peripherally-freshwater fish that require a link to marine systems. Introductions of nonindigenous species have greatly expanded fish diversity in freshwater systems, and native estuarine and marine species (18 families) also commonly enter lowland rivers and brackish lagoons. Environmental alterations, including land use and development, stream channelization, pollution, and the impoundment of rivers, combined with nonnative species introductions threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic resources in Puerto Rico. Six principal areas for attention that are important influences on the current and future status of the freshwater fish resources of Puerto Rico are identified and discussed.

  13. Identification of hemiclonal reproduction in three species of Hexagrammos marine reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura-Kawaguchi, M R; Horita, M; Abe, S; Arai, K; Kawata, M; Munehara, H

    2014-08-01

    Natural hybrids between the boreal species Hexagrammos octogrammus and two temperate species Hexagrammos agrammus and Hexagrammos otakii were observed frequently in southern Hokkaido, Japan. Previous studies revealed that H. octogrammus is a maternal ancestor of both hybrids; the hybrids are all fertile females and they frequently breed with paternal species. Although such rampant hybridization occurs, species boundaries have been maintained in the hybrid zone. Possible explanations for the absence of introgressions, despite the frequent backcrossing, might include clonal reproduction: parthenogenesis, gynogenesis and hybridogenesis. The natural hybrids produced haploid eggs that contained only the H. octogrammus genome (maternal ancestor) with discarded paternal genome and generated F1 -hybrid type offspring by fertilization with the haploid sperm of H. agrammus or H. otakii (paternal ancestor). This reproductive mode was found in an artificial backcross hybrid between the natural hybrid and a male of the paternal ancestor. These findings indicate that the natural hybrids adopt hybridogenesis with high possibility and produce successive generations through hybridogenesis by backcrossing with the paternal ancestor. These hybrids of Hexagrammos represent the first hybridogenetic system found from marine fishes that widely inhabit the North Pacific Ocean. In contrast with other hybridogenetic systems, these Hexagrammos hybrids coexist with all three ancestral species in the hybrid zone. The coexistence mechanism is also discussed. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Interspecific comparison of radiocesium trophic transfer in two tropical fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouil, Simon; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Fowler, Scott W; Metian, Marc; Warnau, Michel

    2018-09-01

    The trophic transfer of radiocesium ( 134 Cs) was investigated in two tropical fish, the silver moony Monodactylus argenteus and the spotted scat Scatophagus argus. Juveniles of both species were exposed to dietary 134 Cs using the pulse-chase feeding methodology. The food was brine shrimp (Artemia salina) previously exposed to the dissolved radiotracer. Depuration kinetics of 134 Cs were followed for 45 d. Results showed that Cs was similarly efficiently assimilated by both species (AE > 50%). The estimated trophic transfer factors in the two species ranked from 1 to 2, suggesting that 134 Cs could be biomagnified in both omnivorous species. In complement, dissections of 7 body compartments were carried out at three different times in order to highlight 134 Cs organotropism. 134 Cs organotropism was similar in both species: more than 50% of 134 Cs was quickly distributed in the muscles and skeleton (after 3 days of depuration), which is likely related to the analogous behavior between Cs and K, an essential element for muscle contractions and bone formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular marker to identify radiolarian species -toward establishment of paleo-environmental proxy-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Marine fossilized unicellular plankton are known to have many genetically divergent species (biological species) in the single morphological species and these biological species show the species-specific environments much more precisely than that of morphological species. Among these plankton, Radiolaria are one of the best candidates for time- and environmental-indicators in the modern and past oceans, because radiolarians are the only group which represent entire water column from shallow to deep waters. However, the ecology and evolution of radiolarian were traditionally studied in paleontology and paleoceanography by morphological species. Even Radiolaria has a huge potential for novel proxy of wide and deep environments, there is no criterion to identify the biological species. The motivation for this study is setting the quantitative delimitation to establish the biological species of radiolarians based on molecular data, for leading the future ecological and paleo-environmental study. Identification of the biological species by ribosomal DNA sequences are mainly based on two ways: one is the evolutionary distance of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS1 and 2), and the large subunit (LSU) rDNA; and the other is the secondary structure of ITS2. In the present study, all four possible genetic markers (SSU, ITS1, ITS2, and LSU rDNA) were amplified from 232 individuals of five radiolarian morphological species and applied to examine the evolutionary distance and secondary structure of rDNA. Comprehensive survey clearly shows that evolutionary distance of ITS1 rDNA and the secondary structure of ITS2 is good to identify the species. Notably, evolutionary distance of ITS1 rDNA is possible to set the common delimitation to identify the biological species, as 0.225 substitution per site. The results show that the ITS1 and ITS 2 rDNA could be the criterion for radiolarian species identification.

  16. Contrasting feeding patterns among species of fish larvae from the tropical Andaman Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, P.; Munk, Peter; Janekarn, V.

    2005-01-01

    Feeding habits of tropical fish larvae were analysed in a comparative study of four species (Scorpaenodes sp., Carangoides sp., Acanthocepola sp. and Cynoglossus sp.) from the Andaman Sea. We investigated morphological characteristics and their potential influence on larval feeding, and looked...... for common patterns in larval prey preference. Gut contents of a total of 300 larvae were examined and compared with local zooplankton composition. The feeding habits of the investigated larvae shared a number of characteristics. During ontogeny both the preferred prey size and the number of prey in the gut...... increased, and across all larval size classes the relative prey size spectrum stayed constant, of approximately the same magnitude for all four species. On the other hand, larval feeding also differed in a number of aspects, especially differences in the taxonomic composition of preferred prey were apparent...

  17. Assessing the impact of non-native freshwater fishes on native species using relative weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannetto D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test relative weight (Wr, a condition index which allows evaluation of fish well-being, as a tool to investigate the impact of the presence of non native species (NNS on the condition of the key native species (NS of the Tiber River basin (Italy: Barbustyberinus Bonaparte, Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus, Leuciscus lucumonis Bianco, Rutilus rubilio (Bonaparte and Telestes muticellus (Bonaparte. By means of Canonical Correlation Analysis, data from 130 sampling sites, distributed throughout Tiber River basin, were examined. Wr of NS was related to densities of NNS and to environmental variables. Moreover, the correlation between Wr of NS and density of NNS was investigated through linear regression analysis and covariance analysis. Preliminary results encourage the use of Wr as a tool to assess the relationship between NS and ecological factors (such as the presence of NNS and to explain the changes that occur along the longitudinal gradient of a river.

  18. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: an assessment of coral reef fishes in the US Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgliczynski, B. J.; Williams, I. D.; Schroeder, R. E.; Nadon, M. O.; Richards, B. L.; Sandin, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Widespread declines among many coral reef fisheries have led scientists and managers to become increasingly concerned over the extinction risk facing some species. To aid in assessing the extinction risks facing coral reef fishes, large-scale censuses of the abundance and distribution of individual species are critically important. We use fisheries-independent data collected as part of the NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program from 2000 to 2009 to describe the range and density across the US Pacific of coral reef fishes included on The International Union for the Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) 2011 Red List of Threatened Species. Forty-five species, including sharks, rays, groupers, humphead wrasse ( Cheilinus undulatus), and bumphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum), included on the IUCN List, were recorded in the US Pacific Islands. Most species were generally rare in the US Pacific with the exception of a few species, principally small groupers and reef sharks. The greatest diversity and densities of IUCN-listed fishes were recorded at remote and uninhabited islands of the Pacific Remote Island Areas; in general, lower densities were observed at reefs of inhabited islands. Our findings complement IUCN assessment efforts, emphasize the efficacy of large-scale assessment and monitoring efforts in providing quantitative data on reef fish assemblages, and highlight the importance of protecting populations at remote and uninhabited islands where some species included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species can be observed in abundance.

  19. Mixed function oxidase dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls by different species of fish from the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrtens, G.; Laturnus, F.

    1999-01-01

    Mixed function oxidase (MFO) dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in three different fish species from the North Sea. Liver microsomes of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda) and cod (Gadus morhua) were isolated and incubated with different....... Biotransformations were also species dependent. The flatfish dab and plaice exhibited higher metabolic rates than cod (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Review of the South American characiform fish genus Chilodus, with description of a new species, C. gracilis (Pisces, Characiformes, Chilodontidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 291 specimens of Chilodus, a genus of South American fresh water fishes, yielded the presence of three species, viz.: C. punctatus, C. zunevei, and C. gracilis. Of the first species the lectotype is designated. The type material of C. zunevei is lost; new material enabled a